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1

Creole-based Trilingual Education in the Caribbean Archipelago of San Andres, Providence and Santa Catalina.  

Science.gov (United States)

Depicts the impetus and drive behind the development of a primary trilingual education curriculum for the Western Caribbean Archipelago of San Andre, Providence, and Santa Catalina. Based on outcomes in other multilingual education projects, hypothesizes positive academic gains in all areas at a cost benefit to the national government. (Author/VWL)

Morren, Ronald C.

2002-01-01

2

San Andres, Providence and Santa Catalina: a challenge of sustainable development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Satisfactorily to implement the postulates of Biosphere Reserve Sea flower in the Archipelago of San Andres, Providencia and Santa Catalina demands to conjugate national, regional and local efforts in order to surpass the complex economic and social situation untied in this zone of the country after the loss of competitiveness and benefits that the model of Free Port meant to him from 1953 and which they have let perceive itself from principles of the Nineties when Colombia adopted the economic opening like development policy, changes that have resulted in the deterioration of the natural resources and the atmosphere of the islands and finally in the quality of life of their inhabitants and that imposes to this zone of the national territory the challenge to reach the balance man-nature that implies the concept of Biosphere Reserve, category acquired by the Archipelago before UNESCO in the 2000 The absence of agreed economic model with geographic, space, social, cultural and environmental conditions of the Archipelago, together with factors like: (i) political national that does not know the particularities and specificities of this zone of the country, (ii) inter institutional lack of joint in the different levels from the public administration which they concur there, (iii) absence of operation of the Gobernacion Departamental like administrator of the regional public management, (IV) absence of effectiveness population policy to control their indiscriminate increase and (v) lack of social conscience of inhabitants as visitors of the islands with respect to the adapted use of their natural resources and its constitutional and legal obligations to participate in the management like executors or veedors, among other aspects, jeopardizes their development in order to reach the environmental sustainability

2003-01-01

3

INCIDENCIA DE LA DEPREDACIÓN POR PECES EN CORALES PÉTREOS DE CUATRO ATOLONES DEL ARCHIPIÉLAGO DE SAN ANDRÉS Y PROVIDENCIA (CARIBE COLOMBIANO)/ INCIDENCE OF FISH PREDATION ON STONY CORALS AT FOUR ATOLIS OF THE ARCHIPELAGO OF SAN ANDRES AND PROVIDENCIA (COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish A partir de datos registrados en 1994 y 1995 durante un estudio de línea de base llevado a cabo en cuatro atolones del archipiélago de San Andrés y Providencia (Albuquerque, Courtown, Roncador y Serrana), se analizó la incidencia de la depredación por peces en coral vivo y su relación con la abundancia de los peces loro Sparisoma viride y Scarus vetula. De las especies de corales depredadas, Montastraea annularis y M. faveolata presentaron la mayor incidencia de dep (more) redación, con 25.9% y 18.7% respectivamente. Se encontró que no hay diferencias significativas en la incidencia de depredación entre los atolones (Kruskal-Wallis, p = 0.07). Al comparar entre unidades geomorfológicas, la laguna presentó la mayor incidencia de depredación (14.3%) e igualmente las mayores abundancias de S. viride y S. vetula, sin embargo no se encontró una relación significativa entre ambas variables. Las mayores incidencias de depredación y abundancia de loros en la laguna pueden estar asociadas con la dominancia en este ambiente del complejo Montastraea spp., puesto que dichos corales se han reconocido como los sustratos de pastoreo preferidos por estos peces loro. La depredación por peces, sumada a los demás factores de deterioro presentes en los atolones, probablemente ha contribuido a la degradación reciente de sus arrecifes coralinos. Abstract in english Based on data recorded in 1994 and 1995 during a baseline study carried out at four western Caribbean atolls (Albuquerque, Courtown, Roncador and Serrana) of the San Andrés and Providencia archipelago, the incidence of hard coral predation by fishes and its relation with the abundance of the parrotfishes Sparisoma viride and Scarus vetula was analyzed. Among affected corals, Montastraea annularis and M. faveolata showed the highest incidence of fish bites (29.5% and 18.7 (more) % respectively). There were no significant differences between the atolls on the incidence of coral predation by fishes (Kruskall-Wallis, p = 0.07). When comparing between geomorphologic units the lagoon showed the highest level of predation (14.3%), and also the largest populations of S. viride and S. vetula, but both parameters were not significantly related. Highest predatory incidence and parrotfish abundance in the lagoon could be related to the dominance of the Montastraea spp. complex in this environment, because these coral species have been recognized as the preferred grazing substrates for the two parrotfishes. The predatory activity by the parrotfishes probably has contributed to the general degradation process of the coral reefs in the atolls, when combined with the other agents of stress.

Garzón-Ferreira, Jaime; Reyes-Nivia, María Catalina

2001-12-01

4

Porosity distribution in San Andres Formation (Permian), Cochran and Hockley Counties, Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The lower San Andres Formation in Cochran and Hockley Counties, Texas, is one of the most prolific hydrocarbon-bearing horizons of the Permian basin. It is a cyclic sequence of shallow-water carbonates and evaporites which prograded across the northwest shelf toward the Midland and Delaware basins. San Andres production results from the vertical stacking of porous dolomite reservoirs. Stratigraphic trapping of hydrocarbons results from porosity pinch-outs defined by the degree of dolomitization and anhydrite plugging, both vertically near the top of depositional cycles, and on a regional scale. Stratigraphic trapping, combined with subtle structural nosing and changes in dip, define the limits of production. Reservoir zones are regionally correlatable and mappable. Major productive trends pinch out northward onto the Matador arch, defining this feature as a major influence on San Andres deposition and production.

Cowan, P.E.; Harris, P.M.

1986-06-01

5

Comparative Analysis of Groundwater Model Formulation: the San Andres - Glorieta Case Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The case study analysis presented in this report was undertaken with the belief that the San Andres-Glorieta experience might reveal some important insights about the basic strengths and weaknesses of modeling technology. Since the report is designed to b...

D. B. McLaughlin

1984-01-01

6

Permeability distribution and reservoir continuity in Permian San Andres shelf carbonates, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Outcrop exposures of Permian San Andres dolomites were examined in the Guadalupe Mountains of southeastern New Mexico to gain insight into the lateral continuity of permeable, reservoir-quality beds. The investigation focused on the continuity that can be expected between an injector and producer on 40-ac spacing or 1,320 ft. The exposed rocks closely resemble subsurface producing strata, both in their regional setting on a broad carbonate shelf and in their detailed petrographic and petrophysical properties. Weathering of the outcrop is not so severe as to invalidate the conclusions. Individual beds were sampled at intervals of 100 ft, 10 ft between selected 100-ft intervals, and 1 ft or less between selected 10-ft stations. More than 1,000 permeability plugs were analyzed. Permeable beds are found in the middle of the San Andres section starting about 350 ft below the top of the San Andres Formation. The middle and upper sections of the San Andres are well bedded, abrupt lateral facies changes were not found. Beds with pay-type permeability are interbedded with laterally continuous impermeable mudstone that should act as effective barriers to crossflow. All permeable beds would have to be perforated to drain or flood this type of reservoir effectively. Permeability within a given reservoir bed is highly variable, with the range of values averaging three orders of magnitude and the standard deviation averaging one order of magnitude. This range is present irrespective of the sampling interval. The pay-quality rock appears continuous on the 40-ac scale within any of the reservoir beds. The permeability path is tortuous, however, suggesting that oil could be trapped or bypassed in low-permeability pockets or reentrants.

Hinrichs, P.D.; Lucia, F.J.; Mathis, R.L. (Petro-Lewis Corp., Denver, CO (USA))

1987-02-01

7

An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir Foster and South Cowden fields,  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

GEOPHYSICAL OBJECTIVES: The goals of work done this quarter were to (1) refine the maps of seismic-derived porosity for the upper Grayburg for reapplication to the production model, (2) determine rock fabric and porosity patterns for the lower Grayburg and the upper San Andres, (3) relate any seismic-derived porosity characteristics, particularly seismic waveform attributes, to the historical production of oil allocated to lower Grayburg and San Andres zones, and (4) to test other geologic attributes for possible inter-relationships. GEOLOGIC OBJECTIVES: Continue the integrated geological/geophysical effort to develop a usable seismic velocity/log porosity transform for each Grayburg producing interval. The lower Grayburg and San Andres core were revisited to glean lithology and porosity information for the seismic inversion model. Update recent production and injection for each well in the study area. Add new production and injection wells to spreadsheet. Continue evaluation of effectiveness of recent completions, plug backs and injector conversions by monitoring oil production and produced water composition. ENGINEERING OBJECTIVES: To build the most accurate reservoir picture by continued integration of all data types available and utilize that model to optimize oil production. Monitoring and testing of new and worked-over wells continues to test the early production models. Methods to improve water quality are being evaluated using normal field management procedures.

NONE

1997-12-31

8

Cyclicity in the Middle Permian San Andres Formation, Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The San Andres Formation is largely composed of cyclic sequences of carbonate, anhydrite, and halite. Using geophysical log data, the authors traced these cycles across the entire Palo Duro Basin; four oversized plates reproduce cross sections that document the correlations. Cores received from 10 Department of Energy stratigraphic test wells were studied, and at least one cored well was incorporated in each cross section for precise lithologic control. Core photographs, showing typical textures of evaporite rocks and associated facies, are reproduced in the text. The authors discuss depositional systems, propose extrabasinal correlations of the San Andres Formation cycles, document lateral facies relationships and variations in the style of cyclicity, and note structural influences on sedimentation in the formation. The authors conclude that the entire suite of evaporitic cyclic facies reflects predominantly shallow-water marine deposition in contrast to previously proposed sabkha-like models of deposition. Systematic changes in thickness and completeness of the cycles allow the authors to divide the San Andres into three informal genetic sequences. These sequences share a similar cyclic mode but are characterized by differences in tempo of cyclicity, reflecting changes in regional basin subsidence rate of frequency of sea-level change or both.

Fracasso, M.A.; Hovorka, S.D.

1986-01-01

9

Diagenesis of Permian (Guadalupian) San Andres Formation, Central Basin platform, west Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reflux of Guadalupian brines is interpreted to have been the dominant mechanism of dolomitization of San Andres subtidal carbonates on and near the Central Basin platform. Other important diagenetic processes include anhydrite emplacement and a late stage of diagenesis linked to sulfate reduction. Supratidal dolomite has an average delta/sup 18/O of +4.5 +/- 0.5 per thousand (PDB, n = 9), suggesting stabilization in sea water evaporated to gypsum saturation. The strontium isotopic signature (/sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr) for these dolomites is 0.7068 +/- 0.0001 (n = 2) in the upper San Andres and 0.7071 +/- 0.0001 (n = 2) in the lower San Andres, reflecting differences in the timing of dolomitization of these strata. Because these dolomites have strontium isotopic ratios that correspond with the depositional ages predicted from a strontium sea water curve from the Palo Duro basin, supratidal dolomitization is interpreted to have occurred penecontemporaneous with sedimentation. The delta/sup 18/O of intertidal dolomite averages +3.6 +/- 0.5 per thousand (PDB, n = 12); this may indicate dolomitization by a less-evaporated sea water, although a later stabilization event is also possible. Gray, nonporous fusulinid wackestones typically have delta/sup 18/O values that average +4.7 +/- 0.5 per thousand (PDB, n = 15), again suggesting formation in the presence of gypsum-saturated brines. Patchy, brown, porous subtidal dolomites have delta/sup 18/O values that are about 1.6 +/- 0.9 per thousand (PDB, n = 1) less than adjacent unaltered samples. The lighter oxygen isotopes and intimate association of the two types of dolomite suggest that patchy dolomite recrystallized at a later time, either at a higher temperature or in an isotopically lighter fluid.

Leary, D.A.; Vogt, J.N.

1987-05-01

10

[Foliage production of the mangrove from San Andres Island, Colombian Caribbean coast].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Litter fall from a San Andres Island mangrove (12 degrees 32' N, 81 degrees 41' W, Colombian Caribbean coast), was collected monthly (1994-1995) with mesh baskets, keeping results separate for the three species (Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa), and taking a sample and a replica per case. Nine sampling sites were selected in two groups of woodlands: one in the inner side behind a sand-bar and the coast road (Mount Pleasant, Salt Creek, Sound Bay and Smith Channel) and a peripheral site, exposed to the waves (Bahía Hooker-Bahía Honda and El Cove). Productivity was greater for all species in the inner group, and higher in the rainy seasons. Rhizophora mangle was the only species contributing reproductive components throughout the year.

García-Hansen I; Gaviria-Chiquazuque JF; Prada-Triana MC; Alvarez-León R

2002-03-01

11

Similarity of Grayburg/San Andres dolomite reservoirs - Eastern edge of Central Basin platform, Permian basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Porous dolomites of the Grayburg/San Andres Formations (Permian, Guadalupian) form major hydrocarbon reservoirs along the eastern edge of the Central Basin platform of the Permian basin, Texas. A comparison of the lithologic descriptions and depositional models for these reservoirs shows that although substantial local variation exists, the overall generalized vertical sequence and, particularly, the occurrence of porous shoal grainstones are strikingly similar. Data presented in this pilot study comes from the Gulf Oil 223-R J. T. McElroy Cons. well in McElroy field, the Gulf Oil 35 E.N. Snodgrass well in Waddell field, and the Gulf Oil 1359-56 C.A. Goldsmith et al well in Goldsmith field. Grayburg/San Andres reservoirs in all three fields occur mainly in the middle part of a shallowing-upward carbonate-shelf sequence that is 250-300 ft thick. The sequence consists of: (1) basal open-shelf, bioturbated dolowackestones/packstones; (2) middle shallow shelf fusulinid dolowackestones overlain by nonskeletal shoal dolopackstones/grainstones; and (3) upper variable intertidal/supratidal deposits that grade into the Queen Formation. The depositional sequence formed in a regional facies tract of shallow-water shelf and shoal environments with related tidal-flat and evaporitic (sabkha) sediments. The facies developed during easterly progradation across a deeper water open shelf. Porosity was formed by near-surface dolomitization and minor dissolution. Early and late evaporite plugging reduced porosity, so reservoir zones average 9% intercrystalline and moldic porosity with 10-md permeability.

Garber, R.A.; Harris, P.M. (Chevron Oil Field Research Co., La Habra, CA (USA))

1987-02-01

12

Integrated reservoir characterization study of a carbonate ramp reservoir: Seminole San Andres Unit, Gaines County, Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An integrated reservoir characterization of Seminole San Andres Unit was conducted using outcrop and subsurface data. The high frequency cycles and rock-fabric facies identified on outcrop and cores were used to correlate wireline logs. Reservoir and simulation models of the outcrop and a two-section area of the Seminole San Andres field were constructed using rock-fabric units within high-frequency cycles (HFC`s) as a geologic framework. Simulations were performed using these models to investigate critical factors affecting recovery. High-frequency cycles and rock-fabric units are the two critical scales for modeling shallow-water carbonate ramp reservoirs. Descriptions of rock-fabric facies stacked within high-frequency cycles provide the most accurate framework for constructing geologic and reservoir models because discrete petrophysical functions can be fit to rock fabrics and fluid flow can be approximated by the k{sub vh} ratios among rock-fabric flow units. Permeability is calculated using rock-fabric-specific transforms between interparticle porosity and permeability. Core analysis data showed that separate-vug porosity has a very strong effect on relative permeability and capillary pressure measurements. The stratigraphic features of carbonates can be observed in stochastic realizations only when they are constrained by rock-fabric flow units. Simulation results from these realizations are similar in recovery but different in production and injection rates. Scale-up of permeability in the vertical direction was investigated in terms of the ratio of vertical permeability to horizontal permeability (k{sub vh}). This ratio decreases exponentially with the vertical grid-block size up to the average cycle size of 20 ft (6.1 m) and remains at a value of 0.06 for a grid-block size of more than 20 ft (>6.1 m), which is the average thickness of high-frequency cycles.

Wang, F.P.; Lucia, F.J.; Kerans, C. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

13

An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A cooperative study of the Grayburg/San Andres reservoir is being conducted in response to the United States Department of Energy`s Class II Oil Program. The purpose of the study is to preserve access to existing well bores by identifying additional reserves. Production problems associated with a shallow-shelf carbonate reservoir will be evaluated by a technical team integrating subsurface geological and engineering data with 3D seismic data. The proposed 3D seismic survey and study will cover five leases in a 1.5 square-mile area of the Foster and South Cowden fields. Results of the study will be used to design a 3D reservoir simulation model and subsequent waterflood. The planned 3D seismic survey has been designed to resolve changes in the subsurface on the megascopic scale, allowing the project reservoir engineer to correlate petrophysical properties and stratigraphic information between boreholes. Pre-planning for the survey has also included: seismic modeling, use of aerial photos to optimize fold in an area with cultural obstructions and acquisition design for bin fractionization of the data. Several 3D seismic surveys have been acquired over Grayburg/San Andres fields by major oil companies (Chevron-McElroy field, Amoco-North Cowden field, Shell-Wasson field). This project specifically addresses the application of 3D seismic technology by independents who operate smaller leaseholds of Grayburg/San Andres production. It is expected that this study will demonstrate a methodology for reservoir characterization and subsequent development of the Grayburg/San Andres reservoir that is feasible for independent operators. Foremost, it will stress the importance of utilizing an integrated multi-disciplinary approach for reservoir development. This method of reservoir evaluation should be relevant to shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs throughout the United States.

Smith, W.H. [Dawson Geophysical Co., Midland, TX (United States); Reeves, J.J. [Univ. of Texas, Odessa, TX (United States); Trentham, R.C. [Muskoka Consultants, Midland, TX (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01

14

Depositional controls on production in San Andres stratigraphic traps, southeastern New Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The San Andres Formation of Permian age (late Leonardian-early Guadalupian) is the most prolific producer of hydrocarbons within the Permian basin. The Levelland-Slaughter trend, located in the northwestern shelf province, is a series of east-west-trending fields characterized by stratigraphically controlled, updip porosity pinchouts from porous dolomites to nonporous dolomites and evaporites. Equivalent facies crop out in Chaves and Lincoln Counties, New Mexico. Outcrop study and examination of subsurface data from shallow pay zones within the Diablo, Linda, and Twin Lakes fields, indicate that a variety of high- and low-energy subtidal facies serve as reservoirs. These include (1) oolite packstones and grainstones, (2) wispy-laminated crinoid wackestones, (3) fossiliferous wackestones, and (4) ripple-laminated pellet grainstones. These facies were deposited as a mosaic in channels, lagoons, shoals, and shallow open-marine environments. Vertical and lateral facies relationships are therefore highly variable and play a major role in reservoir heterogeneity. Secondary porosity is wholly responsible for oil production, although the depositional setting controls its type and abundance. Intercrystalline porosity is characteristic of the mud-rich facies and is crucial for economic production. Sucrosic textures associated with coarse crystalline dolomite and large intercrystalline pores provide the highest production potential. Moldic porosity is characteristic of the oolitic and fossiliferous facies, but pores are disconnected and only marginally productive unless combined with fractures.

Elliott, L.A.

1985-02-01

15

Facies and diagenesis of Grayburg-San Andres dolomite reservoirs, Central Basin platform, Permian basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Porous dolomites of the Grayburg and San Andres Formations (Permian, Guadalupian) form major hydrocarbon reservoirs on the Central Basin platform of the Permian basin. Wireline-log and core studies reveal a shallowing-upward carbonate shelf sequence, from 250 to 300 ft thick, in each of five fields that lie along 55 mi of the eastern edge of the platform. The sequence consists of (1) a basal unit of open shelf dolomudstones and bioturbated fusulinid dolowackestones/packstones; (2) a middle unit of shallow shelf dolomudstones and non-skeletal dolopackstones/grainstones; and (3) an upper unit of arid coastline dolomudstones, quartz siltstones, and evaporites that grade into the overlying Queen Formation. Reservoir zones averaging greater than 9% intercrystalline and moldic porosity and 10-md permeability are best developed in the middle unit of the depositional sequence. Diagenesis occurred in two stages. Stage 1, during deposition and earliest burial, involved submarine cementation, pervasive dolomitization, leaching of grains, minor dolomite cementation, and sulfate cementation and replacement; and stage 2, near maximum burial depth and during subsequent uplift, included fracturing, anhydrite cementation, minor calcite replacement of anhydrite, and gypsum and kaolinite formation.

Harris, P.M.; Garber, R.A.

1986-05-01

16

An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goals of work done this quarter were (1) to analyze the preliminary seismic inversion model for the Grayburg A, B, and C sequences and the upper San Andres formation; (2) modify the inversion model to improve its accuracy and to include the deeper Holt Formation; and (3) test various rock property quantities against the improved model and other seismic attributes using refined analysis boundaries. A satisfactory inversion model and porosity analysis remains to be accomplished, but much has been learned about the modeling and analysis processes. Qualitative comparison of sonic logs with the inversion model traces in profile view shows great similarity and success is being made toward good quantitative results.

Weinbrandt, R.; Trentham, R.C.; Robertson, W.

1998-05-28

17

An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. Quarterly report, third quarter 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goals of work done this quarter were to (1) refine the maps of seismic-derived porosity for the upper Grayburg for reapplication to the production model, (2) determine rock fabric and porosity patterns for the lower Grayburg and the upper San Andres, (3) relate any seismic-derived porosity characteristics, particularly seismic waveform attributes, to the historical production of oil allocated to lower Grayburg and San Andres zones, and (4) to test other geologic attributes for possible inter-relationships. Progress on these goals is described. Additional studies were carried out in the following: Upper Grayburg porosity mapping, pipeline fracturing, reservoir simulation, reservoir engineering, and water quality for injection.

NONE

1997-12-31

18

The rise and fall of psoroptic scabies in bighorn sheep in the San Andres Mountains, New Mexico.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Between 1978 and 1997, a combination of psoroptic scabies (Psoroptes spp.), mountain lion (Puma concolor) predation, and periodic drought reduced a population of native desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in the San Andres Mountains (SAM), New Mexico, from >200 individuals to a single ewe. In 1999, this ewe was captured, ensured to be Psoroptes-free, and released back into the SAM. Eleven radio-collared rams were translocated from the Red Rock Wildlife Area (RRWA) in New Mexico into the SAM range and monitored through 2002 to determine whether Psoroptes spp. mites were still in the environment. None of these sentinel rams acquired scabies during this period, and no additional native sheep were found to be present in the range. In 2002, 51 desert bighorn sheep were translocated into the SAM from the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge in Arizona (n = 20) and the RRWA in New Mexico (n = 31). Twenty-one bighorn sheep have died in the SAM since that time, but Psoroptes spp. mites have not been detected on any of these animals, nor have they been found on mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) sampled since 2000. We conclude that psoroptic scabies is no longer present in the San Andres bighorn sheep population and that psoroptic scabies poses a minimal to nonexistent threat to the persistence of this population at this time.

Boyce WM; Weisenberger ME

2005-07-01

19

RESPUESTA DEL AMBIENTE MARINO A ALGUNOS EVENTOS METEOROLÓGICOS SINÓPTICOS MEDIDOS SOBRE LOS ARRECIFES DE SAN ANDRÉS Y DE LAS ISLAS DEL ROSARIO, CARIBE COLOMBIANO*/ RESPONSE OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT TO SOME SYNOPTIC WEATHER EVENTS MEASURED ON THE REEFS OF SAN ANDRES ISLAND AND ROSARIO ISLANDS, COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Continuous measurements were taken of oceanographic and meteorological parameters for two stations of the Global Ocean Observing System of the Southwest Caribbean, framed in the INAP project. The response of the surface layer, to atmospheric events, allowed to differentiate the pass of two cold fronts by Johnny Cay station (San Andres Island) and the arrival of the "Veranillo" in the sensors of Tesoro Island (Islas del Rosario, Cartagena). The cold fronts produced a decre (more) ase in the atmospheric pressure, air temperature, caused radical changes in wind direction and speed followed by precipitation. This situation lowered the sea surface temperature, the surface layer pH and rose momentarily the sea level. The "Veranillo" came to Archipelago of Rosario generating a strong increase in wind speed and solar radiation. The response in the sea surface layer was evident through a significant increase in sea level.

Gutiérrez-Moreno, Carolina; Marrugo, Milena; Andrade, Carlos Alberto

2012-06-01

20

Cadmium, lead and zinc concentrations in water, sediment and oyster (Crassostrea virginica) of San Andres Lagoon, Mexico.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The spatial distribution of cadmium, lead and zinc concentrations in water, sediment and oysters from San Andres Lagoon was evaluated. Significantly higher cadmium (0.33 mg L(-1)) and lead (0.70 mg L(-1)) concentrations in water were observed in front of the mouth of Tigre river, whereas, zinc concentration (5.0 mg L(-1)) was significantly higher in the south part of the lagoon. Similarly, lead and zinc values in sediment (1.01 and 9.29 ?g g(-1), respectively) and oyster tissue (0.86 and 3.19 ?g g(-1), respectively) were significantly higher in the south part of the lagoon. Levels of cadmium and lead in oyster tissue were positively related to those found in sediment. However, concerning zinc no evident relationship was found. Such differences in regression analyses may be explained by differential bioaccumulation of xenobiotic (cadmium, lead) and essential (zinc) metals.

Vázquez-Sauceda Mde L; Aguirre-Guzmán G; Sánchez-Martínez JG; Pérez-Castañeda R

2011-04-01

 
 
 
 
21

Cadmium, lead and zinc concentrations in water, sediment and oyster (Crassostrea virginica) of San Andres Lagoon, Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

The spatial distribution of cadmium, lead and zinc concentrations in water, sediment and oysters from San Andres Lagoon was evaluated. Significantly higher cadmium (0.33 mg L(-1)) and lead (0.70 mg L(-1)) concentrations in water were observed in front of the mouth of Tigre river, whereas, zinc concentration (5.0 mg L(-1)) was significantly higher in the south part of the lagoon. Similarly, lead and zinc values in sediment (1.01 and 9.29 ?g g(-1), respectively) and oyster tissue (0.86 and 3.19 ?g g(-1), respectively) were significantly higher in the south part of the lagoon. Levels of cadmium and lead in oyster tissue were positively related to those found in sediment. However, concerning zinc no evident relationship was found. Such differences in regression analyses may be explained by differential bioaccumulation of xenobiotic (cadmium, lead) and essential (zinc) metals. PMID:21336861

Vázquez-Sauceda, María de la Luz; Aguirre-Guzmán, G; Sánchez-Martínez, J G; Pérez-Castañeda, R

2011-02-19

22

An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. Quarterly report, July--September, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the third quarter, the Foster No. 11 was drilled to test the simulation and contact additional reserves in the San Andres and the Lower Grayburg. The well was located in the Southwest quarter of Section 36 to take advantage of the lack of producing wells in the West half of the Southwest quarter of the section. A full suite of logs: Compensated Neutron, Three Detector Density, Long Spacing Sonic, Dual Lateralog, Micro-CFL, Spectral Gamma Log and Mud Log were run. Additionally, a Repeat Formation Tester was employed in an effort to obtain reservoir pressure data. Eighteen tests were attempted, with six good tests, and two formation fluid samples recovered. The results indicate that the San Andres and the Lower Grayburg are in different pressure regimes, and the A1 Zone is depleted. Core was cut in the Lower Grayburg and San Andres to provide rock property information for these two intervals. Based on the log calculations and core recovery, the initial No. 11 Foster completion was attempted in the San Andres. The interval from 4,238 feet(-1,290) to 4,323 feet(-1375) was perforated and acidized. Rates of 3--4 BO and 6--8 BWPD were established. Because water zones were indicated both above and below the completed interval, the fracture completion had to be designed to minimize fracturing into these zones. A Mini Frac was attempted with 3,500 gallons cross-link gel and 6,000 pounds of 100 mesh sand followed by 2,000 gallons nitrified gel and 6,000 pounds of sand. At the end of the quarter, the well was on test.

Trentham, R.C.; Weinbrandt, R.; Robertson, W.

1997-02-14

23

An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden fields, Ector County, Texas. Quarterly report, 1 July 1995--30 September 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study is to demonstrate a methodology for reservoir characterization of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs which is feasible for the independent operator. Furthermore, it will provide one of the first public demonstrations of the enhancement of reservoir characterization using high resolution three dimensional (3-D) seismic data. This particular project will evaluate the Grayburg and San Andres reservoirs in the Foster and South Cowden Fields of Ector County, Texas. The investigators will showcase a multi-disciplinary approach to waterflood design and implementation, along with the addition of reserves by selective infill drilling. This approach in reservoir development will be applicable to a wide range of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs throughout the United States. Technology transfer will take place through all phases of the project. Production problems associated with shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs are being evaluated by a technical team integrating subsurface geological data, engineering data and 3-D seismic data. The team is using a network of state-of-the-art industry standard software running on high performance computer workstations. Twenty-four Grayburg and seven San Andres thin sections have been evaluated from the J.E. Witcher Well No. 6. This evaluation has been valuable in formulating a depositional model and in definitively dividing the Grayburg and San Andres reservoirs into distinct layers or ``units``.

Reeves, J.J.; Trentham, R.C.

1995-12-31

24

An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For a part of the Foster and South Cowden (Grayburg-San Andres) oil fields, improvement in oil production has been accomplished, in part, by using ?pipeline fracturing? technology in the most recent completion to improve fluid flow rates, and filtration of waterflood injection water to preserve reservoir permeability. The 3D seismic survey acquired in conjunction with this DOE project has been used to calculate a 3D seismic inversion model, which has been analyzed to provide detailed maps of porosity within the productive upper 250 feet of the Grayburg Formation. Geologic data, particularly from logs and cores, have been combined with the geophysical interpretation and production history information to develop a model of the reservoir that defines estimations of remaining producible oil. The integrated result is greater than the sum of its parts, since no single data form adequately describes the reservoir. Each discipline relies upon computer software that runs on PC-type computers, allowing virtually any size company to affordably access the technology required to achieve similar results.

Richard Weinbrandt; Robert C. Trentham; William Robinson

1997-10-23

25

High-resolution stratigraphic forward modeling: A case study of the lower-middle San Andres formation, Permian basin  

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This study has attempted to calibrate Shell's two-dimensional (2-D) basin modeling program as an exploration tool by simulating the stratigraphy of a mixed carbonate/clastic third-order depositional sequence. The lower-middle San Andres Formation was selected because available log, core, and outcrop data from the Northwest Shelf area, Permian basin, provided an excellent calibration set. A regional stratigraphic cross section from the Cato-Chaveroo to the Wasson fields was constructed delineating lithology and porosity distribution. Approximately 10 shoaling-upward depositional cycles were interpreted. A higher frequency, five-in-one cyclicity was also interpreted based on core and outcrop data. The observed stratigraphy was simulated using a composite eustasy consisting of third-order (2,000,000 yr), fourth-order (100,000 yr), and fifth-order (20,000 yr) sinusoids each at five-meter amplitudes. Subsidence input was constrained by back-stripped tectonic subsidence curves calculated from well data. Sedimentation parameters were interactively derived. New empirically based algorithms were used to model Dunham lithofacies, environmental facies, and sabkha anhydrite distribution. Synthetic log and 2-D synthetic seismic profiles were constructed from the simulation output. The simulation results suggest that (1) relative sea level is the dominant control on the observed depositional cyclicity, (2) the distribution of regional seal facies (anhydrite) reflects falling sea level and prolonged exposure, (3) limestone-dolomite trends on the shelf are grossly related to environment and (4) the distribution of grainstones and packstones (potential reservoirs) occurs as fourth- and fifth-order offlapping and aggradational pods. The synthetic log signatures compared to [open quotes]real[close quotes] logs substantiate the interpreted depositional cyclicity, but also point out the difficulty in interpreting high-order cycles based on log data alone.

Shuster, M.W. (KSEPL (Shell Research), Rijswijk (Netherlands)); Childers, D.W. (Shell Western Exploration and Production Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1993-09-01

26

An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An enhanced oil recovery project is being proposed in response to the US Department of Energy`s Near Term Class 2 Oil Program for shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. Productivity problems associated with a shallow shelf carbonate reservoir will be addressed by integrating high resolution 3-D seismic data, reservoir characterization techniques, and 3-D reservoir simulation. The purpose of the study is to yield results which will preserve access to existing well bores by identifying additional reserves. The general approach will be to shoot a 3-D seismic survey designed specifically for imaging the Grayburg/San Andres interval. The data will then be processed and interpreted using state of the art techniques aimed at identifying porosity, permeability barriers and their zones within the reservoir. A technical team will integrate existing geological data with the geophysical results of the seismic survey for detailed reservoir characterization. These results will be used in a 3-D reservoir simulation model to delineate flow units. A field demonstration of infill drilling and water flood development will follow. The authors expect the results of this study to demonstrate a methodology for reservoir characterization which is feasible for the independent operator. Furthermore, it will provide one of the first public demonstrations of the enhancement of reservoir characterization using high resolution 3-D seismic data. Additionally, it will showcase the improvement of water flood development by using an integrated multi-disciplinary approach, and the addition of otherwise unrecovered reserves by selective infill drilling. This report has four sections: summary of preliminary data; plots and maps; well production data; and well data.

Reeves, J.J.; Trentham, R.C.; Weinbrandt, R.; Flanders, W.

1996-02-02

27

A "coca-cola" shape: cultural change, body image, and eating disorders in San Andres, Belize.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eating disorders have been associated with developing nations undergoing rapid social transition, including participation in a global market economy and heavy media exposure. San Andrés, Belize, a community with many risk factors associated with the cross-cultural development of eating disorders, has shown remarkable resistance to previously documented patterns, despite a local focus on female beauty. Drawing on longitudinal person-centered ethnography with adolescent girls, this article examines why this community appears exceptional in light of the literature. First, community beauty and body image ideals and practices are explicated. Then, a protective ethnopsychology is proposed as a key mediating factor of the rapid socio-cultural change among young women. Finally, possible nascent cases of eating disordered behavior are discussed in light of their unique phenomenology: that is, having to do more with economic opportunity in the tourism industry and less with personal distress or desire for thinness. Close, meaning-centered examination of eating and body image practices may aid understanding and prevention of eating disorders among adolescents undergoing rapid social change in situations of globalization and immigration.

Anderson-Fye EP

2004-12-01

28

An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres reservoir, Foster and South Cowden fields, Ector County, Texas. Quarterly report, October--December, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Seismic objectives addressed during the fourth quarter concerned seismic recognition of Grayburg carbonate porosity and development of maps of the distribution of seismic properties which can be related to reservoir porosity. Synthetic seismograms representing various porosity combinations for the Grayburg A sequence were interpolated in forward models to demonstrate waveform character, and a seismic inversion model was used as the basis for work with seismic-guided attribute maps which have been instrumental in defining porosity within the upper Grayburg. The geologic objectives addressed during the quarter were the integration of the geologic model into the 3D to accurately portray the lithologic markers, the coring and logging of the Witcher {number_sign}12, and working toward the development of a successful completion technique for the lower Grayburg and San Andres. Considerable effort went into developing a usable seismic velocity/log porosity transform. There were a number of engineering objectives this quarter. The development of a successful completion technique for the lower Grayburg and San Andres which would contact the maximum volume of reservoir, minimize potential water production, and be cost effective was a high priority. The Witcher {number_sign}12 was drilled, and Foster-Pegues {number_sign} 4 re-entered and converted to injection this Quarter. The first steps in the quantitative integration of seismic data into the reservoir simulation were taken this quarter. Work on water quality, buildup and fall off tests and the update of production and injection data in the model was ongoing.

Trentham, R.C.; Weinbrandt, R.; Robertson, W.

1997-03-17

29

Petrographic report on samples from units 4 and 5 salt, lower San Andres formation, J. Friemel No. 1 well, Deaf Smith County, Palo Duro Basin, Texas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of mineralogic and petrographic analyses performed on samples of salt-bearing rock from a potential repository site in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas. The samples are from Permian Units 4 and 5 salt, Lower San Andres Formation, J. Friemel No. 1 well, Deaf Smith County, Texas. The mineralogic and petrographic data were obtained from polished thin sections cut parallel to the axis of the core for each sample. The polished thin sections were examined in order to determine the abundances of soluble (halite) and insoluble components (anhydrite, clay, carbonate, quartz, gypsum, etc.). The information reported here includes mineral associations (detrital, authigenic, cement, alteration, etc.), texture, grain size, and sedimentary fabrics. The report also includes representative photomicrographs with superimposed bar scales. Photomicrographs of polished thin sections have the up-core direction designated. X-ray diffraction was also used for identification of soluble and insoluble minerals. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

1985-01-01

30

An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County Texas. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goals of work done this quarter were (1) to analyze the preliminary seismic inversion model for the Grayburg A, B, and C sequences and the upper San Andres formation; (2) modify the inversion model to improve its accuracy and to include the deeper Holt Formation; and (3) test various rock property quantities against the improved model and other seismic attributes using refined analysis boundaries. A satisfactory inversion model and porosity analysis remains to be accomplished, but much has been learned about the modeling and analysis processes. Qualitative comparison of sonic logs with the inversion model traces in profile view shows great similarity and success is being made toward good quantitative results. Progress on these goals is described. Additional studies were carried out on the following: Witcher No. 12 core and completion, water analyses, reservoir simulation, reservoir engineering, and water quality for injection.

Trentham, R.C.; Weinbrandt, R.; Robinson, W.

1997-05-28

31

Descripción morfoagronómica de materiales de plátano (Musa AAB, ABB) y banano (Musa AAA) cultivados en San Andrés Isla Morpho-agronomic Description of Plantain (Musa AAB, ABB) and Banana (Musa AAA) Materials Grown in San Andres Island  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Durante el primer semestre de 2005 se estudiaron los cultivares de plátano y banano en fincas y parcelas de 15 agricultores típicos participantes en programas conjuntos de la Secretaría de Agricultura y Pesca de San Andrés Isla y de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Caribe. A partir de descriptores de INIBAP, IPGRI y CIRAD y revisiones bibliográficas.se describen morfológicamente los materiales de Musa cultivados en la Isla, así como las prácticas de los productores isleños, Se identificaron cuatro clones del subgrupo plátano (Musa AAB): un Hartón (‘Horse’) y tres Dominico-Hartón (‘Tallo Negro’, ‘Tallo Blanco’ y ‘Cincuenta’) del subgrupo ABB se hallaron un material de Bluggoe (‘Boscó’) y un Felipita. El subgrupo banano AAA presentó dos materiales Gros Michel (denominados Común y Chino) y uno de banano (Rojo). El plátano tiene gran importancia para los agricultores de la Isla, siendo el Boscó el clon más aceptado entre consumidores por su adaptación a las condiciones edafológicas y climáticas. El banano es menos cultivado; ya que los suelos, el clima y las enfermedades como sigatoka negra, condicionaron el desarrollo de clones. El trabajo sugiere prácticas de fácil implementación que podrían aumentar la producción en los sistemas de huerto mixto tropical que predominan en la Isla.During the first semester, 2005 we studied the plantain and banana cultivars in small farms of 15 volunteer regular producers, who were participating in joint programs of the Agriculture and Fisheries Secretariat of San Andres Island and the Colombian National University Caribbean Headquarters. We described morphologically the Musa cultivars identified in the island, as well as agricultural practices of the island producers, using the INIBAP, IPGRI and CIRAD (1996) descriptors and bibliographical reviews. We identified four clones within the plantain sub-group Musa AAB: a Horn type and three French-Horn; and within the ABB sub-group a Bluggoe (dubbed “Boscó”) and a Felipita type. The banana sub-group AAA had two Gros Michel type, known as “Banano Común” and “Banano Chino”, as well as one of red banana (“Banano Rojo”). The plantain culture has paramount importance for San Andres farmers, and the clone named “Boscó” is the preferred one for its taste, and its adaptation to the edaphic and climatic conditions. Banana is less cultivated; the soil and the climate, as well as diseases (v.gr. the leaf spot disease or sigatoka) determined the growth of their clones. This work suggests a list of easy to implement agronomic practices that would enhance the production of the predominant producing systems of the island.

Oscar Javier Parra Pachón; Daniel Gerardo Cayón Salinas; Jaime Polanía Vorenber

2009-01-01

32

Descripción morfoagronómica de materiales de plátano (Musa AAB, ABB) y banano (Musa AAA) cultivados en San Andrés Isla/ Morpho-agronomic Description of Plantain (Musa AAB, ABB) and Banana (Musa AAA) Materials Grown in San Andres Island  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Durante el primer semestre de 2005 se estudiaron los cultivares de plátano y banano en fincas y parcelas de 15 agricultores típicos participantes en programas conjuntos de la Secretaría de Agricultura y Pesca de San Andrés Isla y de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Caribe. A partir de descriptores de INIBAP, IPGRI y CIRAD y revisiones bibliográficas.se describen morfológicamente los materiales de Musa cultivados en la Isla, así como las prácticas de los pr (more) oductores isleños, Se identificaron cuatro clones del subgrupo plátano (Musa AAB): un Hartón (‘Horse’) y tres Dominico-Hartón (‘Tallo Negro’, ‘Tallo Blanco’ y ‘Cincuenta’) del subgrupo ABB se hallaron un material de Bluggoe (‘Boscó’) y un Felipita. El subgrupo banano AAA presentó dos materiales Gros Michel (denominados Común y Chino) y uno de banano (Rojo). El plátano tiene gran importancia para los agricultores de la Isla, siendo el Boscó el clon más aceptado entre consumidores por su adaptación a las condiciones edafológicas y climáticas. El banano es menos cultivado; ya que los suelos, el clima y las enfermedades como sigatoka negra, condicionaron el desarrollo de clones. El trabajo sugiere prácticas de fácil implementación que podrían aumentar la producción en los sistemas de huerto mixto tropical que predominan en la Isla. Abstract in english During the first semester, 2005 we studied the plantain and banana cultivars in small farms of 15 volunteer regular producers, who were participating in joint programs of the Agriculture and Fisheries Secretariat of San Andres Island and the Colombian National University Caribbean Headquarters. We described morphologically the Musa cultivars identified in the island, as well as agricultural practices of the island producers, using the INIBAP, IPGRI and CIRAD (1996) descri (more) ptors and bibliographical reviews. We identified four clones within the plantain sub-group Musa AAB: a Horn type and three French-Horn; and within the ABB sub-group a Bluggoe (dubbed “Boscó”) and a Felipita type. The banana sub-group AAA had two Gros Michel type, known as “Banano Común” and “Banano Chino”, as well as one of red banana (“Banano Rojo”). The plantain culture has paramount importance for San Andres farmers, and the clone named “Boscó” is the preferred one for its taste, and its adaptation to the edaphic and climatic conditions. Banana is less cultivated; the soil and the climate, as well as diseases (v.gr. the leaf spot disease or sigatoka) determined the growth of their clones. This work suggests a list of easy to implement agronomic practices that would enhance the production of the predominant producing systems of the island.

Parra Pachón, Oscar Javier; Cayón Salinas, Daniel Gerardo; Polanía Vorenber, Jaime

2009-10-01

33

Recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito, Baja California, por el lobo fino de Guadalupe The re-colonization of the Archipelago of San Benito, Baja California, by the Guadalupe fur seal  

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Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el estado actual de la recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito por el lobo fino de Guadalupe (Arctocephalus townsendi). El archipiélago tiene una gran importancia para esta especie, ya que puede consolidarse en un futuro como otro sitio de reproducción, lo que implicaría un gran avance en su recuperación natural. El incremento y la estructura poblacional, el comportamiento alimenticio, la duración de los viajes de alimentación (que evidencian una fuente importante de alimento cercana) y la atención a las crías son factores que permiten analizar y estudiar el proceso de crecimiento de San Benito como una nueva colonia reproductiva. Esta expansión del territorio puede ser reflejo de la naturaleza gregaria de la especie y la fidelidad hacia los sitios reproductivos. La importancia de este trabajo radica en que es una descripción inicial de la recolonización de una especie que estuvo a punto de desaparecer. Puede esperarse que el número de individuos en el archipiélago continúe aumentando, ya que es poco probable que a corto plazo el espacio reproductivo y la disponibilidad de alimento limiten el nacimiento de crías y el crecimiento de la población.The aim of this paper is to analize the re-colonization process of the San Benito Archipelago by the Guadalupe fur seal (Arctocephalus townsendi). The archipelago is of great importance for the species, since it can be consolidated in the future as a breeding colony, which would imply a great achievement for the fur seal's natural recovery. Population growth, population structure, feeding behavior, foraging trips duration (which shows an important feeding area near), behavior and pup attendance, are characteristics that help analyze and study this process; where San Benito grows as a colony and, therefore, is established as a new breeding colony. Furthermore, this expansion of the breeding territory might reflect the gregarious nature of the species, and fidelity to breeding areas as well. The importance of this work is that it is an initial description of the recolonization of a species that almost disappears. It can be expected to continue increasing the number of individuals at the archipelago, since it is unlikely that in a short period of time, the breeding territory and the food availability limit the birth of offspring and the population growth.

Manuel Esperón-Rodríguez; Juan Pablo Gallo-Reynoso

2012-01-01

34

Recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito, Baja California, por el lobo fino de Guadalupe/ The re-colonization of the Archipelago of San Benito, Baja California, by the Guadalupe fur seal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el estado actual de la recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito por el lobo fino de Guadalupe (Arctocephalus townsendi). El archipiélago tiene una gran importancia para esta especie, ya que puede consolidarse en un futuro como otro sitio de reproducción, lo que implicaría un gran avance en su recuperación natural. El incremento y la estructura poblacional, el comportamiento alimenticio, la duración de los viajes de ali (more) mentación (que evidencian una fuente importante de alimento cercana) y la atención a las crías son factores que permiten analizar y estudiar el proceso de crecimiento de San Benito como una nueva colonia reproductiva. Esta expansión del territorio puede ser reflejo de la naturaleza gregaria de la especie y la fidelidad hacia los sitios reproductivos. La importancia de este trabajo radica en que es una descripción inicial de la recolonización de una especie que estuvo a punto de desaparecer. Puede esperarse que el número de individuos en el archipiélago continúe aumentando, ya que es poco probable que a corto plazo el espacio reproductivo y la disponibilidad de alimento limiten el nacimiento de crías y el crecimiento de la población. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to analize the re-colonization process of the San Benito Archipelago by the Guadalupe fur seal (Arctocephalus townsendi). The archipelago is of great importance for the species, since it can be consolidated in the future as a breeding colony, which would imply a great achievement for the fur seal's natural recovery. Population growth, population structure, feeding behavior, foraging trips duration (which shows an important feeding area near), beha (more) vior and pup attendance, are characteristics that help analyze and study this process; where San Benito grows as a colony and, therefore, is established as a new breeding colony. Furthermore, this expansion of the breeding territory might reflect the gregarious nature of the species, and fidelity to breeding areas as well. The importance of this work is that it is an initial description of the recolonization of a species that almost disappears. It can be expected to continue increasing the number of individuals at the archipelago, since it is unlikely that in a short period of time, the breeding territory and the food availability limit the birth of offspring and the population growth.

Esperón-Rodríguez, Manuel; Gallo-Reynoso, Juan Pablo

2012-03-01

35

An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. Annual report, August 1, 1996--July 31, 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this two-phase study is to demonstrate an integrated methodology for reservoir characterization of shallow shelf carbonate reservoir that is feasible, and cost effective for the independent operator. Furthermore, it will provide one of the first public demonstrations of the enhancement of reservoir characterization using high-resolution three dimensional (3D) seismic data. This particular project is evaluating the Grayburg and San Andres reservoirs in the Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. This 68 year old field was approaching its economic limit and the leases evaluated would have been abandoned in 10 years. A multidisciplinary approach to waterflood design and implementation, along with the addition of reserves by selective infill drilling and deepening, is being applied to this field. This approach in reservoir development will be applicable to a wide range of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs throughout the US. The first phase of the project included the design, acquisition, and interpretation of the 3D seismic survey, the collection and evaluation of geologic (core and log) data, and engineering (historical production, well test, injection) data from a variety of sources. From this work, a geologically based production history model was simulated. Based on the recommendations made at the end of Phase One, three new wells were drilled, one existing well was deepened, two wells were worked over, one TA`d well was re-entered, and one well was converted to injection. In addition, the quality of the injection water was greatly improved, a step necessary prior to increasing injection in the project area. The realignment of the waterflood and all additional well work await the completion of the seismic based history match and engineering simulation.

Trentham, R.C.; Weinbrandt, R.; Robinson, W.

1997-12-01

36

The social construction of bath in two communities temazcal of the mixteca region: Santiago Yolomecatl and San Andres Chicahuaxtla  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The bathroom of temazcal is a knowledge of pre-Hispanic roots still practiced in rural and indigenous communities in our country. Studies on the temazcal have focused on its forms of construction and operation, however, the many therapeutic benefits temazcal bath attached to the human body, and women in particular, not have been sufficiently documented. In this case, two communities of the Oaxacan mixteca were studied: Santiago Yolomecatl and San Andrés Chicahuaxtla. In this study, a questionnaire was applied to 20 per cent of families in each of the communities, a questionnaire to allopathic doctors and six stories of life at temazcaleras. The results indicate a coincidence between patients and doctors in the study populations on the medicinal uses of the temazcal bath: after childbirth and for muscle aches, however, interviewed temazcaleras indicate diseases that cures this bath are: angina, flu, rheumatism,scars, muscle aches after childbirth and cramping. For its part, doctors support the idea of preserving the temazcal bath because it is a healing means to treat diseases through steam and faster recovery of the body. The constructivist analysis of the responses gathered in questionnaires and life stories shows that the medicinal uses of the temazcal, before being recognised as such go through a process of evaluation, filtration and social construction. This process of acceptance, perception and recognition occurs through rules of knowledge, ideological connotations, rules and socialsymbols.

