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1

Space schemes of ecological zonation and morphology of the atolls lagoons and reef complex of an oceanic archipelago of the Caribbean: San Andres and Providence (Colombia)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oceanic atolls and reef-complexes of the Archipelago of San Andres and Providencia exhibit semi-enclosed to rather open lagoon basins, where various characteristic bottom habitats occur. Certain areas of the lagoon floor are covered by sediments, being in some settings vegetated by algae or sea grass, and other areas by coralline framework of different types according to the composition and dominance of coral species and to their morphology and level of reef development. This study seeks to determine the spatial distribution patterns of lagoon bottom habitats based on the analysis of gradients of most relevant physical factors. Patterns in the occurrence and abundance of most habitats became evident in relation with wave-energy level, water depth, and the occurrence of islands. Some morphological reef types are oriented in a preferential direction and show spatial arrangements of development that are presumably related to prevailing current speed and direction and wave exposure

2

Marine macroalgae in the agronomy and potential use of floating sargassum for manure production in the San Andres and Providencia Archipelago, Colombia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An account is made on the use of marine macroalgae in agronomy and the potential that floating Sargassum arriving to san Andres and Providencia has for this activity. This Sargassum, which has been a nuisance for the tourist economy of the islands, promises to be an excellent resource for manure production

3

New records of plants for San Andres and Old Providence islands (International Biosphere Reserve Seaflower), Caribbean Colombia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fifty seven new records of vascular plants are reported for the Archipelago of San Andres and Old Providence,part of the International Biosphere Reserve Seaflower. Of these, about 81% have been introduced for agriculture or ornamental purpose. With these introductions, we report ten new families and 30 new genera for the Archipelago. The possible impacts of some of these introductions are discussed.

Tobar Vargas, Alejandra; Gavio, Brigitte; Ferna?ndez Alonso, Jose? Luis

2013-01-01

4

Miocene and Pleistocene mollusks from San Andres Island (Caribbean Sea, Colombia) and Paleogeographic considerations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

San Andres Island is the largest emerged portion of the oceanic archipelago of San Andres and Providencia, southwestern Caribbean Sea; it originated as a coralline atoll during Miocene times. The central and highest part of the island consists of a calcareous crest, the San Andres Formation, formed by Neogene lagoonal and reefal deposits. This crest is surrounded by a calcareous platform of Pleistocene age (San Luis Formation) which emerges only along the island coast, whereas its most part is submerged and covered by a Recent reef complex. Fossil material of molluscs from these two formations was collected in various sites throughout the island and taxonomically identified. In the four sites sampled in the San Andres Formation, material belonging to 19 gastropod and 37 bivalve species was obtained, most of them relatively well represented in other geologic formations of the Caribbean region that are stratigraphically situated between the upper Miocene and the middle Pliocene. Some elements occurring in this formation, such as Ostrea haitiensis, Meretrix dariena and Siphocypraea henekeni, were widely distributed in the Caribbean Miocene Province. In the San Luis Formation, material belonging to 18 gastropod and 11 bivalve species was obtained, most of them also represented in the Recent molluscan fauna of the region. The estimated age of this formation is Sangamonian, hence corresponding to similar formations occurring in Grand Cayman, Jamaica, Hispaniola, the Netherld Cayman, Jamaica, Hispaniola, the Netherlands Antilles and other Caribbean islands, with which it also shows a great similarity in the composition of the molluscan fauna.

5

An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir Foster and South Cowden fields,  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

GEOPHYSICAL OBJECTIVES: The goals of work done this quarter were to (1) refine the maps of seismic-derived porosity for the upper Grayburg for reapplication to the production model, (2) determine rock fabric and porosity patterns for the lower Grayburg and the upper San Andres, (3) relate any seismic-derived porosity characteristics, particularly seismic waveform attributes, to the historical production of oil allocated to lower Grayburg and San Andres zones, and (4) to test other geologic attributes for possible inter-relationships. GEOLOGIC OBJECTIVES: Continue the integrated geological/geophysical effort to develop a usable seismic velocity/log porosity transform for each Grayburg producing interval. The lower Grayburg and San Andres core were revisited to glean lithology and porosity information for the seismic inversion model. Update recent production and injection for each well in the study area. Add new production and injection wells to spreadsheet. Continue evaluation of effectiveness of recent completions, plug backs and injector conversions by monitoring oil production and produced water composition. ENGINEERING OBJECTIVES: To build the most accurate reservoir picture by continued integration of all data types available and utilize that model to optimize oil production. Monitoring and testing of new and worked-over wells continues to test the early production models. Methods to improve water quality are being evaluated using normal field management procedures.

NONE

1997-12-31

6

Origins of the Salado, Seven Rivers, and San Andres salt margins in Texas and New Mexico: Revision 1: Topical report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present boundaries of the San Andres, Seven Rivers, and Salado salts generally lie along the periphery of the Palo Duro and Tucumcari Basins. Various geologic mechanisms occurring singularly or in combination determined the positions of the salt margins. These mechanisms include nondeposition of salt and syndepositional and postdepositional dissolution. In New Mexico, San Andres units pinch out against the Pedernal and Sierra Grande Uplifts, indicating that nondeposition established the original salt margins there. Syndepositional dissolution of exposed Upper San Andres salts occurred in response to Guadalupian upwarp of the basin margins. Triassic erosion differentially removed Permian salt-bearing formations along the uplifts. Late Tertiary dissolution is indicated by fill of north-south trending collapse valleys. In Texas, Guadalupian upwarp along the Amarillo Uplift caused pinchout of Units 2 and 3 in the Lower San Andres and influenced the deposition of subsequent salt-bearing strata. The discontinuity of Upper San Andres evaporites across the Amarillo Uplift suggests syndepositional dissolution. Along the eastern and northeastern basin margin, dissolution may have accompanied Triassic erosion of locally uplifted Upper Permian strata. Tertiary dissolution is recognized beneath anomalously thick Ogallala Formation sections that overlie collasped Permian strata. 49 refs., 31 figs., 2 tabs

7

Morphology and it structures of the coralline formations of San Bernardo's archipelago, Colombian Caribbean  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The archipelago of San Bernardo is an extensive reef complex of coralline origin located off the Caribbean coast of Colombia. In order to determine the distribution, morphological features, structure, and zonation patterns of the bottom environments of this area, employing aerial photography and observations in the field, thematic maps were produced and a series of data upon the structure of the sessile benthic biota was gathered. The complex comprises an area of more than 250 km2; of which more than 60% corresponds to bottoms with notable coral cover (> 60% of the bottom) extending to depths of nearly 30m. Three geomorphological units and seven main types of habitats or ecological units were recognized

8

Microseismic monitoring as a tool for mapping fractures in the San Andres dolomite  

Science.gov (United States)

Microseismic monitoring shows promise of being a practical tool for mapping fractures in the San Andres dolomite in terms of rate of microearthquake occurrence and the areal coverage possible from a single downhole seismometer. Microearthquakes were detected during normal waterflood production but monitoring was not complete enough to correlate injection/production activity with microseismic event recurrence. Constant monitoring time capability with at least 3 downhole seismometers is needed to more accurately locate events, and to reliably characterize seismic recurrence in the field. In addition, modeling pressure variations in the reservoir may help explain the mechanisms that produces the microearthquakes. Data useful in modeling the pressure variations could be from tracer experiments, pressure interference tests and individual well production-injection volume. Understanding the mechanism of producing the microearthquakes should, in turn, allow the correlation of the microseismicity with fluid flow within the reservoir.

Rutledge, J. T.; Fairbanks, T. D.; House, L. S.; Murphy, M. B.

9

Composition and stratigraphic distribution of materials in the lower San Andres Salt Unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The salt bed in depositional cycle 4 of the Permian Lower San Andres Formation, Palo Duro Basin, Deaf Smith County, Texas consists of massive salt interlayered with discrete bands and beds of anhydrite and claystone. The massive salt consists of about 90% halite, with 7% anhydrite and 3% clays disseminated in and among the halite crystals. The halite in this salt bed contains fluid inclusions filled with a (Na, K, Mg)Cl brine, with an average Mg concentration of about 50,000 mg/liter. The anhydrite in the salt will saturate the brines in CaSO4, which in turn may coat the waste package with anhydrite because of the retrograde solubility of CaSO4. This may increase waste package lifetime to failure by corrosion. 16 references, 5 figures, 1 table

10

RESPUESTA DEL AMBIENTE MARINO A ALGUNOS EVENTOS METEOROLÓGICOS SINÓPTICOS MEDIDOS SOBRE LOS ARRECIFES DE SAN ANDRÉS Y DE LAS ISLAS DEL ROSARIO, CARIBE COLOMBIANO* / RESPONSE OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT TO SOME SYNOPTIC WEATHER EVENTS MEASURED ON THE REEFS OF SAN ANDRES ISLAND AND ROSARIO ISLANDS, COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Continuous measurements were taken of oceanographic and meteorological parameters for two stations of the Global Ocean Observing System of the Southwest Caribbean, framed in the INAP project. The response of the surface layer, to atmospheric events, allowed to differentiate the pass of two cold fron [...] ts by Johnny Cay station (San Andres Island) and the arrival of the "Veranillo" in the sensors of Tesoro Island (Islas del Rosario, Cartagena). The cold fronts produced a decrease in the atmospheric pressure, air temperature, caused radical changes in wind direction and speed followed by precipitation. This situation lowered the sea surface temperature, the surface layer pH and rose momentarily the sea level. The "Veranillo" came to Archipelago of Rosario generating a strong increase in wind speed and solar radiation. The response in the sea surface layer was evident through a significant increase in sea level.

Carolina, Gutiérrez-Moreno; Milena, Marrugo; Carlos Alberto, Andrade.

11

RESPUESTA DEL AMBIENTE MARINO A ALGUNOS EVENTOS METEOROLÓGICOS SINÓPTICOS MEDIDOS SOBRE LOS ARRECIFES DE SAN ANDRÉS Y DE LAS ISLAS DEL ROSARIO, CARIBE COLOMBIANO* / RESPONSE OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT TO SOME SYNOPTIC WEATHER EVENTS MEASURED ON THE REEFS OF SAN ANDRES ISLAND AND ROSARIO ISLANDS, COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Continuous measurements were taken of oceanographic and meteorological parameters for two stations of the Global Ocean Observing System of the Southwest Caribbean, framed in the INAP project. The response of the surface layer, to atmospheric events, allowed to differentiate the pass of two cold fron [...] ts by Johnny Cay station (San Andres Island) and the arrival of the "Veranillo" in the sensors of Tesoro Island (Islas del Rosario, Cartagena). The cold fronts produced a decrease in the atmospheric pressure, air temperature, caused radical changes in wind direction and speed followed by precipitation. This situation lowered the sea surface temperature, the surface layer pH and rose momentarily the sea level. The "Veranillo" came to Archipelago of Rosario generating a strong increase in wind speed and solar radiation. The response in the sea surface layer was evident through a significant increase in sea level.

Carolina, Gutiérrez-Moreno; Milena, Marrugo; Carlos Alberto, Andrade.

2012-06-01

12

Survey of benthic dinoflagellates associated to beds of Thalassia testudinumin San Andres Island, Seaflower biosphere reserve, Caribbean Colombia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to determine the occurrence of epiphytic toxic dinoflagellates in the coastal waters of San Andres Island, Caribbean Colombia, we analyzed the sea grass beds on the northern and eastern sides of the island. We found seven species of toxicogenic dinoflagellates, belonging to the genera Prorocentrum and Ostreopsis. The cell densities were generally low if compared with previous studies in other Caribbean sites, ranging from 0 to 836 cells/dry weights. The species encountered are known to produce toxins causing the diarrheic shellfish poisoning and ciguatera, poisonings which have been documented in the island.

13

An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. Quarterly report, third quarter 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goals of work done this quarter were to (1) refine the maps of seismic-derived porosity for the upper Grayburg for reapplication to the production model, (2) determine rock fabric and porosity patterns for the lower Grayburg and the upper San Andres, (3) relate any seismic-derived porosity characteristics, particularly seismic waveform attributes, to the historical production of oil allocated to lower Grayburg and San Andres zones, and (4) to test other geologic attributes for possible inter-relationships. Progress on these goals is described. Additional studies were carried out in the following: Upper Grayburg porosity mapping, pipeline fracturing, reservoir simulation, reservoir engineering, and water quality for injection.

NONE

1997-12-31

14

APPLICATION OF WATER-JET HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNOLOGY TO DRILL AND ACIDIZE HORIZONTAL DRAIN HOLES, TEDBIT (SAN ANDRES) FIELD, GAINES COUNTY, TEXAS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The San Andres Formation is one of the major hydrocarbon-producing units in the Permian Basin, with multiple reservoirs contained within the dolomitized subtidal portions of upward shoaling carbonate shelf cycles. The test well is located in Tedbit (San Andres) Field in northeastern Gaines County, Texas, in an area of scattered San Andres production associated with local structural highs. Selected on the basis of geological and historical data, the Oil and Gas Properties Wood No. 1 well is considered to be typical of a large number of San Andres stripper wells in the Permian Basin. Thus, successful completion of horizontal drain holes in this well would demonstrate a widely applicable enhanced recovery technology. Water-jet horizontal drilling is an emerging technology with the potential to provide significant economic benefits in marginal wells. Forecast benefits include lower recompletion costs and improved hydrocarbon recoveries. The technology utilizes water under high pressure, conveyed through small-diameter coiled tubing, to jet horizontal drain holes into producing formations. Testing of this technology was conducted with inconclusive results. Paraffin sludge and mechanical problems were encountered in the wellbore, initially preventing the water-jet tool from reaching the kick-off point. After correcting these problems and attempting to cut a casing window with the water-jet milling assembly, lateral jetting was attempted without success.

Michael W. Rose

2005-09-22

15

An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For a part of the Foster and South Cowden (Grayburg-San Andres) oil fields, improvement in oil production has been accomplished, in part, by using ?pipeline fracturing? technology in the most recent completion to improve fluid flow rates, and filtration of waterflood injection water to preserve reservoir permeability. The 3D seismic survey acquired in conjunction with this DOE project has been used to calculate a 3D seismic inversion model, which has been analyzed to provide detailed maps of porosity within the productive upper 250 feet of the Grayburg Formation. Geologic data, particularly from logs and cores, have been combined with the geophysical interpretation and production history information to develop a model of the reservoir that defines estimations of remaining producible oil. The integrated result is greater than the sum of its parts, since no single data form adequately describes the reservoir. Each discipline relies upon computer software that runs on PC-type computers, allowing virtually any size company to affordably access the technology required to achieve similar results.

Richard Weinbrandt; Robert C. Trentham; William Robinson

1997-10-23

16

Modeling dolomitized carbonate-ramp reservoirs: A case study of the Seminole San Andres unit. Part 1 -- Petrophysical and geologic characterizations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Major issues in characterizing carbonate-ramp reservoirs include geologic framework, seismic stratigraphy, interwell heterogeneity including rock fabric facies and permeability structure, and factors affecting petrophysical properties and reservoir simulation. The Seminole San Andres unit, Gaines, County, West Texas, and the San Andres outcrop of Permian age in the Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico, were selected for an integrated reservoir characterization to address these issues. The paper is divided into two parts. Part 1 covers petrophysical and geologic characterization, and part 2 describes seismic modeling, reservoir geostatistics, stochastic modeling, and reservoir simulation. Core data from Seminole showed that rock fabric and pore type have strong positive correlations with absolute and relative permeabilities, residual oil saturation, waterflood recovery, acoustic velocity, and Archie cementation exponent. Petrophysical models were developed to estimate total porosity, separate-vug porosity, permeability, and Archie cementation exponent from wireline logs to account for effects of rock fabric and separate-vug porosity. A model for the style of high-frequency cyclicity and the distribution of rock-fabric facies within cycles was developed using continuous outcrop exposures at Lawyer Canyon. Petrophysical properties of total and separate-vug porosities, permeability, water saturation, and rock fabrics were calculated from wireline log data. The permeability-thickness ratios among these rock fabric units can be used to approximate fluid flow and recovery efficiency.

Wang, F.P.; Lucia, F.J.; Kerans, C. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology

1998-11-01

17

Estado de conservación de las especies vegetales utilizadas para la artesanía en el valle de San Andrés, Pinar del Río, Cuba / Conservation state of the vegetable species used for the craft in San Andres's valley, Pinar del Rio, Cuba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La investigación titulada: Estado de conservación de las especies vegetales utilizadas para la artesanía en el valle de San Andrés, Pinar del Río, Cuba tuvo una duración de dos años en diferentes etapas, comenzando por la caracterización físico geográfica del área de estudio y de los productos fores [...] tales no madereros presentes. Este trabajo está basado en investigaciones de campo, encuestas etnobiológicas, revisión de la bibliografía, observaciones biofenológicas sobre los productos forestales no madereros presentes en el área de estudio, su estado actual y diferentes usos. Los principales resultados obtenidos fueron conocer los productos vegetales utilizados por artesanos, los productos fabri-cados y el estado actual y perspectivas de la población de estos productos. Al concluir el trabajo se recomienda incrementar la repobla-ción de estas plantas para garantizar en un futuro la materia prima usada por los artesanos en la zona del valle de San Andrés, cumpliendo así el objetivo de la investigación que fue sistematizar los conocimientos sobre la existencia y el uso de estos productos y conocer el impacto ambiental, social y económico que causa la explotación de estos recursos naturales en el valle de San Andrés. Abstract in english The investigation untitled: Conservation state of the vegetable species used for the craft in San Andres's valley, Pinar del Rio, Cuba was carried out during two years, in different stages, beginning with the physical and geographical characterization of the studying area and the not forestry produc [...] ts present on it, this work is based on field investigations, etnobiological requests, bibliography searching, biophenological observations on the not forestry products present in the studying area, its current state and different uses. The main results obtained were to know the vegetable products used by artisans, the manufactured products, the current state and the population perspectives of these products. When concluding the work it is recommended to deepen with the repopulation of these plants to guarantee in a future the prevail matter used by the artisans in the area of San Andre's' valley, arriving by this way to the objective of the investigation that was to systematize the knowledge of the existence and the use of these products and to know the environmental, social and economic impact that causes the exploitation of these natural resources in San Andres's valley.

C. O., Pimentel Pimentel; V., Castañeta Valdez.

18

Recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito, Baja California, por el lobo fino de Guadalupe The re-colonization of the Archipelago of San Benito, Baja California, by the Guadalupe fur seal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el estado actual de la recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito por el lobo fino de Guadalupe (Arctocephalus townsendi. El archipiélago tiene una gran importancia para esta especie, ya que puede consolidarse en un futuro como otro sitio de reproducción, lo que implicaría un gran avance en su recuperación natural. El incremento y la estructura poblacional, el comportamiento alimenticio, la duración de los viajes de alimentación (que evidencian una fuente importante de alimento cercana y la atención a las crías son factores que permiten analizar y estudiar el proceso de crecimiento de San Benito como una nueva colonia reproductiva. Esta expansión del territorio puede ser reflejo de la naturaleza gregaria de la especie y la fidelidad hacia los sitios reproductivos. La importancia de este trabajo radica en que es una descripción inicial de la recolonización de una especie que estuvo a punto de desaparecer. Puede esperarse que el número de individuos en el archipiélago continúe aumentando, ya que es poco probable que a corto plazo el espacio reproductivo y la disponibilidad de alimento limiten el nacimiento de crías y el crecimiento de la población.The aim of this paper is to analize the re-colonization process of the San Benito Archipelago by the Guadalupe fur seal (Arctocephalus townsendi. The archipelago is of great importance for the species, since it can be consolidated in the future as a breeding colony, which would imply a great achievement for the fur seal's natural recovery. Population growth, population structure, feeding behavior, foraging trips duration (which shows an important feeding area near, behavior and pup attendance, are characteristics that help analyze and study this process; where San Benito grows as a colony and, therefore, is established as a new breeding colony. Furthermore, this expansion of the breeding territory might reflect the gregarious nature of the species, and fidelity to breeding areas as well. The importance of this work is that it is an initial description of the recolonization of a species that almost disappears. It can be expected to continue increasing the number of individuals at the archipelago, since it is unlikely that in a short period of time, the breeding territory and the food availability limit the birth of offspring and the population growth.

Manuel Esperón-Rodríguez

2012-03-01

19

Recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito, Baja California, por el lobo fino de Guadalupe / The re-colonization of the Archipelago of San Benito, Baja California, by the Guadalupe fur seal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el estado actual de la recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito por el lobo fino de Guadalupe (Arctocephalus townsendi). El archipiélago tiene una gran importancia para esta especie, ya que puede consolidarse en un futuro como otro sitio de reproducción, [...] lo que implicaría un gran avance en su recuperación natural. El incremento y la estructura poblacional, el comportamiento alimenticio, la duración de los viajes de alimentación (que evidencian una fuente importante de alimento cercana) y la atención a las crías son factores que permiten analizar y estudiar el proceso de crecimiento de San Benito como una nueva colonia reproductiva. Esta expansión del territorio puede ser reflejo de la naturaleza gregaria de la especie y la fidelidad hacia los sitios reproductivos. La importancia de este trabajo radica en que es una descripción inicial de la recolonización de una especie que estuvo a punto de desaparecer. Puede esperarse que el número de individuos en el archipiélago continúe aumentando, ya que es poco probable que a corto plazo el espacio reproductivo y la disponibilidad de alimento limiten el nacimiento de crías y el crecimiento de la población. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to analize the re-colonization process of the San Benito Archipelago by the Guadalupe fur seal (Arctocephalus townsendi). The archipelago is of great importance for the species, since it can be consolidated in the future as a breeding colony, which would imply a great achiev [...] ement for the fur seal's natural recovery. Population growth, population structure, feeding behavior, foraging trips duration (which shows an important feeding area near), behavior and pup attendance, are characteristics that help analyze and study this process; where San Benito grows as a colony and, therefore, is established as a new breeding colony. Furthermore, this expansion of the breeding territory might reflect the gregarious nature of the species, and fidelity to breeding areas as well. The importance of this work is that it is an initial description of the recolonization of a species that almost disappears. It can be expected to continue increasing the number of individuals at the archipelago, since it is unlikely that in a short period of time, the breeding territory and the food availability limit the birth of offspring and the population growth.

Manuel, Esperón-Rodríguez; Juan Pablo, Gallo-Reynoso.

2012-03-01

20

Recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito, Baja California, por el lobo fino de Guadalupe / The re-colonization of the Archipelago of San Benito, Baja California, by the Guadalupe fur seal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el estado actual de la recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito por el lobo fino de Guadalupe (Arctocephalus townsendi). El archipiélago tiene una gran importancia para esta especie, ya que puede consolidarse en un futuro como otro sitio de reproducción, [...] lo que implicaría un gran avance en su recuperación natural. El incremento y la estructura poblacional, el comportamiento alimenticio, la duración de los viajes de alimentación (que evidencian una fuente importante de alimento cercana) y la atención a las crías son factores que permiten analizar y estudiar el proceso de crecimiento de San Benito como una nueva colonia reproductiva. Esta expansión del territorio puede ser reflejo de la naturaleza gregaria de la especie y la fidelidad hacia los sitios reproductivos. La importancia de este trabajo radica en que es una descripción inicial de la recolonización de una especie que estuvo a punto de desaparecer. Puede esperarse que el número de individuos en el archipiélago continúe aumentando, ya que es poco probable que a corto plazo el espacio reproductivo y la disponibilidad de alimento limiten el nacimiento de crías y el crecimiento de la población. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to analize the re-colonization process of the San Benito Archipelago by the Guadalupe fur seal (Arctocephalus townsendi). The archipelago is of great importance for the species, since it can be consolidated in the future as a breeding colony, which would imply a great achiev [...] ement for the fur seal's natural recovery. Population growth, population structure, feeding behavior, foraging trips duration (which shows an important feeding area near), behavior and pup attendance, are characteristics that help analyze and study this process; where San Benito grows as a colony and, therefore, is established as a new breeding colony. Furthermore, this expansion of the breeding territory might reflect the gregarious nature of the species, and fidelity to breeding areas as well. The importance of this work is that it is an initial description of the recolonization of a species that almost disappears. It can be expected to continue increasing the number of individuals at the archipelago, since it is unlikely that in a short period of time, the breeding territory and the food availability limit the birth of offspring and the population growth.

Manuel, Esperón-Rodríguez; Juan Pablo, Gallo-Reynoso.

 
 
 
 
21

Rock-physics-based carbonate pore type characterization and reservoir permeability heterogeneity evaluation, Upper San Andres reservoir, Permian Basin, west Texas  

Science.gov (United States)

In addition to mineral composition and pore fluid, pore type variations play an important role in affecting the complexity of velocity-porosity relationship and permeability heterogeneity of carbonate reservoirs. Without consideration of pore type diversity, most rock physics models applicable to clastic rocks for explaining the rock acoustic properties and reservoir parameters relationship may not work well for carbonate reservoirs. A frame flexibility factor ( ?) defined in a new carbonate rock physics model can quantify the effect of pore structure changes on seismic wave velocity and permeability heterogeneity in carbonate reservoirs. Our study of an Upper San Andres carbonate reservoir, Permian Basin, shows that for core samples of given porosity, the lower the frame flexibility factor ( ?), the higher the sonic wave velocity. For the studied reservoir, samples with frame flexibility factor ( ?) 3.85 indicate either dominant interparticle pore space in dolopackstone or microcrack pore space in dolowackstone or dolomudstone. Using the frame flexibility factor ( ?), different porosity-impedance and porosity-permeability trends can be classified with clear geologic interpretation such as pore type and rock texture variations to improve porosity and permeability prediction accuracy. New porosity-permeability relations with ? classification help delineate permeability heterogeneity in the Upper San Andres reservoir, and could be useful for other similar carbonate reservoir studies. In addition, results from analysis of amplitude variation with offset (AVO) and impedance modeling indicate that by combining rock physics model and pre-stack seismic inversion, simultaneous estimation of porosity and frame flexibility factor ( ?) is quite feasible because of the strong influence of carbonate pore types on AVO especially when offset is large.

Dou, Qifeng; Sun, Yuefeng; Sullivan, Charlotte

2011-05-01

22

IMPACTOS DEL RECONOCIMIENTO MULTICULTURAL EN EL ARCHIPIÉLAGO DE SAN ANDRÉS, PROVIDENCIA Y SANTA CATALINA: ENTRE LA ETNIZACIÓN Y EL CONFLICTO SOCIAL / MULTICULTURAL RECOGNITION AT THE ARCHIPELAGO OF SAN ANDRÉS, PROVIDENCIA AND SANTA CATALINA: BETWEEN ETHNIC ENCLOSURE AND SOCIAL CONFLICT  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Colombia, al definirse en 1991 como un país pluriétnico y multicultural, reconoció derechos y estatutos especiales a diversas poblaciones y a sus territorios. Este artículo, que propone un reconocimiento de la población isleña-raizal del archipiélago de San Andrés, Providencia y Santa Catalina, busc [...] a dar a conocer algunas de las implicaciones del reconocimiento multicultural a partir del proceso de etnización de la población isleña-raizal, y estudiar el surgimiento de varios conflictos entre los pobladores isleños-raizales, el Estado colombiano y los migrantes de origen continental. Los conflictos evidencian el enfrentamiento entre dos registros identitarios en las islas: el diaspórico, fruto de las migraciones e intercambios propios del contexto del Gran Caribe, y el encerramiento étnico, como fruto del reconocimiento multicultural. Abstract in english By defining itself as a multiethnic and multicultural nation in 1991, Colombia recognized special rights and statutes to a diversity of populations and their territories. Among them, the native population of the Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia, and Santa Catalina achieved recognition under th [...] e new Constitution. This article aims to present some of the implications of this multicultural recognition focusing particularly on the process of ethnicization of the native population of the Archipelago and the emergence of different conflicts among the native population and the Colombian State, as well as those among the native population and migrants from Colombia's mainland. These conflicts reveal the clash between two identities on the islands: on the one hand, the diasporic one, which is a consequence of the Caribbean's characteristic processes of migration and exchange, and on the other hand, ethnic enclosure as a result of multicultural ethnic recognition.

INGE HELENA, VALENCIA P.

2011-12-12

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Descripción morfoagronómica de materiales de plátano (Musa AAB, ABB) y banano (Musa AAA) cultivados en San Andrés Isla / Morpho-agronomic Description of Plantain (Musa AAB, ABB) and Banana (Musa AAA) Materials Grown in San Andres Island  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Durante el primer semestre de 2005 se estudiaron los cultivares de plátano y banano en fincas y parcelas de 15 agricultores típicos participantes en programas conjuntos de la Secretaría de Agricultura y Pesca de San Andrés Isla y de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Caribe. A partir de descri [...] ptores de INIBAP, IPGRI y CIRAD y revisiones bibliográficas.se describen morfológicamente los materiales de Musa cultivados en la Isla, así como las prácticas de los productores isleños, Se identificaron cuatro clones del subgrupo plátano (Musa AAB): un Hartón (‘Horse’) y tres Dominico-Hartón (‘Tallo Negro’, ‘Tallo Blanco’ y ‘Cincuenta’) del subgrupo ABB se hallaron un material de Bluggoe (‘Boscó’) y un Felipita. El subgrupo banano AAA presentó dos materiales Gros Michel (denominados Común y Chino) y uno de banano (Rojo). El plátano tiene gran importancia para los agricultores de la Isla, siendo el Boscó el clon más aceptado entre consumidores por su adaptación a las condiciones edafológicas y climáticas. El banano es menos cultivado; ya que los suelos, el clima y las enfermedades como sigatoka negra, condicionaron el desarrollo de clones. El trabajo sugiere prácticas de fácil implementación que podrían aumentar la producción en los sistemas de huerto mixto tropical que predominan en la Isla. Abstract in english During the first semester, 2005 we studied the plantain and banana cultivars in small farms of 15 volunteer regular producers, who were participating in joint programs of the Agriculture and Fisheries Secretariat of San Andres Island and the Colombian National University Caribbean Headquarters. We d [...] escribed morphologically the Musa cultivars identified in the island, as well as agricultural practices of the island producers, using the INIBAP, IPGRI and CIRAD (1996) descriptors and bibliographical reviews. We identified four clones within the plantain sub-group Musa AAB: a Horn type and three French-Horn; and within the ABB sub-group a Bluggoe (dubbed “Boscó”) and a Felipita type. The banana sub-group AAA had two Gros Michel type, known as “Banano Común” and “Banano Chino”, as well as one of red banana (“Banano Rojo”). The plantain culture has paramount importance for San Andres farmers, and the clone named “Boscó” is the preferred one for its taste, and its adaptation to the edaphic and climatic conditions. Banana is less cultivated; the soil and the climate, as well as diseases (v.gr. the leaf spot disease or sigatoka) determined the growth of their clones. This work suggests a list of easy to implement agronomic practices that would enhance the production of the predominant producing systems of the island.

Oscar Javier, Parra Pachón; Daniel Gerardo, Cayón Salinas; Jaime, Polanía Vorenber.

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Determination of velocity and direction of ground water flow in San Andres Island by means of radiotracers Determinación de la velocidad y dirección del agua subterránea en la isla de San Andrés, utilizando radiotrazadores  

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Full Text Available The injection of radiotracers in 10 boreholes in San Andres island allowed the determination of direction and velocity of ground water flow. The basis of the technique relates to the application of a relationship existing between the observed concentration decrease of a radio tracer solution introduced into a borehole and the velocity of the undisturbed ground water flow in the aquifer.  The change of the tracer's position indicates the direction of flow. Satisfactory results show that techniques described herein are cheap, simple and rapid methods' for the determination of important hydrogeological characteristics.La utilización de radiotrazadores en 10 pozos de la isla de San Andrés permitió determinar la dirección y velocidad del agua subterránea.La técnica se basa en la inyección de un radiotrazador en un pozo y la posterior observación del cambio de concentración de el en el sistema. La rápida o lentadesaparición del trazador indica velocidades altas o bajas respectivamente, las cuales pueden evaluarse en forma cuantitativa. El cambio de posición del trazador con el tiempo, indica la dirección del flujo subterráneo que lo arrastra en solución.  Las técnicas esbozadas representan un método sencillo, económico y rápido de gran utilidad en la evaluación de parámetros importantes en cualquier estudio de aguas subterráneas.  

Rodríguez N. César O.

1975-12-01

25

CARACTERIZACIÓN DE PLAYAS DE ANIDACIÓN Y ZONAS DE ALIMENTACIÓN DE TORTUGAS MARINAS EN EL ARCHIPIÉLAGO DE SAN BERNARDO, CARIBE COLOMBIANO / Characterization of nesting beaches and feeding areas of marine turtles at the San Bernardo Archipelago, Colombian Caribbean  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El archipiélago de San Bernardo ha sido reconocido como un hábitat de anidación esporádica y alimentación de las tortugas verde, carey y caguamo. Teniendo en cuenta estos antecedentes y debido a que el archipiélago presenta áreas coralinas, praderas de pastos marinos y playas arenosas relevantes en [...] el Caribe colombiano, cuya oferta ambiental no ha sido descrita para el recurso tortugas marinas, se realizó este estudio entre julio y octubre de 2002, cuyos objetivos fueron describir las playas de anidación y zonas de alimentación en función de su geomorfología, aspectos bióticos y, para las últimas áreas, algunos oceanográficos. Fueron evaluadas siete playas potenciales de anidación y 20 bajos de alimentación para identificar las amenazas naturales y antrópicas para las tortugas y los hábitats. La carey es la única especie que aún anida en la zona, pero sus áreas de desove se han reducido por la erosión del mar y la construcción existente (blindaje). Los únicos lugares de anidación encontrados fueron el costado sureste de isla Palma y el norte de isla Tintipán. En áreas de alimentación, la mayoría de las estaciones (n=14) presentaron pastos marinos con predominio de fondo blando. A partir de la caracterización de estas áreas se describieron como objeto de alimentación de la carey nueve especies de esponjas y tres de algas. Con el objeto de documentar los componentes de la dieta de las tortugas en el archipiélago, cinco contenidos estomacales de carey y seis de verde fueron analizados. Los ítems más abundantes para la carey fueron las esponjas Eicionemia sp. y Geodia sp. (96% en peso seco) y en la tortuga verde los pastos Thalassia testudinum y Syringodium filiforme (98% en peso seco), observados comúnmente en campo. En áreas de forrajeo la captura directa de tortugas juveniles y adultas fue la amenaza principal, por lo que se deben dirigir esfuerzos para reducir el número de individuos capturados, determinar el grado de intervención y las posibles soluciones. Abstract in english The San Bernardo Archipelago, in the Colombian Caribbean zone, is well recognized for being a sporadic nesting and feeding area for the green, hawksbill and loggerhead turtles. Due to the fact that the San Bernardo Archipelago has outstanding coral areas, marine grasses and sandy beaches and their e [...] nvironmental offers for the marine turtles have not been described yet, it was opportune to carry out this study between July and October of 2002. Thus, this research tends to fill this gap by describing the nesting beaches and feeding areas according to their geomorphologic and biotic aspects and, for the later areas, some oceanographic aspects too. Seven potential nesting beaches and 20 stations on feeding areas were evaluated to identify natural and anthropogenic threats that could affect sea turtles and their habitats. The only species that still nests on these islands is the hawksbill turtle, but its nesting areas are being reduced because of erosion and constructions on the beach. The remaining nesting places observed during the 2002 season were on the southeastern side of Palma island and on the northern side of Tintipán island. In the feeding areas, the majority of stations (n=14) have marine grass with predominance of soft bottom. From these characterizations in the feeding areas, nine sponges and two seaweeds species were described as index species hawksbill turtles feed on. In order to gather information about the marine turtles diet components, five stomach contents of hawskbill turtle and six of green turtle were analyzed. They showed that the sponges Eicionemia sp. and Geodia sp. are the principal diet components (96% dry weight) in the hawksbill turtle diet. In the case of the green turtle, Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme grasses were identified as index species (98% dry weight); they were the most common during the field observations. The principal threat for sea turtles was the direct capture o

Martha Patricia, Rincón-Díaz; Clara Jimena, Rodríguez-Zárate.

2004-12-01

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An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. Annual report, August 1, 1996--July 31, 1997  

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The objective of this two-phase study is to demonstrate an integrated methodology for reservoir characterization of shallow shelf carbonate reservoir that is feasible, and cost effective for the independent operator. Furthermore, it will provide one of the first public demonstrations of the enhancement of reservoir characterization using high-resolution three dimensional (3D) seismic data. This particular project is evaluating the Grayburg and San Andres reservoirs in the Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. This 68 year old field was approaching its economic limit and the leases evaluated would have been abandoned in 10 years. A multidisciplinary approach to waterflood design and implementation, along with the addition of reserves by selective infill drilling and deepening, is being applied to this field. This approach in reservoir development will be applicable to a wide range of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs throughout the US. The first phase of the project included the design, acquisition, and interpretation of the 3D seismic survey, the collection and evaluation of geologic (core and log) data, and engineering (historical production, well test, injection) data from a variety of sources. From this work, a geologically based production history model was simulated. Based on the recommendations made at the end of Phase One, three new wells were drilled, one existing well was deepened, two wells were worked over, one TA`d well was re-entered, and one well was converted to injection. In addition, the quality of the injection water was greatly improved, a step necessary prior to increasing injection in the project area. The realignment of the waterflood and all additional well work await the completion of the seismic based history match and engineering simulation.

Trentham, R.C.; Weinbrandt, R.; Robinson, W.

1997-12-01

27

Analysis of the re-colonization of San Benito Archipelago by Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi Análisis de la recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito por el lobo fino de Guadalupe (Arctocephalus townsendi  

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Full Text Available Exploitation of the Guadalupe fur seal (GFS during the XVIII and XIX centuries almost extirpated the species. GFS were distributed from the Revillagigedo islands (Mexico to the gulf of Farallones (USA. At present, reproductive colonies are found at Guadalupe Island and San Benito Archipelago (SBA. The aim of this work was to analyze the process of re-colonization and the current status of GFS at SBA. The first births and the occupation of the west island of the SBA are also reported. Census data from 1997 to 2007 indicated an annual growth rate for the population of 21.6%. The population size, growth tendency of the colony, reproductive biology, and food preferences were also studied. A total of 2,227 GFS were counted at SBA. Three squid species (Loligo opalescens, Onychoteuthis banksii, Dosidicus gigas were found to be the main dietary components. Territoriality, activity patterns, and reproductive behavior were similar for the seals from Guadalupe Island and SBA. The mean growth rate for pups from SBA was calculated and compared to that of the pups at Guadalupe Island (SBA: 6.7 ± 1.4 kg, 68.9 ± 2.64 cm; Guadalupe Island: 5.9 ± 0.5 kg, 67.29 ± 4.3 cm. The length of food foraging trips by females was measured, suggesting that the SBA colony is probably near an important feeding area. Maternal care patterns could indicate different strategies of nursing-foraging trips between the SBA and Guadalupe Island. The population of fur seals at SBA is expected to increase as there are no limitations in terms of reproductive space or available food resources in the area.La explotación del lobo fino de Guadalupe (LFG durante los siglos XVIII y XIX casi extinguió a la especie. El LFG se distribuye desde las islas Revillagigedo (México hasta el golfo de Farallones (USA. En la actualidad las colonias reproductivas se encuentran en la isla de Guadalupe y en el archipiélago de San Benito (ASB. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el proceso de re-colonización y el estado actual del LFG en el ASB. También se informan los primeros nacimientos y la ocupación de la isla del Oeste del ASB. Con base en los censos de 1997 a 2007, la población creció con una tasa de incremento anual de 21,6%. Se estudió el tamaño de la población, la tendencia de crecimiento de la colonia, biología reproductiva y preferencias alimentarias. Se contaron 2,227 individuos en el ASB. Tres especies de calamar se encontraron como el principal componente de la dieta (Loligo opalescens, Onychoteuthis banksii y Dosidicus gigas. La territorialidad, los patrones de actividad y el comportamiento reproductivo, muestran una conducta similar entre los individuos de isla Guadalupe y ASB. Se calculó la tasa de crecimiento promedio de las crías del ASB y se comparó con la tasa de crecimiento de las crías de isla Guadalupe (ASB: 6.7 ± 1.4 kg y 68,9 ± 2.64 cm; isla Guadalupe 5.9 ± 0.5 kg, y 67.29 ± 4.3 cm. Se midió la duración de los viajes de alimentación de las hembras, indicando que la colonia de San Benito probablemente se encuentra cerca de una importante zona de alimentación. En cuanto a los patrones de asistencia materna, estos podrían indicar una estrategia de lactancia-viajes de alimentación diferente entre SBA e isla Guadalupe. Se puede esperar que la población de lobos finos en San Benito siga creciendo, ya que no hay limitantes en cuanto al espacio reproductivo y los recursos alimenticios disponibles en la zona.

Manuel Esperón-Rodríguez

2012-03-01

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Analysis of the re-colonization of San Benito Archipelago by Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi) / Análisis de la recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito por el lobo fino de Guadalupe (Arctocephalus townsendi)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La explotación del lobo fino de Guadalupe (LFG) durante los siglos XVIII y XIX casi extinguió a la especie. El LFG se distribuye desde las islas Revillagigedo (México) hasta el golfo de Farallones (USA). En la actualidad las colonias reproductivas se encuentran en la isla de Guadalupe y en el archip [...] iélago de San Benito (ASB). El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el proceso de re-colonización y el estado actual del LFG en el ASB. También se informan los primeros nacimientos y la ocupación de la isla del Oeste del ASB. Con base en los censos de 1997 a 2007, la población creció con una tasa de incremento anual de 21,6%. Se estudió el tamaño de la población, la tendencia de crecimiento de la colonia, biología reproductiva y preferencias alimentarias. Se contaron 2,227 individuos en el ASB. Tres especies de calamar se encontraron como el principal componente de la dieta (Loligo opalescens, Onychoteuthis banksii y Dosidicus gigas). La territorialidad, los patrones de actividad y el comportamiento reproductivo, muestran una conducta similar entre los individuos de isla Guadalupe y ASB. Se calculó la tasa de crecimiento promedio de las crías del ASB y se comparó con la tasa de crecimiento de las crías de isla Guadalupe (ASB: 6.7 ± 1.4 kg y 68,9 ± 2.64 cm; isla Guadalupe 5.9 ± 0.5 kg, y 67.29 ± 4.3 cm). Se midió la duración de los viajes de alimentación de las hembras, indicando que la colonia de San Benito probablemente se encuentra cerca de una importante zona de alimentación. En cuanto a los patrones de asistencia materna, estos podrían indicar una estrategia de lactancia-viajes de alimentación diferente entre SBA e isla Guadalupe. Se puede esperar que la población de lobos finos en San Benito siga creciendo, ya que no hay limitantes en cuanto al espacio reproductivo y los recursos alimenticios disponibles en la zona. Abstract in english Exploitation of the Guadalupe fur seal (GFS) during the XVIII and XIX centuries almost extirpated the species. GFS were distributed from the Revillagigedo islands (Mexico) to the gulf of Farallones (USA). At present, reproductive colonies are found at Guadalupe Island and San Benito Archipelago (SBA [...] ). The aim of this work was to analyze the process of re-colonization and the current status of GFS at SBA. The first births and the occupation of the west island of the SBA are also reported. Census data from 1997 to 2007 indicated an annual growth rate for the population of 21.6%. The population size, growth tendency of the colony, reproductive biology, and food preferences were also studied. A total of 2,227 GFS were counted at SBA. Three squid species (Loligo opalescens, Onychoteuthis banksii, Dosidicus gigas) were found to be the main dietary components. Territoriality, activity patterns, and reproductive behavior were similar for the seals from Guadalupe Island and SBA. The mean growth rate for pups from SBA was calculated and compared to that of the pups at Guadalupe Island (SBA: 6.7 ± 1.4 kg, 68.9 ± 2.64 cm; Guadalupe Island: 5.9 ± 0.5 kg, 67.29 ± 4.3 cm). The length of food foraging trips by females was measured, suggesting that the SBA colony is probably near an important feeding area. Maternal care patterns could indicate different strategies of nursing-foraging trips between the SBA and Guadalupe Island. The population of fur seals at SBA is expected to increase as there are no limitations in terms of reproductive space or available food resources in the area.

Manuel, Esperón-Rodríguez; Juan Pablo, Gallo-Reynoso.

29

Analysis of the re-colonization of San Benito Archipelago by Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi) / Análisis de la recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito por el lobo fino de Guadalupe (Arctocephalus townsendi)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La explotación del lobo fino de Guadalupe (LFG) durante los siglos XVIII y XIX casi extinguió a la especie. El LFG se distribuye desde las islas Revillagigedo (México) hasta el golfo de Farallones (USA). En la actualidad las colonias reproductivas se encuentran en la isla de Guadalupe y en el archip [...] iélago de San Benito (ASB). El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el proceso de re-colonización y el estado actual del LFG en el ASB. También se informan los primeros nacimientos y la ocupación de la isla del Oeste del ASB. Con base en los censos de 1997 a 2007, la población creció con una tasa de incremento anual de 21,6%. Se estudió el tamaño de la población, la tendencia de crecimiento de la colonia, biología reproductiva y preferencias alimentarias. Se contaron 2,227 individuos en el ASB. Tres especies de calamar se encontraron como el principal componente de la dieta (Loligo opalescens, Onychoteuthis banksii y Dosidicus gigas). La territorialidad, los patrones de actividad y el comportamiento reproductivo, muestran una conducta similar entre los individuos de isla Guadalupe y ASB. Se calculó la tasa de crecimiento promedio de las crías del ASB y se comparó con la tasa de crecimiento de las crías de isla Guadalupe (ASB: 6.7 ± 1.4 kg y 68,9 ± 2.64 cm; isla Guadalupe 5.9 ± 0.5 kg, y 67.29 ± 4.3 cm). Se midió la duración de los viajes de alimentación de las hembras, indicando que la colonia de San Benito probablemente se encuentra cerca de una importante zona de alimentación. En cuanto a los patrones de asistencia materna, estos podrían indicar una estrategia de lactancia-viajes de alimentación diferente entre SBA e isla Guadalupe. Se puede esperar que la población de lobos finos en San Benito siga creciendo, ya que no hay limitantes en cuanto al espacio reproductivo y los recursos alimenticios disponibles en la zona. Abstract in english Exploitation of the Guadalupe fur seal (GFS) during the XVIII and XIX centuries almost extirpated the species. GFS were distributed from the Revillagigedo islands (Mexico) to the gulf of Farallones (USA). At present, reproductive colonies are found at Guadalupe Island and San Benito Archipelago (SBA [...] ). The aim of this work was to analyze the process of re-colonization and the current status of GFS at SBA. The first births and the occupation of the west island of the SBA are also reported. Census data from 1997 to 2007 indicated an annual growth rate for the population of 21.6%. The population size, growth tendency of the colony, reproductive biology, and food preferences were also studied. A total of 2,227 GFS were counted at SBA. Three squid species (Loligo opalescens, Onychoteuthis banksii, Dosidicus gigas) were found to be the main dietary components. Territoriality, activity patterns, and reproductive behavior were similar for the seals from Guadalupe Island and SBA. The mean growth rate for pups from SBA was calculated and compared to that of the pups at Guadalupe Island (SBA: 6.7 ± 1.4 kg, 68.9 ± 2.64 cm; Guadalupe Island: 5.9 ± 0.5 kg, 67.29 ± 4.3 cm). The length of food foraging trips by females was measured, suggesting that the SBA colony is probably near an important feeding area. Maternal care patterns could indicate different strategies of nursing-foraging trips between the SBA and Guadalupe Island. The population of fur seals at SBA is expected to increase as there are no limitations in terms of reproductive space or available food resources in the area.

Manuel, Esperón-Rodríguez; Juan Pablo, Gallo-Reynoso.

2012-03-01

30

Etnomapa: Uso de los recursos naturales por los mayas itzaes de San José y San Andrés del Petén, Guatemala / Ethnomap: use of natural resources by the mayan itzaes of San Jose and San Andres, Peten, Guatemala  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El artículo analiza la riqueza e importancia del concepto de etnomapa, como herramienta de análisis cultural y espacial por medio de un mapa elaborado por pobladores mayas itzaes de dos asentamientos localizados en el Petén, Guatemala. El estudio se llevó a cabo entre octubre 2006 y septiembre de 20 [...] 07, se completó con la aplicación de encuestas mediante muestreo proporcional a unidades familiares itzaes de dos poblados del Petén central, San José (n = 40) y San Andrés (n = 22). A través de la interpretación de la información y mediante el enfoque de sistemas, se logró dilucidar los componentes agrícolas y los recursos naturales que practican y utilizan los mayas en ambas localidades. Los resultados hallados sugieren que los sistemas agrícolas y de utilización de los bosques tropicales húmedos practicados por los itzaes, representan una actividad económica importante, caracterizada por una amplia utilización de especies agrícolas y naturales. Estas actividades representan una base de recursos fundamental para los itzaes. Las características de estos sistemas son comparables a los encontrados en otros estudios en diferentes grupos mayas confirmando la diversidad de posibilidades de los modelos de adaptación y manejo de recursos de los itzaes. La creación del etnomapa valida del profundo conocimiento local, de la distribución territorial de los recursos naturales y antropogénicos. Se posibilita además el analizar los cambios que enfrentan los poblados itzaes, debido a las presiones socioeconómicas y tecnológicas que se desarrollan actualmente en la región del Petén central de Guatemala. Abstract in english This article analyses the richness and importance of the concept of the ethnomap, as a tool for cultural and spatial analyses, based on a map prepared by mayan Itzae inhabitants of two communities located in El Petén, Guatemala. The study took place between October 2006 and September 2007, and inclu [...] ded surveys carried out with a proportional sampling of Itzae family units in two settlements of the central Petén, San José (n = 40) and San Andrés (n = 22). A systems theory was applied in the analysis and interpretation of the data, resulting in the definition of the agricultural components and the natural resources that the Mayas use in the two communities. Findings suggest that the agricultural and tropical forest activities carried out by the Itzaes represent important economic activities, characterised by the use of a wide range of natural and agricultural species. These activities represent a fundamental resource base for the Itzae-maya population. The characteristics of these systems are comparable to those recorded by other studies on different Maya groups, confirming the diversity of possibilities for the adaptation and resource management models of the Itzaes. The ethnomap validates the profound local knowledge of the territorial distribution of anthropogenic and natural resources. It also makes it possible to analyse the changes facing the local Itzae populations, following the socioeconomic and technological pressures that are present in the central Petén region of Guatemala.

E, Lara Ponce; L, Caso-Barrera; M, Aliphat; B, Ramírez; A, Gil; G, García.

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DINOFLAGELADOS POTENCIALMENTE TÓXICOS ASOCIADOS A MATERIAL ORGÁNICO FLOTANTE (DRIFT) EN SAN ANDRÉS ISLA, RESERVA INTERNACIONAL DE LA BIOSFERA - SEAFLOWER / Potentially toxic Dinoflagellates associated to drift in San Andres Island, International Biosphere Reservation - Seaflower  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el propósito de evaluar la abundancia y la composición de dinoflagelados potencialmente tóxicos asociados al material orgánico flotante (drift) en la isla de San Andrés, se seleccionaron siete sitios de muestreo a lo largo de la margen Norte y Este, paralelos a la barrera arrecifal y a las princ [...] ipales praderas de fanerógamas marinas y macroalgas de la isla. Durante la época de mayor intensidad de vientos, se recolectaron muestras de drift; se identificaron los sustratos a especie y posteriormente se sumergieron en solución 1:1 agua de mar filtrada y solución de Transeau. Luego de agitar vigorosamente las muestras para remover los dinoflagelados, se tamizo la suspensión con una malla de 80 µm y el filtrado se observó al microscopio óptico. Se encontraron cinco sustratos, dos especies de pastos marinos y tres de macroalgas. Sobre los sustratos se identificaron doce especies de dinoflagelados, diez reportadas como tóxicas, causantes de diarrea, parálisis y ciguatera. La abundancia de dinoflagelados varió ampliamente con promedios máximos (±DE) de 15 354±15 749 células/g peso seco de sustrato. De las especies de dinoflagelados, cinco son nuevos registros para San Andrés. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en los valores de diversidad de dinoflagelados entre drift y praderas de pastos y macroalgas, no obstante, la abundancia fue mucho mayor en el drift. Los resultados indican que el drift es un importante sustrato para dinoflagelados y dada su naturaleza flotante, representa tal vez el vector más importante para la dispersión de estos agentes de toxicidad en la isla. Para mitigar el efecto de eventos tóxicos asociados a dinoflagelados en salud pública, pesca y turismo, es necesario diseñar un plan de manejo del material orgánico flotante, que permita mejorar el entendimiento de su composición y dinámica temporal, monitorear las toxinas asociadas e implementar mecanismos de recolección y tratamiento. Abstract in english To assess the composition and abundance of potentially toxic dinoflagellates associated to drift on San Andres island, we selected seven sampling sites along the northern and eastern side of the island. During the wind season, we collected drift samples, identified the main substrates to species, an [...] d submerged them in 1:1 filtered seawater and Transeau solution. After shaking to remove the dinoflagellates, we sieved through an 80 µm screen and analyzed the detached dinoflagellates under an optical microscope. We found five substrates, two seagrass species and three macroalgae. Associated to these substrates, we identified twelve dinoflagellates species, ten of which are reported as toxic and are known to produce diarrhea, paralysis and ciguatera, syndromes reported in San Andrés and other Caribbean places where their frequency is apparently increasing. The dinoflagellate abundance presented strong variation with maximum average values (±SD) of 15354±15749 cel. /g of substrate dry weight. Five of the dinoflagellates associated to drift are new records for the island. We did not found significant differences in diversity of benthic dinoflagellates between drift and seagrass and macroalgae beds; however, the abundance was much higher in drift. The results showed that drift is a very important substrate for potentially toxic dinoflagellates and, considering its buoyant nature, it may represent one of the main dispersion vectors for these species on the island. To mitigate the effect of intoxication events on public health, fisheries and tourism, it is necessary to design a floating organic material management plan, improve the understanding of drift composition and its temporal dynamics, as well as to monitor associated toxins and pursue collection and treatment mechanisms of the floating biomass.

JOSÉ ERNESTO, MANCERA-PINEDA; MARCIAL, MONTALVO-TALAIGUA; BRIGITTE, GAVIO.