Alberto Valdés Cobos; Anayelit Cruz Galicia

2013-01-01

37

IMPACTOS DEL RECONOCIMIENTO MULTICULTURAL EN EL ARCHIPIÉLAGO DE SAN ANDRÉS, PROVIDENCIA Y SANTA CATALINA: ENTRE LA ETNIZACIÓN Y EL CONFLICTO SOCIAL/ MULTICULTURAL RECOGNITION AT THE ARCHIPELAGO OF SAN ANDRÉS, PROVIDENCIA AND SANTA CATALINA: BETWEEN ETHNIC ENCLOSURE AND SOCIAL CONFLICT  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Colombia, al definirse en 1991 como un país pluriétnico y multicultural, reconoció derechos y estatutos especiales a diversas poblaciones y a sus territorios. Este artículo, que propone un reconocimiento de la población isleña-raizal del archipiélago de San Andrés, Providencia y Santa Catalina, busca dar a conocer algunas de las implicaciones del reconocimiento multicultural a partir del proceso de etnización de la población isleña-raizal, y estudiar el surgimi (more) ento de varios conflictos entre los pobladores isleños-raizales, el Estado colombiano y los migrantes de origen continental. Los conflictos evidencian el enfrentamiento entre dos registros identitarios en las islas: el diaspórico, fruto de las migraciones e intercambios propios del contexto del Gran Caribe, y el encerramiento étnico, como fruto del reconocimiento multicultural. Abstract in english By defining itself as a multiethnic and multicultural nation in 1991, Colombia recognized special rights and statutes to a diversity of populations and their territories. Among them, the native population of the Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia, and Santa Catalina achieved recognition under the new Constitution. This article aims to present some of the implications of this multicultural recognition focusing particularly on the process of ethnicization of the native (more) population of the Archipelago and the emergence of different conflicts among the native population and the Colombian State, as well as those among the native population and migrants from Colombia's mainland. These conflicts reveal the clash between two identities on the islands: on the one hand, the diasporic one, which is a consequence of the Caribbean's characteristic processes of migration and exchange, and on the other hand, ethnic enclosure as a result of multicultural ethnic recognition.

VALENCIA P, INGE HELENA

2011-12-01

38

Etnomapa: Uso de los recursos naturales por los mayas itzaes de San José y San Andrés del Petén, Guatemala/ Ethnomap: use of natural resources by the mayan itzaes of San Jose and San Andres, Peten, Guatemala  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El artículo analiza la riqueza e importancia del concepto de etnomapa, como herramienta de análisis cultural y espacial por medio de un mapa elaborado por pobladores mayas itzaes de dos asentamientos localizados en el Petén, Guatemala. El estudio se llevó a cabo entre octubre 2006 y septiembre de 2007, se completó con la aplicación de encuestas mediante muestreo proporcional a unidades familiares itzaes de dos poblados del Petén central, San José (n = 40) y San An (more) drés (n = 22). A través de la interpretación de la información y mediante el enfoque de sistemas, se logró dilucidar los componentes agrícolas y los recursos naturales que practican y utilizan los mayas en ambas localidades. Los resultados hallados sugieren que los sistemas agrícolas y de utilización de los bosques tropicales húmedos practicados por los itzaes, representan una actividad económica importante, caracterizada por una amplia utilización de especies agrícolas y naturales. Estas actividades representan una base de recursos fundamental para los itzaes. Las características de estos sistemas son comparables a los encontrados en otros estudios en diferentes grupos mayas confirmando la diversidad de posibilidades de los modelos de adaptación y manejo de recursos de los itzaes. La creación del etnomapa valida del profundo conocimiento local, de la distribución territorial de los recursos naturales y antropogénicos. Se posibilita además el analizar los cambios que enfrentan los poblados itzaes, debido a las presiones socioeconómicas y tecnológicas que se desarrollan actualmente en la región del Petén central de Guatemala. Abstract in english This article analyses the richness and importance of the concept of the ethnomap, as a tool for cultural and spatial analyses, based on a map prepared by mayan Itzae inhabitants of two communities located in El Petén, Guatemala. The study took place between October 2006 and September 2007, and included surveys carried out with a proportional sampling of Itzae family units in two settlements of the central Petén, San José (n = 40) and San Andrés (n = 22). A systems the (more) ory was applied in the analysis and interpretation of the data, resulting in the definition of the agricultural components and the natural resources that the Mayas use in the two communities. Findings suggest that the agricultural and tropical forest activities carried out by the Itzaes represent important economic activities, characterised by the use of a wide range of natural and agricultural species. These activities represent a fundamental resource base for the Itzae-maya population. The characteristics of these systems are comparable to those recorded by other studies on different Maya groups, confirming the diversity of possibilities for the adaptation and resource management models of the Itzaes. The ethnomap validates the profound local knowledge of the territorial distribution of anthropogenic and natural resources. It also makes it possible to analyse the changes facing the local Itzae populations, following the socioeconomic and technological pressures that are present in the central Petén region of Guatemala.

Lara Ponce, E; Caso-Barrera, L; Aliphat, M; Ramírez, B; Gil, A; García, G

2012-08-01

39

An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, February 1, 1995--April 30, 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study is to demonstrate a methodology for reservoir characterization of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs which is feasible for the independent operator. Furthermore, it will provide one of the first public demonstrations of the enhancement of reservoir characterization using high resolution 3-D seismic data. This particular project will evaluate the Grayburg and San Andres reservoirs in the Foster and South Cowden Fields of Ector County, Texas. We intend to showcase a multi-disciplinary approach to waterflood design and implementation, along with the addition of reserves by selective infill drilling. We believe this approach in reservoir development will be applicable to a wide range of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs throughout the United States. Technology transfer will take place through all phases of the project. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: geological; reservoir engineering; and geophysics.

Reeves, J.J.; Rowland, D.A.; Trentham, R.C.

1995-08-01

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An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres reservoir, Foster and South Cowden fields, Ector County, Texas. Quarterly technical progress report number 1, August 2--October 30, 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study is to demonstrate a methodology for reservoir characterization of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs which is feasible for the independent operator. Furthermore, it will provide one of the first public demonstrations of the enhancement of reservoir characterization using high resolution 3D seismic data. This particular project will evaluate the Grayburg and San Andres reservoirs in the Foster and South Cowden Fields of Ector County, Texas. The authors intend to showcase a multi-disciplinary approach to water flood design and implementation, along with the addition of reserves by selective infill drilling. They believe this approach in reservoir development will be applicable to a wide range of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs throughout the US. During the month of August, 1994, the 3D seismic survey over the project area was shot by Dawson Geophysical. To date, the data is still being processed at Dawson Geophysical. Technology transfer will take place through all phases of the project.

Reeves, J.J.; Rowland, D.A.; Trentham, R.C.

1994-12-31

 
 
 
 
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COMPARACIÓN TEMPORAL EN LA ESTRUCTURA DE UNA COMUNIDAD CORALINA EN PRIMEROS ESTADOS DE SUCESIÓN, ISLA DE SAN ANDRÉS, COLOMBIA/ TEMPORAL COMPARISON IN THE CORAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN ITS EARLY SUCESIONAL STATE, SAN ANDRES ISLAND, COLOMBIA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los arrecifes coralinos del mundo han sufrido un declive durante las pasadas tres décadas. Estos cambios se han evaluado en arrecifes en franja; sin embargo, se desconoce si los tensores causantes de dichos cambios afectan la dinámica de una comunidad coralina en los primeros estados de la sucesión antes del desarrollo de un arrecife. Para resolver este interrogante, se monitoreó durante 2004, 2005 y 2006 una comunidad coralina aislada en San Andrés. Se compararon te (more) mporalmente la abundancia, cobertura y mortalidad parcial sufrida por la comunidad coralina y sus poblaciones de coral dominantes. La comunidad coralina no presentó variación estadística en riqueza, abundancia, cobertura, ni en área de mortalidad parcial. Sin embargo, esta comunidad sí varió en composición con la entrada de dos especies de coral (Acropora cervicornis y Scolymia cubensis) y la salida de otras dos especies coralinas (Diploria clivosa y Siderastrea siderea) sugiriendo procesos locales de extinción (causados posiblemente por sedimentación y resuspensión) y colonización (dispersión). Aunque la comunidad coralina como un todo mostró estabilidad, la mortalidad parcial de tres de sus especies dominantes (Montastraea annularis, Porites astreoides y Colpophyllia natans) aumentó y la cobertura de Agaricia agaricites disminuyó en el tiempo (siendo la población más sensible en este sistema). Los resultados sugieren una dinámica similar pero más rápida a la registrada en etapas avanzadas de desarrollo arrecifal (arrecifes franjeantes), donde las variables más sensibles actúan a nivel de población (no comunidad), siendo la mortalidad parcial el factor más importante al explicar la tasa de recambio de especies (composición), la pérdida anual de cobertura coralina y cambios en la distribución de talla colonial de las poblaciones dominantes. Abstract in english The coral reefs worldwide have suffered a decline during the past three decades. These changes have been evaluated in fringing reefs; nevertheless, it is not known if the factors causing those changes affect the coral community dynamics during the first states of the succession, before the development of a reef. To resolve this question, during 2004, 2005, and 2006 we monitored an isolated coral community in San Andres. We compared trough time the abundance, coverage and (more) partial mortality suffered by the coral community and its dominant coral populations. The coral community did not present statistical variation in richness, abundance, coverage, neither in the area of partial mortality. However, this community did change in composition with the entry of two coral species (Acropora cervicornis and Scolymia cubensis) and the exit of other two coral species (Diploria clivosa and Siderastrea siderea) suggesting local processes of extinction (caused possibly by sedimentation and resuspension) and colonization (dispersion). Although the coral community as a whole showed stability, the partial mortality of three of its dominant species (Montastraea annularis, Porites astreoides and Colpophyllia natans) increased and the coverage of Agaricia agaricites diminished over time (been the population more sensitive in this system). These results suggest similar but faster dynamic when compared to the theory reported to advanced stages of reef development (fringing reefs), where the more sensitive variables appeared at population rather than community level, partial mortality being the most important factor explaining the rate of replacement of species (composition), the annual lost of coral coverage, and changes in colonial size distribution of the dominant populations.

Jaramillo-González, Juliana; Acosta, Alberto

2009-12-01

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Analysis of the re-colonization of San Benito Archipelago by Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi) Análisis de la recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito por el lobo fino de Guadalupe (Arctocephalus townsendi)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Exploitation of the Guadalupe fur seal (GFS) during the XVIII and XIX centuries almost extirpated the species. GFS were distributed from the Revillagigedo islands (Mexico) to the gulf of Farallones (USA). At present, reproductive colonies are found at Guadalupe Island and San Benito Archipelago (SBA). The aim of this work was to analyze the process of re-colonization and the current status of GFS at SBA. The first births and the occupation of the west island of the SBA are also reported. Census data from 1997 to 2007 indicated an annual growth rate for the population of 21.6%. The population size, growth tendency of the colony, reproductive biology, and food preferences were also studied. A total of 2,227 GFS were counted at SBA. Three squid species (Loligo opalescens, Onychoteuthis banksii, Dosidicus gigas) were found to be the main dietary components. Territoriality, activity patterns, and reproductive behavior were similar for the seals from Guadalupe Island and SBA. The mean growth rate for pups from SBA was calculated and compared to that of the pups at Guadalupe Island (SBA: 6.7 ± 1.4 kg, 68.9 ± 2.64 cm; Guadalupe Island: 5.9 ± 0.5 kg, 67.29 ± 4.3 cm). The length of food foraging trips by females was measured, suggesting that the SBA colony is probably near an important feeding area. Maternal care patterns could indicate different strategies of nursing-foraging trips between the SBA and Guadalupe Island. The population of fur seals at SBA is expected to increase as there are no limitations in terms of reproductive space or available food resources in the area.La explotación del lobo fino de Guadalupe (LFG) durante los siglos XVIII y XIX casi extinguió a la especie. El LFG se distribuye desde las islas Revillagigedo (México) hasta el golfo de Farallones (USA). En la actualidad las colonias reproductivas se encuentran en la isla de Guadalupe y en el archipiélago de San Benito (ASB). El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el proceso de re-colonización y el estado actual del LFG en el ASB. También se informan los primeros nacimientos y la ocupación de la isla del Oeste del ASB. Con base en los censos de 1997 a 2007, la población creció con una tasa de incremento anual de 21,6%. Se estudió el tamaño de la población, la tendencia de crecimiento de la colonia, biología reproductiva y preferencias alimentarias. Se contaron 2,227 individuos en el ASB. Tres especies de calamar se encontraron como el principal componente de la dieta (Loligo opalescens, Onychoteuthis banksii y Dosidicus gigas). La territorialidad, los patrones de actividad y el comportamiento reproductivo, muestran una conducta similar entre los individuos de isla Guadalupe y ASB. Se calculó la tasa de crecimiento promedio de las crías del ASB y se comparó con la tasa de crecimiento de las crías de isla Guadalupe (ASB: 6.7 ± 1.4 kg y 68,9 ± 2.64 cm; isla Guadalupe 5.9 ± 0.5 kg, y 67.29 ± 4.3 cm). Se midió la duración de los viajes de alimentación de las hembras, indicando que la colonia de San Benito probablemente se encuentra cerca de una importante zona de alimentación. En cuanto a los patrones de asistencia materna, estos podrían indicar una estrategia de lactancia-viajes de alimentación diferente entre SBA e isla Guadalupe. Se puede esperar que la población de lobos finos en San Benito siga creciendo, ya que no hay limitantes en cuanto al espacio reproductivo y los recursos alimenticios disponibles en la zona.

Manuel Esperón-Rodríguez; Juan Pablo Gallo-Reynoso

2012-01-01

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Reproduction of Blackfin tuna Thunnus atlanticus (Perciformes: Scombridae) in Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, Equatorial Atlantic, Brazil/ Reproducción del atún de aleta negra Thunnus atlanticus (Perciformes: Scombridae) en el Archipiélago San Pedro y San Pablo, Atlántico Ecuatorial, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish A pesar de la importancia de las capturas del atún de aleta negra Thunnus atlanticus en el noreste de Brasil y en las cercanías del Archipiélago San Pedro y San Pablo (ASPSP), hay una escasez de información sobre su reproducción, especialmente en las islas. La reproducción del atún de aleta negra en este archipiélago se estudió de diciembre 2008 a julio 2010. Con este fin, se recolectaron 361 gónadas de hembras y machos, los machos fueron predominantemente más (more) frecuentes en la muestra total, con una proporción sexual de 1?:2.2 ?. La longitud furcal todos los ejemplares muestreados varió entre 38 y 98 cm, y los machos fueron más abundantes en las clases de mayor longitud. Los valores medios mensuales del índice gonadal (IG) variaron de 6.6 (SD=4.1) a 58.4 (SD=34.7) y de 2.6 (SD=1.3) a 66.2 (SD=30.4) para hembras y machos, respectivamente. Los mayores valores de IG para ambos sexos fueron observados el inicio del primer semestre. Los análisis histológicos mostraron que la mayoría de los ovarios y testículos correspondieron a especímenes aptos para reproducirse. Sin embargo, hembras con ovarios maduros, con gran cantidad de oócitos hidratados y folículos post ovulatorios, se encontraron principalmente de diciembre a marzo, que se considera es la época de reproducción del atún de aleta negra alrededor del ASPSP. Abstract in english The reproduction of Blackfin tuna Thunnus atlanticus has been described for coastal regions, and for a long time, this species was considered to be a strictly continental spawner. Recently, this species was observed around a seamount habitat 500 nautical miles Northeast of Brazil, located between South America and Africa. In this study we describe the reproductive biology of Blackfin tuna at Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (SPSPA). Male and female gonads were sampl (more) ed from December 2008 to July 2010, and analyzed macro and microscopically. A total of 361 fish were sampled (247 males and 114 females). Males were more common than females, with a sex ratio of 2.2 ?:1?. The fork length (FL) of all sampled specimens ranged from 38 to 98cm, and larger length classes were more frequent in males. It was possible to distinguish six maturity phases for females: immature, developing, spawning capable, actively spawning, regressing and recovering. Five phases were identified for males: immature, developing, spawning capable, actively spawning and recovering. The gonad index (GI) mean monthly values ranged from 6.6 (SD=4.1) to 58.4 (SD=34.7) for females, and from 2.6 (SD=1.3) to 66.2 (SD=30.4) for males. For both sexes, the largest GI values were observed at the beginning of the first semester of the year. Size at first maturity was estimated at 48cm FL and 55cm FL for females and males respectively. Approximately 80% of the specimens were adults and considered to be in reproductive conditions. Histological analysis of the ovaries and testes showed that most of the specimens were sexually mature and were reproductively active during all months of the year. However, females with mature ovaries, with large amounts of hydrated oocytes and post-ovulatory follicles, were mainly found from December to March, thus these months may constitute the main spawning season in SPSPA. Batch fecundity varied between 272 025 and 1 140 584 oocytes for 56 and 68cm FL females respectively. Oocyte development and spawning patterns suggest a multiple spawning behavior. The results revealed that Blackfin tuna is using the SPSPA as a spawning ground, similar to other species commonly observed in the same area during the same reproductive season.

Bezerra, Natalia P.A.; Fernandes; Albuquerque, Fernanda V.; Pedrosa, Vanessa; Hazin, Fábio; Travassos, Paulo

2013-09-01

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ESPONJAS Y OTROS MICROHÁBITATS DE OFIUROS (OPHIUROIDEA: ECHINODERMATA) EN AMBIENTES ARRECIFALES DEL ARCHIPIÉLAGO DE SAN BERNARDO (CARIBE COLOMBIANO)/ Sponges and other ophiuroid microhabitats (Ophiuroidea: Echinodermata) at reef environments of San Bernardo Archipelago (Colombian Caribbean).  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los ofiuroideos son habitantes conspicuos de microhábitats expuestos y crípticos en arrecifes coralinos. Esta investigación pretendió conocer la composición de la comunidad de ofiuroideos encontrada en microhábitats ofrecidos por esponjas y por otros componentes arrecifales de diferente naturaleza (biótica vs. abiótica) y posición sobre el sustrato (elevada vs. no elevada) en los arrecifes de la zona Montastraea spp. en el archipiélago de Islas de San Bernardo ( (more) Caribe colombiano). Evaluando la abundancia de organismos en relación con la disponibilidad los diferentes microhábitats, se determinaron esquemas de ocupación exclusiva o preferencial de algún componente vertical particular, como insumo inicial de la existencia de relaciones ecológicas benéficas. Se realizaron muestreos en tres estaciones, en cada una se censaron tres transectos de 20 m de longitud recorridos durante el día y uno durante la noche, cuantificando visualmente la presencia y abundancia de ofiuroideos y la oferta (área o volumen) de todos los microhábitats. Se encontró un total de 11 tipos de microhábitats, siendo las estructuras de crecimiento vertical (entre ellas las esponjas y octocorales), los componentes más frecuentes en la totalidad del área de estudio. La comunidad ofiuroidea estuvo compuesta por 22 morfotipos. Solo Ophiopsila sp. 1 (de hábitos excavadores) se restringió a un solo tipo de sustrato en particular, en tanto que varias de las restantes se restringieron al uso de estructuras o espacios proporcionados por éstas, según condiciones particulares ofrecidas (elevación, naturaleza, cripticidad) y no según su identidad. La ocupación de superficies inferiores de componentes no elevados, estuvo determinada por la necesidad de ocupar espacios crípticos. Esta necesidad estuvo vinculada con especies fotosensibles, vulnerables a la depredación y a su inherente búsqueda de protección. Los componentes elevados y entre ellos 13 especies de esponjas fueron ocupados de manera característica por el complejo Ophiothrix angulata - O. orstedii y por O. suensonii. Se discuten los atributos de las esponjas (con diferentes morfologías) que proporcionan distintas ventajas para cada una de las especies ofiuroideas encontradas allí. Se sugiere la existencia de una probable relación ecológica no obligada entre estas especies de ofiuroideos y algunas de las esponjas más frecuentemente ocupadas, cuya existencia y naturaleza deben ser sometidas a comprobación experimental. Abstract in english Ophiuroids are conspicuous dwellers of exposed and cryptic microhabitats available in coral reefs. This investigation pretended to discern ophiuroid community composition at microhabitats available in sponges and other reef components of different character (biotic vs. abiotic) or position over the substrate (elevated vs. non-elevated), at shallow reefs within the Montastraea spp. zone at San Bernardo Archipelago (Colombian Caribbean). Evaluating the abundance of organism (more) s related to availability of different microhabitats, schemes of exclusive or preferential occupation of a particular elevated component were determined. These schemes, are discussed as initial cues that suggest the existence of benefic ecological relations. Samplings were performed at three stations. Four 20 meter transects were surveyed on each station, three during daytime and one during night. Presence and abundance of ophiuroids and microhabitat availability (area or volume) were quantified visually. Eleven types of microhabitats were identified. Vertical microhabitats and specially sponges and octocorals, were the most common substrate components at the study area. The ophiuroid community was composed by 22 morphotypes. Only Ophiopsila sp. 1 (with excavating habits) was restricted to one particular kind of substrate. Many other species did not use restrictedly any particular type of microhabitat, but used exclusively structures of particular characteristics (elevation, character or cripticity). The occupati

Bejarano Chavarro, Sonia; Zea, Sven; Díaz, Juan Manuel

2004-12-01

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[Knowledge on drugs phenomenon by students and faculty from the Medical School at Universidad Mayor de San Andres, La Paz, Bolivia].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The goal of this study was to identify the degree of knowledge of students and health educators on licit and illicit drugs, related to the type, classification, action, mechanisms damages, consequences and adverse effects, besides use and consumption. A cross-sectional methodological design was used, with a sample of 172 students, professors and residents in medicine and nursing at Universidad Mayor de San Andrés (UMSA), Bolivia. The results reveal weak knowledge on the classification of psychotropic substances according to structure, chemical property and effects for health, highlighting significant difference with knowledge on licit and illicit drugs use, with high percentages. In conclusion, there is lack of knowledge in all groups studied on licit and illicit drugs regarding the consequences and adverse effects. This confirms the need to improve teaching on this content in health schools.

Navia-Bueno Mdel P; Farah-Bravo J; Yaksic-Feraudy N; Philco-Lima P; Takayanagui AM

2011-06-01

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Maailmaparandajad / Ole Ry, Susanne Andres  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Terapeudid Ole Ry ja Susanne Andres räägivad Dr David Berceli loodud TRE (Tension & Trauma Releasing Exercises) harjutuste kasutamise kogemusest erinevate psüühiliste traumade ja pingetega klientide tervise parandamisel

Ry, Ole

2012-01-01

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Whole blood glutathione peroxidase and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities, serum trace elements (Se, Cu, Zn) and cardiovascular risk factors in subjects from the city of Ponta Delgada, Island of San Miguel, The Azores Archipelago, Portugal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Activities of whole blood glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) and serum levels of selenium (Se), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were measured in 118 apparently healthy subjects aged 20-60 years from the city of Ponta Delgada, Island of San Miguel, The Azores Archipelago, Portugal. Data were analysed by age/gender, lipid profile and blood pressure as cardiovascular risk factors searching for their relevance when assessing reference values for antioxidant biomarkers. GSH-Px was in the same range, but SOD was significantly lower than in other Portuguese populations. Neither activity differed with gender. GSH-Px activity increased with age, namely in normolipidemic men versus the hyperlipidemic group in which a decrease was observed. This suggests a progressive impairment of GSH-Px with age caused by an enhanced production of oxidant species in hyperlipidemia. GSH-Px was 30% lower in male hypertensives versus normotensives. SOD activity did not relate to age or blood pressure but was 17% higher in the hyperlipidemic men versus the normolipidemic group, suggesting a better antioxidant protection by SOD than by GSH-Px in hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Se was higher in men versus women, particularly in the older subjects, and partly related to hyperlipidemia. Zn levels showed a similar dependency on gender, not related to age or lipid profile. Cu levels were much higher in women than in men in all age or lipid profile classes and decreased in hyperlipidemia. They were lowered with age in both genders, particularly in normolipidemic women. The present research therefore suggests that hyperlipidemia and hypertension do affect antioxidant status and should be considered when assessing antioxidant biomarkers in blood.

Pavão ML; Figueiredo T; Santos V; Lopes PA; Ferin R; Santos MC; Nève J; Viegas-Crespo AM

2006-09-01

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Chiloe : archipelago, Chile  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bogen beskriver den særegne arkitektur, som kendetegner den sydchilenske øgruppe Chiloe Archipelago. Huse i træ udviklet i en lang tradition fra fiskerlandsbyernes Palafitos til et stort antal kirker, hvoraf 16 er på Unescos liste. Videreført i moderne arkitektur. 52 sider.

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Andres Kollist teadusraamatukogude nõukogu esimeheks  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

8. sept. 2009 valis teadusraamatukogude nõukogu oma uueks esimeheks Tallinna Ülikooli Akadeemilise Raamatukogu direktori Andres Kollisti, senine nõukogu esimees Martin Hallik astus kohalt tagasi ning pühendus ELNET Konsortsiumi juhatuse esimehena raamatukogude avalike huvide eest seismisele

2009-01-01

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La Biblioteca Max von Buch de la Universidad de San Andrés y sus investigadores: Segunda parte de Un estudio de las necesidades de información, hábitos y características de Investigadores en Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales The Max von Buch library of the Universidad de San Andres and its researchers: Second part of A study of the information needs, habits and characteristics of Humanities and Social Science Researchers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tal como fue mencionado en el artículo anterior el presente estudio fue elaborado con el propósito de entender e identificar las necesidades, el proceso de búsqueda de información, las características y los hábitos de los investigadores en Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad de San Andrés (UdeSA). En esta segunda parte del mismo se ha intentado identificar y evaluar su conducta en la Biblioteca Max von Buch de la Universidad a través del uso de los servicios que ésta les ofrece. Se ponen a consideración los resultados de una encuesta realizada, de la que se adjunta la segunda parte del formulario, con el fin de detectar sus necesidades de información.As mentioned in the previous article, the present study was conducted to understand and identify the characteristics, needs and habits of research from the Humanities and Social Sciences researchers at the Universidad de San Andres (UdeSA). This second part tries to identify and evaluate their performance at the Max von Buch library of the University through the services that it provides them. The results of the survey are presented, together with the second part of the questionnaire, with the aim of identifying information needs.

Irene Münster

2003-01-01

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Sucesión temprana de la taxocenosis Mollusca-Annelida-Crustacea en raíces sumergidas de mangle rojo en San Andrés Isla, Caribe colombiano/ Early succession of the taxocenosis Mollusca-Annelida-Crustacea on red mangrove submerged roots in San Andres Island, Colombian Caribbean  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se analizó la sucesión temprana de los taxa Annelida, Mollusca y Crustacea asociados a las raíces sumergidas de Rhizophora mangle (mangle rojo), empleando ramas del mismo como sustrato artificial (unidades experimentales). El análisis se relacionó con algunas variables físico-químicas y ambientales durante 188 días en San Andrés Isla, entre noviembre 2002 y mayo 2003, en tres estaciones de dos bahías, Hooker y Honda. Se identificaron 34.175 individuos en 130 uni (more) dades experimentales, los anélidos mostraron la mayor proporción (77,1%). Se generó un análisis de ordenación y clasificación (dendrograma y un escalamiento multidimensional no métrico-NMDS) para cada uno de los tres taxa estudiados. Los análisis revelaron débil similaridad entre la parte interna de Bahía Hooker y las estaciones restantes. Se calcularon los índices de diversidad de Shannon-Wiener, uniformidad de Pielou, riqueza de Margalef y predominio de Simpson a lo largo del estudio; los tres primeros presentaron mayores valores en Bahía Hooker que en Honda, mientras que el índice de predominio fue mayor en Bahía Honda. Hubo organismos pioneros como el anélido Spirorbis sp. y transitorios como los crustáceos; los moluscos parecieron necesitar periodos más prolongados para asentarse. Estas respuestas revelan que características geomorfológicas, presencia o ausencia de corrientes de agua dulce, mareas y lluvias, principalmente, y factores antrópicos pueden influir en el desarrollo de estas comunidades. Dispersión larval y proximidad con otros ecosistemas aumentan o disminuyen las poblaciones; sólo algunos organismos adaptados a condiciones extremas se establecen y mantienen en el área. Bajo condiciones favorables, la abundancia y diversidad de especies tienden a aumentar Abstract in english The early succession of the taxa Annelida, Mollusca and Crustacea on Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) submerged roots was analyzed using old branches as ground (which were the experimental units) in San Andres Island. The analysis was related to some physico-chemical and environmental variables during 188 days, between November/2002 and May/2003, in Hooker and Honda bays. A total of 34,175 individuals in 130 experimental units were counted, where the annelids represented (more) the largest proportion (77.1%) from the whole sample. A dendrogram and a nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were constructed for each one of the three studied taxa. The analyses showed a weak similarity between the internal part of the Hooker Bay and the remaining stations. Shannon-Wiener diversity, Pielou evenness, Margalef richness and Simpson predominance indexes were calculated throughout the study; the three first indices showed greater values in Hooker Bay than in Honda Bay, while the predominance index was greater in Bay Honda. There were pioneers organisms such as Spirorbis sp., and transient ones, such as crustaceans, whilst molluscs seemed to need longer periods to settle in. These responses reveal that geomorphological characteristics, presence or absence of freshwater currents, tides and rainfall mainly, as well as anthropic factors can influence the development of these communities. Larval dispersion and the proximity to other ecosystems increase or reduce the populations, and only some organisms, adapted to extreme conditions, settle down and maintain in the area. Under favorable conditions, abundance and species diversity tend to increase

Romero-Murillo, Patricia E; Polanía, Jaime

2008-04-01

52

Reading the archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [First paragraph] A History of Literature in the Caribbean, Volume 3: Cross-Cultural Studies. JAMES A. ARNOLD (ed.). Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1997. xvii + 399 pp. (Cloth US$ 120.00) The Other America: Caribbean Literature in a New World Context. J. MICHAEL DASH. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1998. xii + 197 pp. (Cloth US$ 42.50, Paper US$ 18.50) In his most recent theoretical work, Traite du Tout-Monde, Edouard Glissant stresses the virtues of what he calls "archipelagic thinking." "The entire world is becoming an archipelago," he asserts (1997:194), and for this reason we need to distance ourselves from both insular and continental ways of thinking if we are to register the complexities of that global creolization process. The archipelago is situated between the solitary confines of the islands that constitute it and the expansive territory of the mainland toward which it points, relating the one to the other while retaining its own indeterminately distinct identity. For Glissant, actual archipelagos such as the Caribbean are exemplary sites for understanding the complex new relations that ambivalently and chaotically join together all the hitherto unconnected parts of the world. As a consequence of this, the need for understanding the Caribbean as an archipelago becomes ever more pressing: the Caribbean must be considered in its archipelagic totality, as a region that can only be adequately understood through comparative, cross-cultural analysis focusing less on its discrete parts than on the way these parts exist in relation with and to one another.

Chris Bongie

1999-01-01

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Envisioning the Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Certain limitations arise from the persistent consideration of two common relations of islands in the humanities and social sciences: land and sea, and island and continent/mainland. What remains largely absent or silent are ways of being, knowing and doing—ontologies, epistemologies and methods—that illuminate island spaces as inter-related, mutually constituted and co-constructed: as island and island. Therefore, this paper seeks to map out and justify a research agenda proposing a robust and comprehensive exploration of this third and comparatively neglected nexus of relations. In advancing these aims, the paper’s goal is to (re)inscribe the theoretical, metaphorical, real and empirical power and potential of the archipelago: of seas studded with islands; island chains; relations that may embrace equivalence, mutual relation and difference in signification.

Stratford Elaine; Baldacchino Godfrey; Farbotko Carol; Harwood, Andrew

2011-01-01

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Filariasis Studies in Sulu Archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of the study are as follows: (1) Extent and distribution of filariasis in the other islands of Sulu archipelago; (2) attempt to correlate the abaca industry with filariasis prevalence; (3) attempt to determine explanation for the difference...

B. D. Cabrera

1967-01-01

55

Vulkaner andre steder i Solsystemet  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Der er vulkaner mange andre steder end på Jorden. De indre fire jordlignende planeter har, ligesom mange af solsystemets måner og asteroider, vulkaner, der dog for de flestes vedkommende er udslukte for mange hundrede millioner år siden. Der er direkte observeret vulkanudbrud på Jorden og på Jupiters måne, Io, og man regner man med at Venus og formentlig også Mars stadig er vulkansk aktive. Ved at rette blikket ud i solsystemet har vi  mulighed for at studere vulkansk aktivitet under helt anderledes betingelser end her på Jorden. Hvad sker der f.eks., hvis tyngdekraften er svagere, eller planetens overflade måske er gloende varm? Vulkanerne andre steder i Solsystemet overgår på mange måder dem på Jorden. Venus er den planet i solsystemet, der har flest vulkaner, Mars har de største og højeste vulkaner, asteroiden Vesta har de ældste, og Jupiters måne Io har de mest aktive vulkaner i solsystemet. De koldeste vulkaner findes på nogle af månerne i det ydre solsystem. Her er det ikke smeltet sten men derimod ammoniakvand, der strømmer ned og størkner på vulkanernes sider.

Haack, Henning

2007-01-01

56

Andre on alati tantsida tahtnud / Anu Mõttus  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Koolitantsu maakonnavoorud on peetud. Igast maakonnast pääsevad piirkonnavooru kuni pooled tantsud. Umbes sama edasipääsuprotsent on ka Andre Laine tantsudel, kelle koolitantsu vaimustus algas Kanepi Gümnaasiumi õpilasena ja kes praeguseks on selle gümnaasiumi tantsupedagoog

Mõttus, Anu

2009-01-01

57

Andres Lipstoki mudased tehingud? / Eve Heinla  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Eesti Panga nõukogu asub septembris arutama Eesti Panga presidendi Andres Lipstoki seotust tehinguga, millega Ain Hanschmidt omandas 25 protsenti Haapsalu HMR-i puhke- ja turismikontsernist. Vt. samas: Hämarad miljonikingitused

Heinla, Eve, 1966-

2005-01-01

58

Regional Oceanography of the Philippine Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Confined by the intricate configuration of the Philippine Archipelago, forced by the monsoonal climate and tides, responding to the remote forcing from the open Pacific and adjacent seas of Southeast Asia, the internal Philippine seas present a challenging environment to both observe and model. The Philippine Experiment (PhilEx) observations reported here provide a view of the regional oceanography for specific periods. Interaction with the western Pacific occurs by way of the shallow San Bernardino and Surigao straits. More significant interaction occurs via Mindoro and Panay straits with the South China Sea, which is connected to the open Pacific through Luzon Strait. The Mindoro/Panay throughflow reaches into the Sulu Sea and adjacent Bohol and Sibuyan seas via the Verde Island Passage and the straits of Tablas and Dipolog. The deep, isolated basins are ventilated by flow over confining topographic sills, causing upward displacement of older residence water, made more buoyant by vertical mixing, which is then exported to surrounding seas to close the overturning circulation circuit.

Arnold L. Gordon; Janet Sprintall; Amy Ffield

2011-01-01

59

Eesti fond rahastab Vene infotehnoloogiat / Andres Reimer  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Martinson Trigon Venture Partners (MTVP) loob uue tarkvarainvesteeringute fondi, mis viib endise NSVL-i alale kuni 780 miljonit krooni, fond võtab sihiks kümmekond uut ettevõtet. MTVP esimese fondi investeeringutest. Fondide juhi Andres Susi selgitusi. Lisa: Martinson Trigon Venture Partners osalusega firmad; Vt. samas: Moskvas pole raha ja geeniused kohtunud

Reimer, Andres

2006-01-01

60

Bilkørsel med alkohol og andre stoffer  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Selv om forekomsten af alkohol hos bilister i trafikken i Danmark er halveret siden 80’erne, er alkohol i trafikken stadig et stort problem. Forskningsresultater afdækker, at ikke blot er alkohol hyppigt forekommende i trafikken, men risikoen for færdselsuheld med alvorlige skader er også væsentligt forhøjet, hvis alkoholpromillen er over lovens grænse, eller alkoholen er blandet med andre stoffer. Den højeste risiko for personskadeuheld med alvorlige skader findes hos bilister, der kører med alkoholpromiller på 1,2 og derover.

Bernhoft, Inger Marie

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Eestlane juhib Ukrainas EBRD investeeringuid / Andre Küüsvek ; interv. Henrik Ilves  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Seni Euroopa Rekonstruktsiooni- ja Arengupanga (EBRD) Kasahstani osakonda juhtinud Andre Küüsvek valiti juhtima EBRD investeeringuid Ukrainas. Tänavu on plaanis investeerida Ukrainas 1,5 mld. dollarit

Küüsvek, Andre

2008-01-01

62

Juubelitervitus (eks)avangardist Andres Toltsile / Eero Kangor  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Andres Toltsi isikunäitused "Näitus" (kuraator Harry Liivrand) Tallinna Kunstihoones 25. oktoobrini, "Asjad" Hobusepea galeriis 30. sept.-12. oktoobrini ja sünnipäevanäitus Haus Galeriis 13. novembrini

Kangor, Eero, 1982-

2009-01-01

63

Island Movements: Thinking with the Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Whether in Homer or Plato, Shakespeare or Huxley, throughout history, thinking about islands has shaped how we think about human nature and our place in the world. However, to date archipelagos have received far less attention. This is problematic because we live, increasingly, in a world of island-island movements and not static forms. Not only in the more obvious cases of the Caribbean, Hawaii or the Philippines but, as Stratford et al (2011) say, many ‘continental forms’ like Canada and Australia are in fact archipelagos composed of thousands of island movements. To this list we can add more manufactured archipelagos: wind turbine arrays, industrial oil and military constellations. The key question therefore arises: what does it mean to think with the archipelago? This paper argues firstly that archipelagic thinking denaturalizes the conceptual basis of space and place, and therefore engages ‘the spatial turn’ presently sweeping the social sciences and humanities. Secondly, such thinking highlights the trope of what I call ‘metamorphosis’, of the adaptation and transformation of material, cultural and political practices through island movements. In both cases, I argue that thinking with the archipelago requires an important shift in how we frame analysis and engagement.

Jonathan Pugh

2013-01-01

64

Cossidae of the Socotra Archipelago (Yemen)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The taxonomy of the family Cossidae (Lepidoptera) of the Socotra Archipelago is revised. Five species are recognized, including two new species (Mormogystia brandstetteri and Meharia hackeri), and dubious identifications and records are discussed. Adults and genitalia are illustrated and bionomic details, molecular evidence and a synonymic checklist of Socotra Cossidae genera is provided. A review of their distribution reveals that at least 80 percent of Socotro`s Cossidae species are unique to the archipelago which is renowned for its endemism.

Robert Borth; Povilas Ivinskis; Aidas Saldaitis; Roman Yakovlev

2011-01-01

65

Europan 7 Eestis : Lasnamäe. Pärnu / Tiit Trummal, Andres Kurg  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Võistluse "Äärelinna võimalus, linnalik intensiivsus ja elamise mitmekesisus" Eesti-Rootsi ühisžüriis Eestist Urmas Muru, Tiit Trummal, Andres Kurg. Tallinna Lasnamäe (14 tööd) ja Pärnu (47 tööd) võistlusalast, võitnud tööde arhitektide loetelu ja võitnud töödest. Lasnamäe: I preemia - autor hispaanlane Andres Fernandes Atela, kaasautorid prantslased Mathieu Andrieu ja Iman Morshedi. Pärnu: I preemia - autorid rumeenlane Oana-Maria Bogdan, ameeriklane Susan Kelly Shannon, argentiinlane Laura Vescina, hispaanlased Juny Llach ja Parra Colacios

Trummal, Tiit, 1954-

2004-01-01

66

Corneal densitometry evaluation in archipelago keratitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To report a case of archipelago keratitis and its improvement as evaluated by corneal densitometry. A review of the patient's record and relevant literature. A 57-year-old man presented with blurred vision associated with photophobia and halos around lights. Slit-lamp examination revealed multiple confluent, nummular subepithelial infiltrates. The infiltrates were unresponsive to topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drops. The treatment was changed to topical steroids and oral acyclovir and a diagnosis of archipelago keratitis was made. The patient showed quick response to the treatment and the infiltrates disappeared within 5 weeks. However, no clear changes were observed initially by slit-lamp but corneal densitometry allowed us to evaluate improvement as the density value decreased from 96.5 to 38.6. After 10 days of treatment all the symptoms were resolved. Archipelago keratitis responded well to topical steroids and oral acyclovir. We describe the use of corneal densitometry complementary to slit-lamp examination in the clinical observation of archipelago keratitis.

Orucoglu F; Talaz S; Aksu A; Muftuoglu O

2013-02-01

67

On the homology of the Harmonic Archipelago  

CERN Multimedia

We calculate the singular homology and \\v{C}ech cohomology groups of the Harmonic archipelago. As a corollary, we prove that this space is not homotopy equivalent to the Griffiths space. This is interesting in view of Eda's proof that the first singular homology groups of these spaces are isomorphic.

Karimov, Umed H; 10.2478/s11533-012-0038-2

2012-01-01

68

Eesti Energia juhid : oma tuumajaam tuleks teha / Raine Pajo, Andres Tropp ; interv. Viljar Rääsk  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Eesti Energia juhatuse liige, elektri ja soojuse tootmise valdkonna juht Raine Pajo ja tuumaenergeetika osakonna juhataja Andres Tropp arutlevad Eestisse oma tuumajaama rajamise vajalikkuse üle. Lisa: Raine Pajo; Andres Tropp

Pajo, Raine, 1976-

2008-01-01

69

Rain Tolk ja Andres Maimik : Eesti filmi keigarid, geeniused ja ullikesed / Piret Reiljan  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Rain Tolk, Andres Maimik, kelle tragikoomiline film "Jan Uuspõld läheb Tartusse" (OÜ "Kuukulgur Film") on üks vaadatuimad eesti filme läbi aegade. Ka teised neist : kommenteerivad Jan Uuspõld, Maria Ulfsak-Sheripova, Andres Keil, Urmas Pardane ja Mikk Rand

Reiljan, Piret, 1983-

2007-01-01

70

Benthic foraminiferal assemblages in Tambelan Archipelago, Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coral reefs ecosystem is one of favorable sites as habitat of most of marine organismsincluding benthic foraminifera. Foraminiferal assemblages are regularly used as bio-indicators ofenvironmental feasibility for reefs. Hence, the objective of the present study was to recognize theforaminiferal assemblages in the Tambelan Archipelago as a baseline data for monitoring ofenvironmental changes and to plan conservation strategies. The survey was conducted on November2010 at 12 sampling sites around Tambelan Archipelago. A total of 5582 specimens of benthicforaminifera belonging to Order Astrorhizida, Textulariida, Miliolida, and Rotaliida were recorded. Most ofcollected species were recognized as symbiotic-bearing foraminifera; the most common of them whereAmphistegina sp. and Calcarina sp. that counted more than 1000 specimens.

Suhartati M. Natsir; Zainal A. Muchlisin

2012-01-01

71

The fundamental group of the harmonic archipelago  

CERN Multimedia

The harmonic archipelago HA is obtained by attaching a large pinched annulus to every pair of consecutive loops of the Hawaiian earring. We clarify the fundamental group pi1(HA) as a quotient of the Hawaiian earring group, provide a precise description of the kernel, show that both pi1(HA) and the kernel are uncountable, and that pi1(HA) has the indiscrete topology.

Fabel, P

2005-01-01

72

Revolver, kala ja harmoonia / Andres Tolts ; intervjueerinud Kadri Karro  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Andres Toltsi juubelinäitused Tallinnas: "Näitus" Tallinna Kunstihoones 25.9-25.10, "Asjad" Hobusepea galeriis 30.9-12.10, "Juubelinäitus" Haus galeriis 8.10-13.11. Kunstnik räägib oma loomingust, revolvri ja kala motiivist oma töödes, mõttekaaslusest, eestiaegsest maailmavaatest, harmooniast ja isikupärast kunstis ning elus, ilust ja inetusest, kaasaja kunstnike vajadusest oma loomingut sõnade abil seletada

Tolts, Andres, 1949-

2009-01-01

73

Geochemistry of fluids from the Baku archipelago  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tests of more than 1000 samples of oil, gas and formation water made it possible to establish a general character of hydrocarbon systems in the Baku (Bakinskiy) archipelago. Oil and condensates are type A. Content of Ni-porphyrin compounds in oils is notable. Correlation of certain hydrocarbon classes and their isomers (both in benzene and oil fractions, and with respect to isoprene hydrocarbons) showed that oils and condensates belonged to a single genetic series. Some changes in oil properties were due to tertiary natural factors. Gases are 97-97 percent hydrocarbons, primarily methane. Formation water showed hydrochemical inversion.

Mekhtiyen, Sh. F.; Buniyat-Zade,Z.A.; Guseynaga, A.; Tuskiya B.A.

1983-01-01

74

Composition of volatile oil, isolated from Duchesnea Indica (Andr.) Focke  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The herbage of mock strawberry, Duchesnea indica (Andr.) Focke, Rosaceae, on hydro distillation yields an aromatic pale yellow oil (0.1%). GC-MS analysis revealed that the herb essential oil contained carvacryl acetate (30.5%), valencene (7.6%), nona-hexacontanoic acid (7.2%), aristalone (5.3%), dehydro-aromadendrene (4.6%), eicosane (4.1%), and 2-hexa-decan-ol (4.1%), as major components.

Umesh B; Thoppil J

2006-01-01

75

Läänemere strateegia arvestab kodanike ettepanekutega / Jose Palma Andres ; interv. Erkki Bahovski  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Euroopa Komisjoni regionaalpoliitika peadirektoraadi direktor Jose Palma Andres vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad avalikku debatti Läänemere strateegia üle ning Venemaa partnerlust Läänemere strateegias. Lisa: [Läänemere strateegia

Palma Andres, Jose

2008-01-01

76

Mida teha rahastamissüsteemiga? / Alar Karis, Mait Klaassen, Rein Raud, Andres Keevallik ; intervjueerinud Argo Kerb  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Kõrghariduse rahastamissüsteemist. Küsimusele vastavad Tartu ülikooli rektor Alar Karis, Eesti maaülikooli rektor Mait Klaasseen, Tallinna ülikooli rektor Rein Raud, Tallinna tehnikaülikooli rektor Andres Keevallik

2011-01-01

77

Narcotráfico, violencia y crisis social en el Caribe insular colombiano: El caso de la isla de San Andrés en el contexto del Gran Caribe/ Drug Traffiking, Violence and the Social Crisis in Colombian Caribbean Islands: The Case of San Andrés Island in the Context of the Great Caribbean  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El presente artículo tiene por objetivo presentar un diagnóstico preliminar de la magnitud del tráfico de drogas, sus dinámicas, modalidades, y las condiciones sociales y económicas que favorecen el desarrollo de este negocio ilegal en la isla de San Andrés (Colombia). El análisis se desarrolla, no obstante, en el marco de la condición histórica y natural de "zona de tránsito" de drogas, armas y otros recursos ilegales, que se le atribuye a la región del Gran C (more) aribe, entendida como un continuo geográfico, histórico y cultural en el que se observan patrones comunes en materia de amenazas a la seguridad, la geopolítica de las relaciones con Estados Unidos y los efectos sociales y económicos derivados del flagelo del narcotráfico. En este sentido, el caso de la isla de San Andrés (Colombia) se examina más como parte de la dinámica insular gran caribeña que como parte de las tendencias propias del negocio en la Colombia continental, lo que permite, sin embargo, establecer las conexiones entre ambos espacios regionales -el insular y el continental- y, a la vez, evaluar el impacto regional del fenómeno a partir de las conexiones ilegales que desde el archipiélago se establecen con algunos países vecinos del Gran Caribe. Finalmente, se sostiene la hipótesis de que el fenómeno del narcotráfico se instala en la isla como resultado de factores geohistóricos, culturales y socioeconómicos que en conjunto han determinado la participación activa de distintos sectores de la sociedad en este negocio ilegal. Abstract in english The objective of thispaper is to present a preliminary diagnosis of the magnitude, dynamics, and modalities of drug trafficking, together with the social and economic conditions that support the development of this illegal activity in the island of San Andres (Colombia). Analysis is conducted within a framework that identifies this trafficking zone as a natural and historic corridor for trade in weapons, drugs, and other illicit materials typically attributed to the Great (more) Caribbean where patterns of security threats, geopolitical relations with the United States, and social and economic impacts of the narcotrafficking epidemic are commonly observed. The article presents San Andres Island (Colombia) as a case that adheres more to the insular dynamics of the Great Caribbean region rather than one that mimics the tendencies of continental Colombia. This perspective permits the establishment of connections between both regional spaces -insular and continental-, and simultaneously evaluates the phenomenon´s regional impact by exploring the illegal connections formed in the archipelago with neighboring Caribbean countries. Finally, the hypothesis is sustained that the trafficking phenomenon on the island is a result of historical, cultural and socio­economic factors that explain the active participation of certain sectors of the island´s society in these illegal activities.

Mantilla, Silvia

2011-06-01

78

Drifter Observations of Small-Scale Flows in the Philippine Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents observations of near-surface current trajectories made with water-following drifters in the Philippine archipelago. The data describe small-scale flows around obstacles and provide some snapshots of regional currents that both add insight into conceptual views of circulation on a variety of scales. The most interesting tracks are those collected in San Bernardino Strait, where the interaction of energetic tidal flows with small islands, seamounts, and headlands give rise to flows with vorticity and strain rate that can exceed 100f on scales < 1 km. The observations show some of the high Rossby number flows that challenge regional circulation models. Much of the data inform subgrid-scale motions that models must presently parameterize.

J. Carter Ohlmann

2011-01-01

79

Bergman polynomials on an Archipelago: Estimates, Zeros and Shape Reconstruction  

CERN Multimedia

Growth estimates of complex orthogonal polynomials with respect to the area measure supported by a disjoint union of planar Jordan domains (called, in short, an archipelago) are obtained by a combination of methods of potential theory and rational approximation theory. The study of the asymptotic behavior of the roots of these polynomials reveals a surprisingly rich geometry, which reflects three characteristics: the relative position of an island in the archipelago, the analytic continuation picture of the Schwarz function of every individual boundary and the singular points of the exterior Green function. By way of explicit example, fine asymptotics are obtained for the lemniscate archipelago $|z^m-1|archipelago, knowing only finitely many of its power moments. This work naturally complem...