2014-06-30

32

Reproduction of Blackfin tuna Thunnus atlanticus (Perciformes: Scombridae) in Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, Equatorial Atlantic, Brazil / Reproducción del atún de aleta negra Thunnus atlanticus (Perciformes: Scombridae) en el Archipiélago San Pedro y San Pablo, Atlántico Ecuatorial, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish A pesar de la importancia de las capturas del atún de aleta negra Thunnus atlanticus en el noreste de Brasil y en las cercanías del Archipiélago San Pedro y San Pablo (ASPSP), hay una escasez de información sobre su reproducción, especialmente en las islas. La reproducción del atún de aleta negra en [...] este archipiélago se estudió de diciembre 2008 a julio 2010. Con este fin, se recolectaron 361 gónadas de hembras y machos, los machos fueron predominantemente más frecuentes en la muestra total, con una proporción sexual de 1?:2.2 ?. La longitud furcal todos los ejemplares muestreados varió entre 38 y 98 cm, y los machos fueron más abundantes en las clases de mayor longitud. Los valores medios mensuales del índice gonadal (IG) variaron de 6.6 (SD=4.1) a 58.4 (SD=34.7) y de 2.6 (SD=1.3) a 66.2 (SD=30.4) para hembras y machos, respectivamente. Los mayores valores de IG para ambos sexos fueron observados el inicio del primer semestre. Los análisis histológicos mostraron que la mayoría de los ovarios y testículos correspondieron a especímenes aptos para reproducirse. Sin embargo, hembras con ovarios maduros, con gran cantidad de oócitos hidratados y folículos post ovulatorios, se encontraron principalmente de diciembre a marzo, que se considera es la época de reproducción del atún de aleta negra alrededor del ASPSP. Abstract in english The reproduction of Blackfin tuna Thunnus atlanticus has been described for coastal regions, and for a long time, this species was considered to be a strictly continental spawner. Recently, this species was observed around a seamount habitat 500 nautical miles Northeast of Brazil, located between So [...] uth America and Africa. In this study we describe the reproductive biology of Blackfin tuna at Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (SPSPA). Male and female gonads were sampled from December 2008 to July 2010, and analyzed macro and microscopically. A total of 361 fish were sampled (247 males and 114 females). Males were more common than females, with a sex ratio of 2.2 ?:1?. The fork length (FL) of all sampled specimens ranged from 38 to 98cm, and larger length classes were more frequent in males. It was possible to distinguish six maturity phases for females: immature, developing, spawning capable, actively spawning, regressing and recovering. Five phases were identified for males: immature, developing, spawning capable, actively spawning and recovering. The gonad index (GI) mean monthly values ranged from 6.6 (SD=4.1) to 58.4 (SD=34.7) for females, and from 2.6 (SD=1.3) to 66.2 (SD=30.4) for males. For both sexes, the largest GI values were observed at the beginning of the first semester of the year. Size at first maturity was estimated at 48cm FL and 55cm FL for females and males respectively. Approximately 80% of the specimens were adults and considered to be in reproductive conditions. Histological analysis of the ovaries and testes showed that most of the specimens were sexually mature and were reproductively active during all months of the year. However, females with mature ovaries, with large amounts of hydrated oocytes and post-ovulatory follicles, were mainly found from December to March, thus these months may constitute the main spawning season in SPSPA. Batch fecundity varied between 272 025 and 1 140 584 oocytes for 56 and 68cm FL females respectively. Oocyte development and spawning patterns suggest a multiple spawning behavior. The results revealed that Blackfin tuna is using the SPSPA as a spawning ground, similar to other species commonly observed in the same area during the same reproductive season.

Natalia P.A., Bezerra; , Fernandes; Fernanda V., Albuquerque; Vanessa, Pedrosa; Fábio, Hazin; Paulo, Travassos.

1327-13-01

33

Identidades ambientales, un caso comparativo entre el Trapecio amazónico y el Archipiélago de San Andrés: A Comparative Case Study of the Colombian Amazon region and the Archipelago of San Andrés / Environmental Identities / Identidades ambientais, um caso comparativo entre o Trapézio amazônico e o Arquipélago de San Andrés  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Resumo A partir da definição de identidade ambiental, o artigo compara os processos de transformação identitária que vêm ganhando lugar no Trapézio amazônico colombiano e no Arquipélago de San Andrés, por serem dois casos de redefinição histórica da etnicidade com referência ao meio geográfico, ao e [...] ncontro com a colombianidade, à agudização do discurso e às tensões que os capitais e os agentes institucionais ao redor do tradicional. Analisa-se o crescente turismo, a influência das agências de cooperação e seus efeitos no deslocamento do sagrado a uma "cultura teatral". Abstract in spanish Resumen A partir de la definición de identidad ambiental, el artículo compara los procesos de transformación identitaria que han tenido lugar en el Trapecio amazónico colombiano y en el Archipiélago de San Andrés, por cuanto son dos casos de redefinición histórica de la etnicidad con referencia al m [...] edio geográfico, al encuentro con la colombianidad, a la agudización del discurso y a las tensiones que los capitales y los agentes institucionales generan en torno a lo tradicional. Se analiza el creciente turismo, la influencia de las agencias de cooperación y sus efectos en el desplazamiento de lo sagrado hacia una "cultura teatral". Abstract in english Abstract The article compares the processes of identity transformation in the Colombian Amazon region and the Archipelago of San Andrés on the basis of the definition of environmental identity. These two cases illustrate the historical redefinition of ethnicity with respect to geographical environme [...] nt, the encounter with what it means to be Colombian, the intensification of discourse, and the tensions generated by the financial capital and the institutional agents around the traditions. The paper also discusses the growth of tourism, the influence of cooperation agencies, and their effects on the shift from the sacred toward a "theatrical culture".

Pablo, De La Cruz.

2014-01-01

34

Identidades ambientales, un caso comparativo entre el Trapecio amazónico y el Archipiélago de San Andrés: A Comparative Case Study of the Colombian Amazon region and the Archipelago of San Andrés / Environmental Identities / Identidades ambientais, um caso comparativo entre o Trapézio amazônico e o Arquipélago de San Andrés  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Resumo A partir da definição de identidade ambiental, o artigo compara os processos de transformação identitária que vêm ganhando lugar no Trapézio amazônico colombiano e no Arquipélago de San Andrés, por serem dois casos de redefinição histórica da etnicidade com referência ao meio geográfico, ao e [...] ncontro com a colombianidade, à agudização do discurso e às tensões que os capitais e os agentes institucionais ao redor do tradicional. Analisa-se o crescente turismo, a influência das agências de cooperação e seus efeitos no deslocamento do sagrado a uma "cultura teatral". Abstract in spanish Resumen A partir de la definición de identidad ambiental, el artículo compara los procesos de transformación identitaria que han tenido lugar en el Trapecio amazónico colombiano y en el Archipiélago de San Andrés, por cuanto son dos casos de redefinición histórica de la etnicidad con referencia al m [...] edio geográfico, al encuentro con la colombianidad, a la agudización del discurso y a las tensiones que los capitales y los agentes institucionales generan en torno a lo tradicional. Se analiza el creciente turismo, la influencia de las agencias de cooperación y sus efectos en el desplazamiento de lo sagrado hacia una "cultura teatral". Abstract in english Abstract The article compares the processes of identity transformation in the Colombian Amazon region and the Archipelago of San Andrés on the basis of the definition of environmental identity. These two cases illustrate the historical redefinition of ethnicity with respect to geographical environme [...] nt, the encounter with what it means to be Colombian, the intensification of discourse, and the tensions generated by the financial capital and the institutional agents around the traditions. The paper also discusses the growth of tourism, the influence of cooperation agencies, and their effects on the shift from the sacred toward a "theatrical culture".

Pablo, De La Cruz.

35

COMPARACIÓN TEMPORAL EN LA ESTRUCTURA DE UNA COMUNIDAD CORALINA EN PRIMEROS ESTADOS DE SUCESIÓN, ISLA DE SAN ANDRÉS, COLOMBIA / TEMPORAL COMPARISON IN THE CORAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN ITS EARLY SUCESIONAL STATE, SAN ANDRES ISLAND, COLOMBIA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los arrecifes coralinos del mundo han sufrido un declive durante las pasadas tres décadas. Estos cambios se han evaluado en arrecifes en franja; sin embargo, se desconoce si los tensores causantes de dichos cambios afectan la dinámica de una comunidad coralina en los primeros estados de la sucesión [...] antes del desarrollo de un arrecife. Para resolver este interrogante, se monitoreó durante 2004, 2005 y 2006 una comunidad coralina aislada en San Andrés. Se compararon temporalmente la abundancia, cobertura y mortalidad parcial sufrida por la comunidad coralina y sus poblaciones de coral dominantes. La comunidad coralina no presentó variación estadística en riqueza, abundancia, cobertura, ni en área de mortalidad parcial. Sin embargo, esta comunidad sí varió en composición con la entrada de dos especies de coral (Acropora cervicornis y Scolymia cubensis) y la salida de otras dos especies coralinas (Diploria clivosa y Siderastrea siderea) sugiriendo procesos locales de extinción (causados posiblemente por sedimentación y resuspensión) y colonización (dispersión). Aunque la comunidad coralina como un todo mostró estabilidad, la mortalidad parcial de tres de sus especies dominantes (Montastraea annularis, Porites astreoides y Colpophyllia natans) aumentó y la cobertura de Agaricia agaricites disminuyó en el tiempo (siendo la población más sensible en este sistema). Los resultados sugieren una dinámica similar pero más rápida a la registrada en etapas avanzadas de desarrollo arrecifal (arrecifes franjeantes), donde las variables más sensibles actúan a nivel de población (no comunidad), siendo la mortalidad parcial el factor más importante al explicar la tasa de recambio de especies (composición), la pérdida anual de cobertura coralina y cambios en la distribución de talla colonial de las poblaciones dominantes. Abstract in english The coral reefs worldwide have suffered a decline during the past three decades. These changes have been evaluated in fringing reefs; nevertheless, it is not known if the factors causing those changes affect the coral community dynamics during the first states of the succession, before the developme [...] nt of a reef. To resolve this question, during 2004, 2005, and 2006 we monitored an isolated coral community in San Andres. We compared trough time the abundance, coverage and partial mortality suffered by the coral community and its dominant coral populations. The coral community did not present statistical variation in richness, abundance, coverage, neither in the area of partial mortality. However, this community did change in composition with the entry of two coral species (Acropora cervicornis and Scolymia cubensis) and the exit of other two coral species (Diploria clivosa and Siderastrea siderea) suggesting local processes of extinction (caused possibly by sedimentation and resuspension) and colonization (dispersion). Although the coral community as a whole showed stability, the partial mortality of three of its dominant species (Montastraea annularis, Porites astreoides and Colpophyllia natans) increased and the coverage of Agaricia agaricites diminished over time (been the population more sensitive in this system). These results suggest similar but faster dynamic when compared to the theory reported to advanced stages of reef development (fringing reefs), where the more sensitive variables appeared at population rather than community level, partial mortality being the most important factor explaining the rate of replacement of species (composition), the annual lost of coral coverage, and changes in colonial size distribution of the dominant populations.

Juliana, Jaramillo-González; Alberto, Acosta.

36

COMPOSICIÓN Y DENSIDAD DE CORALES JUVENILES EN DOS ARRECIFES PROFUNDOS DE SAN ANDRÉS ISLA, CARIBE COLOMBIANO / Composition and density of juvenile corals at two deep reefs in San Andres Island, Colombian Caribbean  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El reclutamiento de corales en un arrecife determina el mantenimiento, la renovación y la estructura futura de las comunidades coralinas. Con el objeto de conocer la composición, densidad y el valor de importancia de corales juveniles escleractínios ([...] estrearon dos localidades (Reggae Nest y El Faro) en la terraza profunda de sotavento, a 20 m de profundidad, en la isla de San Andrés. Así mismo, se cuantificó la frecuencia de mortalidad parcial, total, enfermedades y signos de depredación en los juveniles, en 47 cuadrantes de 1m², distribuidos a lo largo de una cuerda guía. Se registró un total de 397 juveniles coralinos pertenecientes a 16 especies. La densidad promedio y riqueza de juveniles no mostraron diferencias significativas entre Reggae Nest y El Faro. La densidad promedio de las localidades fue alta respecto a lo registrado en arrecifes colombianos y baja en relación a otros arrecifes del Caribe. Las especies con valores de importancia mayores, Agaricia agaricites, Scolymia sp. y Porites astreoides, aportaron el 54.9 % de todos los juveniles, lo que concuerda con lo hallado en otros arrecifes del Caribe. Los géneros de juveniles con mayor densidad, cobertura y frecuencia no concordaron con los adultos dominantes (ej. Montastraea, Colpophyllia, Diploria y Siderastrea); ya que M. annularis y Diploria sp. exhibieron los valores más bajos de importancia como juveniles. Las comunidades coralinas de Reggae Nest y El Faro, deterioradas en las últimas décadas, podría recuperarse naturalmente, teniendo en cuenta la siguiente evidencia: 1) alta densidad de corales juveniles respecto al Caribe colombiano; 2) alta riqueza de juveniles, representados en 16 de las 23 especies de corales adultos registrados para la isla; 3) alto porcentaje de especies comunes entre juveniles y adultos (mantenimiento de cada población); 4) bajos porcentajes de mortalidad parcial (0.7 %; 3 juveniles de 397) y de blanqueamiento encontrados en los juveniles (0.5 %; 2 juveniles de 397). Queda aún por comprobar, la sobrevivencia a largo plazo, si estos juveniles son de especies fugitivas o si la comunidad de constructores está siendo reemplazada. Abstract in english Coral reef recruitment is a fundamental process because it determines the maintenance, renovation and future reef structure. In order to determine the composition, density and importance value of scleractinian juvenile corals ([...] ampled (Reggae Nest and El Faro) at the deep leeward terrace site of San Andres Island. In adittion, in 47 quadrants of 1m² distributed throughout a guide line, frequency of partial mortality, total diseases and depredation signs in juvenile corals were quantified. A total of 397 juveniles of 16 species were registered. The average density and richness of juveniles were not significantly different between Reggae Nest and El Faro. The average density of both localities was high compared to other colombian reefs and lower compared to other reefs in the Caribbean. The species with higher importance value, Agaricia agaricites, Scolymia sp. and Porites astreoides, represented 54.9% of all juveniles, similar to other Caribbean reefs. The genera of juveniles with higher importance value were not the same as the dominant adults (ej. Montastraea, Colpophyllia, Diploria and Siderastrea); which showed the lowest importance value as juveniles (Montastraea annularis and Diploria sp.). The coral communities of Reggae Nest and El Faro, deteriorated in the last decades, could recover naturally, considering the following evidence: 1) high juvenile coral density compared to the Colombian Caribbean; 2) high richness of juveniles, 16 from the 23 coral adults species reported for the island; 3) high percentage of common species between juveniles and adults (maintenance of each population); 4) low partial mortality (0.7%; 3 of 397 juveniles) and bleaching found in juvenile corals (0.5%; 2 juveniles of 397). It is still to verify if these juveniles are fugitive species or if the co

Andrés M, Vidal; Claudia M, Villamil; Alberto, Acosta.

37

COMPOSICIÓN Y DENSIDAD DE CORALES JUVENILES EN DOS ARRECIFES PROFUNDOS DE SAN ANDRÉS ISLA, CARIBE COLOMBIANO / Composition and density of juvenile corals at two deep reefs in San Andres Island, Colombian Caribbean  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El reclutamiento de corales en un arrecife determina el mantenimiento, la renovación y la estructura futura de las comunidades coralinas. Con el objeto de conocer la composición, densidad y el valor de importancia de corales juveniles escleractínios ([...] estrearon dos localidades (Reggae Nest y El Faro) en la terraza profunda de sotavento, a 20 m de profundidad, en la isla de San Andrés. Así mismo, se cuantificó la frecuencia de mortalidad parcial, total, enfermedades y signos de depredación en los juveniles, en 47 cuadrantes de 1m², distribuidos a lo largo de una cuerda guía. Se registró un total de 397 juveniles coralinos pertenecientes a 16 especies. La densidad promedio y riqueza de juveniles no mostraron diferencias significativas entre Reggae Nest y El Faro. La densidad promedio de las localidades fue alta respecto a lo registrado en arrecifes colombianos y baja en relación a otros arrecifes del Caribe. Las especies con valores de importancia mayores, Agaricia agaricites, Scolymia sp. y Porites astreoides, aportaron el 54.9 % de todos los juveniles, lo que concuerda con lo hallado en otros arrecifes del Caribe. Los géneros de juveniles con mayor densidad, cobertura y frecuencia no concordaron con los adultos dominantes (ej. Montastraea, Colpophyllia, Diploria y Siderastrea); ya que M. annularis y Diploria sp. exhibieron los valores más bajos de importancia como juveniles. Las comunidades coralinas de Reggae Nest y El Faro, deterioradas en las últimas décadas, podría recuperarse naturalmente, teniendo en cuenta la siguiente evidencia: 1) alta densidad de corales juveniles respecto al Caribe colombiano; 2) alta riqueza de juveniles, representados en 16 de las 23 especies de corales adultos registrados para la isla; 3) alto porcentaje de especies comunes entre juveniles y adultos (mantenimiento de cada población); 4) bajos porcentajes de mortalidad parcial (0.7 %; 3 juveniles de 397) y de blanqueamiento encontrados en los juveniles (0.5 %; 2 juveniles de 397). Queda aún por comprobar, la sobrevivencia a largo plazo, si estos juveniles son de especies fugitivas o si la comunidad de constructores está siendo reemplazada. Abstract in english Coral reef recruitment is a fundamental process because it determines the maintenance, renovation and future reef structure. In order to determine the composition, density and importance value of scleractinian juvenile corals ([...] ampled (Reggae Nest and El Faro) at the deep leeward terrace site of San Andres Island. In adittion, in 47 quadrants of 1m² distributed throughout a guide line, frequency of partial mortality, total diseases and depredation signs in juvenile corals were quantified. A total of 397 juveniles of 16 species were registered. The average density and richness of juveniles were not significantly different between Reggae Nest and El Faro. The average density of both localities was high compared to other colombian reefs and lower compared to other reefs in the Caribbean. The species with higher importance value, Agaricia agaricites, Scolymia sp. and Porites astreoides, represented 54.9% of all juveniles, similar to other Caribbean reefs. The genera of juveniles with higher importance value were not the same as the dominant adults (ej. Montastraea, Colpophyllia, Diploria and Siderastrea); which showed the lowest importance value as juveniles (Montastraea annularis and Diploria sp.). The coral communities of Reggae Nest and El Faro, deteriorated in the last decades, could recover naturally, considering the following evidence: 1) high juvenile coral density compared to the Colombian Caribbean; 2) high richness of juveniles, 16 from the 23 coral adults species reported for the island; 3) high percentage of common species between juveniles and adults (maintenance of each population); 4) low partial mortality (0.7%; 3 of 397 juveniles) and bleaching found in juvenile corals (0.5%; 2 juveniles of 397). It is still to verify if these juveniles are fugitive species or if the co

Andrés M, Vidal; Claudia M, Villamil; Alberto, Acosta.

2005-12-01

38

Ebaotstarbekas lisaeelarve / Andres Sutt  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Eesti Panga asepresidendi Andres Suti sõnul ei nõua Eesti praegune majandusolukord majanduse turgutamist täiendavate eelarvekulutuste näol. Kommenteerivad Rein Järvelill ja Jaanus Männik. Parlamendisaadik

Sutt, Andres

2002-01-01

39

Andres Ehin Jaapanist Iirini  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Andres Ehin valiti Ülemaailmse Haiku Assotsiatsiooni auliikmeks ja kirjaniku inglisekeelset luulekogu "Moose Beetle Swallow" esitleti 2005. aasta Euroopa kultuuripealinnas Corkis Iirimaal. Järgneb: Looming 2006, nr. 2, lk. 311

2006-01-01

40

Uso y actitudes relacionados a las drogas en las estudiantes de enfermería de la Universidad Mayor de San Andrés / Use and attitudes about drugs among nursing students at the Universidad Mayor de San Andres / Uso e atitudes relacionados às drogas em estudantes de enfermagem da Universidade Maior de San Andres  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho representa os resultados do Uso e Atitudes relacionados ao álcool, tabaco, folhas de coca, tranqüilizantes e anfetaminas em estudantes de enfermagem da Universidade Mayor de San Andrés. O objetivo é analisar as atitudes mediante o uso das diferentes substâncias com aqueles que usaram o [...] u não drogas nos últimos 12 meses. Os dados da amostra estratificada e intencional foram coletados em agosto de 2002, utilizando um questionário auto administrado distribuído para preservar o anonimato. Obtiveram-se estes resultados: as atitudes relacionadas às drogas demonstram a aprovação do uso das folhas de coca, álcool, tranqüilizantes e desaprovam o uso da cocaína. O uso pessoal de drogas nos últimos 12 meses corresponde a: às folhas de coca diariamente, ao álcool menos que uma vez por semana, e tabaco diariamente. O principal motivo do uso destas drogas vincula-se a prática religiosa; os estudantes são introduzidos pela primeira vez pelos familiares, pelos amigos/enamorados. Abstract in spanish Este trabajo representa los resultados del Uso y Actitudes relacionando el alcohol, tabaco, Hojas de coca, tranquilizantes y anfetaminas en Estudiantes de Enfermería de la Universidad Mayor de San Andrés. El objetivo es analizar las actitudes mediante el uso de diferentes substancias con aquellos qu [...] e no usan en los últimos 12 meses. Los datos fueron recolectados en Agosto del 2002, utilizando un cuestionario auto administrado y distribuido, garantizando el anonimato. Se obtuvieron estos resultados: Las actitudes relacionadas a las drogas aprueban el uso de hojas de coca, uso de alcohol, uso de tranquilizantes y desaprueban el uso de cocaína. El uso personal de drogas en los últimos 12 meses corresponde a: hojas de coca diariamente, alcohol menos que una vez por semana y tabaco diariamente. El principal motivo de uso de estas drogas vinculase a la práctica religiosa; los estudiantes son introducidos por primera vez por familiares y por amigos/enamorados. Abstract in english This study presents the results of a research that examined the Use and Attitudes about alcohol, tobacco, coca leaves, tranquilizers and amphetamines among Nursing Students at the Universidad Mayor de San Andrés who had not used these substances over the last 12 months. Data were collected in August [...] 2002 by means of a self-administered and distributed questionnaire, which guaranteed anonymity. The following results were obtained: Attitudes related to drugs approve of coca leaf and tranquilizer use and disapprove of cocaine. Personal use of drugs during the last 12 months corresponds to: daily use of coca leaves, alcohol less than once per week and tobacco every day. The main reason for using these drugs is related to religious practice; the students' first contact with drugs occurs through family members and (girl or boy) friends.

Iblin Elizabeth, Enriquez Flores; Margarita Antonia Villar, Luis.

2004-04-01

 
 
 
 
41

Andres Puustusmaa esikfilm Moskva filmifestivalil / Andres Laasik  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Eestist pärit režissööril Andres Puustusmaal esilinastub 29. juunil Moskva filmifestivali raames tema esimene täispikk mängufilm, Venemaa ja Ukraina ühistöö "Armastuse punane pärl" ("Krasnõi zhemtshug ljubvi"), peaosas Oksana Fandera, operaatoriks soomlane Timo Salminen. Valmis on ka teine mängufilm "1814", mis koos eespool nimetatuga tuleb kinodesse septembris. Ka Moskva festivali kavast

Laasik, Andres, 1960-

2007-01-01

42

Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technology to improve recovery and economics in a lower quality shallow shelf San Andres reservoir. Quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

West Welch Unit is one of four large waterflood units in the Welch Field in the northwestern portion of Dawson County, Texas. The Welch Field produces oil under a solution gas drive mechanism from the San Andres formation at approximately 4,800 ft. The field has been under waterflood for 30 years and a significant portion has been infill-drilled on 20-ac density. A 1982--86 pilot CO{sub 2} injection project in the offsetting South Welch Unit yielded positive results. Recent installation of a CO{sub 2} pipeline near the field allowed the phased development of a miscible CO{sub 2} injection project at the South Welch Unit. The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: advanced petrophysics; three-dimensional seismic; cross-well bore tomography; advanced reservoir simulation; CO{sub 2} stimulation treatments; hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and mobility control agents. During the quarter, development of the project`s south expansion area was undertaken, work was continued on interpreting the crosswell seismic data and CO{sub 2} injection into 11 wells was initiated.

Taylor, A.R.; Hickman, T.S.; Justice, J.J.

1998-01-31

43

Evolución de la arquitectura fluvial en sucesiones del Plioceno-Pleistoceno del centro-este de Argentina (aloformación Punta San Andres)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los depósitos de la Aloformación Punta San Andrés (Plio-Pleistoceno), registran la evolución de diferentes estilos de sistemas fluviales. Durante la primera etapa de la misma evolución, se desarrollaron sistemas de carga mixta, con canales de baja sinuosidad y alta participación de depósitos de plan [...] icie de inundación. Durante la segunda etapa, se verificó el cambio hacia un sistema de canales de mayor sinuosidad, entrelazados, donde los depósitos de planicie de inundación no tuvieron tanto protagonismo. Finalmente, la tercera etapa se caracterizó por el desarrollo de un sistema fluvial entrelazado clásico, sin preservación de depósitos de planicie de inundación. Durante la acumulación de la Aloformación Punta San Andrés, la glacioeustacia en asociación con el clima condicionó directamente el balance entre la tasa de generación de acomodación y el aporte sedimentario. Sin embargo, el análisis comparativo de los diversos índices e indicadores (arquitectura fluvial, paleosuelos, etc.) ha mostrado una variabilidad para los sistemas bajo estudio la cual puede asignarse a diferentes jerarquías de procesos. De esta manera, se identificaron ciclos de agradación fluvial representados por una alternancia de alta frecuencia entre paleosuelos vérticos y cálcicos. En este caso las fluctuaciones en el nivel de base fueron las responsables de los cambios cíclicos en la tasa de generación de espacio de acomodación y de aporte sedimentario. La evolución de los sistemas depositacionales identificados puede asignarse a ciclos de mayor jerarquía, los cuales controlaron el diseño del drenaje mediante cambios en el espacio de acomodación y representan cambios en la tasa de generación de espacio de acomodación relacionados a cambios glacieustáticos de escala global. Abstract in english The deposits of the Punta San Andrés Alloformation (Plio-Pleistocene) register the evolution of different styles of fluvial systems. During the first stage of this evolution, a mixed-load system was developed which included low-sinuosity channels and a high participation of floodplain deposits. Duri [...] ng the second stage the system shifted towards a higher sinuosity, braided fluvial system where the floodplain deposits didn't have so much participation. Finally, the third stage was characterized by the development of a classic braided fluvial system, without any preservation of floodplain deposits. During the Punta San Andrés Alloformation accummulation, glaci-eustatic changes and climate exerted a fundamental control on the balance between generation of accommodation space rate and sedimentary supply. Nevertheless, comparative analysis of the diverse indicators (fluvial architecture, paleosols, etc.) has shown a strong variability for the studied depositional systems that can be assigned to different process hierarchies. In this way, fluvial aggradational cycles are represented by high-frequency alternation between calcic and vertic paleosols. In this case, base level fluctuations were responsible for the cyclic accommodation rate - sediment supply change. The evolution of the identified depositional systems can be assigned to higher-order cycles, which controlled drainage design by changes in accommodation space and represents changes in the rate of generation of accommodation space linked to glaci-eustatic changes at a global scale.

Elisa, Beilinson.

44

Evolución de la arquitectura fluvial en sucesiones del Plioceno-Pleistoceno del centro-este de Argentina (aloformación Punta San Andres  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los depósitos de la Aloformación Punta San Andrés (Plio-Pleistoceno, registran la evolución de diferentes estilos de sistemas fluviales. Durante la primera etapa de la misma evolución, se desarrollaron sistemas de carga mixta, con canales de baja sinuosidad y alta participación de depósitos de planicie de inundación. Durante la segunda etapa, se verificó el cambio hacia un sistema de canales de mayor sinuosidad, entrelazados, donde los depósitos de planicie de inundación no tuvieron tanto protagonismo. Finalmente, la tercera etapa se caracterizó por el desarrollo de un sistema fluvial entrelazado clásico, sin preservación de depósitos de planicie de inundación. Durante la acumulación de la Aloformación Punta San Andrés, la glacioeustacia en asociación con el clima condicionó directamente el balance entre la tasa de generación de acomodación y el aporte sedimentario. Sin embargo, el análisis comparativo de los diversos índices e indicadores (arquitectura fluvial, paleosuelos, etc. ha mostrado una variabilidad para los sistemas bajo estudio la cual puede asignarse a diferentes jerarquías de procesos. De esta manera, se identificaron ciclos de agradación fluvial representados por una alternancia de alta frecuencia entre paleosuelos vérticos y cálcicos. En este caso las fluctuaciones en el nivel de base fueron las responsables de los cambios cíclicos en la tasa de generación de espacio de acomodación y de aporte sedimentario. La evolución de los sistemas depositacionales identificados puede asignarse a ciclos de mayor jerarquía, los cuales controlaron el diseño del drenaje mediante cambios en el espacio de acomodación y representan cambios en la tasa de generación de espacio de acomodación relacionados a cambios glacieustáticos de escala global.The deposits of the Punta San Andrés Alloformation (Plio-Pleistocene register the evolution of different styles of fluvial systems. During the first stage of this evolution, a mixed-load system was developed which included low-sinuosity channels and a high participation of floodplain deposits. During the second stage the system shifted towards a higher sinuosity, braided fluvial system where the floodplain deposits didn't have so much participation. Finally, the third stage was characterized by the development of a classic braided fluvial system, without any preservation of floodplain deposits. During the Punta San Andrés Alloformation accummulation, glaci-eustatic changes and climate exerted a fundamental control on the balance between generation of accommodation space rate and sedimentary supply. Nevertheless, comparative analysis of the diverse indicators (fluvial architecture, paleosols, etc. has shown a strong variability for the studied depositional systems that can be assigned to different process hierarchies. In this way, fluvial aggradational cycles are represented by high-frequency alternation between calcic and vertic paleosols. In this case, base level fluctuations were responsible for the cyclic accommodation rate - sediment supply change. The evolution of the identified depositional systems can be assigned to higher-order cycles, which controlled drainage design by changes in accommodation space and represents changes in the rate of generation of accommodation space linked to glaci-eustatic changes at a global scale.

Elisa Beilinson

2012-12-01

45

Aasta Tegija - Andres Keevallik  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Eesti Infotehnoloogia ja Telekommunikatsiooni Liidu Aasta Tegija auhinna pälvis Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli arendusprorektor professor Andres Keevallik rektorina, kelle ametiaeg lõppes 2005. a., aastatepikkuse töö eest tehnikahariduse, sealhulgas info- ja kommunikatsioonitehnoloogia hariduse eest seismisel ning aktiivse tegutsemise eest valdkonna edendamisel

2006-01-01

46

Valoración económica del buceo como estrategia de uso sostenible de la biodiversidad marina, Archipielago de San Andres y Providencia, Caribe Colombiano.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El buceo es un uso alternativo y no consuntivo de la biodiversidad marina que, debidamente practicado, tiene bajo impacto ambiental, estimula la conservación de los arrecifes y es una opción económica para habitantes de áreas arrecifales o con potencial para el buceo. El archipiélago de San Andrés, Providencia y Santa Catalina, declarado por UNESCO Reserva Mundial de la Biosfera Seafl ower, con 65.000 km2 de Áreas Marinas Protegidas y un extenso complejo arrecifal coralino, tiene condiciones para convertirse en un sitio de buceo de nivel mundial. Sin embargo, es poco conocido. Esta investigación analiza el potencial económico del buceo en esta región y lo compara con el de sitios muy reconocidos como Bonaire y Gran Caimán. Mediante análisis de la disponibilidad a pagar de buzos visitantes, se intenta valorar el buceo y se caracteriza el tipo de buzos que vienen al archipiélago. Se encontró disposición a pagar cifras superiores a las que se paga actualmente en otras partes del Caribe. Con un potencial estimado en $241 millones de dólares de ingresos anuales, el buceo es una interesante alternativa de desarrollo económico sostenible para estas islas que, a pesar de recibir 360.000 turistas al año, aún presentan un 66.9% de pobreza y altos niveles de desempleo.

James Cruz. Johannie L.

2011-11-01

47

Reading the archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [First paragraph] A History of Literature in the Caribbean, Volume 3: Cross-Cultural Studies. JAMES A. ARNOLD (ed.. Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1997. xvii + 399 pp. (Cloth US$ 120.00 The Other America: Caribbean Literature in a New World Context. J. MICHAEL DASH. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1998. xii + 197 pp. (Cloth US$ 42.50, Paper US$ 18.50 In his most recent theoretical work, Traite du Tout-Monde, Edouard Glissant stresses the virtues of what he calls "archipelagic thinking." "The entire world is becoming an archipelago," he asserts (1997:194, and for this reason we need to distance ourselves from both insular and continental ways of thinking if we are to register the complexities of that global creolization process. The archipelago is situated between the solitary confines of the islands that constitute it and the expansive territory of the mainland toward which it points, relating the one to the other while retaining its own indeterminately distinct identity. For Glissant, actual archipelagos such as the Caribbean are exemplary sites for understanding the complex new relations that ambivalently and chaotically join together all the hitherto unconnected parts of the world. As a consequence of this, the need for understanding the Caribbean as an archipelago becomes ever more pressing: the Caribbean must be considered in its archipelagic totality, as a region that can only be adequately understood through comparative, cross-cultural analysis focusing less on its discrete parts than on the way these parts exist in relation with and to one another.

Chris Bongie

1999-01-01

48

Graafikatriennaali peapreemia Andres Talile  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Tallinna XII graafikatriennaali preemiad: grand prix - Andres Tali; 3 võrdset preemiat - Janne Laine, Leonards Laganovskis, Peeter Laurits; diplomid - Lynne Allen, Lucrecia Urbano, Vladimir Tshaika, Zora Stanè, Endi Poskovic, Päivikki Kallio; EKM preemia - Tif Bitmap; Tallinna linna preemia - Ülle Marks ja Jüri Kass; eripreemiad: - J. Laine (Eesti Pank), Vive Tolli (Paletti Eesti AS), Martins Ratniksh, Juris Boiko, T. Bitmap (Balteco AS). Žürii koosseis

2001-01-01

49

Alexander Archipelago, Southeastern Alaska  

Science.gov (United States)

West of British Columbia, Canada, and south of the Yukon Territory, the southeastern coastline of Alaska trails off into the islands of the Alexander Archipelago. The area is rugged and contains many long, U-shaped, glaciated valleys, many of which terminate at tidewater. The Alexander Archipelago is home to Glacier Bay National Park. The large bay that has two forks on its northern end is Glacier Bay itself. The eastern fork is Muir inlet, into which runs the Muir glacier, named for the famous Scottish-born naturalist John Muir. Glacier Bay opens up into the Icy Strait. The large, solid white area to the west is Brady Icefield, which terminates at the southern end in Brady's Glacier. To locate more interesting features from Glacier Bay National Park, take a look at the park service map. As recently as two hundred years ago, a massive ice field extended into Icy Strait and filled the Glacier Bay. Since that time, the area has experienced rapid deglaciation, with many large glaciers retreating 40, 60, even 80 km. While temperatures have increased in the region, it is still unclear whether the rapid recession is part of the natural cycle of tidewater glaciers or is an indicator of longer-term climate change. For more on Glacier Bay and climate change, read an online paper by Dr. Dorothy Hall, a MODIS Associate Science Team Member. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

50

Andres Jaadla : see oli laim! / Andres Jaadla ; interv. Illar Mõttus  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Rakvere linnapea Andres Jaadla lükkab ümber meedia väite, nagu oleks ta ebaseaduslikult kasutanud linna raha. Arvamust avaldavad Riigikogu keskfraktsiooni aseesimees Toomas Varek ja Rakvere linnavolikogu liige Matti Jõe

Jaadla, Andres, 1965-

2007-01-01

51

Andres Rõhu: kujundaja metsast / Andres Rõhu ; intervjueerinud Kaarel Kressa  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Maalikunstnik Andres Rõhu sellest, kuidas temast sai raamatute kujundaja, parematest enda kujundatud raamatutest, südamelähedasematest eesti raamatukujundajatest, maal elamise eelistest. Loetletud A, Rõhu kujundatud teoseid

Rõhu, Andres, 1965-

2010-01-01

52

Andres Oper vigastas jalga, Artur Kotenko murdis sõrmeluu / Andres Kalvik  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Eesti jalgpallikoondist tabas nädalavahetusel kolm tagasilööki: ründaja Andres Oper vigastas jalga, teise edurivimehe Indrek Zelinski roidevalu suurenes ja väravavaht Artur Kotenko murdis avariis sõrmeluu

Kalvik, Andres, 1982-

2007-01-01

53

Maailmaparandajad / Ole Ry, Susanne Andres  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Terapeudid Ole Ry ja Susanne Andres räägivad Dr David Berceli loodud TRE (Tension & Trauma Releasing Exercises) harjutuste kasutamise kogemusest erinevate psüühiliste traumade ja pingetega klientide tervise parandamisel

Ry, Ole

2012-01-01

54

La Biblioteca Max von Buch de la Universidad de San Andrés y sus investigadores: Segunda parte de Un estudio de las necesidades de información, hábitos y características de Investigadores en Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales / The Max von Buch library of the Universidad de San Andres and its researchers: Second part of A study of the information needs, habits and characteristics of Humanities and Social Science Researchers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Tal como fue mencionado en el artículo anterior el presente estudio fue elaborado con el propósito de entender e identificar las necesidades, el proceso de búsqueda de información, las características y los hábitos de los investigadores en Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad de San And [...] rés (UdeSA). En esta segunda parte del mismo se ha intentado identificar y evaluar su conducta en la Biblioteca Max von Buch de la Universidad a través del uso de los servicios que ésta les ofrece. Se ponen a consideración los resultados de una encuesta realizada, de la que se adjunta la segunda parte del formulario, con el fin de detectar sus necesidades de información. Abstract in english As mentioned in the previous article, the present study was conducted to understand and identify the characteristics, needs and habits of research from the Humanities and Social Sciences researchers at the Universidad de San Andres (UdeSA). This second part tries to identify and evaluate their perfo [...] rmance at the Max von Buch library of the University through the services that it provides them. The results of the survey are presented, together with the second part of the questionnaire, with the aim of identifying information needs.

Irene, Münster.

55

La Biblioteca Max von Buch de la Universidad de San Andrés y sus investigadores: Segunda parte de Un estudio de las necesidades de información, hábitos y características de Investigadores en Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales The Max von Buch library of the Universidad de San Andres and its researchers: Second part of A study of the information needs, habits and characteristics of Humanities and Social Science Researchers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tal como fue mencionado en el artículo anterior el presente estudio fue elaborado con el propósito de entender e identificar las necesidades, el proceso de búsqueda de información, las características y los hábitos de los investigadores en Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad de San Andrés (UdeSA. En esta segunda parte del mismo se ha intentado identificar y evaluar su conducta en la Biblioteca Max von Buch de la Universidad a través del uso de los servicios que ésta les ofrece. Se ponen a consideración los resultados de una encuesta realizada, de la que se adjunta la segunda parte del formulario, con el fin de detectar sus necesidades de información.As mentioned in the previous article, the present study was conducted to understand and identify the characteristics, needs and habits of research from the Humanities and Social Sciences researchers at the Universidad de San Andres (UdeSA. This second part tries to identify and evaluate their performance at the Max von Buch library of the University through the services that it provides them. The results of the survey are presented, together with the second part of the questionnaire, with the aim of identifying information needs.

Irene Münster

2003-12-01

56

Sucesión temprana de la taxocenosis Mollusca-Annelida-Crustacea en raíces sumergidas de mangle rojo en San Andrés Isla, Caribe colombiano / Early succession of the taxocenosis Mollusca-Annelida-Crustacea on red mangrove submerged roots in San Andres Island, Colombian Caribbean  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se analizó la sucesión temprana de los taxa Annelida, Mollusca y Crustacea asociados a las raíces sumergidas de Rhizophora mangle (mangle rojo), empleando ramas del mismo como sustrato artificial (unidades experimentales). El análisis se relacionó con algunas variables físico-químicas y ambientales [...] durante 188 días en San Andrés Isla, entre noviembre 2002 y mayo 2003, en tres estaciones de dos bahías, Hooker y Honda. Se identificaron 34.175 individuos en 130 unidades experimentales, los anélidos mostraron la mayor proporción (77,1%). Se generó un análisis de ordenación y clasificación (dendrograma y un escalamiento multidimensional no métrico-NMDS) para cada uno de los tres taxa estudiados. Los análisis revelaron débil similaridad entre la parte interna de Bahía Hooker y las estaciones restantes. Se calcularon los índices de diversidad de Shannon-Wiener, uniformidad de Pielou, riqueza de Margalef y predominio de Simpson a lo largo del estudio; los tres primeros presentaron mayores valores en Bahía Hooker que en Honda, mientras que el índice de predominio fue mayor en Bahía Honda. Hubo organismos pioneros como el anélido Spirorbis sp. y transitorios como los crustáceos; los moluscos parecieron necesitar periodos más prolongados para asentarse. Estas respuestas revelan que características geomorfológicas, presencia o ausencia de corrientes de agua dulce, mareas y lluvias, principalmente, y factores antrópicos pueden influir en el desarrollo de estas comunidades. Dispersión larval y proximidad con otros ecosistemas aumentan o disminuyen las poblaciones; sólo algunos organismos adaptados a condiciones extremas se establecen y mantienen en el área. Bajo condiciones favorables, la abundancia y diversidad de especies tienden a aumentar Abstract in english The early succession of the taxa Annelida, Mollusca and Crustacea on Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) submerged roots was analyzed using old branches as ground (which were the experimental units) in San Andres Island. The analysis was related to some physico-chemical and environmental variables duri [...] ng 188 days, between November/2002 and May/2003, in Hooker and Honda bays. A total of 34,175 individuals in 130 experimental units were counted, where the annelids represented the largest proportion (77.1%) from the whole sample. A dendrogram and a nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were constructed for each one of the three studied taxa. The analyses showed a weak similarity between the internal part of the Hooker Bay and the remaining stations. Shannon-Wiener diversity, Pielou evenness, Margalef richness and Simpson predominance indexes were calculated throughout the study; the three first indices showed greater values in Hooker Bay than in Honda Bay, while the predominance index was greater in Bay Honda. There were pioneers organisms such as Spirorbis sp., and transient ones, such as crustaceans, whilst molluscs seemed to need longer periods to settle in. These responses reveal that geomorphological characteristics, presence or absence of freshwater currents, tides and rainfall mainly, as well as anthropic factors can influence the development of these communities. Larval dispersion and the proximity to other ecosystems increase or reduce the populations, and only some organisms, adapted to extreme conditions, settle down and maintain in the area. Under favorable conditions, abundance and species diversity tend to increase

Patricia E, Romero-Murillo; Jaime, Polanía.

57

Regional Oceanography of the Philippine Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Confined by the intricate configuration of the Philippine Archipelago, forced by the monsoonal climate and tides, responding to the remote forcing from the open Pacific and adjacent seas of Southeast Asia, the internal Philippine seas present a challenging environment to both observe and model. The Philippine Experiment (PhilEx observations reported here provide a view of the regional oceanography for specific periods. Interaction with the western Pacific occurs by way of the shallow San Bernardino and Surigao straits. More significant interaction occurs via Mindoro and Panay straits with the South China Sea, which is connected to the open Pacific through Luzon Strait. The Mindoro/Panay throughflow reaches into the Sulu Sea and adjacent Bohol and Sibuyan seas via the Verde Island Passage and the straits of Tablas and Dipolog. The deep, isolated basins are ventilated by flow over confining topographic sills, causing upward displacement of older residence water, made more buoyant by vertical mixing, which is then exported to surrounding seas to close the overturning circulation circuit.

Arnold L. Gordon

2011-03-01

58

Eesti keset Vilniust / Andres Kurg  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Eesti saatkond Vilniuses. Saatkonnahoone arhitektuurivõistluse võitsid ja hoone projekteerisid arhitektuuribüroo Kolm Pluss Üks arhitektid Markus Kaasik, Andres Ojari, Inga Raukas, Ilmar Valdur. Maja valmis 1998. a. veebruaris. Ehitas Merko Ehitus. Arhitektuurist, sisekujundusest. Võrdlus shveitslaste Herzogi ja de Meuroni ning Peter Zumthori loominguga.

Kurg, Andres, 1975-

1998-01-01

59

Andres Tali sõnavõtt ettekannete päeval = Andres Tali's speech given on the lecture day / Andres Tali  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Kaasaegse Kunsti Eesti Keskuse ettekannete päev "Kunstnike moraalsed valikud kultuurikonfliktides" 27.04.2006 Tallinna Kunstihoones. Oma installatsioonist "Pastoraalne pastishsh" ning videost "Vägivald ja propaganda - The Movie" samas 8.04.-28.05.2006 avatud Elin Kardi, Marko Mäetamme, Marco Laimre ja Andres Tali ühisnäitusel "Vägivald ja propaganda"

Tali, Andres, 1956-

2006-01-01

60

Andres Ellamaa : suurperede seostamine asotsiaalsusega mõjub koletislikult / Andres Ellamaa ; interv. Indrek Veiserik  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Vestlus doktor Andres Ellamaaga suurperede toetamisest, kunstlikust viljastamisest. Lisaks: Kuidas kommenteerite dr. Andres Ellamaa 2. juuni Postimehes ilmunud artikli järel tekkinud diskussiooni avalikkuses ja meedias? Kommenteerivad Tallinna Arstide Liidu juhatuse liige Peeter Mardna ja Jõgeva haigla juhataja Peep Põdder

Ellamaa, Andres, 1944-

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Suursaadik Andres Talvik : Prantsusmaa ei ole euroliidu laienemise pooldaja / Andres Talvik ; interv. Marianne Mikko  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Eesti suursaadik Prantsusmaal Andres Talvik Prantsusmaa presidendivalimistest, paremäärmuslase Jean-Marie Le Peni pääsemisest selle II vooru, prantslaste vastuseisust EL-i laienemisele, Prantsuse-Saksa suhetest. Andres Talviku elulooandmeid

Talvik, Andres, 1947-

2002-01-01

62

Andres Noormets - olemuselt luuletaja, vormilt lavastaja / Andres Noormets ; intervjueerinud Tiiu Laks  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Andres Noormets endast, oma lavastustest, näitlemisest ja lavastamisest, elu mõttest, uue otsimisest oma teatritöödega, sellest, mis endiselt paelub teatris ja praegusi teatritegemisi enim mõjutab, ise kirjutamisest jm. Andres Noormetsa eluloolisi andmeid

Noormets, Andres, 1963-

2010-01-01

63

Andres Ehin tähistas sünnipäeva raamatuesitlusega / Maire Kõrver  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Andres Ehin esitles oma luulekogu "Põdrapõrnikapääsukene" ja selle ingliskeelset tõlget "Moose Beetle Swallow" oma sünnipäeval Iiri suursaadiku residentsis, kus oli kohal ka luulekogu tõlkija, Iiri luuletaja Patrick Cotter

Kõrver, Maire, 1961-

2006-01-01

64

Cafe Lyon = Cafe Lyon / Andres Labi  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Cafe Lyon (Meistri 22, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Autorid: Janno Roos, Andres Labi, Kristel Jakobson (Ruumilabor). Prantsuse Lütseumi direktori Lauri Leesi arvamus. Disainibüroo Ruumilabor lühitutvustus

Labi, Andres, 1977-

2013-01-01

65

Andres Lipstok : mina ei kuulu mingisse maffiasse! / Andres Lipstok ; interv. Toivo Tänavsuu  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Eesti Panga president Andres Lipstok vastab küsimustele afääri kohta, mis on tekkinud Ühispanga eksjuhi Ain Hanschmidti osalusega laevakompaniis Tallink Grupp. Vt. samas: Hanschmidti afääri kronoloogia

Lipstok, Andres, 1957-

2005-01-01

66

Andres Tolts 60 : omanäoliste vaikelude imeline maailm / Andres Tolts ; intervjueerinud Tiina Kolk ; kommenteerinud Jaan Elken  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Andres Toltsi näitused "Asjad" Hobusepea galeriis 12. oktoobrini, "Näitus" Tallinna Kunstihoones 25. oktoobrini, "Varane Tolts" Haus galeriis 13. novembrini. Pikemalt näitusest "Näitus", kuraator Harry Liivrand

Tolts, Andres, 1949-2014

2009-01-01

67

Igale inimesele oma inspektor? / Andre Nõmm  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Finantsinspektsiooni finantsjärelevalve divisjoni juhataja Andre Nõmm on seisukohal, et finantsinspektsiooni ülesanne ei ole valvata iga kodaniku finantsriski maandamist, vaid vastutust peab kandma iga inimene ise. Ometi on riigi eesmärk tõsta oma kodanike teadlikkust laenuturul valitsevatest ohtudest

Nõmm, Andre

2007-01-01

68

Andre on alati tantsida tahtnud / Anu Mõttus  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Koolitantsu maakonnavoorud on peetud. Igast maakonnast pääsevad piirkonnavooru kuni pooled tantsud. Umbes sama edasipääsuprotsent on ka Andre Laine tantsudel, kelle koolitantsu vaimustus algas Kanepi Gümnaasiumi õpilasena ja kes praeguseks on selle gümnaasiumi tantsupedagoog

Mõttus, Anu

2009-01-01

69

Andres Tarand omas mahlas / Mart Soidro  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Rets. rmt.: Andres Tarand. Kiri ei põle ära. Päevaraamat 1980... Eesti Päevalehe AS, 2005. Raamatu põhiosa kooasneb kaheksast pikemast kirjutisest aastatest 1980-1982. Arvustuses on juttu 40 kirja allkirjadest.

Soidro, Mart, 1963-

2006-01-01

70

Mis siis juhtus Andres Lapeteusega? / Õie Orav  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Režissöör Grigori Kromanovi filmist "Mis juhtus Andres Lapeteusega?" (Tallinnfilm, 1965). Osades: Einari Koppel, Ita Ever, Heino Mandri, Kaljo Kiisk, Uno Loit, Ada Lundver jt. Lühidalt filmi kohta ilmunud arvustustest. Filmi näeb ETV2-s sarjas "Unustatud filmid"

Orav, Õie

2011-01-01

71

Toomas Savi tarbetu kõne / Andres Herkel  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik ja Severnoje Poberezhje 10. juuli lk. 2, Hiiu Leht 11. juuli lk. 2. Andres Herkeli hinnang preambuli teema tõstatamisele Vene-Eesti piirileppes nii president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese kui Toomas Savi poolt

Herkel, Andres, 1962-

2008-01-01

72

On the homology of the Harmonic Archipelago  

CERN Document Server

We calculate the singular homology and \\v{C}ech cohomology groups of the Harmonic archipelago. As a corollary, we prove that this space is not homotopy equivalent to the Griffiths space. This is interesting in view of Eda's proof that the first singular homology groups of these spaces are isomorphic.

Karimov, Umed H; 10.2478/s11533-012-0038-2

2012-01-01

73

Andres Tolts: "Jutud maalikunsti surmast on enneaegsed" / Ants Juske  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

9. novembril anti Kadrioru Kunstimuuseumis pidulikult Andres Toltsile üle 2009. aasta Konrad Mäe preemia, millega kaasneb Enn Johannese kujundatud medal ja 50000 krooni. Žürii tunnustas Andres Toltsi pikaajalist tegevust esteetilise suuna viljelemisel eesti maalikunstis

Juske, Ants, 1956-

2009-01-01

74

Benthic foraminiferal assemblages in Tambelan Archipelago, Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coral reefs ecosystem is one of favorable sites as habitat of most of marine organismsincluding benthic foraminifera. Foraminiferal assemblages are regularly used as bio-indicators ofenvironmental feasibility for reefs. Hence, the objective of the present study was to recognize theforaminiferal assemblages in the Tambelan Archipelago as a baseline data for monitoring ofenvironmental changes and to plan conservation strategies. The survey was conducted on November2010 at 12 sampling sites around Tambelan Archipelago. A total of 5582 specimens of benthicforaminifera belonging to Order Astrorhizida, Textulariida, Miliolida, and Rotaliida were recorded. Most ofcollected species were recognized as symbiotic-bearing foraminifera; the most common of them whereAmphistegina sp. and Calcarina sp. that counted more than 1000 specimens.

Suhartati M. Natsir

2012-09-01

75

Andre-Quillen homology of commutative algebras  

CERN Document Server

These notes are an introduction to basic properties of Andre-Quillen homology for commutative algebras. They are an expanded version of my lectures at the summer school: Interactions between homotopy theory and algebra, University of Chicago, 26th July - 6th August, 2004. The aim is to give fairly complete proofs of characterizations of smooth homomorphisms and of locally complete intersection homomorphisms in terms of vanishing of Andre-Quillen homology. The choice of the material, and the point of view, are guided by these goals.

Iyengar, S

2006-01-01

76

Water mass seasonal variability in the Galápagos Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

Three hydrographic surveys were conducted within the Galápagos Archipelago during 2005-2006. The surveys captured the surface properties (NECC). As a result, Tropical Surface Waters (TSW) with salinity ( S) 34, throughout the archipelago. Equatorial Surface Waters are present west of Isabela, where the EUC upwells as it interacts with the Galápagos platform. They also are found east of the archipelago in the cold tongue, which extends westward from South America, and therefore may be advected by the SEC into the archipelago. The upwelling west of Isabela creates a consistently shallow 20 °C isotherm (thermocline), which remains elevated across the archipelago. Linear extrapolation of the thermocline depth along the equator from 110 to 95°W gives a good approximation of the thermocline depth within the archipelago from 92 to 89°W.

Sweet, W. V.; Morrison, J. M.; Kamykowski, D.; Schaeffer, B. A.; Banks, S.; McCulloch, A.

2007-12-01

77

Andres Võsand: hakkan ilmselt elukutseliseks kunstnikuks / Andres Võsand ; intervjueerinud Veiko Visnapuu  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Intervjuu Saksaamaal elava tennisisti Andres Võsandiga, kelle maalinäitus "Värvireisid" on avatud Kadriorus Kastellaanimaja Galeriis 30.10-28.11.2010. Tegelemisest maalikunstiga, näitusest, reisidest inspireeritud loomingust, tööst tennisetreenerina, tennisekarjäärist. Andmeid A. Võsandi elukäigu kohta

Võsand, Andres, 1966-

2010-01-01

78

Sarvedega poisid Janno Roos ja Andres Labi / Janno Roos, Andres Labi ; intervjueerinud Tanel Veenre  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Ruumilabor OÜ sisearhitektid Janno Roos ja Andres Labi riidenagide seeriast "Ulukid", mille eest nad pälvisid Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2008. a. esemepreemia, Ruumilabori õnnestumistest ja parematest töödest, eesti disaini tulevikust, lemmikutest disainerite seas jm.

Roos, Janno, 1976-

2009-01-01

79

Andres Lipstok : uue e-päeva määramine poleks aus / Andres Lipstok ; interv. Hans Väre  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Ehkki Eesti Pank nimetab euroga liitumise ehk e-päevana kangekaelselt järgmise aasta 1. jaanuari, möönab keskpanga president Andres Lipstok, et see saab juhtuda vaid poliitilise kompromissi korral. Lisa: Kriteerium

Lipstok, Andres, 1957-

2006-01-01

80

Eesti luule jookseb joonistatud pildis / Andres Laasik  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Animafilmikassett "Must lagi" seitsme eesti luuletaja luuletuse põhjal tehtud animafilmidega : Mati Küti - Ilmar Laabani "Substantia stellaris", Heiki Ernitsa - Arvi Siia "Tuled öös", Kaspar Jancise - Ago Künnapi "Viimane sigaret", Priit Tenderi - Andres Ehini "Taimne direktor", Janno Põldma - Heiti Talviku "Sügiseleegia", Priit Pärna - Jüri Üdi "Kuul kuklas", Ülo Pikkovi - Aleksander Suumani "Läänemerelinik" : Eesti Joonisfilm 2007

Laasik, Andres, 1960-

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Eesti fond rahastab Vene infotehnoloogiat / Andres Reimer  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Martinson Trigon Venture Partners (MTVP) loob uue tarkvarainvesteeringute fondi, mis viib endise NSVL-i alale kuni 780 miljonit krooni, fond võtab sihiks kümmekond uut ettevõtet. MTVP esimese fondi investeeringutest. Fondide juhi Andres Susi selgitusi. Lisa: Martinson Trigon Venture Partners osalusega firmad; Vt. samas: Moskvas pole raha ja geeniused kohtunud

Reimer, Andres

2006-01-01

82

Eestlane juhib Ukrainas EBRD investeeringuid / Andre Küüsvek ; interv. Henrik Ilves  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Seni Euroopa Rekonstruktsiooni- ja Arengupanga (EBRD) Kasahstani osakonda juhtinud Andre Küüsvek valiti juhtima EBRD investeeringuid Ukrainas. Tänavu on plaanis investeerida Ukrainas 1,5 mld. dollarit

Küüsvek, Andre

2008-01-01

83

Arhitekt ja insener Andres Ringo / Ell-Maaja Randküla  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Andres Ringo elust, tööst, projektidest, tema arvamus tänasest linnaplaneerimisest jm. 1991. a. asutas A. Ringo koos Ell Väärtnõuga Väärtnõu ja Ringo Arhitektuuribüroo. Kommentaar arhitekt Martti Preemilt. 5 ill

Randküla, Ell-Maaja

2004-01-01

84

Juubelitervitus (eks)avangardist Andres Toltsile / Eero Kangor  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Andres Toltsi isikunäitused "Näitus" (kuraator Harry Liivrand) Tallinna Kunstihoones 25. oktoobrini, "Asjad" Hobusepea galeriis 30. sept.-12. oktoobrini ja sünnipäevanäitus Haus Galeriis 13. novembrini

Kangor, Eero, 1982-

2009-01-01

85

Chemical quality of water and sediment in the bays of Sabana-Camaguey archipelago  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical quality of water and sediment was analyzed in some bays of Sabana-Camaguey Archipelago (SCA). This analysis was done using the existing information that covers from 1976 to 2011. In the rainy one there was oxygen sub-saturation in the bays of West Santa Clara, East Santa Clara, Puerto de Sagua and Los Perros. The nature of organic matter was quite complex and BOD5 and COD values greater than 2 mg.L-1prevailed. The ammonia concentrations were between 2 and 5 ??mol.L -1, and organic nitrogen represented 90 % of total nitrogen. Phosphorus in water was not very abundant, it acted as limiting nutrient for primary producers. Sediments were characterized by significant amounts of organic carbon and low content of organic nitrogen. The bays of Cardenas, San Juan de los Remedios, Buenavista and Los Perros, were impacts of heavy metals

86

STUDY OF DENSITY AND COVERING SEAGRASS AT SPERMONDE ARCHIPELAGO  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Study of density and covering seagrass at Spermonde Archipelago was carried out during May 2012 until November 2012. The study included density and percentage cover. Namely 7 species of seagrasses Enhalus acoroides, Cymodocea rotundata, Syringodium isoetifolium, Thalassia hemprichii, Halodule uninervis, Halophila ovalis and H. minorwere collected at Spermonde Archipelago. Enhalus acoroides was recorded as the most dominant species and Syringodium isoetifolium was the limit species at Bone Ba...

Abdul Haris; Benny Audi Jaya Gosari1

2013-01-01

87

Friluftsliv i 592 skove og andre naturområder?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hvorledes benyttes 592 skove og andre naturområder til friluftsliv? Det er det hovedspørgsmål, der søges besvaret i denne rapport fra Projekt "Friluftsliv '98". Med hjælp fra den praktiske skov- og landskabsforvaltning er der i 1996/97 foretaget 9,874 stikprøvevise manuelle optællinger af antallet af parkerede biler på 2,159 lokaliteter (delområder) dækkende ca. 201,000 ha skov/naturområder (heraf ca. 174,000 ha skov). Optællingerne fandt sted på de samme 22 tidspunkter fordelt over mere end ét år og var kombineret med en udlevering af 85,673 spørgeskemaer, af hvilke 46.7 % kom retur.

Jensen, Frank SØndergaard

2003-01-01

88

Samarbejdets natur hos mennesket og andre aber  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Omfattende grader af dele-adfærd og samarbejde hos mennesker finder sted overalt på jorden, men det er ikke et menneskeligt særtræk at være generøs og dele. Mange dyrearter deler med artsfæller, skønt måden, der deles på varierer mellem dyrearter. Igennem de sidste 20 år er der foretaget omfattende forskning omkring delings-adfærd hos andre aber end mennesket og forsøgene har givet os indsigt i flere forskellige ting omkring den menneskelige samarbejdsnatur i forhold til andre dyrs. Delingsadfærden hos mennesket antager former, der på nogle punkter er langt mere sammenlignelige med fjernere beslægtede aber end med menneskeaberne. Visse dyrearter viser sig desuden at klare sig mærkbart bedre end menneskeaberne i samarbejdsforsøg, hvor menneskelige signaler skal forstås. Især hunde udmærker sig ved dette og lader til at gå til opgaven med omtrent lige så få gnidninger som småbørn. Dette kan forklares ved, at der implicit i evnen til menneskeligt samarbejde ligger en motivation for at indgå i opgaveløsende relationer og en basal tillidsfuldhed omkring flokmedlemmer, som ikke er en selvfølgelighed for alle flokdyr, men som mennesket har fremavlet hos den tamme hund.

Byrnit, Jill

2015-01-01

89

Hydrogeology of the Azores volcanic archipelago (Portugal)  

Science.gov (United States)

The archipelago of the Azores is made of nine islands of volcanic origin located in the North Atlantic Ocean, with an area of 2333 km2 and approximately 237500 inhabitants, which are 98% dependant from groundwater sources for their water consumption. Therefore, groundwater is a resource that plays a vital role as drinking water source and as ecosystem support matrix. Nevertheless, besides the environmental, social and economical value of groundwater, this resource is subject to an increase pressure and in several islands water quality deterioration is shown by monitoring data. This pressure is also shown by the 42.7% increase expected for domestic use until the year 2020 at the Azores, with higher groundwater abstraction. The Azores climate can be considered as marine temperate, which is reflected by the low thermal amplitude and high precipitation. A well-established difference between a dry season and a colder and wet season occurs, as from October to March about 75% of the annual precipitation is registered. The average annual precipitation at the Azores is 1930 mm, exceeding by far the average annual actual evapotranspiration, which is 581 mm. Recharge rates range from 8.5% to 62.1%, and the highest values are observed at Pico, Terceira, Faial, São Miguel and Graciosa islands, especially in areas where the terrain is covered by recent basaltic lava flows and the soil cover is sparse. Groundwater resources estimates point to a total volume of about 1600x106 m3/yr. Values above the recharge median, equal to 101.3x106 m3/yr. were estimated for the São Miguel, São Jorge, Terceira and Flores islands. Despite differences in the islands growth, as a result of successive volcanic eruptions of various types, groundwater occurrence can be described in function of two main aquifers systems: (1) the basal aquifer system, which corresponds to fresh-water lenses floating on underlying salt water, and (2) perched-water bodies, which are usually drained by springs spread in the volcanic edifices slopes. The basal aquifer system is in the coastal area, presenting generally a very low hydraulic gradient. Hydrogeological surveys that have been made in the Azores archipelago points out to more than 1000 springs and wells spread all over the archipelago (950 springs and 83 drilled wells). Spring distribution is heterogeneous, with densities varying between 0.01 springs/km2 at Pico island and 0.72 springs/km2 estimated at Santa Maria. Specific capacity ranges from 1.4x10-2 to 266.7 L/sm, with a median value of 32.3 L/sm. Transmissivity also present a large range, with values ranging between 1.65x10-5 and 4.03x10-1 m2/s, and a median of 3.66x10-2 m2/s. The heterogeneous distribution shown by these values expresses the influence of the hydrogeological characteristics of volcanic terrain, resulting from syngenetic characteristics and secondary processes, like weathering. The highest values are observed in wells drilled in recent basaltic lava flows, which generally are thin and fractured, with frequent clincker levels interbedded, and the lowest data was estimated in the older volcanic formations of Santa Maria island. Groundwater on perched-water bodies, excluding the numerous mineral waters that are spread in several islands of the archipelago, present usually a low mineralization, shown by the electrical conductivity values (36-725 S/cm; median=158.0 S/cm). The average temperature is equal to 15°C. Waters have an average temperature of 15°C and are mainly slightly acid to slightly alkaline, with a pH range from 4.7 to 8.6, but showing a median value of 7.2. The main water types are Na-Cl to Na-HCO3 waters, with numerous samples lying in the intermediate compositional fields that characterize Na-Cl-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-Cl waters. The groundwater composition in the basal aquifer system is usually from the Na-Cl type and presents a higher mineralization, resulting in a median value for electrical conductivity equal to 1044 S/cm, expressing the influence of sea salts mixture.

Cruz, J.; Coutinho, R.; Antunes, P.; Freire, P.

2009-04-01

90

Film Diegost - kriitikavaba kummardus / Andres Must  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

PÖFFi filme - Argentiina mängufilm legendaarse jalgpalluri Diego Maradona jumaldamisest "Teel Maradona juurde" ("El camino de San Diego") : stsenarist ja režissöör Carlos Sorin. Artikkel on peamiselt Maradonast, vähesel määral filmist

Must, Andres

2007-01-01

91

The Hawaiian Archipelago: a microbial diversity hotspot.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Hawaiian Archipelago is a "biodiversity hotspot" where significant endemism among eukaryotes has evolved through geographic isolation and local topography. To address the absence of corresponding region-wide data on Hawaii's microbiota, we compiled the first 16S SSU rDNA clone libraries and cultivated bacteria from five Hawaiian lakes, an anchialine pool, and the L?'ihi submarine volcano. These sites offer diverse niches over approximately 5000 m elevation and approximately 1150 nautical miles. Each site hosted a distinct prokaryotic community dominated by Bacteria. Cloned sequences fell into 158 groups from 18 Bacteria phyla, while seven were unassigned and two belonged in the Euryarchaeota. Only seven operational taxonomic units (each OTU comprised sequences that shared > or =97% sequence identity) occurred in more than one site. Pure bacterial cultures from all sites fell into 155 groups (each group comprised pure cultures that shared > or =97% 16S SSU rDNA sequence identity) from 10 Bacteria phyla; 15 Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were cultivated from more than one site. One hundred OTUs (60%) and 52 (33.3%) cultures shared <97% 16S SSU rDNA sequence identity with published sequences. Community structure reflected habitat chemistry; most delta-Proteobacteria occurred in anoxic and sulfidic waters of one lake, while beta-Proteobacteria were cultivated exclusively from fresh or brackish waters. Novel sequences that affiliate with an Antarctic-specific clade of Deinococci, and Candidate Divisions TM7 and BRC1, extend the geographic ranges of these phyla. Globally and locally remote, as well as physically and chemically diverse, Hawaiian aquatic habitats provide unique niches for the evolution of novel communities and microorganisms. PMID:15696384

Donachie, S P; Hou, S; Lee, K S; Riley, C W; Pikina, A; Belisle, C; Kempe, S; Gregory, T S; Bossuyt, A; Boerema, J; Liu, J; Freitas, T A; Malahoff, A; Alam, M

2004-11-01

92

Klimaforhandlinger, hårdknuder og koblinger med andre emner  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

De internationale forhandlinger om reduktion af drivhusgasser er ramt af et uheldigt paradoks: Selvom alle parter har en interesse i at begrænse koncentrationen af drivhusgasser i atmosfæren, undslår hver enkelt part sig forpligtelser. Denne artikel forklarer, hvorfor reduktionsforhandlinger ender i hårdknude og diskuterer en løsningsmulighed. Først antages det, at forhandlingsparter maksimerer deres nationale udbytte uden hensyntagen til modparternes udbytte. Derpå fremsættes der ved hjælp af simpel spilteori hypoteser om et kollektivt handlingsproblem, hvor hver part har incitament til at minimere egne forpligtelser og maksimere modparternes. Hypoteserne bekræftes af en tentativ analyse af parternes forpligtelser og adfærd de seneste år. Med afsæt i det kollektive handlingsproblem og eksempler fra COP15 diskuteres det dernæst, hvorvidt koblinger mellem forhandlingerne om reduktioner og forhandlinger om andre emner såsom finansiering og skovrydning kan bidrage til en løsning i reduktionsforhandlingerne. Afslutningsvis opfordres der til mere forskning i sådanne koblinger i de internationale klimaforhandlinger.

Jepsen, Henrik

2010-01-01

93

Põlvas tuli esitusele Andre Laine 29 tantsu / Mati Määrits  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Põlva Kultuuri- ja Huvikeskuses sai näha Põlvamaa Koolitantsu maakondlikku eelvooru. 52st tantsust 29 tantsu autor on Andre Laine. Kommenteerib ka Tartu Ülikooli Viljandi Kultuuriakadeemia lavakunstide osakonna tantsukunsti õppejõud Kai Valtna

Määrits, Mati, 1958-

2008-01-01

94

Peaosa nii teatrilaval kui ka kinolinal / Andres Laasik  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Natalja Murina-Puustusmaast, kes mängib peaosa Vene Teatri uuslavastuses "Besame mucho", mille Afolf Käis on lavastanud Eduardo de Filippo näidendi "Silinder" järgi, ja Andres Puustusmaa filmis "Rotilõks", mille võtted algavad peagi

Laasik, Andres, 1960-

2010-01-01

95

Eesti Energia esindused = Eesti Energia branches / Andres Labi, Janno Roos  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Eesti Energia klienditeeninduse kontorite sisekujundusest. Autorid: Janno Roos, Andres Labi ja Liisa Põime (Ruumilabor). Visuaalne identiteet: Tank.Teenuste disain: Urmas Pastarus. ESLi aastapreemiate žürii esimehe Kaido Kivi ning žürii liikme Raivo Puusepa arvamused

Labi, Andres, 1977-

2013-01-01

96

Andres Noormets : filmilik fantaasiateater lohe ja armastusega / Dea Martinjonis  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

"Meremaa võlur. Päeva kaldad", näidend Ursula K Le Guini "Meremaa võluri" teemadel, kirjutanud Andreas W ja lavastanud Andres Noormets, kunstnik Silver Vahtre, valguskunstnik Airi Eras, helikujundaja ja videograafik Andreas W. Esietendus Ugalas 29. aprillil

Martinjonis, Dea

1999-01-01

97

Tartu peaks olema Euroopa eelpost Eestis / Andres Jaeger  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Tartu euroopalikkuse kindlustamisest, Eesti vaimukeskuseks olemise säilitamisest, teadus-, haridus- ja kultuuriinstitutsioonide arendamisest. Lisa: Andres Jaegeri lisa Lõuna-Eesti edu top 10-sse; Uno Kiisholtsi Lõuna-Eesti edu top 10

Jaeger, Andres

2006-01-01

98

Andres Tenusaar näitab teise korruse filme / Tiiu Laks  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Nukufilmi animaator Andres Tenusaar organiseerib Kanuti Gildi saali teisel korrusel filmirogrammi "Teise korruse filmid" näitamist, kuhu kuuluvad noorte filmitegijate eksperimentaalse suunitlusega filmid, näiteks tema enda "Olematu olek", Martin Sookaela "Üksi"

Laks, Tiiu, 1984-

2006-01-01

99

Mis on looming.org? : elektrooniline heli / Andres Lõo  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Võrguajakirjast www.looming.org, kuhu kogutakse infot põhiliselt kahe jaotuse põhjal: muusika ja helieksperimentalism ning kaasaegne kunst, kunsti ja meediaga seonduv. Idee autorid: Hanno Soans ja Andres Lõo. Ilmunud on looming.orgi esimene muusikakogumik "Lilled algebrale"

Lõo, Andres

2004-01-01

100

Europan 7 Eestis : Lasnamäe. Pärnu / Tiit Trummal, Andres Kurg  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Võistluse "Äärelinna võimalus, linnalik intensiivsus ja elamise mitmekesisus" Eesti-Rootsi ühisžüriis Eestist Urmas Muru, Tiit Trummal, Andres Kurg. Tallinna Lasnamäe (14 tööd) ja Pärnu (47 tööd) võistlusalast, võitnud tööde arhitektide loetelu ja võitnud töödest. Lasnamäe: I preemia - autor hispaanlane Andres Fernandes Atela, kaasautorid prantslased Mathieu Andrieu ja Iman Morshedi. Pärnu: I preemia - autorid rumeenlane Oana-Maria Bogdan, ameeriklane Susan Kelly Shannon, argentiinlane Laura Vescina, hispaanlased Juny Llach ja Parra Colacios

Trummal, Tiit, 1954-

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

The influence of the geological setting on the morphogenetic evolution of the Tremiti Archipelago (Apulia, Southeastern Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Tremiti Archipelago (Southern Adriatic Sea, also called Insulae Diomedae from the name of the Greek hero who first landed there, is an area of high landscape and historical value. It is severely affected by significant geomorphologic processes dominated by mass movements along the coast that constitute the most important and unpredictable natural hazard for the population and cultural heritage. Coastal erosion is favoured by the peculiar geological and structural setting, seismic activity, weathering, development of karst processes, and wave action. The present paper reports on descriptive and qualitative evaluation of the factors controlling landslides and coastline changes based on medium-term in situ observation, detailed surface surveys at selected locations since 1995, and historic and bibliographic data. The Tremiti Archipelago is part of an active seismic area characterised by a shear zone separating two segments of the Adriatic microplate that have shown different behaviour and roll back rates in the subduction underneath the Apennines since middle Pleistocene. Although coastal morphology can be basically considered to be the result of wave action, the continual action of subaerial processes contributes effectively to the mechanism of shoreline degradation. Weathering mainly affects the marly calcisiltites and calcilutites of the Cretaccio Fm. and the friable and low cemented calcarenites and biomicrites of the San Nicola Fm. The cliffs are characterised by different types of failure such as lateral spreads, secondary topples, rock falls and slides. At the Isle of San Nicola, landslides are controlled by the contrast in competence, shear strength and stiffness between the Pliocene re-crystallised dolomitic calcarenites and calcisiltites and the Miocene marly calcilutites and calcisiltites. At the Isles of San Domino and Caprara rock falls are attributed to the undercutting of waves at the base of the cliffs.

G. F. Andriani

2005-01-01

102

Tropical Instability Wave Interactions within the Galápagos Archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the boreal fall of 2005, the effects of tropical instability waves (TIW) appear as oscillations within the sea surface temperature (SST), meridional current (Vy), and thermocline (20°C) in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Within the Galápagos Archipelago, a strong 3-wave succes...

103

Hydrogeology framework of the Azores archipelago (Portugal)  

Science.gov (United States)

The archipelago of the Azores is made of nine islands located in the North Atlantic Ocean, spread along a 600 km-long NW-SE strip, approximately 1600 km from Portugal mainland. All the islands are of volcanic origin and only in Santa Maria, the eastern most island of the Azores, are there sedimentary units interbedded in the volcanic succession of basic nature. Groundwater resources in the Azores are essential both as drinking water source and for ecosystem support. The Azores climate can be considered as marine temperate, with an average annual precipitation at the Azores equal to 1930 mm, exceeding by far the average annual actual evapotranspiration (581 mm). From October to March about 75% of the annual precipitation is registered, which also influences recharge distribution along the year. Recharge rates range from 8.5% to 62.1%, with the highest values been observed at Pico, Terceira, Faial, São Miguel and Graciosa islands, especially in areas where the terrain is covered by recent basaltic lava flows and the soil cover is thin, and the groundwater resources estimates point to a total volume of about 1600x106 m3/yr. Despite differences in the volcanic successions observed in the several islands, resulting from volcanic eruptions of various types, groundwater occurrence can be generally described in terms of two main aquifers systems: (1) the basal aquifer system, which corresponds to fresh-water lenses floating on underlying salt water, and (2) perched-water bodies, which are usually drained by springs spread in the volcanic edifices slopes. Specific well capacity ranges between 1.40x10-2 L/sm and 266.67 L/sm, with a median of 32.29 L/sm (Cruz 2001a, 2004). The values exhibit marked variability among the wells from the different islands. The highest specific capacity is observed on Pico and Graciosa, with wells drilled in recent basaltic lava flows, which generally are thin and fractured with frequently interbedded clincker levels. Transmissivity values also present a large range, with values between 1.65x10-5 and 4.03x10-1 m2/s, and a median of 3.66x10-2 m2/s. Groundwater on perched-water bodies present usually a low mineralization, shown by the electrical conductivity values (36-725 ?S/cm; median=158.0 ?S/cm), and an average temperature of 15 C. Waters are mainly slightly acid to slightly alkaline, with a pH range from 4.7 to 8.6, with a median value of 7.2. The main water types are Na-Cl to Na-HCO3 waters, with numerous samples lying in the intermediate compositional fields that characterize Na-Cl-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-Cl waters. Groundwater composition in the basal aquifer system is usually from the Na-Cl type, presenting a higher mineralization (median value for electrical conductivity equal to 1044 ?S/cm), as a result of the mixture with a seawater component. The more than 100 mineral water discharges observed in the Azores present a large range of chemical characteristics, been Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl the dominant water types, despite a few samples of the Na-SO4 type. Discharge temperature ranges between 15 C and 99.5 C (median=35 C), conductivity between 139 and 43100 ?S/cm (median=906 ?S/cm), and pH between 2.2 and 7.82 (median=5.78), reflecting the several mechanism that influence water composition.

Cruz, J. V.; Coutinho, R. M.

2011-12-01

104

Narcotráfico, violencia y crisis social en el Caribe insular colombiano: El caso de la isla de San Andrés en el contexto del Gran Caribe / Drug Traffiking, Violence and the Social Crisis in Colombian Caribbean Islands: The Case of San Andrés Island in the Context of the Great Caribbean  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente artículo tiene por objetivo presentar un diagnóstico preliminar de la magnitud del tráfico de drogas, sus dinámicas, modalidades, y las condiciones sociales y económicas que favorecen el desarrollo de este negocio ilegal en la isla de San Andrés (Colombia). El análisis se desarrolla, no [...] obstante, en el marco de la condición histórica y natural de "zona de tránsito" de drogas, armas y otros recursos ilegales, que se le atribuye a la región del Gran Caribe, entendida como un continuo geográfico, histórico y cultural en el que se observan patrones comunes en materia de amenazas a la seguridad, la geopolítica de las relaciones con Estados Unidos y los efectos sociales y económicos derivados del flagelo del narcotráfico. En este sentido, el caso de la isla de San Andrés (Colombia) se examina más como parte de la dinámica insular gran caribeña que como parte de las tendencias propias del negocio en la Colombia continental, lo que permite, sin embargo, establecer las conexiones entre ambos espacios regionales -el insular y el continental- y, a la vez, evaluar el impacto regional del fenómeno a partir de las conexiones ilegales que desde el archipiélago se establecen con algunos países vecinos del Gran Caribe. Finalmente, se sostiene la hipótesis de que el fenómeno del narcotráfico se instala en la isla como resultado de factores geohistóricos, culturales y socioeconómicos que en conjunto han determinado la participación activa de distintos sectores de la sociedad en este negocio ilegal. Abstract in english The objective of thispaper is to present a preliminary diagnosis of the magnitude, dynamics, and modalities of drug trafficking, together with the social and economic conditions that support the development of this illegal activity in the island of San Andres (Colombia). Analysis is conducted within [...] a framework that identifies this trafficking zone as a natural and historic corridor for trade in weapons, drugs, and other illicit materials typically attributed to the Great Caribbean where patterns of security threats, geopolitical relations with the United States, and social and economic impacts of the narcotrafficking epidemic are commonly observed. The article presents San Andres Island (Colombia) as a case that adheres more to the insular dynamics of the Great Caribbean region rather than one that mimics the tendencies of continental Colombia. This perspective permits the establishment of connections between both regional spaces -insular and continental-, and simultaneously evaluates the phenomenon´s regional impact by exploring the illegal connections formed in the archipelago with neighboring Caribbean countries. Finally, the hypothesis is sustained that the trafficking phenomenon on the island is a result of historical, cultural and socio­economic factors that explain the active participation of certain sectors of the island´s society in these illegal activities.

Silvia, Mantilla.

2011-06-01

105

Pelagic microplastics around an archipelago of the Equatorial Atlantic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plastic marine debris is presently widely recognised as an important environmental pollutant. Such debris is reported in every habitat of the oceans, from urban tourist beaches to remote islands and from the ocean surface to submarine canyons, and is found buried and deposited on sandy and cobble beaches. Plastic marine debris varies from micrometres to several metres in length and is potentially ingested by animals of every level of the marine food web. Here, we show that synthetic polymers are present in subsurface plankton samples around Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. To explain the distribution of microplastics around the Archipelago, we proposed a generalised linear model (GLM) that suggests the existence of an outward gradient of mean plastic-particle densities. Plastic items can be autochthonous or transported over large oceanic distances. One probable source is the small but persistent fishing fleet using the area. PMID:23953893

Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Costa, Monica F; Barletta, Mário; Cysneiros, Francisco José A

2013-10-15

106

[Scorpions(Arachnida) from Bocas del Toro archipelago, Panamá].  

Science.gov (United States)

Four species of buthid scorpions (Ananteris platnicki Lourenço, 1993; Centruroides limbatus [Pocock, 1898]; Tityus pachyurus [Pocock, 1897]; and T. ocelote Francke and Stockwell, 1987) are recorded for the first time from some islands and cays of the Bocas del Toro Archipelago, Panama. Morphological variation and ecological data are given for all the species. This is the first Panamanian record for both C. limbatus and T. ocelote. The scorpion fauna of the Bocas de Toro Archipelago is related with the recent fauna of the Atlantic continental lowland region of Costa Rica and Panama and includes Amazonian-Guyanese (genera Ananteris and Tityus) as well as Mexican-North Central American (genus Centruroides) elements. PMID:12298241

Montoya, Michel; de Armas, Luis F

2002-03-01

107

OrkneyLab: an archipelago experiment in futures.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

‘The Orkney imagination is haunted by time’ wrote the Orcadian poet, George Mackay Brown. Here, on this archipelago beyond the northern coast of Scotland, brackish lochs and moist green ?elds weave around Neolithic stone circles, chambered tombs, standing stones. Lighthouses glance out at concrete barriers, gun emplacements, a ?eet of scuttled ships, reminders of world wars. Cloud-grey wind turbines on the horizon turn, their own archaeology marked by empty hexagonal platforms and a d...

Watts, Laura

2009-01-01

108

San Marino.  

Science.gov (United States)

San Marino, an independent republic located in north central Italy, in 1983 had a population of 22,206 growing at an annual rate of .9%. The literacy rate is 97% and the infant mortality rate is 9.6/1000. The terrain is mountainous and the climate is moderate. According to local tradition, San Marino was founded by a Christian stonecutter in the 4th century A.D. as a refuge against religious persecution. Its recorded history began in the 9th century, and it has survived assaults on its independence by the papacy, the Malatesta lords of Rimini, Cesare Borgia, Napoleon, and Mussolini. An 1862 treaty with the newly formed Kingdom of Italy has been periodically renewed and amended. The present government is an alliance between the socialists and communists. San Marino has had its own statutes and governmental institutions since the 11th century. Legislative authority at present is vested in a 60-member unicameral parliament. Executive authority is exercised by the 11-member Congress of State, the members of which head the various administrative departments of the goverment. The posts are divided among the parties which form the coalition government. Judicial authority is partly exercised by Italian magistrates in civil and criminal cases. San Marino's policies are tied to Italy's and political organizations and labor unions active in Italy are also active in San Marino. Since World War II, there has been intense rivalry between 2 political coalitions, the Popular Alliance composed of the Christian Democratic Party and the Independent Social Democratic Party, and the Liberty Committee, coalition of the Communist Party and the Socialist Party. San Marino's gross domestic product was $137 million and its per capita income was $6290 in 1980. The principal economic activities are farming and livestock raising, along with some light manufacturing. Foreign transactions are dominated by tourism. The government derives most of its revenue from the sale of postage stamps to collectors around the world and from payment of an annual budget subsidy by the Italian government. Despite its close ties with Italy, San Marino has maintained its distinctive status for centuries. PMID:12178101

1985-02-01

109

Parts harvendas ootamatult Eesti Energia nõukogu / Andres Eilart  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts otsustas 1. juulil päevapealt Eesti Energia nõukogu liikme kohalt tagasi kutsuda Aivar Reiviku ning Rein Kuusmiku, kes olid vastu Eesti Energia üle viie miljoni euro suurusele investeeringule Weroli rapsiõlitehase juurde rajatavasse elektri- ja küttejaama. Uuteks nõukogu liikmeteks said Andres Saame ja Toomas Tauts

Eilart, Andres

2011-01-01

110

Peda kultuurilt kaob tellimus / Andres Avarand ; kirja pannud Jaan Olmaru  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Seoses tasuta õppe vähenemisega avalik-õiguslikes ülikoolides lõpetab haridusministeerium 2001.a. sügisest Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikoolis riikliku tellimuse kõigile kultuuriteaduskonna erialadele. Tasuliseks muutuvad filmi ja video, koreograafia, raadiorežii ja kunstiõppe eriala, riiklik toetus jääb alles kunstiõpetajate täienduskoolitusele kaugõppes. Teemat kommenteerib kultuuriteaduskonna dekaan Andres Avarand

Avarand, Andres, 1944-

2001-01-01

111

Baltoscandal on lõppenud, uued mõtted on saadud / Andres Keil  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Eesti teater oli Baltoscandalil koondatud olematu teatri mõiste alla. Andres Noormetsa "Reunioon", Mart Kangro ja Ansambel U "Mäng", Marco Laimre "Vangistus", Asko Künnapi "Säälpool jõge", Anders Härmi "Cooking and Shitting", Sven Kuntu "Miks Eesti mehed ei tantsi?", Linnar Priimäe "Inimese lõhn"

Keil, Andres, 1974-

2006-01-01

112

'Redefining health care': medical homes or archipelagos to navigate?  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper provides an analysis of the structure of the health care delivery system, emphasizing physician group practices. The authors argue for comprehensive integrated delivery systems (IDSs). The jumping-off point for their analysis is the recently published Redefining Health Care: Creating Value-Based Competition on Results, by Michael Porter and Elizabeth Teisberg. The authors focus on the book's core idea that competitors should be freestanding integrated practice units (or "islands in archipelagos") versus IDSs (or "medical homes"). In any case, the authors contend that this issue should be resolved by competition to attract and serve informed, cost-conscious, responsible consumers on a level playing field. PMID:17848447

Enthoven, Alain C; Crosson, Francis J; Shortell, Stephen M

2007-01-01

113

Commensal Leucothoidae (Crustacea, Amphipoda of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Part I: ascidian-dwellers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Commensal leucothoid amphipods have been collected from the branchial chambers of their ascidian hosts throughout the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Seven new species are described in two genera with valuable location data and host records. An identification key to ascidian-dwelling Leucothoidae of the Ryukyu Archipelago is provided.

James Reimer

2012-01-01

114

Commensal Leucothoidae (Crustacea, Amphipoda of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Part II: sponge-dwellers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Commensal leucothoid amphipods have been collected from the canals of their sponge hosts throughout the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Eleven new species are described in the genus Leucothoe with valuable location data and host records. An identification key to sponge-dwelling Leucothoidae of the Ryukyu Archipelago is provided.

Kristine White

2012-01-01

115

Commensal Leucothoidae (Crustacea, Amphipoda of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Part III: coral rubble-dwellers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Commensal leucothoid amphipods have been collected from coral rubble samples throughout the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Seven new species are described in two genera with valuable location data. A new locality is presented for Paranamixis misakiensis Thomas, 1997. An identification key to all described Leucothoidae of the Ryukyu Archipelago is provided.

Kristine White

2012-03-01

116

On the Andre-Oort conjecture for Hilbert modular surfaces  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We prove, assuming the generalized Riemann hypothesis, the Andre-Oort conjecture for Hilbert modular surfaces. More precisely, let K be a real quadratic field and let S be the coarse moduli space of complex abelian surfaces with multiplications by the ring of integers of K. Let C be an irreducible closed curve in S, and suppose that C contains infinitely many complex multiplication points. Then we prove, assuming GRH, that C is of Hodge type, meaning, in this case, that it p...

Edixhoven, Bas

1999-01-01

117

Composition of volatile oil, isolated from Duchesnea Indica (Andr. Focke  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The herbage of mock strawberry, Duchesnea indica (Andr. Focke, Rosaceae, on hydro distillation yields an aromatic pale yellow oil (0.1%. GC-MS analysis revealed that the herb essential oil contained carvacryl acetate (30.5%, valencene (7.6%, nona-hexacontanoic acid (7.2%, aristalone (5.3%, dehydro-aromadendrene (4.6%, eicosane (4.1%, and 2-hexa-decan-ol (4.1%, as major components.

Umesh B

2006-01-01

118

Eestis saab professoriks igaüks / Andres Keevallik, Mart Susi ; küsitles Ede Schank  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Intervjuu Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli rektori Andres Keevalliku ja Concordia Rahvusvahelise rektori Mart Susiga : Eesti kõrgharidusmaastikust, kõrghariduspoliitikast, riigitellimusest kõrgkoolidele, eraülikoolide kohast Eesti kõrghariduses

Keevallik, Andres, 1943-

2001-01-01

119

Läänemere strateegia arvestab kodanike ettepanekutega / Jose Palma Andres ; interv. Erkki Bahovski  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Euroopa Komisjoni regionaalpoliitika peadirektoraadi direktor Jose Palma Andres vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad avalikku debatti Läänemere strateegia üle ning Venemaa partnerlust Läänemere strateegias. Lisa: [Läänemere strateegia

Palma Andres, Jose

2008-01-01

120

Ehitatud võrdsus. Tüüpprojekteerimine 20. sajandi elamuehituses : 23. september - 29. oktoober, Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseum, Rotermanni soolaladu / Andres Kurg  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Näitus keskendub linnakorteritele ja -elamutele Eestis, alates 1920. aastate riikliku ehituslaenuga ehitatud korteritest, lõpetades nõukogude perioodi industriaalse massehitusega. Kuraator Andres Kurg, kujundaja arhitektuuribüroo Kolm Pluss Üks

Kurg, Andres, 1975-

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Rootsi Mööbel ronib uuesti ree peale / Andres Soosaar ; interv. Hans Väre  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Saarepeedi vallas mööblidetaile tootva firma Rootsi Mööbel juhatuse liige Andres Soosaar annab hinnangu majandusministeeriumis valminud abipaketile, mis on mõeldud eksportivatele ettevõtetele, ka ettevõtte tegevusest

Soosaar, Andres

2009-01-01

122

Elevation changes of ice caps in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

Precise repeat airborne laser surveys were conducted over the major ice caps in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago in the spring of 1995 and 2000 in order to measure elevation changes in the region. Our measurements reveal thinning at lower elevations (below 1600 m) on most of the ice caps and glaciers but either very little change or thickening at higher elevations in the ice cap accumulation zones. Recent increases in precipitation in the area can account for the slight thickening where it was observed but not for the thinning at lower elevations. For the northern ice caps on the Queen Elizabeth Islands, thinning was generally Island, this thinning was much more pronounced at over 1 m yr-1 in the lower elevations. Here temperature anomalies were very small, and the thinning at low elevations far exceeds any associated enhanced ablation. The observations on Barnes, and perhaps Penny, are consistent with the idea that the observed thinning is part of a much longer term deglaciation, as has been previously suggested for Barnes ice cap. On the basis of the regional relationships between elevation and elevation change in our data, the 1995-2000 mass balance for the archipelago is estimated to be -25 km3 yr-1 of ice, which corresponds to a sea level increase of 0.064 mm yr-1. This places it among the more significant sources of eustatic sea level rise, though not as substantial as the Greenland ice sheet, Alaskan glaciers, or the Patagonian ice fields.

Abdalati, W.; Krabill, W.; Frederick, E.; Manizade, S.; Martin, C.; Sonntag, J.; Swift, R.; Thomas, R.; Yungel, J.; Koerner, R.

2004-12-01

123

The Amphibians and Reptiles of the Colombian Caribbean Islands San Andrés and Providencia The Amphibians and Reptiles of the Colombian Caribbean Islands San Andrés and Providencia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In connection with a study of Central America I have examined specimens from many of the islands off the coast, and I here set down a list of those I have seen from two Colombian islands which rise from deep water about 200 km. east of Nicaragua. They are about 100 km. apart. Both represent old volcanic peaks, and it is unlikely that they were ever connected to each other or to the mainland, although they may have been much larger during a lower glacial sealevel. The herpetological fauna of San Andres and Providencia consists Of: a frog, known from both islands; six lizards, three from both islands and three from Providencia; four snakes, one from San Andrés and three from Providencia. In connection with a study of Central America I have examined specimens from many of the islands off the coast, and I here set down a list of those I have seen from two Colombian islands which rise from deep water about 200 km. east of Nicaragua. They are about 100 km. apart. Both represent old volcanic peaks, and it is unlikely that they were ever connected to each other or to the mainland, although they may have been much larger during a lower glacial sealevel. The herpetological fauna of San Andres and Providencia consists Of: a frog, known from both islands; six lizards, three from both islands and three from Providencia; four snakes, one from San Andrés and three from Providencia.

Dunn Emmett Reid

1945-08-01

124

A conservation strategy in San Andres Island: school projects and values in environmental education  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the scope of showing and preserving an island endangered species, the Swanka turtle, a campaign and an environmental education program were conducted. The campaign consisted in showing the species to the community, its characteristics and its threats, through mass media and visits to different local schools. The environmental education program was carried out through a Scholar Environmental Project, which consisted on the conformation of an environmental group, where cognitive, attitudinal and participative aspects were worked together. Using a constrictive methodology the children developed some knowledge about the species and Its habitats. The scope was that they modified attitudes and behaviors towards situations that contribute to environmental damage; the reinforcement of values was the central point during all the activities. The knowledge gained by the pupils and the observed changes on their attitudes and participation show the positive results that arise when the action of environmental education focuses on the people and not the resources that are to be preserved

125

Seismic Hazard Maps for the Maltese Archipelago: Preliminary Results  

Science.gov (United States)

The Maltese islands form an archipelago of three major islands lying in the Sicily channel at about 140 km south of Sicily and 300 km north of Libya. So far very few investigations have been carried out on seismicity around the Maltese islands and no maps of seismic hazard for the archipelago are available. Assessing the seismic hazard for the region is currently of prime interest for the near-future development of industrial and touristic facilities as well as for urban expansion. A culture of seismic risk awareness has never really been developed in the country, and the public perception is that the islands are relatively safe, and that any earthquake phenomena are mild and infrequent. However, the Archipelago has been struck by several moderate/large events. Although recent constructions of a certain structural and strategic importance have been built according to high engineering standards, the same probably cannot be said for all residential buildings, many higher than 3 storeys, which have mushroomed rapidly in recent years. Such buildings are mostly of unreinforced masonry, with heavy concrete floor slabs, which are known to be highly vulnerable to even moderate ground shaking. We can surely state that in this context planning and design should be based on available national hazard maps. Unfortunately, these kinds of maps are not available for the Maltese islands. In this paper we attempt to compute a first and preliminary probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the Maltese islands in terms of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and Spectral Acceleration (SA) at different periods. Seismic hazard has been computed using the Esteva-Cornell (1968) approach which is the most widely utilized probabilistic method. It is a zone-dependent approach: seismotectonic and geological data are used coupled with earthquake catalogues to identify seismogenic zones within which earthquakes occur at certain rates. Therefore the earthquake catalogues can be reduced to the activity rate, the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter relationship and an estimate of the maximum magnitude. In this article we also defined a new seismogenic zones in the central Mediterranean never considered before. In order to determine the ground motion parameters related to a specified probability of exceedance, the above statistical parameters are combined with ground motion prediction equations. Seismic hazard computations have been performed within the island boundaries. The preliminary maps for PGA distribution on rock site obtained for a 10% probability of exceedance shows values ranging between 0.09-0.18 g whereas, SA for 0.2, 04, 1.0 s show values of about 0.21-0.40 g, 0.14-0.24 g and 0.05-0.08 g respectively.

D'Amico, S.; Panzera, F.; Galea, P. M.

2013-12-01

126

La guerre des recensions (autour d'une note d'Andr\\'e Weil en 1940)  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the reviews of a Comptes rendus note by Andr\\'e Weil in 1940 in the three journals Jahrbuch \\"uber die Fortschritte der Mathematik, Zentralblatt f\\"ur Mathematik und ihre Grenzgebiete and Mathematical Reviews, together with the context of the publication of these reviews.

Audin, Michèle

2011-01-01

127

Dispersal has inhibited avian diversification in Australasian archipelagoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Different models of speciation predict contrasting patterns in the relationship between the dispersal ability of lineages and their diversification rates. This relationship is expected to be negative in isolation-limited models and positive in founder-event models. In addition, the combination of negative and positive effects of dispersal on speciation can result in higher diversification rates at intermediate levels of dispersal ability. Using molecular phylogenies to estimate diversification rates, and wing morphology to estimate dispersal ability, we analysed the influence of dispersal on diversification in the avifauna of Australasian archipelagoes. Contrary to expectations given the fragmented nature of island systems, the relationship between dispersal ability and diversification rate was monotonically negative. While multiple mechanisms could generate this pattern, they all share a phase of range expansion that is decoupled from speciation. PMID:25100701

Weeks, Brian C; Claramunt, Santiago

2014-09-22

128

Coexistence of reef organisms in the Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The first study on coexistence of reef benthic organisms in Brazilian coral reefs was done in three localities of the Abrolhos Archipelago. Organisms were recorded in concentric circle samples (10 and 20 cm in diameter randomly laid on transects. Type and frequency of "coexistence events" between pairs of organisms were determined. Most frequent organisms (massive and branched coralline algae, Favia gravida, and Agaricia agaricites also had many significant positive coexistence events. These results might be related to the abundances of these organisms. The most frequent coral (Siderastrea stellata, however, exhibited only a few significant coexistence events (9% of 32 tests. Since the great majority of events were positive, and since there was high variation in the species/groups involved in significant events in different localities, benthic communities of Abrolhos Archipelago may well be structured primarily by abiotic rather than biotic factors.Se hizo el primer estudio de coexistencia de organismos bénticos de arrecifes brasileños en tres localidades del Archipiélago de Abrolhos, registrando la presencia de organismos en círculos de 10 y 20 cm de diametro, distribuidos al azar en transectos. La mayoría de los organismo frecuentes (algas coralinas macizas y ramificadas, Favia gravida y Agaricia agaricites mostraron la más alta "coexistencia positiva", tal vez por su abundancia. El coral más frecuente (Siderastrea stellata, sin embargo, mostró apenas algunos eventos de coexistencia significativos (9% de 32 ensayos. Debido a que la mayor parte de los eventos fue positiva, y considerando que existe una alta variabilidad en las interacciones significativas en diferentes localidades, las comunidades bénticas del Archipiélago de Abrolhos pueden haber sido estructuradas principalmente por factores abióticos, mas que por factores bióticos.

Monica M Lins de Barros

2000-12-01

129

Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs from the Aleutian archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

We collected 136 fresh and unhatched eggs from bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests and assessed productivity on eight islands in the Aleutian archipelago, 2000 to 2002. Egg contents were analyzed for a broad spectrum of organochlorine (OC) contaminants, mercury (Hg), and stable isotopes of carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (SigmaPCBs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and Hg in bald eagle eggs were elevated throughout the archipelago, but the patterns of distribution differed among the various contaminants. Total PCBs were highest in areas of past military activities on Adak and Amchitka Islands, indicating local point sources of these compounds. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were higher on Amchitka Island, which was subjected to much military activity during World War II and the middle of the 20th century. Concentrations of SigmaPCBs also were elevated on islands with little history of military activity (e.g., Amlia, Tanaga, Buldir), suggesting non-point sources of PCBs in addition to point sources. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were highest in eagle eggs from the most western Aleutian Islands (e.g., Buldir, Kiska) and decreased eastward along the Aleutian chain. This east-to-west increase suggested a Eurasian source of contamination, possibly through global transport and atmospheric distillation and/or from migratory seabirds. Eggshell thickness and productivity of bald eagles were normal and indicative of healthy populations because concentrations of most contaminants were below threshold levels for effects on reproduction. Contrary to our predictions, contaminant concentrations were not correlated with stable isotopes of carbon (delta13C) or nitrogen (delta15N) in eggs. These latter findings indicate that contaminant concentrations were influenced more by point sources and geographic location than trophic status of eagles among the different islands. PMID:17702538

Anthony, Robert G; Miles, A Keith; Ricca, Mark A; Estes, James A

2007-09-01

130

Tennis star Andre Agassi initiates a photovoltaic school project in Las Vegas; Spiel, Satz, Solar. Tennisstar Andre Agassi setzt fuer sein Schulprojekt in Las Vegas auf Photovoltaik  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tennis star Andre Agassi founded a private school already in 2001. The school is located in a problem area of Las Vegas and is to give challenged children access to better education. The school, named ''Andre Agassi College Preparatory Academy'' has the biggest roof-mounted PV system in the state of Nevada. In the final stage, it will have an installed capacity of 540 kW.

Hirsch, Matthew

2011-03-15

131

Baseline assessment of the reef fish assemblage from Cagarras Archipelago, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The extensive Brazilian coast comprises diverse reef fish communities. Here, we report a pioneer study on the reef fish community composition of the Cagarras Archipelago. This rocky reef system consists of a small group of coastal islands 5 km south off Ipanema Beach, Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. A relatively diverse and disturbed fish community (99 species from 39 families) was found in this archipelago. Two different visual census techniques were utilized and a large difference was observed...

Rangel, Carlos A.; Chaves, Lai?s C. T.; Cassiano Monteiro-Neto

2007-01-01

132

Introduced guppies being the first record of freshwater fish on the Cape Verdean archipelago  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Cape Verdean islands form a distinct aquatic freshwater ecoregion characterised by mainly temporal water bodies with an adapted invertebrate community. Freshwater fish were not yet recorded from the archipelago. During a non-exhaustive screen of freshwater bodies on five islands of the archipelago, the first presence of freshwater fish was recorded in an artificial reservoir. Using barcoding sequences, the species was identified to be introduced guppies (Poecilia reticulata), ...

Kay Lucek; Mélissa Lemoine

2013-01-01

133

Introduced guppies being the first record of freshwater fish on the Cape Verdean archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Cape Verdean islands form a distinct aquatic freshwater ecoregion characterised by mainly temporal water bodies with an adapted invertebrate community. Freshwater fish were not yet recorded from the archipelago. During a non-exhaustive screen of freshwater bodies on five islands of the archipelago, the first presence of freshwater fish was recorded in an artificial reservoir. Using barcoding sequences, the species was identified to be introduced guppies (Poecilia reticulata, a highly invasive species.

Kay Lucek

2013-03-01

134

Export of Pacific carbon through the Arctic Archipelago to the North Atlantic  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

During an east-to-west transect through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) were measured. The watermass composition throughout the Archipelago is determined using TA and the seawater oxygen isotope fractionation (?18O) data, and the carbon characteristics of these waters are examined. The influence of the Mackenzie River is primarily limited to the upper water column in the western Archipelago while the fraction of sea-ice melt water in the surface waters increases eastward with maximum values at the outflows of Jones and Lancaster Sounds. The depth of Pacific-origin upper halocline waters increases eastward through the Archipelago. In the western Archipelago, non-conservative variations in deep water DIC are used to compute a subsurface carbon surplus, which appears to be fueled by organic matter produced in the surface layer and by benthic respiration. The eastward transport of carbon from the Pacific, via the Arctic Archipelago, to the North Atlanticis estimated, and the impact of increased export of sea-ice melt water to the North Atlantic is discussed.

Shadwick, E.H.E.H.; Thomas, H.

2011-01-01

135

Landslides density map of S. Miguel Island, Azores archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The Azores archipelago is located in the Atlantic Ocean and is composed of nine volcanic islands. S. Miguel, the largest one, is formed by three active, E-W trending, trachytic central volcanoes with caldera (Sete Cidades, Fogo and Furnas). Chains of basaltic cinder cones link those major volcanic structures. An inactive trachytic central volcano (Povoação) and an old basaltic volcanic complex (Nordeste) comprise the easternmost part of the island. Since the settlement of the island early in the 15th century, several destructive landslides triggered by catastrophic rainfall episodes, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occurred in different areas of S. Miguel. One unique event killed thousands of people in 1522. Houses and bridges were destroyed, roads were cut, communications, water and energy supply systems became frequently disrupted and areas of fertile land were often buried by mud. Based on (1) historical documents, (2) aerial photographs and (3) field observations, landslide sites were plotted on a topographic map, in order to establish a landslide density map for the island. Data obtained showed that landslide hazard is higher on (1) the main central volcanoes where the thickness of unconsolidated pyroclastic deposits is considerable high and (2) the old basaltic volcanic complex, marked by deep gullies developed on thick sequences of lava flows. In these areas, caldera walls, fault scarps, steep valley margins and sea cliffs are potentially hazardous.

Valadão, P.; Gaspar, J. L.; Queiroz, G.; Ferreira, T.

136

Landslides density map of S. Miguel Island, Azores archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Azores archipelago is located in the Atlantic Ocean and is composed of nine volcanic islands. S. Miguel, the largest one, is formed by three active, E-W trending, trachytic central volcanoes with caldera (Sete Cidades, Fogo and Furnas. Chains of basaltic cinder cones link those major volcanic structures. An inactive trachytic central volcano (Povoação and an old basaltic volcanic complex (Nordeste comprise the easternmost part of the island. Since the settlement of the island early in the 15th century, several destructive landslides triggered by catastrophic rainfall episodes, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occurred in different areas of S. Miguel. One unique event killed thousands of people in 1522. Houses and bridges were destroyed, roads were cut, communications, water and energy supply systems became frequently disrupted and areas of fertile land were often buried by mud. Based on (1 historical documents, (2 aerial photographs and (3 field observations, landslide sites were plotted on a topographic map, in order to establish a landslide density map for the island. Data obtained showed that landslide hazard is higher on (1 the main central volcanoes where the thickness of unconsolidated pyroclastic deposits is considerable high and (2 the old basaltic volcanic complex, marked by deep gullies developed on thick sequences of lava flows. In these areas, caldera walls, fault scarps, steep valley margins and sea cliffs are potentially hazardous.

P. Valadão

2002-01-01

137

Et relevant flyvevåben i et afbalanceret forsvar – kun muligt med andre flytyper : Debatindlæg  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Indlægget peger på at Danmark har mere end den ene mulighed for at sammensætte Flyvevåbnet end den ensidige debat som tilhængerne af Joint Strike Fighter peger på. Også med andre og billigere flytyper kan Flyvevåbnet løse meget relevante fremtidige opgaver.

Jensen, Lars H. Ehrensvärd

2009-01-01

138

Tallinna idee / Andres Alver, Ott Alver, Marten Kaevats ; intervjueerinud Margit Mutso ; kommenteerinud Douglas Gordon  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

17. veebruaril esitleti raamatut "Tallinna idee", mis on koostatud Eesti Kunstiakadeemia 4. kursuse arhitektuuritudengite kursuseprojektide põhjal. Tallinna teemal vestlevad tudengid Ott Alver ja Marten Kaevats ning nende juhendaja professor Andres Alver

Alver, Andres, 1953-

2011-01-01

139

"Vali kord" sündis raevust ja irvest / Andres Maimik ; interv. Tiit Tuumalu  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Eesti Filmiajakirjanike Ühing valis "Aasta Filmiks 2004" Enn Säde dokfilmi "Jüri - see mulk ehk Mis tuul Müürile teeb" ja Andres Maimiku provokatiivse "Vali kord!" Viimase autor enda ja E. Säde filmi kohta

Maimik, Andres, 1970-

2005-01-01

140

Andres Herkel : Venemaa esindaja ENPA presidendiks ei sobi / Haldi Ellam, Ravil Khair Al-Din  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Vene ajalehe Kommersant väitel on Eesti parlamendi süüdistused ENPA presidendi Rene van der Lindeni vastu seotud Mihhail Margelovi võimaliku valimisega uueks presidendiks. Kristiina Ojuland ja Andres Herkel lükkavad väite tagasi

Ellam, Haldi

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Rooside sõda Leigo all! Valu vaenlastele! / Tõnu Lensment, Andres Keil ; interv. Merit Kask  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

2. aug. esietendub Leigo Järveteatris Andres Keili "Rooside sõda". Näidendile on ainest andnud William Shakespeare'i näidendid "Henry VI" ja "Richard III" ning Tom Lanoye ja Luc Percevali näidend "Sõda". Lavastab Tõnu Lensment

Lensment, Tõnu, 1974-

2007-01-01

142

Korterelamu Tallinnas Weizenbergi 29 = Apartment Building in Tallinn, at 29 Weizenbergi Street / Andres Alver  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Puitvoodriga betoonist kastjas hoone. Projekteerija Alver Trummal Arhitektid. Arhitektid Andres Alver ja Tarmo Laht. Eriosad: Eesti Projekt. Projekt 1998, valmis 2000. 3 ill.: põhiplaan, välisvaade, Pille Lausmäe kujundatud korteri vaade

Alver, Andres, 1953-

2001-01-01

143

"Riigikogu hoone 90" = "Estonian parliament building 90" / Janno Roos, Andres Labi  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2012. aasta näituse kujunduse preemia pälvinud näitusest (Lossiplats 1A). Kujunduse autorid Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor). Kuraator Mait Väljas. Graafiline disain: Identity. Sisearhitekti ja ESLi aastapreemiate žürii liikme Mari Kurismaa ning arhitektuuriajaloolase Leele Välja arvamused

Roos, Janno, 1976-

2013-01-01

144

Koerajuhi amet lisab tavatööle vürtsi / Rainer Lang, Andres Vesselov, Rainis Oper ; interv. Tanel Saarmann  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Koerajuhid piirivalve-seersant Rainer Lang Saatsest, piirivalve-veebel Rainis Oper Värskast ning Saatse kordoni ülem piirivalve-kapten Andres Vesselov räägivad koerajuhiks saamisest ning teenistuskoerte koolitamisest. Lisa: Kagu PVP teenistuskoerad; Osalemine võistlustel 2008

Lang, Rainer

2008-01-01

145

Andres Puustusmaa : "Hindan tänini produtsente, kes mind üles korjasid!" / Jaanus Kulli  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Venemaal tegutseva Eestist pärit režissööri Andres Puustusmaa mängufilm "18-14", mis esilinastus 11. jaanuaril Eestis. Lisaks tutvustus "Puustusmaa järgmine film on "Karavan"" ja Katrin Rohtla pikem sõnum "Filmi piraatkoopia jõudis internetti enne esilinastust"

Kulli, Jaanus, 1955-

2008-01-01

146

Postsotsialismist vaatemängulinna = From Post-Socialism to the City of the Spectacle / Andres Kurg  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Büroo Alver Trummal Arhitektid töödest, Andres Alverist ja Tiit Trummalist. Ärihoonest Tallinnas Rävala pst. 4. Autorid: Andres Alver, Tiit Trummal, Tarmo Laht, Indrek Rünkla, Ulla Mets, Sven Koppel. Konstruktor Eido Uustalu (Eesti Projekt). Projekt 2001, valmis 2006. City Plazast Tallinnas Tartu mnt. 2. Autorid: A. Alver, T. Trummal, T. Laht, I. Rünkla, Martin Melioranski, U. Mets. Konstruktor: Tiit Masso, Pike Projekt. Sisekujundus (fuajeed, restoran): Pille Lausmäe. Projekt 2001, valmis 2004. Lõige, põhiplaan, 3 värv. välis- ja 5 sisevaadet

Kurg, Andres, 1975-

2007-01-01

147

Contemporary sea level in the Chagos Archipelago, central Indian Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

Long term mean sea level in the Chagos Archipelago has been relatively stable over the ~ 20 year length of the available instrumental records. Tide-gauge data from Diego Garcia (1988-2000, and 2003-2011) show no statistically significant long-term rise, whilst the rates of rise obtained from the satellite altimeter record for 1993-2011 span the range of 0.16-4.56 mm yr- 1 in the surrounding sea areas (70-74°E and 4-9°S) and are also consistent with a zero rate except in the far south of the region. The dominant feature is one of considerable inter-annual variability in mean sea level of up to ~ 10 cm, such that the very weak seasonal pattern of highest and lowest sea level in February and May respectively, is absent or reversed in some years. The Indian Ocean Dipole appears to exert an important influence on mean sea level in the area, with positive and negative dipole mode indices preceding periods of elevated or lowered sea levels respectively. The Chagos also lie outside the Indian Ocean cyclone belt and experience relatively low wind speeds, and there is no evidence of changes in the wind or wave environment in the past 20 years. Although in an area of seismic activity, there is no record of island subsidence, indeed on Diego Garcia minor crustal uplift of 0.63 ± 0.28 SE mm yr- 1 has occurred between 1996 and 2009. Collectively, these results suggest that this has been a relatively stable physical environment, and that these low-lying coral islands should continue to be able to support human habitation, as they have done for much of the last 200 years. Nonetheless, future sea-level rise and its effect on the Chagos remains an important issue for further studies such as those of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Dunne, Richard P.; Barbosa, Susana M.; Woodworth, Philip L.