Gustafsson, Bjorn; Saff, Ed; Stylianopoulos, Nikos

2008-01-01

80

La guerre des recensions (autour d'une note d'Andr\\'e Weil en 1940)  

CERN Multimedia

We investigate the reviews of a Comptes rendus note by Andr\\'e Weil in 1940 in the three journals Jahrbuch \\"uber die Fortschritte der Mathematik, Zentralblatt f\\"ur Mathematik und ihre Grenzgebiete and Mathematical Reviews, together with the context of the publication of these reviews.

Audin, Michèle

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Tennis star Andre Agassi initiates a photovoltaic school project in Las Vegas; Spiel, Satz, Solar. Tennisstar Andre Agassi setzt fuer sein Schulprojekt in Las Vegas auf Photovoltaik  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tennis star Andre Agassi founded a private school already in 2001. The school is located in a problem area of Las Vegas and is to give challenged children access to better education. The school, named ''Andre Agassi College Preparatory Academy'' has the biggest roof-mounted PV system in the state of Nevada. In the final stage, it will have an installed capacity of 540 kW.

Hirsch, Matthew

2011-03-15

82

Improvement of water injectivity in the Hobbs (Grayburg-San Andres) field. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This field trial was a cooperative project with MORANCO of Hobbs, New Mexico. The purpose was to investigate and improve water injectivity into the Grayburg formation at their Rice-Hardin waterflood in Lea County. Our laboratory tests with resrevoir cores indicated that certain chemical treatments had the ability to increase injectivity by slightly more than 20%. These treatments were designed to reduce the oil saturation in a region about 8 to 10 feet out from the injection wellbore. Two of the most promising treatments were selected for the field trial. Rice No. 1 injection well was treated with a surfactant solution, and Hardin No. 3 was treated with an aromatic solvent followed by a surfactant solution. Costs of chemicals were approximately $3000 per well. As a result of these treatments, both wells are taking slightly more water at pressures that are 400 psi less than the before-treatment levels. Since the actual improvement in injectivity is on the order of 30 to 40%, the field treatments apparently worked somewhat better than indicated by the laboratory tests. Based on the encouraging results obtained from the trial, we feel that these concepts can be applied to other waterflood projects and may also have potential in certain enhanced recovery projects where low injectivity is a problem.

Martin, F.D.; Taber, J.J.

1982-11-01

83

A conservation strategy in San Andres Island: school projects and values in environmental education  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the scope of showing and preserving an island endangered species, the Swanka turtle, a campaign and an environmental education program were conducted. The campaign consisted in showing the species to the community, its characteristics and its threats, through mass media and visits to different local schools. The environmental education program was carried out through a Scholar Environmental Project, which consisted on the conformation of an environmental group, where cognitive, attitudinal and participative aspects were worked together. Using a constrictive methodology the children developed some knowledge about the species and Its habitats. The scope was that they modified attitudes and behaviors towards situations that contribute to environmental damage; the reinforcement of values was the central point during all the activities. The knowledge gained by the pupils and the observed changes on their attitudes and participation show the positive results that arise when the action of environmental education focuses on the people and not the resources that are to be preserved

2006-01-01

84

The influence of the geological setting on the morphogenetic evolution of the Tremiti Archipelago (Apulia, Southeastern Italy)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Tremiti Archipelago (Southern Adriatic Sea), also called Insulae Diomedae from the name of the Greek hero who first landed there, is an area of high landscape and historical value. It is severely affected by significant geomorphologic processes dominated by mass movements along the coast that constitute the most important and unpredictable natural hazard for the population and cultural heritage. Coastal erosion is favoured by the peculiar geological and structural setting, seismic activity, weathering, development of karst processes, and wave action. The present paper reports on descriptive and qualitative evaluation of the factors controlling landslides and coastline changes based on medium-term in situ observation, detailed surface surveys at selected locations since 1995, and historic and bibliographic data. The Tremiti Archipelago is part of an active seismic area characterised by a shear zone separating two segments of the Adriatic microplate that have shown different behaviour and roll back rates in the subduction underneath the Apennines since middle Pleistocene. Although coastal morphology can be basically considered to be the result of wave action, the continual action of subaerial processes contributes effectively to the mechanism of shoreline degradation. Weathering mainly affects the marly calcisiltites and calcilutites of the Cretaccio Fm. and the friable and low cemented calcarenites and biomicrites of the San Nicola Fm. The cliffs are characterised by different types of failure such as lateral spreads, secondary topples, rock falls and slides. At the Isle of San Nicola, landslides are controlled by the contrast in competence, shear strength and stiffness between the Pliocene re-crystallised dolomitic calcarenites and calcisiltites and the Miocene marly calcilutites and calcisiltites. At the Isles of San Domino and Caprara rock falls are attributed to the undercutting of waves at the base of the cliffs.

G. F. Andriani; N. Walsh; R. Pagliarulo

2005-01-01

85

On the Andre-Oort conjecture for Hilbert modular surfaces  

CERN Multimedia

We prove, assuming the generalized Riemann hypothesis, the Andre-Oort conjecture for Hilbert modular surfaces. More precisely, let K be a real quadratic field and let S be the coarse moduli space of complex abelian surfaces with multiplications by the ring of integers of K. Let C be an irreducible closed curve in S, and suppose that C contains infinitely many complex multiplication points. Then we prove, assuming GRH, that C is of Hodge type, meaning, in this case, that it parametrizes abelian varieties with more endomorphisms. Also, if we assume that C has infinitely many CM points that correspond to abelian surfaces that lie in one isogeny class, we prove that C is of Hodge type without assuming GRH. This last result is motivated by applications by Wolfart, Cohen and Wustholz.

Edixhoven, B

1999-01-01

86

A Transnational World Fractured but Not Forgotten: British West Indian Migration to the Colombian Islands of San Andrés and Providence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article examines British West Indian migration to the Colombian archipelago of San Andrés and Providence in the late nineteenth to early twentieth century. While the United Fruit plantations, Panama Canal, oil fields in Venezuela, and railroad projects in Central America generated a strong demand for a large West Indian workforce, no such development took place on San Andrés and Providence. As a result, the profile of West Indian migration looks different than to the Spanish-speaking circum-Caribbean, with more professionals and merchants and fewer unskilled laborers. In the absence of mass migration, there was less hostility toward West Indian newcomers to San Andrés and Providence islands.

Sharika Crawford

2011-01-01

87

Pahede koht on ajaloo prügikastis! Kas ikka on? / Andres Maimik, Maris Jesse ; intervjueerinud Sigrid Kõiv  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Proua Evelin Ilves tegi ettepaneku, et arstid võiksid inimesi innustada isikliku eeskujuga ja viia ennast tervislikku vormi. Filmimees Andres Maimik ja terviseedendaja Maris Jesse arutavad, kas on võimalik pahelisi eluviise välja juurida

Maimik, Andres, 1970-

2009-01-01

88

Rooside sõda Leigo all! Valu vaenlastele! / Tõnu Lensment, Andres Keil ; interv. Merit Kask  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

2. aug. esietendub Leigo Järveteatris Andres Keili "Rooside sõda". Näidendile on ainest andnud William Shakespeare'i näidendid "Henry VI" ja "Richard III" ning Tom Lanoye ja Luc Percevali näidend "Sõda". Lavastab Tõnu Lensment

Lensment, Tõnu, 1974-

2007-01-01

89

Andres Herkel : Venemaa esindaja ENPA presidendiks ei sobi / Haldi Ellam, Ravil Khair Al-Din  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Vene ajalehe Kommersant väitel on Eesti parlamendi süüdistused ENPA presidendi Rene van der Lindeni vastu seotud Mihhail Margelovi võimaliku valimisega uueks presidendiks. Kristiina Ojuland ja Andres Herkel lükkavad väite tagasi

Ellam, Haldi

2007-01-01

90

Andres Liinat IT-asjades 2.0-mees / Indrek Kald  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Ekspankurist veebireisibüroo Bookinghouse omanik Andres Liinati kokkupuudetest arvutiga erinevatel töökohtadel. Vt. samas: 13 000 fotot vaid mõne aastaga; Kaido Saarma: internet annab uskumatuid tulemusi; Liinat: lennupiletite müügis kasutusel igivana tehnika

Kald, Indrek, 1974-

2007-01-01

91

mtDNA microevolution in Southern Chile's archipelagos.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The genetic variability of four predominantly Indian populations of southern Chile's archipelagos was examined by determining the frequencies of four mitochondrial DNA haplogroups that characterize the American Indian populations. Over 90% of the individuals analyzed presented Native American mtDNA haplogroups. By means of an unweighted group pair method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram, a principal component analysis (PCA) derived from a distance matrix of mtDNA, and the exact test of population differentiation, we are able to prove the existence of a North-South cline. The populations in the northern part of the archipelagos are genetically similar to the Huilliche tribe, while the groups from the South are most closely related to the Fueguino tribe from the extreme South of Chile, and secondarily to the Pehuenche and Mapuche, who are found to the North and East of Chiloé archipelago. These results are consistent with a colonization of the southern archipelagos from Tierra del Fuego. We evaluate the evolutionary relationships of the population of the Chiloé area to groups from other geographic areas of Chile, using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Three Amerindian clusters are identified: one formed by the Aymará and Atacameño, a second by the Huilliche, and a third including the Mapuche, Pehuenche, and Fueguino tribes, and the population inhabiting the South of the Chiloé arcipelago. These groups exhibit a North-South gradient in the frequency of haplogroup B, confirmed by F(ST) tests.

García F; Moraga M; Vera S; Henríquez H; Llop E; Aspillaga E; Rothhammer F

2006-03-01

92

Proceedings of the 3. Summer School Jorge Andre Swieca in Nuclear Physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This book contents the lectures and seminars presented during the Jorge Andre Swieca III Summer School-Nuclear Physics 1987 which happened in February 1987 in Itaipava - Rio de Janeiro - Brazil. (A.C.A.S.)[pt] Este livro contem os seminarios e palestras apresentados durante a III Escola de Verao em Fisica Nuclear - Jorge Andre Swieca que realizou-se em fevereiro de 1987 em Itaipava - Rio de Janeiro - Brazil. (A.C.A.S.)

1987-01-01

93

Postsotsialismist vaatemängulinna = From Post-Socialism to the City of the Spectacle / Andres Kurg  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Büroo Alver Trummal Arhitektid töödest, Andres Alverist ja Tiit Trummalist. Ärihoonest Tallinnas Rävala pst. 4. Autorid: Andres Alver, Tiit Trummal, Tarmo Laht, Indrek Rünkla, Ulla Mets, Sven Koppel. Konstruktor Eido Uustalu (Eesti Projekt). Projekt 2001, valmis 2006. City Plazast Tallinnas Tartu mnt. 2. Autorid: A. Alver, T. Trummal, T. Laht, I. Rünkla, Martin Melioranski, U. Mets. Konstruktor: Tiit Masso, Pike Projekt. Sisekujundus (fuajeed, restoran): Pille Lausmäe. Projekt 2001, valmis 2004. Lõige, põhiplaan, 3 värv. välis- ja 5 sisevaadet

Kurg, Andres, 1975-

2007-01-01

94

Alkohol, andre rusmidler og vold i epidemiologisk perspektiv  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGDen medisinske interessen for vold og voldsskader har økt kraftig i løpet av de siste to tiårene. Det epidemiologiskeperspektivet på vold har blitt forsterket og et mer etiologisk og preventivt syn på volden er mere merkbarinnenfor sosialmedisinsk forskning. Alkoholen er en etiologisk faktor som har vist seg å være forbundet med voldi de aller fleste samfunn. I denne artikkelen beskrives de viktigste epidemiologiske metodene og funnene i studietav alkoholens sammenheng med vold. Denne sammenhengen har vist seg ikke å være direkte, men er avhengig aven rekke andre faktorer, og noen forskjellige typer av kausal avhengighet beskrives i artikkelen. Den epidemiologiskeforskningen om andre rusmidlers sammenheng med vold er betydelig mindre omfattende enn den er foralkohol. Det er også åpenbart at andre rusmidler ikke er like sterkt sammenknyttet med vold som alkoholen.Pernanen K. Alcohol, other drugs, and violence in an epidemiological perspective.Nor J Epidemiol ENGLISH SUMMARYThe public health approach to violence has become increasingly accepted during the last couple of decades. Thishas led to more epidemiological research into violence, and a stronger medical interest in the etiology and preventionof violence. However, epidemiological research on the prevalence of violence in different societies is stillmainly criminological in nature, being based on information about violence that has come to the attention of thepolice or processed in the courts. The study of the relationship between alcohol use and violent behaviour is alsopredominantly based on police and court materials, although an increasing number of emergency room andhospitalization studies have examined the role of alcohol in injuries caused by violence.There are two basic methodological approaches in the study of the relationship between alcohol use andviolence. The alcohol-involvement studies estimate the extent to which drinking by the offender or the victim waspresent in episodes of violence. Time trend studies and so-called natural experiments measure how rates of violentcrime covary with levels of alcohol consumption in a population. Generally, these studies indicate that alcohol useis a potent factor in determining the prevalence of violent behaviour in a society. However, there is no evidenceshowing that a significant part of alcohol-related violence is directly caused by the presence of alcohol in theorganism. Four types of conditional factors affecting the risk of violent behaviour after drinking are discussed: (1)the nature of the alcohol factor, (2) characteristics of the individual drinker, (3) the socio-cultural context in whichdrinking occurs, and (4) situational factors.The epidemiological evidence for a relationship between violence and the use of other drugs is much morescattered. It is complicated by the fact that most drug users use more than one type of drug. When an illegalpsychoactive drug is implicated in violent behaviour, it is often also accompanied by alcohol use. Clinical andexperimental evidence shows that the risk of aggression and physical violence depends, in addition to the type ofdrug, on the amounts used, the method of application, the phase of acute intoxication, and the long-term pattern ofuse. However, the violence associated with the use of illegal drugs is perhaps most closely determined by thecharacteristics of an illegal economy. Rival criminal organizations manufacture, distribute and sell these drugs,and they use violence and threats as a means of regulating this economy. In addition, many drug users resort toviolent crime in an effort to secure the funds needed for their addiction.1996; 6 (1): 29-36.

Kai Pernanen

2009-01-01

95

Mangrove forest composition and structure in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem that provides many services, but in Panama, as in other countries, they are under threat due to a variety of human activities. Nowadays, large areas of mangroves continue to be lost without been described and lack of management strategies. This study focused on the mangrove structure in the two largest islands, Isla del Rey and Isla San Jose, of Las Perlas Archipelago (LPA), Pacific Panama. Assessment of Landsat satellite imagery revealed loss of mangroves in the LPA of 965ha in the period 1974-1986, and 248ha in the period 1986-2000. The majority of the loss (>77%) from the two study islands was due to timber extraction and agricultural development. In May 2006, permanent plots following the CARICOMP protocol were established at two sites on Isla del Rey (R1 and R2) and one site on Isla San Jose (SJ) where standardized metrics such as species, height and diameter at breast height of adult trees and seedlings were recorded. Forest structure differed at the three sites, although R1 and R2 were most similar. At R1, Laguncularia racemosa was the important species and R2 was dominated by Pelliciera rhizophorae. Examination of the forest structure and classified imagery indicated that these sites are spatially dynamic and appear to be rejuvenating. The forest structure would indicate that the sites have been growth-limited previously by human activities and possibly by other factors. SJ was dominated by Rhizophora mangle and appears to have a mature forest with large adult trees and few seedlings. It does not appear to have shown the same extent of spatial regrowth as the other two sites between 1986 and 2000 and is relatively static. The establishment of permanent plots and monitoring will be useful as part of the management plan, as the LPA shows a variety of mangrove structures and could be subject to further coastal development.

McGowan T; Cunningham SL; Guzmán HM; Mair JM; Guevara JM; Betts T

2010-09-01

96

Tidally Driven Exchange in an Archipelago Strait: Biological and Optical Responses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Measurements in San Bernardino Strait, one of two major connections between the Pacific Ocean and the interior waters of the Philippine Archipelago, captured 2–3 m s-1 tidal currents that drove vertical mixing and net landward transport. A TRIAXUS towed profiling vehicle equipped with physical and optical sensors was used to repeatedly map subregions within the strait, employing survey patterns designed to resolve tidal variability of physical and optical properties. Strong flow over the sill between Luzon and Capul islands resulted in upward transport and mixing of deeper high-salinity, low-oxygen, high-particle-and-nutrient-concentration water into the upper water column, landward of the sill. During the high-velocity ebb flow, topography influences the vertical distribution of water, but without the diapycnal mixing observed during flood tide. The surveys captured a net landward flux of water through the narrowest part of the strait. The tidally varying velocities contribute to strong vertical transport and diapycnal mixing of the deeper water into the upper layer, contributing to the observed higher phytoplankton biomass within the interior of the strait.

Burt H. Jones; Craig M. Lee; Gerardo Toro-Farmer; Emmanuel S. Boss; Michael C. Gregg; Cesar Villanoy

2011-01-01

97

Pelagic microplastics around an archipelago of the Equatorial Atlantic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plastic marine debris is presently widely recognised as an important environmental pollutant. Such debris is reported in every habitat of the oceans, from urban tourist beaches to remote islands and from the ocean surface to submarine canyons, and is found buried and deposited on sandy and cobble beaches. Plastic marine debris varies from micrometres to several metres in length and is potentially ingested by animals of every level of the marine food web. Here, we show that synthetic polymers are present in subsurface plankton samples around Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. To explain the distribution of microplastics around the Archipelago, we proposed a generalised linear model (GLM) that suggests the existence of an outward gradient of mean plastic-particle densities. Plastic items can be autochthonous or transported over large oceanic distances. One probable source is the small but persistent fishing fleet using the area. PMID:23953893

Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Costa, Monica F; Barletta, Mário; Cysneiros, Francisco José A

2013-08-15

98

Pelagic microplastics around an archipelago of the Equatorial Atlantic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plastic marine debris is presently widely recognised as an important environmental pollutant. Such debris is reported in every habitat of the oceans, from urban tourist beaches to remote islands and from the ocean surface to submarine canyons, and is found buried and deposited on sandy and cobble beaches. Plastic marine debris varies from micrometres to several metres in length and is potentially ingested by animals of every level of the marine food web. Here, we show that synthetic polymers are present in subsurface plankton samples around Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. To explain the distribution of microplastics around the Archipelago, we proposed a generalised linear model (GLM) that suggests the existence of an outward gradient of mean plastic-particle densities. Plastic items can be autochthonous or transported over large oceanic distances. One probable source is the small but persistent fishing fleet using the area.

Ivar do Sul JA; Costa MF; Barletta M; Cysneiros FJ

2013-08-01

99

Samspillet mellem matematik og de andre fag i gymnasieskolen : Matematikfaget og reformen af de ungdomsgymnasiale uddannelser  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Som en konsekvens af 2005?reformen af de ungdomsgymnasiale uddannelser skal eleverne vælge mellem de såkaldte studieretningsforløb der giver mulighed for at arbejde i en sammenhængende periode på 2 1/2 år med retningens fag. Reformens krav om øget samspil mellem fagene lægger op til omfattende ændringer af de gymnasiale uddannelsers matematikundervisning. Erfaringerne med en bevidst inddragelse af matematiske kompetencer i andre fag er begrænsede. Det skyldes bl.a. at der mangler såvel en konceptuel ramme som en didaktisk model for samspillet mellem matematik og andre fag samt konkrete og veldokumenterede eksempler på undervisningsforløb med et for både lærere og elever udbytterigt samspil. I artiklen præsenteres en række positioner vedrørende matematikundervisningen som vi lader spille sammen med en analyse af relevant forskning inden for matematikkens didaktik der mere eller mindre eksplicit inddrager matematikfagets relationer til andre fag. På baggrund heraf udvikles et koncept for matematiks samspil med andre fag bestående af tværfaglige kompetencer som den konceptuelle ramme og en didaktisk model hvor samspillet opfattes som en iterativ bevægelse mellem (1) horisontal sammenkædning af fagene og (2) vertikal strukturering i fagene. Der gives to eksempler hvor fagoverskridende kompetencer og den didaktiske model er anvendt som et redskab til at udvikle undervisningsforløb hvor matematik indgår i et tæt samspil med andre fag: (1) matematik og naturfagene og (2) matematik og filosofi.

Iversen, Steffen MØllegaard; Michelsen, Claus

2009-01-01

100

Kjøring med mistanke om påvirkning av andre rusmidler enn alkohol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGStatens rettstoksikologiske institutt har i løpet av de siste år registrert en stor økning av prøver fra bilføreremistenkt for kjøring under påvirkning av andre rusmidler enn alkohol. Antall positive saker økte 42% fra1994 til 1995. De hyppigste påviste stoffer er tetrahydrocannabinol, amfetamin, benzodiazepiner og opiater(morfin/kodein). Bruk av tyngre narkotiske stoffer har blitt mer vanlig i trafikksammenheng og antall positivetilfeller har økt betydelig mer enn totalt antall saker. Fra 1994 til 1995 økte antall positive amfetaminprøvermed 75% (fra 533 til 937) og antall positive prøver som følge av heroininntak økte med 87% (fra 92 til 172).Bruk av flere stoffer samtidig er vanlig, over 60 % av sakene i 1995 var positive på mer enn ett stoff, alkoholikke medregnet. De fleste tilfeller var representert av menn i alderen 25-32 år (37%). Kvinner var representerti ca. 11% av sakene.Christophersen AS, Skurtveit S, Mørland J. Drivers suspected to drive under the influence of drugs otherthan alcohol. Nor J Epidemiol 1996; 6 (1): 45-48.ENGLISH SUMMARYThe National Institute of Forensic Toxicology has registered a large increase in the number of samples fromdrivers suspected to drive under influence of drugs other than alcohol. The number of drug positive casesincreased 42% from 1994 to 1995. The most frequent drugs detected are tetrahydrocannabinol, amphetamine,benzodiazepines and opiates (morphine/codeine). The frequency of hard narcotic drug use has increased morethan the total number of cases. From 1994 to 1995, the number of amphetamine positive samples increased75% (from 533 to 937) and the number of samples positive due to heroin use (detection of the metabolite 6-monoacetylmorphine in urine) increased 87%. Multi-drug use is common and more than one drug wasdetected in more than 60% of the cases from 1995, alcohol not included. Most of the cases were representedby men 25-32 years old (37%). Women were represented in about 11% of the cases.

Asbjørg S. Christophersen; Svetlana Skur

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Commensal Leucothoidae (Crustacea, Amphipoda) of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Part II: sponge-dwellers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Commensal leucothoid amphipods have been collected from the canals of their sponge hosts throughout the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Eleven new species are described in the genus Leucothoe with valuable location data and host records. An identification key to sponge-dwelling Leucothoidae of the Ryukyu Archipelago is provided.

Kristine White; James Reimer

2012-01-01

102

Commensal Leucothoidae (Crustacea, Amphipoda) of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Part I: ascidian-dwellers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Commensal leucothoid amphipods have been collected from the branchial chambers of their ascidian hosts throughout the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Seven new species are described in two genera with valuable location data and host records. An identification key to ascidian-dwelling Leucothoidae of the Ryukyu Archipelago is provided.

Kristine White; James Reimer

2012-01-01

103

Commensal Leucothoidae (Crustacea, Amphipoda) of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Part III: coral rubble-dwellers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Commensal leucothoid amphipods have been collected from coral rubble samples throughout the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Seven new species are described in two genera with valuable location data. A new locality is presented for Paranamixis misakiensis Thomas, 1997. An identification key to all described Leucothoidae of the Ryukyu Archipelago is provided.

Kristine White; James Reimer

2012-01-01

104

Commensal Leucothoidae (Crustacea, Amphipoda) of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Part I: ascidian-dwellers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Commensal leucothoid amphipods have been collected from the branchial chambers of their ascidian hosts throughout the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Seven new species are described in two genera with valuable location data and host records. An identification key to ascidian-dwelling Leucothoidae of the Ryukyu Archipelago is provided.

White KN; Reimer JD

2012-01-01

105

Commensal Leucothoidae (Crustacea, Amphipoda) of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Part III: coral rubble-dwellers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Commensal leucothoid amphipods have been collected from coral rubble samples throughout the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Seven new species are described in two generawith valuable location data. A new locality is presented for Paranamixis misakiensis Thomas, 1997. An identification key to all described Leucothoidae of the Ryukyu Archipelago is provided.

White KN; Reimer JD

2012-01-01

106

Commensal Leucothoidae (Crustacea, Amphipoda) of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Part II: sponge-dwellers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Commensal leucothoid amphipods have been collected from the canals of their sponge hosts throughout the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Eleven new species are described in the genus Leucothoe with valuable location data and host records. An identification key to sponge-dwelling Leucothoidae of the Ryukyu Archipelago is provided.

White KN; Reimer JD

2012-01-01

107

Ossinovski: Alexelast võib EOS-i ostuga saada Eesti suurim naftatransiidifirma / Oleg Ossinovski ; interv. Andres Reimer  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Kütusefirma Alexela kavatseb osta Severstaltransile kuuluva naftaterminali EOS. Alexela osanik vastab küsimustele, miks Severstaltrans tahab terminali müüa, miks tema arvates õnnestub Alexelal äri paremini kui Severstaltransil, mis kavatsused on raudteetranspordifirmaga Spacecom, kuidas elab kriisi üle Eesti Raudtee. Kommenteerivad Urmas Glase ja Andres Reimer

Ossinovski, Oleg, 1966-

2007-01-01

108

Hotell 'Bernhard' Otepääl. Otepää aedlinn, Kolga tee 22a / Andres Lunge  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Otepää aedlinnas asuva U. Tiirmaa poolt kuuekümnendatel projekteeritud Tartu Katseremonditehase puhkebaasi rekonstrueerimine. Kavandati uus peasissepääs, täiendav tubadekorrus, restoran, vastuvõtufuajee jm. ning juurdeehitusena osaliselt maaalune lisakorpus konverentsisaali jm. ruumidega. Tellija: AS Regel. Projekteerija: Tareke Projekt OÜ. Arhitekt Andres Lunge. Sisekujundaja Taisi Kadarik. Ehitus: AS Regel, 1996-1998. Projekt 1995, 1998, valmis 1998

Lunge, Andres

1998-01-01

109

Maramaa elust poksi ja graffitini / Andres Lepik, Ott Aardam ; interv. Gert Kiiler  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Ugala teater alustas 89. hooaega. Esimese poole plaanitud esietendused : Toomas Suumani "Linnapea" Heiki Raudla raamatu "August Maramaa aeg" järgi, lavastaja Andres Lepik. Ott Aardami noortetükist "Poks", lavastaja autor. Gerald Sibleyras' "Grafiti", lavastaja Taago Tubin. Silvia Soro jõulunäidend "Inetu pardipoja" ainetel, lavastaja Oleg Titov

Lepik, Andres

2008-01-01

110

Mapping Human Genetic Diversity on the Japanese Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Japanese people are one of the most important populations for studying the origin and diversification of East Asian populations. As an island population, the Japanese's path of migration is a long-standing controversy. Archeological evidence suggests that there were at least two waves of migration to the Japanese archipelago in prehistory: the Paleolithic and Neolithic Jomonese as well as the Aeneolithic Yayoiese. However, the contributions of these Jomonese and Yayoiese to the contemporary Japanese population remain unclear. In this article, we provide evidence from human genetics as a new approach to addressing this topic. At the beginning, we introduce the history of human migration to the Japanese archipelago, as well as materials and methods human geneticists use. Subsequently, we tested three distinct population expansion models using evidences from recent human genetic studies on the Japanese, East Asian, and Serbian populations. Finally, we conclude that the contemporary main island Japanese are the result of population admixture of Jomonese, Yayoiese, and Han Chinese, which consists with the Admixture model.

Qi-Liang Ding; Chuan-Chao Wang; Sara E. Farina; Hui Li

2011-01-01

111

The Idea of the Archipelago: Contemplating Island Relations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Creative, innovative, and timely research on islands and island futures is warranted and pressing, not least because island(er)s are poorly served by established tropes of them as subordinate to continents or mainlands. Opportunities exist to provide a more thoroughgoing account of island life and island relations, and the seven papers in this special issue address that task. In works that consider islands in the Timor Sea, the Caribbean, the Pacific, Atlantic and Southern Oceans, and that span several different disciplinary frames—archival-historical, critical theoretical, literary, cultural, geopolitical, sociological and artistic—these papers evidence both the diversity of approach to thinking with the archipelago, and numerous points in common. Among the latter is an understanding that island relations are built on connection, assemblage, mobility, and multiplicity, and a commitment to critically examine the ways in which these entanglements affect and give effect to island life. The models of island relationality brought to light by this collective focus on the archipelago reveal new and diverse connections of island peoples with their physical and cultural environments, and with the world beyond; create spaces for growing resilience, association and engagement; and invite further study.

Elaine Stratford

2013-01-01

112

Volcanic activity within the Vestmannaeyjar archipelago, south of Iceland  

Science.gov (United States)

Bathymetric research with multibeam techniques and chirp profiles reveal the volcanic topography of the Vestmannaeyjar archipelago just off the south coast of Iceland. Within the archipelago two historic eruptions have occurred, Surtsey 1963-1967 and the one of Heimaey in 1973. Five other eruptive vents have been identified as Holocene, Storhöfdi ~8000 BP, Sæfell ~6220 BP, Helgafell ~5900 BP and the islands Bjarnarey and Ellirey ~4500 BP. High precision multibeam data reveal several other eruptive vents and their geometry in the area. From the geometry it can be concluded that prehistoric volcanic activity in the area is dominated by phreatomagmatic activity. Tuff cones up to 2 km in diameter are observed in the area of Heimaey. Eustatic sea level changes can be inferred from these volcanic formations (Rofubodi vent) , indicating that a rise of up to 80 m has occurred since late Pleistocene times (~12000 years BP). Further our data show that sea level rise occurred in steps, as is manifested by the Alsey reef, now submerged and extending north of that island. The data also allow us to identify four major submarine lava flows in the area. One from the Eldfell eruption in 1973, one from the Helgafell eruption 5900 BP, one from the Storhofdi eruption ~8000BP and finally a lava flow that is extending from Faxasker towards the north west. The Vestmannaeyjar archipelago is forming a ridge extending NE to SW. The ridge is about 5 km wide and 30 km long. The ridge rises from a depth of some 72 m in the west but falls off to about 130 m in the east. The eastern border is more prominent than the western one. The Vestmannaeyjar ridge ends abruptly in the north, just prior to reaching the main outwash delta from the main island Iceland. A narrow trough has been formed in the area, Allinn, as the outwash delta propagates towards the ridge. Our data also allow for interpretation on relative timing of the volcanic formations. It has been shown that the LGM ice sheet extended to the south, east of Heimaey (~18000 to 20000 BP). Within its trough carved in the ocean floor are several volcanic vents, like Rofubodi tuffcone, Storahraun tuffcone cluster and Hæringsklakkur cone. None of these formations bear evidence of glacial erosion and thus must have been formed after the LGM ice sheet retreated from the area.

Hoskuldsson, A.; Kjartansson, E.; Hey, R.; Driscoll, N.

2006-12-01

113

Esimene Eesti maja Hiinas = The first Estonian house in China / Andres Põime, Lauri Vaimel ; interv. Triin Ojari  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Vestlus Pekingi Eesti saatkonna arhitektuurikonkursi võidutöö autoritega. Tulemused: I preemia - Andres Põime, Lauri Vaimel, II - Erik Nobel, Christian Jensen, Kristen Herup Sovang, Soren Andersson, Pille Kivihall, Dan Ljungar, Hans Willadsen (Taani), III - Kalle Vellevoog, Velle Kadalipp, Tiiu Truus, Martin Prommik

Põime, Andres

2008-01-01

114

A Model for the crust across the San Andres fault system in Mexico-USA border region; Un modelo de la estructura de la corteza para el sistema de fallas de San Andres en la zona fronteriza Mexico- EEUU  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report the recording and interpretation of an unreversed seismic profile between Blythe, Arizona and Ensenada, Baja California, using an explosive source in a drilled hole near Blythe (from project Delta Force). The data consist of digital seismograms from 14 three-component stations in a line between Mexicali and Ensenada (every 10 km) and 15 stations from the Southern California Network. The profile goes through three distinct regions: a) the Chocolate Mountains in Southern California; b) the Salton Trough in both Californias, and c) the Peninsular Ranges in Baja California, and is almost perpendicular to the general trend of the Salton Trough central axis. Vertical component seismograms at distances of 40-260 km are interpreted. The record section shows several secondary phases which are correlated and interpreted in a forward modelling scheme for time arrivals and relative amplitudes. No significant S-wave arrivals are identified. A preliminary interpretation produces a crustal depth of 22 km beneath the Chocolate Mountains and a crustal structure of P-wave velocities comprised by layers of 5.3, 5.5 and 6.2. km/s, with thicknesses of 4, 8 and 10 km, respectively. Results for the crustal structure of the Mexicali-Imperial Valley are consistent with the extensive refraction measurements made in the past; in addition, the presence of an upper mantle intrusion beneath the Valley is well resolved. Data are insufficient for determining crustal thickness in the Peninsular Ranges region. [Espanol] Se presentan los datos y la interpretacion de un perfil sismico de refraccion entre Blythe, Arizona y Ensenada, Baja California. Se utilizo como fuente una explosion subterranea realizada en un pozo cerca de Blythe como parte del proyecto Delta Force. Para obtener los datos se instalaron entre Mexicali y Ensenada 14 estaciones digitales portatiles con sismometros de tres componentes, cada 10 km, esta informacion se complemento con datos de 15 estaciones de la Red del Sur de California. El perfil atraviesa tres distintas regiones: a) Las Montanas Chocolate en el Sur de California; b) La Cuenca Salton en ambas Californias, y c) Las Sierras en Baja California, y es casi perpendicular al eje central de la Cuenca Salton. Se interpretan los sismogramas de la componente vertical para un intervalo de distancias de 40 a 260 km. Los ensamblajes muestran varias fases secundarias que fueron correlacionadas e interpretadas, se modelaron sus tiempos de recorrido y amplitudes relativas por medio de trazado de rayos asintoticos. No se identificaron llegadas claras de ondas S. Nuestra interpretacion preliminar muestra una corteza de 22 km de profundidad bajo las Montanas Chocolate con una estructura de velocidades para onda P definida por tres capas de 5.3, 5.5 y 6.2. km/s, con grosores de 4, 8 y 10 km respectivamente. Los resultados para la estructura de la corteza en el Valle Mexicali-Imperial son consistentes con los amplios estudios previamente realizados en la zona; sin embargo, se detecto la presencia de una intrusion del manto superior bajo el Valle a una profundidad de 17 km y que el Valle Mexicali-Imperial actua como una zona de generacion de ondas multiples de gran amplitud. Los datos son insuficientes para determinar con precision la estructura cortical en la region de las Sierras Peninsulares.

Nunez-Cornu, F. [Centro Universitario de la Costa, Campus Puerto Vallarta y Departamento de Geografia de la Universidad de Guadalajara, Puerto Vallarta (Mexico); Montana, C. [DGS University of Texas at el Paso, El Paso TX (United States); Frez, J.; Munguia, L.; Nava, A.; Gonzalez, J.; Mendoza, L.; Aragon, M.; Sanchez-Mora, C.; Morandi, M.; Madrid, J. [Grupo de Perfiles Sismicos del CICESE, Ensenada (Mexico)

1996-01-01

115

Reading the Planetary Archipelago of the Torres Strait  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay makes use of the Western concept of the archipelago as a starting point for an examination of island to island relations in the Torres Strait, Australia, as they are rehearsed in the imaginary domain of story, in both its written and oral modes. The essay deploys Spivak’s notions of planetarity and Bloch’s concept of utopianism as ways of charting the relationship between two Torres Strait stories, one old, one new. In so doing, the essay seeks to identify the capacity of Torres Strait literature and storytelling to re-conceive relations of space and time and to acknowledge a spatial and temporal mobility running parallel to the circumscribed trajectories of late modernity.

Elizabeth McMahon

2013-01-01

116

Quaternary eustatic sedimentary accretion of southern Bahamas Archipelago  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Surficial geologic mapping indicates that the southern half of the Bahamas Archipelago is forming by the accretion of discrete depositional sequences resulting from successive eustatic sea level changes: (1) multiple beach and dune ridges, (2) estuarine, (3) lacustrine, (4) shallow subtidal, (5) reef and reef rubble, and (6) megadune complexes. The lithologies are accreted along unconformable erosional-solutional contacts - marine terraces and subaerial caliche crusts. During periods of significant transgression, sequences 1-5 are accreted. Sediments are predominantly skeletal and peloid. During periods of significant regression, megadune complexes are accreted. Ooids are the dominant sediment. Erosional-solutional features reflect areas of subaerial exposure and/or coastline erosion. Terraces at 10, 20, and 40 ft elevations are preserved along arid eastern Great Inagua Island. The calichification of Bahamian Quaternary carbonates has concentrated insoluble residues (quartz, feldspar, heavy minerals, crandallite, micrometeorites). Insoluble residue analysis provides a basis for the correlation of accreted eustatic sedimentary sequences.

Mitchell, S.W.

1985-02-01

117

A regulatory archipelago controls Hox genes transcription in digits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The evolution of digits was an essential step in the success of tetrapods. Among the key players, Hoxd genes are coordinately regulated in developing digits, where they help organize growth and patterns. We identified the distal regulatory sites associated with these genes by probing the three-dimensional architecture of this regulatory unit in developing limbs. This approach, combined with in vivo deletions of distinct regulatory regions, revealed that the active part of the gene cluster contacts several enhancer-like sequences. These elements are dispersed throughout the nearby gene desert, and each contributes either quantitatively or qualitatively to Hox gene transcription in presumptive digits. We propose that this genetic system, which we call a "regulatory archipelago," provides an inherent flexibility that may partly underlie the diversity in number and morphology of digits across tetrapods, as well as their resilience to drastic variations.

Montavon T; Soshnikova N; Mascrez B; Joye E; Thevenet L; Splinter E; de Laat W; Spitz F; Duboule D

2011-11-01

118

A regulatory archipelago controls Hox genes transcription in digits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution of digits was an essential step in the success of tetrapods. Among the key players, Hoxd genes are coordinately regulated in developing digits, where they help organize growth and patterns. We identified the distal regulatory sites associated with these genes by probing the three-dimensional architecture of this regulatory unit in developing limbs. This approach, combined with in vivo deletions of distinct regulatory regions, revealed that the active part of the gene cluster contacts several enhancer-like sequences. These elements are dispersed throughout the nearby gene desert, and each contributes either quantitatively or qualitatively to Hox gene transcription in presumptive digits. We propose that this genetic system, which we call a "regulatory archipelago," provides an inherent flexibility that may partly underlie the diversity in number and morphology of digits across tetrapods, as well as their resilience to drastic variations. PMID:22118467

Montavon, Thomas; Soshnikova, Natalia; Mascrez, Bénédicte; Joye, Elisabeth; Thevenet, Laurie; Splinter, Erik; de Laat, Wouter; Spitz, François; Duboule, Denis

2011-11-23

119

Coexistence of reef organisms in the Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se hizo el primer estudio de coexistencia de organismos bénticos de arrecifes brasileños en tres localidades del Archipiélago de Abrolhos, registrando la presencia de organismos en círculos de 10 y 20 cm de diametro, distribuidos al azar en transectos. La mayoría de los organismo frecuentes (algas coralinas macizas y ramificadas, Favia gravida y Agaricia agaricites) mostraron la más alta "coexistencia positiva", tal vez por su abundancia. El coral más frecuente (Si (more) derastrea stellata), sin embargo, mostró apenas algunos eventos de coexistencia significativos (9% de 32 ensayos). Debido a que la mayor parte de los eventos fue positiva, y considerando que existe una alta variabilidad en las interacciones significativas en diferentes localidades, las comunidades bénticas del Archipiélago de Abrolhos pueden haber sido estructuradas principalmente por factores abióticos, mas que por factores bióticos. Abstract in english The first study on coexistence of reef benthic organisms in Brazilian coral reefs was done in three localities of the Abrolhos Archipelago. Organisms were recorded in concentric circle samples (10 and 20 cm in diameter) randomly laid on transects. Type and frequency of "coexistence events" between pairs of organisms were determined. Most frequent organisms (massive and branched coralline algae, Favia gravida, and Agaricia agaricites) also had many significant positive coe (more) xistence events. These results might be related to the abundances of these organisms. The most frequent coral (Siderastrea stellata), however, exhibited only a few significant coexistence events (9% of 32 tests). Since the great majority of events were positive, and since there was high variation in the species/groups involved in significant events in different localities, benthic communities of Abrolhos Archipelago may well be structured primarily by abiotic rather than biotic factors.

Lins de Barros, Monica M; Castro, Clovis B; Pires, Débora O; Segal, Bárbara

2000-12-01

120

Coexistence of reef organisms in the Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The first study on coexistence of reef benthic organisms in Brazilian coral reefs was done in three localities of the Abrolhos Archipelago. Organisms were recorded in concentric circle samples (10 and 20 cm in diameter) randomly laid on transects. Type and frequency of "coexistence events" between pairs of organisms were determined. Most frequent organisms (massive and branched coralline algae, Favia gravida, and Agaricia agaricites) also had many significant positive coexistence events. These results might be related to the abundances of these organisms. The most frequent coral (Siderastrea stellata), however, exhibited only a few significant coexistence events (9% of 32 tests). Since the great majority of events were positive, and since there was high variation in the species/groups involved in significant events in different localities, benthic communities of Abrolhos Archipelago may well be structured primarily by abiotic rather than biotic factors.Se hizo el primer estudio de coexistencia de organismos bénticos de arrecifes brasileños en tres localidades del Archipiélago de Abrolhos, registrando la presencia de organismos en círculos de 10 y 20 cm de diametro, distribuidos al azar en transectos. La mayoría de los organismo frecuentes (algas coralinas macizas y ramificadas, Favia gravida y Agaricia agaricites) mostraron la más alta "coexistencia positiva", tal vez por su abundancia. El coral más frecuente (Siderastrea stellata), sin embargo, mostró apenas algunos eventos de coexistencia significativos (9% de 32 ensayos). Debido a que la mayor parte de los eventos fue positiva, y considerando que existe una alta variabilidad en las interacciones significativas en diferentes localidades, las comunidades bénticas del Archipiélago de Abrolhos pueden haber sido estructuradas principalmente por factores abióticos, mas que por factores bióticos.

Monica M Lins de Barros; Clovis B Castro; Débora O Pires; Bárbara Segal

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas, Class II  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the project were to: (1) Thoroughly understand the 60-year history of the field. (2) Develop a reservoir description using geology and 3D seismic. (3) Isolate the upper Grayburg in wells producing from multiple intervals to stop cross flow. (4) Re-align and optimize the upper Grayburg waterflood. (5) Determine well condition, identify re-frac candidates, evaluate the effectiveness of well work and obtain bottom hole pressure data for simulation utilizing pressure transient testing field wide. (6) Quantitatively integrate all the data to guide the field operations, including identification of new well locations utilizing reservoir simulation.

Trentham, Robert C.; Weinbrandt, Richard; Robinson, William C.; Widner, Kevin

2001-05-03

122

An Integrated Study of the Grayberg/San andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The characteristics of seismic- derived porosity maps have been further qualified by geologic and production relationships not previously explained nor their significance recognized. Patterns of seismic- derived porosity in the upper Grayburg compare accurately to geologic well data and to historic oil production in section 36. Areas of economic reservoir seem to be separated hydrodynamically, based on the porosity distribution and related differences of gas- to- oil ratio values. Porosity values east of the current limit of the seismic inversion model (where the current seismic data quality is poor) have been estimated for the Grayburg zones, to be used in the next production model run. Production data for that area are being requested from offset operators. When those data become available, they will be included in a revised engineering model will be made to match the production history and to simulate the effect of waterflood efforts. The mapping of porosity of the upper Grayburg zones from the seismic data was completed during the third quarter of 1997, with further qualification of the results done during the fourth quarter. The cross- plots of well log- determined porosity versus seismic velocity have shown a strong linear relationship useful for calibrating the conversion of velocity to porosity. Maps of porosity for the A, B, and C zones are being tested against geological and engineering data. Complexity of reservoir demonstrated in those maps has exposed the need to include significantly more geologic and production data in the area around section 36 in order to create a proper model for the Grayburg reservoir in section 36.

None

1997-02-27

123

An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A project to recover economic amounts of oil from a very mature oil field is being conducted by Laguna Petroleum Corporation of Midland, Texas, with partial funding from a U. S. Department of Energy grant to study shallow carbonate rock reservoirs. The objectives of the project are to use modern engineering methods to optimize oil field management and to use geological and geophysical data to recover untapped potential within the petroleum reservoirs. The integration of data and techniques from these disciplines has yielded results greater than those achievable without their cooperation. The cost of successfully accomplishing these goals is to be low enough for even small independent operators to afford. This article is a report describing accomplishments for the fiscal year 1997-1998.

Robinson, William C.; Trentham, Robert C.; Widner, Kevin; Wienbrandt, Richard

1999-06-22

124

An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres reservoir, Foster and South Cowden fields, Ector County, Texas, Class II  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A project to recover economic amounts of oil from a very mature oil field is being conducted by Laguna Petroleum Corporation of Midland, Texas, with partial funding from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant to study shallow carbonate rock reservoirs. The objectives of the project are to use modern engineering methods to optimize oil field management and to use geological and geophysical data to recover untapped potential within the petroleum reservoirs. The integration of data and techniques from these disciplines has yielded results greater than those achievable without their cooperation. The cost of successfully accomplishing these goals is to be low enough for even small independent operators to afford. This article is a report describing accomplishments for the fiscal year 1998-1999.

Trentham, DGS, Robert C.; Robinson, M.S., William C.; Wider, Kevin; Weinbrandt, Ph.D.,PE, Richard

2000-04-14

125

The use of LO-CAT in the Sable San Andres CO/sub 2/ miscible flood project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Prior to CO/sub 2/ injection, the produced gas from the Sable Field's 22 oil wells was sold to a local wet gas pipeline. Originally this gas contained 7.0% CO/sub 2/. It was obvious that produced gas would become unmarketable as CO/sub 2/ breakthrough increased. The field operators needed a gas processing facility that would selectively remove H/sub 2/S while being able to tolerate increasingly higher quantities of CO/sub 2/. Plant designers were also challenged by a predicted ten-fold increase in produced gas from 400 MCFD to 4,000 MCFD with CO/sub 2/ breakthrough. An unplanned burden was waiting for the LO-CAT unit at start-up. Due to sampling errors, the sulfur extraction load on the LO-CAT unit was initially 301 lbs/day compared to a design extraction rate of 208 lbs/day. The sulfur extraction load has since risen to about 359 lbs/day. At present, the LO-CAT unit is successfully sweetening the raw gas at 173% of design loading. This required certain changes in the LO-CAT catalyst circulation and air rates and mechanical changes which are described in this paper.

Price, G.S.; Price, B.C.; Hardison, L.C.

1986-01-01

126

The Challenge of Nissology: A Global Outlook on the World Archipelago - Part I: Scene Setting the World Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Islands are the rule and not the exception. One major objective for nissology - defined as the study of islands and islandness - in the 21st century should be to debunk the unfair prejudice that ‘island studies’ continues to suffer at present time. To do so, a systematic treatment of the island phenomenon needs to be undertaken and this should be backed up by substantial theoretical underpinnings. In seeking to turn the dominant continental paradigm on its head, islands not only deserve to be “studied on their own terms”; they also become the deus ex machina of a holistic understanding of the world archipelago and its ongoing globalization. This vision should contribute towards bridging the gap between ‘continentalists’ who tend to consider islands only as epiphenomena of larger land trends, and ‘island studies’ practitioners. This paper (the first of two segments) concentrates on the physical geographical and historical unfolding of the importance of islands.

Christian Depraetere

2008-01-01

127

Udviklingen af TPM (Total Productive Maintenance) - og relationer til andre koncepter  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Koncepterne TPS, TQC og TPM har gennem årtier undergået en løbende udvikling, og for alle tre koncepter gælder, at deres indhold herved gradvist er blevet udvidet - fra at omfatte specifikke problemstillinger i produktionen til at omfatte næsten hele virksomheden. I artiklen skitseres træk af denne udvikling, primært med henblik på belysning af baggrunden for TPM og dermed for forståelse af det indhold, TPM har i dag, samt hvorledes dette koncept kan relateres til de to andre koncepter.

Michelsen, Aage U.

2003-01-01

128

Introduced guppies being the first record of freshwater fish on the Cape Verdean archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Cape Verdean islands form a distinct aquatic freshwater ecoregion characterised by mainly temporal water bodies with an adapted invertebrate community. Freshwater fish were not yet recorded from the archipelago. During a non-exhaustive screen of freshwater bodies on five islands of the archipelago, the first presence of freshwater fish was recorded in an artificial reservoir. Using barcoding sequences, the species was identified to be introduced guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a highly invasive species.