2012-02-01

148

Barium and carbon fluxes in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

[1] The seasonal and spatial variability of dissolved Barium (Ba) in the Amundsen Gulf, southeastern Beaufort Sea, was monitored over a full year from September 2007 to September 2008. Dissolved Ba displays a nutrient-type behavior: the maximum water column concentration is located below the surface layer. The highest Ba concentrations are typically observed at river mouths, the lowest concentrations are found in water masses of Atlantic origin. Barium concentrations decrease eastward through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Barite (BaSO4) saturation is reached at the maximum dissolved Ba concentrations in the subsurface layer, whereas the rest of the water column is undersaturated. A three end-member mixing model comprising freshwater from sea-ice melt and rivers, as well as upper halocline water, is used to establish their relative contributions to the Ba concentrations in the upper water column of the Amundsen Gulf. Based on water column and riverine Ba contributions, we assess the depletion of dissolved Ba by formation and sinking of biologically bound Ba (bio-Ba), from which we derive an estimate of the carbon export production. In the upper 50 m of the water column of the Amundsen Gulf, riverine Ba accounts for up to 15% of the available dissolved Ba inventory, of which up to 20% is depleted by bio-Ba formation and export. Since riverine inputs and Ba export occur concurrently, the seasonal variability of dissolved Ba in the upper water column is moderate. Assuming a fixed organic carbon to bio-Ba flux ratio, carbon export out of the surface layer is estimated at 1.8 +/- 0.45 mol C m(-2) yr(-1). Finally, we propose a climatological carbon budget for the Amundsen Gulf based on recent literature data and our findings, the latter bridging the surface and subsurface water carbon cycles.

Thomas, Helmuth; Shadwick, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

149

The island as container: islands, archipelagos and player movement in video games  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of islands and archipelagos as settings in video games has proven enduring and popular: these locations are usually shown to be dangerous places where travel can be difficult. The use of island and archipelago settings in this medium developed along with conventions about water in general being an obstacle to traverse, meaning that player characters that experience islands and archipelagoes are forced to discover ways to travel around, over, and away from them. Islands remain popular settings because they work well with players’ preconceptions about these spaces, with people’s understandings of natural boundaries that make travel difficult, and with game designers’ intent to control player character movement throughout a world that is necessarily constrained by the reach of technology.

Elizabeth Nyman

2013-11-01

150

Mangrove forest composition and structure in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los bosques de manglar son ecosistemas importantes que proveen muchos servicios, pero éstos están bajo la amenaza de una variedad de actividades humanas y grandes áreas de manglar continúan perdiéndose en Panamá. Este estudio está enfocado en la estructura de manglar de las dos islas más grandes del [...] Archipiélago de Las Perlas en el Pacifico Panameño (LPA), la Isla del Rey y la Isla San José. La evaluación de las imágenes del satélite Landsat revela la pérdida de manglares en LPA de 965ha en el periodo entre 1974-1986, y de 286ha en el periodo 1986-2000. La mayor parte de la pérdida (>77%) en las dos islas estudiadas fue debida a la extracción de madera y al desarrollo agrícola. En mayo de 2006, se establecieron parcelas permanentes siguiendo el protocolo de CARICOMP en dos sitios en la isla del Rey (R1 y R2) y un sitio en la Isla San José (SJ) donde especies, altura y diámetro a la altura de la copa de árboles adultos y jóvenes fueron registradas. La estructura del bosque difirió en los tres sitios, sin embargo R1 y R2 fueron los más similares. En R1, Laguncularia racemosa fue la especie más dominante y Pelliceria rhizophora en R2. El análisis de la estructura del bosque y de imágenes clasificadas indicó que estos sitios son espacialmente dinámicos y parecen estar regenerándose. La estructura del bosque indica que el crecimiento en los sitios ha estado limitado por las actividades humanas y posiblemente por otros factores. SJ fue dominado por Rhizophora mangle y parece tener un bosque maduro con árboles adultos grandes y pocos jóvenes. Éste sitio no parece mostrar la misma extensión de rebrote espacial de los otros dos sitios entre 1986-2000 y es relativamente estático. El establecimiento de parcelas permanentes y el monitoreo serán útiles en la implementación del plan de manejo, ya que los manglares del LPA tienen una variedad estructural y podrían estar sujetos a un mayor desarrollo costero. Abstract in english Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem that provides many services, but in Panama, as in other countries, they are under threat due to a variety of human activities. Nowadays, large areas of mangroves continue to be lost without been described and lack of management strategies. This study focused [...] on the mangrove structure in the two largest islands, Isla del Rey and Isla San Jose, of Las Perlas Archipelago (LPA), Pacific Panama. Assessment of Landsat satellite imagery revealed loss of mangroves in the LPA of 965ha in the period 1974-1986, and 248ha in the period 1986-2000. The majority of the loss (>77%) from the two study islands was due to timber extraction and agricultural development. In May 2006, permanent plots following the CARICOMP protocol were established at two sites on Isla del Rey (R1 and R2) and one site on Isla San Jose (SJ) where standardized metrics such as species, height and diameter at breast height of adult trees and seedlings were recorded. Forest structure differed at the three sites, although R1 and R2 were most similar. At R1, Laguncularia racemosa was the important species and R2 was dominated by Pelliciera rhizophorae. Examination of the forest structure and classified imagery indicated that these sites are spatially dynamic and appear to be rejuvenating. The forest structure would indicate that the sites have been growth-limited previously by human activities and possibly by other factors. SJ was dominated by Rhizophora mangle and appears to have a mature forest with large adult trees and few seedlings. It does not appear to have shown the same extent of spatial regrowth as the other two sites between 1986 and 2000 and is relatively static. The establishment of permanent plots and monitoring will be useful as part of the management plan, as the LPA shows a variety of mangrove structures and could be subject to further coastal development. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3): 857-869. Epub 2010 September 01.

Tom, McGowan; Sarah L, Cunningham; Héctor M, Guzmán; James M, Mair; José M, Guevara; Tanja, Betts.

151

Mangrove forest composition and structure in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los bosques de manglar son ecosistemas importantes que proveen muchos servicios, pero éstos están bajo la amenaza de una variedad de actividades humanas y grandes áreas de manglar continúan perdiéndose en Panamá. Este estudio está enfocado en la estructura de manglar de las dos islas más grandes del [...] Archipiélago de Las Perlas en el Pacifico Panameño (LPA), la Isla del Rey y la Isla San José. La evaluación de las imágenes del satélite Landsat revela la pérdida de manglares en LPA de 965ha en el periodo entre 1974-1986, y de 286ha en el periodo 1986-2000. La mayor parte de la pérdida (>77%) en las dos islas estudiadas fue debida a la extracción de madera y al desarrollo agrícola. En mayo de 2006, se establecieron parcelas permanentes siguiendo el protocolo de CARICOMP en dos sitios en la isla del Rey (R1 y R2) y un sitio en la Isla San José (SJ) donde especies, altura y diámetro a la altura de la copa de árboles adultos y jóvenes fueron registradas. La estructura del bosque difirió en los tres sitios, sin embargo R1 y R2 fueron los más similares. En R1, Laguncularia racemosa fue la especie más dominante y Pelliceria rhizophora en R2. El análisis de la estructura del bosque y de imágenes clasificadas indicó que estos sitios son espacialmente dinámicos y parecen estar regenerándose. La estructura del bosque indica que el crecimiento en los sitios ha estado limitado por las actividades humanas y posiblemente por otros factores. SJ fue dominado por Rhizophora mangle y parece tener un bosque maduro con árboles adultos grandes y pocos jóvenes. Éste sitio no parece mostrar la misma extensión de rebrote espacial de los otros dos sitios entre 1986-2000 y es relativamente estático. El establecimiento de parcelas permanentes y el monitoreo serán útiles en la implementación del plan de manejo, ya que los manglares del LPA tienen una variedad estructural y podrían estar sujetos a un mayor desarrollo costero. Abstract in english Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem that provides many services, but in Panama, as in other countries, they are under threat due to a variety of human activities. Nowadays, large areas of mangroves continue to be lost without been described and lack of management strategies. This study focused [...] on the mangrove structure in the two largest islands, Isla del Rey and Isla San Jose, of Las Perlas Archipelago (LPA), Pacific Panama. Assessment of Landsat satellite imagery revealed loss of mangroves in the LPA of 965ha in the period 1974-1986, and 248ha in the period 1986-2000. The majority of the loss (>77%) from the two study islands was due to timber extraction and agricultural development. In May 2006, permanent plots following the CARICOMP protocol were established at two sites on Isla del Rey (R1 and R2) and one site on Isla San Jose (SJ) where standardized metrics such as species, height and diameter at breast height of adult trees and seedlings were recorded. Forest structure differed at the three sites, although R1 and R2 were most similar. At R1, Laguncularia racemosa was the important species and R2 was dominated by Pelliciera rhizophorae. Examination of the forest structure and classified imagery indicated that these sites are spatially dynamic and appear to be rejuvenating. The forest structure would indicate that the sites have been growth-limited previously by human activities and possibly by other factors. SJ was dominated by Rhizophora mangle and appears to have a mature forest with large adult trees and few seedlings. It does not appear to have shown the same extent of spatial regrowth as the other two sites between 1986 and 2000 and is relatively static. The establishment of permanent plots and monitoring will be useful as part of the management plan, as the LPA shows a variety of mangrove structures and could be subject to further coastal development. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3): 857-869. Epub 2010 September 01.

Tom, McGowan; Sarah L, Cunningham; Héctor M, Guzmán; James M, Mair; José M, Guevara; Tanja, Betts.

2010-09-01

152

Mangrove forest composition and structure in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem that provides many services, but in Panama, as in other countries, they are under threat due to a variety of human activities. Nowadays, large areas of mangroves continue to be lost without been described and lack of management strategies. This study focused on the mangrove structure in the two largest islands, Isla del Rey and Isla San Jose, of Las Perlas Archipelago (LPA, Pacific Panama. Assessment of Landsat satellite imagery revealed loss of mangroves in the LPA of 965ha in the period 1974-1986, and 248ha in the period 1986-2000. The majority of the loss (>77% from the two study islands was due to timber extraction and agricultural development. In May 2006, permanent plots following the CARICOMP protocol were established at two sites on Isla del Rey (R1 and R2 and one site on Isla San Jose (SJ where standardized metrics such as species, height and diameter at breast height of adult trees and seedlings were recorded. Forest structure differed at the three sites, although R1 and R2 were most similar. At R1, Laguncularia racemosa was the important species and R2 was dominated by Pelliciera rhizophorae. Examination of the forest structure and classified imagery indicated that these sites are spatially dynamic and appear to be rejuvenating. The forest structure would indicate that the sites have been growth-limited previously by human activities and possibly by other factors. SJ was dominated by Rhizophora mangle and appears to have a mature forest with large adult trees and few seedlings. It does not appear to have shown the same extent of spatial regrowth as the other two sites between 1986 and 2000 and is relatively static. The establishment of permanent plots and monitoring will be useful as part of the management plan, as the LPA shows a variety of mangrove structures and could be subject to further coastal development. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3: 857-869. Epub 2010 September 01.Los bosques de manglar son ecosistemas importantes que proveen muchos servicios, pero éstos están bajo la amenaza de una variedad de actividades humanas y grandes áreas de manglar continúan perdiéndose en Panamá. Este estudio está enfocado en la estructura de manglar de las dos islas más grandes del Archipiélago de Las Perlas en el Pacifico Panameño (LPA, la Isla del Rey y la Isla San José. La evaluación de las imágenes del satélite Landsat revela la pérdida de manglares en LPA de 965ha en el periodo entre 1974-1986, y de 286ha en el periodo 1986-2000. La mayor parte de la pérdida (>77% en las dos islas estudiadas fue debida a la extracción de madera y al desarrollo agrícola. En mayo de 2006, se establecieron parcelas permanentes siguiendo el protocolo de CARICOMP en dos sitios en la isla del Rey (R1 y R2 y un sitio en la Isla San José (SJ donde especies, altura y diámetro a la altura de la copa de árboles adultos y jóvenes fueron registradas. La estructura del bosque difirió en los tres sitios, sin embargo R1 y R2 fueron los más similares. En R1, Laguncularia racemosa fue la especie más dominante y Pelliceria rhizophora en R2. El análisis de la estructura del bosque y de imágenes clasificadas indicó que estos sitios son espacialmente dinámicos y parecen estar regenerándose. La estructura del bosque indica que el crecimiento en los sitios ha estado limitado por las actividades humanas y posiblemente por otros factores. SJ fue dominado por Rhizophora mangle y parece tener un bosque maduro con árboles adultos grandes y pocos jóvenes. Éste sitio no parece mostrar la misma extensión de rebrote espacial de los otros dos sitios entre 1986-2000 y es relativamente estático. El establecimiento de parcelas permanentes y el monitoreo serán útiles en la implementación del plan de manejo, ya que los manglares del LPA tienen una variedad estructural y podrían estar sujetos a un mayor desarrollo costero.

Tom McGowan

2010-09-01

153

SAN CARLOS APACHE PAPERS.  

Science.gov (United States)

THE FIRST SECTION OF THIS BOOK COVERS THE HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF THE SAN CARLOS APACHE INDIANS, AS WELL AS AN HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM. THE SECOND SECTION IS DEVOTED TO THE PROBLEMS OF TEACHERS OF THE INDIAN CHILDREN IN GLOBE AND SAN CARLOS, ARIZONA. IT IS DIVIDED INTO THREE PARTS--(1)…

ROESSEL, ROBERT A., JR.

154

Samspillet mellem matematik og de andre fag i gymnasieskolen : Matematikfaget og reformen af de ungdomsgymnasiale uddannelser  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Som en konsekvens af 2005?reformen af de ungdomsgymnasiale uddannelser skal eleverne vælge mellem de såkaldte studieretningsforløb der giver mulighed for at arbejde i en sammenhængende periode på 2 1/2 år med retningens fag. Reformens krav om øget samspil mellem fagene lægger op til omfattende ændringer af de gymnasiale uddannelsers matematikundervisning. Erfaringerne med en bevidst inddragelse af matematiske kompetencer i andre fag er begrænsede. Det skyldes bl.a. at der mangler såvel en konceptuel ramme som en didaktisk model for samspillet mellem matematik og andre fag samt konkrete og veldokumenterede eksempler på undervisningsforløb med et for både lærere og elever udbytterigt samspil. I artiklen præsenteres en række positioner vedrørende matematikundervisningen som vi lader spille sammen med en analyse af relevant forskning inden for matematikkens didaktik der mere eller mindre eksplicit inddrager matematikfagets relationer til andre fag. På baggrund heraf udvikles et koncept for matematiks samspil med andre fag bestående af tværfaglige kompetencer som den konceptuelle ramme og en didaktisk model hvor samspillet opfattes som en iterativ bevægelse mellem (1) horisontal sammenkædning af fagene og (2) vertikal strukturering i fagene. Der gives to eksempler hvor fagoverskridende kompetencer og den didaktiske model er anvendt som et redskab til at udvikle undervisningsforløb hvor matematik indgår i et tæt samspil med andre fag: (1) matematik og naturfagene og (2) matematik og filosofi.

Iversen, Steffen MØllegaard; Michelsen, Claus

2009-01-01

155

Carbon cycling in the Arctic Archipelago: the export of Pacific carbon to the North Atlantic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Arctic Ocean is expected to be disproportionately sensitive to climatic changes, and is thought to be an area where such changes might be detected. The Arctic hydrological cycle is influenced by: runoff and precipitation, sea ice formation/melting, and the inflow of saline waters from Bering and Fram Straits and the Barents Sea Shelf. Pacific water is recognizable as intermediate salinity water, with high concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, flowing from the Arctic Ocean to the North Atlantic via the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. We present DIC data from an east-west section through the Archipelago, as part of the Canadian International Polar Year initiatives. The fractions of Pacific and Arctic Ocean waters leaving the Archipelago and entering Baffin Bay, and subsequently the North Atlantic, are computed. The eastward transport of carbon from the Pacific, via the Arctic, to the North Atlantic is estimated.

Altered mixing ratios of Pacific and freshwater in the Arctic Ocean have been recorded in recent decades. Any climatically driven alterations in the composition of waters leaving the Arctic Archipelago may have implications for anthropogenic CO2 uptake, and hence ocean acidification, in the subpolar and temperate North Atlantic.

E. H. Shadwick

2009-01-01

156

Ecological footprint of road traffic on Cres-Lošinj Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cres-Lošinj Archipelago is the largest insular traffic unit in Northern Adriatic. The archipelago consists of two large islands, Cres and Lošinj, and 27 smaller islands located among Kvarner, Kvarneri?, Rijeka Bay and open sea. From the point of view of traffic, this area gravitates mostly toward Rijeka traffic node. Traffic development of the islands was determined in the second half of the 20th century with the development of ferry traffic and road traffic on the islands. Today, the Archipelago is characterized by prominent seasonal variations of road traffic intensity due to dominant role of tourism in space valorisation. This research included partial determination of Ecological Footprint of road traffic on the islands on the basis of CO2 emission and capacity of insular surfaces to absorb CO2.The author also created a model for calculating road mileage on the islands and indirectly calculated CO2 emission. The results indicated significant seasonal variations of CO2 emission on the islands, which are closely related to tourist valorisation of space and the number of non-residential vehicles on the islands. The paper also provides the ratio between residential and non-residential vehicles on the island, which influence the emission in accordance with their energy efficiency. The research showed that the capacity of CO2 absorption on Cres-Lošinj Archipelago is approximately 40 times greater than CO2 emission from road traffic during one year.

Hrvoje Grofelnik

2010-12-01

157

Cross-shelf distribution of nutrients, plankton, and fish larvae in the San Blas Archipelago, Caribbean Panamá  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To investigate possible seasonal patterns in water quality and plankton distribution, weekly samples were collected in a coral reef lagoon and in surrounding nearshore waters over a two year period. Additionally, two oceanographic surveys were also conducted in a larger area surrounding the primary study site during the seasonal extremes. The resulting information corroborated previous observations that this area is as an oligotrophic environment. The larger-scale sampling revealed seasonal variation in cross-shelf gradients in plankton, fish-egg and larval densities that are probably related to the strong onshore winds that are typically present during the dry season. Although some limited nutrient enrichment occurs in parts of the nearshore area during the rainy season, the highest plankton density and biomass were recorded in shallow nearshore waters during the windy dry season. Larvae of numerous fish taxa were collected in these nearshore areas during the dry season, suggesting seasonal aggregation. During the rainy season, fish larvae were spread more evenly across the shelf and into nearshelf waters.

Luis D'Croz

1999-06-01

158

Surface water quality estimation using remote sensing in the Gulf of Finland and the Finnish Archipelago Sea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis deals with surface water quality estimation using remote sensing in the Gulf of Finland and the Archipelago Sea. Satellite remote sensing of water and empirical algorithms for surface water quality variables in coastal waters in the Gulf of Finland and the Archipelago Sea are explained and results from the studies in the area are presented. Concurrent in situ surface water measurements, AISA data, Landsat TM data, ERS-2 SAR data, AVHRR and MODIS data were obtained for selected...

Zhang, Yuanzhi

2005-01-01

159

The Comores archipelago in the western Indian Ocean: volcanology, geochronology and geodynamic setting  

Science.gov (United States)

New petrological and geochronological data on the Comores archipelago are presented. The K?Ar ages measured on subaerial volcanics range from 8 Ma in Mayotte Island to 0 in Grande Comore but the migration of the volcanic activity in the archipelago does not appear clearly. For each island the beginning of the volcanism remains unknown. The widespread volcanism of the western Indian Ocean is briefly reviewed and replaced in the geophysical framework of this region. The classical Seychelles-northern Madagascar-Mayotte-Grande Comore hot spot hypothesis is questioned. A more or less synchronous alkaline magmatism along old lithospheric fractures (from Madagascar continent toward Comores oceanic islands), periodically reactivated during Tertiary times, could be an alternative interpretation.

Nougier, J.; Cantagrel, J. M.; Karche, J. P.

160

A comparison of asphaltene model compounds and asphaltenes. The island vs. archipelago models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As heavier crude oil reserves with higher asphaltene content are being more and more exploited, better understanding of asphaltenes becomes a necessity. Two models are proposed for the structure of asphaltenes, a topic of intense debate. The island model presents a large aromatic core with alkyl chains branching out. The archipelago model features multiple aromatic cores that are linked by alkyl chains, with possible alkyl chains branching out also. Several model compounds of the two structural models were studied using a variety of mass spectrometry (MS) methods: laser-induced acoustic desorption combined with electron ionization (LIAD/EI) MS, electrospray ionization (ESI) MS, and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) MS. The observed fragmentation pathways were then compared to those of asphaltenes. Ions from island vs. archipelago model compounds showed distinct fragmentation characteristics, which will help in elucidating the complex molecular structure of asphaltenes.

Borton, David J.; Pinkston, David S.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka [Purdue University (United States)], email: dborton@purdue.edu; Gray, Murray; Tan, Xiaoli [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada); Azyat, Khalid; Tykwinski, Rik [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta (Canada)

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
161

Maramaa elust poksi ja graffitini / Andres Lepik, Ott Aardam ; interv. Gert Kiiler  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Ugala teater alustas 89. hooaega. Esimese poole plaanitud esietendused : Toomas Suumani "Linnapea" Heiki Raudla raamatu "August Maramaa aeg" järgi, lavastaja Andres Lepik. Ott Aardami noortetükist "Poks", lavastaja autor. Gerald Sibleyras' "Grafiti", lavastaja Taago Tubin. Silvia Soro jõulunäidend "Inetu pardipoja" ainetel, lavastaja Oleg Titov

Lepik, Andres

2008-01-01

162

Vabade kunstide lõputööd / Andres Tali ; intervjueerinud R[eet] V[arblane] ; kommenteerinud Andreas Trossek  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

EKA vabade kunstide teaduskonna dekaan Andres Tali lõpetajate tasemest. 15 magistrikraadi kaitsnud üliõpilase tööd olid enamikus väljas festivali "Tase'11" raames magistritööde näitusel Rotermanni kvartalis 22.05.-5.06.2011. Bakalaureusetaseme lõpetamisest portfoolioga. Andreas Trossek Kristi Kongi, Eva Labotkini, Laura Tootsi, Reimo Võsa-Tangsoo ja Stella Salumaa magistritöödest

Tali, Andres, 1956-

2011-01-01

163

Hotell 'Bernhard' Otepääl. Otepää aedlinn, Kolga tee 22a / Andres Lunge  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Otepää aedlinnas asuva U. Tiirmaa poolt kuuekümnendatel projekteeritud Tartu Katseremonditehase puhkebaasi rekonstrueerimine. Kavandati uus peasissepääs, täiendav tubadekorrus, restoran, vastuvõtufuajee jm. ning juurdeehitusena osaliselt maaalune lisakorpus konverentsisaali jm. ruumidega. Tellija: AS Regel. Projekteerija: Tareke Projekt OÜ. Arhitekt Andres Lunge. Sisekujundaja Taisi Kadarik. Ehitus: AS Regel, 1996-1998. Projekt 1995, 1998, valmis 1998

Lunge, Andres

1998-01-01

164

Pärnu Keskraamatukogu hoone / Markus Kaasik, Andres Ojari, Ilmar Valdur...[jt.  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

1., 2., 3. korruse ja asendiplaan, joonis, 4 värv. välisvaadet; fotod: Tiit Veermäe; projekteerija: Kolm Pluss Üks arhitektid; autorid: Markus Kaasik, Andres Ojari, Ilmar Valdur, Kalle Komissarov (võistlus 1999-2002), Mihkel Tüür (võistlus 1999), kaasa töötasid: Risto Parve, Pirko Võmma, Merje Müürisepp, Indrek Tiigi, Kaisa Lillemets; konstruktor: Pike; arhitektuurikonkurss: 1999., 1. preemia

2009-01-01

165

Who Is DeAndre? Tapping the Power of Popular Culture in Literacy Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Gainer talks about the importance of connecting students' background knowledge, experiences, and interests to curricular goals. He highlights the voice of DeAndre, an eighth-grade boy in special education classes, whose participation in an after-school club led to the creation of a video. According to Gainer, "[W]hen given the opportunity to…

Gainer, Jesse

2008-01-01

166

Lääne-Virumaal võttis valimistel kõige rohkem hääli Kristiina Ojuland / Andres Pulver  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Lääne-Virumaal kogus kõige rohkem hääli Keskerakond, saavutades 7222 valija toetuse. Diagramm: Valimistulemused Lääne-Virumaal. Vt. samas lk. 6-7: Riigikogu valimiste tulemused Lääne-Virumaal ja lk. 15: Kuidas kommenteerite Riigikogu valimiste tulemusi? Vastavad: Marko Pomerants (IRL), Indrek Saar (SDE), Vello Tafenau (ERL), Robert Antropov, Kristiina Ojuland (Reformierakond), Einar Vallbaum, Toomas Varek (Keskerakond), Andres Jaadla (Eestimaa Rohelised)

Pulver, Andres, 1965-

2007-01-01

167

Nutrient uptake by leaves and roots of the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii in the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The kinetics of ammonium and phosphate uptake by leaves and roots of the tropical seagrass Thalassia hemprichii were investigated in laboratory experiments. Uptake in leaves of plants from 3 different locations, covering the range from coastal to oceanic conditions in the region of investigation (Spermonde Archipelago, South Sulawesi, Indonesia), was compared. The leaves from all plant samples showed a clear capacity for both ammonium and phosphate uptake. This uptake could be described by Mi...

Stapel, J.; Aarts, T. L.; Duynhoven, B. H. M.; Degroot, J. D.; Den Hoogen, P. H. W.; Hemminga, M. A.

1996-01-01

168

Development of a Hindcast/Forecast Model for the Philippine Archipelago  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article discusses the challenges of developing a regional ocean prediction model for the Philippine Archipelago, a complex area in terms of geometry, bathymetry-dominated dynamics and variability, and strong local and remote wind forcing, where there are limited temporal and spatial ocean measurements. We used the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) for real-time forecasting during the Philippines Experiment (2007–2009) observational program. The article focuses on the prediction exp...

Arango, Hernan G.; Levin, Julia C.; Enrique Curchitser; Bin Zhang; Moore, Andrew M.; Weiqing Han; Gordon, Arnold L.; Craig Lee; Girton, James B.

2011-01-01

169

Looking inside the Panarea Island (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy) by gravity and magnetic data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we show and discuss the results of gravity and magnetic surveys of Panarea Island and its archipelago. The most recent volcanic manifestation occurred in November 2002 with a shallow submarine gas eruption between the islets of Dattilo, Panarelli, Lisca Bianca, Bottaro and Lisca Nera. Currently, the activity of Panarea is monitored through a multidisciplinary study under the umbrella of the Italian Department of Civil Protection with the goal of defining the hazard of this ...

Greco, F.; Del Negro, C.; Esposito, A.; Anzidei, M.; Stefanelli, P.; Carmisciano, C.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Cocchi, L.; Napoli, R.

2008-01-01

170

Social, Economical and Technical Evaluation of a reverse osmosis drinking water plant in the Stockholm Archipelago  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The drinking water plant in this case study is a combined groundwater and reverse osmosisplant in the Stockholm archipelago. The reverse osmosis purification step was added to theplant in 1995. This technique is relatively new in Sweden and there are possibilities for it tobecome a good complement to conventional drinking water treatment. The plant has used thistechnique for over 10 years with good results. It is therefore of great interest to evaluate anddocument it for the possibility to im...

Lindkvist, Jonas

2007-01-01

171

Basic Physical-Geographical Characteristics of Rava Island in the Zadar Archipelago  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The island of Rava (3,62 km2, 120 inhabitants 1991), which makes part of the Zadar archipelago, belongs to the South Croatian (Dalmatian) group of islands. In this paper, the features of its natural basis are elaborated as a part of the project connected with the geographical study of small Croatian islands. The authors anlyse its position, size and extent, geomorphology, geological composition and structure, climatovegetable properties, pedological and biogeographical features and waters. At...

Damir Magaš; Josip Fari?i?

1999-01-01

172

Basic Physical-Geographical Characteristics of Premuda Island in the Zadar Archipelago  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The island of Premuda (8.61 km2) is located on the SW part of the Zadar archipelago and makes part of the South Croatia’s (Dalmatian) group of islands. The paper treats the properties of its natural basis and is related to the geographical project on small Croatian islands. It examines the position of the island, its size and extent, geomorpholo-gy, geological composition and structure, climatovegetable characteristics, pedological and biogeographical features and waters. A special emphasis...

Damir Magaš; Josip Fari?i?; Maša Suri?

1999-01-01

173

Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti populations from Senegal and Cape Verde Archipelago  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Two concomitant dengue 3 (DEN-3) epidemics occurred in Cape Verde Archipelago and Senegal between September and October 2009. Aedes aegypti was identified as the vector of these epidemics as several DEN-3 virus strains were isolated from this species in both countries. The susceptibility to pyrethroids, organochlorine, organophosphates and carbamate was investigated in two field strains of Aedes aegypti from both countries using WHO diagn...

Dia Ibrahima; Diagne Cheikh; Ba Yamar; Diallo Diawo; Konate Lassana; Diallo Mawlouth

2012-01-01

174

A new species of Meryta (Araliaceae from the Marquesas Archipelago, French Polynesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Meryta pastoralis F. Tronchet & Lowry, a new species from the island of Hiva Oa in the Marquesas archipelago, is described and illustrated. It differs from other Polynesian members of the genus by its fully free ovaries, a feature shared with one other species found in the region, M. choristantha (native to the Austral Islands, from which it can be distinguished by its noticeably different leaf shape. A preliminary conservation assessment indicates that M. pastoralis is Critically Endangered.

Porter Lowry II

2011-07-01

175

Multiscale Physical and Biological Dynamics in the Philippine Archipelago: Predictions and Processes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Philippine Archipelago is remarkable because of its complex geometry, with multiple islands and passages, and its multiscale dynamics, from the large-scale open-ocean and atmospheric forcing, to the strong tides and internal waves in narrow straits and at steep shelfbreaks. We employ our multiresolution modeling system to predict and study multiscale dynamics in the region, without the use of any synoptic in situ data, so as to evaluate modeling capabilities when only sparse remotely sens...

Lermusiaux, Pierre F. J.; Haley Jr, Patrick J.; Leslie, Wayne G.; Arpit Agarwal; Logutov, Oleg G.; Burton, Lisa J.

2011-01-01

176

Climate change influenced female population sizes through time across the Indonesian archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lying at the crossroads of Asia and the Pacific world, the Indonesian archipelago hosts one of the world's richest accumulations of cultural, linguistic, and genetic variation. While the role of human migration into and around the archipelago is now known in some detail, other aspects of Indonesia's complex history are less understood. Here, we focus on population size changes from the first settlement of Indonesia nearly 50 kya up to the historic era. We reconstructed the past effective population sizes of Indonesian women using mitochondrial DNA sequences from 2,104 individuals in 55 village communities on four islands spanning the Indonesian archipelago (Bali, Flores, Sumba, and Timor). We found little evidence for large fluctuations in effective population size. Most communities grew slowly during the late Pleistocene, peaked 15-20 kya, and subsequently declined slowly into the Holocene. This unexpected pattern may reflect population declines caused by the flooding of lowland hunter/gatherer habitat during sea-level rises following the last glacial maximum. PMID:24297223

Guillot, Elsa G; Tumonggor, Meryanne K; Lansing, J Stephen; Sudoyo, Herawati; Cox, Murray P

2013-01-01

177

[Distribution characteristics of benthic algae in intertidal zone of Ma' an Archipelago of Zhejiang Province].  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the survey of benthic algae in the intertidal zone of Ma' an Archipelago from March to July 2007, the algal species composition, distribution, and temperature feature were studied. The dominant algal species in the study area were preliminarily analyzed by using similarity indices (S(c)) and index of relative importance (IRI(c)). A total of 31 species sampled in sublittoral area were identified, among which, 7 species of 5 genera belonged to Chlorophyta, 8 species of 5 genera belonged to Phaeophyta, and 16 species of 14 genera belonged to Rhodophyta. Topical and selective distribution species influenced by wave and tide were identified in the intertidal zone. Ulva pertusa and Sargassum thunbergii were found in all survey area. Rhodophyta was the dominant species, with the occurring frequency being up to 61.1%, and Chlorophyta showed quite uniformed horizontal distribution. In addition, 81% of sampled species were from low-tide zone, and some were extended from mid-tide zone to low-tide zone. The composition comparability between mid-tide and low-tide species was 0.47, and the convergence effect in mid-tide and low-tide zone was higher than that in high-tide and mid-tide zone. The sublittoral area of Ma' an Archipelago showed obvious vertical zoning character, with temperate species being absolute abundant, and the warm-water species dominant. The marine floral texture of Ma' an Archipelago belongs to warm temperate-subtropical transitional marine flora. PMID:19123370

Zhang, Shou-Yu; Liang, Jun; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Kai

2008-10-01

178

An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres reservoir, Foster and South Cowden fields, Ector County, Texas, Class II  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A project to recover economic amounts of oil from a very mature oil field is being conducted by Laguna Petroleum Corporation of Midland, Texas, with partial funding from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant to study shallow carbonate rock reservoirs. The objectives of the project are to use modern engineering methods to optimize oil field management and to use geological and geophysical data to recover untapped potential within the petroleum reservoirs. The integration of data and techniques from these disciplines has yielded results greater than those achievable without their cooperation. The cost of successfully accomplishing these goals is to be low enough for even small independent operators to afford. This article is a report describing accomplishments for the fiscal year 1998-1999.

Trentham, DGS, Robert C.; Robinson, M.S., William C.; Wider, Kevin; Weinbrandt, Ph.D.,PE, Richard

2000-04-14

179

Detailed geochemical survey data release for the San Andres-Oscura Mountains special study area, New Mexico  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work reported here includes field data and the results of analyses for uranium and additional elements for each sample. This special study is a follow-up to the uranium reconnaissance previously conducted by Los Alamos in the surrounding Tularosa NTMS quadrangle as part of the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR). The HSSR program is part of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE), which is designed to provide an improved estimate of the available information for industry use in the development and production of uranium resources. Each rock sample collected for this special study was crushed and the minus 100-mesh fraction was put into a prewashed 25-ml polyethylene vial and a clean 4-ml rabbit before undergoing analysis. The possibility exists of sample contamination with crusher alloys, especially in the rhyolite samples. The samples were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, europium, gold, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, potassium, rubidium, samarium, scandium, selenium, silver, sodium, strontium, tantalum, terbium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, ytterbium, zinc, and zirconium. Descriptions of field and analytical methods can be found in Appendix II-A. Sample locations are plotted on Plate I. All samples were analyzed for uranium by delayed neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in samples were determined by neutron-activation analysis, x-ray fluorescence, and arc-source emission spectrography. Analytical results for samples are reported as parts per million

180

An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas, Class II  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the project were to: (1) Thoroughly understand the 60-year history of the field. (2) Develop a reservoir description using geology and 3D seismic. (3) Isolate the upper Grayburg in wells producing from multiple intervals to stop cross flow. (4) Re-align and optimize the upper Grayburg waterflood. (5) Determine well condition, identify re-frac candidates, evaluate the effectiveness of well work and obtain bottom hole pressure data for simulation utilizing pressure transient testing field wide. (6) Quantitatively integrate all the data to guide the field operations, including identification of new well locations utilizing reservoir simulation.

Trentham, Robert C.; Weinbrandt, Richard; Robinson, William C.; Widner, Kevin

2001-05-03

 
 
 
 
181

Evolution at a different pace: distinctive phylogenetic patterns of cone snails from two ancient oceanic archipelagos.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ancient oceanic archipelagos of similar geological age are expected to accrue comparable numbers of endemic lineages with identical life history strategies, especially if the islands exhibit analogous habitats. We tested this hypothesis using marine snails of the genus Conus from the Atlantic archipelagos of Cape Verde and Canary Islands. Together with Azores and Madeira, these archipelagos comprise the Macaronesia biogeographic region and differ remarkably in the diversity of this group. More than 50 endemic Conus species have been described from Cape Verde, whereas prior to this study, only two nonendemic species, including a putative species complex, were thought to occur in the Canary Islands. We combined molecular phylogenetic data and geometric morphometrics with bathymetric and paleoclimatic reconstructions to understand the contrasting diversification patterns found in these regions. Our results suggest that species diversity is even lower than previously thought in the Canary Islands, with the putative species complex corresponding to a single species, Conus guanche. One explanation for the enormous disparity in Conus diversity is that the amount of available habitat may differ, or may have differed in the past due to eustatic (global) sea level changes. Historical bathymetric data, however, indicated that sea level fluctuations since the Miocene have had a similar impact on the available habitat area in both Cape Verde and Canary archipelagos and therefore do not explain this disparity. We suggest that recurrent gene flow between the Canary Islands and West Africa, habitat losses due to intense volcanic activity in combination with unsuccessful colonization of new Conus species from more diverse regions, were all determinant in shaping diversity patterns within the Canarian archipelago. Worldwide Conus species diversity follows the well-established pattern of latitudinal increase of species richness from the poles towards the tropics. However, the eastern Atlantic revealed a striking pattern with two main peaks of Conus species richness in the subtropical area and decreasing diversities toward the tropical western African coast. A Random Forests model using 12 oceanographic variables suggested that sea surface temperature is the main determinant of Conus diversity either at continental scales (eastern Atlantic coast) or in a broader context (worldwide). Other factors such as availability of suitable habitat and reduced salinity due to the influx of large rivers in the tropical area also play an important role in shaping Conus diversity patterns in the western coast of Africa. PMID:25121824

Cunha, Regina L; Lima, Fernando P; Tenorio, Manuel J; Ramos, Ana A; Castilho, Rita; Williams, Suzanne T

2014-11-01

182

San Salvador Microbial Observatory  

Science.gov (United States)

This web site is home of the San Salvador Microbial Observatory, a project investigating the anhydrophilic, halotolerant microbial mats of San Salvador, Bahamas. This project has been developed to address the influence water availability has on structural diversification, community composition, production, and carbon sequestration in microbial mats. The web site includes general information about the project, a research description plan, an introduction to microbial mats, links to other microbial observatories and interesting sites, and a collection of photos. This is a helpful resource for those investigating microbial mat communities.

Steppe, Tim; Institute Of Marine Sciences, University O.

183

Phylogeographic Analyses of Submesophotic Snappers Etelis coruscans and Etelis “marshi” (Family Lutjanidae) Reveal Concordant Genetic Structure across the Hawaiian Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The Hawaiian Archipelago has become a natural laboratory for understanding genetic connectivity in marine organisms as a result of the large number of population genetics studies that have been conducted across this island chain for a wide taxonomic range of organisms. However, population genetic studies have been conducted for only two species occurring in the mesophotic or submesophotic zones (30+m) in this archipelago. To gain a greater understanding of genetic connectivity in these deepwater habitats, we investigated the genetic structure of two submesophotic fish species (occurring ?200–360 m) in this archipelago. We surveyed 16 locations across the archipelago for submesophotic snappers Etelis coruscans (N?=?787) and E. “marshi” (formerly E. carbunculus; N?=?770) with 436–490 bp of mtDNA cytochrome b and 10–11 microsatellite loci. Phylogeographic analyses reveal no geographic structuring of mtDNA lineages and recent coalescence times that are typical of shallow reef fauna. Population genetic analyses reveal no overall structure across most of the archipelago, a pattern also typical of dispersive shallow fishes. However some sites in the mid-archipelago (Raita Bank to French Frigate Shoals) had significant population differentiation. This pattern of no structure between ends of the Hawaiian range, and significant structure in the middle, was previously observed in a submesophotic snapper (Pristipomoides filamentosus) and a submesophotic grouper (Hyporthodus quernus). Three of these four species also have elevated genetic diversity in the mid-archipelago. Biophysical larval dispersal models from previous studies indicate that this elevated diversity may result from larval supplement from Johnston Atoll, ?800 km southwest of Hawaii. In this case the boundaries of stocks for fishery management cannot be defined simply in terms of geography, and fishery management in Hawaii may need to incorporate external larval supply into management plans. PMID:24722193

Andrews, Kimberly R.; Moriwake, Virginia N.; Wilcox, Christie; Grau, E. Gordon; Kelley, Christopher; Pyle, Richard L.; Bowen, Brian W.

2014-01-01

184

Phylogeographic analyses of submesophotic snappers Etelis coruscans and Etelis "marshi" (family Lutjanidae) reveal concordant genetic structure across the Hawaiian Archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Hawaiian Archipelago has become a natural laboratory for understanding genetic connectivity in marine organisms as a result of the large number of population genetics studies that have been conducted across this island chain for a wide taxonomic range of organisms. However, population genetic studies have been conducted for only two species occurring in the mesophotic or submesophotic zones (30+m) in this archipelago. To gain a greater understanding of genetic connectivity in these deepwater habitats, we investigated the genetic structure of two submesophotic fish species (occurring ?200-360 m) in this archipelago. We surveyed 16 locations across the archipelago for submesophotic snappers Etelis coruscans (N?=?787) and E. "marshi" (formerly E. carbunculus; N?=?770) with 436-490 bp of mtDNA cytochrome b and 10-11 microsatellite loci. Phylogeographic analyses reveal no geographic structuring of mtDNA lineages and recent coalescence times that are typical of shallow reef fauna. Population genetic analyses reveal no overall structure across most of the archipelago, a pattern also typical of dispersive shallow fishes. However some sites in the mid-archipelago (Raita Bank to French Frigate Shoals) had significant population differentiation. This pattern of no structure between ends of the Hawaiian range, and significant structure in the middle, was previously observed in a submesophotic snapper (Pristipomoides filamentosus) and a submesophotic grouper (Hyporthodus quernus). Three of these four species also have elevated genetic diversity in the mid-archipelago. Biophysical larval dispersal models from previous studies indicate that this elevated diversity may result from larval supplement from Johnston Atoll, ?800 km southwest of Hawaii. In this case the boundaries of stocks for fishery management cannot be defined simply in terms of geography, and fishery management in Hawaii may need to incorporate external larval supply into management plans. PMID:24722193

Andrews, Kimberly R; Moriwake, Virginia N; Wilcox, Christie; Grau, E Gordon; Kelley, Christopher; Pyle, Richard L; Bowen, Brian W

2014-01-01

185

Millised on teie suhted RKAS-iga? / Eero Järvekülg, Toivo Luik, Andres Elmik, Toomas Raju...[jt.  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Küsimusele vastab Carl Robert Jakobsoni Gümnaasiumi direktor Eero Järvekülg, Puiatu Erikooli direktor Toivo Luik, Märjamaa Gümnaasiumi direktor Andres Elmik, Rõuge Põhikooli direktor Toomas Raju, Nõo Reaalgümnaasiumi direktor Jaanus Järveoja ja Varstu Keskkooli direktor Maido Mändmets

2008-01-01

186

Sõiduautode treilervedajad loodavad tööle Euroopa Liidu Riikides / Sven Aria, Andres Sallo ; intervjueerinud Tanel Raig ; kommenteerinud Merike Riipinen  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Treilervedudele spetsialiseerunud OÜ Autologistika logistikadirektor Sven Aria ja OÜ Aatomik-Transport juhatuse esimees Andres Sallo vastavad küsimustele, mis puudutavad sõiduautode transpordi osatähtsust ettevõtte käibest, osatähtsuse vähenemist, edasisi plaane sõiduautode transpordiks mõeldud treilerite kasutamise osas ning kulude kokkuhoidu ettevõttes

Aria, Sven, 1968-

2009-01-01

187

SAN PEDRO GEODATA BROWSER  

Science.gov (United States)

The San Pedro Data Browser was developed by the Landscape Ecology Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Las Vegas, NV). The goal of the Landscape Sciences Program is to improve decision-making relative to natural and human resource management through the development...

188

San Jose, Costa Rica  

Science.gov (United States)

San Jose, capital city of Costa Rica, fills the valley between two steep mountain ranges. In this image made from data collected by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite, visible, shortwave, and near-infrared wavelengths of light that the sensor observed have been combined to produce a false-color version of the scene in which vegetation is red, urban areas are silvery gray, water is dark blue, and clouds are white. The image was captured on February 8, 2007. San Jose is in the center of the image. The Rio Torres winds through downtown San Jose. Cartago, the much smaller colonial capital, sits in the lower right corner, while the city of Alajuela appears across the river, northwest of San Jose. The cities' manmade surfaces contrast sharply with the lushly vegetated landscape surrounding the city. Greenhouses are common in the region, and their glass roofs may be the brilliant white spots around the outer edges the cities. The long, straight runway of the Tobias Bolanos International Airport is visible as a dark line southeast of Alajuela. The landscape around the two cities shown here is rugged. Steep mountain peaks cast dark shadows across their leeward slopes. Patches of dark red vegetation on the mountains north of San Jose may be rainforest. Coffee plantations also cover the slopes of the mountains around the city. February is the dry season in Costa Rica. During the rainy season, from about April to November, clouds usually block the satellite's view of this tropical location. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of Asaf Ullah and Tim Gubbels, SERVIR project.

2007-01-01

189

Toward a Theory of Island Pedogeography: Testing the driving forces for pedological assemblages in archipelagos of different origins  

Science.gov (United States)

The Theory of Island Biogeography has been based on biodiversity studies and used as a powerful predictive tool. Currently pedogeography does not have a similar theoretical construct. Although island biodiversity and biological assemblages have been topics of widespread interest in biogeography, ecology and conservation biology, soil scientists have conducted few studies of pedodiversity and pedological assemblages in archipelagos. Several studies have demonstrated that pedodiversity and biodiversity patterns have striking similarities in very disparate environments and at different scales, thus it is possible to test for a similar construct of island pedogeography. We analyze similarities and differences in the pedosphere for three archipelagos with different origins: (i) oceanic-intra-plate chains islands (Hawaiian Islands), (ii) oceanic-intra-plate cluster islands (Canary Islands), (iii) non-marine land-bridge islands with volcanism associated with plate boundary conditions (Aegean Islands) and (iv) as a comparison, islands in a nonplate boundary setting (the British Isles). In the Canary Islands, we also compiled selected biological, physiographical, geological and climatic data for further analysis of pedodiversity, climatic diversity, geodiversity and biodiversity. Our pedogeographic analysis of the three archipelagos indicates archipelagos of varying origins contain different soil assemblages with plate tectonics as the main driving force. The similarities between pedodiversity and biodiversity are more remarkable than the differences. We tested the hypothesis that soil taxa distributions on island chains can be modelled as a power function similar to the species-area relationship (SAR) proposed by McArthur and Wilson for archipelagos. The SAR functional relationship has been widely corroborated in other biodiversity studies. The same patterns were obtained for pedodiversity and biodiversity in the British Isles, and after that in the Aegean Archipelago. In this study we show similar results in the Canary Islands. Furthermore, in the Canary Archipelago, a strong relationship exists between pedodiversity, biodiversity, climate diversity, habitat heterogeneity and relief. For the Hawaii Archipelago, we did not obtain a statistically significant relationship because soil inventories are not published for the smallest islands and islets. However, Hawaii does have a chronosequence from the older to the younger land units. Overall, the dynamics of the underlying plate tectonic hot spots seems to be the major driving force affecting the various diversity types. Based on these results, we suggest a theoretical proposal of "Island pedogeography" consistent and similar to the Theory of Island Biogeography, in view that the latter one also predicts the pedodiversity of soil assemblages in archipelagos. This study illustrates several possibilities for further research in soil geography.

Ibáñez, Juan-José; Effland, William R.

2011-12-01

190

Microbiological and mycological beach sand quality in a volcanic environment: Madeira archipelago, Portugal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Madeira forms a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago, whose economy is largely dependent on tourism. There, one can encounter different types of sand beach: natural basaltic, natural calcareous and artificial calcareous. Microbiological and mycological quality of the sand was analyzed in two different years. Bacterial indicators were detected in higher number in 2010 (36.7% of the samples) than in 2011 (9.1%). Mycological indicators were detected in a similar percentage of samples in 2010 (68.3%) and 2011 (75%), even though the total number of colonies detected in 2010 was much higher (827 in 41 samples) than in 2011 (427 in 66 samples). Enterococci and potentially pathogenic and allergenic fungi (particularly Penicillium sp.) were the most common indicators detected in both years. Candida sp. yeast was also commonly detected in the samples. The analysis of the 3rd quartile and maximum numbers of all indicators in samples showed that artificial beaches tend to be more contaminated than the natural ones. However, a significant difference between the variables was lacking. More monitoring data (number of bathers, sea birds, radiation intensity variation, and a greater number of samples) should be collected in order to confirm if these differences are significant. In general, the sand quality in the archipelago's beaches was good. As the sand may be a vector of diseases, an international common set of indicators and values and a compatible methodologies for assessing sand contamination, should be defined, in order to provide the bather's with an indication of beach sand quality, rather than only the water. - Highlights: • Microbial indicators were studied in the beach sands of Madeira archipelago. • Differences between years may be attributed to extreme weather. • Sand of artificial beaches has higher levels of microbial contamination. • Microbial analysis of the sand showed that the beaches have mainly good quality

191

Microbiological and mycological beach sand quality in a volcanic environment: Madeira archipelago, Portugal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Madeira forms a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago, whose economy is largely dependent on tourism. There, one can encounter different types of sand beach: natural basaltic, natural calcareous and artificial calcareous. Microbiological and mycological quality of the sand was analyzed in two different years. Bacterial indicators were detected in higher number in 2010 (36.7% of the samples) than in 2011 (9.1%). Mycological indicators were detected in a similar percentage of samples in 2010 (68.3%) and 2011 (75%), even though the total number of colonies detected in 2010 was much higher (827 in 41 samples) than in 2011 (427 in 66 samples). Enterococci and potentially pathogenic and allergenic fungi (particularly Penicillium sp.) were the most common indicators detected in both years. Candida sp. yeast was also commonly detected in the samples. The analysis of the 3rd quartile and maximum numbers of all indicators in samples showed that artificial beaches tend to be more contaminated than the natural ones. However, a significant difference between the variables was lacking. More monitoring data (number of bathers, sea birds, radiation intensity variation, and a greater number of samples) should be collected in order to confirm if these differences are significant. In general, the sand quality in the archipelago's beaches was good. As the sand may be a vector of diseases, an international common set of indicators and values and a compatible methodologies for assessing sand contamination, should be defined, in order to provide the bather's with an indication of beach sand quality, rather than only the water. - Highlights: • Microbial indicators were studied in the beach sands of Madeira archipelago. • Differences between years may be attributed to extreme weather. • Sand of artificial beaches has higher levels of microbial contamination. • Microbial analysis of the sand showed that the beaches have mainly good quality.

Pereira, Elisabete; Figueira, Celso; Aguiar, Nuno; Vasconcelos, Rita [Universidade da Madeira, Caminho da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal (Portugal); Vasconcelos, Sílvia [Laboratório Regional de Veterinária e Segurança Alimentar, Caminho das Quebradas de Baixo n° 79, 9000-254 Funchal (Portugal); Calado, Graça [Laboratório de Saúde Pública, IASaúde, Rua das Pretas n° 1, 9004-515 Funchal (Portugal); Brandão, João [Instituto Nacional de Saúde Dr. Ricardo Jorge, Avenida Padre Cruz, 1649-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Prada, Susana, E-mail: susana@uma.pt [Universidade da Madeira, Caminho da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal (Portugal); Centro de Vulcanologia e Avaliação de Riscos Geológicos, Universidade dos Açores, Rua da Mãe de Deus, Edifício do Complexo Científico, 3° Andar — Ala Sul, 9500-321 Ponta Delgada (Portugal)

2013-09-01

192

Seismicity pattern changes before the M = 4.8 Aeolian Archipelago (Italy) earthquake of August 16, 2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the seismicity patterns associated with an M = 4.8 earthquake recorded in the Aeolian Archipelago on 16, August, 2010, by means of the region-time-length (RTL) algorithm. This earthquake triggered landslides at Lipari; a rock fall on the flanks of the Vulcano, Lipari, and Salina islands, and some damages to the village of Lipari. The RTL algorithm is widely used for investigating precursory seismicity changes before large and moderate earthquakes. We examined both the spatial and temporal characteristics of seismicity changes in the Aeolian Archipelago region before the M = 4.8 earthquake. The results obtained reveal 6-7 months of seismic quiescence which started about 15 months before the earthquake. The spatial distribution shows an extensive area characterized by seismic quiescence that suggests a relationship between quiescence and the Aeolian Archipelago regional tectonics. PMID:24511288

Gambino, Salvatore; Laudani, Antonino; Mangiagli, Salvatore

2014-01-01

193

The San Andreas Fault  

Science.gov (United States)

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication discusses the San Andreas Fault in California; specifically what has caused the fault, where it is located, surface features that characterize it, and movement that has occurred. General earthquake information includes an explanation of what earthquakes are, and earthquake magnitude versus intensity. Earthquakes that have occurred along the fault are covered, as well as where the next large one may occur and what can be done about large earthquakes in general.