Kay Lucek; Mélissa Lemoine

2013-01-01

129

Forekomst av alkohol og andre rusmidler i blodprøver fra førere involvert i trafikkulykker  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGBilkjøring stiller store krav til førernes sansing, oppmerksomhet, informasjonsbearbeiding og evne til åreagere. Førere som er under innflytelse av sentralnervøst aktive stoffer, vil derfor være en potensiell fare itrafikken. I perioden 1.8–31.12. 1993 identifiserte Statens rettstoksikologiske institutt (SRI) 394 ulykkesføreresom politiet hadde rekvirert analyser av med hensyn på narkotiske stoff/sentralnervøst aktive medikamenter(andre rusmidler) og/eller alkohol. Blodprøver fra disse førerne ble analysert med hensyn på alkohol og etutvidet repertoar av andre rusmidler ved SRI. Da polititjenestemenn og medtrafikanter ofte ikke vil oppdagepåvirkning av andre rusmidler enn alkohol, dels pga. manglende alkohollukt, vil andre rusmidler som ulykkesårsakvære noe underrepresentert i dette materialet sammenliknet med alkohol. Hos 299 av ulykkesførerneble det påvist alkohol og/eller andre rusmidler. 44 førere hadde tatt inn både alkohol og andre rusmidler, mensalkohol og andre rusmidler ble påvist alene i henholdsvis 204 og 51 saker. Totalt ble benzodiazepiner,cannabis, opiater og amfetamin påvist i henholdsvis 54, 30, 17 og 16 saker. Av de 95 som hadde tatt inn andrerusmidler, hadde 34 tatt inn mer enn ett rusmiddel (alkohol ikke medregnet) og i 72 av tilfellene ble analysefunnenevurdert (AB og JM) til sannsynligvis å ha gitt sentralnervøs påvirkning. Risikoøkningen for trafikkulykkeved nylig bruk av cannabisstoffer og diazepam i høydose ble estimert til å kunne tilsvare en blodalkoholkonsentrasjonpå 1-1,5 promille. Alkohol er det rusmiddel som oftest påvises hos ulykkesførere, menforekomsten av benzodiazepiner, cannabis og amfetamin er såvidt høy blant ulykkesførere at disse stoffenemå anses å være et alvorlig trafikksikkerhetsproblem.Bjørneboe A, Beylich K-M, Christophersen AS, Fosser S, Glad A, Mørland J.Prevalence of alcohol and other intoxicants in blood samples from drivers involved in road trafficaccidents.   ENGLISH SUMMARYIllegal and some legal drugs affect the central nervous system and drivers who use such drugs may represent ahazard in the road traffic. The prevalence of such drugs among drivers involved in accidents depends on theincrease of the accident risk due to the drug and on the prevalence of the drugs among drivers on the road. Inthis study we have examined blood samples from 394 drivers involved in road traffic accidents during theperiod August–December 1993, to determine the prevalence of alcohol and drugs among drivers involved inaccidents. Most of the drivers enrolled in the study were suspected by the police of driving under the influenceof alcohol or drugs. The data are, however, probably somewhat biased, because drivers influenced by alcoholor drugs will, if possible, avoid contact with the police. Furthermore, the police's ability to detect driversinfluenced by drugs is limited. Accordingly, the proportion of influenced drivers and especially drivers influencedby drugs could be too low compared with the proportion among all drivers involved in traffic accidents.In about 2/3 of the blood samples examined, alcohol was found either alone or together with other drugs,and in 1/4 of the cases drugs were found either alone or together with alcohol. The most prevalent drugs werebenzodiazepines (13.7%), cannabis (7.5%), opiates (4.3%) and amphetamine (4.1%). In about 3/4 of the drugpositive cases the drug concentration was so high that it was considered likely or very likely that the driverwas influenced by the drug(s). The bias due to the police's inability to detect all drivers influenced by drugs50A. BJØRNEBOE OG MEDARBEIDEREwas estimated. After correction for this bias it was estimated that at least 2.7% of drivers involved in injuryaccidents will have significant concentrations of drugs in the blood and at least 4.4% will have significantblood alcohol concentrations.Based on various sources of drug use in Norway we arrived at rough estimates of increase in risk of beinginvolved in road traffic accidents after different drug in

Anders Bjørneboe m.fl

2009-01-01

130

Early Carboniferous (Visean) lacustrine oil shale in Canadian Arctic archipelago  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Lower Carboniferous (Visean) Emma Fiord Formation in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago is an oil shale of lacustrine origin composed of black carbonaceous shale, siltstone, and marlstone with interbedded sandstone, conglomerate, and oolitic and algal limestones. At Kleybolte Peninsula on Ellesmere Island, the Emma Fiord Formation was deposited on the tectonically active northwestern rim of the Sverdrup basin; it is now thermally overmature and well beyond the dry gas zone of organic maturation (vitrinite reflectance approx. = 5.0). In contrast, the Emma Fiord sequence on Grinnell Peninsula, Devon Island, near the southern edge of the Sverdrup basin, is immature to marginally mature (vitrinite reflectance = 0.26-0.44) and is composed predominantly of liptinite-rich oil shale. These kerogen-rich rocks contain a high volume of microcrystalline calcite and compositionally are marlstones. The Emma Fiord oil shales were deposited in lakes formed immediately prior to or possibly synchronous with the initiation of rifting in the Sverdrup basin. Syntectonic red-bed conglomerates derived from uplifted horst blocks directly overlie the Emma Fiord rocks. A few beds of conglomerate and sandstone in the upper part of the Emma Fiord Formation possibly record the onset of faulting. The formation closely resembles contemporaneous sequences in northern Alaska, Yukon Territory, Greenland, and Spitsbergen. Clearly, similar tectonic and paleoclimatic factors influenced sedimentation over this area in the Early Carboniferous, with the Sverdrup basin locations lying within 10/sup 0/-15/sup 0/ of the paleoequator. 11 figures, 2 tables.

Davies, G.R.; Nassichuk, W.W.

1988-01-01

131

Landslides density map of S. Miguel Island, Azores archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The Azores archipelago is located in the Atlantic Ocean and is composed of nine volcanic islands. S. Miguel, the largest one, is formed by three active, E-W trending, trachytic central volcanoes with caldera (Sete Cidades, Fogo and Furnas). Chains of basaltic cinder cones link those major volcanic structures. An inactive trachytic central volcano (Povoação) and an old basaltic volcanic complex (Nordeste) comprise the easternmost part of the island. Since the settlement of the island early in the 15th century, several destructive landslides triggered by catastrophic rainfall episodes, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occurred in different areas of S. Miguel. One unique event killed thousands of people in 1522. Houses and bridges were destroyed, roads were cut, communications, water and energy supply systems became frequently disrupted and areas of fertile land were often buried by mud. Based on (1) historical documents, (2) aerial photographs and (3) field observations, landslide sites were plotted on a topographic map, in order to establish a landslide density map for the island. Data obtained showed that landslide hazard is higher on (1) the main central volcanoes where the thickness of unconsolidated pyroclastic deposits is considerable high and (2) the old basaltic volcanic complex, marked by deep gullies developed on thick sequences of lava flows. In these areas, caldera walls, fault scarps, steep valley margins and sea cliffs are potentially hazardous.

Valadão, P.; Gaspar, J. L.; Queiroz, G.; Ferreira, T.

132

PCB and DDT in laminated sediments from offshore and archipelago areas of the NW Baltic Sea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Temporal trend studies of PCBs and DDTs in two annually laminated sediment cores from the offshore NW Baltic proper and the Stockholm archipelago demonstrate that studies of laminated sediments are useful tools for detecting time trends of HOCs. The concentration trends of PCBs and DDTs, on a dry weight basis, from the two cores show quite large similarities to trends reported in pelagic biota from the NW Baltic proper, although the reduction in concentrations from the 1970s and onwards is approximately half of the reductions seen in biota. The sediment accumulation trend for these substances was not coupled to the concentration trend in biota but is closely linked to climate-related erosion/resuspension dynamics. The gross accumulation rate in the archipelago area proved to be 8 times higher compared to that of the offshore NW Baltic proper (885 and 108 g m{sup -2} water area yr{sup -1}, respectively). Since PCB and DDT concentrations were similar in offshore and coastal areas, and the burial rates of PCB and DDT were closely linked to gross accumulation rates, the sediment burial of contaminants in relation to water area was severalfold higher in the archipelago compared to the offshore area. The high burial of sPCB and sDDT in the archipelago indicated an import of contaminants from the open sea to the archipelago. Although eutrophication-induced scavenging of contaminants may have occurred in the Baltic Sea, natural processes have obscured evidence of this.

Jonsson, Per [Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm (Sweden); Eckhell, Jan [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Earth Sciences; Larsson, Per [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology

2000-08-01

133

Littoral Decapods of Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Decapod community inhabiting the rocky littoral of eight bays from Socorro island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, was studied during March 1992. Samples were collected from one-square meter plots placed following transects drawn perpendicularly to the shoreline along the intertidal zone. Species richness and abundance were determined in each bay, as well as the similarity between bays using Morisita’s index. Organisms collected belong to six families, 20 genera and 26 species of the Brachyura and Anomura infraorders. Xanthidae was the family with the highest number of species, and the highest species richness was recorded at the V. Lozano bay. Pachygrapsus transversus, Xanthodius cooksoni and Calcinus explorator were the most abundant species in nearly all localities. Dendrogram obtained define two groups of bays at a similarity level above 0.67, given the similarity in the crab’s species richness and their abundance between bays in the island.Se estudió la comunidad de cangrejos del litoral rocoso de ocho bahías de la Isla Socorro, Archipiélago Revillagigedo en marzo de 1992. Las muestras fueron colectadas en cuadrantes de un m² a lo largo de transectos perpendiculares a la costa en la zona intermareal. Se determinó la riqueza específica, la abundancia por especie para cada bahía, así como la similitud entre bahías mediante el índice de Morisita. Los organismos colectados pertenecen a seis familias, 20 géneros y 26 especies de los infraordenes Brachyura y Anomura. La familia con el mayor número de especies fue Xanthidae y la mayor riqueza específica se registró en la bahía V. Lozano. Pachygrapsus transversus, Xanthodius cooksoni y Calcinus explorator fueron las más abundantes en casi todas las localidades. En el dendrograma se definen dos agrupaciones con nivel de similitud superior a 0.67, dada la semejanza en la riqueza específica de cangrejos y las abundancias entre las bahías.

Silvia Mille-Pagaza; A. Pérez-Chi; M. E. Sánchez-Salazar

2003-01-01

134

Littoral Decapods of Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se estudió la comunidad de cangrejos del litoral rocoso de ocho bahías de la Isla Socorro, Archipiélago Revillagigedo en marzo de 1992. Las muestras fueron colectadas en cuadrantes de un m² a lo largo de transectos perpendiculares a la costa en la zona intermareal. Se determinó la riqueza específica, la abundancia por especie para cada bahía, así como la similitud entre bahías mediante el índice de Morisita. Los organismos colectados pertenecen a seis familias, (more) 20 géneros y 26 especies de los infraordenes Brachyura y Anomura. La familia con el mayor número de especies fue Xanthidae y la mayor riqueza específica se registró en la bahía V. Lozano. Pachygrapsus transversus, Xanthodius cooksoni y Calcinus explorator fueron las más abundantes en casi todas las localidades. En el dendrograma se definen dos agrupaciones con nivel de similitud superior a 0.67, dada la semejanza en la riqueza específica de cangrejos y las abundancias entre las bahías. Abstract in english Decapod community inhabiting the rocky littoral of eight bays from Socorro island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, was studied during March 1992. Samples were collected from one-square meter plots placed following transects drawn perpendicularly to the shoreline along the intertidal zone. Species richness and abundance were determined in each bay, as well as the similarity between bays using Morisita?s index. Organisms collected belong to six families, 20 genera and 26 specie (more) s of the Brachyura and Anomura infraorders. Xanthidae was the family with the highest number of species, and the highest species richness was recorded at the V. Lozano bay. Pachygrapsus transversus, Xanthodius cooksoni and Calcinus explorator were the most abundant species in nearly all localities. Dendrogram obtained define two groups of bays at a similarity level above 0.67, given the similarity in the crab?s species richness and their abundance between bays in the island.

Mille-Pagaza, Silvia; Pérez-Chi, A.; Sánchez-Salazar, M. E.

2003-03-01

135

Localization in one-dimensional incommensurate lattices beyond the Aubry-Andr\\'e model  

CERN Multimedia

Localization properties of particles in one-dimensional incommensurate lattices without interaction are investigated with models beyond the tight-binding Aubry-Andr\\'e (AA) model. Based on a tight-binding t_1 - t_2 model with finite next-nearest-neighbor hopping t_2, we find the localization properties qualitatively different from those of the AA model, signaled by the appearance of mobility edges. We then further go beyond the tight-binding assumption and directly study the system based on the more fundamental single-particle Schr\\"odinger equation. With this approach, we also observe the presence of mobility edges and localization properties dependent on incommensuration.

Biddle, J; Priour, D J; Sarma, S D

2009-01-01

136

SANS studies of polymers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Before small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), chain conformation studies were limited to light and small angle x-ray scattering techniques, usually in dilute solution. SANS from blends of normal and labeled molecules could give direct information on chain conformation in bulk polymers. Water-soluble polymers may be examined in H/sub 2/O/D/sub 2/O mixtures using contrast variation methods to provide further information on polymer structure. This paper reviews some of the information provided by this technique using examples of experiments performed at the National Center for Small-Angle Scattering Research (NCSASR).

Wignall, G.D.

1984-10-01

137

San Salvador Microbial Observatory  

Science.gov (United States)

This web site is home of the San Salvador Microbial Observatory, a project investigating the anhydrophilic, halotolerant microbial mats of San Salvador, Bahamas. This project has been developed to address the influence water availability has on structural diversification, community composition, production, and carbon sequestration in microbial mats. The web site includes general information about the project, a research description plan, an introduction to microbial mats, links to other microbial observatories and interesting sites, and a collection of photos. This is a helpful resource for those investigating microbial mat communities.

Steppe, Tim; Institute Of Marine Sciences, University O.

138

Development of microsatellite markers in species of Erigeron (Asteraceae) endemic to the Juan Fernandez Archipelago, Chile.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: • PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Microsatellite markers were developed in Erigeron rupicola and tested by amplification in six Erigeron species endemic to the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile, to investigate genetic diversity and population structure. • METHODS AND RESULTS: Using 454 pyrosequencing, 24 primer pairs were developed in E. rupicola, 12 of which amplified and presented polymorphism among endemic species of Erigeron in the Archipelago. Two populations from E. rupicola and E. fernandezianus were genotyped, and one to eight alleles per locus per population were detected. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.000 to 0.812. • CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate the utility of primers for cross-species populational studies in all endemic species of Erigeron in the Archipelago.

Takayama K; López-Sepúlveda P; Kohl G; Novak J; Stuessy TF

2012-12-01

139

Early Proterozoic U-Pb Zircon Ages from Basement Gneiss at the Solovetsky Archipelago, White Sea, Russia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The central region of the Neoarchaean Belomorian Mobile Belt (BMB) is, except for the Solovetsky Archipelago, largely covered by the White Sea. A newly discovered granitic gneiss outcrop on Solovetsky Island, Russia, enables a first age determination of the archipelago and evaluation of the hitherto...

Stephan Schuth; Victor I. Gornyy; Jasper Berndt; Sergei S. Shevchenko; Alexandr F. Karpuzov; Tim Mansfeldt

140

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mussel and fish from the Finnish Archipelago Sea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Marine organisms are known to adsorb and accumulate PAH's from water. Mussels due to their widespread distribution in coastal waters have been studied in many laboratory and field experiments for their responses to PAH exposures. The occurrence of PAH's has been studied also in fish. This report presents preliminary data for the PAH content in blue mussel and fish from the Finnish Archipelago Sea. Mussel and fish samples were collected from the Finnish Archipelago Sea during 1978-1979.

1986-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

Mangrove forest composition and structure in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem that provides many services, but in Panama, as in other countries, they are under threat due to a variety of human activities. Nowadays, large areas of mangroves continue to be lost without been described and lack of management strategies. This study focused on the mangrove structure in the two largest islands, Isla del Rey and Isla San Jose, of Las Perlas Archipelago (LPA), Pacific Panama. Assessment of Landsat satellite imagery revealed loss of mangroves in the LPA of 965ha in the period 1974-1986, and 248ha in the period 1986-2000. The majority of the loss (>77%) from the two study islands was due to timber extraction and agricultural development. In May 2006, permanent plots following the CARICOMP protocol were established at two sites on Isla del Rey (R1 and R2) and one site on Isla San Jose (SJ) where standardized metrics such as species, height and diameter at breast height of adult trees and seedlings were recorded. Forest structure differed at the three sites, although R1 and R2 were most similar. At R1, Laguncularia racemosa was the important species and R2 was dominated by Pelliciera rhizophorae. Examination of the forest structure and classified imagery indicated that these sites are spatially dynamic and appear to be rejuvenating. The forest structure would indicate that the sites have been growth-limited previously by human activities and possibly by other factors. SJ was dominated by Rhizophora mangle and appears to have a mature forest with large adult trees and few seedlings. It does not appear to have shown the same extent of spatial regrowth as the other two sites between 1986 and 2000 and is relatively static. The establishment of permanent plots and monitoring will be useful as part of the management plan, as the LPA shows a variety of mangrove structures and could be subject to further coastal development. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3): 857-869. Epub 2010 September 01.Los bosques de manglar son ecosistemas importantes que proveen muchos servicios, pero éstos están bajo la amenaza de una variedad de actividades humanas y grandes áreas de manglar continúan perdiéndose en Panamá. Este estudio está enfocado en la estructura de manglar de las dos islas más grandes del Archipiélago de Las Perlas en el Pacifico Panameño (LPA), la Isla del Rey y la Isla San José. La evaluación de las imágenes del satélite Landsat revela la pérdida de manglares en LPA de 965ha en el periodo entre 1974-1986, y de 286ha en el periodo 1986-2000. La mayor parte de la pérdida (>77%) en las dos islas estudiadas fue debida a la extracción de madera y al desarrollo agrícola. En mayo de 2006, se establecieron parcelas permanentes siguiendo el protocolo de CARICOMP en dos sitios en la isla del Rey (R1 y R2) y un sitio en la Isla San José (SJ) donde especies, altura y diámetro a la altura de la copa de árboles adultos y jóvenes fueron registradas. La estructura del bosque difirió en los tres sitios, sin embargo R1 y R2 fueron los más similares. En R1, Laguncularia racemosa fue la especie más dominante y Pelliceria rhizophora en R2. El análisis de la estructura del bosque y de imágenes clasificadas indicó que estos sitios son espacialmente dinámicos y parecen estar regenerándose. La estructura del bosque indica que el crecimiento en los sitios ha estado limitado por las actividades humanas y posiblemente por otros factores. SJ fue dominado por Rhizophora mangle y parece tener un bosque maduro con árboles adultos grandes y pocos jóvenes. Éste sitio no parece mostrar la misma extensión de rebrote espacial de los otros dos sitios entre 1986-2000 y es relativamente estático. El establecimiento de parcelas permanentes y el monitoreo serán útiles en la implementación del plan de manejo, ya que los manglares del LPA tienen una variedad estructural y podrían estar sujetos a un mayor desarrollo costero.

Tom McGowan; Sarah L Cunningham; Héctor M Guzmán; James M Mair; José M Guevara; Tanja Betts

2010-01-01

142

Mangrove forest composition and structure in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los bosques de manglar son ecosistemas importantes que proveen muchos servicios, pero éstos están bajo la amenaza de una variedad de actividades humanas y grandes áreas de manglar continúan perdiéndose en Panamá. Este estudio está enfocado en la estructura de manglar de las dos islas más grandes del Archipiélago de Las Perlas en el Pacifico Panameño (LPA), la Isla del Rey y la Isla San José. La evaluación de las imágenes del satélite Landsat revela la pérdi (more) da de manglares en LPA de 965ha en el periodo entre 1974-1986, y de 286ha en el periodo 1986-2000. La mayor parte de la pérdida (>77%) en las dos islas estudiadas fue debida a la extracción de madera y al desarrollo agrícola. En mayo de 2006, se establecieron parcelas permanentes siguiendo el protocolo de CARICOMP en dos sitios en la isla del Rey (R1 y R2) y un sitio en la Isla San José (SJ) donde especies, altura y diámetro a la altura de la copa de árboles adultos y jóvenes fueron registradas. La estructura del bosque difirió en los tres sitios, sin embargo R1 y R2 fueron los más similares. En R1, Laguncularia racemosa fue la especie más dominante y Pelliceria rhizophora en R2. El análisis de la estructura del bosque y de imágenes clasificadas indicó que estos sitios son espacialmente dinámicos y parecen estar regenerándose. La estructura del bosque indica que el crecimiento en los sitios ha estado limitado por las actividades humanas y posiblemente por otros factores. SJ fue dominado por Rhizophora mangle y parece tener un bosque maduro con árboles adultos grandes y pocos jóvenes. Éste sitio no parece mostrar la misma extensión de rebrote espacial de los otros dos sitios entre 1986-2000 y es relativamente estático. El establecimiento de parcelas permanentes y el monitoreo serán útiles en la implementación del plan de manejo, ya que los manglares del LPA tienen una variedad estructural y podrían estar sujetos a un mayor desarrollo costero. Abstract in english Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem that provides many services, but in Panama, as in other countries, they are under threat due to a variety of human activities. Nowadays, large areas of mangroves continue to be lost without been described and lack of management strategies. This study focused on the mangrove structure in the two largest islands, Isla del Rey and Isla San Jose, of Las Perlas Archipelago (LPA), Pacific Panama. Assessment of Landsat satellite imagery (more) revealed loss of mangroves in the LPA of 965ha in the period 1974-1986, and 248ha in the period 1986-2000. The majority of the loss (>77%) from the two study islands was due to timber extraction and agricultural development. In May 2006, permanent plots following the CARICOMP protocol were established at two sites on Isla del Rey (R1 and R2) and one site on Isla San Jose (SJ) where standardized metrics such as species, height and diameter at breast height of adult trees and seedlings were recorded. Forest structure differed at the three sites, although R1 and R2 were most similar. At R1, Laguncularia racemosa was the important species and R2 was dominated by Pelliciera rhizophorae. Examination of the forest structure and classified imagery indicated that these sites are spatially dynamic and appear to be rejuvenating. The forest structure would indicate that the sites have been growth-limited previously by human activities and possibly by other factors. SJ was dominated by Rhizophora mangle and appears to have a mature forest with large adult trees and few seedlings. It does not appear to have shown the same extent of spatial regrowth as the other two sites between 1986 and 2000 and is relatively static. The establishment of permanent plots and monitoring will be useful as part of the management plan, as the LPA shows a variety of mangrove structures and could be subject to further coastal development. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3): 857-869. Epub 2010 September 01.

McGowan, Tom; Cunningham, Sarah L; Guzmán, Héctor M; Mair, James M; Guevara, José M; Betts, Tanja

2010-09-01

143

SAN PEDRO GEODATA BROWSER  

Science.gov (United States)

The San Pedro Data Browser was developed by the Landscape Ecology Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Las Vegas, NV). The goal of the Landscape Sciences Program is to improve decision-making relative to natural and human resource management through the development...

144

Hvad de andre ikke fortæller : Livet som indsats i og efter det moderne gennembrud  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  At fortælle det, de andre ikke fortæller, er noget sladderpressen står for. Men det er faktisk også noget, vi forventer af den skønlitterære forfatter: Forfatteren skal stige ned i den - sociale og psykologiske - underverden og bringe sandheden for en dag. Reportagen dernedefra skal helst være selvoplevet, og der er derfor en nær sammenhæng mellem realisme og selvbiografi. Sådan har det været i Norden siden Det moderne gennembrud, hvor forfatterne for alvor holdt med kun at beskæftige sig med den gode, det sande og det skønne - og hvor de af samme grund blev ofte skandaleomsuste kändisser. I denne bog redigeret af Jon Helt Haarder fortæller en række forskere og forfattere fra ind- og udland om hvordan folk som Hans Jæger, August Strindberg, Johannes V. Jensen og Edith Södergran brugte sig selv eller andre som indsats i et spil om sandhed, kunstnerisk fornyelse, identitet og berømmelse. En læser fra det unge 21. århundrede med dets dynamiske ændringer i forholdet mellem intimitet og offentlighed vil nok nikke og synes, at de historier både handler om dengang og nu.

Haarder, Jon Helt

2008-01-01

145

Revmatoid artritt i Norge – demografi, sykdomskarakteristika og behandling. En sammenligning med andre europeiske land og USA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bakgrunn: Revmatoid artritt (RA) er en kronisk inflammatorisk leddsykdom som gir økt sykelighet og dødelighet. Nye biologiske legemidler har de siste 10 årene bedret prognosen betydelig. I 2005 ble QUEST-RA (Quantitative Standard Monitoring of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis) prosjektet etablert for å sammenligne sykdomsstatus og behandling hos RA-pasienter i forskjellige land. I denne artikkelen presenteres status for RA-pasienter i Norge sammenlignet med andre europeiske land og USA.Materiale og metode: Tilfeldig utvalgte RA-pasienter fulgt opp ved revmatologisk poliklinikk ved Sørlandet sykehus i Kristiansand (n=100) og St. Olavs Hospital i Trondheim (n=100) ble inkludert. I henhold til protokoll ble demografiske, sykdoms- og behandlingsdata registrert.Resultater: Norske RA-pasienter skilte seg lite fra gjennomsnittet i andre land med hensyn til alder, utdannelse og sykdomsvarighet. Sykdomsalvorlighet og sykdomsstatus til norske RA-pasienter er sammenlignbare med pasienter fra land som har lavest sykdomsaktivitet og best helsestatus. I Norge er andelen som behandles med biologiske legemidler ca 30%, og Norge er blant de land med størst andel pasienter som behandles med denne legemiddelgruppen. Fortolkning: RA-pasienter i Norge er blant de i Europa som har lavest sykdomsaktivitet. En årsak antas å være den relativt utbredte bruken av biologiske legemidler i Norge.

Glenn Haugeberg; Eirik Wilberg Rebnord; Andreas Diamantopoulos; Hilde Gjelberg; Erik Rødevand; Tuulikki Sokka

2012-01-01

146

Cross-shelf distribution of nutrients, plankton, and fish larvae in the San Blas Archipelago, Caribbean Panamá  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To investigate possible seasonal patterns in water quality and plankton distribution, weekly samples were collected in a coral reef lagoon and in surrounding nearshore waters over a two year period. Additionally, two oceanographic surveys were also conducted in a larger area surrounding the primary study site during the seasonal extremes. The resulting information corroborated previous observations that this area is as an oligotrophic environment. The larger-scale sampling revealed seasonal variation in cross-shelf gradients in plankton, fish-egg and larval densities that are probably related to the strong onshore winds that are typically present during the dry season. Although some limited nutrient enrichment occurs in parts of the nearshore area during the rainy season, the highest plankton density and biomass were recorded in shallow nearshore waters during the windy dry season. Larvae of numerous fish taxa were collected in these nearshore areas during the dry season, suggesting seasonal aggregation. During the rainy season, fish larvae were spread more evenly across the shelf and into nearshelf waters.

Luis D'Croz; D. Ross Robertson; José A. Martínez

1999-01-01

147

Cross-shelf distribution of nutrients, plankton, and fish larvae in the San Blas Archipelago, Caribbean Panamá  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english To investigate possible seasonal patterns in water quality and plankton distribution, weekly samples were collected in a coral reef lagoon and in surrounding nearshore waters over a two year period. Additionally, two oceanographic surveys were also conducted in a larger area surrounding the primary study site during the seasonal extremes. The resulting information corroborated previous observations that this area is as an oligotrophic environment. The larger-scale samplin (more) g revealed seasonal variation in cross-shelf gradients in plankton, fish-egg and larval densities that are probably related to the strong onshore winds that are typically present during the dry season. Although some limited nutrient enrichment occurs in parts of the nearshore area during the rainy season, the highest plankton density and biomass were recorded in shallow nearshore waters during the windy dry season. Larvae of numerous fish taxa were collected in these nearshore areas during the dry season, suggesting seasonal aggregation. During the rainy season, fish larvae were spread more evenly across the shelf and into nearshelf waters. Con el propósito de investigar posibles cambios estacionales en la calidad del agua y en la distribución del plancton se realizaron colectas semanales en un área de arrecifes coralinos. En adición, se llevaron a cabo alrededor del sitio de estudio, dos cruceros oceanográficos cubriendo un área geográfica mayor durante condiciones estacionales extremas. La información obtenida corrobora que el área de estudio es un ambiente oligotrófico. Los muestreos de mayor escala geográfica indican la presencia de variación estacional en los gradientes de plancton, huevos y larvas de peces a lo largo de la plataforma continental, lo que posiblemente está relacionado con los fuertes vientos del norte típicos de la estación seca. Aunque un limitado enriquecimiento con nutrientes ocurre en el área cercana a la costa durante la estación lluviosa, la mayor densidad y biomasa del plancton se observó durante la temporada seca. Larvas de numerosas taxa de peces se recolectaron en las áreas cercana a la costa durante la estación seca, lo que sugiere un proceso de concentración estacional. Sin embargo, durante la estación lluviosa ocurrió una distribución más homogénea de larvas a lo largo de la plataforma continental y en aguas adyacentes.

D'Croz, Luis; Ross Robertson, D.; Martínez, José A.

1999-06-01

148

78 FR 53243 - Safety Zone; TriRock San Diego, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

...waters of the San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA, in support of a triathlon bay swim. This safety zone is necessary to provide for the...this rule because the logistical details of the San Diego Bay triathlon swim were not finalized nor presented to the Coast Guard...

2013-08-29

149

[Foliage production of the mangrove from San Andrés Island, Colombian Caribbean coast].  

Science.gov (United States)

Litter fall from a San Andres Island mangrove (12 degrees 32' N, 81 degrees 41' W, Colombian Caribbean coast), was collected monthly (1994-1995) with mesh baskets, keeping results separate for the three species (Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa), and taking a sample and a replica per case. Nine sampling sites were selected in two groups of woodlands: one in the inner side behind a sand-bar and the coast road (Mount Pleasant, Salt Creek, Sound Bay and Smith Channel) and a peripheral site, exposed to the waves (Bahía Hooker-Bahía Honda and El Cove). Productivity was greater for all species in the inner group, and higher in the rainy seasons. Rhizophora mangle was the only species contributing reproductive components throughout the year. PMID:12298255

García-Hansen, Ingrid; Gaviria-Chiquazuque, Johanna F; Prada-Triana, Martha C; Alvarez-León, Ricardo

2002-03-01

150

Tsunami hazard assessment for the Azores archipelago: a historical review  

Science.gov (United States)

The Azores islands due to its complex geographical and geodynamic setting are exposed to tsunamigenic events associated to different triggering mechanisms, local or distant. Since the settlement of the Azores, in the fifteenth century, there are several documents that relate coastal areas flooding episodes with unusually high waves which caused death and destruction. This work had as main objective the characterization of the different events that can be associated with tsunamigenic phenomena, registered in the archipelago. With this aim, it was collected diverse documentation like chronics, manuscripts, newspaper articles and magazines, scientific publications, and international databases available online. From all the studied tsunami events it was identified the occurrence of some teletsunamis, among which the most relevant was triggered by the 1st November 1755 Lisbon earthquake, with an epicenter SW of Portugal, which killed 6 people in Terceira island. It is also noted the teletsunami generated by the 1761 earthquake, located in the same region as the latest, and the one generated in 1929 by an earthquake-triggered submarine landslide in the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. From the local events, originated in the Azores, the most significant were the tsunamis triggered by 1757 and 1980 earthquakes, both associated with the Terceira Rift dynamics. In the first case the waves may also be due to earthquake-triggered. With respect to tsunamis triggered by sea cliffs landslides it is important to mention the 1847 Quebrada Nova and the 1980 Rocha Alta events, both located in the Flores Island. The 1847 event is the deadliest tsunami recorded in Azores since 10 people died in Flores and Corvo islands in result of the propagated wave. The developed studies improve knowledge of the tsunami sources that affected the Azores during its history, also revealing the importance of awareness about this natural phenomenon. The obtained results showed that the tsunami hazard in the Azores is mostly driven from the events triggered by distant earthquakes and local earthquakes and landslides. In this context, were identified 12 tsunami events. In another context, it were identified 6 events associated with coastal areas flooding due to floods and/or extreme weather phenomena, hypothetically identified as meteotsunamis. It should be stressed that, despite the differences associated with their triggering mechanisms, both the tsunamis generated by geological factors and those related to atmospheric phenomena may have similar impact. Although the absence of reports identifying tsunamis associated with volcanic activity, the eruptive history of the Azores active volcanoes shows high magnitude eruptions with considerable tsunamigenic potential.

Cabral, Nuno; Ferreira, Teresa; Queiroz, Maria Gabriela

2010-05-01

151

Hydrogeology of Ambrosia Lake-San Mateo area, McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Ambrosia Lake-San Mateo area is located about 10 mi north of Grants, New Mexico, in the heart of the Grants uranium region, which spans the southern edge of the San Juan Basin. The climate is semiarid and local streams are ephemeral, except where discharge from mines or tailings ponds has made them perennial. Ground water is thus the main source of water in the area. Major aquifers include alluvium, sandstones of the Mesaverde Group, sandstones of the Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Bluff Sandstone, Todilto Limestone, Chinle Formation, San Andres Limestone, and Glorieta Sandstone. Although shallow unconfined ground water flows southwesterly, deeper, confined ground water flows toward the northeast and east. Ground water in the area generally has a total-dissolved-solids content of 400 to 2000 mg/L; waters in the notheast are more saline (2000 to 5000 mg/L). Because the uranium occurs in a regional artesian aquifer (Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation), extensive dewatering is required: approximately 164 mgd. A new state law brings mine dewatering under the jurisdiction of the State Engineer and permits use of excess uranium-mine water. Private or municipal wells presently provide adequate supplies of water for most domestic and stock purposes.

Brod, R.C.; Stone, W.J.

1981-11-06

152

Introduced guppies being the first record of freshwater fish on the Cape Verdean archipelago  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Cape Verdean islands form a distinct aquatic freshwater ecoregion characterised by mainly temporal water bodies with an adapted invertebrate community. Freshwater fish were not yet recorded from the archipelago. During a non-exhaustive screen of freshwater bodies on five islands of the archip...

Kay Lucek; Mélissa Lemoine

153

A new species of Echium (Boraginaceae) from the island of Porto Santo (Madeira Archipelago)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new species endemic from the island of Porto Santo (Madeira Archipelago) is described as Echium portosanctensis J.A. Carvalho, Pontes, Batista-Marques & R. Jardim. Morphological studies based on reproductive and vegetative traits revealed a set of diagnostic characters confirming separation...

Carvalho, José Augusto; Pontes, Tânia; Batista-Marques, Maria Isabel; Jardim, Roberto

154

Ecological footprint of road traffic on Cres-Lošinj Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cres-Lošinj Archipelago is the largest insular traffic unit in Northern Adriatic. The archipelago consists of two large islands, Cres and Lošinj, and 27 smaller islands located among Kvarner, Kvarneri?, Rijeka Bay and open sea. From the point of view of traffic, this area gravitates mostly toward Rijeka traffic node. Traffic development of the islands was determined in the second half of the 20th century with the development of ferry traffic and road traffic on the islands. Today, the Archipelago is characterized by prominent seasonal variations of road traffic intensity due to dominant role of tourism in space valorisation. This research included partial determination of Ecological Footprint of road traffic on the islands on the basis of CO2 emission and capacity of insular surfaces to absorb CO2.The author also created a model for calculating road mileage on the islands and indirectly calculated CO2 emission. The results indicated significant seasonal variations of CO2 emission on the islands, which are closely related to tourist valorisation of space and the number of non-residential vehicles on the islands. The paper also provides the ratio between residential and non-residential vehicles on the island, which influence the emission in accordance with their energy efficiency. The research showed that the capacity of CO2 absorption on Cres-Lošinj Archipelago is approximately 40 times greater than CO2 emission from road traffic during one year.

Hrvoje Grofelnik

2010-01-01

155

Carbon cycling in the Arctic Archipelago: the export of Pacific carbon to the North Atlantic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Arctic Ocean is expected to be disproportionately sensitive to climatic changes, and is thought to be an area where such changes might be detected. The Arctic hydrological cycle is influenced by: runoff and precipitation, sea ice formation/melting, and the inflow of saline waters from Bering and Fram Straits and the Barents Sea Shelf. Pacific water is recognizable as intermediate salinity water, with high concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), flowing from the Arctic Ocean to the North Atlantic via the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. We present DIC data from an east-west section through the Archipelago, as part of the Canadian International Polar Year initiatives. The fractions of Pacific and Arctic Ocean waters leaving the Archipelago and entering Baffin Bay, and subsequently the North Atlantic, are computed. The eastward transport of carbon from the Pacific, via the Arctic, to the North Atlantic is estimated. Altered mixing ratios of Pacific and freshwater in the Arctic Ocean have been recorded in recent decades. Any climatically driven alterations in the composition of waters leaving the Arctic Archipelago may have implications for anthropogenic CO2 uptake, and hence ocean acidification, in the subpolar and temperate North Atlantic.

E. H. Shadwick; T. Papakyriakou; A. E. F. Prowe; D. Leong; S. A. Moore; H. Thomas

2009-01-01

156

Dispersion of radionuclides potentially released from the Atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa to neighboring archipelagos  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper presents a compartmental model developed to simulate dispersion of radionuclides released to the ocean from the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa on a scale of 3000 x 1700 km (150 deg. to 300 deg. S latitude, 130 deg. to 160 deg. W longitude), including the Tuamotu, Cook, Society, Gambier and Austral archipelagos

1999-01-01

157

Anthidium vigintiduopunctatum Friese (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): The elusive "dwarf bee" of the Galapagos Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The endemic large carpenter bee, Xylocopa darwini Cockerell, was the only known bee pollinator to the Galapagos Archipelago but as early as 1964 locals also spoke of the "dwarf bee of Floreana". We report the presence of the wool carder bee, Anthidium vigintiduopunctatum Friese, on the island of Fl...

158

Megachile timberlakei Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): Yet another adventive bee species to the Galapagos Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The Galapagos Archipelago has been thought to be extremely depauperate in bees, with only one species known, Xylocopa darwini. Recently a second species, Anthidium vigintiduopunctatum, was detected. Here we document a third species, Megachile timberlakei. We provide floral records as well as a dia...

159

Spider biodiversity patterns and their conservation in the Azorean archipelago, with descriptions of new species  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this contribution, we report on patterns of spider species diversity of the Azores, based on recently standardised sampling protocols in different habitats of this geologically young and isolated volcanic archipelago. A total of 122 species is investigated, including eight new species, eight new ...

Borges, Paulo A. V.; Wunderlich, Joerg

160

Dissemination of antibiotic resistant Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli from wild birds of Azores Archipelago.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Antibiotic-resistant is profoundly important to human and animal health, but the environmental reservoirs of resistance determinants are poorly understood, in particular in wild environments in remote Archipelagos. Moreover, the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in wild bird populations is rather unknown. In the present study, we used the Azores Islands as a model study for antimicrobial resistance in a remote Archipelago, and examined the antibiotic resistance profile in enterococci and Escherichia coli recovered from faecal samples of wild birds collected in this Archipelago. A total of 138 enterococci and 115 E. coli isolates were analyzed for resistance to antimicrobial agents. Of the enterococcal isolates, Enterococcus faecalis was the most prevalent detected species (59 isolates), followed by Enterococcus faecium (40 isolates), Enterococcus durans (27 isolates) and Enterococcus hirae (12 isolates). The enterococci strains showed high percentages of resistance to tetracycline (32.6%), to ciprofloxacin (19.6%) and to erythromycin (11.6%). Lower level of resistance (<10%) was detected for ampicillin, chloramphenicol and teicoplanin. One vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis isolate was detected and harbored the vanA resistant gene. Resistance genes detected included tet(M) and/or tet(L), ermB in all tetracycline and erythromycin-resistant isolates. Resistance in E. coli isolates was detected for ampicillin, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, streptomycin, and tobramycin. The blaTEM, aadA, aadA5, strA, strB, tet(A) and/or tet(B), and the intI genes were found in all ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim-resistant isolates respectively. The data shown in this study are essential to improve knowledge about the dissemination of resistant strains through wild birds from remote archipelagos such as the Azores Archipelago and the possible implications involved in transferring these resistances either to other animals or to humans.

Santos T; Silva N; Igrejas G; Rodrigues P; Micael J; Rodrigues T; Resende R; Gonçalves A; Marinho C; Gonçalves D; Cunha R; Poeta P

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
161

78 FR 35593 - Special Local Regulation; Christmas Boat Parade, San Juan Harbor; San Juan, PR  

Science.gov (United States)

...Special Local Regulation; Christmas Boat Parade, San Juan Harbor; San Juan, PR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of...establish a special local regulation on the waters of San Juan Harbor in San Juan, Puerto Rico during the...

2013-06-13

162

Vilistlasküsimus: Mida on sulle andnud Väike-Maarja kool ja miks soovitaksid õppida Väike-Maarja Gümnaasiumis? / Eeli Tiigimägi, Andres Kipper, Anu Pajo (Vainult), Kaida Laks (Lepiksoo)  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Küsimusele vastavad Väike-Maarja Gümnaasiumi vilistlased: 1949. a. lõpetanu Eeli Tiigimägi, 1959. a. lõpetanu Andres Kipper, 1969. a. lõpetanu Anu Pajo (Vainult) ja 1979. a. lõpetanu Kaida Laks (Lepiksoo)

2008-01-01

163

Surmahiirte tants; Pühapäeva hommik; Unistus venna külaskäigust; Kolm päeva voodipuhkust; Veepiir; Ei sugutunnuseid ega muid iseärasusi : [Luuletused] / Wallace Stevens ; inglise k. tlk. ja järelsõna: Andres Ehin  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Autorist lk. 212. Luuletuste 'Unistus venna külaskäigust', 'Kolm päeva voodipuhkust', 'Veepiir' ja 'Ei sugutunnuseid ega muid iseärasusi', mis on samuti ekslikult sealsamas W. Stevensile omistatud, autor on tegelikult Carlos Stewal. Vt. Ehin, Andres. Veavabandus // Looming. 1995. Nr. 5. Lk. 718

Stevens, Wallace

1996-01-01

164

XII Avatud Ühiskonna Foorumi arutlusring "Euroopa hiilgus ja viletsus - Euroopa Liit 50. Kuidas edasi?" / Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Mark Leonard, Ivan Krastev ; intervjueerinud Andres Kasekamp  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Pärnus diskuteerisid 10. oktoobril 2007 Euroopa tuleviku teemadel president Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Euroopa Välissuhete Nõukogu tegevjuht Mark Leonard ja Sofias paikneva Liberaalstrateegiate Keskuse juht Ivan Krastev. Vestluse moderaator oli Eesti Välispoliitika Instituudi direktor, Avatud Eesti Fondi nõukogu esimees Andres Kasekamp

Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

2008-01-01

165

1974 Meeting in San Antonio  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

San Antonio will be the site of the 1974 MLA Annual Meeting, and the program will emphasize expanding the role of health science libraries. Tours, as well as activities available in San Antonio, are described. The Convention Center itself, and the convention hotel, the Hilton Palacio del Rio, are me...

Bowden, Virginia

166

Archipelagos and Political Engineering: The Impact of Non-Contiguity on Devolution in Small States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Political architecture differences have only seldom been explained in the political science literature by reference to physical factors like size and geography. Correcting this neglect while focusing on microstates and especially on archipelago geographies, this article aims at uncovering the impact of geographical non-contiguity on political institution-building. Three separate devices for power devolution - federalism, bicameralism and assembly quotas - perform as dependent variables, and the guiding hypothesis is, for each device, that the device is implemented among archipelagos to a higher extent than among contiguous entities. Although there are marked differences between devices, the findings in general support the belief that territorial non-contiguity is more likely to foster power devolution. The findings also survive controls that investigate the impact of contesting factors.

Dag Anckar

2007-01-01

167

Endohelminth parasites of the blacktail comber Serranus atricauda (Pisces: Serranidae), from Madeira Archipelago (Atlantic Ocean).  

Science.gov (United States)

Four different endohelminth parasite taxa were found in the viscera of the blacktail comber Serranus atricauda Günther, 1874 caught in the Madeira Archipelago. Nematodes were the dominant group, represented by 2 different taxa, Hysterothylacium spp. Ward & Magath, 1917 and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) halitrophus Fusco & Overstreet, 1978 comb. n. Plerocerci of the trypanorhynch Pseudogrillotia epinepheli (synonym: Grillotia epinepheli) Scholz, Garippa & Scala, 1993, and cystacanths of the acanthocephalan Bolbosoma vasculosum Rudolphi, 1819 were found in the visceral cavity. New host records for P. (S.) halitrophus and P. epinepheli and the extension of the geographic distribution of these 2 parasite species provide evidence of parasite transference between the Madeira Archipelago, the Mediterranean and the Gulf of Mexico. The paucity of the parasite fauna of blacktail comber reflect a combination of fish host selective feeding on particular dietary items and its territorial behaviour. PMID:23482385

Costa, Graça; Khadem, Mahnaz; Silva, Sofia; Moreira, Egberto Melo; D'Amélio, Stefano

2013-03-13

168

About peculiarities of hydrocarbons deposits location in the productive series of the Baku archipelago area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text : In Azerbaijan domestic and foreign companies hold wide-scaled prospecting operations in the central and southern parts of the Baku Archipelago and also in the Kobystan. There are hydrocarbons deposits determined in the northern of the Baku Archipelago. Deposits location by phase condition of hydrocarbons mainly follows the general regularity determined on many oil and gas bearing areas, pass of oil deposits to oil-gas and gas-condensate ones in the direction of increase of layers occurrence depth. There is also a considerable influence of a tectonic factor on the area location of deposits observed, expressing in difference of deposits height on different tectonic blocks and also there is an influence of a lithological factor. Results of works conducted on drilling and wells testing are still not enough for judging about lack of oil and gas content.

2002-01-01

169

Endohelminth parasites of the blacktail comber Serranus atricauda (Pisces: Serranidae), from Madeira Archipelago (Atlantic Ocean).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four different endohelminth parasite taxa were found in the viscera of the blacktail comber Serranus atricauda Günther, 1874 caught in the Madeira Archipelago. Nematodes were the dominant group, represented by 2 different taxa, Hysterothylacium spp. Ward & Magath, 1917 and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) halitrophus Fusco & Overstreet, 1978 comb. n. Plerocerci of the trypanorhynch Pseudogrillotia epinepheli (synonym: Grillotia epinepheli) Scholz, Garippa & Scala, 1993, and cystacanths of the acanthocephalan Bolbosoma vasculosum Rudolphi, 1819 were found in the visceral cavity. New host records for P. (S.) halitrophus and P. epinepheli and the extension of the geographic distribution of these 2 parasite species provide evidence of parasite transference between the Madeira Archipelago, the Mediterranean and the Gulf of Mexico. The paucity of the parasite fauna of blacktail comber reflect a combination of fish host selective feeding on particular dietary items and its territorial behaviour.

Costa G; Khadem M; Silva S; Moreira EM; D'Amélio S

2013-03-01

170

A comparison of asphaltene model compounds and asphaltenes. The island vs. archipelago models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As heavier crude oil reserves with higher asphaltene content are being more and more exploited, better understanding of asphaltenes becomes a necessity. Two models are proposed for the structure of asphaltenes, a topic of intense debate. The island model presents a large aromatic core with alkyl chains branching out. The archipelago model features multiple aromatic cores that are linked by alkyl chains, with possible alkyl chains branching out also. Several model compounds of the two structural models were studied using a variety of mass spectrometry (MS) methods: laser-induced acoustic desorption combined with electron ionization (LIAD/EI) MS, electrospray ionization (ESI) MS, and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) MS. The observed fragmentation pathways were then compared to those of asphaltenes. Ions from island vs. archipelago model compounds showed distinct fragmentation characteristics, which will help in elucidating the complex molecular structure of asphaltenes.

Borton, David J.; Pinkston, David S.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka [Purdue University (United States)], email: dborton@purdue.edu; Gray, Murray; Tan, Xiaoli [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada); Azyat, Khalid; Tykwinski, Rik [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta (Canada)

2010-07-01

171

Distribution of heavy metals in recent sediments in the Archipelago Sea of southwestern Finland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The distributions of organic carbon, sulphur, phosphate, and heavy metals (Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Mn, Fe) were analyzed in marine surface sediments in the Archipelago Sea of southwestern Finland. Variations in heavy metal contents are caused mainly by physical not chemical processes. Lateral transport processes of particulate matter, including organic matter, strongly influence the distribution pattern of heavy metals in the study area. In addition, variable environmental conditions between stations contribute to differences in heavy metal contents. In the harbor, close to the mouth of the Aurajoki, there is a relatively high potential for the binding of heavy metals by oxides/hydroxides. In contrast, sulphide precipitations of heavy metals in the sediments may become relatively more important with increasing water depth, i.e. towards the outer Archipelago Sea. For chromium, aluminium, titanium and vanadium detrital binding was considered to be dominant. (orig.)

Mueller, A. [Department of Geology, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia)

1999-07-01

172

Studies on metal content in the brown seaweed, Fucus vesiculosus, from the Archipelago of Stockholm.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Concentrations of eleven metals (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) were determined in the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus collected from the Archipelago of Stockholm. Several factors which influence the metal content in the seaweed have been studied, including errors caused by epiphytes, sea exposure and differences depending on which part of the seaweed is analysed. It is concluded that, if all these factors are considered, Fucus vesiculosus plants are excellent bio-indicators of metal pollution. This is also demonstrated by a significant increase in metal content in transplanted Fucus vesiculosus near the city of Stockholm. The results from this investigation also indicate increasing metal concentrations, especially Cd, in samples from the northern parts of the Archipelago and the reason for this is discussed.

Forsberg A; Söderlund S; Frank A; Petersson LR; Pedersén M

1988-01-01

173

Mid-recent human occupation and resource exploitation in the bismarck archipelago.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human settlement of the Bismarck Archipelago occurred by 6000 to 7500 years ago. Early inhabitants of New Ireland drew on widely dispersed stone sources, including obsidian from Talasea (New Britain), whereas those after about 3000 years ago used either stone from more local sources or obsidian from Lou Island (Admiralty Islands group) or Talasea. The dates and resource changes support a gradualist model of Melanesian settlement.