Schulz, Sandra; Wallace, Robert

194

78 FR 35593 - Special Local Regulation; Christmas Boat Parade, San Juan Harbor; San Juan, PR  

Science.gov (United States)

...Special Local Regulation; Christmas Boat Parade, San Juan Harbor; San Juan, PR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice...establish a special local regulation on the waters of San Juan Harbor in San Juan, Puerto Rico during the...

2013-06-13

195

[Foliage production of the mangrove from San Andrés Island, Colombian Caribbean coast].  

Science.gov (United States)

Litter fall from a San Andres Island mangrove (12 degrees 32' N, 81 degrees 41' W, Colombian Caribbean coast), was collected monthly (1994-1995) with mesh baskets, keeping results separate for the three species (Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa), and taking a sample and a replica per case. Nine sampling sites were selected in two groups of woodlands: one in the inner side behind a sand-bar and the coast road (Mount Pleasant, Salt Creek, Sound Bay and Smith Channel) and a peripheral site, exposed to the waves (Bahía Hooker-Bahía Honda and El Cove). Productivity was greater for all species in the inner group, and higher in the rainy seasons. Rhizophora mangle was the only species contributing reproductive components throughout the year. PMID:12298255

García-Hansen, Ingrid; Gaviria-Chiquazuque, Johanna F; Prada-Triana, Martha C; Alvarez-León, Ricardo

2002-03-01

196

Development of a Hindcast/Forecast Model for the Philippine Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article discusses the challenges of developing a regional ocean prediction model for the Philippine Archipelago, a complex area in terms of geometry, bathymetry-dominated dynamics and variability, and strong local and remote wind forcing, where there are limited temporal and spatial ocean measurements. We used the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS for real-time forecasting during the Philippines Experiment (2007–2009 observational program. The article focuses on the prediction experiments before and during the exploratory cruise period, June 6–July 3, 2007. The gathered observations were not available in real time, so the 4-Dimensional Variational (4D-Var data assimilation experiments were carried out in hindcast mode. The best estimate of ocean state (nowcast is determined by combining satellite-derived products for sea surface temperature and height, and subsurface temperature and salinity measurements from several hydrographic assets over a sequential five-day data assimilation window. The largest source of forecast uncertainty is from the prescribed lateral boundary conditions in the nearby Pacific Ocean, especially excessive salt flux. This result suggests that remote forcing and inflows from the Pacific are crucial for predicting ocean circulation in the Philippine Archipelago region. The lateral boundary conditions are derived from 1/12° global Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM daily snapshots. The incremental, strong-constraint 4D-Var data assimilation successfully decreased temperature and salinity errors of the real-time, nonassimilative control forecast by 38% and 49%, respectively.

Hernan G. Arango

2011-03-01

197

Mesozooplankton distribution in the Spermonde Archipelago (Indonesia, Sulawesi) with special reference to the Calanoida (Copepoda)  

Science.gov (United States)

In September 2005 the mesozooplankton distribution, taxonomic composition and community structure were studied on four cross-shelf and one coastal transects in the Spermonde Archipelago off Makassar (SW Sulawesi). A total of 47 higher taxonomic groups and 89 calanoid copepod species were identified. Copepods outnumbered the other mesozooplankton taxa with 29 to 69%, increasing in importance towards the offshore stations. Appendicularians ranked second (16-24%) followed at the offshore stations by chaetognaths (4.5%) and, at shelf and coastal stations by echinoderm pluteus larvae (11-15%). Within the calanoids, species of the family Paracalanidae, especially Paracalanus cf. parvus, were dominant at all stations. Other abundant families were Temoridae (6.5-17%), Acartiidae (7.2%) and Pontellidae (6.2%) at shelf and coastal stations while Clausocalanidae (8.7%) and Calanidae (6.7) were more abundant at offshore stations. To investigate the mesozooplankton distribution the 25 stations were grouped into 3 geographical zones based on their topographical and hydrographical differences (coastal, shelf and offshore zone). Some higher zooplankton taxa and about half of the calanoid species occurred only in one or two categories. In general the abundant taxa were spread throughout the Archipelago. To investigate their distribution the abundance data were subjected to a multivariate discriminant function analysis (MDFA). The results revealed that the composition of the mesozooplankton community changed from the coastal zone with a high abundance of meroplankton and neritic copepod species to an offshore community with a higher abundance of holoplanktonic organisms and oceanic copepod species.

Cornils, Astrid; Schulz, Jan; Schmitt, Petra; Lanuru, Mahatma; Richter, Claudio; Schnack-Schiel, Sigrid B.

2010-12-01

198

Comparison of modelled and observed sea ice fluxes in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

With the foreseeable increase in the strategic and economic importance of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA), a comprehensive picture of sea ice conditions at present and in the future is needed. However, due to the complex topography of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA), modelling sea ice fluxes in this area requires considerable spatial resolution. Our group has developed a stand-alone sea ice model based on the viscous-plastic rheology. The model includes both the Arctic Ocean and the CAA at a resolution of 10km, sufficient to resolve most of the channels and straits of the CAA. This study compares simulated fluxes across CAA channels and straits with satellite observations in order to identify potential improvements to the model and forcing fields. In particular, simulations were run with 32km resolution NARR surface winds instead of NCEP geostrophic winds in an attempt to capture wind channeling effects seen in the Eastern Arctic. Results show that fluxes are well simulated in the Western Arctic. In the Queen Elizabeth Islands region however, sea ice moves too freely compared with observations. The biggest challenge seems to be the Eastern Arctic, where the winter outflow of ice from Lancaster Sound towards Baffin Bay is not captured by the model. Potential explanations for the discrepancies are presented.

Huard, D. B.; Tremblay, B.; Lemieux, J.

2009-12-01

199

[Characteristic analysis on the anions and pH profiles of rainwater of Zhoushan Archipelago].  

Science.gov (United States)

Rainwater samples were collected at Zhoushan Archipelago in 2002 - 2003, 4 main anion concentrations (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-)) and pH value of rainwater sample were determined. The concentration variation range and character were depicted. Principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) were used to acquire a further knowledge on the characteristics of anions and pH value. Distribution character of samples was clearly depicted in the new PC1-PC2 ordinate generated by orthogonal projection and the reasons that caused the outliers in samples were discussed. In order to get the latent variables which most distinguishably effect the sample distribution, data profiles were investigated by factor analysis: two latent variables were responsible for the sample distribution within sufficient analysis accuracy, SO4(2-) -NO3- factor (FA1), called as "anthropogenic factor", and Cl- (FA2), called as "marine factor", which corresponding to PC1 and PC2 in orthogonal projection respectively. Results from factor analysis were more practical than from orthogonal projection, that is, the reasons attributed the outlier sample distribution at Zhoushan Archipelago were ascribed into two latent variables: anthropogenic factor (SO4(2-) -NO3-) and marine factor (Cl-). PMID:16366469

Lin, Yu-Fei; Liu, Su-Mei; Ji, Lei; Zhang, Guo-Sen; Mao, Xu-Bin; Zhang, Jing

2005-09-01

200

Mechanisms of coexistence and competition between ants and land hermit crabs in a Bahamian archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

Ants and land crabs are common inhabitants of many coastal and insular communities across the tropics and subtropics, and yet direct evidence of interspecific competition between ants and land crabs has only recently been documented. I conducted a series of observational and manipulative experiments to further elucidate the mechanisms of competition, as well as coexistence, in these two groups in an archipelago of small Bahamian islands. Diel baiting trials demonstrated a significant temporal difference in foraging activity between the land hermit crab, Coenobita clypeatus (Herbst), and ant Brachymyrmex obscurior Forel, suggesting this is one mechanism underlying their coexistence on small oceanic islands. Reciprocal manipulative baiting experiments, in which one of a pair of species was removed from baits, documented that aggressive interspecific interactions underlie patterns of complementary distribution and temporal turnover at rich food resources. This was true for competition between hermit crabs and B. obscurior, and between B. obscurior and a second ant species, Dorymyrmex pyramicus Roger. Negative species associations at baits were found to be common throughout an archipelago of 69 small islands. A trade-off in exploitative and interference abilities may be a second mechanism allowing species coexistence on these small islands. Interspecific interactions such as competition and predation may occur commonly between ants and land crabs and have important consequences for the structure and function of tropical and subtropical insular ecosystems.

Morrison, Lloyd W.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Use of finite mixture distribution models in the analysis of wind energy in the Canarian Archipelago  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The statistical characteristics of hourly mean wind speed data recorded at 16 weather stations located in the Canarian Archipelago are analyzed in this paper. As a result of this analysis we see that the typical two parameter Weibull wind speed distribution (W-pdf) does not accurately represent all wind regimes observed in that region. However, a Singly Truncated from below Normal Weibull mixture distribution (TNW-pdf) and a two component mixture Weibull distribution (WW-pdf) developed here do provide very good fits for both unimodal and bimodal wind speed frequency distributions observed in that region and offer less relative errors in determining the annual mean wind power density. The parameters of the distributions are estimated using the least squares method, which is resolved in this paper using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The suitability of the distributions is judged from the probability plot correlation coefficient plot R 2, adjusted for degrees of freedom. Based on the results obtained, we conclude that the two mixture distributions proposed here provide very flexible models for wind speed studies and can be applied in a widespread manner to represent the wind regimes in the Canarian archipelago and in other regions with similar characteristics. The TNW-pdf takes into account the frequency of null winds, whereas the WW-pdf and W-pdf do not. It can, therefore, better represent wind regimes with high percentages of null wind speeds. However, calculation of the TNW-pdf is markedly slower

202

Forekomst av alkohol og andre rusmidler i blodprøver fra førere involvert i trafikkulykker  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGBilkjøring stiller store krav til førernes sansing, oppmerksomhet, informasjonsbearbeiding og evne til åreagere. Førere som er under innflytelse av sentralnervøst aktive stoffer, vil derfor være en potensiell fare itrafikken. I perioden 1.8–31.12. 1993 identifiserte Statens rettstoksikologiske institutt (SRI 394 ulykkesføreresom politiet hadde rekvirert analyser av med hensyn på narkotiske stoff/sentralnervøst aktive medikamenter(andre rusmidler og/eller alkohol. Blodprøver fra disse førerne ble analysert med hensyn på alkohol og etutvidet repertoar av andre rusmidler ved SRI. Da polititjenestemenn og medtrafikanter ofte ikke vil oppdagepåvirkning av andre rusmidler enn alkohol, dels pga. manglende alkohollukt, vil andre rusmidler som ulykkesårsakvære noe underrepresentert i dette materialet sammenliknet med alkohol. Hos 299 av ulykkesførerneble det påvist alkohol og/eller andre rusmidler. 44 førere hadde tatt inn både alkohol og andre rusmidler, mensalkohol og andre rusmidler ble påvist alene i henholdsvis 204 og 51 saker. Totalt ble benzodiazepiner,cannabis, opiater og amfetamin påvist i henholdsvis 54, 30, 17 og 16 saker. Av de 95 som hadde tatt inn andrerusmidler, hadde 34 tatt inn mer enn ett rusmiddel (alkohol ikke medregnet og i 72 av tilfellene ble analysefunnenevurdert (AB og JM til sannsynligvis å ha gitt sentralnervøs påvirkning. Risikoøkningen for trafikkulykkeved nylig bruk av cannabisstoffer og diazepam i høydose ble estimert til å kunne tilsvare en blodalkoholkonsentrasjonpå 1-1,5 promille. Alkohol er det rusmiddel som oftest påvises hos ulykkesførere, menforekomsten av benzodiazepiner, cannabis og amfetamin er såvidt høy blant ulykkesførere at disse stoffenemå anses å være et alvorlig trafikksikkerhetsproblem.Bjørneboe A, Beylich K-M, Christophersen AS, Fosser S, Glad A, Mørland J.Prevalence of alcohol and other intoxicants in blood samples from drivers involved in road trafficaccidents.   ENGLISH SUMMARYIllegal and some legal drugs affect the central nervous system and drivers who use such drugs may represent ahazard in the road traffic. The prevalence of such drugs among drivers involved in accidents depends on theincrease of the accident risk due to the drug and on the prevalence of the drugs among drivers on the road. Inthis study we have examined blood samples from 394 drivers involved in road traffic accidents during theperiod August–December 1993, to determine the prevalence of alcohol and drugs among drivers involved inaccidents. Most of the drivers enrolled in the study were suspected by the police of driving under the influenceof alcohol or drugs. The data are, however, probably somewhat biased, because drivers influenced by alcoholor drugs will, if possible, avoid contact with the police. Furthermore, the police's ability to detect driversinfluenced by drugs is limited. Accordingly, the proportion of influenced drivers and especially drivers influencedby drugs could be too low compared with the proportion among all drivers involved in traffic accidents.In about 2/3 of the blood samples examined, alcohol was found either alone or together with other drugs,and in 1/4 of the cases drugs were found either alone or together with alcohol. The most prevalent drugs werebenzodiazepines (13.7%, cannabis (7.5%, opiates (4.3% and amphetamine (4.1%. In about 3/4 of the drugpositive cases the drug concentration was so high that it was considered likely or very likely that the driverwas influenced by the drug(s. The bias due to the police's inability to detect all drivers influenced by drugs50A. BJØRNEBOE OG MEDARBEIDEREwas estimated. After correction for this bias it was estimated that at least 2.7% of drivers involved in injuryaccidents will have significant concentrations of drugs in the blood and at least 4.4% will have significantblood alcohol concentrations.Based on various sources of drug use in Norway we arrived at rough estimates of increase in risk of beinginvolved in road traffic accidents after different drug intakes. Dr

Anders Bjørneboe m.fl

2009-10-01

203

Archipelago, Chile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En el Archipiélago Juan Fernández se encuentran diez miembros de la tribu Cariceae (Cyperaceae: cuatro especies de Carex y seis de Uncinia. Ocho de las especies se hallan en la Isla Alejandro Selkirk (= Masafuera; 50 km2, y cuatro en la Isla Robinson Crusoe (= Masatierra; 48 km2. Se describen cuatro nuevos taxones endémicos para el Archipiélago: Carex fernandezensis, C. stuessyi, Uncinia aspericaulis, y U. macloviformis. Sólo dos especies endémicas, Carex berteroniana y Uncinia douglasii, son frecuentes en ambas islas. Otro endemismo, Uncinia costata, es conocido sólo en la localidad de colección del tipo en Alejandro Selkirk. Las tres especies restantes, Uncinia phleoides, U. tenuis, y Carex phalaroides, se encuentran también en el continente Sudamericano, y se cita aquí por primera vez C. phalaroides para el archipiélago. Se lectotipifican los nombres Uncinia costata y U. tenuis f. firmula, y se describe una nueva sección de Carex, sect. Pellucidae, para ubicar a C. stuessyi y taxones afines.

Gerald A. Wheeler

2007-01-01

204

Aspects of the biology of the leaf-scale gulper shark Centrophorus squamosus (Bonnaterre, 1788 off Madeira archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 206 Centrophorus squamosus (Bonnaterre, 1788 with a total length ranging from 89 to 146 cm were captured at an average depth of 1200 metres. Of the 61 females sampled, 34% were gravid, showing an absolute individual fecundity of two to ten embryos (pups. The results clearly indicated that this deepwater shark spawns in the Portuguesewaters off Madeira archipelago.

Ricardo B. Severino

2009-01-01

205

Aspects of the biology of the leaf-scale gulper shark Centrophorus squamosus (Bonnaterre, 1788) off Madeira archipelago  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A total of 206 Centrophorus squamosus (Bonnaterre, 1788) with a total length ranging from 89 to 146 cm were captured at an average depth of 1200 metres. Of the 61 females sampled, 34% were gravid, showing an absolute individual fecundity of two to ten embryos (pups). The results clearly indicated that this deepwater shark spawns in the Portuguese waters off Madeira archipelago.

Severino, Ricardo B.; Manuel Afonso-Dias; Isabel Afonso-Dias; João Delgado

2009-01-01

206

Spatial Econometric Model for Economics Development in Archipelago of Riau, as a Defense System Development in Republic of Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Province of Archipelago of Riau is a region in Indonesia which is adjacent to Singapore and Malaysia. This province has a great potential conditions diversity and natural resources. Planning on public prosperity improvement is necessary in order to increase loyalty and nationalism to Republic of Indonesia. The aim of this research is to build a spatial econometric model of economic growth in Province of Archipelago of Riau. One of the results shows that in recent 4 years Batam always gives the largest contribution to GRDP in Province of Archipelago of Riau. This can be understood that the contribution is more than 72.0% not only based on GRDP at current prices, but also based on GRDP at constant prices. Economic growth rate in regions in Province of Archipelago of Riau is higher than national economic growth rate. The model fits well because the coefficient of determination R2 is more than 85%. There are only 3 worse models, i.e. based on building construction in Batam (with R2= 59.6%, in Tanjungpinang (with R2=74.0%, and based on transportation and communication in Tanjungpinang (with R2=37.1%.

Susanti Linuwih

2010-08-01

207

High-resolution simulation of the circulation in the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Archipelagos  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the first high-resolution simulation of the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos archipelagos implemented with the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). Our model resolves tides and our simulation consists of two nested grids of respectively 4 and 2 km horizontal resolution. This oceanic region is constituted of the juxtaposition of very large and shallow banks, and very deep basins. Our modeling study shows that the dominant influence is the salinity from the sub-tropical gyre, which varies latitudinally with seasons. Less salty surface waters entered the archipelago from September to November from the north and through the Old Bahama (OBC) and the North West Providence (NWPC) channels as the western Atlantic saline waters moved south. Saltier Atlantic waters arrived from the south in December and moved north till the next fall. This salinity flux is mitigated by the atmospheric forcing on the banks as well as the water temperature, which varied diurnally, what modified the water density causing this water to be unique to the banks, yielding its own seasonality as seen in their SST. The banks were colder in winter and warmer in summer than their surrounding waters. Fronts were formed at every ebb tide in winter, spring, and fall. However the influence of bank waters on the surrounding waters was shown to be limited because of the dominant influence of the large-scale flow and of the local production of water masses by wind and cyclone driven upwelling. Bank waters were contained at the front where they mixed with the surrounding waters as shown by the short time presence of the fronts. Local wind, in addition to the tide was also shown to be a significant forcing which is responsible for some of the short scale variability 5-30 days in Florida Current transport, the NWPC, the OBC, the Windward Passage (WP), and the Antilles Current (AC). Finally, the study also confirmed the mesoscale eddy influence at seasonal scales (100 days) on the AC transport as well as on the FC, through a possible leakage of eddy flux through the NWPC. A similar influence was found south of the archipelago, where mesoscale eddy could also influence WP transport.

Chérubin, Laurent M.

2014-09-01

208

San Fernando Valley History  

Science.gov (United States)

A historical tour through the world of San Fernando Valley is always a good idea, and the folks at the California State University-Northridge have made this possible via their amazing archive of digitized materials. The project is based at their Oviatt Library, and it contains historically significant documents, manuscripts, photographs and related graphic materials from public and private collections in the San Fernando Valley. The project started in 2000, and today visitors can browse the collection at their leisure. First-time visitors can look over the "Topics" here, which include "Animals", "Economics", "Industries", and six other areas. The "Communities" area features a fun map with all of the communities of the area on it. Clicking on one of the icons will take users to archived items associated with each place. Also, visitors shouldn't miss the "Transportation" tab as they can view classic images of the old Pacific Electric Railway as well as images of early bus terminals and more contemporary shots of Amtrak in action.

209

New Caledonian lineages of Psychotria (Rubiaceae) reveal different evolutionary histories and the largest documented plant radiation for the archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

New Caledonia is a remote archipelago of the South-West Pacific, whose flora is rich, distinctive, and disharmonic. The interest of botanists has long been attracted by the spatio-temporal origin of this flora, but little attention has been paid to the modes of colonization and the diversification processes that have led to the archipelago's modern flora. To date, no explosive plant radiation has yet been highlighted for New Caledonia. A dated phylogenetic framework on the second richest New Caledonian genus--Psychotria s.l. and its allied genera (tribes Psychotrieae and Palicoureeae, Rubiaceae; ca. 85 species)--is provided in this study to explore its patterns of colonization and diversification in the archipelago. This study is based on a comprehensive species sampling, two nuclear and four plastid loci. Results show that New Caledonia was colonized four times by Psychotria and its allied genera during the Neogene long after its mid-Eocene re-emergence from the sea. The Pacific clade of Psychotrieae, one of the largest plant diversifications in the Pacific islands and the Indo-Pacific region, is absent from New Caledonia, possibly due to niche competition. Although the four lineages colonized New Caledonia relatively simultaneously during the Neogene, they express different evolutionary histories, as revealed by unevenness in species richness and net diversification rates. The genus Geophila has not diversified on New Caledonia, as a non-endemic single species has been documented in the archipelago. The genus Margaritopsis had a moderate level of diversification (four species) similar to that on other Pacific islands. The Psychotria clade NC1 appears to be a relictual lineage, which probably underwent a drastic extinction, with a narrow ecological habitat and dispersal limitations. The Psychotria clade NC2 is the largest and youngest New Caledonian plant radiation, and has undergone the fastest recorded diversification of any endemic lineage in the archipelago, and could be the result of a 'non-adaptive radiation', originating from Australian rainforests. PMID:24211193

Barrabé, Laure; Maggia, Laurent; Pillon, Yohan; Rigault, Frédéric; Mouly, Arnaud; Davis, Aaron P; Buerki, Sven

2014-02-01

210

Momsfradragsret i forbindelse med erhvervelse, besiddelse og salg af aktier samt andre kapitalandele  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

I momssystemet er transaktioner i forbindelse med aktier og andre kapitalandele underkastet en særlig regulering i form af momsfritagelse. Udgangspunktet i momssystemet er, at denne momsfritagelse afskærer fradragsret for moms afholdt i forbindelse med gennemførelse af sådanne transaktioner. Trods dette klare udgangspunkt giver spørgsmålet om fradragsret i forbindelse med erhvervelse, besiddelse og salg af aktier fortsat anledning til betydelig tvivl. I nærværende artikel søges den gældende retstilstand belyst og analyseret; herunder udsondres de problemstillinger, der fortsat må anses for uafklarede. I forlængelse heraf søges det prognosticeret, hvorledes EF-domstolen må antages at forholde sig til disse endnu ikke afklarede problemstillinger.

Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl; Stensgaard, Henrik

2006-01-01

211

Geothermal availability in Indonesia, volcanic archipelagoes. Kazan renkan no gunto Indonesia no chinetsu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper introduces activities of major volcanic mountains in Indonesia and the current status of its geothermal development. Vigorous volcanic activities in the Indonesian archipelagoes are exemplified by eruptions of Mt. Tambora in Sumbawa Island, Krakatau volcano, Mt. Merapi, Papandayan volcano in Java Island. Estimated geothermal reserve reaches 895 MW according to explorations in candidate geothermal sites at Kamojang, Darajat, Dieng, Salak, etc. in Java Island. The Kamojang geothermal site has a large number of geysers, boiling mud pots, and sulfur hot springs. Pertamina, a national organization, has built the Rancabam Kamojang geothermal power plant, which is operating with a power output of 140 MW. The paper describes briefly geothermal developments being carried out at the Dieng area in Java Island, and other areas in Slawesi Island, Bali Island, Flores Island, and Sumatra Island. 17 figs.

1993-02-01

212

Pre- and post-1998 ENSO records of shallow-water octocorals (Alcyonacea) in the Chagos Archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

When compared, principal octocorals collected in the Chagos Archipelago before and after the 1998 ENSO shared many common taxa. While a few discontinuities in their biodiversity revealed subtle changes in more persistent genera (Lobophytum, Sarcophyton), some fast-growing "fugitive" genera (e.g. Cespitularia, Efflatounaria, Heteroxenia) disappeared after the ENSO-related coral bleaching. Such transient fugitives might thus be eliminated from soft coral communities on isolated reef systems, possibly in the long term, by events of this nature. The appearance of Carijoa riseii, a species often considered a fouling organism, even an invasive, may well be indicative of reef degradation during the ENSO event. The post-ENSO recovery manifested by this fauna nevertheless gives cause for hope for their survival in the face of climate change. PMID:20934729

Schleyer, Michael H; Benayahu, Yehuda

2010-12-01

213

Models of oceanic island biogeography: changing perspectives on biodiversity dynamics in archipelagoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Models of biogeographic processes can both enhance and inhibit our ability to ask questions that guide our understanding of patterns and processes. The two ‘traditional’ models of island biogeography, the Equilibrium Model and the Vicariance Model, raise important and insightful questions about relevant processes, but both fail to raise many crucial questions. An example involving the non-volant mammals of the Philippine archipelago shows that both models highlight some, but not all, relevant patterns and processes. The more recently proposed General Dynamic Model successfully combines many of the positive aspects of the two traditional models, but leaves some important questions unasked. We pose a number of questions here that may help guide further development of models of island biogeography.

Lawrence R Heaney

2013-12-01

214

Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity and Antimycobacterial Activity of Madeira Archipelago Endemic Helichrysum Dietary and Medicinal Plants  

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Full Text Available The potential bioactivity of dietary and medicinal endemic Helichrysum plants from Madeira Archipelago was explored, for the first time, in order to supply new information for the general consumer. In vitro antioxidant properties were investigated using DPPH, ABTS•+, FRAP and ?-Carotene assays, and the total phenolic content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC were also determined. Although the results generally showed a large variation among the three analyzed plants, the methanolic extracts showed the highest antioxidant capacity. Exception is made for H. devium n-hexane extract that showed good radical scavenger capacity associated to compounds with good reducing properties. In the Artemia salina toxicity assay and antimycobaterial activity, H. devium was the most potent plant with the lowest LD50 at 216.7 ± 10.4 and MIC ? 50 ?g·mL?1. Chemometric evaluation (Principal Component Analysis—PCA showed close interdependence between the ABTS, TPC and TFC methods and allowed to group H. devium samples.

Sandra C. Gouveia-Figueira

2014-10-01

215

Land uplift at Kvarken archipelago and High Coast UNESCO World Heritage area  

Science.gov (United States)

The land uplift is a well-known phenomenon at the coastal areas of the Gulf of Bothnia in Finland and Sweden. Today, about 700 hectares of new land is rising from the sea every year. This is changing the landscape rapidly, especially at the shallow coastlines and archipelago of Kvarken where the uplift rate is about 9 mm/year. At the opposite side in Sweden, the High Coast has much steeper landscape and changes there are less prominent during one generation. Due to its unique nature, the area has received the UNESCO World Heritage status. The area is at the uplift maximum of the Fennoscandian postglacial rebound. In this presentation we describe the uplift on the area, based on geodetic measurements, modelling and relations to the sea level rise and climate change. We also discuss future scenarios in this UNESCO World Heritage area.

Poutanen, Markku; Steffen, Holger

2014-05-01

216

The 23 June 2014 Mw 7.9 Rat Islands archipelago, Alaska, intermediate depth earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

23 June 2014, the largest intermediate depth earthquake (Mw 7.9) of the last 100 years ruptured within the subducting Pacific plate about 100 km below the Rat Islands archipelago of the Western Aleutian Islands, Alaska. The unusual faulting orientation, strike = 206°, dip = 24°, and rake = -14°, is possibly related to curvature of the underthrust slab and high obliquity of the relative plate motions. The first ~15 s of the rupture generated relatively weak seismic waves, followed by strong energy release for the next 25 s. The seismic moment is 1.0 × 1021 Nm, and slip of up to ~10 m is concentrated within a 50 km × 50 km region. The radiated energy is 1.1 to 2.7 × 1016 J, assuming attenuation t* of 0.4 to 0.7 s. This type of intraplate faulting can be very damaging for populated regions above subduction zones such as Japan, Taiwan, Chile, and Indonesia.

Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Kanamori, Hiroo

2014-09-01

217

AND/R: Advanced neutron diffractometer/reflectometer for investigation of thin films and multilayers for the life sciences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An elastic neutron scattering instrument, the advanced neutron diffractometer/reflectometer (AND/R), has recently been commissioned at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Neutron Research. The AND/R is the centerpiece of the Cold Neutrons for Biology and Technology partnership, which is dedicated to the structural characterization of thin films and multilayers of biological interest. The instrument is capable of measuring both specular and nonspecular reflectivity, as well as crystalline or semicrystalline diffraction at wave-vector transfers up to approximately 2.20 A-1. A detailed description of this flexible instrument and its performance characteristics in various operating modes are given

218

Baseline assessment of the reef fish assemblage from Cagarras Archipelago, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The extensive Brazilian coast comprises diverse reef fish communities. Here, we report a pioneer study on the reef fish community composition of the Cagarras Archipelago. This rocky reef system consists of a small group of coastal islands 5 km south off Ipanema Beach, Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. A relatively diverse and disturbed fish community (99 species from 39 families was found in this archipelago. Two different visual census techniques were utilized and a large difference was observed in the number of species compared to other Brazilian reef sites. Trophic structure and biogeographical affinities are discussed. The absence of some reef fish species, mainly top predators, suggests severe environmental impact in this area and exhorts the Brazilian authorities to create a marine protected area. Results obtained in this study will serve to future environmental studies in Cagarras.A extensa costa brasileira abriga uma grande diversidade de peixes recifais. Este trabalho é um estudo pioneiro no que diz respeito à composição de espécies de peixes recifais do Arquipélago das Cagarras. Este sistema recifal é formado por um grupo de ilhas costeiras, distantes 5 km ao sul da Praia de Ipanema no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Uma comunidade relativamente diversa e impactada, com 99 espécies pertencentes a 39 famílias de peixes recifais, foi encontrada. A utilização de duas técnicas de censo visual mostrou uma grande diferença nos dados obtidos, quando comparados a outras regiões recifais brasileiras. São discutidos dados da estrutura trófica e a distribuição biogeográfica da ictiofauna da região. A ausência de algumas espécies, principalmente grandes predadores, sugere que a região está sofrendo grande impacto ambiental, e torna urgente a criação de uma área de proteção marinha pelas autoridades Brasileiras. Os resultados obtidos poderão servir como base para futuros estudos ambientais nas Cagarras.

Carlos A. Rangel

2007-03-01

219

Baseline assessment of the reef fish assemblage from Cagarras Archipelago, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A extensa costa brasileira abriga uma grande diversidade de peixes recifais. Este trabalho é um estudo pioneiro no que diz respeito à composição de espécies de peixes recifais do Arquipélago das Cagarras. Este sistema recifal é formado por um grupo de ilhas costeiras, distantes 5 km ao sul da Praia [...] de Ipanema no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Uma comunidade relativamente diversa e impactada, com 99 espécies pertencentes a 39 famílias de peixes recifais, foi encontrada. A utilização de duas técnicas de censo visual mostrou uma grande diferença nos dados obtidos, quando comparados a outras regiões recifais brasileiras. São discutidos dados da estrutura trófica e a distribuição biogeográfica da ictiofauna da região. A ausência de algumas espécies, principalmente grandes predadores, sugere que a região está sofrendo grande impacto ambiental, e torna urgente a criação de uma área de proteção marinha pelas autoridades Brasileiras. Os resultados obtidos poderão servir como base para futuros estudos ambientais nas Cagarras. Abstract in english The extensive Brazilian coast comprises diverse reef fish communities. Here, we report a pioneer study on the reef fish community composition of the Cagarras Archipelago. This rocky reef system consists of a small group of coastal islands 5 km south off Ipanema Beach, Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. A [...] relatively diverse and disturbed fish community (99 species from 39 families) was found in this archipelago. Two different visual census techniques were utilized and a large difference was observed in the number of species compared to other Brazilian reef sites. Trophic structure and biogeographical affinities are discussed. The absence of some reef fish species, mainly top predators, suggests severe environmental impact in this area and exhorts the Brazilian authorities to create a marine protected area. Results obtained in this study will serve to future environmental studies in Cagarras.

Carlos A., Rangel; Laís C. T., Chaves; Cassiano, Monteiro-Neto.

2007-03-01

220

The terrestrial reptile fauna of the Abrolhos Archipelago: species list and ecological aspects.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have studied the terrestrial reptile fauna of the Abrolhos Archipelago (a group of five islands located ca. 70 km off the southern coast of the State of Bahia, Brazil) and analyze here some of its ecological aspects such as diet, thermal ecology, activity, and some reproductive parameters. Three lizards comprise the archipelago's terrestrial reptile fauna: Tropidurus torquatus (Tropiduridae), Mabuya agilis (Scincidae), and Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae). The first two are diurnal and the latter is crepuscular/nocturnal (initiating activity at ca. 17:30). The activity period of T. torquatus extended from 5:30 to 18:30 h. Mean field body temperatures of active T. torquatus, M. agilis, and H. mabouia were, respectively, 34.0 +/- 3.7 degrees C (range 23.8-38.0 degrees C; N = 75), 34.5 +/- 2.2 degrees C (range 30.8-37.0 degrees C; N = 6), and 26.3 +/- 1.1 degrees C (range 24.8-28.0 degrees C; N = 8). The predominant prey items in the diet of T. torquatus were ants, coleopterans, and hemipterans. In the diet of M. agilis, coleopterans were the most frequent prey items. For H. mabouia, the most important dietary items were orthopterans. Clutch size of T. torquatus averaged 4.1 +/- 1.1 (range 2-6; N = 15) and was significantly related to female size (R2 = 0.618; p = 0.001; N = 15). Clutch size for H. mabouia was fixed (two) and mean litter size of the viviparous M. agilis was 3.3 +/- 0.6 (range 3-4; N = 3). Tropidurus torquatus and H. mabouia deposit their eggs under rocks in the study area, with the former burying them but not the latter; in both species, more than one female often oviposit under the same rock. PMID:12489402

Rocha, C F D; Dutra, G F; Vrcibradic, D; Menezes, V A

2002-05-01

 
 
 
 
221

Short-Period Rayleigh Wave Dispersion Measurements across the Cape Verde Archipelago using Ambient Noise  

Science.gov (United States)

The Cape Verde archipelago consists of 10 islands and several islets located on the southwest flank of the Cape Verde Rise, 500 to 800 km west of Senegal, off the African coast. This is an elevated region of ocean floor approximately 1200 km wide and encompassing an area greater than 3 x 105 km2. The islands form a horseshoe-shaped chain with a general age progression from east to west. Under the umbrella of the CV-PLUME and COBO projects, a temporary pool of 39 BB seismometers has been continuously recording between November 2007 and September 2008. This deployment provided a dense coverage of the archipelago with an unprecedented resolution. Ambient noise tomography has proved to be an efficient tool to construct high resolution maps of lithospheric shallower structures. Firstly, they allow measurements at periods shorter than 20 sec, which are hard to obtain from earthquake surface waves. Secondly, being independent of the epicentre-station geometry, they are suitable on regions of low seismicity. Cross-correlation of about 10 months of ambient seismic noise recorded at the CV-PLUME temporary network allowed us to measure short-period Rayleigh waves on all interstation paths. These cross-correlograms enabled us to compute short-period surface-wave group-velocity measurements on interstation paths. We used these measurements to construct maps of Rayleigh-wave group-velocity lateral variations at different periods. The most striking feature on the obtained record-sections is the presence of a secondary Rayleigh wave train in both causal and anti-causal parts of the cross-correlograms obtained for the paths crossing the western edge of the “horseshoe”. This study was supported by projects “CV-PLUME: An investigation on the geometry and deep signature of the Cape Verde mantle plume” (PTDC/CTE-GIN/64330/2006) and “COBO: Cape Verdes Origin from Broadband Observations”, GDSS, GFZ-Potsdam.

Silveira, M. M.; Matias, L. M.; Nunes, J.; Teves-Costa, P.

2010-12-01

222

Baseline assessment of the reef fish assemblage from Cagarras Archipelago, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A extensa costa brasileira abriga uma grande diversidade de peixes recifais. Este trabalho é um estudo pioneiro no que diz respeito à composição de espécies de peixes recifais do Arquipélago das Cagarras. Este sistema recifal é formado por um grupo de ilhas costeiras, distantes 5 km ao sul da Praia [...] de Ipanema no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Uma comunidade relativamente diversa e impactada, com 99 espécies pertencentes a 39 famílias de peixes recifais, foi encontrada. A utilização de duas técnicas de censo visual mostrou uma grande diferença nos dados obtidos, quando comparados a outras regiões recifais brasileiras. São discutidos dados da estrutura trófica e a distribuição biogeográfica da ictiofauna da região. A ausência de algumas espécies, principalmente grandes predadores, sugere que a região está sofrendo grande impacto ambiental, e torna urgente a criação de uma área de proteção marinha pelas autoridades Brasileiras. Os resultados obtidos poderão servir como base para futuros estudos ambientais nas Cagarras. Abstract in english The extensive Brazilian coast comprises diverse reef fish communities. Here, we report a pioneer study on the reef fish community composition of the Cagarras Archipelago. This rocky reef system consists of a small group of coastal islands 5 km south off Ipanema Beach, Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. A [...] relatively diverse and disturbed fish community (99 species from 39 families) was found in this archipelago. Two different visual census techniques were utilized and a large difference was observed in the number of species compared to other Brazilian reef sites. Trophic structure and biogeographical affinities are discussed. The absence of some reef fish species, mainly top predators, suggests severe environmental impact in this area and exhorts the Brazilian authorities to create a marine protected area. Results obtained in this study will serve to future environmental studies in Cagarras.

Carlos A., Rangel; Laís C. T., Chaves; Cassiano, Monteiro-Neto.

223

New data on Perkinsus mediterraneus in the Balearic Archipelago: locations and affected species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Perkinsus mediterraneus, a protozoan parasite that can cause perkinsosis (marine mollusc disease), was first detected in oysters Ostrea edulis from Mahon (Minorca, Balearic Islands, Spain) in 2004. Several years later it was also found in Andratx Harbour (Majorca, Balearic Islands) and in the Gulf of Manfredonia (Adriatic coast of Italy) in oyster populations. Since 2007, Perkinsus surveys have been conducted in different localities and shellfish species in the Balearic Archipelago. In the present work, we found P. mediterraneus in the Balearic Islands infecting oyster and other shellfish species. We describe infection with P. mediterraneus for the first time in Arca noae and Mimachlamys varia. The detection was carried out using Ray's fluid thioglycolate medium (RFTM), histology and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methodologies. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (including ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2) of P. mediterraneus ribosomal DNA was sequenced from infected bivalve gills (or from the body in Chamelea gallina) from Balearic Archipelago localities. Twelve haplotypes with a strong genetic similarity between them (97-100%) were observed in our samples. These data were completed with 12 more haplotypes from GenBank sequences. The phylogenetic relationship between Balearic P. mediterraneus haplotypes found in this study, those previously obtained in Mahon Harbour, and the Perkinsus spp. sequences available in GenBank clearly grouped the different Perkinsus spp. in distinct clades supported by strong bootstrap values. Moreover, these analyses detected different P. mediterraneus groups in O. edulis from Minorca Island. No abnormal mortalities or decline in populations were detected during the survey, except for C. gallina, which is also affected by Marteilia refringens. PMID:25392044

Valencia, J M; Bassitta, M; Picornell, A; Ramon, C; Castro, J A

2014-11-14

224

Looking inside the Panarea Island (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy by gravity and magnetic data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we show and discuss the results of gravity and magnetic surveys of Panarea Island and its archipelago. The most recent volcanic manifestation occurred in November 2002 with a shallow submarine gas eruption between the islets of Dattilo, Panarelli, Lisca Bianca, Bottaro and Lisca Nera. Currently, the activity of Panarea is monitored through a multidisciplinary study under the umbrella of the Italian Department of Civil Protection with the goal of defining the hazard of this area. With this aim, in May 2006 the first gravity and magnetic surveys of Panarea Island and its archipelago were performed. The offshore magnetic data were obtained using a marine magnetometer, a Geometrics G880, from the Istituto Idrografico dell Marina (IIM. Onshore and offshore magnetic data were integrated into an unique dataset for complete magnetic coverage of the study area. By using two micro-gravimeters (LaCoste & Romberg, gravity data were collected along tracks every 250 meters. The gravity dataset was processed using the standard method. A Bouguer reduction was applied to the free-air gravity dataset using a detailed digital elevation model of the island and the neighbouring sea after evaluation of the optimal Bouguer density to reduce the topographic effect. The result is a Bouguer anomaly map that shows lateral variations in density distribution and the relationships between the shallow volcanic/crustal features and tectonic lineaments. This evidence is also highlighted by the magnetic pattern, which suggests the importance of the youngest volcanic deposits with respect to the magnetic features of the island.

F. Greco

2008-06-01

225

Unexpectedly high radioactivity burdens in ice-rafted sediments from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unexpectedly high specific activities of 137Cs (1800-2000 Bq kg-1 dry weight) have been detected in fine-grained sediments entrained in multi-year sea ice floes grounded in Resolute Bay near the center of the Northwest Passage through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. These results are remarkable because: (1) the specific activities are about two orders of magnitude higher than average specific activities detected in previous studies of sea ice rafted sediments from the Arctic Ocean (2) two independent observations of these unexpectedly high specific activities were made several years apart (3) the sampling site is on the opposite side of the Arctic basin from potential radioactive sources such as disposal and weapons testing sites of the former Soviet Union and nuclear fuel reprocessing sites in western Europe, and (4) the closest compositional match to known geologic source regions is Banks Island, on the western edge of the Arctic Archipelago, although a smaller number of grains from one of the two samples were mineralogically matched to sediments in the Laptev Sea. Consequently, the sediments are probably not from a single distinct source and were likely mixed during sea ice transport. Coupled with previous observations of higher radionuclide specific activities in some sea ice rafted sediments relative to bottom sediments, these new observations indicate that comparatively high as well as variable radioactive contaminant burdens in ice raftedioactive contaminant burdens in ice rafted sediments must be common and geographically independent of proximity to known contaminant sources. The mechanisms that would facilitate these unexpected high radionuclide burdens in sea ice are not known and require additional study, as well as investigations of the implications for the transport and fate of contaminants in Arctic sea ice

226

Revmatoid artritt i Norge – demografi, sykdomskarakteristika og behandling. En sammenligning med andre europeiske land og USA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bakgrunn: Revmatoid artritt (RA er en kronisk inflammatorisk leddsykdom som gir økt sykelighet og dødelighet. Nye biologiske legemidler har de siste 10 årene bedret prognosen betydelig. I 2005 ble QUEST-RA (Quantitative Standard Monitoring of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis prosjektet etablert for å sammenligne sykdomsstatus og behandling hos RA-pasienter i forskjellige land. I denne artikkelen presenteres status for RA-pasienter i Norge sammenlignet med andre europeiske land og USA.Materiale og metode: Tilfeldig utvalgte RA-pasienter fulgt opp ved revmatologisk poliklinikk ved Sørlandet sykehus i Kristiansand (n=100 og St. Olavs Hospital i Trondheim (n=100 ble inkludert. I henhold til protokoll ble demografiske, sykdoms- og behandlingsdata registrert.Resultater: Norske RA-pasienter skilte seg lite fra gjennomsnittet i andre land med hensyn til alder, utdannelse og sykdomsvarighet. Sykdomsalvorlighet og sykdomsstatus til norske RA-pasienter er sammenlignbare med pasienter fra land som har lavest sykdomsaktivitet og best helsestatus. I Norge er andelen som behandles med biologiske legemidler ca 30%, og Norge er blant de land med størst andel pasienter som behandles med denne legemiddelgruppen. Fortolkning: RA-pasienter i Norge er blant de i Europa som har lavest sykdomsaktivitet. En årsak antas å være den relativt utbredte bruken av biologiske legemidler i Norge.

Tuulikki Sokka

2012-11-01

227

San Francisco Historical Photograph Collection  

Science.gov (United States)

In the 1936 film, "San Francisco" Jeannette MacDonald sings the film's title song, which of course includes the Gus Kahn-penned lyric "San Francisco, welcome me home again/I'm not at home to go roaming no more." For those who might be pining for Baghdad by the Bay (or for images from the infamous earthquake in 1906), this online collection from the San Francisco Public Library will be most welcome. All told, the San Francisco Historical Photograph Collection contains more than 250,000 photographs of San Francisco and California, although not all of these photographs are available online here. Visitors should begin their voyage through these images by using their search engine, which allows them to search by photographer, subject index, or by date. Perhaps the most novel way to search the images is to look through the photos by using an interactive map of the entire city. Here visitors can find photographs of the historic Moulin Rouge nightclub in the historic Barbary Coast area, or move on over to Sutro Heights over on the Pacific Ocean. For those who might be feeling a bit less adventurous, there are a number of thematic collections, including "Picture This: Family Photographs of Everyday San Francisco".

228

Régner sans régner  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Les problèmes, dus au genre, d’une régente et d’une reine héritière. Mais aussi comment ils furent surmontés. Dépossédée de fait par la noblesse de la tutelle de son jeune frère, Henri Ier de Castille (1214-1217, Bérengère, devenue, à la suite de la mort accidentelle du roi, héritière du trône, transmet immédiatement la couronne à son fils aîné Ferdinand. Elle ne laissera pas pour autant d’exercer une influence majeure sur le gouvernement du royaume, régnant sans régner… Mais comment se faire une opinion un peu exacte de Bérengère, de son rôle et de ses relations avec Ferdinand III à travers les témoignages partisans et contrastés des trois historiens du règne : Luc de Tuy, Jean d’Osma et Rodrigue de Tolède ?Los problemas, debidos al género, de una regenta y de una reina heredera. Pero también cómo los superó. Desposeída por la nobleza de la tutela de su joven hermano Enrique I (1214-1217, Berenguela, heredera del trono a la muerte del rey, transmite inmediatamente la corona a su hijo mayor, Fernando. No dejará por eso de influir en el gobierno del reino, reinando sin reinar… Pero ¿cómo hacerse una opinión algo exacta de Berenguela de Castilla, de su papel político y de sus relaciones con Fernando III a través de los testimonios partidarios y contradictorios de los tres historiadores del reinado : Lucas de Túy, Juan de Osma y Rodrigo de Toledo ?

Georges Martin

2006-12-01

229

San Bernardino County Museum  

Science.gov (United States)

The San Bernardino County Museum is a regional museum with exhibits and collections in cultural and natural history. Special exhibits, the Exploration Station live animal discovery center, extensive research collections, and public programs for adults, families, students, and children are all part of the museum experience. The Museum is surrounded by citrus groves, and orange blossoms perfume the air. The Zimmerman Citrus Kiosk explores citrus agricultural history in Southern California. Death Valley Alive! is a new traveling exhibit, available for rent, where visitors can explore the natural history and culture of the Death Valley region from its geologic beginnings 1.3 billion years ago. Online exhibits include The Importance of Museum Collections, The Barstow Fossil Beds, Motherlode of the Miocene, The Etiwanda Fan, and for kids, Mimicry, a study in camouflage and adaptation. Teacher Resources include professional development and workshops, and Trading Places, where 21 hours of time spent volunteering in the Museum earns a free program for your class. Sample opportunities include writing activities for study kits, developing post-visit activities, creating a museum gallery guide, translating student materials into Spanish, or developing an independent idea. There are programs for youth, Scouts, and adults, as well as various publications available in anthropology, archeology, biology, geology and history.

230

Karyological study of Amphisbaena ridleyi (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae), an endemic species of the Archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, Pernambuco, Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The karyotype of Amphisbaena ridleyi, an endemic species of the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, in State of Pernambuco, Brazil, is described after conventional staining, Ag-NOR impregnation and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a telomeric probe. The diploid number is 46, with nine pairs of macrochromosomes (three metacentrics, four subtelocentrics and two acrocentrics) and 14 pairs of microchromosomes. The Ag-NOR is located in the telomeric region of the long arm of metacent...

Marcia Maria Laguna; Renata Cecília Amaro; Tamí Mott; Yatiyo Yonenaga-Yassuda; Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues

2010-01-01

231

The influence of the geological setting on the morphogenetic evolution of the Tremiti Archipelago (Apulia, Southeastern Italy)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Tremiti Archipelago (Southern Adriatic Sea), also called Insulae Diomedae from the name of the Greek hero who first landed there, is an area of high landscape and historical value. It is severely affected by significant geomorphologic processes dominated by mass movements along the coast that constitute the most important and unpredictable natural hazard for the population and cultural heritage. Coastal erosion is favoured by the peculiar geological and structural setting, seismic activit...

Andriani, G. F.; Walsh, N.; Pagliarulo, R.

2005-01-01

232

A study on the characteristics of nutrient input from rivers to coastal waters of Spermonde Archipelago, South Sulawesi, Indonesia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coastal eutrophication is a serious environmental problem in many parts of Indonesia coastal areas, including in coastal water of western coast of South Sulawesi (Spermonde Archipelago), where hundreds of hectare of coral reefs are situated. The nutrient enrichment of coastal waters off the Spermonde has mostly resulted from various activities that are related to the development of agriculture, aquaculture, and human settlement along the western coast. Rivers along the wes...

Lukman, Muhammad

2013-01-01

233

Taxonomy and biogeography of the coastal fishes of Juan Fernández Archipelago and Desventuradas Islands, Chile / Taxonomía y biogeografía de los peces costeros del Archipiélago de Juan Fernández y de las islas Desventuradas, Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Las islas Desventuradas (San Félix y San Ambrosio) y del Archipiélago de Juan Fernández (Robinson Crusoe y Alejandro Selkirk) son islas oceánicas de origen volcánico ubicadas en el Pacífico Sudeste, frente a Chile. Sobre la base de material recolectado desde 1997 hasta la fecha, revisiones de colecc [...] iones de las expediciones del R/V Anton Bruun y actualizaciones taxonómicas, la fauna de peces litorales del Archipélago de Juan Fernández y las islas Desventuradas tienen un total de 52 especies, con 41 y 43 especies, respectivamente. Los peces costeros endémicos de Juan Fernández son solamente cinco (12,2%) y tres son las especies registradas aquí como nuevas para las islas (Gymnothorax cf. obesus, Gnathophis sp., Suezichthys sp.). Las Desventuradas tienen solamente dos especies endémicas (4,6%) y cuatro son los nuevos registros (Scorpaenodes englerti, Maxillicosta reticulata, Suezichthys sp., Aseraggodes bahamondei). El reducido número de especies endémicas para Juan Fernández comparado con trabajos previos (15 especies) se debe a que muchas resultaron ser endémicas de ambos grupos de islas (22 especies = 42,3% total peces litorales), apoyando la propuesta que ambos grupos de islas debieran formar una sola unidad biogeográfica. La extensión oriental de la región Indo Pacífico Oeste para incluir la cordillera de Nazca, las islas Desventuradas y Juan Fernández encuentra apoyo en este trabajo. La afinidad zoogeográfica entre las Desventuradas y las islas del Pacífico Oeste (Isla de Pascua hasta Australia) incluye 16 especies, agregando cinco nuevos registros a listas anteriores. Filogenias de tres géneros señalan un centro de origen en el Pacífico Oeste, con uno o más eventos de dispersión hacia las islas Desventuradas y Juan Fernández. Este patrón de dispersión puede repetirse en otros siete géneros de pocas especies y relativamente restringidas en distribución. Solo una filogenia (Odontesthes) propone un origen continental con una dispersión hacia el Oeste, sin embargo otros tres géneros parecen tener este mismo patrón de dispersión. Abstract in english The Desventuradas Islands (San Félix and San Ambrosio) and Juan Fernández Archipelago (Robinson Crusoe and Alejandro Selkirk) are oceanic islands of volcanic origin located in the southeastern Pacific off Chile. Based on new material collected since 1997, revision of the R/V Anton Bruun expeditions [...] collections, and a taxonomic update, the coastal fish fauna of Juan Fernández Archipelago and Desventuradas Islands found a total of 52 species, with 41 and 43 species, respectively. The number of coastal fish species recorded herein as endemic for Juan Fernández is only five (12,2%) and three species are new records (Gymnothorax cf. obesus, Gnathophis sp., Suezichthys sp). The Desventuradas Islands have only two endemic species (4,6%) and four species are new records (Scorpaenodes englerti, Maxillicosta reticulata, Suezichthys sp., Aseraggodes bahamondei). The reduced number of endemic species for the Juan Fernández Islands as compared with previous accounts (15 species) is the result that more species were found to be endemic to both islands groups (22 species = 42,3% all coastal fishes), suggesting these two island groups should be considered a single biogeographic unit. The eastern extension of the Indo West Pacific Region to include the Nazca Ridge, Desventuradas and Juan Fernández Islands is supported herein. The zoogeographical affinities between Desventuradas and western Pacific Islands (Easter Island to Australia), includes 16 species, adding five new species to previous lists. Relationships of three genera indicate a Western Pacific origin with one or more dispersal events to the Desventuradas and Juan Fernández Islands. Another seven genera, with relatively few species and restricted distribution, may have this same pattern. Only one phylogenetic study indicates a continental origin with a westward dispersal (Odontesthes), however another thr

Brian S, Dyer; Mark W, Westneat.

234

Taxonomy and biogeography of the coastal fishes of Juan Fernández Archipelago and Desventuradas Islands, Chile / Taxonomía y biogeografía de los peces costeros del Archipiélago de Juan Fernández y de las islas Desventuradas, Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Las islas Desventuradas (San Félix y San Ambrosio) y del Archipiélago de Juan Fernández (Robinson Crusoe y Alejandro Selkirk) son islas oceánicas de origen volcánico ubicadas en el Pacífico Sudeste, frente a Chile. Sobre la base de material recolectado desde 1997 hasta la fecha, revisiones de colecc [...] iones de las expediciones del R/V Anton Bruun y actualizaciones taxonómicas, la fauna de peces litorales del Archipélago de Juan Fernández y las islas Desventuradas tienen un total de 52 especies, con 41 y 43 especies, respectivamente. Los peces costeros endémicos de Juan Fernández son solamente cinco (12,2%) y tres son las especies registradas aquí como nuevas para las islas (Gymnothorax cf. obesus, Gnathophis sp., Suezichthys sp.). Las Desventuradas tienen solamente dos especies endémicas (4,6%) y cuatro son los nuevos registros (Scorpaenodes englerti, Maxillicosta reticulata, Suezichthys sp., Aseraggodes bahamondei). El reducido número de especies endémicas para Juan Fernández comparado con trabajos previos (15 especies) se debe a que muchas resultaron ser endémicas de ambos grupos de islas (22 especies = 42,3% total peces litorales), apoyando la propuesta que ambos grupos de islas debieran formar una sola unidad biogeográfica. La extensión oriental de la región Indo Pacífico Oeste para incluir la cordillera de Nazca, las islas Desventuradas y Juan Fernández encuentra apoyo en este trabajo. La afinidad zoogeográfica entre las Desventuradas y las islas del Pacífico Oeste (Isla de Pascua hasta Australia) incluye 16 especies, agregando cinco nuevos registros a listas anteriores. Filogenias de tres géneros señalan un centro de origen en el Pacífico Oeste, con uno o más eventos de dispersión hacia las islas Desventuradas y Juan Fernández. Este patrón de dispersión puede repetirse en otros siete géneros de pocas especies y relativamente restringidas en distribución. Solo una filogenia (Odontesthes) propone un origen continental con una dispersión hacia el Oeste, sin embargo otros tres géneros parecen tener este mismo patrón de dispersión. Abstract in english The Desventuradas Islands (San Félix and San Ambrosio) and Juan Fernández Archipelago (Robinson Crusoe and Alejandro Selkirk) are oceanic islands of volcanic origin located in the southeastern Pacific off Chile. Based on new material collected since 1997, revision of the R/V Anton Bruun expeditions [...] collections, and a taxonomic update, the coastal fish fauna of Juan Fernández Archipelago and Desventuradas Islands found a total of 52 species, with 41 and 43 species, respectively. The number of coastal fish species recorded herein as endemic for Juan Fernández is only five (12,2%) and three species are new records (Gymnothorax cf. obesus, Gnathophis sp., Suezichthys sp). The Desventuradas Islands have only two endemic species (4,6%) and four species are new records (Scorpaenodes englerti, Maxillicosta reticulata, Suezichthys sp., Aseraggodes bahamondei). The reduced number of endemic species for the Juan Fernández Islands as compared with previous accounts (15 species) is the result that more species were found to be endemic to both islands groups (22 species = 42,3% all coastal fishes), suggesting these two island groups should be considered a single biogeographic unit. The eastern extension of the Indo West Pacific Region to include the Nazca Ridge, Desventuradas and Juan Fernández Islands is supported herein. The zoogeographical affinities between Desventuradas and western Pacific Islands (Easter Island to Australia), includes 16 species, adding five new species to previous lists. Relationships of three genera indicate a Western Pacific origin with one or more dispersal events to the Desventuradas and Juan Fernández Islands. Another seven genera, with relatively few species and restricted distribution, may have this same pattern. Only one phylogenetic study indicates a continental origin with a westward dispersal (Odontesthes), however another thr

Brian S, Dyer; Mark W, Westneat.