White JP; Downie JE; Ambrose WR

1978-02-01

174

Sharply increased mass loss from glaciers and ice caps in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mountain glaciers and ice caps are contributing significantly to present rates of sea level rise and will continue to do so over the next century and beyond. The Canadian Arctic Archipelago, located off the northwestern shore of Greenland, contains one-third of the global volume of land ice outside the ice sheets, but its contribution to sea-level change remains largely unknown. Here we show that the Canadian Arctic Archipelago has recently lost 61?±?7?gigatonnes per year (Gt?yr(-1)) of ice, contributing 0.17?±?0.02 mm?yr(-1) to sea-level rise. Our estimates are of regional mass changes for the ice caps and glaciers of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago referring to the years 2004 to 2009 and are based on three independent approaches: surface mass-budget modelling plus an estimate of ice discharge (SMB+D), repeat satellite laser altimetry (ICESat) and repeat satellite gravimetry (GRACE). All three approaches show consistent and large mass-loss estimates. Between the periods 2004-2006 and 2007-2009, the rate of mass loss sharply increased from 31?±?8?Gt?yr(-1) to 92?±?12?Gt?yr(-1) in direct response to warmer summer temperatures, to which rates of ice loss are highly sensitive (64?±?14?Gt?yr(-1) per 1?K increase). The duration of the study is too short to establish a long-term trend, but for 2007-2009, the increase in the rate of mass loss makes the Canadian Arctic Archipelago the single largest contributor to eustatic sea-level rise outside Greenland and Antarctica.

Gardner AS; Moholdt G; Wouters B; Wolken GJ; Burgess DO; Sharp MJ; Cogley JG; Braun C; Labine C

2011-05-01

175

An estimation for atmospheric sulfur emission and deposition over the Japanese archipelago  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nationwide networks for monitoring acid deposition were established in Japan in the 1980s. Estimates of atmospheric sulfur emission and deposition over the archipelago are given. The region was divided into fifteen climatic regions, and annual and seasonal sulphur fluxes were estimated. The basic data for the analysis include man-made and natural emission, wet and dry deposition, data that have been accumulated by CRIEPI over the last 10 years. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Aki, S.; Fujita, S.; Ichikawa, Y. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (Japan)

1998-12-31

176

Classification and recognition of patterns of oil fields in the Nizhnekurinskiy basin and the Baku Archipelago  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on geochemical features of high-molecular oil compounds in the productive mass of the Nizhnekurinskiy Basin and the Baku Archipelago, the affiliation of the examined oils of a certain class of fields is classified and recognized. The task is resolved using methods of mathematical statistics. Using dendrograms, the fields are classi- fied and the methods of main components is used to verify the correctness of the classification. Functions which make it possible to recognize newly detected facilities are revealed.

Simkhayev, V.Z.; Bogopol' skiy, V.O.

1981-01-01

177

The wet deposition of acid and some major ions over the Japanese Archipelago  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The wet deposition of acid and some major ions over the Japanese Archipelago was presented. The country was divided into 15 climatic regions with 114 grid squares, and the annual and seasonal fluxes of non-sea salt sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and non-sea salt calcium were estimated. Wet deposition fluxes were determined from CRIEPI's regional monitoring data at 21 sites between October 1987 and September 1990. The concentration of these ions in precipitation increased during the cold season, and this tendency was noted on the northwestern region facing the continent across the Japan Sea. Estimated wet deposition of [nss-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}] + [NO{sub 3}{sup -}], here defined as the acidic component (AC), was approximately 75 meq/m{sup 2}/yr, and that for [NH{sup 4+}] + [nss-Ca{sup 2+}], here defined as the basic component (BC), was approximately 52 meq/m{sup 2}/yr. If the concentration difference of AC - BC was converted to the wet deposition of H{sup +}, it was approximately 23 meq/m{sup 2}/yr, or the total deposition over the Japanese Archipelago was approximately 17 Geq/yr. For Japan as a whole, wet deposition of inferred H{sup +} in the warm season and the cold season accounted for 45% and 55%, respectively. In the warm season, the major receptor of acid was the climate regions facing the Pacific Ocean, while in the cold season it was the climate regions facing the Japan Sea. The wet deposition over the Japanese Archipelago was influenced by two factors: meteorological conditions such as the wind system and rainfall pattern due to Asian monsoons, and the geographical distribution of emission sources of chemical substances through natural and anthropogenic activities in East Asia. It was suggested that in-flow of chemical substances from outside the region plays an important role in the wet deposition field over the Japanese Archipelago.

Fujita, Shin-Ichi; Takahashi, Akira [Central Research Inst. of the Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Laboratory; Sakurai, Tatsuya [Tokyo Univ. of Science, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Physics

2003-02-01

178

A further new species in the lichen genus Arctomia: A. borbonica from Reunion (Mascarene archipelago)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arctomia borbonica sp. nov. is described as new for science from montane natural and secondary habitats in Reunion, in the Mascarene archipelago (Indian Ocean). It has a sterile, foliose, usually wrinkled, thallus whose margins produce goniocysts that disintegrate into a soredioid margin; it looks like a Leptogium species. Its phylogenetic position in the Arctomiaceae (Ostropomycetidae, Ascomycota) has been determined with 3 genes (nuLSU, mtSSU, RPB1) inferences.

Nicolas Magain; Emmanuël Sérusiaux

2012-01-01

179

Organic maturity of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary coal measures, Canadian Arctic Archipelago  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Maastrichtian and Lower Tertiary strata of the Eureka Sound Formation are widespread in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and include major resources of lignite, subbituminous and high-volatile bituminous coal. The level of organic maturity of the strata for the most part reflects pre-orogenic (pre-Late Eocene-Miocene) depths of burial and thus helps define Early Tertiary depositional patterns. 45 references.

Bustin, R.M.

1986-04-01

180

A new species of Meryta (Araliaceae) from the Marquesas Archipelago, French Polynesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Meryta pastoralis F. Tronchet & Lowry, a new species from the island of Hiva Oa in the Marquesas archipelago, is described and illustrated. It differs from other Polynesian members of the genus by its fully free ovaries, a feature shared with one other species found in the region, M. choristantha (native to the Austral Islands), from which it can be distinguished by its noticeably different leaf shape. A preliminary conservation assessment indicates that M. pastoralis is Critically Endangered.

Frédéric Tronchet; Porter Lowry II

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Localization in one dimensional lattices with non-nearest-neighbor hopping: Generalized Anderson and Aubry-Andr\\'e models  

CERN Multimedia

We study the quantum localization phenomena of noninteracting particles in one-dimensional lattices based on tight-binding models with various forms of hopping terms beyond the nearest neighbor, which are generalizations of the famous Aubry-Andr\\'e and noninteracting Anderson model. For the case with deterministic disordered potential induced by a secondary incommensurate lattice (i.e. the Aubry-Andr\\'e model), we identify a class of self dual models, for which the boundary between localized and extended eigenstates are determined analytically by employing a generalized Aubry-Andr\\'e transformation. We also numerically investigate the localization properties of non-dual models with next-nearest-neighbor hopping, Gaussian, and power-law decay hopping terms. We find that even for these non-dual models, the numerically obtained mobility edges can be well approximated by the analytically obtained condition for localization transition in the self dual models, as long as the decay of the hopping rate with respect t...

Biddle, J; Wang, B; Sarma, S Das

2010-01-01

182

Tectonic development of the Indonesian archipelago and its bearing on the occurrence of hydrocarbons  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present geological and tectonic configuration of the Indonesian archipelago may represent a typical triple junction plate convergence, which has developed since Neogene times due to the northward-moving Indo-Australian plate, the westward-moving Pacific plate, and the south-southeastward-moving Eurasian Craton. The occurrence of a number of microcontinents in eastern Indonesia makes the geology and tectonics of the region more complex. The archipelago is one of the most complicated regions from the plate tectonics point of view. The geological evolution of the Indonesian archipelago is recorded by the occurrence of both tectonic convergence and tectonic divergence. Various types of plate convergences include a Cordilleran type subduction, which has been reoccurring since Paleozoic until present times in western Indonesia; a Neogene Tethyan type collision in the Banda region; and a double-arc collision in northern Maluku, central Indonesia. Tectonic divergence, which was preceded by rifting due to thermal doming and magma rise in the northern margins of the Australian Craton and followed by the detachment and west-northwestward displacement of continental fragments in Mesozoic, gave rise to the development of the microcontinents in eastern Indonesia.

Simanjuntak, T.O. (Geological Research and Development Center, Bandung (Indonesia))

1994-07-01

183

Phylogeography of Ophiorrhiza japonica (Rubiaceae) in continental islands, the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phylogeographical patterns in the Ryukyu Archipelago have been explained primarily by landbridge formation and the opening of two straits in the Pliocene, namely the Tokara and Kerama gaps. These old straits have been considered to be the barriers most likely to determine genetic boundaries. To test this, we conducted a molecular analysis of the herb Ophiorrhiza japonica. We discuss the causes of and processes involved in its phylogeographical structure and explore aspects of island separation other than the duration of the straits to explain genetic boundaries at the gaps. Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Plants were collected from 40 localities in the archipelago and vicinity. Non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA were sequenced. The genealogical relationships among haplotypes were estimated using a statistical parsimony network. To examine the phylogeographical structure, we compared two parameters of population differentiation, namely GST and NST, and conducted correlation analysis of genetic and geographical distances. Genetic boundaries were identified using Monmonier's maximum difference algorithm. To test vicariance-dispersal hypotheses, that is, vicariance after migration via the Pliocene landbridge or over-sea dispersal in the Pleistocene, molecular dating analysis was conducted. A statistical parsimony network revealed that the haplotypes from the Ryukyu Archipelago and northwards coalesce to one ancestral haplotype in Taiwan. A clear phylogeographical structure was observed: plants within the same population and populations in geographical proximity were phylogenetically close. A genetic boundary was recognized across the Kerama Gap, but not across the Tokara Gap. Dating analysis suggested that population divergence across the Kerama Gap occurred in the early to late Pleistocene. The statistical parsimony network suggests migration from Taiwan and northward range expansion in the archipelago. Based on the divergence time, over-sea dispersal in the Pleistocene is likely, although migration via a Pliocene landbridge is not totally rejected. Negligible genetic differentiation across the Tokara Gap suggests recent over-sea dispersal, possibly facilitated by the small geographical width of the gap. Conversely, the large genetic differentiation across the Kerama Gap is probably explained by the large geographical distance across it. The past splitting of a landbridge would have had a significant influence on population differentiation after a certain geographical distance was reached.

Nakamura Koh; Denda Tetsuo; Kokubugata Goro; Suwa Rempei; Yang TYAleck; Peng Ching-I; Yokota Masatsugu

2010-10-01

184

76 FR 19781 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, San Juan, Skagit...  

Science.gov (United States)

...10137-1265-0000 S3] Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, San Juan, Skagit, Island, and Whatcom Counties...assessment (EA) for Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges...

2011-04-08

185

75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...  

Science.gov (United States)

...1265-0000-10137-S3] Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan, Skagit, and Whatcom Counties, WA AGENCY...assessment (EA) for Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges...

2010-08-18

186

San Bernardino County Museum  

Science.gov (United States)

The San Bernardino County Museum is a regional museum with exhibits and collections in cultural and natural history. Special exhibits, the Exploration Station live animal discovery center, extensive research collections, and public programs for adults, families, students, and children are all part of the museum experience. The Museum is surrounded by citrus groves, and orange blossoms perfume the air. The Zimmerman Citrus Kiosk explores citrus agricultural history in Southern California. Death Valley Alive! is a new traveling exhibit, available for rent, where visitors can explore the natural history and culture of the Death Valley region from its geologic beginnings 1.3 billion years ago. Online exhibits include The Importance of Museum Collections, The Barstow Fossil Beds, Motherlode of the Miocene, The Etiwanda Fan, and for kids, Mimicry, a study in camouflage and adaptation. Teacher Resources include professional development and workshops, and Trading Places, where 21 hours of time spent volunteering in the Museum earns a free program for your class. Sample opportunities include writing activities for study kits, developing post-visit activities, creating a museum gallery guide, translating student materials into Spanish, or developing an independent idea. There are programs for youth, Scouts, and adults, as well as various publications available in anthropology, archeology, biology, geology and history.

187

Characterization of the grafting copolymer EPDM-SAN; Caracterizacao do copolimero de enxertia EPDM-SAN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work aims the characterization of the grafting copolymer EPDM-SAN. This copolymer presents a fraction of free SAN chains, which was extracted by solubilization in chloroform followed of precipitation of the grafting copolymer EPDM-g-SAN in acetone. The EPDM-SAN and EPDM-g-SAN were characterized by {sup 13}C NMR, DSC, TGA and SEM. EPDM-SAN contain 23 wt% of free SAN and 77 wt% of EPDM-g-SAN. Both materials are heterogeneous and the thermal and thermo-oxidative degradation are independent of the composition. (author)

Turchette, Renato; Felisberti, Maria Isabel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: turchete@iqm.unicamp.br

2001-07-01

188

Competing Notions of Diversity in Archipelago Tourism: Transport Logistics, Official Rhetoric and Inter-Island Rivalry in the Azores  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contending and competing geographies are often implicitly involved in archipelagic spaces. Various small island states and territories with multi-island geographies have flourishing tourism industries that presuppose an archipelagic experience: visitors are encouraged to explore and sample different island constituents of the territory. This strategy taps into different tourism niche markets, improves local value added, and shares tourism revenue beyond key nodes and urban centers. The organization of such an important economic activity however often reflects a ‘one-size-fits-all’, tightly coordinated, frequently contrived process that does not necessarily speak to the cultural and biogeographical forms of diversity that reside in the archipelago. This paper offers the notion of archipelago as a new way of rethinking problems and challenges encountered in island tourism, and then assesses the implications of this conceptualization on the representation of ‘the archipelago’ in the Azores, Portugal, and reviews what this approach means and implies for sustainable tourism policy.

Godfrey Baldacchino; Eduardo Costa Duarte Ferreira

2013-01-01

189

Lavdara Island - Contribution to the Historio-geographical Explorations of the Zadar Archipelago Islands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Historiogeographical determinants of the development of the Lavdara Island situated in the Zadar archipelago (South Croatia), are primarily the subject of the paper. The author elaborates its geographical characteristics, some natural-geographical properties (relief, climate, waters, speleological objects etc.), but the most of his attention is paid to the interpretation of the archives concerning the island, which is of a great advantage for a valuable historiogeographical retrospect of this small island that belongs to the cadastral commune of Sali (Dugi otok island), and evaluation of the same. The paper is an example of microgeographical and historical analysis of economic possibilities of exploiting the island (quarrying, farming, cattle-breeding).

Amos Rube Filipi

2001-01-01

190

Development of microsatellite markers in Robinsonia (Asteraceae) an endemic genus of the Juan Fernandez Archipelago, Chile.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ten microsatellite markers were developed for Robinsonia (Asteraceae), a genus endemic to the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile. Polymorphisms of these markers were tested using one population each of R. evenia, R. gayana, and R. gracilis. The number of alleles for these markers ranged from 2 to 17 per locus, and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0 to 0.847 by population. A significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed in zero to two markers in each population, and no significant linkage disequilibrium between markers was detected. The markers reported here would be useful for evolutionary studies and conservation strategies in Robinsonia.

Takayama K; López Sepúlveda P; Kohl G; Novak J; Stuessy TF

2013-03-01

191

Present assessment and analysis of environment quality in sea area near Qiqu Archipelago  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The current environment quality of water and sediment in seaarea near Qiqu Archipelago was investigated in February and July, 2001. Environment quality standard index method is adopted to assess environment quality conditions in the sea area. The results show that pH, DO and Oil almost coincide the first grade sea water quality standard, but COD, PO_4-P, TIN severely exceed the standard. The water quality appeared in the severe eutrophication state. Organic material, oil, Pb, Cd and Hg in sediment don^t exceed sediment quality standard. 20% Cu values and 15% Zn values exceed sediment quality starard.

Shi Qingsong; Zhang Jian

2002-01-01

192

Definitions of Trollskär Formation and Sandön Formation in the Archipelago Sea, northern Baltic Sea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The formal stratigraphy of Late-Quaternary late- and post-glacial sediments in the Archipelago Sea, northern Baltic Sea, is revised. The Trollskär Allomember and Sandön Allomember were previously incorrectly defined as allostratigraphic units based on an acousticdiscontinuity, even though their contact is gradational in the studied sediment cores. These allostratigraphic units are formally redefined herein as the lithostratigraphic units Trollskär Formation and Sandön Formation, which belong to the Korppoo Alloformation.The purpose is to forestall misconceptions concerning temporal relationships and depositional processes at the transition of these two units.

Joonas J. Virtasalo; Aarno T. Kotilainen; Matti E. Räsänen

2010-01-01

193

Mobility concepts using excess power from proposed renewable energy supply system on Graciosa Island, Azores Archipelago  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of excess energy from the planned renewable electricity generation system of Graciosa Island, Azores Archipelago, has been examined focussing on its use as energy source for mobility concepts. Battery-electric vehicles with different load management and vehicle-to-grid schemes as well as renewable power methane fuelled vehicles have been considered against a baseline scenario featuring conventional diesel vehicles. The simulation results include related costs and carbon dioxide emissions as well as the size of energy storage and amount of backup fuels needed. Both alternative vehicle types can benefit from using excess energy and may significantly reduce the need for imported fossil fuels.

Arnhold, O.; Hlusiak, M.; Moehrke, F.; Breyer, C. [Reiner Lemoine Institut gGmbH, Berlin (Germany)

2011-07-01

194

Aerial dispersal of insects between and to islands in the Galapagos Archipelago, Ecuador.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Active or passive movement of insects through the air is probably their most common means of dispersal to oceanic islands. Use of aerial nets suspended on boats documents the presence of insects in the air between the islands of the Galapagos Archi-pelago during the 1991-1992 El Nino climatic event. At least 50 species of terrestrial arthropods in nine orders were captured. The most abundant families were Aphididae, Aleyrodidae and Psyllidae (Homoptera), Encyrtidae and Formicidae (Hymenoptera), and Sciaridae and Ceratopogonidae (Diptera)

Peck SB

1994-03-01

195

Localization in one-dimensional lattices with non-nearest-neighbor hopping: Generalized Anderson and Aubry-Andre models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the quantum localization phenomena of noninteracting particles in one-dimensional lattices based on tight-binding models with various forms of hopping terms beyond the nearest neighbor, which are generalizations of the famous Aubry-Andre and noninteracting Anderson models. For the case with deterministic disordered potential induced by a secondary incommensurate lattice (i.e., the Aubry-Andre model), we identify a class of self-dual models, for which the boundary between localized and extended eigenstates are determined analytically by employing a generalized Aubry-Andre transformation. We also numerically investigate the localization properties of nondual models with next-nearest-neighbor hopping, Gaussian, and power-law decay hopping terms. We find that even for these nondual models, the numerically obtained mobility edges can be well approximated by the analytically obtained condition for localization transition in the self-dual models, as long as the decay of the hopping rate with respect to distance is sufficiently fast. For the disordered potential with genuinely random character, we examine scenarios with next-nearest-neighbor hopping, exponential, Gaussian, and power-law decay hopping terms numerically. We find that the higher-order hopping terms can remove the symmetry in the localization length about the energy band center compared to the Anderson model. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that for the power-law decay case, there exists a critical exponent below which mobility edges can be found. Our theoretical results could, in principle, be directly tested in shallow atomic optical lattice systems enabling non-nearest-neighbor hopping.

2011-02-15

196

Early Proterozoic U-Pb Zircon Ages from Basement Gneiss at the Solovetsky Archipelago, White Sea, Russia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The central region of the Neoarchaean Belomorian Mobile Belt (BMB) is, except for the Solovetsky Archipelago, largely covered by the White Sea. A newly discovered granitic gneiss outcrop on Solovetsky Island, Russia, enables a first age determination of the archipelago and evaluation of the hitherto poorly constrained central BMB. Zircons separated from the orthogneiss were analysed with SIMS-SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS techniques. Both techniques yield a concordant U-Pb age of ca. 2.430 Ga, coinciding with ages of granitic intrusions in the BMB ca. 50 km west of the Solovetsky Islands.

Stephan Schuth; Victor I. Gornyy; Jasper Berndt; Sergei S. Shevchenko; Alexandr F. Karpuzov; Tim Mansfeldt

2012-01-01

197

33 CFR 110.224 - San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting...Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting...Channel, the Stockton Turning Basin, the Sacramento River Deep Water Ship Channel...

2009-07-01

198

Avaliação da atividade antibacteriana e triagem fitoquímica das folhas de Acacia longifolia (Andr.) Willd. (Leguminosae)/ Evaluation of the antibacterial activity and phytochemical screening of the leaves of Acacia longifolia (Andr.) Willd., Leguminosae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se a atividade antibacteriana de extratos das folhas de Acacia longifolia (Andr.) Willd., através do método da difusão em gel. Os extratos foram incorporados em discos de papel, e foi verificado o efeito sobre o crescimento de bactérias patogênicas ao homem: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Escherichia coli (ATCC 11129) e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027). Verificou-se que o extrato etanólico bruto, a fração acetato de etila e a fração etanólica rema (more) nescente inibiram o crescimento de S. aureus, mas não o de E. coli; somente o extrato etanólico bruto inibiu, em menor grau o crescimento de P. aeruginosa. A triagem fitoquímica indicou a presença de taninos, leucoantocianidinas, flavonóides e triterpenos/esteróides nas folhas de A. longifolia. Abstract in english The antibacterial activity of the extracts of Acacia longifolia (Andr.) Willd. leaves was evaluated by the gel diffusion method. The extracts were incorporated in paper discs and it was verified the effect on the human pathogenic bacteria growth. The tested bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Escherichia coli (ATCC 11129) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027). The crude ethanolic extract, the ethyl acetate and the remained ethanolic fractions showed growth i (more) nhibition of S. aureus, only the crude ethanilic extract showed, in lower extension, growth inhibition of P. aeruginosa and no growth inhibition at all of E. coli. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of tannins, leucoanthocianidins, flavonoids and triterpene/steroids.

Peitz, C.; Cúnico, M.M.; Miguel, O.G.; Miguel, M.D.; Kerber, V.A.

2003-12-01

199

27 CFR 9.157 - San Francisco Bay.  

Science.gov (United States)

...24,000, dated 1959, Photorevised 1980; (20) San Quentin, California, scale 1:24,000, dated 1959, Photorevised...and San Francisco Bay, crossing over the Richmond and San Quentin Quadrangle maps, to its intersection with the San...

2010-04-01

200

Mechanisms of coexistence and competition between ants and land hermit crabs in a Bahamian archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

Ants and land crabs are common inhabitants of many coastal and insular communities across the tropics and subtropics, and yet direct evidence of interspecific competition between ants and land crabs has only recently been documented. I conducted a series of observational and manipulative experiments to further elucidate the mechanisms of competition, as well as coexistence, in these two groups in an archipelago of small Bahamian islands. Diel baiting trials demonstrated a significant temporal difference in foraging activity between the land hermit crab, Coenobita clypeatus (Herbst), and ant Brachymyrmex obscurior Forel, suggesting this is one mechanism underlying their coexistence on small oceanic islands. Reciprocal manipulative baiting experiments, in which one of a pair of species was removed from baits, documented that aggressive interspecific interactions underlie patterns of complementary distribution and temporal turnover at rich food resources. This was true for competition between hermit crabs and B. obscurior, and between B. obscurior and a second ant species, Dorymyrmex pyramicus Roger. Negative species associations at baits were found to be common throughout an archipelago of 69 small islands. A trade-off in exploitative and interference abilities may be a second mechanism allowing species coexistence on these small islands. Interspecific interactions such as competition and predation may occur commonly between ants and land crabs and have important consequences for the structure and function of tropical and subtropical insular ecosystems.

Morrison, Lloyd W.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Mercury concentrations of a resident freshwater forage fish at Adak Island, Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Aleutian Archipelago is an isolated arc of over 300 volcanic islands stretching 1,600 km across the interface of the Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean. Although remote, some Aleutian Islands were heavily impacted by military activities from World War II until recently and were exposed to anthropogenic contaminants, including mercury (Hg). Mercury is also delivered to these islands via global atmospheric transport, prevailing ocean currents, and biotransport by migratory species. Mercury contamination of freshwater ecosystems is poorly understood in this region. Total Hg (THg) concentrations were measured in threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) collected from eight lakes at Adak Island, an island in the center of the archipelago with a long military history. Mean THg concentrations for fish whole-body homogenates for all lakes ranged from 0.314 to 0.560 mg/kg dry weight. Stickleback collected from seabird-associated lakes had significantly higher concentrations of THg compared to non-seabird lakes, including all military lakes. The ?(13)C stable isotope ratios of stickleback collected from seabird lakes suggest an input of marine-derived nutrients and/or marine-derived Hg.

Kenney LA; von Hippel FA; Willacker JJ; O'Hara TM

2012-11-01

202

Use of finite mixture distribution models in the analysis of wind energy in the Canarian Archipelago  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The statistical characteristics of hourly mean wind speed data recorded at 16 weather stations located in the Canarian Archipelago are analyzed in this paper. As a result of this analysis we see that the typical two parameter Weibull wind speed distribution (W-pdf) does not accurately represent all wind regimes observed in that region. However, a Singly Truncated from below Normal Weibull mixture distribution (TNW-pdf) and a two component mixture Weibull distribution (WW-pdf) developed here do provide very good fits for both unimodal and bimodal wind speed frequency distributions observed in that region and offer less relative errors in determining the annual mean wind power density. The parameters of the distributions are estimated using the least squares method, which is resolved in this paper using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The suitability of the distributions is judged from the probability plot correlation coefficient plot R 2, adjusted for degrees of freedom. Based on the results obtained, we conclude that the two mixture distributions proposed here provide very flexible models for wind speed studies and can be applied in a widespread manner to represent the wind regimes in the Canarian archipelago and in other regions with similar characteristics. The TNW-pdf takes into account the frequency of null winds, whereas the WW-pdf and W-pdf do not. It can, therefore, better represent wind regimes with high percentages of null wind speeds. However, calculation of the TNW-pdf is markedly slower

2007-01-01

203

An invasive fish and the time-lagged spread of its parasite across the Hawaiian archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

Efforts to limit the impact of invasive species are frustrated by the cryptogenic status of a large proportion of those species. Half a century ago, the state of Hawai'i introduced the Bluestripe Snapper, Lutjanus kasmira, to O'ahu for fisheries enhancement. Today, this species shares an intestinal nematode parasite, Spirocamallanus istiblenni, with native Hawaiian fishes, raising the possibility that the introduced fish carried a parasite that has since spread to naïve local hosts. Here, we employ a multidisciplinary approach, combining molecular, historical, and ecological data to confirm the alien status of S. istiblenni in Hawai'i. Using molecular sequence data we show that S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are genetically affiliated with source populations in French Polynesia, and not parasites at a geographically intermediate location in the Line Islands. S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are a genetic subset of the more diverse source populations, indicating a bottleneck at introduction. Ecological surveys indicate that the parasite has found suitable intermediate hosts in Hawai'i, which are required for the completion of its life cycle, and that the parasite is twice as prevalent in Hawaiian Bluestripe Snappers as in source populations. While the introduced snapper has spread across the entire 2600 km archipelago to Kure Atoll, the introduced parasite has spread only half that distance. However, the parasite faces no apparent impediments to invading the entire archipelago, with unknown implications for naïve indigenous Hawaiian fishes and the protected Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument. PMID:23468894

Gaither, Michelle R; Aeby, Greta; Vignon, Matthias; Meguro, Yu-ichiro; Rigby, Mark; Runyon, Christina; Toonen, Robert J; Wood, Chelsea L; Bowen, Brian W

2013-02-27

204

Development of a Hindcast/Forecast Model for the Philippine Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article discusses the challenges of developing a regional ocean prediction model for the Philippine Archipelago, a complex area in terms of geometry, bathymetry-dominated dynamics and variability, and strong local and remote wind forcing, where there are limited temporal and spatial ocean measurements. We used the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) for real-time forecasting during the Philippines Experiment (2007–2009) observational program. The article focuses on the prediction experiments before and during the exploratory cruise period, June 6–July 3, 2007. The gathered observations were not available in real time, so the 4-Dimensional Variational (4D-Var) data assimilation experiments were carried out in hindcast mode. The best estimate of ocean state (nowcast) is determined by combining satellite-derived products for sea surface temperature and height, and subsurface temperature and salinity measurements from several hydrographic assets over a sequential five-day data assimilation window. The largest source of forecast uncertainty is from the prescribed lateral boundary conditions in the nearby Pacific Ocean, especially excessive salt flux. This result suggests that remote forcing and inflows from the Pacific are crucial for predicting ocean circulation in the Philippine Archipelago region. The lateral boundary conditions are derived from 1/12° global Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) daily snapshots. The incremental, strong-constraint 4D-Var data assimilation successfully decreased temperature and salinity errors of the real-time, nonassimilative control forecast by 38% and 49%, respectively.

Hernan G. Arango; Julia C. Levin; Enrique Curchitser; Bin Zhang; Andrew M. Moore; Weiqing Han; Arnold L. Gordon; Craig Lee; James B. Girton

2011-01-01

205

Mesozoic stratigraphy of Canadian Arctic archipelago and implications for opening of Amerasian basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mesozoic strata in the Canadian Arctic archipelago occur mainly in the Sverdrup basin where the succession is up to 9 km thick. The strata consist of alternating sandstone-dominant units and argillaceous intervals and record 25 regional transgressions and regressions. These resulted from the interplay of sedimentation, tectonics, and eustatic sea level changes. Subaerial unconformities occur on the basin margins and disappear basinward. Most of these unconformities are interpreted to be the product of eustatic sea level fall on the basis of correlation with global sea level charts. However, unconformities of latest Aalenian, late Callovian, Hauterivian, and Coniacian ages are interpreted to be related to tectonic activity and the formation of the Amerasian basin. Normal faulting and basic dike and sill intrusion occurred in the Sverdrup basin from Middle Jurassic to early Late Cretaceous. The latest Aalenian and late Callovian unconformities probably reflect early rifting events. Hauterivian uplift was widespread and coincides with the final phase of rifting and initiation of sea-floor spreading in the Amerasian basin. Marine onlap across the breakup unconformity began in Barremian time and by Albian much of the Arctic archipelago had been transgressed. Basalt flows are intercalated with Barremian to Turonian strata in the northeastern Sverdrup basin and represent the cratonward extension of the Alpha-Mendeleyev volcanic ridge, which was active during the opening of the Amerasian basin. Coniacian uplift coincided with the cessation of volcanism in the Sverdrup basin and of sea-floor spreading in the ocean basin to the north.

Embry, A.F.

1985-02-01

206

Use of finite mixture distribution models in the analysis of wind energy in the Canarian Archipelago  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The statistical characteristics of hourly mean wind speed data recorded at 16 weather stations located in the Canarian Archipelago are analyzed in this paper. As a result of this analysis we see that the typical two parameter Weibull wind speed distribution (W-pdf) does not accurately represent all wind regimes observed in that region. However, a Singly Truncated from below Normal Weibull mixture distribution (TNW-pdf) and a two component mixture Weibull distribution (WW-pdf) developed here do provide very good fits for both unimodal and bimodal wind speed frequency distributions observed in that region and offer less relative errors in determining the annual mean wind power density. The parameters of the distributions are estimated using the least squares method, which is resolved in this paper using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The suitability of the distributions is judged from the probability plot correlation coefficient plot R {sup 2}, adjusted for degrees of freedom. Based on the results obtained, we conclude that the two mixture distributions proposed here provide very flexible models for wind speed studies and can be applied in a widespread manner to represent the wind regimes in the Canarian archipelago and in other regions with similar characteristics. The TNW-pdf takes into account the frequency of null winds, whereas the WW-pdf and W-pdf do not. It can, therefore, better represent wind regimes with high percentages of null wind speeds. However, calculation of the TNW-pdf is markedly slower.

Carta, Jose Antonio [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Campus de Tafira s/n, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)]. E-mail: jcarta@dim.ulpgc.es; Ramirez, Penelope [Department of Renewable Energies and Water, Technological Institute of the Canary Islands, Pozo Izquierdo Beach s/n, 35119 Santa Lucia, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)

2007-01-15

207

The response of phytoplankton to increased temperature in the Loviisa archipelago, Gulf of Finland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Phytoplankton was studied in the Loviisa archipelago (south coast of Finland) in 1971-1994. Since 1977, thermal effluents from the Loviisa nuclear power plant have been discharged into the sea there. A general increase of nutrients in the Gulf of Finland contributed to an increase in phytoplankton biomass and primary production in the Loviisa archipelago during the late 1970s and 1980s, though biomass seemed to decrease again in the 1990s. The rise in temperature was, however, a more important factor than nutrients stimulating the production and biomass in the area close to the cooling water outlet. The thermal discharges increased especially the biomass of Aphanizomenon spp., which is the most abundant cyanoprocaryote (blue-green alga) and one of the most common phytoplankton taxa in the study area. At the intake area, total amounts of phosphorus best explained the changes in total biomass. The results indicate that increased temperature can lengthen the growing season, advance eutrophication and somewhat change species dominances in the circumstances prevailing in the northern Baltic Sea. (orig.)

Ilus, E. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki, (Finland)); Keskitalo, J. (Univ. of Helsinki (Finland))

2008-07-01

208

Geographical persistence of surface-layer water properties in the Archipelago Sea, SW Finland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Archipelago Sea in the Northern Baltic Sea has a complex water quality regime. The region consists of islands and underwater thresholds that separate interconnected sub-basins, where the waters from the adjacent sea areas and discharges from the mainland are mixed. Thus, the water properties in the region are exceptionally varying by season and location. We studied the seasonal developments of five surface-layer water variables – temperature, salinity, Secchi depth, chlorophyll and acidity – and the persistence of their geographical patterns in a network of 20 sampling stations in the eastern part of the Archipelago Sea during a period from May to October in 2007. Furthermore, the inter-annual persistence of the late summer observations of three of these variables were analysed within the same network. Although preconceptions about the general gradation patterns from the mainland towards the open sea were found realistic, we also identified geographically divergent seasonal developments and found out that the inter-annual persistence of the studied three variables were not geographically as strong as expected.

Tapio Suominen; Harri Tolvanen; Risto Kalliola

2010-01-01

209

Present situation and future prospects of electricity generation in Aegean Archipelago islands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Aegean Archipelago is a remote Hellenic area, including several hundreds of scattered islands of various sizes. In these islands more than 600,000 people are living mainly in small remote communities. The main economical activities of the islanders are apart from tourism, seafaring, fishery, agriculture and stock farming. One of the major problems of the area is the insufficient infrastructure, strongly related with the absence of an integrated and cost-effective electrification plan. In this context, the present work is concentrated on analyzing the present situation and demonstrating the future prospects of electricity generation in the Aegean Archipelago islands. For this purpose, one should first investigate the time evolution of the corresponding electricity generation parameters (i.e. annual electricity consumption, peak power demand, capacity factor, specific fuel consumption) for the last 30 years. Subsequently, the corresponding diesel and heavy-oil consumption along with the electricity production cost for every specific autonomous power station of the area are investigated. Special attention is paid in order to estimate the contribution of renewable energy sources (RES) in the energy balance of each island. Finally, an attempt is made to describe in brief the most realistic electricity production solutions available, including the operation of hybrid RES-based power plants in collaboration with appropriate energy storage facilities. Additionally, the idea of connecting the islands of the area with the mainland and interconnecting them is also taken into consideration. (author)

Kaldellis, J.K.; Zafirakis, D. [Lab of Soft Energy Applications and Environmental Protection, TEI of Piraeus, P.O. Box 41046, Athens 12201 (Greece)

2007-09-15

210

Present situation and future prospects of electricity generation in Aegean Archipelago islands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Aegean Archipelago is a remote Hellenic area, including several hundreds of scattered islands of various sizes. In these islands more than 600,000 people are living mainly in small remote communities. The main economical activities of the islanders are apart from tourism, seafaring, fishery, agriculture and stock farming. One of the major problems of the area is the insufficient infrastructure, strongly related with the absence of an integrated and cost-effective electrification plan. In this context, the present work is concentrated on analyzing the present situation and demonstrating the future prospects of electricity generation in the Aegean Archipelago islands. For this purpose, one should first investigate the time evolution of the corresponding electricity generation parameters (i.e. annual electricity consumption, peak power demand, capacity factor, specific fuel consumption) for the last 30 years. Subsequently, the corresponding diesel and heavy-oil consumption along with the electricity production cost for every specific autonomous power station of the area are investigated. Special attention is paid in order to estimate the contribution of renewable energy sources (RES) in the energy balance of each island. Finally, an attempt is made to describe in brief the most realistic electricity production solutions available, including the operation of hybrid RES-based power plants in collaboration with appropriate energy storage facilities. Additionally, the idea of connecting the islands of the area with the mainland and interconnecting them is also taken into consideration.

2007-01-01

211

An invasive fish and the time-lagged spread of its parasite across the Hawaiian archipelago.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Efforts to limit the impact of invasive species are frustrated by the cryptogenic status of a large proportion of those species. Half a century ago, the state of Hawai'i introduced the Bluestripe Snapper, Lutjanus kasmira, to O'ahu for fisheries enhancement. Today, this species shares an intestinal nematode parasite, Spirocamallanus istiblenni, with native Hawaiian fishes, raising the possibility that the introduced fish carried a parasite that has since spread to naïve local hosts. Here, we employ a multidisciplinary approach, combining molecular, historical, and ecological data to confirm the alien status of S. istiblenni in Hawai'i. Using molecular sequence data we show that S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are genetically affiliated with source populations in French Polynesia, and not parasites at a geographically intermediate location in the Line Islands. S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are a genetic subset of the more diverse source populations, indicating a bottleneck at introduction. Ecological surveys indicate that the parasite has found suitable intermediate hosts in Hawai'i, which are required for the completion of its life cycle, and that the parasite is twice as prevalent in Hawaiian Bluestripe Snappers as in source populations. While the introduced snapper has spread across the entire 2600 km archipelago to Kure Atoll, the introduced parasite has spread only half that distance. However, the parasite faces no apparent impediments to invading the entire archipelago, with unknown implications for naïve indigenous Hawaiian fishes and the protected Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument.

Gaither MR; Aeby G; Vignon M; Meguro Y; Rigby M; Runyon C; Toonen RJ; Wood CL; Bowen BW

2013-01-01

212

APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO2) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

2001-01-01

213

An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres reservoir, Foster and South Cowden fields, Ector County, Texas. Quarterly report, April 1--June 31, 1996. Revision  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The principal objective of this research is to demonstrate in the field that 3D seismic data can be used to aid in identifying porosity zones, permeability barriers and thief zones and thereby improve waterflood design. Geologic and engineering data will be integrated with the geophysical data to result in a detailed reservoir characterization. Reservoir simulation will then be used to determine infill drilling potential and the optimum waterflood design for the project area. This design will be implemented and the success of the waterflood evaluated.

Trentham, R.C.; Weinbrandt, R.; Robertson, W.

1996-10-17

214

APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the seventh annual reporting period (8/3/00-8/2/01) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the interwell seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted and the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction were conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and six wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

Tom Beebe

2003-05-05

215

APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the fifth and sixth annual reporting periods (8/3/98-8/2/00) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the cross well seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted, the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction was conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and ten wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

2002-01-09

216

An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres reservoir, Foster and south Cowden fields, Ector County, Texas. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The principal objective of this research is to demonstrate in the field that 3D seismic data can be used to aid in identifying porosity zones, permeability barriers and thief zones and thereby improve waterflood design. Geologic and engineering data will be integrated with the geophysical data to result in a detailed reservoir characterization. Reservoir simulation will then be used to determine infill drilling potential and the optimum waterflood design for the project area. This design will be implemented and the success of the waterflood evaluated.

Trentham, R.C.; Weinbrandt, R.; Reeves, J.J.

1996-06-17

217

An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. Quarterly progress report, April 1995--June 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The principal objective of this research is to demonstrate in the field that 3D seismic data can be used to aid in identifying porosity zones, permeability barriers and thief zones and thereby improve waterflood design. Geologic and engineering data will be integrated with the geophysical data to result in a detailed reservoir characterization. Reservoir simulation will then be used to determine infill drilling potential and the optimum waterflood design for the project area. This design will be implemented and the success of the waterflood evaluated.

Reeves, J.J.; Rowland, D.A.; Trentham, R.C.

1995-10-01

218

APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO2) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

2000-01-01

219

Marketing San Juan Basin gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Marketing natural gas produced in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado principally involves four gas pipeline companies with significant facilities in the basin. The system capacity, transportation rates, regulatory status, and market access of each of these companies is evaluated. Because of excess gas supplies available to these pipeline companies, producers can expect improved take levels and prices by selling gas directly to end users and utilities as opposed to selling gas to the pipelines for system supply. The complexities of transporting gas today suggest that the services of an independent gas marketing company may be beneficial to smaller producers with gas supplies in the San Juan Basin

1988-01-01

220

« Imaginez un monde sans mesure… »  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Que serait le monde, sans mesure ? Les durées, les lieux et même les directions perdraient de leur substance. Prendre la direction de Marseille ou de Lyon sans connaître la distance à parcourir pour y parvenir n'a pas de sens et rend ces lieux hors d'atteinte. Ne pas connaître le temps d'attente restant avant d'embarquer pour Los Angeles ou Paris, rend, à nos yeux de « modernes mondialisés », ces destinations inaccessibles : autant sortir son duvet et ...

Blandine Ripert; Emmanuelle Tricoire

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

33 CFR 165.754 - Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR. 165.754 Section 165.754 Navigation...Coast Guard District § 165.754 Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR. (a) Regulated area....

2010-07-01

222

76 FR 55796 - Safety Zone; TriRock Triathlon, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

...RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; TriRock Triathlon, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA AGENCY...Competitor Group is sponsoring the TriRock Triathlon, consisting of 2000 swimmers swimming...165.T11-431 Safety Zone; TriRock Triathlon, San Diego Bay, San Diego,...

2011-09-09

223

27 CFR 9.110 - San Benito.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false San Benito. 9.110 Section 9.110 Alcohol...American Viticultural Areas § 9.110 San Benito. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...area described in this section is âSan Benito.â (b) Approved maps. The...

2009-04-01

224

Pollination in small islands by occasional visitors: the case of Daucus carota subsp. commutatus (Apiaceae) in the Columbretes archipelago, Spain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigates the pollination ecology and related floral traits of the species Daucus carota subsp. commutatus in the isolated archipelago of Columbretes, E. Spain, where bees are absent. Two populations were studied: a small population found on a relatively large island (Grossa) inhabited...

Pérez Bañón, Celeste; Petanidou, Theodora; Marcos García, María Ángeles

225

Spatial Econometric Model for Economics Development in Archipelago of Riau, as a Defense System Development in Republic of Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Province of Archipelago of Riau is a region in Indonesia which is adjacent to Singapore and Malaysia. This province has a great potential conditions diversity and natural resources. Planning on public prosperity improvement is necessary in order to increase loyalty and nationalism to Republic of Indonesia. The aim of this research is to build a spatial econometric model of economic growth in Province of Archipelago of Riau. One of the results shows that in recent 4 years Batam always gives the largest contribution to GRDP in Province of Archipelago of Riau. This can be understood that the contribution is more than 72.0% not only based on GRDP at current prices, but also based on GRDP at constant prices. Economic growth rate in regions in Province of Archipelago of Riau is higher than national economic growth rate. The model fits well because the coefficient of determination R2 is more than 85%. There are only 3 worse models, i.e. based on building construction in Batam (with R2= 59.6%), in Tanjungpinang (with R2=74.0%), and based on transportation and communication in Tanjungpinang (with R2=37.1%).

Susanti Linuwih; Setiawan Setiawan; Dwiatmono A. W Dwiatmono A. W; Wiryadi Wiryadi

2010-01-01

226

San Antonio Zoological Gardens & Aquarium  

Science.gov (United States)

Special services for teachers and students include programs for classes and summer camps. A variety of land and aquatic animals are on display; website contains a section on animal training; adopt-an-animal program offered. Free screensaver. Admission fees apply. Located in San Antonio, Texas.

227

Changes in driftwood delivery to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: The hypothesis of postglacial oscillations of the transpolar drift  

Science.gov (United States)

Driftwood appears to be absent in the Beaufort Gyre but abundant in parts of the Transpolar Drift (TPD), which crosses the Arctic Ocean from the Chukchi Sea to the vicinity of northeastern Greenland. Nearly 300 radiocarbon dates on Holocene driftwood from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago reveal two regions with contrasting histories of driftwood incursion: the region accessible to wood brought into Baffin Bay by the West Greenland Current and the rest of the archipelago, which receives wood from the Arctic Ocean. We hypothesize that when the TPD was deflected westward along northern Greenland, wood was delivered widely to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago; when the TPD exited entirely through Fram Strait via the East Greenland Current, little or no wood was delivered to most of the archipelago, but some continued into Baffin Bay via the West Greenland Current. A split TPD delivered wood to both regions. The regional driftwood incursion histories exhibit multiple maxima and minima that can be explained by this hypothesis. The Larix to Picea ratio of wood arriving in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago has also changed through time. This may indicate varying contributions from Russian versus North American sources, which in turn may indicate variable mixing of wood en route. The inferred discharge paths of the TPD were apparently stable for intervals ranging from several millennia to centuries or perhaps only decades. The last major switch broadly correlates with the onset of Neoglaciation. Variations in the path and strength of the TPD may have important oceanographic and climatic consequences downstream in the North Atlantic Ocean.

Dyke, A. S.; England, J.; Reimnitz, E.; Jette, H.

1997-01-01

228

San Juan Uchucuanicu: évolution historique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La communauté de San Juan est reconnue depuis 1939. Une première partie concerne l?organisation de la reducción de San Juan vers le milieu du XVIe siècle. Le poids fiscal s?exerce durement sur le village et la crise est générale dans toute la vallée du Chancay au XVIIe. siècle. La christianisation des habitants est définitive au milieu de ce même siècle. C?est vers la fin du XVIIe siècle et durant tout le XVIIIe que se multiplient les conflits entre San Juan et les villages voisins liés aux terrains de pâture et à la possession de l?eau. La deuxième partie du travail concerne les rapports de la communauté de San Juan avec le Pérou contemporain : contrainte fiscale toujours très lourde durant la fin de l?époque coloniale, exactions des militaires juste avant l?indépendance. La période républicaine voit toujours les conflits avec les villages voisins mais aussi la naissance de familles qui cherchent à retirer le maximum de la communauté. Les terres sont divisées et attribuées : la détérioration de l?organisation communale traditionnelle est manifeste. L4es conflits se multiplient entre petits propriétaires, mais aussi avec les haciendas voisines : c?est l?apparition d?une véritable lutte de classes. La situation actuelle est incertaine, le poids de l?économie marchande se développe avec l?exode des jeunes. Que sera la communauté San Juan à la fin de ce siècle? La comunidad de San Juan está reconocida desde 1939. La primera parte concierne a la organización de la 'reducción' de San Juan hacia mediados del siglo XVI. El peso fiscal se ejerce duramente sobre el pueblo y en el siglo XVII la crisis es general en todo el valle de Chancay. Hacia mediados del mismo siglo la cristianización de los habitantes es definitiva. Es hacia fines del siglo XVII y durante todo el siglo XVIII que se multiplican los conflictos entre San Juan y los pueblos vecinos, los que están relacionados con los terrenos de pastoreo y la posesión del agua. La segunda parte del trabajo concierne a las relaciones de la comunidad de San Juan con el Perú contemporáneo: obligaciones fiscales cada vez más pesadas hacia fines de la época colonial, exacciones de los militares justamente antes de la independencia. El período republicano ve siempre los conflictos entre los pueblos vecinos pero igualmente el nacimiento de familias que procuran sacar el máximo de la comunidad. Las tierras son divididas y atribuidas: el deterioro de la organización comunal tradicional se pone de manifiesto. Se multiplican los conflictos entre pequeños propietarios, pero también con las haciendas vecinas: es la aparición de una verdadera lucha de clases. La situación actual es incierta, el peso de la economía comercial se desarrolla con el éxodo de los jóvenes. ¿Que será de la comunidad de San Juan a fines de este siglo? San Juan community has been recognized since 1939. In the first part, we will show' the organization of San Juan's reducción at the middle of the XVI century. The fiscal burden on the village was hard and this crisis was general all over the valley of Chancay during the XVII century. Christianisation of the inhabitants was completed in the middle of this same century. It is only at the end of this century and along all the XVII that the conflicts between San Juan and the neighboring villages were multiplied, tied to pasture lands and water possession In the second part, we will show the relations of San Juan with the contemporary Peru: always very hard fiscal constraint at the end of the colonial time and military exactions till the independence. Along the republican period, the conflicts with the neighboring villages persisted but there were also arising families who were trying to take the maximum of the community. Lands were divided and attributed, deterioration of traditional communal organization was visible. Conflicts between small landlords and neighboring haciendas were multiplied A real class struggle appeared. The actual situation seems uncertain but the trading economy b

Locker, Hugues; Piel, Jean

1975-01-01

229

The WLPGA at San Diego; La WLPGA a San Diego  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

More than 400 delegates and some 150 accompanying persons from more than 50 countries, participated at the 13. Forum of the World LP Gas Association which was held on 19-21 October, 2000, at San Diego (California). Some fifty companies were present at the exhibition. At the General Assembly, Jim Ferrel was re-elected for a one-year period as President of the WLPGA, while Rick Hale (LPG Business Unit Leader of BP) was named as Vice-President. M.A. Pathan, Chairman of Indian Oil, was named also Vice-President. Rene Le Marchand, President of Geostock was elected Treasurer. At the Board of Directors entered Gilles Marchal (President of TotalGaz), Kimball Chen (co-chairman and CEO - Energy Transportation Group) and A. Iori (President of Agip Gas). GPL Actualites will publish an in-depth coverage of the San Diego Forum in its next issue. (authors)

Anon.

2001-01-01

230

Pre- and post-1998 ENSO records of shallow-water octocorals (Alcyonacea) in the Chagos Archipelago.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

When compared, principal octocorals collected in the Chagos Archipelago before and after the 1998 ENSO shared many common taxa. While a few discontinuities in their biodiversity revealed subtle changes in more persistent genera (Lobophytum, Sarcophyton), some fast-growing "fugitive" genera (e.g. Cespitularia, Efflatounaria, Heteroxenia) disappeared after the ENSO-related coral bleaching. Such transient fugitives might thus be eliminated from soft coral communities on isolated reef systems, possibly in the long term, by events of this nature. The appearance of Carijoa riseii, a species often considered a fouling organism, even an invasive, may well be indicative of reef degradation during the ENSO event. The post-ENSO recovery manifested by this fauna nevertheless gives cause for hope for their survival in the face of climate change.

Schleyer MH; Benayahu Y

2010-12-01

231

Biomonitoring of oil spill in a boreal archipelago by xenobiotic biotransformation in perch (Perca fluviatilis).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of the accidental oil spill (250 tons) in a boreal archipelago (Gulf of Bothnia, Vaasa, Finland) on xenobiotic metabolism of local perch (Perca fluviatilis) was monitored for 1.5 years. The monooxygenase (benzo[a]pyrene, 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase) and conjugation (UDPglucuronosyltransferase, glutathione S-transferase) activities of perch liver were determined from control areas and those areas where oil had spilled. Only a slight induction in monooxygenase activities was seen in perch caught near the oil spill 4 months after the accident. The induction of monooxygenase activities detected with the fuel oil in laboratory experiments was, however, clear. After a single dose, it rose rapidly and quickly disappeared. Conjugation enzyme activities were not affected in the laboratory.

Lindström-Seppä P

1988-04-01

232

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air from Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece): Natural versus anthropogenic sources.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presents the chemical composition of VOCs in air and gas discharges collected at Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece). The main goals are i) to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic VOC sources and ii) to evaluate their impact on local air quality. Up to 63 different VOCs were recognized and quantitatively determined in 6 fumaroles and 19 air samples collected in the Lakki caldera, where fumarolic emissions are located, and the outer ring of the island, including the Mandraki village and the main harbor. Air samples from the crater area show significant concentrations of alkanes, alkenes, cyclic, aromatics, and S- and O-bearing heterocycles directly deriving from the hydrothermal system, as well as secondary O-bearing compounds from oxidation of primary VOCs. At Mandraki village, C6H6/?(methylated aromatics) and ?(linear)/?(branched) alkanes ratios <1 allow to distinguish an anthropogenic source related to emissions from outlet pipes of touristic and private boats and buses. PMID:23747819

Tassi, F; Capecchiacci, F; Giannini, L; Vougioukalakis, G E; Vaselli, O

2013-06-05

233

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air from Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece): Natural versus anthropogenic sources.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study presents the chemical composition of VOCs in air and gas discharges collected at Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece). The main goals are i) to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic VOC sources and ii) to evaluate their impact on local air quality. Up to 63 different VOCs were recognized and quantitatively determined in 6 fumaroles and 19 air samples collected in the Lakki caldera, where fumarolic emissions are located, and the outer ring of the island, including the Mandraki village and the main harbor. Air samples from the crater area show significant concentrations of alkanes, alkenes, cyclic, aromatics, and S- and O-bearing heterocycles directly deriving from the hydrothermal system, as well as secondary O-bearing compounds from oxidation of primary VOCs. At Mandraki village, C6H6/?(methylated aromatics) and ?(linear)/?(branched) alkanes ratios <1 allow to distinguish an anthropogenic source related to emissions from outlet pipes of touristic and private boats and buses.

Tassi F; Capecchiacci F; Giannini L; Vougioukalakis GE; Vaselli O

2013-09-01

234

Evaluation of the solar photovoltaic energy potential in six climatic areas of the Madeira Archipelago (Portugal)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper deals with the estimation of solar photovoltaic energy potential in six defined climatic areas of the Madeira Archipelago. The areas are climatologically represented by the variables recorded in six meteorological stations (Areeiro, Funchal, Lugar de Baixo, Ponta do Pargo, Sao Jorge, and Porto Santo). Variables used for the calculation (solar irradiance and temperature) are taken into account through their daily evolution in the monthly characteristic days defined in a parent paper for the six sites of the stations. In order to make the conclusions of the study as general as possible, PV modules are supposed to be in the horizontal plane. An advantage of this arrangement is that the calculated PV production for square meter of module coincides with the PV production per square meter of horizontal land. The paper ends advising about the best places for the use of solar photovoltaic in the region. (orig.)

Vazquez M; Izquierdo, P. [Vigo Univ., ETSI Industriales (Spain). Solar Energy Lab.; Magro, C.; Sousa, J. [Governo Regional da Madeira, Funchal (Portugal). Lab. Regional de Engenharia Civil

2008-07-01

235

Local Culture as a Resource in Regional Development in the Southwest-Finland Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In cultural and regional politics in the European Union, and in practice for instance in the Southwest-Finland Archipelago, local culture and cultural heritage are considered resources. Global boundlessness, heterogeneity and change are basic qualities of culture. However, in regional development, culture is seen and used as a number of different local cultures with their own essential cultural heritage. The culture of local everyday life is opposite to, and in tension with, the construct of cultures used in regional development. Accordingly, culture should primarily be safeguarded as a heterogenic, dynamic and interactive process of everyday life. This process is the most important resource of local culture. In addition, culture should be safeguarded as value-based cultural constructions, such as brands or common identities of certain cultures, with for instance cultural heritage as a part of it. In the latter case, a common, transparent definition of these brands, identities and cultural heritages with their different values, is needed.

Katriina Siivonen

2009-01-01

236

Summary of geology and resource potential of coal deposits in the Canadian Arctic archipelago  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

All geologic provinces in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago contain bituminous coals. The oldest coals are found in the Devonian clastic wedge, principally in the western Arctic Islands. However, thin seams and high sandstone/coal ratios render the Devonian strata low in resource potential. The thick sequence of clastic rocks in central and eastern Sverdrup Basin provides the greatest potential for coal in the Arctic Islands. Of the four main phases of delta construction (Heiberg, Isachsen, Hassel, and Eureka Sound formations), the Heiberg and Eureka Sound strata contain the thickest and most widespread coal seams. The Eureka Sound Formation in particular contains seams up to 15 meters thick and possible resources of several thousand million tonnes. Cretaceous and Tertiary coal-bearing strata, in regions underlain by Precambrian basement or the Arctic Platform, are preserved in small, fault-bounded outliers and have low resource potential. 50 references.

Ricketts, B.D.; Embry, A.F.

1984-12-01

237

Population dynamics of intertidal oribatid mites (Acari: Cryptostigmata) from the subtropical archipelago of Bermuda.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The population dynamics of the three intertidal oribatid species, Alismobates inexpectatus, Fortuynia atlantica and Carinozetes bermudensis, have been studied on the archipelago of Bermuda over the course of a year. All three species are univoltine, showing a clear seasonal demographic pattern, with reproduction from spring to late autumn and a complete standstill of egg production in winter. A seasonal shift in sex ratio could also be observed in all three species and is supposed to be based on sex-dependent mortality. The subtropical climate of Bermuda allows longer reproductive periods than shown in other intertidal or edaphic temperate species and temperature is supposed to be the main factor influencing the demography of these intertidal dwelling mites. Although all three Bermudian species exhibit the same basic seasonal demographic pattern, there are slight temporal shifts in population dynamics, presumably caused by local microclimatic differences among the populations. Larviparity, shown in other littoral oribatid mites, is clearly absent in the present species.

Pfingstl T

2013-10-01

238

Biomonitoring of oil spill in a boreal archipelago by xenobiotic biotransformation in perch (Perca fluviatilis)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of the accidental oil spill (250 tons) in a boreal archipelago (Gulf of Bothnia, Vaasa, Finland) on xenobiotic metabolism of local perch (Perca fluviatilis) was monitored for 1.5 years. The monooxygenase (benzo(a)pyrene, 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase) and conjugation (UDPglucuronosyltransferase, glutathione S-transferase) activities of perch liver were determined from control areas and those areas where oil had spilled. Only a slight induction in monooxygenase activities was seen in perch caught near the oil spill 4 months after the accident. The induction of monooxygenase activities detected with the fuel oil in laboratory experiments was, however, clear. After a single dose, it rose rapidly and quickly disappeared. Conjugation enzyme activities were not affected in the laboratory.

Lindstroem-Seppae P2

1988-04-01

239

Tuvalu, Sovereignty and Climate Change: Considering Fenua, the Archipelago and Emigration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tuvalu is a Pacific atoll nation-state that has come to stand for predicaments implicating climate change, forced emigration and resettlement, and loss of territory and sovereignty. Legal and policy remedies seek to address such challenges by radically reframing how sovereignty is conceived. Drawing on literary and legal theory, we seek to extend such work in the terms of cultural geography and anthropology by considering how the archipelago and cultural practices known as fenua could be deployed as symbolic and material resources emphasizing mobility and connection, in contrast to normative ideas of sovereignty, whose orientation to territory imperils atoll states. Our fundamental argument is that legal and policy reforms addressing climate change emigration must be enriched by accounting for the emotional geographies that attend the changing real and conceptual borders of sovereignty and by creating alternative spaces of hope and action.

Elaine Stratford; Carol Farbotko; Heather Lazrus

2013-01-01

240

Pearl oysters Pinctada margaritifera grazing on natural plankton in Ahe atoll lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia).  

Science.gov (United States)

In atoll lagoons of French Polynesia, growth and reproduction of pearl oysters are mainly driven by plankton concentration. However, the actual diet of black-lip pearl oysters Pinctada margaritifera in these lagoons is poorly known. To fill this gap, we used the flow through chamber method to measure clearance rates of P. margaritifera in Ahe atoll lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia). We found: (i) that pearl oysters cleared plankton at a rate that was positively related to plankton biovolume, (ii) that nanoflagellates were the main source of carbon for the pearl oysters, and (iii) that the quantity and origin of carbon filtrated by pearl oysters was highly dependent on the concentration and composition of plankton. These results provide essential elements for the comprehension of growth and reproduction variability of pearl oysters in atoll lagoons of French Polynesia. PMID:22560742

Fournier, Jonathan; Dupuy, Christine; Bouvy, Marc; Couraudon-Réale, Marine; Charpy, Loïc; Pouvreau, Stephane; Le Moullac, Gilles; Le Pennec, Marcel; Cochard, Jean-Claude

2012-05-03

 
 
 
 
241

Population dynamics of intertidal oribatid mites (Acari: Cryptostigmata) from the subtropical archipelago of Bermuda.  

Science.gov (United States)

The population dynamics of the three intertidal oribatid species, Alismobates inexpectatus, Fortuynia atlantica and Carinozetes bermudensis, have been studied on the archipelago of Bermuda over the course of a year. All three species are univoltine, showing a clear seasonal demographic pattern, with reproduction from spring to late autumn and a complete standstill of egg production in winter. A seasonal shift in sex ratio could also be observed in all three species and is supposed to be based on sex-dependent mortality. The subtropical climate of Bermuda allows longer reproductive periods than shown in other intertidal or edaphic temperate species and temperature is supposed to be the main factor influencing the demography of these intertidal dwelling mites. Although all three Bermudian species exhibit the same basic seasonal demographic pattern, there are slight temporal shifts in population dynamics, presumably caused by local microclimatic differences among the populations. Larviparity, shown in other littoral oribatid mites, is clearly absent in the present species. PMID:23515699

Pfingstl, Tobias

2013-03-21

242

Tectonic stability since the last interglacial offsets the Glorieuses Islands from the nearby Comoros archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The four fossil terraces of the Glorieuses Islands are described, and new dates are provided to resolve their stratigraphy, depositional setting, and tectonic behavior. Most outcrops consist of a single sedimentary unit that represents the remains of an extensive reef flat dominated by Isopora palifera corals. At Lys Island, this unit is locally overlain by dipping layered beds composed of Halimeda segments, tentatively interpreted as storm overwash. Reliable U/Th dates obtained from corals sampled from the fossil outcrops mostly fall between 127 and 123 kyr, suggesting that these reefs formed exclusively during the first MIS-5e sea-level highstand, when sea level reached +3 m. The mean elevation of these terraces being +4.5 m, an uplift of 0.012 ± 0.002 mm year-1 is inferred. This relative tectonic stability contrasts with the subsidence reported from Mayotte Island, suggesting a different geologic setting for the nearby Comoros and Glorieuses archipelagoes.

Guillaume, M. M. M.; Reyss, J.-L.; Pirazzoli, P. A.; Bruggemann, J. H.

2013-09-01

243

Pearl oysters Pinctada margaritifera grazing on natural plankton in Ahe atoll lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In atoll lagoons of French Polynesia, growth and reproduction of pearl oysters are mainly driven by plankton concentration. However, the actual diet of black-lip pearl oysters Pinctada margaritifera in these lagoons is poorly known. To fill this gap, we used the flow through chamber method to measure clearance rates of P. margaritifera in Ahe atoll lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia). We found: (i) that pearl oysters cleared plankton at a rate that was positively related to plankton biovolume, (ii) that nanoflagellates were the main source of carbon for the pearl oysters, and (iii) that the quantity and origin of carbon filtrated by pearl oysters was highly dependent on the concentration and composition of plankton. These results provide essential elements for the comprehension of growth and reproduction variability of pearl oysters in atoll lagoons of French Polynesia.

Fournier J; Dupuy C; Bouvy M; Couraudon-Réale M; Charpy L; Pouvreau S; Le Moullac G; Le Pennec M; Cochard JC

2012-01-01

244

Description of female pupa and larva of Ficalbia ichiromiyagii from Iriomote Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe and illustrate for the 1st time the pupa and larva of adult female Ficalbia ichiromiyagii based on specimens collected from a swamp forest in Otomi, Iriomote Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. The pupa has a trumpet that is 6.25 times its breadth at halfway, with a long meatal cleft line; setae 6-I, II considerably long, usually single or bifid; median caudal seta absent; and paddle edge serrated only on the outer apical half. The larva is characterized by dark pigmentation of the head and siphon, seta I-C elongate and spiniform, usually with a short lateral spine on the inner basal side and siphon with 1 pecten spine and conspicuous seta 1-S at the base. The immature stages were found only in undisturbed jungle swamps with dense vegetation. PMID:23393749

Higa, Yukiko; Toma, Takako; Miyagi, Ichiro

2012-12-01

245

Recent International and Domestic Migration in the Maltese Archipelago: An Economic Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Migration strategies often permit densely populated island territories to alleviate unemployment, ease pressure on limited resources, and compensate for the absence of economic diversification. This paper evaluates two types of recent migratory flows affecting the Maltese archipelago: international migration to and from the islands triggered or intensified by European Union membership; and domestic, inter-island movements between the ‘mainland’ (Malta) and the smaller island (Gozo).The descriptive statistics used are based on published data, whilst the qualitative evaluation is derived from focus groups and interviews with stakeholders. Conclusions suggest that emigration remains an overall positive experience at the individual level, with constructive spill-over effects, mingling of cultures and better use of resources at the national level. Such benefits can be expected to increase if authorities design policies which encourage rather than discourage migratory flows.

Rose Marie Azzopardi

2012-01-01

246

Unexpectedly high radioactivity burdens in ice-rafted sediments from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Unexpectedly high specific activities of 137Cs (1800-2000 Bq kg-1 dry weight) have been detected in fine-grained sediments entrained in multi-year sea ice floes grounded in Resolute Bay near the center of the Northwest Passage through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. These results are remarkable because: (1) the specific activities are about two orders of magnitude higher than average specific activities detected in previous studies of sea ice rafted sediments from the Arctic Ocean (2) two independent observations of these unexpectedly high specific activities were made several years apart (3) the sampling site is on the opposite side of the Arctic basin from potential radioactive sources such as disposal and weapons testing sites of the former Soviet Union and nuclear fuel reprocessing sites in western Europe, and (4) the closest compositional match to known geologic source regions is Banks Island, on the western edge of the Arctic Archipelago, although a smaller number of grains from one of the two samples were mineralogically matched to sediments in the Laptev Sea. Consequently, the sediments are probably not from a single distinct source and were likely mixed during sea ice transport. Coupled with previous observations of higher radionuclide specific activities in some sea ice rafted sediments relative to bottom sediments, these new observations indicate that comparatively high as well as variable radioactive contaminant burdens in ice rafted sediments must be common and geographically independent of proximity to known contaminant sources. The mechanisms that would facilitate these unexpected high radionuclide burdens in sea ice are not known and require additional study, as well as investigations of the implications for the transport and fate of contaminants in Arctic sea ice

2006-07-31

247

Origin and in situ diversification in Hemidactylus geckos of the Socotra Archipelago.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Socotra Archipelago is an ancient continental fragment of Gondwanan origin and one of the most isolated landforms on Earth and a biodiversity hot spot. Yet, the biogeography and evolutionary history of its endemic fauna still remain largely overlooked. We investigate the origin, tempo and mode of diversification in the Hemidactylus geckos of the Socotra Archipelago. Concatenated and multilocus species coalescent analyses of Hemidactylus from Arabia and North Africa indicate that the Hemidactylus from Socotra do not form a monophyletic group and branch as three independent and well-supported clades instead. Both the chronogram inferred using the gene tree approach of BEAST and the age-calibrated multilocus species tree obtained using *BEAST suggest that the origin of Hemidactylus from Socotra may have involved a first vicariance event that occurred in the Early Miocene, followed by two independent transoceanic dispersal events that occurred more recently, during the Pliocene. Within Socotra, we analysed patterns of genetic diversity, the phylogeography and the demographic history in all seven nonintroduced species of Hemidactylus. Results based on two mitochondrial and two nuclear loci from 144 individuals revealed complex patterns of within-island diversification and high levels of intra-species genetic divergence. The interplay of both historical and ecological factors seems to have a role in the speciation process of this group of geckos. Interestingly, the case of H. forbesii and H. oxyrhinus, which inhabit the island of Abd al Kuri with an area of 133 km(2), may represent one of the most extreme cases of intra-island speciation in reptiles ever reported.

Gómez-Díaz E; Sindaco R; Pupin F; Fasola M; Carranza S

2012-08-01

248

Baseline assessment of the reef fish assemblage from Cagarras Archipelago, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The extensive Brazilian coast comprises diverse reef fish communities. Here, we report a pioneer study on the reef fish community composition of the Cagarras Archipelago. This rocky reef system consists of a small group of coastal islands 5 km south off Ipanema Beach, Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. A relatively diverse and disturbed fish community (99 species from 39 families) was found in this archipelago. Two different visual census techniques were utilized and a large difference was observed in the number of species compared to other Brazilian reef sites. Trophic structure and biogeographical affinities are discussed. The absence of some reef fish species, mainly top predators, suggests severe environmental impact in this area and exhorts the Brazilian authorities to create a marine protected area. Results obtained in this study will serve to future environmental studies in Cagarras.A extensa costa brasileira abriga uma grande diversidade de peixes recifais. Este trabalho é um estudo pioneiro no que diz respeito à composição de espécies de peixes recifais do Arquipélago das Cagarras. Este sistema recifal é formado por um grupo de ilhas costeiras, distantes 5 km ao sul da Praia de Ipanema no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Uma comunidade relativamente diversa e impactada, com 99 espécies pertencentes a 39 famílias de peixes recifais, foi encontrada. A utilização de duas técnicas de censo visual mostrou uma grande diferença nos dados obtidos, quando comparados a outras regiões recifais brasileiras. São discutidos dados da estrutura trófica e a distribuição biogeográfica da ictiofauna da região. A ausência de algumas espécies, principalmente grandes predadores, sugere que a região está sofrendo grande impacto ambiental, e torna urgente a criação de uma área de proteção marinha pelas autoridades Brasileiras. Os resultados obtidos poderão servir como base para futuros estudos ambientais nas Cagarras.

Carlos A. Rangel; Laís C. T. Chaves; Cassiano Monteiro-Neto

2007-01-01

249

Microbiological and mycological beach sand quality in a volcanic environment: Madeira archipelago, Portugal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Madeira forms a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago, whose economy is largely dependent on tourism. There, one can encounter different types of sand beach: natural basaltic, natural calcareous and artificial calcareous. Microbiological and mycological quality of the sand was analyzed in two different years. Bacterial indicators were detected in higher number in 2010 (36.7% of the samples) than in 2011 (9.1%). Mycological indicators were detected in a similar percentage of samples in 2010 (68.3%) and 2011 (75%), even though the total number of colonies detected in 2010 was much higher (827 in 41 samples) than in 2011 (427 in 66 samples). Enterococci and potentially pathogenic and allergenic fungi (particularly Penicillium sp.) were the most common indicators detected in both years. Candida sp. yeast was also commonly detected in the samples. The analysis of the 3rd quartile and maximum numbers of all indicators in samples showed that artificial beaches tend to be more contaminated than the natural ones. However, a significant difference between the variables was lacking. More monitoring data (number of bathers, sea birds, radiation intensity variation, and a greater number of samples) should be collected in order to confirm if these differences are significant. In general, the sand quality in the archipelago's beaches was good. As the sand may be a vector of diseases, an international common set of indicators and values and a compatible methodologies for assessing sand contamination, should be defined, in order to provide the bather's with an indication of beach sand quality, rather than only the water.

Pereira E; Figueira C; Aguiar N; Vasconcelos R; Vasconcelos S; Calado G; Brandão J; Prada S

2013-09-01

250

Genetic tests for ecological and allopatric speciation in anoles on an island archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

From Darwin's study of the Galapagos and Wallace's study of Indonesia, islands have played an important role in evolutionary investigations, and radiations within archipelagos are readily interpreted as supporting the conventional view of allopatric speciation. Even during the ongoing paradigm shift towards other modes of speciation, island radiations, such as the Lesser Antillean anoles, are thought to exemplify this process. Geological and molecular phylogenetic evidence show that, in this archipelago, Martinique anoles provide several examples of secondary contact of island species. Four precursor island species, with up to 8 mybp divergence, met when their islands coalesced to form the current island of Martinique. Moreover, adjacent anole populations also show marked adaptation to distinct habitat zonation, allowing both allopatric and ecological speciation to be tested in this system. We take advantage of this opportunity of replicated island coalescence and independent ecological adaptation to carry out an extensive population genetic study of hypervariable neutral nuclear markers to show that even after these very substantial periods of spatial isolation these putative allospecies show less reproductive isolation than conspecific populations in adjacent habitats in all three cases of subsequent island coalescence. The degree of genetic interchange shows that while there is always a significant genetic signature of past allopatry, and this may be quite strong if the selection regime allows, there is no case of complete allopatric speciation, in spite of the strong primae facie case for it. Importantly there is greater genetic isolation across the xeric/rainforest ecotone than is associated with any secondary contact. This rejects the development of reproductive isolation in allopatric divergence, but supports the potential for ecological speciation, even though full speciation has not been achieved in this case. It also explains the paucity of anole species in the Lesser Antilles compared to the Greater Antilles. PMID:20442860

Thorpe, Roger S; Surget-Groba, Yann; Johansson, Helena

2010-04-29

251

Genetic tests for ecological and allopatric speciation in anoles on an island archipelago.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

From Darwin's study of the Galapagos and Wallace's study of Indonesia, islands have played an important role in evolutionary investigations, and radiations within archipelagos are readily interpreted as supporting the conventional view of allopatric speciation. Even during the ongoing paradigm shift towards other modes of speciation, island radiations, such as the Lesser Antillean anoles, are thought to exemplify this process. Geological and molecular phylogenetic evidence show that, in this archipelago, Martinique anoles provide several examples of secondary contact of island species. Four precursor island species, with up to 8 mybp divergence, met when their islands coalesced to form the current island of Martinique. Moreover, adjacent anole populations also show marked adaptation to distinct habitat zonation, allowing both allopatric and ecological speciation to be tested in this system. We take advantage of this opportunity of replicated island coalescence and independent ecological adaptation to carry out an extensive population genetic study of hypervariable neutral nuclear markers to show that even after these very substantial periods of spatial isolation these putative allospecies show less reproductive isolation than conspecific populations in adjacent habitats in all three cases of subsequent island coalescence. The degree of genetic interchange shows that while there is always a significant genetic signature of past allopatry, and this may be quite strong if the selection regime allows, there is no case of complete allopatric speciation, in spite of the strong primae facie case for it. Importantly there is greater genetic isolation across the xeric/rainforest ecotone than is associated with any secondary contact. This rejects the development of reproductive isolation in allopatric divergence, but supports the potential for ecological speciation, even though full speciation has not been achieved in this case. It also explains the paucity of anole species in the Lesser Antilles compared to the Greater Antilles.

Thorpe RS; Surget-Groba Y; Johansson H

2010-04-01

252

Looking inside the Panarea Island (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy) by gravity and magnetic data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we show and discuss the results of gravity and magnetic surveys of Panarea Island and its archipelago. The most recent volcanic manifestation occurred in November 2002 with a shallow submarine gas eruption between the islets of Dattilo, Panarelli, Lisca Bianca, Bottaro and Lisca Nera. Currently, the activity of Panarea is monitored through a multidisciplinary study under the umbrella of the Italian Department of Civil Protection with the goal of defining the hazard of this area. With this aim, in May 2006 the first gravity and magnetic surveys of Panarea Island and its archipelago were performed. The offshore magnetic data were obtained using a marine magnetometer, a Geometrics G880, from the Istituto Idrografico dell Marina (IIM). Onshore and offshore magnetic data were integrated into an unique dataset for complete magnetic coverage of the study area. By using two micro-gravimeters (LaCoste & Romberg), gravity data were collected along tracks every 250 meters. The gravity dataset was processed using the standard method. A Bouguer reduction was applied to the free-air gravity dataset using a detailed digital elevation model of the island and the neighbouring sea after evaluation of the optimal Bouguer density to reduce the topographic effect. The result is a Bouguer anomaly map that shows lateral variations in density distribution and the relationships between the shallow volcanic/crustal features and tectonic lineaments. This evidence is also highlighted by the magnetic pattern, which suggests the importance of the youngest volcanic deposits with respect to the magnetic features of the island.

L. Cocchi; F. Caratori Tontini; C. Carmisciano; P. Stefanelli; M. Anzidei; A. Esposito; C. Del Negro; F. Greco; R. Napoli

2008-01-01

253

Germinação de sementes de Erythrina speciosa Andr., Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. e Cucumis sativus L. em meio ácido/ Germination of seeds of Erythrina speciosa Andr., Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. and Cucumis sativus L. on acid substrate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Muitos estudos situam a germinação das sementes dentre os estágios de desenvolvimento extremamente vulneráveis às condições ambientais e que a resposta germinativa à acidez pode auxiliar o conhecimento sobre diferenças na composição florística. Sementes de duas espécies nativas (Erythrina speciosa Andr. e Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.) e uma cultivada (Cucumis sativus L.) foram avaliadas quanto à germinação em diferentes níveis de acidez e a concentrações d (more) e alumínio, esta relacionada indiretamente com o pH do solo. Sementes de E. speciosa e C. sativus germinaram inclusive em pH 1,0. O alumínio afetou a germinação das três espécies, com inibição em pH 1,0 e 2,0. Constatou-se que as sementes de E. brasiliensis apresentaram a maior suceptibilidade às condições químicas do meio. Os resultados demonstraram que o efeito da acidez sobre a germinação provavelmente ocorre entre a fase de embebição e a fase da protrusão da radícula. Abstract in english Many studies have described seed germination as an extremally vulnerable growth phase and seed germinability in response to acidity may subsides the knowledge about the differences in floristic composition. Seeds of two native species from Brazil, Erythrina speciosa Andr. and Eugenia brasiliensis Lam., and a cultivated species (Cucumis sativus L.) were evaluated in relation to their sensibility to acidity and to different aluminium concentration, variable indirect related (more) with the pH of the soil. Seeds of E. speciosa and C. sativus did not loose germinability even in pH 1.0. Aluminium affectted the germinability of the three species, resulting in total inhibition of germination in pH 1.0 and 2.0. E. brasiliensis showed the greatest sensitivity to environmental chemical conditions. Results showed that the effects of acidity on germination probably affect the phase of the germination process between imbibition and radicle protrusion.

Koszo, Cristina Rita Radics; Rinaldi, Mirian Cilene Spasiani; Barbedo, Claudio José

2007-01-01

254

Modelling the effects of sheltering, depth-induced wave breaking and refraction on the wave field in coastal archipelagos  

Science.gov (United States)

The coastal areas of Finland are covered with islands and shoals of variable sizes. The total amount of islands is over 73 000. Ca. 40 000 of the islands are located in the south-western extremity of Finland in the Archipelago Sea. The size of the islands varies from a few meters to several kilometres in diameter. The bathymetry is complex; there are many shoals which cause depth-induced wave refraction and wave breaking. Some of these areas have potential to generate high concentration of wave energy and even caustics. The accurate modelling of the wave field in the archipelago areas is essential for the safety of the marine traffic, the marine spatial planning and the modelling of the coupled physical-biogeochemical processes in the coastal waters. The wave field in the Archipelago Sea was modelled with the wave model WAM using ten different realisations of high-resolution grids. Two different resolutions were used, 0.5 nmi and 0.1 nmi, with different ways to define the land mask and grid obstructions in the archipelago areas. The modelled wave field inside the Archipelago Sea was compared against measurements made during a research cruise of R/V Aranda in September 2010. The depth-induced wave breaking and wave refraction were shown to have significant effect on the modelled wave field at the southern edge of the Archipelago Sea when the 0.1 nmi resolution grids were used. Inside the Archipelago Sea the 0.1 nmi grids predicted the local wind waves with good accuracy when the forcing wind field was in agreement with the measurements. However, due to the coarse temporal and spatial resolution of the forcing wind field, WAM was unable to represent the temporal variability of the wave parameters in full detail. The attenuation of the open sea waves propagating into the Archipelago Sea was slightly overestimated by the 0.1 nmi grids. The computational demands of the 0.1 nmi resolution grids restrict their use e.g. in operational forecasting. Therefore, coarser resolution grids that are able to model the wave field with sufficient accuracy are needed. The 0.5 nmi resolution grids were unable to describe the depth-induced wave breaking and refraction in as much detail as the 0.1 nmi grids. Furthermore, the 0.5 nmi grids overestimated the energy of the local wind waves and underestimated the attenuation of the open sea waves. However, when grid obstructions were used in the 0.5 nmi grids, the attenuation of wave energy was predicted with good accuracy, but the energy of the local wind waves was slightly overestimated. Development of additional methods that take into account the wave refraction and wave breaking in sub-grid scale might further improve the accuracy of the coarser resolution grids in modelling of the wave field in archipelago areas.

Tuomi, Laura; Pettersson, Heidi; Fortelius, Carl; Tikka, Kimmo; Björkqvist, Jan-Victor; Kahma, Kimmo

2013-04-01

255

Er nogen mere lige end andre? : en socioøkonomisk undersøgelse af Restgruppens uddannelses - og arbejdslivsmuligheder  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

En underliggende argumentation i afhandlingen er, at risici i stigende grad individualiseres, dog uden at risici er demokratiske. Den stigende individualisering i uddannelsessystemet og tilknytningen til arbejdsmarkedet skjuler livsforløbets multidimensionalitet. Der eksisterer et institutionelt setup omkring livsforløbet der – i visse tilfælde – rækker udover den enkelte persons indflydelse. Selv forandringer og forløb, der oprindeligt er initieret af den enkelte selv, kan få vidtrækkende konsekvenser, der ikke umiddelbart kan overkommes af den enkelte selv. Et flexicurity-perspektiv der medvirker til at gøre differentierede arbejdslivsmuligheder mindre synlige. Disse skjulte skævvridninger er genstand for diskussion i afhandlingen. Flexicurity-tilgangen har for mig at se ikke tilstrækkelig blik for arbejdsstyrken heterogenitet, mangfoldigheden i livsforløbets institutionelle setup og (arbejds)livsforløbets dynamiske karakter. Flexicurity-firkanten er en diskussion, der primært er orienteret imod hovedstrømninger af arbejdskraften på arbejdsmarkedet, og er i den henseende orienteret mod et makroniveau. Pointen med afhandlingens arbejde er at kigge dybere og fokusere på mikro- og mesoniveau for at få en større indsigt i påvirkningen fra disse niveauer med henblik på en diskussion af arbejdslivsmuligheder for udsatte grupper på arbejdsmarkedet – specielt uddannelsessystemets Restgruppe. Denne anderledes tilgang er umiddelbart nødvendig i forhold til at indfange de fordelingspolitiske konsekvenser struktureringen af arbejdsmarkedet har. I afhandlingen har jeg primært beskæftiget mig med arbejdsgivernes indvirkning på struktureringen af det enkelte livsforløb, den enkeltes uddannelsesforløb (ungdomsuddannelse og deltagelse i VEU), familiemæssige forhold – herunder intergenerationelle forholds betydning – samt konjunkturelle forhold. Det er således et særligt snit, der er lagt i afhandlingen, men det analytiske potentiale skulle gerne fremgå af de foregående sider i afhandlingen. Det er ikke kun indtrædelse på arbejdsmarkedet, der er placeret i ungdomsårene, der er det aldersmæssige tidsspan, afhandlingen behandler. Det er samtidig i denne periode af livsforløbet, hvor familier dannes og bliver større, samt perioden hvor eventuel uddannelsesdeltagelse finder sted. Denne periode af livsforløbet er en uhyre kompleks periode. Teoretisk tager afhandlingen afsæt i et livsforløbsperspektiv. Livsforløbet bliver betragtet som en social institution, der indfanger de forskellige institutionelle påvirkninger, den enkelte er underlagt. Med dynamiseringen af analysen bliver det også en analyse af ”institutionelle komplementariteter”, dog uden at disse komplementariteter nødvendigvis er positive. Hvorvidt disse additive effekter af den institutionelle konstellation er positive eller negative er et empirisk spørgsmål. Anskuelsen af livsforløbet som social institution får karakter af en normalbiografi, en forventning om hvordan det enkelte livsforløb i praksis bør leves. Dette bliver med andre ord en normativ fordring. Kohlis (2007) formulering af normalbiografien er en tredeling af livsforløbet (uddannelse – arbejdsliv - pension). En tredeling der bliver kritiseret for at være køns- og familieblind, hvorfor linked lives-begrebet bliver introduceret. Begrebet har den teoretiske implikation, at udviklingen i det enkelte livsforløb ikke kun skal anskues som et resultat af persons egne handlinger, men i lige så høj grad er et resultat af samspillet mellem personens egne handlinger og de personlige relationer, som personen indgår i. Afhandlingen stiller sig derved kritisk overfor et metodologisk individualistisk videnskabsteoretisk udgangspunkt. En anden kritik af Kohlis tredeling af livsforløbet er mangel på dynamisk forståelse af uddannelse og især transitioner på arbejdsmarkedet. I forhold til udviklingen af et mere dynamisk perspektiv er TLM (Schmid 1998, 2006, Schmid og Schömann 2004, Räisänen og Schmid 2008) inddraget som operationalisering af transitioner m

MØberg, Rasmus Juul

2010-01-01

256

San Antonio Museum of Art  

Science.gov (United States)

Created in 1925 as the San Antonio Museum Association, the organization later became the San Antonio Museum of Art (SAMA) and also operated the Witte Museum of Science and History. Over its long history, the SAMA has become well-known for its collection of pre-Columbian art, along with its holdings in 18th through 20th century American and European paintings and sculpture. On their website, visitors can peruse their upcoming events, view highlights from their collection, and look over interactive features about their new and previous shows. Two of the archived highlights here include an exhibit on photography from the Mexican Revolution and their collection of Asian art. Teachers should make sure and look over their "Education" area, as it contains materials to use in the classroom, as well as information about special programs at SAMA.

257

San Diego Zoo: Panda Page  

Science.gov (United States)

This site is provided by the San Diego Zoo. Visitors may view real time footage of pandas at the zoo with Panda Cam, have their questions answered at the Panda Facts page, or read up on each panda with Panda Profiles. And of course, no one should miss the features devoted to panda Hua Mei, who seems to have spent nearly every minute of her life in front of a camera since her birth at the San Diego Zoo in 1999. Visitors can watch video clips of Hua Mei from her birth onward, or view a slide show that chronicles her progress from a tiny unrecognizable lump to a "curious and precocious cub." The Web site has been recently updated to include a short piece about Hua Mei's third birthday, celebrated in August 2002.

2002-01-01

258

Taxonomy and biogeography of the coastal fishes of Juan Fernández Archipelago and Desventuradas Islands, Chile/ Taxonomía y biogeografía de los peces costeros del Archipiélago de Juan Fernández y de las islas Desventuradas, Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Las islas Desventuradas (San Félix y San Ambrosio) y del Archipiélago de Juan Fernández (Robinson Crusoe y Alejandro Selkirk) son islas oceánicas de origen volcánico ubicadas en el Pacífico Sudeste, frente a Chile. Sobre la base de material recolectado desde 1997 hasta la fecha, revisiones de colecciones de las expediciones del R/V Anton Bruun y actualizaciones taxonómicas, la fauna de peces litorales del Archipélago de Juan Fernández y las islas Desventuradas ti (more) enen un total de 52 especies, con 41 y 43 especies, respectivamente. Los peces costeros endémicos de Juan Fernández son solamente cinco (12,2%) y tres son las especies registradas aquí como nuevas para las islas (Gymnothorax cf. obesus, Gnathophis sp., Suezichthys sp.). Las Desventuradas tienen solamente dos especies endémicas (4,6%) y cuatro son los nuevos registros (Scorpaenodes englerti, Maxillicosta reticulata, Suezichthys sp., Aseraggodes bahamondei). El reducido número de especies endémicas para Juan Fernández comparado con trabajos previos (15 especies) se debe a que muchas resultaron ser endémicas de ambos grupos de islas (22 especies = 42,3% total peces litorales), apoyando la propuesta que ambos grupos de islas debieran formar una sola unidad biogeográfica. La extensión oriental de la región Indo Pacífico Oeste para incluir la cordillera de Nazca, las islas Desventuradas y Juan Fernández encuentra apoyo en este trabajo. La afinidad zoogeográfica entre las Desventuradas y las islas del Pacífico Oeste (Isla de Pascua hasta Australia) incluye 16 especies, agregando cinco nuevos registros a listas anteriores. Filogenias de tres géneros señalan un centro de origen en el Pacífico Oeste, con uno o más eventos de dispersión hacia las islas Desventuradas y Juan Fernández. Este patrón de dispersión puede repetirse en otros siete géneros de pocas especies y relativamente restringidas en distribución. Solo una filogenia (Odontesthes) propone un origen continental con una dispersión hacia el Oeste, sin embargo otros tres géneros parecen tener este mismo patrón de dispersión. Abstract in english The Desventuradas Islands (San Félix and San Ambrosio) and Juan Fernández Archipelago (Robinson Crusoe and Alejandro Selkirk) are oceanic islands of volcanic origin located in the southeastern Pacific off Chile. Based on new material collected since 1997, revision of the R/V Anton Bruun expeditions collections, and a taxonomic update, the coastal fish fauna of Juan Fernández Archipelago and Desventuradas Islands found a total of 52 species, with 41 and 43 species, resp (more) ectively. The number of coastal fish species recorded herein as endemic for Juan Fernández is only five (12,2%) and three species are new records (Gymnothorax cf. obesus, Gnathophis sp., Suezichthys sp). The Desventuradas Islands have only two endemic species (4,6%) and four species are new records (Scorpaenodes englerti, Maxillicosta reticulata, Suezichthys sp., Aseraggodes bahamondei). The reduced number of endemic species for the Juan Fernández Islands as compared with previous accounts (15 species) is the result that more species were found to be endemic to both islands groups (22 species = 42,3% all coastal fishes), suggesting these two island groups should be considered a single biogeographic unit. The eastern extension of the Indo West Pacific Region to include the Nazca Ridge, Desventuradas and Juan Fernández Islands is supported herein. The zoogeographical affinities between Desventuradas and western Pacific Islands (Easter Island to Australia), includes 16 species, adding five new species to previous lists. Relationships of three genera indicate a Western Pacific origin with one or more dispersal events to the Desventuradas and Juan Fernández Islands. Another seven genera, with relatively few species and restricted distribution, may have this same pattern. Only one phylogenetic study indicates a continental origin with a westward dispersal (Odontesthes), however another three genera may have this same p

Dyer, Brian S; Westneat, Mark W

2010-12-01

259

77 FR 70891 - Safety Zone; Bay Bridge Construction, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

...1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Bridge Construction, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco...Island, CA in support of the Bay Bridge Construction Safety Zone from November 1, 2012...dangers associated with over-head construction operations. Unauthorized persons...

2012-11-28

260

COMPOSICIÓN Y DENSIDAD DE CORALES JUVENILES EN DOS ARRECIFES PROFUNDOS DE SAN ANDRÉS ISLA, CARIBE COLOMBIANO/ Composition and density of juvenile corals at two deep reefs in San Andres Island, Colombian Caribbean  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El reclutamiento de corales en un arrecife determina el mantenimiento, la renovación y la estructura futura de las comunidades coralinas. Con el objeto de conocer la composición, densidad y el valor de importancia de corales juveniles escleractínios ((more) uencia de mortalidad parcial, total, enfermedades y signos de depredación en los juveniles, en 47 cuadrantes de 1m², distribuidos a lo largo de una cuerda guía. Se registró un total de 397 juveniles coralinos pertenecientes a 16 especies. La densidad promedio y riqueza de juveniles no mostraron diferencias significativas entre Reggae Nest y El Faro. La densidad promedio de las localidades fue alta respecto a lo registrado en arrecifes colombianos y baja en relación a otros arrecifes del Caribe. Las especies con valores de importancia mayores, Agaricia agaricites, Scolymia sp. y Porites astreoides, aportaron el 54.9 % de todos los juveniles, lo que concuerda con lo hallado en otros arrecifes del Caribe. Los géneros de juveniles con mayor densidad, cobertura y frecuencia no concordaron con los adultos dominantes (ej. Montastraea, Colpophyllia, Diploria y Siderastrea); ya que M. annularis y Diploria sp. exhibieron los valores más bajos de importancia como juveniles. Las comunidades coralinas de Reggae Nest y El Faro, deterioradas en las últimas décadas, podría recuperarse naturalmente, teniendo en cuenta la siguiente evidencia: 1) alta densidad de corales juveniles respecto al Caribe colombiano; 2) alta riqueza de juveniles, representados en 16 de las 23 especies de corales adultos registrados para la isla; 3) alto porcentaje de especies comunes entre juveniles y adultos (mantenimiento de cada población); 4) bajos porcentajes de mortalidad parcial (0.7 %; 3 juveniles de 397) y de blanqueamiento encontrados en los juveniles (0.5 %; 2 juveniles de 397). Queda aún por comprobar, la sobrevivencia a largo plazo, si estos juveniles son de especies fugitivas o si la comunidad de constructores está siendo reemplazada. Abstract in english Coral reef recruitment is a fundamental process because it determines the maintenance, renovation and future reef structure. In order to determine the composition, density and importance value of scleractinian juvenile corals ((more) artial mortality, total diseases and depredation signs in juvenile corals were quantified. A total of 397 juveniles of 16 species were registered. The average density and richness of juveniles were not significantly different between Reggae Nest and El Faro. The average density of both localities was high compared to other colombian reefs and lower compared to other reefs in the Caribbean. The species with higher importance value, Agaricia agaricites, Scolymia sp. and Porites astreoides, represented 54.9% of all juveniles, similar to other Caribbean reefs. The genera of juveniles with higher importance value were not the same as the dominant adults (ej. Montastraea, Colpophyllia, Diploria and Siderastrea); which showed the lowest importance value as juveniles (Montastraea annularis and Diploria sp.). The coral communities of Reggae Nest and El Faro, deteriorated in the last decades, could recover naturally, considering the following evidence: 1) high juvenile coral density compared to the Colombian Caribbean; 2) high richness of juveniles, 16 from the 23 coral adults species reported for the island; 3) high percentage of common species between juveniles and adults (maintenance of each population); 4) low partial mortality (0.7%; 3 of 397 juveniles) and bleaching found in juvenile corals (0.5%; 2 juveniles of 397). It is still to verify if these juveniles are fugitive species or if the community of builder species may be replaced.

Vidal, Andrés M; Villamil, Claudia M; Acosta, Alberto

2005-12-01

 
 
 
 
261

Association of bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2) and urinary bladder tumours in cattle from the Azores archipelago.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Urinary bladder tumours in cattle are caused by chronic ingestion of bracken fern and BPV-1/2 infection. The objective of the present study was to assess if BPV-2 was present in urinary bladder lesions from cattle with chronic enzootic haematuria (CEH) from the Azores archipelago (Portugal), in order to gain further information regarding the epidemiologic distribution of this virus. Samples were analysed using PCR specific primers for BPV-2 DNA and an immunohistochemistry for BPV E5 oncoprotein detection. We found a 28% incidence rate of BPV-2 DNA in different types of tumours and cystitis cases (13 out of 46 samples). Tested positive samples for PCR were also positive for the viral E5 oncoprotein; protein immunolabeling was mainly detected within the cytoplasm of urothelial cells, displaying a juxtanuclear distribution. This is the first report of BPV-2 detection in urinary bladder tumours associated with CEH in cattle from the Azores archipelago.

Resendes AR; Roperto S; Trapani F; Urraro C; Rodrigues A; Roperto F; Borzacchiello G

2011-06-01

262

Gouvernance : un constat sans concession, quelques solutions sans idéologie…  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available « Le recours à la notion de gouvernance n’est-il qu’une mode, une simple manie sémantique ou bien revêt-elle une réelle densité qui lui ferait partiellement jouer un rôle dans la Cité ? ». Cette interrogation n’est pas nouvelle mais les réponses apportées par Arnaud Cabanes 1 dans son Essai sur la gouvernance publique (John Saul, 1993, p. 22), sont sans doute les plus fouillées et argumentées publiées à ce jour. Au fil d’une réflexion exigeante menée en quatre ...

Laurence Lemouzy

2004-01-01

263

Archipelago-wide island restoration in the Galapagos Islands: reducing costs of invasive mammal eradication programs and reinvasion risk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Invasive alien mammals are the major driver of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation on islands. Over the past three decades, invasive mammal eradication from islands has become one of society's most powerful tools for preventing extinction of insular endemics and restoring insular ecosystems. As practitioners tackle larger islands for restoration, three factors will heavily influence success and outcomes: the degree of local support, the ability to mitigate for non-target impacts, and the ability to eradicate non-native species more cost-effectively. Investments in removing invasive species, however, must be weighed against the risk of reintroduction. One way to reduce reintroduction risks is to eradicate the target invasive species from an entire archipelago, and thus eliminate readily available sources. We illustrate the costs and benefits of this approach with the efforts to remove invasive goats from the Galápagos Islands. Project Isabela, the world's largest island restoration effort to date, removed >140,000 goats from >500,000 ha for a cost of US$10.5 million. Leveraging the capacity built during Project Isabela, and given that goat reintroductions have been common over the past decade, we implemented an archipelago-wide goat eradication strategy. Feral goats remain on three islands in the archipelago, and removal efforts are underway. Efforts on the Galápagos Islands demonstrate that for some species, island size is no longer the limiting factor with respect to eradication. Rather, bureaucratic processes, financing, political will, and stakeholder approval appear to be the new challenges. Eradication efforts have delivered a suite of biodiversity benefits that are in the process of revealing themselves. The costs of rectifying intentional reintroductions are high in terms of financial and human resources. Reducing the archipelago-wide goat density to low levels is a technical approach to reducing reintroduction risk in the short-term, and is being complemented with a longer-term social approach focused on education and governance.

Carrion V; Donlan CJ; Campbell KJ; Lavoie C; Cruz F

2011-01-01

264

Bionomics of the mud lobster-hole mosquito Aedes (Geoskusea) baisasi in the mangrove swamps of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The bionomics of the mud lobster-hole mosquito Aedes (Geoskusea) baisasi in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, was studied in the field and in the laboratory. The studies included the natural habitat, seasonal appearance, flight activity, mating behavior, resistance of eggs to desiccation, and breeding periods of the immature stages of this species. The burrow systems made by the mud lobster Thalassina anomala were excellent as breeding and resting habitats for both the immature and adult stages of the mosquito.

Toma T; Miyagi I; Tamashiro M; Higa Y; Okudo H; Okazawa T

2011-09-01

265

Bionomics of the mud lobster-hole mosquito Aedes (Geoskusea) baisasi in the mangrove swamps of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bionomics of the mud lobster-hole mosquito Aedes (Geoskusea) baisasi in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, was studied in the field and in the laboratory. The studies included the natural habitat, seasonal appearance, flight activity, mating behavior, resistance of eggs to desiccation, and breeding periods of the immature stages of this species. The burrow systems made by the mud lobster Thalassina anomala were excellent as breeding and resting habitats for both the immature and adult stages of the mosquito. PMID:22017084

Toma, Takako; Miyagi, Ichiro; Tamashiro, Mikako; Higa, Yukiko; Okudo, Haruo; Okazawa, Takao

2011-09-01

266

Prediction and verification of possible reef-fish spawning aggregation sites in Los Roques Archipelago National Park, Venezuela.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study attempts to predict and verify possible spawning aggregation sites and times in the Los Roques Archipelago National Park, Venezuela, based on physical reef characteristics and the knowledge of experienced local fishermen. Three possible aggregation sites were selected for monitoring based on satellite images, low-cost bathymetric mapping and interviews with experienced local fishermen. Abundances and sizes of 18 species that are known to form reproductive aggregations were monitored at these sites using underwater visual census for 7 days after each full moon from February to August, 2007. While spawning events were not observed, possible indirect evidence of spawning aggregations was found for Lutjanus analis at Cayo Sal and Boca de Sebastopol, Lutjanus apodus at Cayo Sal, Lutjanus cyanopterus at Cayo Sal and Piedra La Guasa and Epinephelus guttatus at Bajo California and Cayo de Agua. Additionally, indirect evidence was identified for the past existence of a spawning aggregation of Epinephelus striatus in the northern part of the archipelago, which may have been eliminated by overfishing c.15 years ago. Bathymetric mapping showed that the shelf edge at sites monitored in this study was shallower than at spawning aggregation sites in other parts of the Caribbean, and that sites were not proximal to deep water. While this study does not prove the existence or locations of spawning aggregations of reef fishes in the archipelago, it does add insight to a growing understanding of generalities in the relationship between seafloor characteristics and the locations of transient reef-fish spawning aggregations in the Caribbean.