2010-12-01

235

Integrating paleoecology and genetics of bird populations in two sky island archipelagos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic tests of paleoecological hypotheses have been rare, partly because recent genetic divergence is difficult to detect and time. According to fossil plant data, continuous woodland in the southwestern USA and northern Mexico became fragmented during the last 10,000 years, as warming caused cool-adapted species to retreat to high elevations. Most genetic studies of resulting 'sky islands' have either failed to detect recent divergence or have found discordant evidence for ancient divergence. We test this paleoecological hypothesis for the region with intraspecific mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite data from sky-island populations of a sedentary bird, the Mexican jay (Aphelocoma ultramarina. We predicted that populations on different sky islands would share common, ancestral alleles that existed during the last glaciation, but that populations on each sky island, owing to their isolation, would contain unique variants of postglacial origin. We also predicted that divergence times estimated from corrected genetic distance and a coalescence model would post-date the last glacial maximum. Results Our results provide multiple independent lines of support for postglacial divergence, with the predicted pattern of shared and unique mitochondrial DNA haplotypes appearing in two independent sky-island archipelagos, and most estimates of divergence time based on corrected genetic distance post-dating the last glacial maximum. Likewise, an isolation model based on multilocus gene coalescence indicated postglacial divergence of five pairs of sky islands. In contrast to their similar recent histories, the two archipelagos had dissimilar historical patterns in that sky islands in Arizona showed evidence for older divergence, suggesting different responses to the last glaciation. Conclusion This study is one of the first to provide explicit support from genetic data for a postglacial divergence scenario predicted by one of the best paleoecological records in the world. Our results demonstrate that sky islands act as generators of genetic diversity at both recent and historical timescales and underscore the importance of thorough sampling and the use of loci with fast mutation rates to studies that test hypotheses concerning recent genetic divergence.

Bowen Bonnie S

2008-06-01

236

Height Connections and Land Uplift Rates in West-Estonian Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

Land uplift rates are largest in the western part of Estonia. The uplift is due to post-glacial rebound. In 2001-2011, the Estonian national high-precision levelling network was completely renewed and levelled. This was the third precise levelling campaign in the re-gion. The first one had taken place before the Second World War and the second one in the 1950s. The Estonian mainland was connected with the two largest islands (Saaremaa and Hiiumaa) in the west-Estonian archipelago using the water level monitoring (hydrody-namic levelling) method. Three pairs of automatic tide gauges were installed on opposite coasts of each waterway. The tide gauges were equipped with piezoresistive pressure sen-sors. This represented the first use of such kind of equipment in Estonia. The hydrodynamic levelling series span up to two calendar years. Nevertheless, the obtained hydrodynamic levelling results need to be additionally verified using alternative geodetic methods. The obtained results were compared with the previous high-precision levelling data from the 1960s and 1970s. As well, the new Estonian gravimetric geoid model and the GPS survey were used for GPS-levelling. All the three methods were analyzed, and the preliminary results coincided within a 1-2 cm margin. Additionally, the tide gauges on the mainland and on both islands were connected using high-precision levelling. In this manner, three hydrodynamic and three digital levelling height differences formed a closed loop with the length of 250 km. The closing error of the loop was less than 1 cm. Finally, the Fennoscandian post-glacial rebound was determined from repeated levelling as well as from repeated GPS survey. The time span between the two campaigns of the first-order GPS survey was almost 13 years. According to new calculations, the relative land uplift rates within the study area reached up to +2 mm/year. This is an area with a rela-tively small amount of input data for the Nordic models. In addition, a comparison with the Fennoscandian land uplift model NKG2005LU is presented. The results coincided with this model within a 1-mm range. Keywords: hydrodynamic levelling, post-glacial land uplift, GPS-levelling, West-Estonian archipelago.

Jürgenson, H.; Liibusk, A.; Kall, T.

2012-04-01

237

Prevalence of Calodium hepaticum (Syn. Capillaria hepatica) in house mice (Mus musculus) in the Azores archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calodium hepaticum (Syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a zoonotic liver nematode of mammals distributed worldwide. Rodents are believed to be the main reservoirs of this nematode. In this paper, prevalence of the parasite was analyzed in liver histological sections from 51 house mice (Mus musculus) caught in human-inhabited houses, from two localities (Furnas and Rabo de Peixe) on São Miguel island from the Azores archipelago (Portugal). Mean prevalence of infection was 19.6%, with 33.3% prevalence in Furnas and 4.1% in Rabo de Peixe (P=0.07). No significant differences were found between the prevalence of infection and the age, body weight and the sex of mice. Hepatic lesions found were either acute and/or chronic stage and consisted of moderate to severe multifocal pyogranulomatous hepatitis with encapsulated eggs with typical bipolar plugs and moderate to severe necrotizing hepatitis consistent with larva tracks. Periportal inflammatory infiltration, hepatocyte regeneration and bile duct hyperplasia were also noted. In most cases, hepatic lesions occupied more than 50% of the liver, but despite severe lesions, in some mice, no signs of hepatic failure were noticed. The high rate of infection found in the present study suggests that house mice are an important reservoir for this parasite in the Azores and could have a role in human transmission. PMID:19135804

Resendes, A R; Amaral, A F S; Rodrigues, A; Almeria, S

2009-03-23

238

Number of endemic and native plant species in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

By simple and multiple regression analyses we investigate updated species numbers of endemic and native vascular plants and seed plants in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters. We find that the best models to describe species numbers are regression models with log-transformed species numbers as dependent and log-transformed modified area (i.e. area not covered with barren lava) as an independent variable. This holds both for total species number, for native species number, for endemic species number and for total number of seed plants as well as number of endemic seed plants. For the ratio between endemic and native species, modified area is also the major significant variable, but with a negative regression slope. Multiple regression models show that some isolation measures are significant contributors and may explain some of the residual variation, but their contribution to total explained variation is in general small. The results show that the species area relationships are different for native and endemic species. This is discussed in relation to classical island biogeographical models, and the concepts of radiative speciation.

2002-01-01

239

Natural trace element enrichment in fishes from a volcanic and tectonically active region (Azores archipelago)  

Science.gov (United States)

Seamounts, in general, are thought to support high biodiversity and special biological communities. They have been targeted by commercial fishing for demersal and pelagic fish species due to the occurrence of large aggregations in mid- and deep-water. Specimens of Phycis phycis, Helicolenus dactylopterus, Pontinus kuhlii, Beryx splendens, Beryx decadactylus, Etmopterus pusillus, Mora moro, Pagellus bogaraveo, Deania profundorum, Scomber colias and Trachurus picturatus were collected at the Condor seamount and on the slopes of Faial and Pico islands of Azores archipelago. Concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb were determined in muscle and liver of each individual. Values of the 11 trace elements in the two tissues of the benthopelagic and benthic specimens, from the two surveyed areas, presented a significant inter-specific variation. In general, levels were lower in muscle than in liver, and negative relations between weight and Co, Mn, Zn, As, Cd and Pb concentrations in muscle and liver of three species were found. Pagellus bogaraveo, S. colias and T. picturatus presented enhanced elemental concentrations in liver, particularly of Cd. The extremely high storage of this potentially toxic element suggests a response to high uptake of Cd and the existence of an additional natural source of Cd to the environment.

Raimundo, Joana; Vale, Carlos; Caetano, Miguel; Giacomello, Eva; Anes, Bárbara; Menezes, Gui M.

2013-12-01

240

Aesthetics and Empire: The Sense of Feminine Beauty in the Making of the US Imperial Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article examines the “sense of beauty” in the United States imperial archipelago, composed of the island territories of Cuba, Hawai`i, Philippines, and Puerto Rico, all acquired in 1898. The theoretical connection among these two elements –aesthetics and empire– is provided by a revision of the concepts “economy of colonial desire” and “complex of visuality.” This paper analyzes the most advanced visual technology of the late nineteenth century: the mass- produced, printed photograph. In particular, it focuses upon the representations of feminine beauty as found the illustrated “new-possessions” books which described recent island acquisitions of the United States. The connections between aesthetics and the forms of governance in each territory will also be elucidated.Este artículo examina el “sentido de belleza” en el archipiélago imperial estadounidense, compuesto de los territorios isleños de Cuba, Hawai`i, Filipinas y Puerto Rico, todos adquiridos en 1898. La conexión teórica entre estos dos elementos –estética e imperio– se establece mediante una revisión de los conceptos de “economía de deseo colonial” y el “complejo de visualidad”. Este artículo analiza la tecnología visual más avanzada del siglo diecinueve tardío: la fotografía impresa. En particular, se enfoca en las representaciones de belleza femenina en los libros ilustrados de las “nuevas posesiones” los cuales describían las adquisiciones recientes de los Estados Unidos. También, se dilucidarán las conexiones entre estética y las formas de gobernanza en cada territorio.

Thompson, Lanny

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

Exchange of sea ice between the Arctic Ocean and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

First estimates of sea ice exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) are obtained using six years (1997-2002) of RADARSAT ice motion. Over the period, the mean annual flux of sea ice area from the Amundsen Gulf (AG), M'Clure Strait (MS), and Queen Elizabeth Islands (QEI) are -85 +/- 26 × 103, -20 +/- 24 × 103, and 8 +/- 6 × 103 km2. Positive/negative sign indicates Arctic outflow/inflow. Overall, net sea ice area is exported from the CAA; rough estimates suggest a mean annual volume flux of ~102 km3 into the Canada Basin. Ice types are largely seasonal near the AG flux gate, mixed seasonal and multiyear at the MS gate, and primarily multiyear at the QEI gates. Sea ice at the QEI flux gates remains land fast for most of the year. Cross-strait gradient in sea level pressure explains more than 50% of the variance in the area flux at these passages. The role of ice exchange during the anomalous decrease in multiyear ice coverage in the Sverdrup Basin during September 1998 is examined.

Kwok, Ron

2006-08-01

242

137Cs dating of laminated sediments in Swedish archipelago areas of the Baltic Sea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In deep off-shore areas of the Baltic Sea, sediment accumulation rates are typically on the order of one or a few millimeters per year, and even less in consolidated sediments, based on laming counts and radiometric dating. In lacustrine and marine basins, the highest sedimentation rates are usually found in the deepest part, since sediments and associated contaminants are known to be gradually 'focused' from shallow to deep areas by resuspension. Accordingly, net sedimentation in coastal areas is usually low or absent due to strong erosion forces. On the other hand, coastal sediments are likely to be important in controlling the fate and turnover of contaminants that are released into coastal waters. Since little is known about the turnover of coastal sediments, in particular for heterogeneous semi-enclosed areas such as the Baltic archipelagos, a study of sediment accumulation rates has been initaited, with a focus on areas where erosion is likely to be minimal. The study is part of a project focusing on the relationship between eutrophication and contaminant cycling (EUCON). 88 sediment cores were collected during summer 1996 from accumulation bottoms of 18 more or less protected bays in archipalgo areas along the swedish coast of the Baltic Sea

243

Spatial distribution of oxygen-18 and deuterium in stream waters across the Japanese archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The spatial distribution of oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition (?18O and ?2H of stream waters across Japan was clarified with a data set compiling sample data obtained from 1278 forest catchments during the summer of 2003. Both ?18O and ?2H values showed positive correlations with the mean annual air temperature and annual evapotranspiration, and negative correlations with latitude and elevation. Deuterium excess (d excess values in stream waters were higher on the Sea of Japan side, and lower on the Pacific Ocean side, of the Japanese archipelago. The d excess in precipitation was generally higher in winter and lower in summer in Japan. The Sea of Japan side experiences a great deal of snowfall, and seasonal changes in monthly precipitation are rather small. In contrast, the Pacific Ocean side experiences a large amount of rainfall during summer with low levels of precipitation during the winter. Therefore, the lower d excess in stream waters on the Pacific Ocean side reflects summer precipitation, and the higher values on the Sea of Japan side are affected by delayed recharge from snowmelt. The isoscapes of stream water connote not only spatially integrated but also temporally integrated isotope signals of precipitation, and provide a framework for addressing applied hydrological, ecological, or meteorological research questions at regional scales, such as the effects of climate change.

M. Katsuyama

2014-09-01

244

Morphological and genetic diversity of briareum (anthozoa: octocorallia) from the ryukyu archipelago, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary problem hindering the study of octocorals is the disordered situation regarding their taxonomy, chiefly caused by insufficient knowledge of valid morphological taxonomic characters. Briareum is an octocoral genus found in the Atlantic and Pacific in shallow tropical and subtropical waters, and occurs in both encrusting and branching colony forms. Their simple morphology and morphological plasticity have hindered taxonomic understanding of this genus. In this study three morphologically distinct types (= type-1, -2, and -3) of Briareum from the Ryukyu Archipelago and their genetic diversity were examined. Colony, anthostele morphology, and sclerite length were examined for each type. Four molecular markers (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, mitochondrial mismatch repair gene, nuclear 18S ribosomal DNA, internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2)) were used to evaluate molecular phylogenetic status of these variations. Although one morphological type ("deep" small colonies, = type-3) showed small differences in nuclear ITS2 sequences compared to the other two types, the remaining types had identical sequences for all molecular markers examined. The results suggest extremely low genetic diversity despite highly variable morphology of Briareum species in Okinawa. Nevertheless, considering the distribution patterns and discontinuous morphology of type-3 compared to the other two morphotypes, genetic isolation of type-3 is plausible. In Briareum, small variances in nuclear ITS2 sequences of type-3 may have much more importance than in molecular phylogenies of other octocorals. Further phylogenetic investigations and comparison with Briareum specimens from other regions are necessary to conclusively taxonomically identify the three types. PMID:25284389

Miyazaki, Yu; Reimer, James Davis

2014-10-01

245

Tropical storm off Myanmar coast sweeps reefs in Ritchie's Archipelago, Andaman.  

Science.gov (United States)

The reefs in some islands of Andaman and Nicobar suffered severe damage following a tropical storm in the Bay of Bengal off Myanmar coast during 13-17 March 2011. Surveys were conducted at eight sites in Andaman, of which five were located in the Ritchie's Archipelago where maximum wind speeds of 11 m s(-1) was observed; and three around Port Blair which lay on the leeward side of the storm and had not experienced wind speeds of more than 9 m s(-1). Corals in the shallow inshore reefs were broken and dislodged by the thrust of the waves. Significant damage in the deeper regions and offshore reefs were caused by the settlement of debris and sand brought down from the shallower regions. The fragile branching corals (Acropora sp.) were reduced to rubbles and the larger boulder corals (Porites sp.) were toppled over or scarred by falling debris. The reefs on the windward side and directly in the path of the storm winds were the worst affected. The investigation exposes the vulnerability of the reefs in Andaman to the oceanographic features which generally remain unnoticed unless the damage is caused to the coastal habitats. PMID:23135061

Krishnan, P; Grinson-George; Vikas, N; Titus-Immanuel, Titus; Goutham-Bharathi, M P; Anand, A; Kumar, K Vinod; Kumar, S Senthil

2013-06-01

246

[Changes in fish communities of coral reefs at Sabana-Camagüey Archipelago, Cuba].  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparison of fish community structure in the Sabana-Camagüey Archipelago (1988-1989 and 2000) using visual census surveys (eight belt transects 2x50 m in each site) suggests a notable decrease on species richness, and a two thirds reduction in fish density and biomass on coral reefs. This decrease in fish populations may be related to the alarming decrease of scleractinian coral cover, and an enormous proliferation of algae, which currently covers 70-80% of the hard substrate, impeding the recovery of corals and other benthic organisms. High coral mortalities occurred between the study periods, which correlate with the high temperatures caused by the ENSO events of 1995, 1997 and 1998. These events caused massive bleaching of corals and subsequent algae overgrowth. Evidence of nutrient enrichment from the inner lagoons and overfishing are also present. Collectively, these effects have provoked a marked degradation of reef habitats. These changes appear to have affected the availability of refuges and food for fishes, and may be constraining individual growth potential and population size. PMID:19069764

Claro, Rodolfo; Cantelar, Karel; Amargós, Fabián Pina; García-Arteaga, Juan P

2007-06-01

247

The volcanic-subvolcanic rocks of the fernando de noronha archipelago, southern atlantic ocean: Mineral chemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

Fernando de Noronha archipelago presents an older Remédios Formation with subvolcanic intrusions, belonging to two different alkaline series, the sodic (undersaturated: basanites, tephrites, essexites, tephriphonolites, phonolites), and potassic ones (mildly undersaturated to silicic, with alkali basalts, basaltic trachyandesites, trachyandesites, trachytes), and lamprophyres. The upper Quixaba Formation presents nephelinite flows and basanites. A third minor unit, São José, is constituted by basanites carrying mantle xenoliths. Magnesian olivines occur in the Remédios basanites and alkali basalts, and in nephelinites. Melilites are present as groundmass grains in melilite melanephelinites (MEM). Clinopyroxenes (cpx) are mostly salites to titaniferous salites (Remédios sodic series), grading into aegirines in the differentiated aphyric phonolites. Cpx in the lamprophyres show disequilibrium textures. In the Quixaba flows, cpx are salites, enriched in Mg (especially in MEM). Amphiboles, remarkably, are common in tephriphonolites and phonolites and in basaltic trachyandesites, sometimes with disequilibrum zoning textures, and a conspicuous phase in lamprophyres. Dark micas are present as groundmass plates in MEM, OLM and PYM (olivine and pyroxene melanephelinites), with compositional variety (enriched in Ti, Ba, Sr) depending on the composition of the parent rock; BaO can be as high as 16-19%. Feldspars crystallize as calcic plagioclases, sanidines and anorthoclases, depending on the rock types, as phenocrysts and in groundmass, both in Quixaba and Remédios rocks; they are absent in nephelinites. Nephelines are found in Remédios sodic series types and Quixaba rocks. Haüyne and noseane are rarely observed in Remédios rocks.

Lopes, Rosana Peporine; Ulbrich, Mabel N. Costas; Ulbrich, Horstpeter

2014-12-01

248

Effects of fish stocking on ecosystem services: an overview and case study using the Stockholm Archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, we focus on documented and possible effects of fish stocking in terms of ecosystem services. The increasing use of fish stocking between 1970 and 2000 in the semiurban setting of Stockholm archipelago, Sweden, is used as case study. The objective is to analyze this management practice from an ecosystem perspective, accounting for both the ecological and social context of releasing fish. The results show that enhancements of four native species (Salmo S. trutta, Salmo salar, Stizostedion lucioperca, and Anguilla anguilla) have dominated over new introductions of one nonnative species. (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The major objective has been to increase fish catches for local resource users. Involved stakeholders include three management agencies, one hydropower company, and several local sport fishing associations. Documented effects focus on recapture and production rates. However, our analysis suggests that additional positive or negative effects on biodiversity, food web dynamics, mobile links, or ecological information may also result, with possible consequences for the long-term provision of food, game, and aesthetic values. We conclude that a more adaptive and cooperative management approach could benefit from a deeper analysis of where, when, and what species is released, by whom, which stakeholders that use the fish and those ecosystem services the fish generate, and of the role of formal and informal institutions for monitoring and evaluating the success of releasing fish. PMID:15156349

Holmlund, Cecilia M; Hammer, Monica

2004-06-01

249

Patch-Based Generative Shape Model and MDL Model Selection for Statistical Analysis of Archipelagos  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We propose a statistical generative shape model for archipelago-like structures. These kind of structures occur, for instance, in medical images, where our intention is to model the appearance and shapes of calcifications in x-ray radio graphs. The generative model is constructed by (1) learning a patch-based dictionary for possible shapes, (2) building up a time-homogeneous Markov model to model the neighbourhood correlations between the patches, and (3) automatic selection of the model complexity by the minimum description length principle. The generative shape model is proposed as a probability distribution of a binary image where the model is intended to facilitate sequential simulation. Our results show that a relatively simple model is able to generate structures visually similar to calcifications. Furthermore, we used the shape model as a shape prior in the statistical segmentation of calcifications, where the area overlap with the ground truth shapes improved significantly compared to the case where the prior was not used.

Ganz, Melanie; Nielsen, Mads

2010-01-01

250

Historical change of mercury pollution in remote Yongle archipelago, South China Sea.  

Science.gov (United States)

We collected three ornithogenic coral sand sedimentary profiles from Jinyin Island, Jinqing Island and Guangjin Island of Yongle archipelago, South China Sea and reconstructed the deposition flux of anthropogenic Hg over the past 700 years in the study area. On the whole, the anthropogenic Hg flux is relatively low; it remained at a low level before the Industrial Revolution with a small peak at about 1450-1550 AD, which may record the enhanced metallurgy activity in Ming Dynasty of China. During the 20th century, the deposition flux of anthropogenic Hg increased rapidly, but two troughs occurred during the periods around 1940s and 1970s, corresponding to the economic depression caused by World War II, Civil War in China (1945-1949), and the Culture Revolution (1966-1976) in China. Since the 1970s the deposition flux of anthropogenic Hg has been persistently increasing, apparently the result of fast economic development in East and Southeast Asia countries around South China Sea. PMID:22284978

Liu, Xiaodong; Xu, Liqiang; Chen, Qianqian; Sun, Liguang; Wang, Yuhong; Yan, Hong; Liu, Yi; Luo, Yuhan; Huang, Jing

2012-04-01

251

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air from Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece): Natural versus anthropogenic sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study presents the chemical composition of VOCs in air and gas discharges collected at Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece). The main goals are i) to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic VOC sources and ii) to evaluate their impact on local air quality. Up to 63 different VOCs were recognized and quantitatively determined in 6 fumaroles and 19 air samples collected in the Lakki caldera, where fumarolic emissions are located, and the outer ring of the island, including the Mandraki village and the main harbor. Air samples from the crater area show significant concentrations of alkanes, alkenes, cyclic, aromatics, and S- and O-bearing heterocycles directly deriving from the hydrothermal system, as well as secondary O-bearing compounds from oxidation of primary VOCs. At Mandraki village, C6H6/?(methylated aromatics) and ?(linear)/?(branched) alkanes ratios 2O–CO2–H2S rich and discharge a large variety of VOC species. •Benzene/toluene ratios identify anthropogenic and natural sources of VOCs in air. •Aldehydes in air are produced by oxidation of alkanes and alkenes. •Geogenic furans and hydrogenated halocarbons in air are recalcitrant. -- Anthropogenic and natural VOCs in air are distinguished on the basis of aromatic, O-substituted, S-substituted and halogenated compounds

252

Restrictions on the compatibility of equipment in archipelago countries: PERTAMINA experiences in Indonesia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Being an archipelago state, the sea area of Indonesia is four times larger than its land area. Oil and natural gas play significant roles in the country's economic development. These activities at sea are showing signs of increasing, inevitably rendering the marine environment and living resources vulnerable to oil spills. Accidents, particularly grounding and collision occurrences in Malacca and the Singapore Straits sea lanes pose imminent threats. At PERTAMINA, the state-owned oil, gas and geothermal enterprise, oil spill contingency planning is entrusted to the Corporate Center for Environment Protection, Health and Safety. Marine activities are managed under the Directorate of Shipping, Harbour and Communication. In this paper oil spill response planning and coordination activities, which are based on the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA) tiered preparedness concept, are described. The tiered preparedness concept addresses the limited availability of equipment, and incorporates specific response plans for each type of spill scenario (e.g. passing tanker, loading/unloading ship at terminal, major inland spill, etc), for each area of operation. It also specifies the type of equipment that must be available in the area to respond to the type of spill (using the concept of maximum credible spill in each case) that may occur in that area. 5 figs

253

Integrating terrestrial and marine archives of Late Wisconsinan ice stream dynamics in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

During Late Wisconsinan glaciation the northern Laurentide and Innuitian ice sheets converged over the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. This ice sheet complex included several major ice streams, which constituted important dynamical components. Discharging into the Beaufort Sea and Baffin Bay, these ice streams were a primary control on ice sheet mass balance and ice age sedimentation on adjacent continental margins, including the Arctic Ocean basin. This study presents a new compilation of multibeam echosounder data, sub-bottom profiler data, radiocarbon ages, and marine sediment cores acquired primarily during regional surveys with the CCGS Amundsen. These data characterize the nature and thickness of seafloor sediments in Parry Channel (and many of its connecting channels) and Amundsen Gulf. When combined with the results of terrestrial geomorphological mapping of the adjacent islands, this dataset constrains the maximum extent, chronology, and behaviour of former ice streams in M'Clure Strait, Viscount Melville Sound, Lancaster Sound, and Amundsen Gulf. Importantly, these data highlight complex patterns of past ice stream flow during regional deglaciation. These results contribute to a better understanding of the causal mechanisms that occasioned retreat of the terrestrial and marine sectors of the Laurentide and Innuitian ice sheets. As well, this study helps to quantify past iceberg fluxes to the Arctic Ocean, which has implications for assessing past climate, and the origin of ice-rafted sediment and deep iceberg scours in the Arctic Ocean basin.

Lakeman, Thomas; Blasco, Steve; MacLean, Brian; Bennett, Robbie; England, John; Hughes Clarke, John; Covill, Bob; Patton, Eric

2014-05-01

254

The origins of ambient biological sound from coral reef ecosystems in the Line Islands archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although ambient biological underwater sound was first characterized more than 60 years ago, attributing specific components of ambient sound to their creators remains a challenge. Noise produced by snapping shrimp typically dominates the ambient spectra near tropical coasts, but significant unexplained spectral variation exists. Here, evidence is presented indicating that a discernible contribution to the ambient sound field over coral reef ecosystems in the Line Islands archipelago originates from the interaction of hard-shelled benthic macro-organisms with the coral substrate. Recordings show a broad spectral peak centered between 14.30 and 14.63?kHz, incoherently added to a noise floor typically associated with relatively "white" snapping shrimp sounds. A 4.6 to 6.2?dB increase of pressure spectral density level in the 11 to 17?kHz band occurs simultaneously with an increase in benthic invertebrate activity at night, quantified through time-lapse underwater photography. Spectral-level-filtered recordings of hermit crabs Clibanarius diugeti in quiet aquarium conditions reveal that transient sounds produced by the interaction between the crustaceans' carapace, shell, and coral substrate are spectrally consistent with Line Islands recordings. Coral reef ecosystems are highly interconnected and subtle yet important ecological changes may be detected quantitatively through passive monitoring that utilizes the acoustic byproducts of biological activity. PMID:25234977

Freeman, Simon E; Rohwer, Forest L; D'Spain, Gerald L; Friedlander, Alan M; Gregg, Allison K; Sandin, Stuart A; Buckingham, Michael J

2014-04-01

255

Coral recruitment and potential recovery of eutrophied and blast fishing impacted reefs in Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coral recruitment was assessed in highly diverse and economically important Spermonde Archipelago, a reef system subjected to land-based sources of siltation/pollution and destructive fishing, over a period of 2 years. Recruitment on settlement tiles reached up to 705 spat m(-2) yr(-1) and was strongest in the dry season (July-October), except off-shore, where larvae settled earlier. Pocilloporidae dominated near-shore, while a more diverse community of Acroporidae, Poritidae and others settled in the less polluted mid-shelf and off-shore reefs. Non-coral fouling community appeared to hardly influence initial coral settlement on the tiles, although, this does not necessarily infer low coral post-settlement mortality, which may be enhanced at the near- and off-shore reefs as indicated by increased abundances of potential space competitors on natural substrate. Blast fishing showed no local reduction in coral recruitment and live hard coral cover increased in oligotrophic reefs, indicating potential for coral recovery, if managed effectively. PMID:23838417

Sawall, Yvonne; Jompa, Jamaluddin; Litaay, Magdalena; Maddusila, Andi; Richter, Claudio

2013-09-15

256

Spatial distribution of oxygen-18 and deuterium in stream waters across the Japanese archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The spatial distribution of oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition (?18O and ?2H) of stream waters across Japan was clarified with a data set compiling sample data obtained from 1278 forest catchments during the summer of 2003. Both ?18O and ?2H values showed positive correlations with the mean annual air temperature and annual evapotranspiration, and negative correlations with latitude and elevation. Deuterium excess (d excess) values in stream waters were higher on the Sea of Japan side, and lower on the Pacific Ocean side, of the Japanese archipelago. The d excess in precipitation was generally higher in winter and lower in summer in Japan. The Sea of Japan side experiences a great deal of snowfall, and seasonal changes in monthly precipitation are rather small. In contrast, the Pacific Ocean side experiences a large amount of rainfall during summer with low levels of precipitation during the winter. Therefore, the lower d excess in stream waters on the Pacific Ocean side reflects summer precipitation, and the higher values on the Sea of Japan side are affected by delayed recharge from snowmelt. The isoscapes of stream water connote not only spatially integrated but also temporally integrated isotope signals of precipitation, and provide a framework for addressing applied hydrological, ecological, or meteorological research questions at regional scales, such as the effects of climate change.

Katsuyama, M.; Yoshioka, T.; Konohira, E.

2014-09-01

257

The Indonesian archipelago: an ancient genetic highway linking Asia and the Pacific.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indonesia, an island nation linking mainland Asia with the Pacific world, hosts a wide range of linguistic, ethnic and genetic diversity. Despite the complexity of this cultural environment, genetic studies in Indonesia remain surprisingly sparse. Here, we report mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and associated Y-chromosome diversity for the largest cohort of Indonesians examined to date-2740 individuals from 70 communities spanning 12 islands across the breadth of the Indonesian archipelago. We reconstruct 50 000 years of population movements, from mitochondrial lineages reflecting the very earliest settlers in island southeast Asia, to Neolithic population dispersals. Historic contacts from Chinese, Indians, Arabs and Europeans comprise a noticeable fraction of Y-chromosome variation, but are not reflected in the maternally inherited mtDNA. While this historic immigration favored men, patterns of genetic diversity show that women moved more widely in earlier times. However, measures of population differentiation signal that Indonesian communities are trending away from the matri- or ambilocality of early Austronesian societies toward the more common practice of patrilocal residence today. Such sex-specific dispersal patterns remain even after correcting for the different mutation rates of mtDNA and the Y chromosome. This detailed palimpsest of Indonesian genetic diversity is a direct outcome of the region's complex history of immigration, transitory migrants and populations that have endured in situ since the region's first settlement. PMID:23344321

Tumonggor, Meryanne K; Karafet, Tatiana M; Hallmark, Brian; Lansing, J Stephen; Sudoyo, Herawati; Hammer, Michael F; Cox, Murray P

2013-03-01

258

Gender and population history: sex bias revealed by studying genetic admixture of Ngazidja population (Comoro Archipelago).  

Science.gov (United States)

The peopling of Comoro Archipelago is defined by successive waves of migration from three main areas: the East African Coast (Bantu-speaking populations), the Persia and Arabian Peninsula, and Southeast Asia (especially Indonesia). It follows an apparent classic trihybrid admixture model. To better understand the Comorian population admixture dynamics, we analyzed the contributions of these three historical parental components to its genetic pool. To enhance accuracy and reliability, we used both classical and molecular markers. Samples consist of published data: blood group frequencies, 14 KIR genes, 19 mitochondrial DNA SNPs (to highlight female migrations), 14 Y chromosome SNPs (male migrations). We revealed distinct admixture patterns for autosomal and uniparental markers. KIR gene frequencies had never been used to estimate admixture rates, this being a first assessment of their informative power in admixture studies. To avoid major methodological and statistical bias, we determined admixture coefficients through nine well-tried estimators and their associated software programs (ADMIX95, ADMIX, admix 2.0, LEA, LEADMIX, and Mistura). Results from mtDNA and Y chromosome markers point to an important sex-bias in the admixture event. The original Bantu gene pool received a predominant male-mediated contribution from the Arabian Peninsula and Persia, and a female-mediated contribution from Southeast Asia. Admixture rates estimated from autosomal KIR gene markers point also to an unexpected elevated Austronesian contribution. PMID:21312182

Gourjon, Géraud; Boëtsch, Gilles; Degioanni, Anna

2011-04-01

259

AN ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN THE SCLERACTINIAN CORAL TISSUES OF KARIMUNJAWA ARCHIPELAGO, INDONESIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Karimunjawa archipelago, marine national park, has been considered to be a relatively pristine area that have more than 90 species of corals. This study was conducted to detect any concentrations heavy metal levels in the tissues of eight coral species. Based on life-forms, selected coral species are classified as massive (Porites lutea and Goniastrea retiformis, submassive (Galaxea fascicularis and Stylophora pistillata, foliaceous (Pavona decussata and Montipora foliosa and branching/ramosa (Acropora aspera and Pocillopora damicornis. The concentration of heavy metals in the coral tissues were assessed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS technique. The present experimental results demonstrated that metal in coral tissues were no significant difference between sites. Concentration levels of five heavy metals were found to be in the order of Pb>Zn>Cr>Cd>Cu. Relating heavy metal concentrations to life-form corals, there were no significant differences of all the metals (except Pb, the highest concentration of Pb were found in foliaceous type of corals. The high level of Pb in foliaceous coral life-form (Pavona decussata and Montipora foliosa, indicating that these coral species are usefull as potential candidates of biomonitoring material for this metal. However, the use of corals as biomonitors should be considered carefully in biological and local environmental factors.

Agus Sabdono

2009-10-01

260

Multiscale Physical and Biological Dynamics in the Philippine Archipelago: Predictions and Processes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Philippine Archipelago is remarkable because of its complex geometry, with multiple islands and passages, and its multiscale dynamics, from the large-scale open-ocean and atmospheric forcing, to the strong tides and internal waves in narrow straits and at steep shelfbreaks. We employ our multiresolution modeling system to predict and study multiscale dynamics in the region, without the use of any synoptic in situ data, so as to evaluate modeling capabilities when only sparse remotely sensed sea surface height is available for assimilation. We focus on the February to March 2009 period, compare our simulation results to ocean observations and utilize our simulations to quantify and discover oceanic features in the region. The findings include: the physical drivers for the biogeochemical features; the diverse circulation features in each sub-sea and their variations on multiple scales; the flow fields within the major straits and their variabliity; the transports to and from the Sulu Sea and the corresponding balances; and finally, the multiscale mechanisms involved in the formation of the deep Sulu Sea water.

Pierre F.J. Lermusiaux

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
261

Jõekääru Jazz täitis eesmärgi nii korraldajate, esinejate kui publiku poolelt / Allan Liik, Hedvig Hanson, Andre Maaker, Ain Agan...[jt.] ; foto ja küsitl. Kaire Tensuda  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Jõekääru Jazz'ile järgneval nädalal tõi ürituse peakorraldaja Allan Liik toimetusse seal esinenud muusikud. Vestlusringis olid: Allan Liik, Hedvig Hanson, Andre Maaker, Ain Agan, Raivo Tafenau ja Sergio Bastos

2007-01-01

262

Surmahiirte tants; Pühapäeva hommik; Unistus venna külaskäigust; Kolm päeva voodipuhkust; Veepiir; Ei sugutunnuseid ega muid iseärasusi : [Luuletused] / Wallace Stevens ; inglise k. tlk. ja järelsõna: Andres Ehin  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Autorist lk. 212. Luuletuste 'Unistus venna külaskäigust', 'Kolm päeva voodipuhkust', 'Veepiir' ja 'Ei sugutunnuseid ega muid iseärasusi', mis on samuti ekslikult sealsamas W. Stevensile omistatud, autor on tegelikult Carlos Stewal. Vt. Ehin, Andres. Veavabandus // Looming. 1995. Nr. 5. Lk. 718

Stevens, Wallace

1996-01-01

263

1 küsimus noorele juhile : Kui raha ja aeg ei piira, siis mida tahaksite elus juurde õppida? / Jekaterina Eilart, Andres Urb, Mariana Kolesnik... [jt.  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Küsimusele vastavad Hamburg ja Partnerid töötaja Jekaterina Eilart, Sampo Life Eesti varahaldur Andres Urb, Marati peadisainer Mariana Kolesnik, katusefirma Evari juht Rain Kala, endine tudengiorganisatsiooni AIESEC Eesti president Lauri Lahi ning internetiturundaja Marjam Vaher

2010-01-01

264

XII Avatud Ühiskonna Foorumi arutlusring "Euroopa hiilgus ja viletsus - Euroopa Liit 50. Kuidas edasi?" / Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Mark Leonard, Ivan Krastev ; intervjueerinud Andres Kasekamp  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Pärnus diskuteerisid 10. oktoobril 2007 Euroopa tuleviku teemadel president Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Euroopa Välissuhete Nõukogu tegevjuht Mark Leonard ja Sofias paikneva Liberaalstrateegiate Keskuse juht Ivan Krastev. Vestluse moderaator oli Eesti Välispoliitika Instituudi direktor, Avatud Eesti Fondi nõukogu esimees Andres Kasekamp

Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

2008-01-01

265

Circulation in the Philippine Archipelago Simulated by 1/12° and 1/25° Global HYCOM and EAS NCOM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three ocean models, 1/25° global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM, 1/12° global HYCOM, and EAS NCOM nested in global NCOM, were used to provide a global context for simulation of the circulation within the Philippine Archipelago as part of the Philippines Experiment (PhilEx. The Philippine Archipelago provides two significant secondary routes for both the Indonesian throughflow and the western boundary current of the Pacific northern tropical gyre. The deeper route enters the archipelago from the north through Mindoro Strait, after passing through Luzon Strait and the South China Sea. The second route enters directly from the Pacific via the shallow Surigao Strait and passes through Dipolog Strait downstream of the Bohol Sea. Both pathways exit via Sibutu Passage and the adjacent Sulu Archipelago along the southern edge of the Sulu Sea, and both are deeper than the pathway into the Indonesian Archipelago via Karimata Strait in the Java Sea. Within the Philippine Archipelago, these pathways make the dominant contribution to the mean circulation and much of its variability, while their outflow contributes to the flow through Makassar Strait, the primary conduit of the Indonesian throughflow, at all depths above the Sibutu Passage sill. Because of the narrow straits and small interior seas, the simulations are very sensitive to model resolution (4.4 km in 1/25° global HYCOM, 8.7 km in 1/12° global HYCOM, and 9.6 km in EAS NCOM in this latitude range and to topographic errors, especially sill depths. The model simulations for 2004 and 2008 (the latter the central year of the PhilEx observational program show extreme opposite anomalous years with anomalously strong southward Mindoro transport in 2004 and mean northward transport in 2008, but with little effect on the Surigao-Dipolog transport. Satellite altimetry verified the associated HYCOM sea surface height anomalies in the western tropical Pacific and the South China Sea during these extreme years. A 15-month (December 2007–March 2009 PhilEx mooring in Mindoro Strait measured velocity nearly top to bottom at a location close to the sill. The 1/12° global HYCOM, which showed the strongest flow above 200 m lay west of the mooring, was used to adjust a Mindoro transport estimate from the mooring data for cross-sectional distribution of the velocity, giving 0.24 Sv northward over the anomalous observational period. The results from the observational period were then used to adjust the 2004–2009 model transport, giving a mean of 0.95 Sv southward. The 1/25° global HYCOM simulated the observed four-layer flow in Dipolog Strait and the vigorous and persistent cyclonic gyre in the western Bohol Sea, observed during all four PhilEx cruises and in ocean color imagery. This gyre was poorly simulated by the two models with ~ 9 km resolution. Finally, a 1/12° global HYCOM simulation with tides generated the hydrostatic aspect of the internal tides within the Philippine Archipelago, including a strong internal tidal beam initiated at Sibutu Passage and observed crossing the Sulu Sea.

Harley E. Hurlburt

2011-03-01

266

Lipid sorting revealed by SANS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have investigated the lipid sorting in a binary small unilamellar vesicle (SUV) composed of cone-shaped (1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DHPC) and cylinder-shaped (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DPPC) lipids. In order to reveal the lipid sorting we adopted a contrast matching technique of small angle neutron scattering (SANS), which extracts the distribution of deuterated lipids in the bilayer quantitatively. The SANS profile of deuterated SUVs at the contrast matching condition showed a characteristic scattering profile, indicating an asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in the bilayer. The fitting of the observed SANS profile revealed that most DHPC molecules are localized in the outer leaflet, which supports that the shape of the lipid is strongly coupled with the membrane curvature. We compared the obtained asymmetric distribution of the cone-shaped lipids in the bilayer with the theoretical prediction based on the curvature energy model. (author)

267

78 FR 29289 - Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

...RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA AGENCY...Bay for the Port of San Diego Big Bay Boom Fireworks display from 8:45 p.m. to...Diego Bay for the Port of San Diego Big Bay Boom Independence Day Fireworks Display....

2013-05-20

268

33 CFR 165.754 - Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR. 165.754 Section 165.754 Navigation...Coast Guard District § 165.754 Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR. (a) Regulated...

2010-07-01

269

33 CFR 165.754 - Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR. 165.754 Section 165.754 Navigation and Navigable Waters...District § 165.754 Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR. (a) Regulated area. A moving safety zone is...

2010-07-01

270

78 FR 77597 - Safety Zone; Allied PRA-Solid Works, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

...1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Allied PRA-Solid Works, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA...the San Diego Bay for the Allied PRA--Solid Works fireworks display, which will be...T11-612 Safety zone; Allied PRA-Solid Works; San Diego, CA. (a)...

2013-12-24

271

Structure of microemulsions by SANS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to determine the structure of microemulsions in the system hydrocarbon-water-sodium di-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT). SANS spectra taken in a deuterated solvent showed a perfect Guinier fit with a radius of gyration of 15A regardless of the amount of AOT from 0.1 to 5% present. By varying the proportions of deuterated and undeuterated solvent to vary the contrast between the micelles and the solvent, it is concluded that the micelles are basically monodispersed spherical aggregations of 22 AOT molecules

272

Update: San Andreas Fault experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

Satellite laser ranging techniques are used to monitor the broad motion of the tectonic plates comprising the San Andreas Fault System. The San Andreas Fault Experiment, (SAFE), has progressed through the upgrades made to laser system hardware and an improvement in the modeling capabilities of the spaceborne laser targets. Of special note is the launch of the Laser Geodynamic Satellite, LAGEOS spacecraft, NASA's only completely dedicated laser satellite in 1976. The results of plate motion projected into this 896 km measured line over the past eleven years are summarized and intercompared.

Christodoulidis, D. C.; Smith, D. E.

1984-01-01

273

« Imaginez un monde sans mesure… »  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Que serait le monde, sans mesure ? Les durées, les lieux et même les directions perdraient de leur substance. Prendre la direction de Marseille ou de Lyon sans connaître la distance à parcourir pour y parvenir n'a pas de sens et rend ces lieux hors d'atteinte. Ne pas connaître le temps d'attente restant avant d'embarquer pour Los Angeles ou Paris, rend, à nos yeux de « modernes mondialisés », ces destinations inaccessibles : autant sortir son duvet et ...

Blandine Ripert

2004-03-01

274

Marketing San Juan Basin gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Marketing natural gas produced in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado principally involves four gas pipeline companies with significant facilities in the basin. The system capacity, transportation rates, regulatory status, and market access of each of these companies is evaluated. Because of excess gas supplies available to these pipeline companies, producers can expect improved take levels and prices by selling gas directly to end users and utilities as opposed to selling gas to the pipelines for system supply. The complexities of transporting gas today suggest that the services of an independent gas marketing company may be beneficial to smaller producers with gas supplies in the San Juan Basin

275

27 CFR 9.110 - San Benito.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false San Benito. 9.110 Section 9.110 ...Viticultural Areas § 9.110 San Benito. (a) Name. The name of the...area described in this section is “San Benito.” (b) Approved maps....

2010-04-01

276

Mineral water discharges at the Azores archipelago (Portugal): hydrogeological setting, chemical composition and mapping  

Science.gov (United States)

The geological setting of the Azores archipelago, located in the North Atlantic ocean, about 1500 km form Portugal mainland and made of 9 islands of volcanic origin, enhances the multiplicity of surface hydrothermal manifestations. Therefore, a field survey made possible to identify 101 mineral water discharges in the Azores, mainly of CO2-rich cold waters and thermal waters, spread along São Miguel (75%), Terceira (6%), Graciosa (7%), Pico (2%), Faial (3%), São Jorge (5%) and Flores ( 2%) islands, as well as fumarolic grounds. Furnas and Fogo central volcanoes, two of the three composite active volcanoes that dominates the geology of São Miguel, the largest island of the archipelago, represent respectively about 41% and 24% of the discharges from the Azores. Discharges are mainly from fissured aquifers, made of basaltic or trachitic lava flows. Instead, discharges from porous aquifers, made of pyroclastic deposits, mainly of pumice type, are less common, and are more frequent at São Miguel island. The studied discharges correspond mainly to springs (75), and also to boiling pools (10), at fumarolic grounds, 14 drilled wells and 2 large-diameter wells. The boiling pools are only observable at São Miguel island, while drilled wells were made at São Miguel, Terceira and Graciosa. Groundwater at Azores occurs in two major aquifers systems: (1) the basal aquifer system, which corresponds to fresh-water lenses floating on underlying salt water, and (2) in perched-water bodies. The basal aquifer system is in the coastal area, presenting generally a very low hydraulic gradient. From the 14 drilled wells only two are in perched-water bodies. Considering mineral springs, the majority discharge from perched-water bodies (77%), while all the boiling pools also discharge in altitude, also from perched -water bodies. During the field survey an extensive campaign of sample collection was made in all islands, in order to characterize the chemical composition of these waters, which presents a large range of water types and mineralization magnitude. Several groups of waters are defined: (1) Na-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-Cl type waters, to which almost all the thermal and CO2-rich waters belong, (2) Na-Cl type waters, to which discharges from the basal aquifer system belong and (3) acid-SO4 type waters, to which some of the boiling waters of São Miguel island belong. A few samples show intermediate facies between these main water types. The pH range between 2.2 and 7.82, discharge temperature between 15°C and 99.5°C (median=35°C), and conductivity varies between 139 and 43100 S/cm (median=906 S/cm). The main hydrogeochemical processes are the CO2-dominated volatile absorption, water-rock interaction and mixture with hydrothermal fluids. Sulfate dominated composition is explained by the influence of steam heating, and the Na-Cl water type result from mixture with sea salts. For the purpose of mapping mineral water discharges at the Azores a geochemical atlas was made using ESRI ArcGis 9.1 software. Data was divided in classes according to quartile values and spatial analysis was made through thematic mapping, for several features, as hydrogeological setting, water types and variables as discharge temperature, pH, conductivity, free CO2 and major elements content. In the present contribution several examples of the hydrogeological maps are shown.

Freire, P.; Cruz, J.; Coutinho, R.; Costa, A.; Antunes, P.

2009-04-01

277

Copepod distribution and production in a Mid-Atlantic Ridge archipelago  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O arquipélago de São Pedro e São Paulo (ASPSP) está localizado próximo ao Equador, no oceano Atlântico. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar variações espaciais nos padrões de abundância da comunidade de Copepoda, e da biomassa e produção das três espécies de Calanoida mais abundantes no ASPSP. Amost [...] ras de plâncton foram coletadas com rede com 300 µm de abertura de malha, ao longo de quatro transectos (norte, leste, sul e oeste do ASPSP), com quatro estações cada. Todos os transectos exibiram uma tendência de redução da densidade dos Copepoda com o aumento da distância do ASPSP, provado estatisticamente para o Norte. A densidade variou de 3,33 a 182,18 ind.m?3, e diferenças também foram observadas entre o primeiro perímetro (primeira faixa de distância circular) e os demais. A biomassa total variou de 15,25 a 524,50 10?3 mg C m?3 e a produção de 1,19 a 22,04 mg C m?3d?1. A biomassa e produção de Undinula vulgaris (Dana, 1849), Acrocalanus longicornis Giesbrecht, 1888 e Calocalanus pavo (Dana, 1849) apresentaram diferenças entre alguns transectos. Uma tendência de declínio da biodiversidade e produção com o aumento da distância do arquipélago foi observada, sugerindo que pequenas feições como o ASPSP podem afetar a comunidade em áreas oceânicas oligotróficas tropicais. Abstract in english The Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (SPSPA) are located close to the Equator in the Atlantic Ocean. The aim of this study was to assess the spatial variations in the copepod community abundance, and the biomass and production patterns of the three most abundant calanoid species in the SPSPA. [...] Plankton samples were collected with a 300 µm mesh size net along four transects (north, east, south and west of the SPSPA), with four stations plotted in each transect. All transects exhibited a tendency toward a decrease in copepod density with increasing distance from the SPSPA, statistically proved in the North. Density varied from 3.33 to 182.18 ind.m?3, and differences were also found between the first perimeter (first circular distance band) and the others. The total biomass varied from 15.25 to 524.50 10?3 mg C m?3 and production from 1.19 to 22.04 10?3 mg C m?3d?1. The biomass and production of Undinula vulgaris (Dana, 1849), Acrocalanus longicornis Giesbrecht, 1888 and Calocalanus pavo (Dana, 1849) showed differences between some transects. A trend of declining biodiversity and production with increasing distance from archipelago was observed, suggesting that even small features like the SPSPA can affect the copepod community in tropical oligotrophic oceanic areas.

PEDRO A.M.C., MELO; MAURO DE, MELO JÚNIOR; SILVIO J. DE, MACÊDO; MOACYR, ARAUJO; SIGRID, NEUMANN-LEITÃO.

278

Facies, Stratigraphic and Depositional Model of the Sediments in the Abrolhos Archipelago (Bahia, BRAZIL)  

Science.gov (United States)

Located in the Mucuri Basin on the continental shelf of southern Bahia state, northeast Brazil, about 70 km from the city of Caravelas,the Abrolhos archipelago is made up of five islands; Santa Barbara, Redonda, Siriba, Guarita and Sueste. The exhumed sediments in the Abrolhos archipelago are a rare record of the turbidite systems which fill the Brazilian Atlantic Basin, and are probably an unprecedented example of a plataform turbidite system (Dr. Mutti, personal communication). Despite the limited area, the outcrops display a wide facies variation produced by different depositional processes, and also allow for the observation of the layer geometries. Associated with such sedimentary rocks, the Abrolhos Volcanic Complex belongs stratigraphically to the Abrolhos Formation. These igneous rocks were dated by the Ar / Ar method, with ages ranging from 60 to 40 My, placing such Volcanic Complex between the Paleocene and Eocene. The sedimentary section is best exposed in the Santa Barbara and Redonda islands and altogether it is 70 m thick. The measured vertical sections show a good stratigraphic correlation between the rocks of the western portion of the first island and those of Redonda Island. However, there is no correlation between the eastern and western portions of Santa Barbara Island, since they are very likely interrupted by the igneous intrusion and possibly by faulting. The sedimentary stack consists of deposits with alternated regressive and transgressive episodes interpreted as high frequency sequences. The coarse facies, sandstones and conglomerates, with abrupt or erosive bases record regressive phases. On the other hand, finer sandstones and siltstones facies, which are partly bioturbated, correspond to phases of a little sediment supply. In the central and eastern portions of Santa Barbara Island, there is a trend of progradational stacking, while both in the western portion of Santa Barbara and in Redonda islands an agradational trend is observed. The predominance of layers with tabular geometry, characteristic of turbidite lobes, the presence of hummocky stratification, trace fossils typical of shallow water (Ophiomorphs and Thalassinoides), all associated with the occurrence of the carbonaceous material as well as plant fragments suggest a deltaic/ plataform depositional context. Textural features and sedimentary structures observed in the conglomerates and sandstones show the action of gravitational flows of high and low density. The fine interlaminated sandstones and siltstones later deformed as slumps or slides, and conglomerates with oriented clasts indicate, respectively, mass movements and action of debris flow. Conglomeratic lags levels record a bypass phenomenon. There are no biostratigraphic data in these studied outcrops. However, petrographic analyses revealed the presence of fragments of igneous rocks (basalts and diabases) in both sandstones and conglomerates, suggesting a relative contemporaneity between igneous activity and sediment deposition. Futhermore, petrographic analyses also found poor permo-porous conditions in the reservoirs due to the presence of fragments of volcanic rocks and the abundance of intraclasts / pseudomatrix.

Matte, R. R.; Zambonato, E. E.

2012-04-01

279

Indirect food web interactions: Sea otters and kelp forest fishes in the Aleutian archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

Although trophic cascades - the effect of apex predators on progressively lower trophic level species through top-down forcing - have been demonstrated in diverse ecosystems, the broader potential influences of trophic cascades on other species and ecosystem processes are not well studied. We used the overexploitation, recovery and subsequent collapse of sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations in the Aleutian archipelago to explore if and how the abundance and diet of kelp forest fishes are influenced by a trophic cascade linking sea otters with sea urchins and fleshy macroalgae. We measured the abundance of sea urchins (biomass density), kelp (numerical density) and fish (Catch per unit effort) at four islands in the mid-1980s (when otters were abundant at two of the islands and rare at the two others) and in 2000 (after otters had become rare at all four islands). Our fish studies focused on rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus), the numerically dominant species in this region. In the mid-1980s, the two islands with high-density otter populations supported dense kelp forests, relatively few urchins, and abundant rock greenling whereas the opposite pattern (abundant urchins, sparse kelp forests, and relatively few rock greenling) occurred at islands where otters were rare. In the 2000, the abundances of urchins, kelp and greenling were grossly unchanged at islands where otters were initially rare but had shifted to the characteristic pattern of otter-free systems at islands where otters were initially abundant. Significant changes in greenling diet occurred between the mid-1980s and the 2000 although the reasons for these changes were difficult to assess because of strong island-specific effects. Whereas urchin-dominated communities supported more diverse fish assemblages than kelp-dominated communities, this was not a simple effect of the otter-induced trophic cascade because all islands supported more diverse fish assemblages in 2000 than in the mid-1980s. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

Reisewitz, S.E.; Estes, J.A.; Simenstad, C.A.