Boomhower J; Romero M; Posada J; Kobara S; Heyman W

2010-09-01

267

Origen y microdiferenciación de la población del Archipiélago de Chiloé Origin and microdifferentiation of Chiloé Archipelago population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Las etnias originarias del archipiélago de Chiloé presentan características culturales que plantean preguntas acerca de su origen como entidad genética independiente y distinta del grupo continental. Al respecto, hemos caracterizado las frecuencias de los cuatro haplogrupos amerindios fundadores del ADN mitocondrial en cuatro poblaciones del archipiélago. El componente aborigen materno de estas poblaciones fue superior al 90 %. El análisis de distancias genéticas sugiere una segregación norte-sur en donde las poblaciones septentrionales aparecen más relacionadas con la etnia continental Huilliche. Aún cuando el análisis de diferenciación interpoblacional y de componentes principales muestran una singularidad en el grupo insular, ésta puede ser interpretada a partir de datos genéticos, etnohistóricos y arqueológicosThe cultural diversity of Chiloé archipelago’s population raises questions about its ethnic origin. To determinate whether this population forms a distinct genetic-cultural entity in relation to continental groups, four populations were characterized genetically. Gene frequencies for the four Amerindian mitochondrial DNA haplogroups were analyzed. The studied groups exhibit an important aboriginal maternal genetic contribution since over 90 % of the individuals analyzed presented Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups. Although the genetic distance analysis indicates a north-south segregation, in agreement with ethnohistoric information, a relationship between groups of the Northern part of the archipelago with the Huilliche population is observed. Nevertheless, the exact test of population differentiation and the principal component analysis indicate a singularity in the insular group which can be explained combining genetic, ethnohistoric and archeological data

FEDERICO GARCÍA; MAURICIO MORAGA; SOLEDAD VERA; HUGO HENRÍQUEZ; ELENA LLOP; CARLOS OCAMPO; EUGENIO ASPILLAGA; FRANCISCO ROTHHAMMER

2004-01-01

268

Genetic diversity of Japanese encephalitis virus isolates obtained from the indonesian archipelago between 1974 and 1987.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Five genotypes (GI-V) of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) have been identified, all of which have distinct geographical distributions and epidemiologies. It is thought that JEV originated in the Indonesia-Malaysia region from an ancestral virus. From that ancestral virus GV diverged, followed by GIV, GIII, GII, and GI. Genotype IV appears to be confined to the Indonesia-Malaysia region, as GIV has been isolated in Indonesia from mosquitoes only, while GV has been isolated on three occasions only from a human in Malaysia and mosquitoes in China and South Korea. In contrast, GI-III viruses have been isolated throughout Asia and Australasia from a variety of hosts. Prior to this study only 13 JEV isolates collected from the Indonesian archipelago had been studied genetically. Therefore the sequences of the envelope (E) gene of 24 additional Indonesian JEV isolates, collected throughout the archipelago between 1974 and 1987, were determined and a series of molecular adaptation analyses were performed. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that over a 14-year time span three genotypes of JEV circulated throughout Indonesia, and a statistically significant association between the year of virus collection and genotype was revealed: isolates collected between 1974 and 1980 belonged to GII, isolates collected between 1980 and 1981 belonged to GIV, and isolates collected in 1987 belonged to GIII. Interestingly, three of the GII Indonesian isolates grouped with an isolate that was collected during the JE outbreak that occurred in Australia in 1995, two of the GIII Indonesian isolates were closely related to a Japanese isolate collected 40 years previously, and two Javanese GIV isolates possessed six amino acid substitutions within the E protein when compared to a previously sequenced GIV isolate collected in Flores. Several amino acids within the E protein of the Indonesian isolates were found to be under directional evolution and/or co-evolution. Conceivably, the tropical climate of the Indonesia/Malaysia region, together with its plethora of distinct fauna and flora, may have driven the emergence and evolution of JEV. This is consistent with the extensive genetic diversity seen among the JEV isolates observed in this study, and further substantiates the hypothesis that JEV originated in the Indonesia-Malaysia region.

Schuh AJ; Guzman H; Tesh RB; Barrett AD

2013-07-01

269

76 FR 12692 - San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Committee...SUMMARY: The San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Council...ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the San Juan Public Lands Center, 15 Burnett...

2011-03-08

270

75 FR 48306 - San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Committee...SUMMARY: The San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Council...ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the San Juan Public Lands Center, 15 Burnett...

2010-08-10

271

76 FR 40876 - San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Committee...SUMMARY: The San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Council...ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the San Juan Public Lands Center, 15 Burnett...

2011-07-12

272

77 FR 47358 - San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Committee...SUMMARY: The San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Council...ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the San Juan Public Lands Center, 15 Burnett...

2012-08-08

273

SANS from interpenetrating polymer networks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) have been formed by combining two polymeric systems in order to gain enhanced material properties. IPNs are a combination of two or more polymers in network form with one network polymerised and/or crosslinked in the immediate presence of the other(s).1 IPNs allow better blending of two or more crosslinked networks. In this study two sets of IPNs were produced and their microstructure studied using a variety of techniques including small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The first system combined a glassy polymer (polystyrene) with an elastomeric polymer (SBS) with the glassy polymer predominating, to give a high impact plastic. The second set of IPNs contained epichlorohydrin (CO) and nitrile rubber (NBR), and was formed in order to produce novel materials with enhanced chemical and gas barrier properties. In both cases if the phase mixing is optimised the probability of controlled morphologies and synergistic behaviour is increased. The PS/SBS IPNs were prepared using sequential polymerisation. The primary SBS network was thermally crosslinked, then the polystyrene network was polymerised and crosslinked using gamma irradiation to avoid possible thermal degradation of the butadiene segment of the SBS. Tough transparent systems were produced with no apparent thermal degradation of the polybutadiene segments. The epichlorohydrin/nitrile rubber IPNs were formed by simultaneous thermal crosslinking reactions. The epichlorohydrin network was formed using lead based crosslinker, while the nitrile rubber was crosslinked by peroxide methods. The use of two different crosslinking systems was employed in order to achieve independent crosslinking thus resulting in an IPN with minimal grafting between the component networks. SANS, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to examine the size and shape of the phase domains and investigate any variation with crosslinking level and irradiation dose. SANS proved extremely useful for examining the size and shape of the phase domains in these IPNs. We have examined a range of both thermal and radiation crosslinked IPNs using SANS facilities at ANSTO and NIST. Selected samples were sectioned into 1mm strips and stacked to form a composite sample to examine in-plane structure.2 The examination of some of the samples in two perpendicular directions greatly assisted structure determination. New results from real-time thermal polymerisation experiments will also be discussed

2003-01-01

274

78 FR 19103 - Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano Escort; Bahia de San Juan; San Juan, PR  

Science.gov (United States)

...School Ship San Sebastian El Cano Escort; Bahia de San Juan; San Juan, PR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary...temporary moving safety zone on the waters of Bahia de San Juan during the transit of the Spanish Navy School Ship...

2013-03-29

275

78 FR 28800 - Foreign-Trade Zone 61-San Juan, Puerto Rico; Application for Subzone; Parapiezas Corporation; San...  

Science.gov (United States)

...S-65-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 61--San Juan, Puerto Rico; Application for Subzone; Parapiezas Corporation; San Juan, Puerto Rico An application has been...Parapiezas Corporation located in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The application was...

2013-05-16

276

Basic Physical-Geographical Characteristics of Rava Island in the Zadar Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The island of Rava (3,62 km2, 120 inhabitants 1991), which makes part of the Zadar archipelago, belongs to the South Croatian (Dalmatian) group of islands. In this paper, the features of its natural basis are elaborated as a part of the project connected with the geographical study of small Croatian islands. The authors anlyse its position, size and extent, geomorphology, geological composition and structure, climatovegetable properties, pedological and biogeographical features and waters. Attention has been paid to the importance of its dolomitic structure, favourable climatic conditions (precipitation, temperatures, winds, etc.), lack of water and significance of its autochthonous vegetation. Special heed has been given to the properties of the sea surrounding the island (physical, chemical and biological parametres). Inhabitability and valuation depended on its physicogeographical potential, and the contemporary possibilities are based on it too. The paper offers a detailed list of texts published up to the present and some unpublished ones, which deal with the island that has not been specially treated so far.

Damir Magaš; Josip Fari?i?

1999-01-01

277

Evidence for a continuing gap in rural/urban adult obesity in the Samoan archipelago.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Significant differences in adult obesity prevalence exist between rural and urban settings throughout the world. Here, we estimate and evaluate the prevalence of adult obesity in rural Independent Samoa, rural American Samoa, and urban American Samoa in 2009. Volunteers over the age of 40 years were weighed and measured by convenience sampling in rural Independent Samoa (N = 85), rural American Samoa (N = 124), and urban American Samoa (N = 95) Mean BMI increased from rural Independent Samoa (32.2 males; 33.3 females) to rural American Samoa (33.5 males; 34.9 females) to urban American Samoa (36.9 males; 39.7 females). Differences among groups were statistically significant (P = 0.004, ANOVA). In all locations, women were substantially more obese than men. While obesity is a major health problem in the Samoan archipelago, significant differences exist between rural and urban settings. A substantial rural/urban gap in adult obesity has been in existence since at least the 1970s. However, results of our study, combined with those of previous studies, indicate that the prevalence of obesity in both rural and urban environments has been on the rise since the 1970s.

Barnes SS; O'Carroll DC; Sumida L; Shafer LA; Yamada S

2011-08-01

278

Steaming between the Islands: Nineteenth-Century Maritime Networks and the Caribbean Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent scholarship, particularly in “new” imperial studies, has underscored the role of networks in shaping imperial projects. A networked approach offers a useful lens through which to analyse nineteenth-century steamship services, and in this paper I draw on such a perspective to focus on the operations of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company (RMSPC). Importantly the RMSPC, unlike some of the other British Government mail-contract holding lines, operated across an archipelago as well as an ocean. In probing the significance of the RMSPC’s archipelagic context for the maritime network, this paper draws on a theoretical intersection between networked approaches to empire and island studies. I suggest that an examination of the maritime network through an archipelagic lens brings to the fore colonial priorities, imperatives and hierarchies that can appear flattened out through a networked approach alone. I argue for an archipelagic framing of analysis in order to heighten the local and regional significance of this transportation infrastructure, in effect foregrounding the relationship between the maritime service and mobilities in the Caribbean.

Anyaa Anim-Addo

2013-01-01

279

Coral recruitment and potential recovery of eutrophied and blast fishing impacted reefs in Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coral recruitment was assessed in highly diverse and economically important Spermonde Archipelago, a reef system subjected to land-based sources of siltation/pollution and destructive fishing, over a period of 2years. Recruitment on settlement tiles reached up to 705spatm(-2)yr(-1) and was strongest in the dry season (July-October), except off-shore, where larvae settled earlier. Pocilloporidae dominated near-shore, while a more diverse community of Acroporidae, Poritidae and others settled in the less polluted mid-shelf and off-shore reefs. Non-coral fouling community appeared to hardly influence initial coral settlement on the tiles, although, this does not necessarily infer low coral post-settlement mortality, which may be enhanced at the near- and off-shore reefs as indicated by increased abundances of potential space competitors on natural substrate. Blast fishing showed no local reduction in coral recruitment and live hard coral cover increased in oligotrophic reefs, indicating potential for coral recovery, if managed effectively. PMID:23838417

Sawall, Yvonne; Jompa, Jamaluddin; Litaay, Magdalena; Maddusila, Andi; Richter, Claudio

2013-07-06

280

Tropical storm off Myanmar coast sweeps reefs in Ritchie's Archipelago, Andaman.  

Science.gov (United States)

The reefs in some islands of Andaman and Nicobar suffered severe damage following a tropical storm in the Bay of Bengal off Myanmar coast during 13-17 March 2011. Surveys were conducted at eight sites in Andaman, of which five were located in the Ritchie's Archipelago where maximum wind speeds of 11 m s(-1) was observed; and three around Port Blair which lay on the leeward side of the storm and had not experienced wind speeds of more than 9 m s(-1). Corals in the shallow inshore reefs were broken and dislodged by the thrust of the waves. Significant damage in the deeper regions and offshore reefs were caused by the settlement of debris and sand brought down from the shallower regions. The fragile branching corals (Acropora sp.) were reduced to rubbles and the larger boulder corals (Porites sp.) were toppled over or scarred by falling debris. The reefs on the windward side and directly in the path of the storm winds were the worst affected. The investigation exposes the vulnerability of the reefs in Andaman to the oceanographic features which generally remain unnoticed unless the damage is caused to the coastal habitats. PMID:23135061

Krishnan, P; Grinson-George; Vikas, N; Titus-Immanuel, Titus; Goutham-Bharathi, M P; Anand, A; Kumar, K Vinod; Kumar, S Senthil

2012-11-08

 
 
 
 
281

The Indonesian archipelago: an ancient genetic highway linking Asia and the Pacific.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Indonesia, an island nation linking mainland Asia with the Pacific world, hosts a wide range of linguistic, ethnic and genetic diversity. Despite the complexity of this cultural environment, genetic studies in Indonesia remain surprisingly sparse. Here, we report mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and associated Y-chromosome diversity for the largest cohort of Indonesians examined to date-2740 individuals from 70 communities spanning 12 islands across the breadth of the Indonesian archipelago. We reconstruct 50 000 years of population movements, from mitochondrial lineages reflecting the very earliest settlers in island southeast Asia, to Neolithic population dispersals. Historic contacts from Chinese, Indians, Arabs and Europeans comprise a noticeable fraction of Y-chromosome variation, but are not reflected in the maternally inherited mtDNA. While this historic immigration favored men, patterns of genetic diversity show that women moved more widely in earlier times. However, measures of population differentiation signal that Indonesian communities are trending away from the matri- or ambilocality of early Austronesian societies toward the more common practice of patrilocal residence today. Such sex-specific dispersal patterns remain even after correcting for the different mutation rates of mtDNA and the Y chromosome. This detailed palimpsest of Indonesian genetic diversity is a direct outcome of the region's complex history of immigration, transitory migrants and populations that have endured in situ since the region's first settlement.

Tumonggor MK; Karafet TM; Hallmark B; Lansing JS; Sudoyo H; Hammer MF; Cox MP

2013-03-01

282

Modeling ocean and sea ice dynamics of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Aspects of forcing  

Science.gov (United States)

The Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) is one of the main pathways for freshwater exiting the Arctic Ocean. Freshwater exported to the North Atlantic may influence the deep water formation in the Labrador Sea, and thus the meridional overturning circulation. Modeling ocean and sea ice conditions of the CAA is difficult because of narrow straits and complex coastlines. The Finite-Element Sea-ice Ocean circulation Model (FESOM) configured on a global mesh is applied to assess the volume, freshwater and sea ice transports through the CAA. With a mesh resolution of 5 km in the CAA we are able to accurately resolve complex coastlines. Outside the CAA the mesh is refined to 24 km north of 55°N with a global background resolution of 1.5°. In this study, first, it is shown that the transports modeled with FESOM correlate well with the available observational data. Second, the model is used to learn about the impact of different atmospheric forcing datasets differing in spatial and temporal resolution (CORE 2 and the Reforecast dataset from Environment Canada). The CORE 2 dataset is on the T62 grid, which is coarse compared to the Reforecast dataset with grid resolution of 0.45° longitude and 0.3° latitude. The temporal resolution of the Reforecast dataset is higher than the CORE 2 dataset (one hourly and 6-hourly data, respectively, for wind, surface temperature and specific humidity fields). The representation of sea ice in the CAA can be improved by using the high resolution atmospheric forcing.

Wekerle, Claudia; Wang, Qiang; Danilov, Sergey; Myers, Paul G.; Jung, Thomas; Schröter, Jens

2013-04-01

283

An integrated approach to characterize the basal aquifer of a volcanic island, Santa Cruz, Galapagos Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The main shield of Santa Cruz Island, at the center of the Galapagos Archipelago, is formed by series of thick fractured basaltic lava flows dissected by faults. The low-lying, extensive "basal" aquifer is the unique groundwater body currently identified on the island and is subjected to sea-water intrusion. Water abstracted from fault scarps in the coastal area and a 150 m deep borehole further inland is brackish and requires expensive desalination technique. Sea-water intrusion was mapped from electrical resistivity imaging with an airborne electromagnetic SkyTEM survey. At the regional and local scales, the fracturation network was described from satellite imagery and field measurements. A groundwater monitoring network was set up. The hydraulic properties of this heterogeneous geological environment was characterized by pumping tests and tidal signal propagation. In order to investigate recharge dynamics, a yearlong climatic monitoring was conducted in the humid highlands and compared to water level fluctuations in the deep borehole. Hydrodynamic properties were determined and recharge processes identified. Since cooling joints form a dense network of fractures, the aquifer is highly permeable. This facilitates sea-water intrusion and freshwater drainage to the ocean. Surprisingly, the highly conductive heterogeneities formed by fault scarps are not regional preferential groundwater flow paths. This is compatible with structural and geomorphological observations made at the ground surface where faults are seen to be discontinuous successions of "en echelon" tension fractures. A 2D numerical model will be used to determine the optimal location of a new borehole.

Pryet, A.; Minh Vu, T.; Adler, P. M.; Deffontaines, B.; d'Ozouville, N.; Violette, S.; Fortin, J.

2011-12-01

284

Number of endemic and native plant species in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

By simple and multiple regression analyses we investigate updated species numbers of endemic and native vascular plants and seed plants in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters. We find that the best models to describe species numbers are regression models with log-transformed species numbers as dependent and log-transformed modified area (i.e. area not covered with barren lava) as an independent variable. This holds both for total species number, for native species number, for endemic species number and for total number of seed plants as well as number of endemic seed plants. For the ratio between endemic and native species, modified area is also the major significant variable, but with a negative regression slope. Multiple regression models show that some isolation measures are significant contributors and may explain some of the residual variation, but their contribution to total explained variation is in general small. The results show that the species area relationships are different for native and endemic species. This is discussed in relation to classical island biogeographical models, and the concepts of radiative speciation. Udgivelsesdato: 2002

Willerslev, E.; Hansen, Anders J.

2002-01-01

285

Middle Carboniferous fusulinacean biostratigraphy, northern Ellesmere Island (Sverdrup Basin, Canadian Arctic Archipelago)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is generally considered that Carboniferous and Permian strata in the Sverdrup Basin and elsewhere in the circum-Arctic regions of the world have significant petroleum potential. The Sverdrup Basin is an elongate pericratonic depression underlying much of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The oldest rocks in the basin, nonmarine marlstones that constitute the Visean Emma Fiord Formation, occur in isolated structural depressions along the southern margin and in the centre of the basin. The Borup Fiord Formation, consisting mainly of marine and nonmarine siliciclastics, was the first widespread sedimentary unit to be deposited following initial rifting and collapse of the basin. At its type section on northern Ellesmere Island, the Borup Fiord Formation contains a thin marine limestone with biseriamminid and asteroarchaediscid foraminifers of Serpukhovian age. This limestone is the only datable unit in the whole Borup Fiord Formation. Continued rifting and subsidence of the the Sverdrup Basin led to predominantly marine conditions, which are recorded at the basin margins by a thick succession of bioclastic limestone belonging to the Nansen Formation. The presence of primitive fusilinaceans from the lower several meters of the Nansen and its type strongly suggests an early Bashkirian age. Erosional relief, coupled with biostratigraphic evidence, indicates an unconformable contact between the Borup Fiord and Nansen formations. Successively higher deposits within the lower 350 m of the Nansen are characterized by fusilinacean assemblages that range from Bashkirian through early late Moscovian time. 160 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Grooves, J.R.; Nassichuk, W.W.; Lin Rui; Pinard, S.

1994-01-01

286

Patch-Based Generative Shape Model and MDL Model Selection for Statistical Analysis of Archipelagos  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We propose a statistical generative shape model for archipelago-like structures. These kind of structures occur, for instance, in medical images, where our intention is to model the appearance and shapes of calcifications in x-ray radio graphs. The generative model is constructed by (1) learning a patch-based dictionary for possible shapes, (2) building up a time-homogeneous Markov model to model the neighbourhood correlations between the patches, and (3) automatic selection of the model complexity by the minimum description length principle. The generative shape model is proposed as a probability distribution of a binary image where the model is intended to facilitate sequential simulation. Our results show that a relatively simple model is able to generate structures visually similar to calcifications. Furthermore, we used the shape model as a shape prior in the statistical segmentation of calcifications, where the area overlap with the ground truth shapes improved significantly compared to the case where the prior was not used.

Ganz, Melanie; Nielsen, Mads

2010-01-01

287

Population genetics of purple saxifrage (Saxifraga oppositifolia) in the high Arctic archipelago of Svalbard.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated patterns of genetic variability in Saxifraga oppositifolia in the isolated Arctic Svalbard archipelago. The genetic analysis included genotyping using nine polymorphic microsatellite markers and sequencing of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer region. Among populations, mean allele numbers per microsatellite locus ranged from 2.0 to 2.6, and 9 % of alleles were unique. Observed (H O) and expected (H E) heterozygosities averaged 0.522 and 0.445, respectively. Typically negative but non-significant F IS values (mean -0.173) were found in S. oppositifolia populations. F ST values were relatively low (mean 0.123). The Bayesian structure analysis provided additional information on population genetic structures. Seven out of 11 studied populations, including populations located both near each other and far apart (distances 5-210 km), showed relatively homogeneous clustering patterns, while one population located on a slope in the main settlement of Longyearbyen possessed a unique genetic structure. The Mantel test proved that there is no significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances. Different growth habits (compact, trailing and intermediate) did not possess distinct genetic compositions based on microsatellite variation. Internal transcribed spacer sequencing revealed 12 polymorphic sites. Among 24 sequenced Svalbard samples, eight haplotypes were detected, none shared by the mainland samples. Population genetic structures of S. oppositifolia in Svalbard show that both genetic variation and differentiation levels are modest, outcrossing is the main mating system, and dispersal and gene flow are important, probably attributable to strong winds and human and animal vectors.

Pietiläinen M; Korpelainen H

2013-01-01

288

Analysis of the bimodal diurnal rainfall pattern during the summer monsoon over the Hong Kong Archipelago  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A complete year`s record of hourly surface measurements was used to examine the atmospheric diurnal secondary circulations over the Hong Kong Archipelago in conjunction with spatial and temporal variations of surface temperature, wind speed and rainfall. The two objectives in this study are to identify both the spatial and temporal variations of diurnal temperature, wind speed and rainfall over the entire Hong Kong area, and to link these variations to the forcing mechanisms and their scales of action. In this way, the authors can establish some useful understanding of the forcing and response, leading toward a systematic method to identify inappropriate parameterization schemes in otherwise potentially useful numerical models. This study focuses on the occurrence of a summer biomodal rainfall maximum which results from the interaction of summer monsoon flow and local mesoscale secondary circulations. The result is a dominant morning rainfall maximum and a secondary afternoon peak. Evidence of atmospheric diurnal secondary circulations are found at 10 local data stations. Though system strength and timing vary, these secondary circulation systems behave like a classic sea breeze circulation, complicated by superimposed slope effects, but dominated by the summer monsoon flow.

Welsh, P.T. [National Weather Service Field Office, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Wai, M.M.K. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Meteorology

1994-12-31

289

Drilling muds for drilling deep offshore wells in the Baku archipelago  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An examination of the presented material regarding the use of salt water based drilling muds makes it possible, when drilling out potentially unstable clay sediments at the offshore sites of the Baku archipelago, to recommend inhibiting systems, such as clay, potassium and gypsum with the use of effective chemical reagents, both domestic and foreign, which are reflected in the technological standards for drilling muds and are the guiding document for selecting the type of drilling mud and for developing a technique for its processing in terms of intervals of depth when planning and building wells. The proposed liming technique is simple, convenient and is practically applicable with all chemical reagents and merits broad use when drilling in clay sediments. The use of the most effective and most promising inhibiting systems based on potassium chloride, chlorine and potassium and gypsum and potassium with limited filtration (no more than 5 to 3 cubic centimeters) is recommended to prevent complications which arise when drilling thick clay sediments.

Chinatsina, N.T.

1984-01-01

290

Persistent organic pollutants in marine biota of Sao Pedro and Sao Paulo Archipelago, Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Remote islands, such as the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago (SPSPA), Brazil, are pristine areas. However, these locations are not exempt from the arrival of anthropogenic agents, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The present study aimed to determine the occurrence and distribution of POPs in the marine biota of the SPSPA. Sample extractions were performed using a microwave-assisted method. The predominant compounds were PCBs and DDTs, which respectively had mean wet weight concentrations of 62.23 and 9.23ngg(-1) in the tropical two-wing flying fish (Exocoetus volitans), 78.66 and 6.81ngg(-1) in the brown booby (Sula leucogaster) and 43.40 and 3.03ngg(-1) in the red rock crab (Grapsus grapsus). Low levels of contaminants suggest a relative degree of isolation. Occurrence and distribution profiles of PCBs support long-range atmospheric transport as the main source of contamination and demonstrate the ubiquity of these pollutants in the marine environment.

Dias PS; Cipro CV; Taniguchi S; Montone RC

2013-09-01

291

Background mortality rates for recovering populations of Acropora cytherea in the Chagos Archipelago, central Indian Ocean.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study quantified background rates of mortality for Acropora cytherea in the Chagos Archipelago. Despite low levels of anthropogenic disturbance, 27.5% (149/541) of A. cytherea colonies exhibited some level of partial mortality, and 9.0% (49/541) of colonies had recent injuries. A total of 15.3% of the overall surface area of physically intact A. cytherea colonies was dead. Observed mortality was partly attributable to overtopping and/or self-shading among colonies. There were also low-densities of Acanthaster planci apparent at some study sites. However, most of the recent mortality recorded was associated with isolated infestations of the coral crab, Cymo melanodactylus. A. cytherea is a relatively fast growing coral and these levels of mortality may be biologically unimportant. However, few studies have measured background rates of coral mortality, especially in the absence of direct human disturbances. These data are important for assessing the impacts of increasing disturbances, especially in projecting likely recovery.

Pratchett MS; Pisapia C; Sheppard CR

2013-05-01

292

Coral recruitment and potential recovery of eutrophied and blast fishing impacted reefs in Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Coral recruitment was assessed in highly diverse and economically important Spermonde Archipelago, a reef system subjected to land-based sources of siltation/pollution and destructive fishing, over a period of 2years. Recruitment on settlement tiles reached up to 705spatm(-2)yr(-1) and was strongest in the dry season (July-October), except off-shore, where larvae settled earlier. Pocilloporidae dominated near-shore, while a more diverse community of Acroporidae, Poritidae and others settled in the less polluted mid-shelf and off-shore reefs. Non-coral fouling community appeared to hardly influence initial coral settlement on the tiles, although, this does not necessarily infer low coral post-settlement mortality, which may be enhanced at the near- and off-shore reefs as indicated by increased abundances of potential space competitors on natural substrate. Blast fishing showed no local reduction in coral recruitment and live hard coral cover increased in oligotrophic reefs, indicating potential for coral recovery, if managed effectively.

Sawall Y; Jompa J; Litaay M; Maddusila A; Richter C

2013-09-01

293

Optimization of hybrid PV-wind systems in six climatic areas of the Madeira Archipelago (Portugal)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper focuses on the optimization of hybrid off-grid PV-Wind systems in six climatic areas of the Madeira archipelago (Portugal), both from the technical and economical points of view. The areas are characterized by the variables recorded in six corresponding meteorological stations during the period 2002-2005. To facilitate the comparison of the systems, energy productions are given as specific values related to the square meter of horizontal land occupied by the systems. The DC PV electric generation per square meter of module (and horizontal land) in the sites of the stations was obtained in a parent paper. The wind electric generation is obtained from the wind daily data of the stations and considering an instantaneous Weibull distribution. The results show that, from the technical point of view, the optimum percentage of PV power in the PV-Wind hybrid systems varies from 44 % to 91%, with a renewable energy coverage in the range of 91-93 percent of the total, and that, from the economic point of view, the best hybrid solutions are hundred percent PV. (orig.)

Magro, C. [Governo Regional da Madeira, Funchal (Portugal). Lab. Regional de Engenharia Civil; Vazquez M; Izquierdo, P. [Vigo Univ., ETSI Industriales (Spain). Solar Energy Lab.

2008-07-01

294

Restrictions on the compatibility of equipment in archipelago countries: PERTAMINA experiences in Indonesia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Being an archipelago state, the sea area of Indonesia is four times larger than its land area. Oil and natural gas play significant roles in the country`s economic development. These activities at sea are showing signs of increasing, inevitably rendering the marine environment and living resources vulnerable to oil spills. Accidents, particularly grounding and collision occurrences in Malacca and the Singapore Straits sea lanes pose imminent threats. At PERTAMINA, the state-owned oil, gas and geothermal enterprise, oil spill contingency planning is entrusted to the Corporate Center for Environment Protection, Health and Safety. Marine activities are managed under the Directorate of Shipping, Harbour and Communication. In this paper oil spill response planning and coordination activities, which are based on the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA) tiered preparedness concept, are described. The tiered preparedness concept addresses the limited availability of equipment, and incorporates specific response plans for each type of spill scenario (e.g. passing tanker, loading/unloading ship at terminal, major inland spill, etc), for each area of operation. It also specifies the type of equipment that must be available in the area to respond to the type of spill (using the concept of maximum credible spill in each case) that may occur in that area. 5 figs.

Suwasono, D.; Putri, E. T. [PERTAMINA - Corporate Center for Environment Protection, Health and Safety (Indonesia)

1997-10-01

295

Invasive house mice facing a changing environment on the Sub-Antarctic Guillou Island (Kerguelen Archipelago).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adaptation to new environments is a key feature in evolution promoting divergence in morphological structures under selection. The house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) introduced on the Sub-Antarctic Guillou Island (Kerguelen Archipelago) had and still has to face environmental conditions that likely shaped the pattern and pace of its insular evolution. Since mouse arrival on the island, probably not more than two centuries ago, ecological conditions dramatically differed from those available to their Western European commensal source populations. In addition, over the last two decades, the plant and animal communities of Guillou Island were considerably modified by the eradication of rabbits, the effects of climate change and the spread of invasive species detrimental to native communities. Under such a changing habitat, the mouse response was investigated using a morphometric quantification of mandible and molar tooth, two morphological structures related to food processing. A marked differentiation of the insular mice compared with their relatives from Western Europe was documented for both mandibles and molar shapes. Moreover, these shapes changed through the 16 years of the record, in agreement with expectations of drift for the molar, but more than expected by chance for the mandible. These results suggest that mice responded to the recent changes in food resources, possibly with a part of plastic variation for the mandible prone to bone remodelling. This pattern exemplifies the intricate interplay of evolution, ecology and plasticity that is a probable key of the success of such an invasive rodent facing pronounced shifts in food resources exploitation under a changing environment.

Renaud S; Hardouin EA; Pisanu B; Chapuis JL

2013-03-01

296

A new species of Echium (Boraginaceae) from the island of Porto Santo (Madeira Archipelago)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new species endemic from the island of Porto Santo (Madeira Archipelago) is described as Echium portosanctensis J.A. Carvalho, Pontes, Batista-Marques & R. Jardim. Morphological studies based on reproductive and vegetative traits revealed a set of diagnostic characters confirming separation of E. portosanctensis from other recognized species at sectional level. A taxonomic diagnosis, a morphological description and illustrations of the new species are provided. Images, distribution maps, ecological data and a key for Madeiran species of Echium are also provided. Diagnostic characters, conservation status, threats and speciation mechanisms are discussed. In addition, reports on the occurrence of E. candicans on the island of Porto Santo are also discussed.Echium portosanctensis J.A. Carvalho, Pontes, Batista-Marques & R. Jardim se describe para la isla de Porto Santo (Achipiélago de Madeira). Estudios morfológicos basados en datos reproductivos y vegetativos revelan una serie de caracteres diagnósticos que confirman la separación de E. portosanctensis de otras especies de su sección. Se aportan una diagnosis taxonómica, una descripción morfológica e ilustraciones para esta nueva especie. Se presentan imágenes, mapas de distribución, datos ecológicos y una clave para las especies de Madeira. Se discuten los caracteres diagnósticos, el estado de conservación, amenazas, y los mecanismos de especiación. También se discuten datos previos sobre la presencia de E. candicans en la isla de Porto Santo.

Carvalho, José Augusto; Pontes, Tânia; Batista-Marques, Maria Isabel; Jardim, Roberto

2010-01-01

297

An adaptive radiation of frogs in a southeast asian island archipelago.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Living amphibians exhibit a diversity of ecologies, life histories, and species-rich lineages that offers opportunities for studies of adaptive radiation. We characterize a diverse clade of frogs (Kaloula, Microhylidae) in the Philippine island archipelago as an example of an adaptive radiation into three primary habitat specialists or ecotypes. We use a novel phylogenetic estimate for this clade to evaluate the tempo of lineage accumulation and morphological diversification. Because species-level phylogenetic estimates for Philippine Kaloula are lacking, we employ dense population sampling to determine the appropriate evolutionary lineages for diversification analyses. We explicitly take phylogenetic uncertainty into account when calculating diversification and disparification statistics and fitting models of diversification. Following dispersal to the Philippines from Southeast Asia, Kaloula radiated rapidly into several well-supported clades. Morphological variation within Kaloula is partly explained by ecotype and accumulated at high levels during this radiation, including within ecotypes. We pinpoint an axis of morphospace related directly to climbing and digging behaviors and find patterns of phenotypic evolution suggestive of ecological opportunity with partitioning into distinct habitat specialists. We conclude by discussing the components of phenotypic diversity that are likely important in amphibian adaptive radiations.

Blackburn DC; Siler CD; Diesmos AC; McGuire JA; Cannatella DC; Brown RM

2013-09-01

298

The Indonesian archipelago: an ancient genetic highway linking Asia and the Pacific.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indonesia, an island nation linking mainland Asia with the Pacific world, hosts a wide range of linguistic, ethnic and genetic diversity. Despite the complexity of this cultural environment, genetic studies in Indonesia remain surprisingly sparse. Here, we report mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and associated Y-chromosome diversity for the largest cohort of Indonesians examined to date-2740 individuals from 70 communities spanning 12 islands across the breadth of the Indonesian archipelago. We reconstruct 50 000 years of population movements, from mitochondrial lineages reflecting the very earliest settlers in island southeast Asia, to Neolithic population dispersals. Historic contacts from Chinese, Indians, Arabs and Europeans comprise a noticeable fraction of Y-chromosome variation, but are not reflected in the maternally inherited mtDNA. While this historic immigration favored men, patterns of genetic diversity show that women moved more widely in earlier times. However, measures of population differentiation signal that Indonesian communities are trending away from the matri- or ambilocality of early Austronesian societies toward the more common practice of patrilocal residence today. Such sex-specific dispersal patterns remain even after correcting for the different mutation rates of mtDNA and the Y chromosome. This detailed palimpsest of Indonesian genetic diversity is a direct outcome of the region's complex history of immigration, transitory migrants and populations that have endured in situ since the region's first settlement. PMID:23344321

Tumonggor, Meryanne K; Karafet, Tatiana M; Hallmark, Brian; Lansing, J Stephen; Sudoyo, Herawati; Hammer, Michael F; Cox, Murray P

2013-01-24

299

Multiscale Physical and Biological Dynamics in the Philippine Archipelago: Predictions and Processes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Philippine Archipelago is remarkable because of its complex geometry, with multiple islands and passages, and its multiscale dynamics, from the large-scale open-ocean and atmospheric forcing, to the strong tides and internal waves in narrow straits and at steep shelfbreaks. We employ our multiresolution modeling system to predict and study multiscale dynamics in the region, without the use of any synoptic in situ data, so as to evaluate modeling capabilities when only sparse remotely sensed sea surface height is available for assimilation. We focus on the February to March 2009 period, compare our simulation results to ocean observations and utilize our simulations to quantify and discover oceanic features in the region. The findings include: the physical drivers for the biogeochemical features; the diverse circulation features in each sub-sea and their variations on multiple scales; the flow fields within the major straits and their variabliity; the transports to and from the Sulu Sea and the corresponding balances; and finally, the multiscale mechanisms involved in the formation of the deep Sulu Sea water.

Pierre F.J. Lermusiaux; Patrick J. Haley Jr.; Wayne G. Leslie; Arpit Agarwal; Oleg G. Logutov; Lisa J. Burton

2011-01-01

300

Uncoupled viral and bacterial distributions in coral reef waters of Tuamotu Archipelago (French Polynesia).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined the distribution of virioplankton and bacterioplankton in two coral reef systems (Ahe and Takaroa atolls) in the Tuamotu Archipelago, in comparison with the surrounding oligotrophic ocean. Mean concentrations of 4.8×10(5) and 6.2×10(5) cells ml(-1) for bacteria and 8.1×10(6) and 4.3×10(6) VLP(virus-like particle) ml(-1) were recorded in Ahe and Takaroa lagoons, respectively. Chlorophyll-a concentrations and dissolved organic matter were higher in Ahe whereas (3)H thymidine incorporation rates were higher in Takaroa. First data on lytic and lysogenic strategies of phages in coral reef environments were discussed in this paper. The fraction of visibly infected cells by viruses was negligible regardless of the lagoon station (mean=0.15%). However, the fraction of lysogenic cells ranged between 2.5% and 88.9%. Our results suggest that the distribution patterns of virioplankton are apparently not coupled to the spatial dynamics of the bacterioplankton communities.

Bouvy M; Combe M; Bettarel Y; Dupuy C; Rochelle-Newall E; Charpy L

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Drilling stabilizes in the San Juan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil production is increasing vastly in importance in the San Juan Basin and drilling for Gallup oil objectives is credited with the stabilization of rig activity this year. By mid-1983, oil well completions accounted for 47% of total well completions. With reduced demand for San Juan basin gas operators are aggressively drilling Gallup wells.

Mickey, V.

1983-11-01

302

Magnetotelluric Data, Southern San Luis Valley, Colorado.  

Science.gov (United States)

The population of the San Luis Valley region is growing rapidly. The shallow unconfined and the deeper confined Santa Fe Group aquifer in the San Luis Basin is the main sources of municipal water for the region. Water shortfalls could have serious consequ...

J. M. Williams R. D. Rodriquez

2007-01-01

303

Combustion Testing of San Miguel Lignite.  

Science.gov (United States)

Results from pilot plant testing of the San Miguel lignite are: (1) The ash fouling furnace is an empirical tool which provides good information on relative fouling potential of various fuels. In the case of San Miguel lignite tests suggest a severe fouli...

M. L. Jones G. M. Goblirsch

1982-01-01

304

Solar America City - San Diego, California.  

Science.gov (United States)

San Diego is a hotbed of solar activity. In June 2007, San Diego was selected as a Solar City by the U.S. Department of Energy because of its commitment to adopting solar technology at the local level. Municipal government, businesses, and nonprofit organ...

2008-01-01

305

Edificio San Cristobal -Alicante- España  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The San Cristóbal Building has been constructed in the very center of the city of Alicante and is considered as one of the most singular buildings of Europe. Among its outstanding characteristic, we can point out. In addition to the facade -unique- in fire-lacquered aluminium, the fact of its extremely deep foundations lined by hundreds of tons of concrete due to the geological conditions of the ground. It has four parking floors, ground floor, four floors four dwellings. The construction of this building, which lasted two years, signifies a step forward and a decisive contribution to world architecture.Se ha construido en Alicante, en pleno centro de la ciudad, el Edificio San Cristóbal considerado como uno de los más singulares de Europa. Entre sus características más destacadas podemos señalar, además de la fachada - única- de aluminio lacado al fuego, el hecho de tener una cimentación muy profunda revestida por cientos de toneladas de hormigón debido a las condiciones geológicas del suelo. Posee cuatro plantas de aparcamiento, planta baja, cuatro plantas de oficinas y cuatro viviendas. La construcción de este edificio, cuya duración ha sido de dos años, ha supuesto un avance y un decisivo aporte a la arquitectura mundial.

Navarro Guzmán, Alfonso; Sanz Magallón, José Luis; Ligues Creus, Juan

1980-01-01

306

Circulation in the Philippine Archipelago Simulated by 1/12° and 1/25° Global HYCOM and EAS NCOM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three ocean models, 1/25° global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), 1/12° global HYCOM, and EAS NCOM nested in global NCOM, were used to provide a global context for simulation of the circulation within the Philippine Archipelago as part of the Philippines Experiment (PhilEx). The Philippine Archipelago provides two significant secondary routes for both the Indonesian throughflow and the western boundary current of the Pacific northern tropical gyre. The deeper route enters the archipelago from the north through Mindoro Strait, after passing through Luzon Strait and the South China Sea. The second route enters directly from the Pacific via the shallow Surigao Strait and passes through Dipolog Strait downstream of the Bohol Sea. Both pathways exit via Sibutu Passage and the adjacent Sulu Archipelago along the southern edge of the Sulu Sea, and both are deeper than the pathway into the Indonesian Archipelago via Karimata Strait in the Java Sea. Within the Philippine Archipelago, these pathways make the dominant contribution to the mean circulation and much of its variability, while their outflow contributes to the flow through Makassar Strait, the primary conduit of the Indonesian throughflow, at all depths above the Sibutu Passage sill. Because of the narrow straits and small interior seas, the simulations are very sensitive to model resolution (4.4 km in 1/25° global HYCOM, 8.7 km in 1/12° global HYCOM, and 9.6 km in EAS NCOM in this latitude range) and to topographic errors, especially sill depths. The model simulations for 2004 and 2008 (the latter the central year of the PhilEx observational program) show extreme opposite anomalous years with anomalously strong southward Mindoro transport in 2004 and mean northward transport in 2008, but with little effect on the Surigao-Dipolog transport. Satellite altimetry verified the associated HYCOM sea surface height anomalies in the western tropical Pacific and the South China Sea during these extreme years. A 15-month (December 2007–March 2009) PhilEx mooring in Mindoro Strait measured velocity nearly top to bottom at a location close to the sill. The 1/12° global HYCOM, which showed the strongest flow above 200 m lay west of the mooring, was used to adjust a Mindoro transport estimate from the mooring data for cross-sectional distribution of the velocity, giving 0.24 Sv northward over the anomalous observational period. The results from the observational period were then used to adjust the 2004–2009 model transport, giving a mean of 0.95 Sv southward. The 1/25° global HYCOM simulated the observed four-layer flow in Dipolog Strait and the vigorous and persistent cyclonic gyre in the western Bohol Sea, observed during all four PhilEx cruises and in ocean color imagery. This gyre was poorly simulated by the two models with ~ 9 km resolution. Finally, a 1/12° global HYCOM simulation with tides generated the hydrostatic aspect of the internal tides within the Philippine Archipelago, including a strong internal tidal beam initiated at Sibutu Passage and observed crossing the Sulu Sea.

Harley E. Hurlburt; E. Joseph Metzger; Janet Sprintall; Shelley N. Riedlinger; Robert A. Arnone; Toshiaki Shinoda; Xiaobiao Xu

2011-01-01

307

Minería, conflicto y mediadores locales: Minera San Xavier en Cerro de San Pedro, México Mineira, conflito e mediadores locais: Minera San Xavier em Cerro de San Pedro Mining, conflict and local brokers: Minera San Xavier in Cerro de San Pedro  

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Full Text Available Este trabajo indaga en las instancias de mediación que intervienen en la articulación de procesos económicos de gran escala y su puesta en práctica local. Basándonos en el conflicto que se produjo en el Municipio de Cerro de San Pedro (San Luis Potosí, México) entre la empresa Minera San Xavier y el Frente Amplio Opositor (FAO) a la misma, aplicamos el método etnográfico con el objetivo de describir las estructuras locales de mediación política y analizar sus prácticas y racionalidad. Intentamos demostrar así la importancia de los factores políticos locales en las vinculaciones entre estado, empresa y población.Este trabalho indaga nas instâncias de mediação que intervêm em processos econômicos de grande escala e sua posta em prática local. Baseando-nos no conflito no Cerro de San Pedro (San Luis Potosí, México) entre a empresa Minera San Xavier e a Frente Amplio Opositor (FAO) aplicamos o método etnográfico pra descrever as estruturas de mediação política locais e analisar suas práticas e racionalidade. Tenta-se demonstrar assim a importância dos fatores políticos locais nas vinculações entre estado, empresa e população.This paper investigates in instances of mediation involved in large-scale economic processes and local implementation. Analyzing the conflict in Cerro de San Pedro (San Luis Potosí, México) among San Xavier mining company and the Frente Amplio Opositor (FAO), it applies an ethnographic approach to describe the local structures of political mediation and its practices and rationality. The work shows the relevance of local factors in the relationships between State, company and people.

Hernán Horacio Schiaffini

2011-01-01

308

San Francisco Aerial Photographs 1938  

Science.gov (United States)

Have you ever wanted to fly over San Francisco in the year 1938? Well, now you can in a manner of speaking. Recently, the David Rumsey Historical Map Collection website digitized 164 large format, black and white, vertical aerial photographs taken by Harrison Ryker, a pioneer in aerial photography. The photos are quite remarkable, and visitors can zoom in to see such details as the paint striping on a basketball court. Visitors can peer out over the Ferry Terminal Building, the long-gone Mission Bay Roundhouse, and Hunters Point. The site also contains a detailed biographical sketch of Harrison Ryker, complete with a few of the advertisements for his own products, like the M-11 Stereoscope. Finally, visitors can also save specific images for future references.

309

Moving Towards SAN Storage: An Enterprise Perspective  

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Full Text Available Abstract – One of the major components of any enterprise IT infrastructure is data storage. There has been continuous effort to explore new storage technologies to improve performance with respect to input/output operations, data availability, consolidation of storage assets and data protection and archiving. Storage has moved from the traditional Direct Attached Storage (DAS) to Network Attached Storage (NAS) and now to Storage Area Networks (SAN). Traditional storage subsystems like Server Attached Storage (SAS) and Network Attached Storage (NAS) use disks directly attached to servers over a Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI) bus. However, these have limited capabilities keeping in view the rapidly expanding storage needs. The SAN technology holds great promises to be used for enterprises where issues like data availability, serviceability, consolidation of storage and reliability are major concerns. It can provide high speed data transfer with many other storage services, backboned with a high speed Fibre Channel (FC). Storage-area networks are also more popular and efficient way of building large storage systems both in an enterprise environment and for multi-domain storage service providers. SAN design and implementation requires careful analysis before SAN can be used as an enterprise storage solution. In this paper we provide an overview of SAN technology from the view point of building large storage systems in an enterprise environment. We also discuss on return on investment (ROI) which can justify the adoption of SAN in an enterprise. Further, it compares two specific technologies, namely, FC SAN and IP SAN. In the sequel different design considerations are made to recommend suitable SAN implementations in order to meet the requirements of any enterprise.

rabi prasad padhy

2012-01-01

310

Fishery of the Green Jack Caranx caballus (Osteichytes: Carangidae) in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama  

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Full Text Available Green Jacks, Caranx caballus, are distributed along the Eastern Pacific coast. In Panama, C. caballus was heavily fished around Las Perlas Archipelago to sustain local markets until 2007, when the archipelago was declared a marine protected area. This first study in Panama, analyzed a sample of 4 990 individuals from Las Perlas, obtained monthly from June 2005 to June 2006, from landings at the central fish market. Average total length was 36.1±6.4cm and optimum length 38.9cm. Approximately 68% of fish lengths were within ±10% of the optimal length but only six (15%) were considered mega-spawners. The von Bertalanffy parameters describe a long-lived and fast growing species, while mortality rates revealed that C. caballus is under high fishing pressure. Standard length at which half of the population is mature was 38.8cm, and the size at which individuals matured massively, 33cm. Only 10-13% of the fish were immature. C. caballus reproduces two to three times per year, with peaks in December, April, and probably September, and recruits to the population at least twice per year. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) was best predicted by minimum annual values of the Multivariate ENSO/ LNSO Index (MEI) (R²=0.54). Results show that C. caballus in Pacific Panama is overfished. We recommend the raising of the minimum capture/landing size of this species in order to increase the proportion of megaspawners in the population and guarantee the sustainability of this resource.El jurel verde o “cojinúa”, Caranx caballus, se distribuye a lo largo de la costa del Pacífico Oriental. En el Archipiélago de Las Perlas, Panamá, la cojinúa fue pescada sin control para sostener mercados locales hasta el 2007, fecha en la que esta región fue declarada área marina protegida. En este primer estudio para Panamá, se analizaron desde junio de 2005 a junio de 2006, 4 990 individuos en las descargas del Mercado Central de Mariscos provenientes de Las Perlas. La longitud media total de esta especie fue de 36.1±6.4cm y la longitud óptima, 38.9cm. Aproximadamente, 68% de los individuos muestreados poseen longitudes dentro de ±10% de la longitud óptima, pero sólo seis (15%) eran mega-reproductores. Los parámetros de la ecuación de von Bertalanffy describen la especie como de larga vida y de rápido crecimiento, mientras que las tasas de mortalidad indican que la cojinúa está bajo una alta presión de pesca. La longitud estándar a la que la mitad de la población es sexualmente madura es 38.8cm y el tamaño de maduración masiva, 33cm. Sólo entre el 10-13% de los individuos muestreados son inmaduros. La cojinúa se reproduce 2-3 veces al año, con picos en diciembre, abril y probablemente septiembre, y recluta a la población por lo menos dos veces al año. Los valores mínimos anuales del Índice ENSO/LNSO multivariado (MEI) son los mejores predictores de la CPUE de esta especie (R²=0.54). Nuestros resultados demuestran que la cojinúa en el Pacífico Panameño está sobreexplotada por lo que recomendamos elevar la talla mínima de captura para permitir que aumente la proporción de mega-reproductores en la población con el fin de garantizar la sostenibilidad del recurso.