2006-01-01

280

Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti populations from Senegal and Cape Verde Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Two concomitant dengue 3 (DEN-3 epidemics occurred in Cape Verde Archipelago and Senegal between September and October 2009. Aedes aegypti was identified as the vector of these epidemics as several DEN-3 virus strains were isolated from this species in both countries. The susceptibility to pyrethroids, organochlorine, organophosphates and carbamate was investigated in two field strains of Aedes aegypti from both countries using WHO diagnostic bioassay kits in order to monitor their the current status of insecticide susceptibility. Findings The two tested strains were highly resistant to DDT. The Cape Verde strain was found to be susceptible to all others tested insecticides except for propoxur 0.1%, which needs further investigation. The Dakar strain was susceptible to fenitrothion 1% and permethrin 0.75%, but displayed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and propoxur. Conclusions As base-line results, our observations stress a careful management of insecticide use for the control of Ae. aegypti. Indeed, they indicate that DDT is no longer efficient for the control of Ae. aegypti populations in Cape Verde and Dakar and further suggest a thorough follow-up of propoxur susceptibility status in both sites and that of deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in Ae. aegypti populations in Dakar. Thus, regular monitoring of susceptibility is greatly needed as well as the knowing if this observed resistance/susceptibility is focal or not and for observed resistance, the use of biochemical methods is needed with detailed comparison of resistance levels over a large geographic area. Keywords Aedes aegypti, Insecticides, Susceptibility, Cape Verde, Senegal

Dia Ibrahima

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
281

Petrology of ultramafic xenoliths in Cenozoic alkaline rocks of northern Madagascar (Nosy Be Archipelago)  

Science.gov (United States)

Late Miocene basanites of Nosy Be and Nosy Sakatia islands (Nosy Be Archipelago, northern Madagascar) carry spinel-facies anhydrous ultramafic xenoliths (lherzolites, harzburgites and wehrlites). Geothermobarometric estimates indicate that these xenoliths derive from shallow mantle depths of 35-40 km, with those from Nosy Be island showing equilibration T (averages in the range of 945-985 °C) lower than the Nosy Sakatia analogues (averages ranging from 1010 to 1110 °C). One Nosy Sakatia mantle xenolith exhibits relatively fertile lherzolite composition, with trace and major element mineral chemistry consistent with a residual character after low degrees (1-2%) of mafic melt extraction. We interpret this composition as that resembling a depleted mantle (DM)-like lithospheric composition before metasomatic overprints. The other lherzolites and harzburgites display petrochemical characters consistent with variable extent of partial melting (up to 18%), associated with pronounced metasomatic overprints caused by migrating melts, as highlighted by enrichments in highly incompatible trace elements (e.g. light rare earth elements, LREE and Sr), together with the abundant occurrence of wehrlitic lithologies. The variability of petrochemical features points to different styles of metasomatism and metasomatic agents. The estimated composition of the parental melts of wehrlites matches that of host basanites. The combination of this evidence with the petrographic features, characterized by coarse-granular to porphyroclastic textures and by the presence of olivine without kink-banding, suggests that wehrlites are veins or pockets of high pressure cumulates within the mantle peridotite. The same melts also metasomatized via porous-flow percolation some lherzolites and harzburgites. Distinctly, a group of lherzolites and harzburgites was metasomatized by a different alkaline melt having markedly lower incompatible trace element contents. Late infiltration of metasomatic fluids is responsible for the spongy texture of some clinopyroxenes of lherzolites, harzburgites and wehrlites.

Rocco, Ivana; Lustrino, Michele; Zanetti, Alberto; Morra, Vincenzo; Melluso, Leone

2013-01-01

282

Fe-binding dissolved organic ligands near the Kerguelen Archipelago in the Southern Ocean (Indian sector)  

Science.gov (United States)

During the Kerguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study (KEOPS; January-February 2005) cruise, the area southeast of the Kerguelen Archipelago in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean was investigated to identify the mechanisms of natural iron fertilization of the Kerguelen Plateau. In this study, the organic speciation of Fe is described. Samples were determined immediately on board using competing ligand-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CL-AdCSV). The dissolved organic ligands were always in excess of the dissolved Fe concentration, increasing the residence time in the water column and the potential availability for phytoplankton. The concentration of the dissolved organic ligands ranged from 0.44 to 1.61 nEq of M Fe (=complexation site for Fe), with an average concentration of 0.91 nEq of M Fe (S.D.=0.28, n=113) and a mean logarithm of conditional stability constant (log K') of 21.7 (S.D.=0.28, n=113). A second weaker dissolved organic ligand group was detected in 32% of the samples, with Fe-binding characteristics at the edge of the detection window of the applied method. The occurrence of the highest concentrations of dissolved organic ligands in the wind-mixed surface layer and near the sediment at the bottom of the water column indicated that both phytoplankton and the sediment act as sources. Both sources are in concert with the general conclusions from the KEOPS research on the sources of Fe, where Fe was regenerated, organic Fe-binding ligands were formed in the upper layers, and both Fe and ligands were supplied by the sediment.

Gerringa, L. J. A.; Blain, S.; Laan, P.; Sarthou, G.; Veldhuis, M. J. W.; Brussaard, C. P. D.; Viollier, E.; Timmermans, K. R.

2008-03-01

283

Predicting the occurrence of rocky reefs in a heterogeneous archipelago area with limited data  

Science.gov (United States)

The lack of spatial distribution data on marine habitats often presents an obstacle to their protection. The Annex I of the Habitats Directive (European Council Directive 92/43/EEC) lists habitats that are important in biodiversity protection and should be maintained (or restored) to a favourable conservation status. The habitats listed should be protected within an ecological network of protected areas, the Natura 2000 network. However, in the past the establishment of the marine Natura 2000 network has been largely based on insufficient knowledge on the distribution of the habitats. Annex I habitat type reefs are defined as formations of hard compact biogenic or geogenic substrata, which arise from the seafloor in the sublittoral and littoral zone. As obtaining marine data is time-consuming and costly, the bathymetric and substratum data needed for their identification on a larger scale are often scarce. Furthermore, the use of data may be limited due to e.g. national security reasons. This study identifies reefs in a complex archipelago area in the northern Baltic Sea using the best, although limited, data currently available. In the area reefs are elevated rocky outcrops and the associated algal communities and blue mussel beds are vital in maintaining biodiversity in the relatively species poor Baltic Sea. In addition to identifying the physical reef structures, an estimate of their ecological value is obtained by modelling the distribution of four key species occurring on reefs. The results are encouraging, as 55 out of 68 of the potential reefs ground-truthed were confirmed to be reefs. Furthermore the number of predicted species occurring on the reefs, correlated significantly with the number of species observed. The presented maps serve as a valuable background for more detailed mapping of the species diversity occurring on reefs as well as for monitoring their ecological status. Map-based information on important habitats is essential in conservation and marine spatial planning to minimize human impact on marine ecosystems.

Rinne, Henna; Kaskela, Anu; Downie, Anna-Leena; Tolvanen, Harri; von Numers, Mikael; Mattila, Johanna

2014-02-01

284

Beyond EM-1: Lavas from Afanasy-Nikitin Rise and the Crozet Archipelago, Indian Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

Lavas from Afanasy-Nikitin Rise, possibly the Late Cretaceous product of the Crozet hotspot, cover a wide range of isotopic compositions that includes the lowest (206Pb204Pb)t (to 16.77) and ?Nd(t) (to -8) values yet found among oceanic islands or spreading centers worldwide, as well as high (87Sr/86Sr)t (to 0.7066). In contrast, young basalts from the Crozet Archipelago exhibit a narrow range of variation around ?Nd ˜ +4, 87Sr/86Sr ˜ 0.7040, and 206Pb/204Pb ˜ 19.0, closely resembling that of shield lavas of the Réunion hotspot. The Afanasy-Nikitin rocks also have much higher Ba/Nb, Ba/Th, and Pb/Ce than modern oceanic island or ridge lavas, as well as high La/Nb. The data do not obviously support the Crozet plume model but, assuming the model to be plate tectonically correct, would indicate that the plume-source composition either changed dramatically or that Afanasy-Nikitin magmatism involved significant amounts of nonplume mantle. The low 206Pb/204Pb, low ?Nd lavas provide the best evidence to date of the sort of material that, by variably contaminating much of the Indian mid-ocean-ridge basalt (MORB) source asthenosphere, may be responsible for the isotopic difference between most Indian MORB and Pacific or North Atlantic MORB. The combined isotopic and trace element results suggest an ultimate origin in the continental crust or mantle lithosphere for this material, although whether it was cycled through the deep mantle or resided at shallow levels in the convecting mantle cannot currently be determined.

Mahoney, J. J.; White, W. M.; Upton, B. G. J.; Neal, C. R.; Scrutton, R. A.

1996-07-01

285

Macrophytobenthic flora of the Abrolhos Archipelago and the Sebastião Gomes Reef, Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

The Abrolhos Bank, located on the coast of Bahia, Brazil, harbors the largest coral reef system in the South Atlantic. This area has attracted the attention of biologists because of its peculiar mushroom-shaped structures, locally known as "chapeirões", and endemic species of corals and other organisms. The macrophytobenthos compartment plays an important ecological role in the functioning of the bank, and some reports on the presence of seaweeds and seagrasses have been published; however, the data are fragmentary, and a more detailed survey of the macrophytobenthos compartment is lacking. Here we consolidate the information available and add new data obtained from two expeditions focused on seaweed and seagrass diversity from two sectors of the bank: the islands of the Abrolhos archipelago (AA) and the Sebastião Gomes Reef (SG). These sites were selected for their contrasting characteristics. Specifically, SG (15 km off the mouth of the Caravelas River) is subjected to a broader range of anthropogenic impacts and to input of terrigenous sediments, while the AA (54 km offshore) is surrounded by calcareous biogenic sediments, has clearer water and is less affected by human activities. Macrophytobenthic species richness on both reference areas is larger than previously thought. Considering previous records, there are 164 species of macrophytes in AA and 111 species in SG, of which 59 and 74 species are first records for each respective location. The higher species richness at the AA may result from a higher habitat complexity and lower turbidity, but a potential negative effect of enhanced human impacts at SG cannot be ruled out. Considering that macroalgae are relevant components of the benthic community, as producers and structurer organisms, the data presented herein provide a reliable baseline for future environmental studies, and thus may contribute to improve management policies within the unique ecosystem of Abrolhos.

Torrano-Silva, Beatriz N.; Oliveira, Eurico C.

2013-11-01

286

Effects of boating activities on aquatic vegetation in the Stockholm archipelago, Baltic Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

The aquatic vegetation in 44 similar shallow and sheltered inlets exposed to different kinds of disturbances by boating was studied in a rocky archipelago in the Baltic Sea. The results indicate that both recreational boating activities and traffic by medium sized ferryboats may cause significant changes in community composition and have significant negative effects on species richness and the development of the macrophytic vegetation at greater depth. Changes in inlet morphology by dredging and increases in resuspension and turbidity by wave-action from boats were most probably the major factors contributing to the demonstrated differences in the vegetation between inlets. In inlets used as harbours for private boats (marinas) or adjacent to ferryboat routes, vegetation cover and species richness declined significantly more with depth than in reference inlets not exposed to disturbance by boating activities. In marinas, turbidity was significantly higher than in reference inlets. Accordingly, a canonical correspondence analysis showed that the abundance of species sensitive to poor light conditions, such as Chara spp. and Ruppia spp. were negatively correlated with marinas while Myriophyllum spicatum and Ceratophyllum demersum that are common in nutrient rich turbid habitats were positively correlated with marinas. Mechanical disturbance by propellers may also have contributed to the results, disfavouring Potamogeton pectinatus compared to similar caulescent species in marinas. Chara tomentosa and Najas marina that are exposure sensitive mud thriving species were negatively correlated with inlets adjacent to ferryboat routes, while the macroalga Fucus vesiculosus that is dependent on clean substrate for successful recruitment was positively correlated with inlets adjacent to ferryboat routes. It is important to explore further the effects of boating activities in these habitat types, since the studied inlets sustain a high diversity of both plants and invertebrates and provide highly significant recruitment areas for coastal fish in the Baltic Sea.

Eriksson, B. K.; Sandström, A.; Isæus, M.; Schreiber, H.; Karås, P.

2004-10-01

287

Invasive house mice facing a changing environment on the Sub-Antarctic Guillou Island (Kerguelen Archipelago).  

Science.gov (United States)

Adaptation to new environments is a key feature in evolution promoting divergence in morphological structures under selection. The house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) introduced on the Sub-Antarctic Guillou Island (Kerguelen Archipelago) had and still has to face environmental conditions that likely shaped the pattern and pace of its insular evolution. Since mouse arrival on the island, probably not more than two centuries ago, ecological conditions dramatically differed from those available to their Western European commensal source populations. In addition, over the last two decades, the plant and animal communities of Guillou Island were considerably modified by the eradication of rabbits, the effects of climate change and the spread of invasive species detrimental to native communities. Under such a changing habitat, the mouse response was investigated using a morphometric quantification of mandible and molar tooth, two morphological structures related to food processing. A marked differentiation of the insular mice compared with their relatives from Western Europe was documented for both mandibles and molar shapes. Moreover, these shapes changed through the 16 years of the record, in agreement with expectations of drift for the molar, but more than expected by chance for the mandible. These results suggest that mice responded to the recent changes in food resources, possibly with a part of plastic variation for the mandible prone to bone remodelling. This pattern exemplifies the intricate interplay of evolution, ecology and plasticity that is a probable key of the success of such an invasive rodent facing pronounced shifts in food resources exploitation under a changing environment. PMID:23331296

Renaud, S; Hardouin, E A; Pisanu, B; Chapuis, J-L

2013-03-01

288

Deglacial to postglacial marine environments of SE Barrow Strait, Canadian Arctic Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The Quaternary history of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) has been the subject of widespread research spanning more than half a century. However, the majority of glacial, deglacial, sea-level and palaeoenvironmental records for the region are terrestrially based in an area characterized by extensive inter-island marine channels. To build upon a small number of previous marine studies from the region, we present here a near continuous core record of Late Pleistocene to Holocene sediments extending to the end of the Last Glaciation. Core 86027-144 ("144"), retrieved in southeastern Barrow Strait, was investigated for organic-walled (dinocysts; non-pollen palynomorphs) and calcareous (benthic and planktonic foraminifera) microfossils, foraminiferal oxygen isotope ratios, as well as a range of sedimentological characteristics. On the basis of bio- and lithostratigraphy, eight palaeoenvironmental zones were identified in the core reflecting major changes in the marine environment through the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Zone 1 (prior to 10.3 cal ka BP) records the immediate grounding line at deglaciation, with ice-sheet destabilization, float-off and subsequent break-up. This event was likely near synchronous across much of Barrow Strait, as another core nearby, as well as deglacial dates from adjacent coastlines show similar deglacial dates. Zone 2 (~10.3-9.7 cal ka BP) represents ice-proximal glaciomarine facies characterized by stratified and laminated muds likely formed during severe sea-ice conditions. Although sparse microfossils are present in Zone 2, biological activity starts in earnest in Zone 3 (9.7-9.4 cal ka BP), which marks a transitional period between ice-proximal glaciomarine deposition (Zone 2) and fully marine (zones 4-8) Arctic conditions. Of particular note is the appearance of planktonic foraminifera (Neogloboquadrina pachyderma) within Zone 3 (9.7-9.4 cal ka BP), with both polar and sub-polar forms peaking simultaneously. As planktonics are largely absent from the channels of the CAA today, these occurrences are significant, suggesting that the central archipelago was subject to greater oceanic throughflow during that period. Postglacial conditions commence in Zone 4 (9.4-7.7 cal ka BP), and are characterized by amelioration (an extended season of open water greater than at present). Although Zone 4 is postglacial in character, it nonetheless differs considerably from the Mid- to Late Holocene (zones 6-8) in terms of its microfossil content and oxygen isotope ratios. This suggests that Early Holocene conditions were non-analogous to later environments at the study site. After a transitional period (Zone 5; 7.7-6.5 cal ka BP) of rapid and pronounced regional environmental changes, "modern" Arctic conditions commence at ~6.5 cal ka BP (zones 6-8). These are characterized by increased sea-ice cover, and microfossil assemblages resembling communities encountered in the CAA today. The timing of deglaciation of core 144 coincides with that of NE Barrow Strait (core 86027-154) as well as adjacent coastlines, suggesting a region-wide destabilization of a grounded, marine-based ice-sheet at ~10.3 cal ka BP. The subsequent throughflow of ocean water, indicated by abundant planktonic foraminifera, implies that the Laurentide and Innuitian ice sheets were separated by ~9.7 cal ka BP. The absence of planktonics during that time period farther west in the archipelago implies that ocean circulation was opposite to modern, with inflow from the east rather than the northwest. The high abundance of planktonic foraminifera from 9.7 to 9.4 cal ka BP (Zone 3) was likely influenced by glacioisostatic factors as much as climate, because water depths would have been ~100-150 m deeper than at present, favouring greater oceanic exchange. The subsequent amelioration that produced non-analogous environmental conditions in Barrow Strait at ~9.4-7.7 cal ka BP is consistent with the "Holocene Thermal Optimum" previously proposed for the CAA. After 6.5 cal ka BP, core 144 suggests the establishmen

Pienkowski, Anna J.; England, John; Furze, Mark F. A.

2010-05-01

289

Radiation accident in San Salvador  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the base of a radiation accident of tragic consequences which took place in 1989 in San Salvador the author formulates conclusions that are also important for the Polish users of instruments with isotopic sources. Only high qualifications, permanent training and proper exploitation of such instruments would ensure safety of the employees. (author)

290

Pheromone chirality of asian palm weevils,Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.) andR. vulneratus (Panz.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Production of 4-methyl-5-nonanol, and 4-methyl-5-nonanone by two sympatric Asian palm weevils,Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.) andR. vulneratus (Panz.) suggested that enantiospecificity of either compound could impart species specificity of pheromone communication. Weevil-produced, racemic 4-methyl-5-nonanol and 4-methyl-5-nonanone and their stereoselectively synthesized optical isomers were subjected to gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS) on a chiral Cyclodex-B column. Only theS,S stereoisomer of 4-methyl-5-nonanol was EAD active and was produced by bothR. ferrugineus andR. vulneratus. Production and EAD activity of (S)-4-methyl-5-nonanone exceeded that of its antipode in both weevils. In field experiments in Java. (4S, 5S)-4-methyl-5-nonanol and the stereoisomeric mixture were equally attractive. The 4R,5R stereoisomer was inactive. The corresponding ketone enantiomers neither enhanced nor reduced attraction to (4S,5S)-4-methyl-5-nonanol. Lack of apparent differences betweenR. ferrugineus andR. vulneratus pheromones suggests that synonomy of both weevils should be considered unless other pre- or postzygotic reproductive isolating mechanisms are disclosed in future studies. PMID:24227415

Perez, A L; Hallett, R H; Gries, R; Gries, G; Cameron Oehlschlager, A; Borden, J H

1996-02-01

291

Localization in one dimensional lattices with non-nearest-neighbor hopping: Generalized Anderson and Aubry-Andr\\'e models  

CERN Document Server

We study the quantum localization phenomena of noninteracting particles in one-dimensional lattices based on tight-binding models with various forms of hopping terms beyond the nearest neighbor, which are generalizations of the famous Aubry-Andr\\'e and noninteracting Anderson model. For the case with deterministic disordered potential induced by a secondary incommensurate lattice (i.e. the Aubry-Andr\\'e model), we identify a class of self dual models, for which the boundary between localized and extended eigenstates are determined analytically by employing a generalized Aubry-Andr\\'e transformation. We also numerically investigate the localization properties of non-dual models with next-nearest-neighbor hopping, Gaussian, and power-law decay hopping terms. We find that even for these non-dual models, the numerically obtained mobility edges can be well approximated by the analytically obtained condition for localization transition in the self dual models, as long as the decay of the hopping rate with respect t...

Biddle, J; Wang, B; Sarma, S Das

2010-01-01

292

Prediction and verification of possible reef-fish spawning aggregation sites in Los Roques Archipelago National Park, Venezuela.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study attempts to predict and verify possible spawning aggregation sites and times in the Los Roques Archipelago National Park, Venezuela, based on physical reef characteristics and the knowledge of experienced local fishermen. Three possible aggregation sites were selected for monitoring based on satellite images, low-cost bathymetric mapping and interviews with experienced local fishermen. Abundances and sizes of 18 species that are known to form reproductive aggregations were monitored at these sites using underwater visual census for 7 days after each full moon from February to August, 2007. While spawning events were not observed, possible indirect evidence of spawning aggregations was found for Lutjanus analis at Cayo Sal and Boca de Sebastopol, Lutjanus apodus at Cayo Sal, Lutjanus cyanopterus at Cayo Sal and Piedra La Guasa and Epinephelus guttatus at Bajo California and Cayo de Agua. Additionally, indirect evidence was identified for the past existence of a spawning aggregation of Epinephelus striatus in the northern part of the archipelago, which may have been eliminated by overfishing c.15 years ago. Bathymetric mapping showed that the shelf edge at sites monitored in this study was shallower than at spawning aggregation sites in other parts of the Caribbean, and that sites were not proximal to deep water. While this study does not prove the existence or locations of spawning aggregations of reef fishes in the archipelago, it does add insight to a growing understanding of generalities in the relationship between seafloor characteristics and the locations of transient reef-fish spawning aggregations in the Caribbean. PMID:20840614

Boomhower, J; Romero, M; Posada, J; Kobara, S; Heyman, W

2010-09-01

293

Origen y microdiferenciación de la población del Archipiélago de Chiloé / Origin and microdifferentiation of Chiloé Archipelago population  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las etnias originarias del archipiélago de Chiloé presentan características culturales que plantean preguntas acerca de su origen como entidad genética independiente y distinta del grupo continental. Al respecto, hemos caracterizado las frecuencias de los cuatro haplogrupos amerindios fundadores del [...] ADN mitocondrial en cuatro poblaciones del archipiélago. El componente aborigen materno de estas poblaciones fue superior al 90 %. El análisis de distancias genéticas sugiere una segregación norte-sur en donde las poblaciones septentrionales aparecen más relacionadas con la etnia continental Huilliche. Aún cuando el análisis de diferenciación interpoblacional y de componentes principales muestran una singularidad en el grupo insular, ésta puede ser interpretada a partir de datos genéticos, etnohistóricos y arqueológicos Abstract in english The cultural diversity of Chiloé archipelago’s population raises questions about its ethnic origin. To determinate whether this population forms a distinct genetic-cultural entity in relation to continental groups, four populations were characterized genetically. Gene frequencies for the four Amerin [...] dian mitochondrial DNA haplogroups were analyzed. The studied groups exhibit an important aboriginal maternal genetic contribution since over 90 % of the individuals analyzed presented Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups. Although the genetic distance analysis indicates a north-south segregation, in agreement with ethnohistoric information, a relationship between groups of the Northern part of the archipelago with the Huilliche population is observed. Nevertheless, the exact test of population differentiation and the principal component analysis indicate a singularity in the insular group which can be explained combining genetic, ethnohistoric and archeological data

FEDERICO, GARCÍA; MAURICIO, MORAGA; SOLEDAD, VERA; HUGO, HENRÍQUEZ; ELENA, LLOP; CARLOS, OCAMPO; EUGENIO, ASPILLAGA; FRANCISCO, ROTHHAMMER.

2004-09-01

294

Changing Use Patterns, Changing Feedback Links: Implications for Reorganization of Coastal Fisheries Management in the Stockholm Archipelago, Sweden  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Property rights are important institutions for regulating the use of valuable natural resources from coastal ecosystems. In this case study, we identify and analyze property rights and user patterns related to small-scale coastal fisheries in the Stockholm Archipelago, Sweden. User patterns and user groups have changed significantly over the last century, as commercial fishing has been increasingly replaced by recreational activities. Interviews with local resource users and owners of water properties in two different areas, Möja and Ornö parishes within the Stockholm Archipelago, revealed a very diverse pattern of property and user rights, with a large number of water and fishing rights owners. Recreational fisheries, including both sport and household fishing, seem to predominate in both areas, but ownership differs. In Möja, most waters are collectively owned, whereas in Ornö, individual ownership predominates. Very few examples of local influence on fisheries management were found in either area, although the social structure for joint management does exist in Möja. Instead, larger-scale institutions at the regional, national, or international level regulate fisheries, often not addressing local conditions and fish populations. The ongoing shift in resource use has created a heterogeneous user group, and the limitations of centralized management authorities in dealing with the diversity in the coastal ecosystem have created mismatches within the social–ecological system. Combined with a large-scale decline in coastal fish stocks, these mismatches challenge the existing local property rights arrangements as well as the more centralized regulatory management structure. A key issue for fisheries management is how to develop and stimulate appropriate distribution of management functions at different geographical scales and organizational levels. The complexity and diversity in archipelago fisheries call for multilevel arrangements and cross-scale coordination, and initiatives have been taken by both central governmental authorities and local user groups to collaborate concerning habitat restoration and protection of important spawning grounds.

Maria Åqvist Almlöv

2006-12-01

295

Low-frequency western Pacific Ocean sea level and circulation changes due to the connectivity of the Philippine Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

Interannual-to-decadal sea level and circulation changes associated with the oceanic connectivity around the Philippine Archipelago are studied using satellite altimeter sea surface height (SSH) data and a reduced gravity ocean model. SSHs in the tropical North Pacific, the Sulu Sea and the eastern South China Sea (ESCS) display very similar low-frequency oscillations that are highly correlated with El Niño and Southern Oscillation. Model experiments reveal that these variations are mainly forced by the low-frequency winds over the North Pacific tropical gyre and affected little by the winds over the marginal seas and the North Pacific subtropical gyre. The wind-driven baroclinic Rossby waves impinge on the eastern Philippine coast and excite coastal Kelvin waves, conveying the SSH signals through the Sibutu Passage-Mindoro Strait pathway into the Sulu Sea and the ESCS. Closures of the Luzon Strait, Karimata Strait, and ITF passages have little impacts on the low-frequency sea level changes in the Sulu Sea and the ESCS. The oceanic pathway west of the Philippine Archipelago modulates the western boundary current system in the tropical North Pacific. Opening of this pathway weakens the time-varying amplitudes of the North Equatorial Current bifurcation latitude and Kuroshio transport. Changes of the amplitudes can be explained by the conceptual framework of island rule that allows for baroclinic adjustment. Although it fails to capture the interannual changes in the strongly nonlinear Mindanao Current, the time-dependent island rule is nevertheless helpful in clarifying the role of the archipelago in regulating its multidecadal variations.

Zhuang, Wei; Qiu, Bo; Du, Yan

2013-12-01

296

Applying Fishers' ecological knowledge to construct past and future lobster stocks in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over-exploited fisheries are a common feature of the modern world and a range of solutions including area closures (marine reserves; MRs), effort reduction, gear changes, ecosystem-based management, incentives and co-management have been suggested as techniques to rebuild over-fished populations. Historic accounts of lobster (Jasus frontalis) on the Chilean Juan Fernández Archipelago indicate a high abundance at all depths (intertidal to approximately 165 m), but presently lobsters are found almost exclusively in deeper regions of their natural distribution. Fishers' ecological knowledge (FEK) tells a story of serial depletion in lobster abundance at fishing grounds located closest to the fishing port with an associated decline in catch per unit effort (CPUE) throughout recent history. We have re-constructed baselines of lobster biomass throughout human history on the archipelago using historic data, the fishery catch record and FEK to permit examination of the potential effects of MRs, effort reduction and co-management (stewardship of catch) to restore stocks. We employed a bioeconomic model using FEK, fishery catch and effort data, underwater survey information, predicted population growth and response to MR protection (no-take) to explore different management strategies and their trade-offs to restore stocks and improve catches. Our findings indicate that increased stewardship of catch coupled with 30% area closure (MR) provides the best option to reconstruct historic baselines. Based on model predictions, continued exploitation under the current management scheme is highly influenced by annual fluctuations and unsustainable. We propose a community-based co-management program to implement a MR in order to rebuild the lobster population while also providing conservation protection for marine species endemic to the Archipelago. PMID:21079761

Eddy, Tyler D; Gardner, Jonathan P A; Pérez-Matus, Alejandro

2010-01-01

297

ASTER Flyby of San Francisco  

Science.gov (United States)

The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer, ASTER, is an international project: the instrument was supplied by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint US/Japan science team developed algorithms for science data products, and is validating instrument performance. With its 14 spectral bands, extremely high spatial resolution, and 15 meter along-track stereo capability, ASTER is the zoom lens of the Terra satellite. The primary mission goals are to characterize the Earth's surface; and to monitor dynamic events and processes that influence habitability at human scales. ASTER's monitoring and mapping capabilities are illustrated by this series of images of the San Francisco area. The visible and near infrared image reveals suspended sediment in the bays, vegetation health, and details of the urban environment. Flying over San Francisco (3.2MB) (high-res (18.3MB)), we see the downtown, and shadows of the large buildings. Past the Golden Gate Bridge and Alcatraz Island, we cross San Pablo Bay and enter Suisun Bay. Turning south, we fly over the Berkeley and Oakland Hills. Large salt evaporation ponds come into view at the south end of San Francisco Bay. We turn northward, and approach San Francisco Airport. Rather than landing and ending our flight, we see this is as only the beginning of a 6 year mission to better understand the habitability of the world on which we live. For more information: ASTER images through Visible Earth ASTER Web Site Image courtesy of MITI, ERSDAC, JAROS, and the U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

2002-01-01

298

An assessment of the record in compositional variations from mantle source to magmatism at East Island, Crozet archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The Crozet archipelago, located midway between Madagascar and Antarctica, constitutes the emerged part of the easternmost bank of the Crozet plateau, which lies upon upper Cretaceous oceanic seafloor derived from the Southeast Indian Ridge. It forms an elongated chain of five islands and islets, divided into two groups: an older eastern island group (islands) and a younger western one (islands. The whole region exhibits some of the most typical gravimetric, seismic and bathymetric characteristics associated with upwelling hotter than average mantle including: a geoid high, a topographic swell, a deep low-velocity zone (up to 2350 km), an anomalous heat flow and a thickened crust (10-16.5 km). Most of these features are exacerbated by the near stationary absolute motion of the Antarctic plate. However, since thirty years, the chemical composition of Crozet archipelago magmas has beneficiated from little interest compared to that of other Earth's hotspots. Because of the occurrence of both a thick and old lithosphere and of a near stagnant absolute plate motion, new data from the Crozet archipelago magmatic record will provide new critical perspective on oceanic island building processes. The data presented here are based on a basaltic suite of ~ 25 samples collected by a 'Terres Australes et Antarctiques Francaises' expedition in 1969 from the northern part of East Island. Our alkali basalts from the Crozet archipelago are distinct from other oceanic within-plate magmatic rocks in showing ubiquitous large depletions in LILE with respect to other incompatible elements, although these rocks constitute one of the most incompatible-element-enriched suites among Earth's oceanic island basalts (OIB). The similarity of their trace element ratios and parallelism of their rare earth element patterns indicate: (1) a mantle source homogeneity over at least 1 Ma; (2) an uniformity of the melting conditions (i.e. degree of melting and residual mineralogy) during most of the sub-aerial eruptive history involving very small melting degrees of a garnet-phlogopite bearing, enriched mantle source, as to be expected to occur beneath an old tectonic plate where the bottom of the lithosphere is likely near the garnet to spinel transition. We will present new geodynamical and geochemical constraints on the mechanisms of formation for such garnet-phlogopite-bearing sources in oceanic island environments.

Meyzen, C. M.; Marzoli, A.; Bellieni, G.

2013-12-01

299

Megachile timberlakei Cockerell (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae): Yet another bee species from the Galápagos Archipelago  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We here report the leaf-cutter bee Megachile (Eutricharaea) timberlakei Cockerell 1920 (Megachilidae) as a third bee species in the Gala´pagos. The species is currently known from the Hawaiian Islands and was collected during floral inventories on San Cristo´ bal. We provide floral records as well as a diagnosis and comparative comments that will assist bee researchers to easily recognize this species from other native and adventive Megachile Latreille to the Americas. We also discuss the possible routes to the Gala´pagos.

Rasmussen, Claus; Carrión, A.

2012-01-01

300

San Juan Uchucuanicu: évolution historique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La communauté de San Juan est reconnue depuis 1939. Une première partie concerne l?organisation de la reducción de San Juan vers le milieu du XVIe siècle. Le poids fiscal s?exerce durement sur le village et la crise est générale dans toute la vallée du Chancay au XVIIe. siècle. La christianisation des habitants est définitive au milieu de ce même siècle. C?est vers la fin du XVIIe siècle et durant tout le XVIIIe que se multiplient les conflits entre San Juan et les villages voisins liés aux terrains de pâture et à la possession de l?eau. La deuxième partie du travail concerne les rapports de la communauté de San Juan avec le Pérou contemporain : contrainte fiscale toujours très lourde durant la fin de l?époque coloniale, exactions des militaires juste avant l?indépendance. La période républicaine voit toujours les conflits avec les villages voisins mais aussi la naissance de familles qui cherchent à retirer le maximum de la communauté. Les terres sont divisées et attribuées : la détérioration de l?organisation communale traditionnelle est manifeste. L4es conflits se multiplient entre petits propriétaires, mais aussi avec les haciendas voisines : c?est l?apparition d?une véritable lutte de classes. La situation actuelle est incertaine, le poids de l?économie marchande se développe avec l?exode des jeunes. Que sera la communauté San Juan à la fin de ce siècle? La comunidad de San Juan está reconocida desde 1939. La primera parte concierne a la organización de la 'reducción' de San Juan hacia mediados del siglo XVI. El peso fiscal se ejerce duramente sobre el pueblo y en el siglo XVII la crisis es general en todo el valle de Chancay. Hacia mediados del mismo siglo la cristianización de los habitantes es definitiva. Es hacia fines del siglo XVII y durante todo el siglo XVIII que se multiplican los conflictos entre San Juan y los pueblos vecinos, los que están relacionados con los terrenos de pastoreo y la posesión del agua. La segunda parte del trabajo concierne a las relaciones de la comunidad de San Juan con el Perú contemporáneo: obligaciones fiscales cada vez más pesadas hacia fines de la época colonial, exacciones de los militares justamente antes de la independencia. El período republicano ve siempre los conflictos entre los pueblos vecinos pero igualmente el nacimiento de familias que procuran sacar el máximo de la comunidad. Las tierras son divididas y atribuidas: el deterioro de la organización comunal tradicional se pone de manifiesto. Se multiplican los conflictos entre pequeños propietarios, pero también con las haciendas vecinas: es la aparición de una verdadera lucha de clases. La situación actual es incierta, el peso de la economía comercial se desarrolla con el éxodo de los jóvenes. ¿Que será de la comunidad de San Juan a fines de este siglo? San Juan community has been recognized since 1939. In the first part, we will show' the organization of San Juan's reducción at the middle of the XVI century. The fiscal burden on the village was hard and this crisis was general all over the valley of Chancay during the XVII century. Christianisation of the inhabitants was completed in the middle of this same century. It is only at the end of this century and along all the XVII that the conflicts between San Juan and the neighboring villages were multiplied, tied to pasture lands and water possession In the second part, we will show the relations of San Juan with the contemporary Peru: always very hard fiscal constraint at the end of the colonial time and military exactions till the independence. Along the republican period, the conflicts with the neighboring villages persisted but there were also arising families who were trying to take the maximum of the community. Lands were divided and attributed, deterioration of traditional communal organization was visible. Conflicts between small landlords and neighboring haciendas were multiplied A real class struggle appeared. The actual situation seems uncertain but the trading economy b

1975-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Volcanic lakes of the Azores archipelago (Portugal): Geological setting and geochemical characterization  

Science.gov (United States)

A representative set of 30 lakes from the Azores archipelago (Portugal) has been studied to obtain data on their volcanic setting and water geochemistry. The majority of the studied lakes are located inside volcanic craters and subsidence calderas, while the remaining lakes are located in topographic depressions not associated with volcanic centres, in depressions of tectonic origin and inside lava caves. In general, the Azorean volcanic lakes are small, with surface areas between 8.94 × 10 - 4 km 2 and 4.35 km 2 and volumes between 2.4 × 10 3 and 4.78 × 10 7 m 3; median = 3.99 × 10 4 m 3, presenting maximum depths between 0.8 and 33 m. Mostly of the Na-Cl to Na-HCO 3 type, the lake waters are generally low temperature (11.9-24.6 °C), very dilute (TDS range between 11.0 and 356.2 mg/L; median = 36.8 mg/L) and a clear exception is Furna do Enxofre lake (Graciosa island) that shows a Mg trend. Two types of lake waters can be recognized: 1) one is characterized by Na/Cl ratio close to the seawater value and have evolved, and evolve by marine contribution; and 2) Na-HCO 3 type waters that, in addition to sea-salt input, have been influenced by other processes (e.g., water-rock interaction, hydrothermal seepage into the lake bottom) evident from higher total CO 2 content (365.1 mg/L) and SiO 2 content (74.9 mg/L), as well demonstrated by in the Furna do Enxofre lake. Nevertheless, volcanic contribution cannot be excluded for some lakes as Furna do Enxofre. Vertical profiles made at the deepest lakes of São Miguel reveal that major-ion content varies little with depth, largely independent of the occurrence of thermally driven density stratification in summer for some lakes. However, dissolved CO 2 increases with depth and is kept in the hypolimnion in summer, whereas the HCO 3- content is stable, suggesting that CO 2 release exceeds acidity neutralization by water-rock interaction. During winter, without stratification, the dissolved CO 2 increase is less sharp for the majority of the lakes, with the exception of Furnas and Furna do Enxofre lakes. The CO 2 enrichment observed for certain lakes (e.g., Furna do Enxofre and Furnas) implies a volcanic input. Moreover, as these lakes themselves are located near hydrothermal surface manifestations, they therefore offer good targets of volcano monitoring in the Azores.

Cruz, J. V.; Antunes, P.; Amaral, C.; França, Z.; Nunes, J. C.

2006-08-01

302

Two contemporaneous magma series on Mayotte Island, Comores Archipelago, Indian Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

The Comores archipelago is comprised of four islands all of which are characterised by alkaline lavas. On Mayotte, two clearly separate magma series can be defined. The origin of such contemporaneous but compositionally different series in several oceanic islands is still a subject of a debate. The mineralogy and geographically locations allow to identify three different lava groups. (1) The north lava group composed of relatively homogeneous alkaline basalts. (2) The north-east group comprised of tephrites to trachy-phonolites series and (3) the south lava group is made up of a nephelinite to phonolite series. Ol+cpx+plag are the main phenocryst phases in the north and north-east lavas, whereas the south lava series have ol+cpx+nepheline as phenocrysts. Composition of clinopyroxene is variable with diopside compositions in the north alkaline basalts and tephrites, and diopside to aegerine compositions in the south nephelinite lavas. A regular enrichment of Na content in plagioclases phenocrysts and groundmass crystals from the lavas of the north group to those from the north-east is observed. In contrast, alkali-feldspars are present in the south lavas. The crystallisation of clinopyroxene instead of plagioclase after olivine fractionation in the north lavas suggests that fractionation occurred at pressure between 0.4 and 0.9 GPa, which is consistent with the presence of Na-rich cpx-cores in all lava groups. The major element composition of lavas from Mayotte allow to define two distinct magma series: a moderately undersaturated and a highly undersaturated series. The moderately undersaturated series is composed of the north alkali basalt and the north-east tephrite lavas, whereas the south nephlinites represent the highly undersaturated series. Compilation of published age determinations and new Ar/Ar datings suggest that the north lavas erupted from 7.7 Ma to 4.4 Ma, followed by the north-east lavas erupted from 4.7 Ma to 1.4 Ma. The south lavas erupted contemporaneously from 7.7 Ma to 2.7 Ma. Basic volcanic activity resumed in the North between 2.9 Ma and 1.2 Ma, and from 2 Ma to 1.5 Ma in the South. Taken together, these preliminary petrological and geochemical results suggest that Mayotte island was constructed by two volcanoes. These volcanoes were active at the same time producing two distinct magma series. Migration of the activity of the northern volcano to the east occurred with emission of increasingly differentiated lavas with time. Depth of crystallisation can be evaluated at more than 15 km for alkaline basalt and tephrite lavas, which corresponds to the mantle-crust interface.

Debeuf, D.; Bachèlery, P.; Sigmarsson, O.

2003-04-01

303

A finite element sea ice model of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) is a complex area formed by narrow straits and islands in the Arctic. It is an important pathway for freshwater and sea-ice transport from the Arctic Ocean to the Labrador Sea and ultimately to the Atlantic Ocean. The narrow straits are often crudely represented in coupled sea-ice-ocean models, leading to a misrepresentation of transports through these straits. Unstructured meshes are an alternative in modelling this complex region, since they are able to capture the complex geometry of the CAA. This provides higher resolution in the flow field and allows for more accurate transports (but not necessarily better modelling). In this paper, a finite element sea-ice model of the Arctic region is described and used to estimate the sea-ice fluxes through the CAA. The model is a dynamic-thermodynamic sea-ice model with elastic-viscous-plastic rheology and is coupled to a slab ocean, where the temperature and salinity are restored to climatology, with no velocities and surface elevation. The model is spun-up from 1973 to 1978 with NCEP/NARR reanalysis data. From 1979 to 2007, the model is forced by NCEP/DoE reanalysis data. The large scale sea-ice characteristics show good agreement with observations. The total sea-ice area agrees very well with observations and shows a sensitivity to the Arctic oscillation (AO). For 1998-2002, we find estimates for the sea-ice volume and area fluxes through Admunsen Gulf, McClure Strait and the Queen Elizabeth Islands that compare well with observation and are slightly better than estimates from other models. For Nares Strait, we find that the fluxes are much lower than observed, due to the missing effect of topographic steering on the atmospheric forcing fields. The 1979-2007 fluxes show large seasonal and interannual variability driven primarily by variability in the ice velocity field and a sensitivity to the AO and other large-scale atmospheric variability, which suggests that accurate atmospheric forcing might be crucial to modelling the CAA.

Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Arjen D.; Myers, Paul G.; Pietrzak, Julie D.

2010-12-01

304

Geology of the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago and the North Kara Terrane in the Russian high Arctic  

Science.gov (United States)

The Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago is located at 80°N near the continental shelf break, between the Kara and Laptev seas. Sedimentary successions of Neoproterozoic and Palaeozoic age dominate the bedrock geology. Together with Northern Tajmyr, Severnaya Zemlya constitutes the main land areas of the North Kara Terrane (NKT), which is inferred here to have been a part of the Timanide margin of Baltica, i.e. an integral part of Baltica at least since the Vendian. Vendian turbidites derived from the Timanide Orogen are inferred to have been deposited on Neoproterozoic greenschist facies, granite-intruded basement. Shallow-water siliclastic deposition in the Early to Mid-Cambrian was followed by highly organic-rich shales in the Late Cambrian and influx of more turbidites. An episode of folding, the Kan’on River deformation, separates these formations from the overlying Tremadocian conglomerates and sandstones. In the Early Ordovician, rift-related magmatic rocks accompanied the deposition of variegated marls, sandstones, carbonates and evaporites. Dark shales and gypsiferous limestones characterise the Mid-Ordovician. Late Ordovician quartz-sandstones mark a hiatus, followed by carbonate rocks that extend up into and through most of the Silurian. The latter give way upwards into Old Red Sandstones, which are inferred to have been deposited in a Caledonian foreland basin. Deformation, reaching the area in the latest Devonian or earliest Carboniferous and referred to as the Severnaya Zemlya episode, is thought to be Caledonian-related. The dominating E-vergent structure was controlled by décollement zones in Ordovician evaporite-bearing strata; detachment folds and thrusts developed in the west and were apparently impeded by a barrier of Ordovician igneous rocks in the east. Below the décollement zones, the Neoproterozoic to Early Ordovician succession was deformed into open to close folds. The exposed strata in the lower structural level have been juxtaposed with those in the upper structural level along the major N-trending Fiordovoe Lake Fault Zone, which involved several kilometres of dextral strike-slip movement and downthrow to the west. A major Early Carboniferous unconformity separates the folded Mid-Palaeozoic and older rocks from overlying Carboniferous formations, as on Franz Joseph Land and Svalbard. Subsequent latest Palaeozoic to Early Mesozoic orogeny, as on Taimyr, apparently had little influence on the Severnaya Zemlya successions.

Lorenz, Henning; Männik, Peep; Gee, David; Proskurnin, Vasilij

2008-05-01

305

Islas Marias Archipelago, Mexico. A Missing Piece to Reconstruct the Paleoposition of Baja California  

Science.gov (United States)

Paleopositions for southern Baja California peninsula have yielded controversial models over the past 30 years. Mainly based on paleomagnetic data many hypotheses place Baja at lower paleolatitudes in front of southern Mexico or Central America with subsequent northward translations. Other models suggest minor, if any, northward displacements with respect to continental Mexico combined with clockwise rotations. Lithological, geochemical, and geochronological similarities for southern Baja California and Puerto Vallarta (western Mexico Pacific margin) igneous rocks seem to confirm the latter model. To further prove this model we have mapped and collected rocks from Maria Madre, the largest island of the Islas Marias archipelago, located in the mouth of the Gulf of California. In an area of only 145 square kilometers, metamorphic basements rocks (ortho and migmatitic gneisses), highly deformed metasediments, granitoids, acid to intermediate volcanic sequences, and a cover with gently folded marine sediments are exposed. The basement complex with gneisses and metasediments, including garnet-bearing paragneiss and calc silicates, as well as the granodioritic-tonalitic intrusives display an extraordinary accordance with similar units observed in the Los Cabos Block (LCB) of Baja California Sur. Furthermore, U-Pb zircon ages of 162 and 170 Ma for the basement gneisses and of 80 Ma for the granitoids have been reported also from the LCB. Additionally, upper Cretaceous intrusive ages are well known from the Puerto Vallarta batholith in Jalisco and Nayarit, mainland Mexico. Geochemical and isotopic data as well as Nd model ages confirm a magmatic consanguinity of LCB, Islas Marias, and Puerto Vallarta granitoids. The volcanic units of Maria Madre Island include ignimbrites and effusive dacitic-rhyolithic rocks, which can be correlated to the Sierra Madre Occidental province and the Comundú Formation of Baja California. Age determinations are under work to confirm this hypothesis. Finally, the sedimentary cover record several subsidence and uplift events, possibly related to the opening of the Gulf of California. Micropaleontological investigations on Neogene deposits give evidence for an above sea level position of the islands since the late Pleistocene. In summary, our new lithological, geochemical, and geochronological investigations on the Isla María Madre rock suite confirm a common magmatic arc parenthood of these units with respect to mainland Mexico at latitudes of Puerto Vallarta and with the LCB of Baja California Sur. Large paleolatitudal displacements of Baja can be discarded from these results.

Schaaf, P. E.; Pompa, V.; Hernandez, T.; Weber, B.; Solis, G.; Villanueva, D.; Perez-Venzor, J.

2011-12-01

306

Suboxic dolomite formation linked to the sedimentary Mn cycle, Archipelago Los Roques, Venezuela  

Science.gov (United States)

The preferential formation of Ca-rich dolomite precursors in modern peritidal environments has been associated with the degradation of buried microbial mats, with complexation of Ca and Mg cations by extracellular polysaccharides, and alkalinity generation, mostly through bacterial sulfate reduction. However, it remains unclear why Ca-dolomite would not occur in suboxic sediments where bacterial Mn(IV) and/or Fe(III) reduction are important sources of alkalinity, and the role, if any, of Fe- and Mn-recycling in its diagenetic stabilization to more stoichiometric dolomite is unknown. In a shoaling-upward parasequence in the Archipelago Los Roques, Venezuela, an abundance of Ca-dolomite coincides with a relative decrease in bulk-sediment iron concentrations. These sediments were analyzed with multiple analytical tools, including EPMA, ICP-MS, synchrotron-based XRF, XRD, and spatially resolved XANES. Results demonstrate that the distribution of spheroidal aggregates of nanometer-scale Ca-rich dolomite rhombohedra is linked with interstitial elemental sulfur and manganese accumulations, with Mn occurring in several oxidation states (Fig. 1). Based on our observations at this novel dolomite-forming site, we suggest that in peritidal settings the burial of metal-reactive microbial mats act as a barrier capable of concentrating dissolved reactive species that promote greater sediment residence times in suboxic (manganic) zones, where the recycling of Mn not only plays an important role in the remineralization of organic matter, but also sustains elevated alkalinity and dissolved pore water sulfide concentrations. The last two effects have been previously suggested to promote Mg dehydration, the major kinetic barrier to dolomite nucleation. Figure 1. Normalized Mn K-edge merged spectra of a 5 x 5 ?m analytical area bearing dolomite cements. A: The K-edge exhibits two main features at about 6554 and 6558 eV. B: Intermediate Mn (III) is identified by the positive slope of the first derivative of the XANES spectra in the interval 6547.9-6549.0 eV. C: A least-squares fitting of the spectra was performed to quantify the Mn species present. The spectra can be fitted with four model compounds, Mn2O3 (52.5 × 5.2%), MnCO3 (22.2 × 1.3%), gamma-MnOOH (15.0 × 5.0%), and Mn3O4 (10.3 × 7.7%), suggesting that these phases coexist in the dolomite-bearing microcrystalline cements.

Petrash, D.; Lalonde, S.; Gonzalez, G.; Gingras, M.; Konhauser, K.

2013-12-01

307

Geochemical characterisation and evolution of Monte Luccia products from Vulcano Island (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy)  

Science.gov (United States)

Vulcano Island (Aelioan Archipelago, Italy) is a composite structure consisting of four eruptive systems (Vulcano Primordiale, Complesso della Lentia, Cono di La Fossa and Vulcanello) and two polyphasic calderas, Caldera del Piano and Caldera di La Fossa. On the north-eastern side of Vulcano Island, a minor eruptive center, Monte Luccia, is located. The sequence consists of a shoshonitec lava at the base and a succession of more primitive products on top. According to field evidences, Monte Luccia products could be correlated to: i) the activity of Vulcano Primordiale (in this case the age of the sequence should range between 100 and 130 ka) or ii) the activity of a more recent, independent eruptive centre. To solve this question, the basal lava and the scoriae located on top were sampled, dated by U-series method, and analysed for major and trace elements. The two products belong to the orogenic alkaline series showing chemical and geochemical characters peculiar of the subduction related volcanism. The Ta/Th for the two rocks overlap with those of Vulcano Primordiale and Caldera de La Sommata. The Th/Hf, Ta/Yb La/Sm ratios from the lava and the scoriae products show different values, suggesting possible mantle heterogeneities, due to different mantle metasomatism, or different degrees of partial melting of the mantle source, or the existence of low pressure AFC processes with possible crustal contamination of Monte Luccia lavas by the prevulcanic basement (unita' calabridi) of the area. The (Th-230/U-238) activity ratios of the two products are also different, with the lava showing Th-230 excess relative to U- 238. This high thorium content suggests either anhydrous partial melting of the mantle source or minerale-assemblage conditions in the source such that the partition coefficient of thorium is lower than that of uranium. Nd-Sr-Pb data are necessary to further discriminate among these processes. Moreover, the investigated products seem to have been erupted at different times. The isochrone obtained for the lava, yield an best estimate of about 180 ka ± ?? (the unusual large error is due to the very low fractionation between U and Th in the different minerals), while the scoriae resulted younger (16 ± 2.2 ka ), suggesting again two different histories for the lavas and the scoriae of this vulcanic centre.

Dolfi, D.; Mollo, S.; Romano, C.; Soligo, M.; Tuccimei, P.

2003-04-01

308

Simultaneous determination of seven major triterpenoids in Pyrola decorata H. Andres by LC-MS method.  

Science.gov (United States)

A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of seven triterpenoids, 3-beta-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosylsiaresinolic acid-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester, ziyuglycoside I, pomolic acid, maslinic acid, colosic acid, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in Pyrola decorata H. Andres. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hypersil C18 column using isocratic elution followed by a linear gradient elution of methanol and water as mobile phase. The analytes were ionized by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source and determined on selected ion monitoring mode. All analytes showed good linearity (r2 > or = 0.9984) within the test ranges and the recovery rates were 94.5% - 103.3%. Satisfactory precision and reproducibility were obtained with relative standard deviation less than 5%. The method was simple, accurate and performed well in application to the determination of twenty commercial samples of P. decorata collected from different regions of China. It could be used for the quality control of both plant materials and preparations of P. decorata. PMID:23136714

Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Chao; Ren, Rui; Liu, Rui

2012-10-01

309

Generalisering og validering af model for afdrift af pesticider til læhegn og andre marknære biotoper  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

I det netop afsluttede projekt ”Generalisering og validering af model for sprøjtemiddelafdrift til læhegn og andre marknære biotoper” har vi målt, hvor meget af det sprøjtemiddel, landmanden sprøjter ud, der ender i markens læhegn. Målingerne er anvendt til at videreudvikle og validere en model, der kan forudsige afdriften af de fleste sprøjtemidler under forskellige betingelser. Modellen kan tage hensyn til de givne egenskaber for pesticidet og til dysens dråbestørrelser, hvordan vejret er og om der er en sprøjtefri zone mellem traktoren og naturen uden for marken. Desuden kan modellen differentiere mellem forskellige højder i læhegn. Som forventet var afdriften til læhegn mindre ved brug af en luftinjektions-dyse end ved sprøjtning med fladsprede-dyse i den samme mark. Forskellen i afdrift mellem de to typer af dyser viser, at der er potentiale for, via valg af sprøjteudstyr, at reducere mængden af pesticider, der lander i læhegnene og dermed reducerer blomstring og frugtsætning. Samtidig viser såvel målinger som modelberegninger, at der ikke er den store effekt af sprøjtefrie bufferzoner på afdriften til læhegn, specielt ikke i den øverste del af læhegnene, hvor frugterne ofte er mest talrige.

Bruus, Marianne; LØfstrØm, Per

2014-01-01

310

ANDRE G?DE VE YEN? ROMANCILARDA ROMANESK KAR?ITLI?I VE ERKEN ANLATI TEKN???  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we tried to expose how Andre Gide uses the technique “mise en abyme”in his works and especially in his Counterfeiters he called as “his first novel”. This technique of which the name is taken from the heraldic science , consists of putting a second in abyme in the first. Gide and New Novelists such as Alain Robbe Grillet, Michel Butor, Nathalie Saraute and Claude Simon are opposing openly against the traditional forms of the classic novel which reached to the apex with the Balzac novel. As it is well know, the classic novel has a novel tradition based on strong fundamentals. It exposes a interesting and fascinating story around which are turning adventurously a great number of personages whose acts, behaviours and sentiments are deeply analysed. It is because of these romanesque elements that Gide and New Novelists rise up against the traditional novel by means of this narrative technique.The “mise en abyme” technique of Gide has a great influence on New Novelists which express their ideas on the novel, the romanesque elements, their opposition against the classic novel in their novel by putting micro-story where the personages discuss the subject of the roman in the interior of the same novel. Thus, Gide and New Novelists transpose, in the level ofthe personages, the subject of the novel firstly exposed in the micro-story , later progressed by the variants throughout all the novel.

Fuat BOYACIO?LU

2004-01-01

311

Properties of diphenolase from Vanilla planifolia (Andr.) shoot primordia cultured in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Properties of diphenolase (PPO, EC1.10.3.1) from vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andr.) shoot primordia culture were investigated. Two pH optima of the enzyme extraction at pH 6 and 8 were found. Nevertheless, the enzymes shared the same optimum pH of activity-between pH 3 and 4. Sodium dodecyl sulfate slightly improved diphenolase extraction but caused a 3-fold increase in its specific activity. The extracts of pH 6 and 8.0 revealed three isozyme bands after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-two of them were similar in both extracts and two distinct. The enzyme showed high thermal stability-no loss was observed after 120 min at 50 degrees C. Diethyldithiocarbamic acid, ethylenediaminetetracetic acid disodium salt, ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether) N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, L-ascorbic acid, dithiothreitol, glutathione (reduced), and beta-mercaptoethanol were found to be potent inhibitors of the diphenolase studied. The enzyme showed also monophenolase activity. Km and Vmax were calculated with monophenols [p-coumaric acid, 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid] and with diphenols (caffeic acid, hydrocaffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, 4-methylcatechol, protocatechuic aldehyde and acid, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine). The highest Vmax was found with 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol and the greatest affinity to protocatechuic acid, respectively-the most abundant monophenol and one of the least abundant o-diphenols in the studied Vanilla tissue. PMID:11453787

Debowska, R; Podstolski, A

2001-07-01

312

Proceedings of the Marc-Andre Berube symposium on alkali-aggregate reactivity in concrete  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These conference proceedings include a collection of papers to honour Marc-Andre Berube for his contributions to research in alkali-aggregate reactivity and concrete technology. Topics of discussion ranged from the most commonly used and new emerging test methods for determining the potential alkali-reactivity of concrete aggregates, including factors affecting their reliability, alternative methods of interpreting test data results and related specifications governing their use. The prevention of AAR in concrete was also discussed, with reference to the use of lithium-based admixtures to control expansion with alkali-reactive aggregates; methods to evaluate their efficacy; and, the mechanisms explaining their beneficial effect. Methods to measure the alkali contribution from supplementary cementing materials (SCM) were also presented along with results of comparative field and laboratory testing. Last, the conference addressed diagnosis and mitigation issues of AAR in concrete structures with reference to the interactions in concrete when exposed to de-icing chemicals. Methods for evaluating ASR-related damage in concrete were presented along with mitigation strategies for ASR-affected concrete structures; and, predicting the durability and service life of concrete structures incorporating reactive aggregates. This conference featured 22 presentations from academia, industry and research organizations worldwide, of which 6 have been included separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

Fournier, B. (ed.) [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Lab

2006-07-01

313

San Diego Zoo: Kid Territory  

Science.gov (United States)

This San Diego Zoo website is absolutely packed with fun and informative stuff for kids, and features not only the residents of the zoo, but also the people who work there. Read All About It offers a look at how the San Diego Zoo began, why we give scientific names to animals, why animal enrichment is important, and much more. Science in Action offers simple experiments to do at home or in the classroom, like exploring what life would be like without an opposable thumb (with tape, not via amputation). The website also provides interesting essays on zoo-related careers, as well as cool multimedia games, animal-themed recipes, and loads of other great features.

314

Recent cryptic extinction of squamate reptiles on Yoronjima Island of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, inferred from garbage dump remains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report recent skeletal remains of squamate reptiles screened from an old garbage dump deposit found on Yoronjima Island, a small island of the Ryukyu Archipelago, in the subtropical northwestern Pacific. Identified remains include at least three species of terrestrial snakes, one sea snake, and seven species of lizards. Among these, the Ryukyu Short-legged Skink, Ateuchosaurus pellopleurus; Kuroiwa’s Leopard Gecko, Goniurosaurus kuroiwae; and one unidentified Gekko species constitute entirely new findings. For a further two snake species and one lizard species, the evidence presented here is the first specimen-based documentation that these species existed on this island, where they are now evidently absent. The present absence of these species on Yoronjima is mainly attributable to predation by the Japanese Weasel, Mustela itatsi, introduced in the mid-1950s. Our results demonstrate a prominent case of recent, sizable deterioration of insular herpetofaunal diversity, which has never been documented with certainty in the Ryukyu Archipelago, and suggest that human influence should be taken into account in biodiversity research in this area.

Yasuyuki Nakamura

2013-07-01

315

Extent of mangrove nursery habitats determines the geographic distribution of a coral reef fish in a South-pacific archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the drivers of species' geographic distribution has fundamental implications for the management of biodiversity. For coral reef fishes, mangroves have long been recognized as important nursery habitats sustaining biodiversity in the Western Atlantic but there is still debate about their role in the Indo-Pacific. Here, we combined LA-ICP-MS otolith microchemistry, underwater visual censuses (UVC) and mangrove cartography to estimate the importance of mangroves for the Indo-Pacific coral reef fish Lutjanus fulviflamma in the archipelago of New Caledonia. Otolith elemental compositions allowed high discrimination of mangroves and reefs with 83.8% and 98.7% correct classification, respectively. Reefs were characterized by higher concentrations of Rb and Sr and mangroves by higher concentrations of Ba, Cr, Mn and Sn. All adult L. fulviflamma collected on reefs presented a mangrove signature during their juvenile stage with 85% inhabiting mangrove for their entire juvenile life (about 1 year). The analysis of 2942 UVC revealed that the species was absent from isolated islands of the New Caledonian archipelago where mangroves were absent. Furthermore, strong positive correlations existed between the abundance of L. fulviflamma and the area of mangrove (r?=?0.84 for occurrence, 0.93 for density and 0.89 for biomass). These results indicate that mangrove forest is an obligatory juvenile habitat for L. fulviflamma in New Caledonia and emphasize the potential importance of mangroves for Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes. PMID:25140697

Paillon, Christelle; Wantiez, Laurent; Kulbicki, Michel; Labonne, Maylis; Vigliola, Laurent

2014-01-01

316

A spatio-temporal model for the invasion of New Zealand archipelago by the Pacific rat Rattus exulans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New Zealand is at the southern limits of the human-extended geographic range of the Pacific rat Rattus exulans. On the two main islands, radiocarbon dates on rat bones from natural sites show that rat populations were established more than 1000 years before permanent human settlement, presumably during transient visits by Polynesian voyagers. Both main islands were colonised after these first contacts, but offshore and outlying islands were not reached by rats until after Polynesian settlement about 700 years BP. Chatham Island was not colonised by Pacific rats until about 650 years BP. I present a model that relates the time of first appearance of rats in the fossil record and the exploitation of native fauna to the pattern of spread of the rat through the archipelago. I hypothesise that the stepwise spread of the rat through the archipelago is mirrored by the pattern of reduction and extinction of indigenous fauna vulnerable to rat predation. The 1000 year delay between the arrival of rats and permanent human settlement suggests that the New Zealand biota was already stressed by an introduced predator before humans added habitat destruction and over-hunting. (author). 65 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

317

Conservation genetics of the Philippine tarsier: cryptic genetic variation restructures conservation priorities for an island archipelago primate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Establishment of conservation priorities for primates is a particular concern in the island archipelagos of Southeast Asia, where rates of habitat destruction are among the highest in the world. Conservation programs require knowledge of taxonomic diversity to ensure success. The Philippine tarsier is a flagship species that promotes environmental awareness and a thriving ecotourism economy in the Philippines. However, assessment of its conservation status has been impeded by taxonomic uncertainty, a paucity of field studies, and a lack of vouchered specimens and genetic samples available for study in biodiversity repositories. Consequently, conservation priorities are unclear. In this study we use mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to empirically infer geographic partitioning of genetic variation and to identify evolutionarily distinct lineages for conservation action. The distribution of Philippine tarsier genetic diversity is neither congruent with expectations based on biogeographical patterns documented in other Philippine vertebrates, nor does it agree with the most recent Philippine tarsier taxonomic arrangement. We identify three principal evolutionary lineages that do not correspond to the currently recognized subspecies, highlight the discovery of a novel cryptic and range-restricted subcenter of genetic variation in an unanticipated part of the archipelago, and identify additional geographically structured genetic variation that should be the focus of future studies and conservation action. Conservation of this flagship species necessitates establishment of protected areas and targeted conservation programs within the range of each genetically distinct variant of the Philippine tarsier. PMID:25136854

Brown, Rafe M; Weghorst, Jennifer A; Olson, Karen V; Duya, Mariano R M; Barley, Anthony J; Duya, Melizar V; Shekelle, Myron; Neri-Arboleda, Irene; Esselstyn, Jacob A; Dominy, Nathaniel J; Ong, Perry S; Moritz, Gillian L; Luczon, Adrian; Diesmos, Mae Lowe L; Diesmos, Arvin C; Siler, Cameron D

2014-01-01

318

Long–term changes of species richness in a breeding bird community of a small Mediterranean archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We analyzed the pattern of species richness changes in a bird–breeding bird community on a small western Mediterranean archipelago (Columbretes Islands over a 40–year period (1964–2003. The aim of this study was to qualitatively account for the relative roles of local and regional factors in shaping the community. As expected, we found that regional factors (at the metapopulation spatial scale increased diversity whereas local factors (i.e. ecological probably prevented further increases in diversity. We found that the archipelago gained four new species (two seabirds and two falconids during the study period, whereas no extinctions were recorded. The community seems partially or completely closed to some groups of species (e.g. small–sized birds such as passerines and storm–petrels, probably owing to predatory exclusion by Eleonora falcons (Falco eleonorae. As newly arrived species have breeding calendars that do not fully overlap with those of resident species, competition for space in a rather saturated area is prevented. Preservation of rare species which increase gamma (regional diversity rather than alpha diversity with common species should be the main local conservation goal.

R. Velasco

2005-01-01

319

Extent of Mangrove Nursery Habitats Determines the Geographic Distribution of a Coral Reef Fish in a South-Pacific Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the drivers of species' geographic distribution has fundamental implications for the management of biodiversity. For coral reef fishes, mangroves have long been recognized as important nursery habitats sustaining biodiversity in the Western Atlantic but there is still debate about their role in the Indo-Pacific. Here, we combined LA-ICP-MS otolith microchemistry, underwater visual censuses (UVC) and mangrove cartography to estimate the importance of mangroves for the Indo-Pacific coral reef fish Lutjanus fulviflamma in the archipelago of New Caledonia. Otolith elemental compositions allowed high discrimination of mangroves and reefs with 83.8% and 98.7% correct classification, respectively. Reefs were characterized by higher concentrations of Rb and Sr and mangroves by higher concentrations of Ba, Cr, Mn and Sn. All adult L. fulviflamma collected on reefs presented a mangrove signature during their juvenile stage with 85% inhabiting mangrove for their entire juvenile life (about 1 year). The analysis of 2942 UVC revealed that the species was absent from isolated islands of the New Caledonian archipelago where mangroves were absent. Furthermore, strong positive correlations existed between the abundance of L. fulviflamma and the area of mangrove (r?=?0.84 for occurrence, 0.93 for density and 0.89 for biomass). These results indicate that mangrove forest is an obligatory juvenile habitat for L. fulviflamma in New Caledonia and emphasize the potential importance of mangroves for Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes. PMID:25140697

Paillon, Christelle; Wantiez, Laurent; Kulbicki, Michel; Labonne, Maylis; Vigliola, Laurent

2014-01-01

320

Population Genetic Structure of the Deep-Sea Precious Coral Corallium secundum from the Hawaiian Archipelago Based on Microsatellites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deep-sea precious corals (Gerardia sp., Corallium lauuense, and Corallium secundum) on the Islands and seamounts of the Hawaiian Archipelago have supported an extremely profitable fishery, yet little is known about the life history and dispersal of the exploited species. Recent studies indicate significant genetic structure between shallow-water coral populations, including several species capable of long distance dispersal. If significant genetic structure exists in seamount and Island populations of precious corals, this could suggest that the elimination (through overharvesting) of a bed of precious corals would result in loss of overall genetic diversity in the species. Here I discuss results based on microsatellite studies of the precious coral, Corallium secundum, from 11 sites in the Hawaiian Archipelago collected between 1998 and 2004, and compare the population genetic structure and dispersal capabilities of Corallium secundum to the results for Corallium lauuense. Microsatellite studies of Corallium lauuense indicated significant heterozygote deficiency in most populations, suggesting recruitment in most populations is from local sources with only occasional long-distance dispersal events. Also, two populations appear to be significantly isolated from other populations of Corallium lauuense and may be separate stocks. In contrast, Corallium secundum populations have little heterozygote deficiency and separate into 3 distinct regions. In addition to having fisheries management implications for these corals, the results of these studies also have implications for the management and protection of seamount fauna.

Baco-Taylor, A.

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
321

APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

T. Scott Hickman

2003-01-17

322

APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

2001-06-16

323

Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf San Andres Reservoir  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: 1.Advanced petrophysics 2.Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic 3.Cross-well bore tomography 4.Advanced reservoir simulation 5.Carbon dioxide (CO2) stimulation treatments 6.Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring 7.Mobility control agents

Archie R. Taylor; James J. Justice; T. Scott Hickman

1998-07-31

324

APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the fifth and sixth annual reporting periods (8/3/98-8/2/00) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the cross well seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted, the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction was conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and ten wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

2002-01-09

325

Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf San Andres Reservoir  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Infill drilling if wells on a uniform spacing without regard to reservoir performance and characterization foes not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations.

Archie R. Taylor; James J. Justice; T. Scott Hickman

1998-01-31

326

APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

Raj Kumar; Keith Brown; T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

2000-04-27

327

APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

2001-12-11

328

APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the seventh annual reporting period (8/3/00-8/2/01) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the interwell seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted and the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction were conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and six wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

Tom Beebe

2003-05-05

329

APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

2001-08-10

330

APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO2) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

331

33 CFR 165.1102 - Security Zone; Naval Base Point Loma; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Point Loma; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. 165.1102 Section 165.1102 Navigation...Point Loma; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. (a) Location. The following area...to the Naval Base Point Loma, San Diego, CA, enclosed by the following...

2010-07-01

332

78 FR 39610 - Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

...RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA AGENCY...Port of San Diego Fourth of July Big Bay Boom Fireworks display on the evening of July...Diego Bay for the Fourth of July Big Bay Boom. This event will occur between...

2013-07-02

333

76 FR 81371 - Safety Zone; San Francisco New Year's Eve Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

...Safety Zone; San Francisco New Year's Eve Fireworks Display...for the annual San Francisco New Year's Eve Fireworks Display...during the loading, transit, and arrival of the fireworks barge to the...for the annual San Francisco New Year's Eve Fireworks...

2011-12-28

334

Localization in one-dimensional lattices with non-nearest-neighbor hopping: Generalized Anderson and Aubry-Andre models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the quantum localization phenomena of noninteracting particles in one-dimensional lattices based on tight-binding models with various forms of hopping terms beyond the nearest neighbor, which are generalizations of the famous Aubry-Andre and noninteracting Anderson models. For the case with deterministic disordered potential induced by a secondary incommensurate lattice (i.e., the Aubry-Andre model), we identify a class of self-dual models, for which the boundary between localized and extended eigenstates are determined analytically by employing a generalized Aubry-Andre transformation. We also numerically investigate the localization properties of nondual models with next-nearest-neighbor hopping, Gaussian, and power-law decay hopping terms. We find that even for these nondual models, the numerically obtained mobility edges can be well approximated by the analytically obtained condition for localization transition in the self-dual models, as long as the decay of the hopping rate with respect to distance is sufficiently fast. For the disordered potential with genuinely random character, we examine scenarios with next-nearest-neighbor hopping, exponential, Gaussian, and power-law decay hopping terms numerically. We find that the higher-order hopping terms can remove the symmetry in the localization length about the energy band center compared to the Anderson model. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that for the power-law decay case, there exists a critical exponent below which mobility edges can be found. Our theoretical results could, in principle, be directly tested in shallow atomic optical lattice systems enabling non-nearest-neighbor hopping.

335

Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Lake Azul (Azores archipelago, Portugal) and its implications for the NAO signal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Azores archipelago lies in the southern area of the dipole that defines the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). During the negative phase of the NAO, the Azores high pressure is displaced southwards allowing the storms to cross the islands increasing the precipitation in this area and also in southern Europe. This fact makes them excellent key places to perform accurate high-resolution climate reconstructions. Lake Azul (37o 52' 21"N - 37o52'21"W) is a monomictic lake infilling the volcanic complex of Sete Cidades which is located in São Miguel island. This monomictic and eutrophic lake was formed around 22000 cal. years B.P. by consecutive collapses of the underneath volcanic caldera. The last eruption of the Sete Cidades crater complex was radiocarbon-dated at 500-650 cal years B.P. At present, macrophytes are restricted to the lake shore and consist mainly of Potamogeton spp., Myriophyllum alterniflorum, Ceratophyllum demersum, Nymphaea alba, and, Chara fragilis. Moreover, this crater complex has steep borders mainly covered by exotic plant species, such Cryptomeria japonica, Pittosporum undulatum and Hedychium gardnerianum. Antropogenic changes in the catchment have occurred in the last centuries including deforestation, permanent pastures (around 31%), production forest (57%) and the human settlements. In September 2011, fourteen sediment cores, up to 2.5 m long, were collected using a gravity corer from a UWITEC raft. A multiproxy characterization of these cores was carried out including smear slides, X-Ray Fluorescence, X-Ray diffraction, magnetic properties, diatom content, and bulk organic matter (d13C, d15N, TN, TOC). The chronological model was obtained by plant remains and pollen concentrates radiocarbon-dating. From base to top, three lithological units have been established from the retrieved cores: volcaniclastic rocks (lapilli), light grey laminated mud, and poor laminated light brown mud with frequent dark layers rich in plant debris. The radiocarbon date at the base of this fine mixture manifests the record for the last ca 650 cal. years B.P., which corresponds to the last recorded eruption. The dark brown layers are dominated by organic matter (low XRF signal and almost no diatoms) whereas light brown facies are mainly made up of terrigenous particles (high XRF signal and high content of benthic diatoms) and vascular plant macroremains. Bulk organic matter analyses have revealed that algae constitute the main compound of the organic fraction. However, the organic matter in the dark layers is composed by C3 plants, coherent with the clastic nature of this facies deposited during flood events. Increase of precipitation, ruled by the negative phase of the NAO, together with the steep borders of the Sete Cidades crater prompts a substantial increase in the erosion of the catchment and hence an enhancement of runoff that reaches Azul Lake and the occurrence of the flood events. Therefore, identifying, characterizing and counting the dark layers would allow to reconstruct the intensity and periodicity of the negative phase of the NAO climate mode.

Jesús Rubio, Maria; Sanchez, Guiomar; Saez, Alberto; Vázquez-Loureiro, David; Bao, Roberto; José Pueyo, Juan; Gómez-Paccard, Miriam; Gonçalves, Vitor; Raposeiro, Pedro M.; Francus, Pierre; Hernández, Armand; Margalef, Olga; Buchaca, Teresa; Pla, Sergi; Barreiro-Lostres, Fernando; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Giralt, Santiago

2013-04-01

336

75 FR 48306 - San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory...SUMMARY: The San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory...The meeting will be held at the San Juan Public Lands Center, 15 Burnett...

2010-08-10

337

76 FR 40876 - San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory...SUMMARY: The San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory...The meeting will be held at the San Juan Public Lands Center, 15 Burnett...

2011-07-12

338

77 FR 47358 - San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory...SUMMARY: The San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory...The meeting will be held at the San Juan Public Lands Center, 15 Burnett...

2012-08-08

339

76 FR 12692 - San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory...SUMMARY: The San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory...The meeting will be held at the San Juan Public Lands Center, 15 Burnett...

2011-03-08

340

27 CFR 9.157 - San Francisco Bay.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Alameda, and Contra Costa, which border the San Francisco Bay. The area also includes portions...other counties, Solano, Santa Cruz, and San Benito, which are in the general vicinity of the greater San Francisco Bay metropolitan area. The...

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

Kas hirmul külma sõja ees on alust? / George Soros, Martti Ahtisaari, Toomas Hendrik Ilves...[jt.] ; interv. Andres Kasekamp  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

6. novembril 2008 Tallinnas toimunud XIII Avatud Ühiskonna Foorumil alapealkirjaga "Euroopa Liit ja Venemaa: mida toob tulevik?" arutlesid president Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Euroopa Välissuhete Nõukogu aseesimees Martti Ahtisaari, Euroopa Välissuhete Nõukogu liige, Avatud Ühiskonna Instituudi nõukogu esimees George Soros, Euroopa Välissuhete Nõukogu liige, politoloogiaprofessor Aleksander Smolar ja Rahvusvahelise Kaitseuuringute Keskuse juhataja Kadri Liik suhete üle Venemaaga. Vestlust juhtis Andres Kasekamp. President T. H. Ilves rääkis paradigma muutusest Euroopa Liidu ja Venemaa suhetes pärast Venemaa agressiooni Gruusia vastu, ühiselt jagatud väärtustel põhineva julgeolekuorganisatsiooni tähtsusest, autoritaarse ja demokraatliku kapitalismi vastuolust

2008-01-01

342

78 FR 19103 - Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano Escort; Bahia de San Juan; San Juan, PR  

Science.gov (United States)

...USCG-2013-0166] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano...de San Juan during the transit of the Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano...the high ranking officials on board the Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El...

2013-03-29

343

78 FR 28800 - Foreign-Trade Zone 61-San Juan, Puerto Rico; Application for Subzone; Parapiezas Corporation; San...  

Science.gov (United States)

...S-65-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 61--San Juan, Puerto Rico; Application for Subzone; Parapiezas Corporation; San Juan, Puerto Rico An application has been...Parapiezas Corporation located in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The application...

2013-05-16

344

Intermediate tectonic pattern and hydrodynamic process deduced from audiomagnetotelluric investigations on the volcanic island of Mayotte (Comores Archipelago)  

Science.gov (United States)

Audiomagnetotelluric soundings were carried out on the volcanic island of Mayotte (Comores Archipelago). The field method and data are described and discussed. All the sounding cross sections show coherent curves with a high conductive layer between 100 and 200 m. depth. This layer is considered to be a fluctuating water table zone correlated to yearly climatic changes under tropical weathering processes. Dipping and sudden level variations are linked to tectonic volcanic features and are the visualization of a block faulting system of the primitive basaltic shield, a consequence of a distensive phase possibly connected with the collapse of the western flank of the volcano. Piano-key panels are the typical sub-surface style and the guide-line for any water prospection on the volcano and the activity of the island water transfer system.

Ballestracci, Régis; Nougier, Jacques; Benderitter, Yves

1985-05-01

345

A new species of insular Rock Gecko (Genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887) from the Bidong Archipelago, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new insular species Cnemaspis bidongensis sp. nov. (Squamata: Gekkonidae), is described from Pulau Bidong, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia and bears a unique suite of morphological and color pattern characters that differentiate it from all other congeners. Cnemaspis bidongensis sp. nov. is the sister species to C. kendallii (Gray) and represents the fifth insular endemic species of Cnemaspis on archipelagos along the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. This species survived massive deforestation of the small island of Bidong (260 ha) from the mid 1970s to the early 1990s when the island served as a Vietnamese refugee camp and harbored as many as 40,000 people at one time. We hypothesize that this species' generalized lifestyle contributed to its survival, allowing it to seek refuge in rocky microhabitats. PMID:24869832

Grismer, L Lee; Jr, Perry L Wood; Ahmad, Amirrudin B; Sumarli, Alexandra S-I; Vazquez, Jessika J; Ismail, Lukman H B; Nance, Ronald; Mohd-Amin, Muhammad Afif B; Othman, Mohamad N A B; Rizaijessika, Syed A; Kuss, Maria; Murdoch, Matthew; Cobos, Anthony

2014-01-01

346

Analysis Of Conservation Experience Of Heritage Objects In Lithuania (The Curonian Spit And Norway (The Vega Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Curonian Spit (Lithuania and Vega Archipelago (Norway are objects on the UNESCO World Heritage List because of their special kind of landscapes that have been formed not without human intervention. Landscapes created by nature itself or with human help are exceptional works which, as determined by the legal acts in regulation of these processes, have to be referred to as objects of cultural heritage. The cultural heritage must be protected, exhibited and viewed as objects of science and cognition. Lithuania and Norway have different conditions formed for identification, conservation and protection of these works, but both countries have recognized that protection of cultural heritage, passing it on for future generations is the duty of the state. Prospects of heritage management and development, and exchange of experience should be the top priorities for action in Lithuania.

Nijol? Piekien?

2014-05-01

347

Karyological study of Amphisbaena ridleyi (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae), an endemic species of the Archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, Pernambuco, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The karyotype of Amphisbaena ridleyi, an endemic species of the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, in State of Pernambuco, Brazil, is described after conventional staining, Ag-NOR impregnation and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a telomeric probe. The diploid number is 46, with nine pairs of macrochromosomes (three metacentrics, four subtelocentrics and two acrocentrics) and 14 pairs of microchromosomes. The Ag-NOR is located in the telomeric region of the long arm of metacentric chromosome 2 and FISH revealed signals only in the telomeric region of all chromosomes. Further cytogenetic data on other amphisbaenians as well as a robust phylogenetic hypothesis of this clade is needed in order to understand the evolutionary changes on amphisbaenian karyotypes. PMID:21637605

Laguna, Marcia Maria; Amaro, Renata Cecília; Mott, Tamí; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

2010-01-01

348

Karyological study of Amphisbaena ridleyi (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae), an endemic species of the Archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, Pernambuco, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The karyotype of Amphisbaena ridleyi, an endemic species of the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, in State of Pernambuco, Brazil, is described after conventional staining, Ag-NOR impregnation and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a telomeric probe. The diploid number is 46, with nine [...] pairs of macrochromosomes (three metacentrics, four subtelocentrics and two acrocentrics) and 14 pairs of microchromosomes. The Ag-NOR is located in the telomeric region of the long arm of metacentric chromosome 2 and FISH revealed signals only in the telomeric region of all chromosomes. Further cytogenetic data on other amphisbaenians as well as a robust phylogenetic hypothesis of this clade is needed in order to understand the evolutionary changes on amphisbaenian karyotypes.

Marcia Maria, Laguna; Renata Cecília, Amaro; Tamí, Mott; Yatiyo, Yonenaga-Yassuda; Miguel Trefaut, Rodrigues.

349

Karyological study of Amphisbaena ridleyi (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae, an endemic species of the Archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, Pernambuco, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The karyotype of Amphisbaena ridleyi, an endemic species of the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, in State of Pernambuco, Brazil, is described after conventional staining, Ag-NOR impregnation and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with a telomeric probe. The diploid number is 46, with nine pairs of macrochromosomes (three metacentrics, four subtelocentrics and two acrocentrics and 14 pairs of microchromosomes. The Ag-NOR is located in the telomeric region of the long arm of metacentric chromosome 2 and FISH revealed signals only in the telomeric region of all chromosomes. Further cytogenetic data on other amphisbaenians as well as a robust phylogenetic hypothesis of this clade is needed in order to understand the evolutionary changes on amphisbaenian karyotypes.

Marcia Maria Laguna

2010-01-01

350

RETOMANDO LOS LÍMITES Y LAS LIMITACIONES DEL "ARCHIPIÉLAGO VERTICAL" REVISITING THE LIMITS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE "VERTICAL ARCHIPELAGO "  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El presente trabajo retoma la problemática de los límites y las limitaciones del "Archipiélago Vertical" planteada hace tres décadas por John V. Murra y a la que todavía no se le ha podido dar una respuesta satisfactoria. Con esto no pretendemos resolver el desafío legado por Murra, sino dar una diferente lectura a la información arqueológica existente y con ello formular una hipótesis que pueda orientar el debate y la búsqueda de respuestas bajo un panorama de mayor amplitud. Nuestro enfoque se centra en el segmento de la vertiente occidental andina correspondiente al norte del actual territorio chileno, planteando que en esta franja el modelo de verticalidad archipielágica, tal como definido por Murra, se consolidó solamente en el Período Intermedio Tardío. Con anterioridad (período Medio, la necesidad de complementariedad vertical habría sido resuelta a través del macrosistema orquestado por Tiwanaku, entidad que perfeccionó el "sistema de interacción reticular" (Llagostera 2006, de data anterior, por lo que no necesariamente tuvo que recurrir a colonias. En el Intermedio Tardío se conjugaron acontecimientos sociopolíticos y eventos medioambientales que motivaron una reestructuración sin precedentes en las tierras altoandinas y en los Valles Occidentales. En estos últimos, las poblaciones vallunas que habían alcanzado su apogeo sociocultural se habrían reestructurado bajo mecanismos que podrían asimilarse a los sistemas de "dualidad". En tanto, las poblaciones del altiplano, que estaban siendo flageladas por una intensa sequía, habrían iniciado un clima de agresión y de violencia hacia las poblaciones de las cabeceras de los valles occidentales para apoderarse de la producción hortícola y de sus tierras. Finalmente, los reductos de estas poblaciones precordilleranas (que originalmente hacían parte de la dualidad valluna habrían caído en poder de las poblaciones altiplánicas, convirtiéndose en colonias ("islas" de estas últimas, consolidando la estructura de "archipiélago vertical", con cabecera en el altiplano. De esta manera se habría dado forma a los archipiélagos étnicos Caranga, Quillaca y Lipes, que serían los más meridionales del mundo andino.The present work returns to the problem of the limits and limitations of the 'vertical archipelago', raised three decades ago by John V. Murra, and which still remains without a satisfactory solution. Rather than resolve the challenge left by Murra, / here offer a different approach to the archaeological information, which leads me to formulate a hypothesis that may guide the debate and search for answers within a wider context. Concentrating on the Western slopes of the Andes in the North of Chile, I propose that the model of the vertical archipelago, as defined by Murra, was consolidated only in the Late Intermediate Period. During the Middle Horizon, the need for vertical complementarity could have been resolved through the macro-system organized by Tiwanaku, a civilization that perfected the older "system of reticulated interaction " (Llagostera 2006, and did not depend on colonies for access to distant resources. But in the Late Intermediate Period, sociopolitical and environmental events combined to bring about a new form of organization in the Andean highlands and in the Western Valleys of the Pacific. In the latter, populations that had reached their sociocultural upper limit would have been restructured under mechanisms assimilable to those of 'duality'. Meanwhile the highland populations, afflicted by an intense drought, would have unleashed violent attacks against those living in the head-waters of the Western Valleys to get hold of their agricultural lands. Finally, the remnants of these pre-Andean populations (originally part of the valley dual organization would have fallen into the hands of the altiplanic populations, becoming colonies ('islands' which consolidated a 'vertical archipelago structure' whose nuclei lay on the Altiplano. In this way were formed the southernmost archipelagoes of the An

Agustín Llagostera

2010-06-01

351

Distribution and bioavailability of cadmium in ornithogenic coral-sand sediments of the Xisha archipelago, South China Sea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Total cadmium (Cd) concentrations in four ornithogenic coral-sand sedimentary profiles displayed a strong positive correlation with guano-derived phosphorus, but had no correlation with plant-originated organic matter in the top sediments. These results indicate that the total Cd distributions were predominantly controlled by guano input. Bioavailable Cd and zinc (Zn) had a greater input rate in the top sediments with respect to total Cd and total Zn, and a positive correlation with total organic carbon (TOC) derived from plant humus. Multi-regression analysis showed that the total Cd and TOC explained over 80% of the variation of bioavailable Cd, suggesting that both guano and plant inputs could significantly influence the distribution of bioavailable Cd, and that plant biocycling processes contribute more to the recent increase of bioavailable Cd. A pollution assessment indicates that the Yongle archipelago is moderately to strongly polluted with guano-derived Cd. PMID:22610039

Liu, Xiaodong; Lou, Chuangneng; Xu, Liqiang; Sun, Liguang

2012-09-01

352

The study of bacterioplankton dynamics in the Berlengas Archipelago (West coast of Portugal by applying the HJ-biplot method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relationship between bacterioplankton and environmental forcing in the Berlengas Archipelago (Western Coast of Portugal were studied between February 2006 and February 2007 in two sampling stations: Berlenga and Canal, using an HJ-biplot. The HJ-biplot showed a simultaneous display of the three main metabolic groups of bacteria involved in carbon cycling (aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, sulphate-reducing bacteria and nitrate-reducing bacteria and environmental parameters, in low dimensions. Our results indicated thatbacterial dynamics are mainly affected by temporal gradients (seasonal gradients with a clear winter versus summer opposition, and less by the spatial structure (Berlenga and Canal. The yearly variation in the abundance of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were positively correlated with those in chlorophyll a concentration, whereas ammonium concentration and temperature decreased with increasing phosphates and nitrites concentration. The relationship between aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, chlorophyll a and ammonium reveals that phytoplankton is an important source of organic substrates for bacteria.

Susana Mendes

2009-01-01

353

Avaliação da atividade antibacteriana e triagem fitoquímica das folhas de Acacia longifolia (Andr.) Willd. (Leguminosae) / Evaluation of the antibacterial activity and phytochemical screening of the leaves of Acacia longifolia (Andr.) Willd., Leguminosae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se a atividade antibacteriana de extratos das folhas de Acacia longifolia (Andr.) Willd., através do método da difusão em gel. Os extratos foram incorporados em discos de papel, e foi verificado o efeito sobre o crescimento de bactérias patogênicas ao homem: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) [...] , Escherichia coli (ATCC 11129) e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027). Verificou-se que o extrato etanólico bruto, a fração acetato de etila e a fração etanólica remanescente inibiram o crescimento de S. aureus, mas não o de E. coli; somente o extrato etanólico bruto inibiu, em menor grau o crescimento de P. aeruginosa. A triagem fitoquímica indicou a presença de taninos, leucoantocianidinas, flavonóides e triterpenos/esteróides nas folhas de A. longifolia. Abstract in english The antibacterial activity of the extracts of Acacia longifolia (Andr.) Willd. leaves was evaluated by the gel diffusion method. The extracts were incorporated in paper discs and it was verified the effect on the human pathogenic bacteria growth. The tested bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC [...] 6538), Escherichia coli (ATCC 11129) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027). The crude ethanolic extract, the ethyl acetate and the remained ethanolic fractions showed growth inhibition of S. aureus, only the crude ethanilic extract showed, in lower extension, growth inhibition of P. aeruginosa and no growth inhibition at all of E. coli. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of tannins, leucoanthocianidins, flavonoids and triterpene/steroids.

C., Peitz; M.M., Cúnico; O.G., Miguel; M.D., Miguel; V.A., Kerber.

354

Diversity, relationships, and biogeography of the lambeosaurine dinosaurs from the European Archipelago, with description of the New Aralosaurin Canardia garonnensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We provide a thorough re-evaluation of the taxonomic diversity, phylogenetic relationships, and historical biogeography of the lambeosaurine hadrosaurids from the European Archipelago. Previously published occurrences of European Lambeosaurinae are reviewed and new specimens collected from upper Maastrichtian strata of the south-central Pyrenees are described. No support is found for the recognition of European saurolophines in the available hadrosaurid materials recovered so far from this area. A new genus and species of basal lambeosaurine, Canardia garonnensis, is described on the basis of cranial and appendicular elements collected from upper Maastrichtian strata of southern France. C. garonnensis differs from all other hadrosaurids, except Aralosaurus tuberiferus, in having maxilla with prominent subrectangular rostrodorsal flange; it differs from A. tuberiferus in a few maxillary and prefrontal characters. Together with A. tuberiferus, C. garonnensis integrates the newly recognized tribe Aralosaurini. Inference of lambeosaurine interrelationships via maximum parsimony analysis indicates that the other three known European lambeosaurines are representatives of two additional subclades (tribes) of these hadrosaurids: Tsintaosaurini (Pararhabdodon isonensis) and Lambeosaurini (the Arenysaurus ardevoli-Blasisaurus canudoi clade). The tribes Aralosaurini, Tsintaosaurini, Lambeosaurini, and Parasaurolophini are formally defined and diagnosed for the first time. Three event-based quantitative methods of ancestral range reconstruction were implemented to infer the historical biogeography of European lambeosaurines: Dispersal-Vicariance Analysis, Bayesian Binary MCMC, and Dispersal-Extinction-Cladogenesis. The results of these analyses, coupled with the absence of pre-Maastrichtian lambeosaurines in the Mesozoic vertebrate fossil record of Europe, favor the hypothesis that aralosaurins and tsintaosaurins were Asian immigrants that reached the Ibero-Armorican island via dispersal events sometime during the Maastrichtian. Less conclusive is the biogeographical history of European lambeosaurins; several scenarios, occurring sometime during the Maastrichtian, are possible, from vicariance leading to the splitting of Asian or North American from European ranges to a dispersal event from North America to the European Archipelago. PMID:23922815

Prieto-Márquez, Albert; Dalla Vecchia, Fabio M; Gaete, Rodrigo; Galobart, Angel

2013-01-01

355

Population structure and accompanying biota of the snail Turbo (Callopoma) funiculosus (Gastropoda: Turbinidae), on Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish El caracol porcelana, Turbo funiculosus, es un recurso pesquero potencial que casi no ha sido estudiado ni se ha utilizado comercialmente. En marzo de 1992, se realizó un muestreo de T. funiculosus en Bahía Binners y Bahía Blanca, isla Socorro, archipiélago Revillagigedo, empleando cuadrantes de 25 [...] m2. Se encontraron variaciones en la longitud total entre 3.0 y 85 mm, el peso proporcional entre 3.0 y 228 g, y la densidad entre 6.21 y 9.87 ind/m2. Los organismos de mayor tamaño (más de 50 mm) contienen 30.6 % de partes suaves. Las poblaciones del caracol porcelana siguen siendo inexplotadas en el archipiélago Revillagedo y podrían ser un recurso potencial de la industria pesquera bajo un adecuado plan de manejo. Abstract in english The porcelain snail, Turbo funiculosus, is a potential fishery resource that almost has not been studied or used commercially. In March of 1992, we sampled T. funiculosus in Bahía Binners and Bahía Blanca, Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, using 25 m² quadrants. We found that total length v [...] aries between 3.0 and 85 mm, proportional weight between 3.0 and 228 g, and density between 6.21 and 9.87 ind/m². The largest organisms (over 50 mm) contain 30.6 % of soft parts. Porcelain snail populations remain unexploited on Revillagedo Archipelago and could be a potential resource under an adequate management strategy. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4): 1079-1084. Epub 2006 Dec. 15.

Oscar E, Holguin Quiñones; Jesús E, Michel-Morfín.

356

Seasonal spatial pattern and community structure of zooplankton in waters off the Baleares archipelago (Central Western Mediterranean)  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the zooplankton community in two different areas of the Baleares Archipelago, Western Mediterranean, using data obtained in autumn (December 2009) and summer (July 2010). Micrometazooplankton and mesozooplankton samples were collected in the 0-200 m layer above the shelf (200 m) and the slope (900 m) of each area by a 53 ?m and a 200 ?m mesh size net respectively. The zooplankton biomass (expressed as dry weight) was higher in autumn than in summer (9.30 and 6.95 mg m- 3, respectively) with an important contribution of micrometazooplankters (29% and 41% of total biomass respectively). The latter fraction overwhelmed in the entire metazooplankton abundance, suggesting a non-negligible role as potential food for fish in the epipelagic waters of the Baleares archipelago. The abundance of micrometazooplankton was two-fold higher in December (3581 ind. m- 3) than in July (1585 ind. m- 3), represented mainly by small copepods and nauplii. Likewise, the mesozooplankton community showed smaller difference between months (554 and 390 ind. m- 3, in December and July). Micrometazooplankton abundance was higher in the northern area than in the southern area during autumn, probably linked to the presence of a front, while the opposite was found in summer. In both periods and areas copepods dominated, and within the highly diverse community ten species and their juveniles accounted for 70% of the community. In both areas, Clausocalanus (C. pergens + paululus and C. arcuicornis), Paracalanus parvus, Oncaea media, Oithona plumifera and Acartia clausi were abundant in autumn, whereas Centropages typicus, Temora stylifera and Mecynocera clausi were mainly present in summer. ANOSIM analysis revealed significant differences in the mesozooplankton community composition between months while differences between areas were detected only in summer.

Fernández de Puelles, M. L.; Macias, V.; Vicente, L.; Molinero, J. C.

2014-10-01

357

Phylogeography of the brackish water clam Corbicula japonica around the Japanese archipelago inferred from mitochondrial COII gene sequences.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the phylogeography of the Asian brackish water clam, Corbicula japonica, to clarify its demographic history using partial mitochondrial COII gene sequences (990 bp) from 283 individuals collected from around the Japanese archipelago and adjacent areas. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the presence of two major groups within our samples: monophyletic Group I comprising Lineages A-E of C. japonica and paraphyletic Group II consisting of Corbicula sp. Lineages A-C were distributed in Japan and Sakhalin Island, and Lineages D, E, and Corbicula sp. were distributed in the Korean Peninsula. Nested clade analysis (NCA) revealed that Lineage A-the dominant lineage in Japan-consisted of Pacific and Japan Sea lineages, the latter comprising southern and northern Japan Sea groups. Genetic diversity indices of the southern group were higher than those of the northern group, suggesting historical range expansion in the Sea of Japan from southwest to northeast. Geographical distribution of these genetic groups appears to have been influenced by major ocean currents around the Japanese archipelago. Dominant haplotypes in the star-shaped haplotype network of Lineage A were distributed throughout the entire distribution range of each genetic group, implying rapid range expansion of this species. The results of mismatch distribution analysis and molecular clock estimation suggest that expansion of lineage A occurred during the late Middle or Late Pleistocene. In contrast, restricted or past gene flow suggested by NCA and the many unique haplotypes (110/123; 89.4%) present in Lineage A suggest that gene flow among extant populations is rather limited. PMID:24601779

Yamada, Mitsuya; Ishibashi, Ryo; Toyoda, Kei; Kawamura, Kouichi; Komaru, Akira

2014-03-01

358

A five million year record of compositional variations in mantle sources to magmatism on Santiago, southern Cape Verde archipelago  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

High-precision Pb isotope data and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope data are presented together with major and trace element data for samples spanning the 4.6 Ma history of volcanism at Santiago, in the southern Cape Verde islands. Pb isotope data confirm the positive ¿8/4 signature of the southern islands indicating that the north-south compositional heterogeneity in the Cape Verde archipelago has persisted for at least 4.6 Ma. The Santiago volcanics show distinct compositional differences between the old, intermediate and young volcanics, and suggest greater involvement of an enriched mantle (EM1)-like source over time. Isotopic variations in the Santiago volcanics indicate convergence towards a homogeneous EM1-like end-member and distinct temporal variations in the FOZO-like end-member. Santiago and Santo Antão (a northern island, Holm et al. 2006), show a simultaneous decrease in 208Pb/204Pb of the high 206Pb/204Pb FOZO-like source with time. Such systematic archipelago-wide variations in the FOZO-like component suggest that this component is more likely to be present as a coherent package of recycled ocean crust rather than as multiple small heterogeneities dispersed in the upwelling mantle. The temporal variations in 208Pb/204Pb reflect minor lateral variations in Th/U of this recycled ocean crust package entering the melting zone beneath the islands. The location of the EM1-like component is more equivocal. A shallow lithospheric location is possible, but this would require a coincidence between spatial compositional variations in the lithosphere (EM1 is spatially restricted to the southern islands) and flow lines in the upwelling mantle revealed by seismic anisotropy. Therefore, we favour a deeper asthenospheric mantle source for the EM1-like source

Barker, Abigail K.; Holm, Paul Martin

2010-01-01

359

San Diego's High School Dropout Crisis  

Science.gov (United States)

This article highlights San Diego's dropout problem and how much it's costing the city and the state. Most San Diegans do not realize the enormous impact high school dropouts on their city. The California Dropout Research Project, located at the University of California at Santa Barbara, has estimated the lifetime cost of one class or cohort of…

Wilson, James C.

2012-01-01

360

San Francisco Aerial Photographs 1938  

Science.gov (United States)

Have you ever wanted to fly over San Francisco in the year 1938? Well, now you can in a manner of speaking. Recently, the David Rumsey Historical Map Collection website digitized 164 large format, black and white, vertical aerial photographs taken by Harrison Ryker, a pioneer in aerial photography. The photos are quite remarkable, and visitors can zoom in to see such details as the paint striping on a basketball court. Visitors can peer out over the Ferry Terminal Building, the long-gone Mission Bay Roundhouse, and Hunters Point. The site also contains a detailed biographical sketch of Harrison Ryker, complete with a few of the advertisements for his own products, like the M-11 Stereoscope. Finally, visitors can also save specific images for future references.

 
 
 
 
361

San Jose Children's Discovery Museum  

Science.gov (United States)

This website from the Children's Discovery Museum (CDM) in San Jose, California, offers a variety of interactive tools and games for children ages 4 to 10 years. The mathematics game featured is a card game called Arithmetic Rummy and requires a printer, while other features are more graphic-oriented. For example, an interactive video takes children through a short journey about energy, while another highlights water ways. The Teacher section provides additional tools and resources, which can be searched by grade level and then topic area. These lesson ideas can be used both on and off the Internet. Parents and teachers can also learn about other programs at the museum from this website. Registration is not required, but parents and educators are encouraged to register so CDM can "offer more personal experiences on the site for each child registrant" and "communicate appropriate educational content directly."

362

Moving Towards SAN Storage: An Enterprise Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract – One of the major components of any enterprise IT infrastructure is data storage. There has been continuous effort to explore new storage technologies to improve performance with respect to input/output operations, data availability, consolidation of storage assets and data protection and archiving. Storage has moved from the traditional Direct Attached Storage (DAS to Network Attached Storage (NAS and now to Storage Area Networks (SAN. Traditional storage subsystems like Server Attached Storage (SAS and Network Attached Storage (NAS use disks directly attached to servers over a Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI bus. However, these have limited capabilities keeping in view the rapidly expanding storage needs. The SAN technology holds great promises to be used for enterprises where issues like data availability, serviceability, consolidation of storage and reliability are major concerns. It can provide high speed data transfer with many other storage services, backboned with a high speed Fibre Channel (FC. Storage-area networks are also more popular and efficient way of building large storage systems both in an enterprise environment and for multi-domain storage service providers. SAN design and implementation requires careful analysis before SAN can be used as an enterprise storage solution. In this paper we provide an overview of SAN technology from the view point of building large storage systems in an enterprise environment. We also discuss on return on investment (ROI which can justify the adoption of SAN in an enterprise. Further, it compares two specific technologies, namely, FC SAN and IP SAN. In the sequel different design considerations are made to recommend suitable SAN implementations in order to meet the requirements of any enterprise.

rabi prasad padhy

2012-08-01

363

SANS studies of micellar and magnetic fluids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has proved to be an excellent technique for the study of complex fluids. This article introduces SANS from the viewpoint of such studies. The use of SANS to determine the structures of concentrated micellar fluids is then discussed within the framework of current one-component macrofluid (OCM) models, and experimental examples are taken from several contemporary studies. Finally, the discussion is extended to magnetic fluids (ferrofluids) in which the neutron magnetic interaction plays an important experimental role. 25 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

364

Long-term landscape evolution of the Basal Complexes of Fuerteventura and La Gomera Islands, Canary Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The Canarias archipelago consists from seven volcanic islands located at the northwestern African margin. Among them only Fuerteventura and La Gomera islands show distinctive wide exposures of the basal complex (BC) that is characteristic with complex geological history. The basal complex was exposed on the western part of Fuerteventura and northwestern sector of La Gomera because of giant landslide(s) which have removed most of the shield stage volcanic rocks (Ancochea et al., 1996; 2006; Stillman, 1999). Generally, landslides are a common feature in the earlier constructive stages of the entire archipelago and many other volcanic islands (McGuire, 1996). Integration of low temperature thermochronological data, and time-Temperature (t-T) numerical modelling have proven to be a powerful tool for reconstructing the thermal and tectonic history, defining and quantifying long-term landscape evolution in variety of geological settings. Therefore, zircon and apatite fission-track techniques and t-T paths modelling were applied to 36 samples representing the main rock units of the BC on both islands. Fuerteventura BC has experienced two very rapid cooling/exhumation events. While, La Gomera BC shows one long-lived very fast cooling/exhumation event. Interestingly, these very rapid cooling/exhumation events are synchronous with these major landslides. There are many reasons for the major landslides on such a volcanic island (see e.g. McGuire, 1996)., But, the most sufficient triggers for these huge mass wasting/landslides events on Fuerteventura and La Gomera are recommended to be the continuous igneous intrusions and dikes which have the potential to decrease the edifice stability, igneous extrusions which add new materials at the surface leading to over-steeping and overloading (McGuire, 1996), and major climatic changes of the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum (Herold et al., 2011). References Ancochea, E., Brändle, J.L., Cubas, C.R.,Hernán, F.,Huertas, M.J., 1996. Volcanic complexes in the eastern ridge of the Canary Islands: the Miocene activity of the Island of Fuerteventura. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 70, 183-204. Ancochea, E., Hernán, F., Huertas, M.J., Brändle, J.L., Herrera, R., 2006. A new chronostratigraphical and evolutionary model for La Gomera: implications for the overall evolution of the Canarian Archipelago. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 157, 271-293. Herold, N., Huber, M., Greenwood, D.R., Müller, R.D., Seton, M., 2011. Early to Middle Miocene monsoon climate in Australia. Geology 39, 3-6. McGuire, W.J., 1996. Volcano instability: a review of contemporary themes. In: McGuire, W.J., Jones, A.P., Neuberg, J. (Eds.), Volcano Instability on the Earth and Terrestrial Planets. Geological Society of London, Special Publication 110, 1-23. Stillman, C.J., 1999. Giant Miocene landslides and the evolution of Fuerteventura, Canary Islands. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 94, 89-104.

Mansour, Sherif; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Albinger, Marie; Stoeckli, Daniel F.

2014-05-01

365

RETOMANDO LOS LÍMITES Y LAS LIMITACIONES DEL "ARCHIPIÉLAGO VERTICAL" / REVISITING THE LIMITS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE "VERTICAL ARCHIPELAGO "  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente trabajo retoma la problemática de los límites y las limitaciones del "Archipiélago Vertical" planteada hace tres décadas por John V. Murra y a la que todavía no se le ha podido dar una respuesta satisfactoria. Con esto no pretendemos resolver el desafío legado por Murra, sino dar una dif [...] erente lectura a la información arqueológica existente y con ello formular una hipótesis que pueda orientar el debate y la búsqueda de respuestas bajo un panorama de mayor amplitud. Nuestro enfoque se centra en el segmento de la vertiente occidental andina correspondiente al norte del actual territorio chileno, planteando que en esta franja el modelo de verticalidad archipielágica, tal como definido por Murra, se consolidó solamente en el Período Intermedio Tardío. Con anterioridad (período Medio), la necesidad de complementariedad vertical habría sido resuelta a través del macrosistema orquestado por Tiwanaku, entidad que perfeccionó el "sistema de interacción reticular" (Llagostera 2006), de data anterior, por lo que no necesariamente tuvo que recurrir a colonias. En el Intermedio Tardío se conjugaron acontecimientos sociopolíticos y eventos medioambientales que motivaron una reestructuración sin precedentes en las tierras altoandinas y en los Valles Occidentales. En estos últimos, las poblaciones vallunas que habían alcanzado su apogeo sociocultural se habrían reestructurado bajo mecanismos que podrían asimilarse a los sistemas de "dualidad". En tanto, las poblaciones del altiplano, que estaban siendo flageladas por una intensa sequía, habrían iniciado un clima de agresión y de violencia hacia las poblaciones de las cabeceras de los valles occidentales para apoderarse de la producción hortícola y de sus tierras. Finalmente, los reductos de estas poblaciones precordilleranas (que originalmente hacían parte de la dualidad valluna) habrían caído en poder de las poblaciones altiplánicas, convirtiéndose en colonias ("islas") de estas últimas, consolidando la estructura de "archipiélago vertical", con cabecera en el altiplano. De esta manera se habría dado forma a los archipiélagos étnicos Caranga, Quillaca y Lipes, que serían los más meridionales del mundo andino. Abstract in english The present work returns to the problem of the limits and limitations of the 'vertical archipelago', raised three decades ago by John V. Murra, and which still remains without a satisfactory solution. Rather than resolve the challenge left by Murra, / here offer a different approach to the archaeolo [...] gical information, which leads me to formulate a hypothesis that may guide the debate and search for answers within a wider context. Concentrating on the Western slopes of the Andes in the North of Chile, I propose that the model of the vertical archipelago, as defined by Murra, was consolidated only in the Late Intermediate Period. During the Middle Horizon, the need for vertical complementarity could have been resolved through the macro-system organized by Tiwanaku, a civilization that perfected the older "system of reticulated interaction " (Llagostera 2006), and did not depend on colonies for access to distant resources. But in the Late Intermediate Period, sociopolitical and environmental events combined to bring about a new form of organization in the Andean highlands and in the Western Valleys of the Pacific. In the latter, populations that had reached their sociocultural upper limit would have been restructured under mechanisms assimilable to those of 'duality'. Meanwhile the highland populations, afflicted by an intense drought, would have unleashed violent attacks against those living in the head-waters of the Western Valleys to get hold of their agricultural lands. Finally, the remnants of these pre-Andean populations (originally part of the valley dual organization) would have fallen into the hands of the altiplanic populations, becoming colonies ('islands') which consolidated a 'vertical archipelago structure' whos

Agustín, Llagostera.

366

Estimate the potential production of electricity: a case study of the sanitary landfill of Santo Andre, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Estimativa do potencial de producao de eletricidade: estudo de caso do aterro sanitario de Santo Andre, Sao Paulo, Brasil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The recovery of the biogas generated from sanitary landfills, associated to its energetic use has been widely discussed. Thus, this paper aims to estimate the potential production of electric energy from sanitary landfill Santo Andre-SP. The biogas production was estimated using the rate of deposition of solid wastes in the landfill, using some mathematical models with parameters suggested by two models: LanGEM-USEPA (conventional landfill) and Word Bank. These results indicate that the potential of biogas production will be approximately 11 x 10{sup 6} Kg of methane/year in 2017 and production of electric energy in that year will be approximately 32,000 MWh, considering an of 75% over collection of biogas. (author)

Silva, Elissando Rocha da; Moreira, Joao M. L.; Candiani, Giovano [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (IFSP), SP (Brazil)

2010-07-01

367

33 CFR 165.776 - Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico  

Science.gov (United States)

...Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico 165.776 Section 165.776 Navigation and Navigable...Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico (a) Location . The following area is a security zone: All waters...

2010-07-01

368

33 CFR 165.1141 - Safety Zone; San Clemente 3 NM Safety Zone, San Clemente Island, CA.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Safety Zone; San Clemente 3 NM Safety Zone, San Clemente Island, CA. 165.1141 Section 165.1141 Navigation and Navigable...Safety Zone; San Clemente 3 NM Safety Zone, San Clemente Island, CA. (a) Location. The following area is a safety...

2010-07-01

369

76 FR 10945 - San Luis Trust Bank, FSB, San Luis Obispo, CA; Notice of Appointment of Receiver  

Science.gov (United States)

...Office of Thrift Supervision San Luis Trust Bank, FSB, San Luis Obispo, CA; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice is hereby given...Corporation as sole Receiver for San Luis Trust Bank, FSB, San Luis Obispo, California, (OTS No. 15051) on February 18, 2011....

2011-02-28