James M. Mair; Roberto Cipriani; Hector M. Guzman; David Usan

2012-01-01

311

Fishery of the Green Jack Caranx caballus (Osteichytes: Carangidae) in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El jurel verde o “cojinúa”, Caranx caballus, se distribuye a lo largo de la costa del Pacífico Oriental. En el Archipiélago de Las Perlas, Panamá, la cojinúa fue pescada sin control para sostener mercados locales hasta el 2007, fecha en la que esta región fue declarada área marina protegida. En este primer estudio para Panamá, se analizaron desde junio de 2005 a junio de 2006, 4 990 individuos en las descargas del Mercado Central de Mariscos provenient (more) es de Las Perlas. La longitud media total de esta especie fue de 36.1±6.4cm y la longitud óptima, 38.9cm. Aproximadamente, 68% de los individuos muestreados poseen longitudes dentro de ±10% de la longitud óptima, pero sólo seis (15%) eran mega-reproductores. Los parámetros de la ecuación de von Bertalanffy describen la especie como de larga vida y de rápido crecimiento, mientras que las tasas de mortalidad indican que la cojinúa está bajo una alta presión de pesca. La longitud estándar a la que la mitad de la población es sexualmente madura es 38.8cm y el tamaño de maduración masiva, 33cm. Sólo entre el 10-13% de los individuos muestreados son inmaduros. La cojinúa se reproduce 2-3 veces al año, con picos en diciembre, abril y probablemente septiembre, y recluta a la población por lo menos dos veces al año. Los valores mínimos anuales del Índice ENSO/LNSO multivariado (MEI) son los mejores predictores de la CPUE de esta especie (R²=0.54). Nuestros resultados demuestran que la cojinúa en el Pacífico Panameño está sobreexplotada por lo que recomendamos elevar la talla mínima de captura para permitir que aumente la proporción de mega-reproductores en la población con el fin de garantizar la sostenibilidad del recurso. Abstract in english Green Jacks, Caranx caballus, are distributed along the Eastern Pacific coast. In Panama, C. caballus was heavily fished around Las Perlas Archipelago to sustain local markets until 2007, when the archipelago was declared a marine protected area. This first study in Panama, analyzed a sample of 4 990 individuals from Las Perlas, obtained monthly from June 2005 to June 2006, from landings at the central fish market. Average total length was 36.1±6.4cm and optimum length 3 (more) 8.9cm. Approximately 68% of fish lengths were within ±10% of the optimal length but only six (15%) were considered mega-spawners. The von Bertalanffy parameters describe a long-lived and fast growing species, while mortality rates revealed that C. caballus is under high fishing pressure. Standard length at which half of the population is mature was 38.8cm, and the size at which individuals matured massively, 33cm. Only 10-13% of the fish were immature. C. caballus reproduces two to three times per year, with peaks in December, April, and probably September, and recruits to the population at least twice per year. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) was best predicted by minimum annual values of the Multivariate ENSO/ LNSO Index (MEI) (R²=0.54). Results show that C. caballus in Pacific Panama is overfished. We recommend the raising of the minimum capture/landing size of this species in order to increase the proportion of megaspawners in the population and guarantee the sustainability of this resource.

Mair, James M.; Cipriani, Roberto; Guzman, Hector M.; Usan, David

2012-09-01

312

Facies, Stratigraphic and Depositional Model of the Sediments in the Abrolhos Archipelago (Bahia, BRAZIL)  

Science.gov (United States)

Located in the Mucuri Basin on the continental shelf of southern Bahia state, northeast Brazil, about 70 km from the city of Caravelas,the Abrolhos archipelago is made up of five islands; Santa Barbara, Redonda, Siriba, Guarita and Sueste. The exhumed sediments in the Abrolhos archipelago are a rare record of the turbidite systems which fill the Brazilian Atlantic Basin, and are probably an unprecedented example of a plataform turbidite system (Dr. Mutti, personal communication). Despite the limited area, the outcrops display a wide facies variation produced by different depositional processes, and also allow for the observation of the layer geometries. Associated with such sedimentary rocks, the Abrolhos Volcanic Complex belongs stratigraphically to the Abrolhos Formation. These igneous rocks were dated by the Ar / Ar method, with ages ranging from 60 to 40 My, placing such Volcanic Complex between the Paleocene and Eocene. The sedimentary section is best exposed in the Santa Barbara and Redonda islands and altogether it is 70 m thick. The measured vertical sections show a good stratigraphic correlation between the rocks of the western portion of the first island and those of Redonda Island. However, there is no correlation between the eastern and western portions of Santa Barbara Island, since they are very likely interrupted by the igneous intrusion and possibly by faulting. The sedimentary stack consists of deposits with alternated regressive and transgressive episodes interpreted as high frequency sequences. The coarse facies, sandstones and conglomerates, with abrupt or erosive bases record regressive phases. On the other hand, finer sandstones and siltstones facies, which are partly bioturbated, correspond to phases of a little sediment supply. In the central and eastern portions of Santa Barbara Island, there is a trend of progradational stacking, while both in the western portion of Santa Barbara and in Redonda islands an agradational trend is observed. The predominance of layers with tabular geometry, characteristic of turbidite lobes, the presence of hummocky stratification, trace fossils typical of shallow water (Ophiomorphs and Thalassinoides), all associated with the occurrence of the carbonaceous material as well as plant fragments suggest a deltaic/ plataform depositional context. Textural features and sedimentary structures observed in the conglomerates and sandstones show the action of gravitational flows of high and low density. The fine interlaminated sandstones and siltstones later deformed as slumps or slides, and conglomerates with oriented clasts indicate, respectively, mass movements and action of debris flow. Conglomeratic lags levels record a bypass phenomenon. There are no biostratigraphic data in these studied outcrops. However, petrographic analyses revealed the presence of fragments of igneous rocks (basalts and diabases) in both sandstones and conglomerates, suggesting a relative contemporaneity between igneous activity and sediment deposition. Futhermore, petrographic analyses also found poor permo-porous conditions in the reservoirs due to the presence of fragments of volcanic rocks and the abundance of intraclasts / pseudomatrix.

Matte, R. R.; Zambonato, E. E.

2012-04-01

313

Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti populations from Senegal and Cape Verde Archipelago  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Two concomitant dengue 3 (DEN-3) epidemics occurred in Cape Verde Archipelago and Senegal between September and October 2009. Aedes aegypti was identified as the vector of these epidemics as several DEN-3 virus strains were isolated from this species in both countries. The susceptibility to pyrethroids, organochlorine, organophosphates and carbamate was investigated in two field strains of Aedes aegypti from both countries using WHO diagnostic bioassay kits in order to monitor their the current status of insecticide susceptibility. Findings The two tested strains were highly resistant to DDT. The Cape Verde strain was found to be susceptible to all others tested insecticides except for propoxur 0.1%, which needs further investigation. The Dakar strain was susceptible to fenitrothion 1% and permethrin 0.75%, but displayed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and propoxur. Conclusions As base-line results, our observations stress a careful management of insecticide use for the control of Ae. aegypti. Indeed, they indicate that DDT is no longer efficient for the control of Ae. aegypti populations in Cape Verde and Dakar and further suggest a thorough follow-up of propoxur susceptibility status in both sites and that of deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in Ae. aegypti populations in Dakar. Thus, regular monitoring of susceptibility is greatly needed as well as the knowing if this observed resistance/susceptibility is focal or not and for observed resistance, the use of biochemical methods is needed with detailed comparison of resistance levels over a large geographic area. Keywords Aedes aegypti, Insecticides, Susceptibility, Cape Verde, Senegal

Dia Ibrahima; Diagne Cheikh; Ba Yamar; Diallo Diawo; Konate Lassana; Diallo Mawlouth

2012-01-01

314

Geographic variation in body form of prehistoric Jomon males in the Japanese archipelago: its ecogeographic implications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Diversity of human body size and shape is often biogeographically interpreted in association with climatic conditions. According to Bergmann's and Allen's rules, populations in regions with a cold climate are expected to display an overall larger body and smaller/shorter extremities than those in warm/hot environments. In the present study, the skeletal limb size and proportions of prehistoric Jomon hunter-gatherers, who extensively inhabited subarctic to subtropical areas in the ancient Japanese archipelago, were examined to evaluate whether or not the inter-regional differences follow such ecogeographic patterns. Results showed that the Jomon intralimb proportions including relative distal limb lengths did not differ significantly among five regions from northern Hokkaido to the southern Okinawa Islands. This suggests a limited co-variability of the intralimb proportions with climate, particularly within genealogically close populations. In contrast, femoral head breadth (associated with body mass) and skeletal limb lengths were found to be significantly and positively correlated with latitude, suggesting a north-south geographical cline in the body size. This gradient therefore comprehensively conforms to Bergmann's rule, and may stem from multiple potential factors such as phylogenetic constraints, microevolutionary adaptation to climatic/geographic conditions during the Jomon period, and nutritional and physiological response during ontogeny. Specifically, the remarkably small-bodied Jomon in the Okinawa Islands can also be explained as an adjustment to subtropical and insular environments. Thus, the findings obtained in this study indicate that Jomon people, while maintaining fundamental intralimb proportions, displayed body size variation in concert with ambient surroundings.

Fukase H; Wakebe T; Tsurumoto T; Saiki K; Fujita M; Ishida H

2012-09-01

315

Pelagic seabird surveys in the Tuamotu and Gambier Archipelagos, French Polynesia  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted pelagic seabird surveys in the Gambier and Tuamotu Archipelagos in the southeastern Pacific Ocean totaling 40 hours during 7-27 March 2003 and 22.5 hours during 22-27 July 2001. We used a 300-m-wide strip transect to estimate seabird density, and we estimated relative abundance of birds at all distances. In 2001, we observed a total of 326 birds of 18 species. The mean relative abundance of all birds was 14.3 ?? 3.1/h. Red-footed Booby Sula sula was the most abundant species (5.6/h), followed by White Tern Gygis alba (3.4/h), and Great Crested or Swift Tern Sterna bergii (1.2/h). In 2003, we observed a total of 1463 birds of 25 species. The mean relative abundance of all birds was 36.6 ?? 11.4/h and the mean density of all birds was 4.14 ?? 0.72/km2. Brown Noddy Anous stolidus was the most abundant species (17.6/h, 1.5/km2), followed by White Tern (8.4/h, 1.3/km2), and Red-footed Booby (4.6/h, 0.8/km2). Several globally or locally rare species were observed infrequently, including Phoenix Petrel Pterodroma alba (0.1/h, 0.03/km2). Distribution of birds was uneven, with long periods of no birds punctuated by occasional feeding flocks. In 2003, species diversity was related to length of observation period, with more species observed on longer segments (r2 = 0.58, F1.5 = 6.03, P = 0.05). Although the duration and extent of our surveys were limited, these data are valuable because little published information is available on pelagic seabirds in southeastern Polynesia.

Vanderwerf, E. A.; Pierce, R. J.; Gill, V. A.; Wragg, G.; Raust, P.; Tibbitts, T. L.

2006-01-01

316

Genetic variation in the invasive avian parasite, Philornis downsi (Diptera, Muscidae) on the Galápagos archipelago  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the dispersal and genetic structure of invasive insects across islands is important for designing management plans that are appropriate at spatial and temporal scales. For invasive parasites, population dynamics are largely determined by the distribution and density of their host species. The introduced parasitic fly, Philornis downsi, parasitises nestlings of endemic birds on all major islands of the Galápagos archipelago. The fly's high mortality and fitness impacts are of conservation concern for vulnerable and declining species of Darwin's finches. Using microsatellite data in Bayesian clustering and landscape genetic analyses, we examine gene flow and dispersal in P. downsi between three islands and across habitats (highlands, lowlands) and examine for the presence of population bottlenecks. We also examine variation at the mitochondrial gene CO1 across islands to establish if cryptic species were present. Results Both the mitochondrial and microsatellite data were consistent with there being a single species across islands. We found low genetic differentiation between islands and strong evidence for inter-island gene flow, or shared recent ancestry among individuals. Landscape genetic analysis identified two genetic clusters: one encompassing Santa Cruz and Isabela, and one on Floreana Island. There was no evidence of genetic differentiation between habitats and molecular variance was mainly attributable to within individuals. The combined P. downsi population was found to have undergone a population bottleneck. Conclusion Philornis downsi populations have high connectivity within and between islands, with low levels of genetic differentiation between Floreana and the other two islands examined. The genetic bottleneck found across islands suggests there was a small founding population or few introduction events of P. downsi. The high dispersal capacity and wide habitat use of P. downsi highlights the significant threat that this parasite poses to the Galápagos avifauna. Our findings are relevant for assessing the viability of methods to control P. downsi on Galápagos, such as the sterile insect technique.

Dudaniec Rachael Y; Gardner Michael G; Donnellan Steve; Kleindorfer Sonia

2008-01-01

317

Outlook for oil and gas content of the Apsheron archipelago. [Caucasus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on data of paleotectonic analysis and seismic exploration, the deep structure of the southeast periclines of the structure of the Peschanyy-more and Gyurgen-more, as well as the northwest periclines of the elevations Gryazevaya mud volcano is examined. The outlook for oil and gas content of the structure of Peschanyy-more is associated with the possibility of finding tectonically screened formations in the deposits of productive mass, to the east of the longitudinal deep fault. A new elevation was noted in the lower part of the productive mass in the southeast pericline of the Gyurgenskiy fold. With consideration for the proximity of the known fields, the opinion is advanced regarding the unused resources of oil and gas in the base levels of the productive mass in the underlying deposits of the overthrust and suboverthrust zone of the Kazan elevation. Between the structures Azi Aslanov and the Gryazevaya mud volcano, a submerged elevation has been found in the middle Pliocene deposits. Of the two wells in the anticlinal part of the fold, oil influxes have been obtained. The outlook for oil and gas content here is associated with the possibility and the presence of oil formations on the submerged areas of the detected structure in the base subseries of the Kalinskiy series. The tapering deposits of the lower part of the productive mass are indicated as promising for detection of oil and gas formations in the northern part of the Apsheron archipelago. In the region of structures Peschamyy-more, Bakhar, Azi Aslanova, Gryazevaya mud volcano, Gyurgan-more and south, the sandy-argillaceous lithofacies of the Mesozoic are of prospecting importance.

Bashirov, Ya.M.; Markarova, O.A.; Veliyeva, V.A.

1982-01-01

318

Refugia of Potentilla matsumurae (Rosaceae) located at high mountains in the Japanese archipelago.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Molecular phylogeographic studies have revealed the genetic patterns and glacial-interglacial history of many plant and animal species. To infer the Quaternary history of alpine plants in the Japanese archipelago, which is poorly known, we investigated 203 individuals of Potentilla matsumurae and its varieties from 22 populations. We found 11 haplotypes based on approximately 1400 bp of two intergenetic spacers in chloroplast DNA (trnT-L and rpl20-rps20). The distribution of these haplotypes was geographically structured, which was supported by haplotype composition, principal component analysis, and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA), and N(ST) (0.71) was significantly greater than G(ST) (0.68). In addition to the positive correlation between genetic and geographic distance (Mantel test, r = 0.497, P < 0.001), an abrupt genetic change was detected between mountains in central Honshu and the Tohoku region. This genetic boundary was further supported by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), and high variation (54.0%) was explained by differences on either side of this boundary. Moreover, haplotypes in central Honshu were thought to have diverged, based on an outgroup comparison. These results suggest that mountains in central Honshu served as refugia during the Quaternary climatic oscillation, although the results could not reveal the history of most mountains in the Tohoku region and Hokkaido. Nevertheless, following floristic studies, our results indicate that alpine plants in Japan experienced a history different from that in Europe; i.e. they retreated into refugia during warm periods to avoid forest development, rather than glaciers.

Ikeda H; Senni K; Fujii N; Setoguchi H

2006-10-01

319

Magma sources of the Cape Verdes archipelago: Isotopic and trace element constraints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Sr-, Nd-, and Pb-isotopic compositions of Late Tertiary to Recent mafic alkaline rocks of the Cape Verdes archipelago vary from {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd = 0.512606-0.513045 ({epsilon}{sub Nd} = 0.5 + 8.1), {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr = 0.702922-0.703934, and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 18.743-19.881. The variation of {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb with {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb in Cape Verdes lavas coincides with data for MORB, Hawaii, and Iceland, while {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb vs. {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb is an oblique, positive trend, i.e., {sup 208}Pb is higher in samples from the southern Cape Verdes islands which have lower {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb. At least three isotopically distinct components, including depleted upper mantle, are required in Cape Verdes magma sources. The isotopic and trace element characteristics of a component predominant in northern Cape Verdes magma sources with relatively radiogenic Pb and Nd (HIMU) suggest an origin for this component as ancient recycled oceanic crust. The trace element and isotopic variations, the large scale isotopic heterogeneity, the intra-island stratigraphic variations, the apparent geographic age progression of magmatism, and the geophysical constraints are best explained by variable partial melting of a heterogeneous plume (HIMU + depleted mantle) in the northern Cape Verdes, and mixing of plume-derived melts with lithospheric (EM) melts in the southern Cape Verdes. Alternatively, an EM plume produces magma supplied to the southern Cape Verdes, and the northern Cape Verdes, located off the plume track, are supplied by relatively lower degrees of melting at the plume margin which has entrained pre-existing HIMU components from a heterogeneous (DM + HIMU) upper mantle.

Gerlach, D.C. (Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC (USA)); Cliff, R.A.; Davies, G.R. (Univ. of Leeds (England)); Norry, M.; Hodgson, N. (Univ. of Leicester (England))

1988-12-01

320

Diversification of sympatric broadcast-spawning limpets (Cellana spp.) within the Hawaiian archipelago.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Speciation remains a central enigma in biology, and nowhere is this more apparent than in shallow tropical seas where biodiversity rivals that of tropical rainforests. Obvious barriers to gene flow are few and most marine species have a highly dispersive larval stage, which should greatly decrease opportunities for speciation via geographic isolation. The disparity in the level of geographic isolation for terrestrial and marine species is exemplified in Hawai'i where opportunities for allopatric speciation abound in the terrestrial realm. In contrast, marine colonizers of Hawai'i are believed to produce only a single endemic species or population, due to the lack of isolating barriers. To test the assertion that marine species do not diversify within Hawai'i, we examine the evolutionary origin of three endemic limpets (Cellana exarata, C. sandwicensis and C. talcosa) that are vertically segregated across a steep ecocline on rocky shores. Analyses of three mtDNA loci (12S, 16S, COI; 1565bp) and two nDNA loci (ATPS?, H3; 709bp) in 26 Indo-Pacific Cellana species (N=414) indicates that Hawai'i was colonized once ?3.4-7.2Ma from the vicinity of Japan. Trait mapping demonstrates that high-shore residence is the ancestral character state, such that mid- and low-shore species are the product of subsequent diversification. The Hawaiian Cellana are the first broadcast-spawners demonstrated to have speciated within any archipelago. The habitat stratification, extensive sympatry, and evolutionary history of these limpets collectively indicate a strong ecological component to speciation and support the growing body of evidence for non-allopatric speciation in the ocean.

Bird CE; Holland BS; Bowen BW; Toonen RJ

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
321

Diversification of sympatric broadcast-spawning limpets (Cellana spp.) within the Hawaiian archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

Speciation remains a central enigma in biology, and nowhere is this more apparent than in shallow tropical seas where biodiversity rivals that of tropical rainforests. Obvious barriers to gene flow are few and most marine species have a highly dispersive larval stage, which should greatly decrease opportunities for speciation via geographic isolation. The disparity in the level of geographic isolation for terrestrial and marine species is exemplified in Hawai'i where opportunities for allopatric speciation abound in the terrestrial realm. In contrast, marine colonizers of Hawai'i are believed to produce only a single endemic species or population, due to the lack of isolating barriers. To test the assertion that marine species do not diversify within Hawai'i, we examine the evolutionary origin of three endemic limpets (Cellana exarata, C. sandwicensis and C. talcosa) that are vertically segregated across a steep ecocline on rocky shores. Analyses of three mtDNA loci (12S, 16S, COI; 1565bp) and two nDNA loci (ATPS?, H3; 709bp) in 26 Indo-Pacific Cellana species (N=414) indicates that Hawai'i was colonized once ?3.4-7.2Ma from the vicinity of Japan. Trait mapping demonstrates that high-shore residence is the ancestral character state, such that mid- and low-shore species are the product of subsequent diversification. The Hawaiian Cellana are the first broadcast-spawners demonstrated to have speciated within any archipelago. The habitat stratification, extensive sympatry, and evolutionary history of these limpets collectively indicate a strong ecological component to speciation and support the growing body of evidence for non-allopatric speciation in the ocean. PMID:21481050

Bird, Christopher E; Holland, Brenden S; Bowen, Brian W; Toonen, Robert J

2011-04-11

322

Lepidoptera : Systematic catalogue of the entomofauna of the Madeira Archipelago and Selvagens Islands 1  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  Being the first of a series dealing with the entomofauna of the Madeira and Selvagens Islands, this catalogue is a list of all Lepidoptera recorded from this region of Macaronesia, with references to the relevant literature. The checklist includes 37 families, 211 genera and 331 species. 31 species are recorded from Madeira for the first time, and exact data and locality are given for these in the notes. 32 species, which had previously been recorded from Madeira, are removed from the list of Lepidoptera found in the Madeira Islands being misidentifications, doubtful and unconfirmed records, undetermined species requiring further study and accidentally introduced species which have not established themselves in Madeira. No genus of Lepidoptera is endemic to Madeira, but 81 species are endemic to the Madeira Archipelago, and a further 36 species are considered Macaronesian endemics. One species occurs as two distinct subspecies on Madeira Island and Deserta Grande, respectively. We also comment on taxonomicand nomenclatorial problems in a number of species and provide information on host plants in Madeira and other biological details. Index to Latin names of Lepidoptera and host plants are given. The reference list includes 431 references for Madeiran Lepidoptera. The following nomenclatorial changes are proposed: Clepsis retiferana (Stainton, 1859) is removed from synonymy with C. subcostana (Stainton, 1859) (sp. rev.), Cyclophora maderensis ssp. lundbladi (Bryk, 1940) is a synonym of C. maderensis ssp. maderensis (Bethune-Baker, 1891) (n. syn). Agrotis selvagensis Pinker & Bacallado, 1978 is a synonym of A. lanzarotensis Rebel, 1894 (n. syn) and Agrotis trux spp. maderensis Pinker, 1971 is a synonym of A. trux ssp. trux (Hübner, 1824) (n. syn.).

Aguiar, António M. Franquinho; Karsholt, Ole

2009-01-01

323

The archipelago of Fernando de Noronha: an intriguing malformed toad hotspot in South America.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malformed anurans raise concern among scientists, because deformities may relate to the recent global crisis among amphibian populations, although declining populations also may be associated with other causes (e.g., diseases, over-exploitation, and land use/land cover change). We examined a sample of toads (Rhinella jimi, Bufonidae) from an introduced population in the Archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, Brazil where malformations of anurans were thought to be high. Our sample of 159 specimens from the site revealed that 44.6% of all specimens had one or more malformations. Incidence of malformed toads on the mainland sites was substantially lower: 10.5% at Itamaracá, and 3.7% at Propriá. We describe the malformations observed, including six undescribed types of malformation of anurans, and we pose possible hypotheses to explain this high incidence of malformed toads. In addition to existing hypotheses, we suggest for the first time the hypothesis that lack of predation pressures contributes to numbers of malformed toads. We indicate the need of specific studies to understand the causes of malformations in the R. jimi population of Fernando de Noronha, which is thought to be extreme foci of malformed amphibians in the world. Our results may improve local conservation action plans as this is an alien population that may be affecting endemic fauna, and may affect populations in other parts of the world, because toad species of the genus Rhinella are recognized as exceptional colonizers. More importantly, unknown variables in these toads' environment are evidently affecting toads during development, which should be a concern for all species that inhabit the area, perhaps even humans.

Toledo LF; Ribeiro RS

2009-09-01

324

Antiplasmodial, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of various plant extracts from the Mascarene Archipelago.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM OF THE STUDY: Antiplasmodial activity, inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) overproduction, and anti-proliferative activity were investigated in vitro to evaluate the bioactive potential of the traditional pharmacopoeia of the Mascarene Archipelago, which is known for its biodiversity and for the richness of its endemic flora. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 45 methanol (MeOH) and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts were prepared from 19 plant species collected on Réunion and Mauritius Islands. Ninety-six-well microplate assays were performed on chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain, on LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 murine macrophages and on A-549, DLD-1 and WS1 human cells. Activity was evaluated through spectrophotometric methods. RESULTS: Activity was attributed to plant extracts expressing IC(50)<50?g/ml for antiplasmodial response, IC(50)<100?g/ml for cytotoxicity, and IC(50)<130?g/ml for anti-inflammatory reaction. The majority of the extracts tested (69%) exhibited potency in at least one of these three types of activity. This is the first report describing promising antiplasmodial activity (IC(50)<15?g/ml) for Psiadia dentata DCM extract and Terminalia bentzoe MeOH bark extract. NO inhibition assay revealed seven interesting plants, described for the first time as anti-inflammatory: Aphloia theiformis, Buddleja salviifolia, Eupatorium riparium, Hiptage benghalensis, Psiadia arguta, Psiadia dentata, and Scutia commersonii. Finally, anti-proliferative activity was observed for two endemic species, Geniostoma borbonicum and Nuxia verticillata. CONCLUSION: Using the criterion of endemism as part of the criteria for traditional medicinal use raises the chances of finding original active principles. In our case, 86% of the endemic plants tested displayed pharmacological interest.

Jonville MC; Kodja H; Strasberg D; Pichette A; Ollivier E; Frédérich M; Angenot L; Legault J

2011-07-01

325

Petrology of ultramafic xenoliths in Cenozoic alkaline rocks of northern Madagascar (Nosy Be Archipelago)  

Science.gov (United States)

Late Miocene basanites of Nosy Be and Nosy Sakatia islands (Nosy Be Archipelago, northern Madagascar) carry spinel-facies anhydrous ultramafic xenoliths (lherzolites, harzburgites and wehrlites). Geothermobarometric estimates indicate that these xenoliths derive from shallow mantle depths of 35-40 km, with those from Nosy Be island showing equilibration T (averages in the range of 945-985 °C) lower than the Nosy Sakatia analogues (averages ranging from 1010 to 1110 °C). One Nosy Sakatia mantle xenolith exhibits relatively fertile lherzolite composition, with trace and major element mineral chemistry consistent with a residual character after low degrees (1-2%) of mafic melt extraction. We interpret this composition as that resembling a depleted mantle (DM)-like lithospheric composition before metasomatic overprints. The other lherzolites and harzburgites display petrochemical characters consistent with variable extent of partial melting (up to 18%), associated with pronounced metasomatic overprints caused by migrating melts, as highlighted by enrichments in highly incompatible trace elements (e.g. light rare earth elements, LREE and Sr), together with the abundant occurrence of wehrlitic lithologies.The variability of petrochemical features points to different styles of metasomatism and metasomatic agents. The estimated composition of the parental melts of wehrlites matches that of host basanites. The combination of this evidence with the petrographic features, characterized by coarse-granular to porphyroclastic textures and by the presence of olivine without kink-banding, suggests that wehrlites are veins or pockets of high pressure cumulates within the mantle peridotite. The same melts also metasomatized via porous-flow percolation some lherzolites and harzburgites. Distinctly, a group of lherzolites and harzburgites was metasomatized by a different alkaline melt having markedly lower incompatible trace element contents.Late infiltration of metasomatic fluids is responsible for the spongy texture of some clinopyroxenes of lherzolites, harzburgites and wehrlites.

Rocco, Ivana; Lustrino, Michele; Zanetti, Alberto; Morra, Vincenzo; Melluso, Leone

2013-01-01

326

Arctic environments and global change: Evidence in deep permafrost temperatures, Canadian arctic archipelago  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In considering the role of the polar regions in future global change, one may look toward these regions for evidence of past environmental change. Deep ground temperatures provide one window on past surface temperatures, which may be interpreted in terms not only of past climate but also of past environmental conditions. Across the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, there is no consistent curvature in deep ground temperature profiles that can be modeled in terms of warming of the past century. This contrasts with the result reported by Lachenbruch et al. [1986] for the Prudhoe Bay area of Alaska and may be a consequence of the much larger region and wider well spacing considered in the Canadian case. Any curvature present varies from well to well and may be interpreted in terms of surface temperature changes of the order of 1-3 K on the scale of decades to centuries. However, there is some evidence that these surface temperature histories may arise from long-term changes in paleoenvironmental factors as well as climate. For instance, the paleoclimate derived from oxygen isotope data at the Agassiz Ice Cap has been compared with the geothermal signature at a well some 180 km to the west. For the Little Ice Age (LIA), the Agassiz paleoclimate explains only half the measured variation in ground temperatures at the geothermal site; the remaining variation may be due to other environmental effects, such as an increase in snow cover following the LIA. This is consistent with extrapolated surface temperatures 7 K higher than other Arctic sites and the unusually deep snow cover observed today.

1991-01-01

327

Small angle neutron scattering (SANS and V-SANS) study of asphaltene aggregates in crude oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments on two crude oils. Analysis of the high-Q SANS region has probed the asphaltene aggregates in the nanometer length scale. We find that the radius of gyration decreases with increasing temperature. We show that SANS measurements on crude oils give similar aggregate sizes to those found from SANS measurements of asphaltenes redispersed in deuterated toluene. The combined use of SANS and V-SANS on crude oil samples has allowed the determination of the radius of gyration of large scale asphaltene aggregates of approximately 0.45 microm. This has been achieved by the fitting of Beaucage functions over two size regimes. Analysis of the fitted Beaucage functions at very low-Q has shown that the large scale aggregates are not simply made by aggregation of all the smaller nanoaggregates. Instead, they are two different aggregates coexisting. PMID:19063643

Headen, Thomas F; Boek, Edo S; Stellbrink, Jörg; Scheven, Ulrich M

2009-01-01

328

Small angle neutron scattering (SANS and V-SANS) study of asphaltene aggregates in crude oil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments on two crude oils. Analysis of the high-Q SANS region has probed the asphaltene aggregates in the nanometer length scale. We find that the radius of gyration decreases with increasing temperature. We show that SANS measurements on crude oils give similar aggregate sizes to those found from SANS measurements of asphaltenes redispersed in deuterated toluene. The combined use of SANS and V-SANS on crude oil samples has allowed the determination of the radius of gyration of large scale asphaltene aggregates of approximately 0.45 microm. This has been achieved by the fitting of Beaucage functions over two size regimes. Analysis of the fitted Beaucage functions at very low-Q has shown that the large scale aggregates are not simply made by aggregation of all the smaller nanoaggregates. Instead, they are two different aggregates coexisting.

Headen TF; Boek ES; Stellbrink J; Scheven UM

2009-01-01

329

Phylogenetic study of sponge associated bacteria from the Lakshadweep archipelago and the antimicrobial activities of their secondary metabolites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Marine ecosystem of the Lakshadweep archipelago is unique and known to have a very high degree of biodiversity with a number of endemic flora and fauna. The present study focuses to isolate the endosymbiotic microorganism from sponges and its effectiveness against marine ornamental fish pathogens. The sponges were collected from Agatti island of Lakshadweep archipelago and identified as Clathria procera, Sigmadocia fibulata and Dysidea granulosa. In which, 15 different types of bacteria were isolated and screened against marine ornamental fish pathogens (A. hydrophila, Vibrio alginolyticus, V. harveyii, V. parahaemolyticus and Pseudomonas fluorescens). The strain S25 was found as potential bacteria based on their antimicrobial activity against the fish pathogens. Molecular identification of the potential strain (S25) of the 16S rRNA gene showed 99% identity with Acinetobacter sp. The sequenced 16 s rRNA gene with 1,081 bp in length was submitted in NCBI Genbank and Accession was obtained (GenBank Accession number HM004071). The strain exhibited high similarity (99%) with the 16S rRNA gene of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus from GenBank database. Crude extract obtained with acetone and ethyl acetate from extracellular products of S25 showed significant antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion assay using 1,500 ?g/ml of crude extract. Extracellular metobolite of A. calcoaceticus was extracted by shake flask method and the crude extract was partially purified by thin layer chromatography. Partially purified crude extract showed significant inhibition zone of antimicrobial activity (A. hydrophila, V. alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus) and less similar activity against V. harveyii and P. fluorescens. This is the first report on A. calcoaceticus isolated from sponges of Lakshadweep archipelago and the studies are underway to characterize and purify the antimicrobial compounds of the potential bacteria.

Gopi M; Ajith Kumar TT; Balagurunathan R; Vinoth R; Dhaneesh KV; Rajasekaran R; Balasubramanian T

2012-02-01

330

Diversity and distribution of symbiodinium associated with seven common coral species in the Chagos Archipelago, central Indian Ocean.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Chagos Archipelago designated as a no-take marine protected area in 2010, lying about 500 km south of the Maldives in the Indian Ocean, has a high conservation priority, particularly because of its fast recovery from the ocean-wide massive coral mortality following the 1998 coral bleaching event. The aims of this study were to examine Symbiodinium diversity and distribution associated with scleractinian corals in five atolls of the Chagos Archipelago, spread over 10,000 km(2). Symbiodinium clade diversity in 262 samples of seven common coral species, Acropora muricata, Isopora palifera, Pocillopora damicornis, P. verrucosa, P. eydouxi, Seriatopora hystrix, and Stylophora pistillata were determined using PCR-SSCP of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), PCR-DDGE of ITS2, and phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that Symbiodinium in clade C were the dominant symbiont group in the seven coral species. Our analysis revealed types of Symbiodinium clade C specific to coral species. Types C1 and C3 (with C3z and C3i variants) were dominant in Acroporidae and C1 and C1c were the dominant types in Pocilloporidae. We also found 2 novel ITS2 types in S. hystrix and 1 novel ITS2 type of Symbiodinium in A. muricata. Some colonies of A. muricata and I. palifera were also associated with Symbiodinium A1. These results suggest that corals in the Chagos Archipelago host different assemblages of Symbiodinium types then their conspecifics from other locations in the Indian Ocean; and that future research will show whether these patterns in Symbiodinium genotypes may be due to local adaptation to specific conditions in the Chagos.

Yang SY; Keshavmurthy S; Obura D; Sheppard CR; Visram S; Chen CA

2012-01-01

331

Biological and chemical characteristics of high-chlorophyll, low-temperature water observed near the Sulu Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

According to ocean-color remote sensing data, a low phytoplankton biomass exists in the central parts of the Sulu and Celebes seas, whereas higher concentrations of chlorophyll a are observed in the waters near the Sulu Archipelago, which separates these water bodies. These high-chlorophyll a waters have lower temperatures than those of surrounding waters, indicating vertical mixing of nutrient-rich subsurface water that is attributable to the topographical features of the Sulu Ridge. Differences in photosynthetic parameters, primary productivity and the phytoplankton community structure between the high-chlorophyll area near the Sulu Archipelago and the oligotrophic basin area in the Philippine, Sulu and Celebes seas were investigated in November 2002 during the R.V. Hakuho-Maru KH-02-4 cruise. Entrainment of subsurface water and vertical mixing by intense tidal flow from the Sulu Archipelago to the Celebes Sea created a low-temperature, high-nutrient condition at the southeastern edge of the Sulu Ridge. Chlorophyll a concentrations greater than 2 ?g l -1 were observed at stations 5-15 km offshore at the edge of the Sulu Ridge. This high-chlorophyll tongue in the Celebes Sea showed high primary productivity: it was 1.6-18 times higher than those measured in oligotrophic central basin regions of the Philippine, Sulu, and Celebes seas. Microscopic observation of these high-chlorophyll waters showed the dominance of chain-forming large centric diatoms. Extension of high-chlorophyll waters was not observed at the Sulu Sea side, where the surface water salinity was lower than in the Celebes Sea and consequently prevented intrusion of the Celebes Sea water into the surface layer. Occasional extensions of productive, chlorophyll-rich surface water from the archipelagic zone to the surrounding basin area seems to be an important factor causing spatiotemporal variability in the phytoplankton biomass in the southern Sulu Sea and the western Celebes Sea.

Takeda, Shigenobu; Ramaiah, Neelam; Miki, Meguru; Kondo, Yoshiko; Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka; Arii, Yasuhiro; Gómez, Fernando; Furuya, Ken; Takahashi, Wataru

2007-01-01

332

Changing Use Patterns, Changing Feedback Links: Implications for Reorganization of Coastal Fisheries Management in the Stockholm Archipelago, Sweden  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Property rights are important institutions for regulating the use of valuable natural resources from coastal ecosystems. In this case study, we identify and analyze property rights and user patterns related to small-scale coastal fisheries in the Stockholm Archipelago, Sweden. User patterns and user groups have changed significantly over the last century, as commercial fishing has been increasingly replaced by recreational activities. Interviews with local resource users and owners of water properties in two different areas, Möja and Ornö parishes within the Stockholm Archipelago, revealed a very diverse pattern of property and user rights, with a large number of water and fishing rights owners. Recreational fisheries, including both sport and household fishing, seem to predominate in both areas, but ownership differs. In Möja, most waters are collectively owned, whereas in Ornö, individual ownership predominates. Very few examples of local influence on fisheries management were found in either area, although the social structure for joint management does exist in Möja. Instead, larger-scale institutions at the regional, national, or international level regulate fisheries, often not addressing local conditions and fish populations. The ongoing shift in resource use has created a heterogeneous user group, and the limitations of centralized management authorities in dealing with the diversity in the coastal ecosystem have created mismatches within the social–ecological system. Combined with a large-scale decline in coastal fish stocks, these mismatches challenge the existing local property rights arrangements as well as the more centralized regulatory management structure. A key issue for fisheries management is how to develop and stimulate appropriate distribution of management functions at different geographical scales and organizational levels. The complexity and diversity in archipelago fisheries call for multilevel arrangements and cross-scale coordination, and initiatives have been taken by both central governmental authorities and local user groups to collaborate concerning habitat restoration and protection of important spawning grounds.

Maria Åqvist Almlöv; Monica Hammer

2006-01-01

333

Surface water quality estimation using remote sensing in the Gulf of Finland and the Finnish Archipelago Sea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis deals with surface water quality estimation using remote sensing in the Gulf of Finland and the Archipelago Sea. Satellite remote sensing of water and empirical algorithms for surface water quality variables in coastal waters in the Gulf of Finland and the Archipelago Sea are explained and results from the studies in the area are presented. Concurrent in situ surface water measurements, AISA data, Landsat TM data, ERS-2 SAR data, AVHRR and MODIS data were obtained for selected locations in the Gulf of Finland and the Archipelago Sea in August 1997 and from April to May 2000, respectively. The AISA, TM, SAR, AVHRR and MODIS data from locations of water samples were extracted and digital data were examined. Significant correlations were observed between digital data and surface water quality variables. Semi-empirical, simple and multivariate regression analyses, and neural network algorithms were developed and applied in the study area. Application of neural networks appears to yield a superior performance in modelling radiative transfer functions describing the relation between satellite observations and surface water characteristics. The results show that the estimated accuracy for major characteristics of surface waters using the neural network method is much better than retrieval by using regression analysis. Since radar observations of water are strongly affected by surface geometry but not by water quality, radar data should be useful to eliminate the effects of surface roughness from the results when combined with optical observations. However, our results suggest that microwave data improve estimation of water quality very little or not at all. The technique, however, should be examined with new data sets obtained under various weather and water quality conditions in order to estimate its feasibility for estimating surface water quality parameters in the Finnish coastal waters. (orig.)

Zhang Yuanzhi

2005-07-01

334

Acyrtus pauciradiatus, a new species of clingfish (Teleostei: Gobiesocidae) from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Pernambuco state, Northeastern Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acyrtus pauciradiatus, new species, is described on the basis of three specimens collected at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. It differs from its congeners by having a reduced number of rays in the pectoral, dorsal, and anal fins and is more isolated geographically, than any other species in the genus.Acyrtus pauciradiatus, espécie nova, é descrita com base em três espécimes coletados no arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, Pernambuco, Brasil. Ela difere dos seus congêneres por possuir número reduzido de raios das nadadeiras dorsal, peitoral e anal e apresenta o maior isolamento geográfico em relação as demais espécies do gênero.

Cláudio L. S. Sampaio; José de Anchieta C. C. Nunes; Liana F. Mendes

2004-01-01

335

Annual spatio-temporal variation of the euphotic depth in the SW-Finnish archipelago, Baltic Sea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We measured depth profiles of underwater PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) together with optically derived turbidity and chlorophyll fluorescence values at 11 sampling stations in the South-West Finnish archipelago of the Baltic Sea. The data were collected eight times during the spring, summer and early autumn of 2010. The results illustrate complex and multidimensional variations in the euphotic depth, which was subject to fourfold and twofold differences in the geographical and seasonal dimensions respectively. The spatio-temporal inconsistency and non-linearity of the seasonal euphotic depth variation calls for further studies at different spatial and temporal scales.

Hanna Luhtala; Harri Tolvanen; Risto Kalliola

2013-01-01

336

33 CFR 165.776 - Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-07-01 false Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico 165.776 Section 165.776... § 165.776 Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico (a) Location . The following area...

2009-07-01

337

Performance of BATAN-SANS instrument  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SANS data from some standard samples have been obtained using BATAN-SANS instrument in Serpong. The experiments were performed for various experimental set-ups that involve different detector positions and collimator lengths. This paper describes the BATAN-SANS instrument briefly as well as the data taken from those experiments and followed with discussion of the results concerning the performance and calibration of the instrument. The standard samples utilized in these experiments include porous silica, polystyrene-poly isoprene, silver behenate, poly ball and polystyrene-poly (ethylene-alt-propylene). Even though the results show that BATAN-SANS instrument is in good shape, but rooms for improvements are still widely open especially for the velocity selector and its control system. (author)

Ikram, Abarrul; Insani, Andon [National Nuclear Energy Agency, P and D Centre for Materials Science and Technology, Serpong (Indonesia)

2003-03-01

338

San Ardo field steam flood simulations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Texaco's steam flood operations in San Ardo, California, is one of the largest and most recovery efficient in the world. In order to achieve this status it was necessary to step beyond the bounds of proven steam flood technology. This paper describes the steam flood development history and presents some of the San Ardo characteristics that make this a unique steam flood operation. A steam flood computer simulation study shows that the computer model used is capable of simulating the steam flood operation sequence, as practiced in the San Ardo Field. This is demonstrated by an excellent agreement between the model simulation results and those of actual injection-production data from the San Ardo steam flood. A potential steam flood recovery of 60 to 70% is indicated.

Shum, Y.M.

1982-01-01

339

Magnetotelluric Data, San Luis Valley, Colorado.  

Science.gov (United States)

The San Luis Valley region population is growing. Water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depend on accurate assessment and protection of the regions ground-water resources. An important issue in m...

B. D. Rodriguez J. M. Williams

2007-01-01

340

San Francisco 1906 Earthquake Stereo Postcards  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of stereo postcards of the earthquake's destruction, showing the destruction of San Francisco using 1906 3D technology. These postcards, captured in the months following the quake, can be viewed by crossing the eyes, or using a stereoscope.

Karis, Robert; Association, Ingleside T.

 
 
 
 
341

Performance of BATAN-SANS instrument  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SANS data from some standard samples have been obtained using BATAN-SANS instrument in Serpong. The experiments were performed for various experimental set-ups that involve different detector positions and collimator lengths. This paper describes the BATAN-SANS instrument briefly as well as the data taken from those experiments and followed with discussion of the results concerning the performance and calibration of the instrument. The standard samples utilized in these experiments include porous silica, polystyrene-poly isoprene, silver behenate, poly ball and polystyrene-poly (ethylene-alt-propylene). Even though the results show that BATAN-SANS instrument is in good shape, but rooms for improvements are still widely open especially for the velocity selector and its control system. (author)

2003-01-01

342

Contrast variation by nuclear polarisation in SANS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to study properties of block-copolymers, SANS with dynamic nuclear polarisation is taken from polymers in frozen solution. Bulk scattering from toluene and from ortho-terphenyl has been compared. The experimental results show that OTP is a polymer solvent which gives a modest scattering contribution itself in the glassy state. The strong influence of proton polarisation on SANS from a block-copolymer (polystyrene D-H in OTP) is shown. (orig.).

1992-01-01

343

Contrast variation by nuclear polarisation in SANS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to study properties of block-copolymers, SANS with dynamic nuclear polarisation is taken from polymers in frozen solution. Bulk scattering from toluene and from ortho-terphenyl has been compared. The experimental results show that OTP is a polymer solvent which gives a modest scattering contribution itself in the glassy state. The strong influence of proton polarisation on SANS from a block-copolymer (polystyrene D-H in OTP) is shown. (orig.).

Fermon, C.; Glaettli, H.; Grinten, M. van der; Eisenkremer, M. (Service de Physique de l' Etat Condense, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Pinot, M. (Lab. Leon Brillouin, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France))

1992-06-01

344

Detection of zones AVPD by a complex of industrial geophysical and core data (for example, of the deposits of the Bakin archipelago)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The zones AVPD in the areas of the Bakin archipelago detected according to curves of change of electrical parameters of the clays with the depth fully coincide with the zones AVPD distinguished according to curves of change with depth of core data (porosity, density) and parameters of clays obtained by nonelectrical methods of logging (neutron, gamma-logging etc.). The use of parameters of clays obtained by electrical forms of logging for the distinguishing of the zones AVPD, the calculation of the rock pressures in clays and the prediction of pressures in the process of making a bore hole are valid for all areas of the Bakin archipelago.

Aleksandrov, B.L.; Aliyarov, R.Yu.; Dergunov, E.N.; Podgornova, T.S.

1981-01-01

345

Pre-adaptation to Cu during Plant Tissue Culture Enhances Cu Tolerance and Accumulation in Begonia (Begonia evansiana Andr.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A simple and efficient protocol was developed for culturing Cu-tolerant and Cu-accumulating plantsvia pre-adaptation to Cu during plant tissue culture. We induced multiple shoots from begonia (Begoniaevansiana Andr.) leaf explants on MS medium supplemented with naphtaieneacetic acid and benzyladenine.After 3 months, small plantlets were transferred to MS medium supplemented with 100 ?M CuCl2 for pre-adaptationto Cu and cultured for 5 months. Then, these plantlets were individually planted in pots containing artificialsoil. An additional 500 mg of Cu dissolved in 1/4 strength MS solution was applied to each pot during irrigationover the course of 2 months. We planted pre-adapted and control begonias in soil from the Il-Kwang Mine, anabandoned Cu mine in Pusan, Korea, to examine their ability to tolerate and accumulate Cu for phytoremediation.Pre-adapted begonias accumulated 1,200 ?g Cu/g dry root tissue over the course of 45 days. Onthe other hand, non-Cu-adapted controls accumulated only 85 ?g Cu/g dry root tissue. To enhance Cuextraction, chelating agents, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)-dipotassiun and pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylicacid (PDA), were applied. While the chelating agents did not enhance accumulation of Cu in the roots of controlbegonias, EDTA application increased the level of Cu in the roots of pre-adapted begonias twofold (to 2,500?g Cu/g dry root tissue). Because pre-adapted begonias accumulated a large amount of Cu, mainly in theirroots, they could be used for phytostabilization of Cu-contaminated soils. In addition, as a flowering plant,begonias can be used to create aesthetically pleasing remediation sites.

Ahn, Yeh-Jin; Jong Moon Park

2007-01-01

346

Forekomst af visnesyge og andre svampesygdomme i spinat til frø med fokus på infektion af henholdsvis jord og frø  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

I mange havefrøafgrøder kan det være svært at producere frø helt fri for sygdomme samt at finde sygdomsfrie jorde til videre frøproduktion. Bedre kendskab til hvilke sygdomme, der er i både frø og jord kan derfor identificere strategier til en bedre fremtidig frøproduktion af spinat. I første omgang er det vigtigt, at der arbejdes på at reducere sygdomstrykket i både frø og jord. Identifikation af sygdomsproblemer under produktionen i marken giver mulighed for bekæmpelse af sygdommen i det omfang, der er godkendte midler, som virker. Sammenhæng mellem infektion på planterne og på frøet efter høst er et område, hvor der er meget lidt viden. Ved et bedre kendskab til smittetrykket kan man undgå at så inficeret udsæd i jomfruelig jord (”ikke smittet jord”) og omvendt være opmærksom på ikke at så uinficeret udsæd i inficerede jorde. Undersøgelser fra Holland og USA har vist, at forekomsten af V. dahliae i frøpartier er forøget de senere år. I Holland blev der i 1973 påvist V. dahliae i 20 ud af 34 testede frøpartier. I amerikanske undersøgelser blev der i 2003 påvist V. dahliae i 57 ud af 62 partier. Denne høje infektionsgrad bekræfter behovet for øget kontrol af frøpartier. Ved AU Flakkebjerg er der i perioden 2008-2010 lavet en række forsøg for at evaluere potentielle fremgangsmåder, der kan reducere infektionen af visnesyge og andre svampesygdomme i spinatfrø. Dette ved at så spinatfrø i uinficeret jord og jord naturligt inficeret med henholdsvis F. oxysporium f.sp. spinaciae og V. dahliae. I samme forsøg undersøges forskellige frø og jordbehandlinger, som potentielle mulige metoder til reduktion af smittetrykket i jorden og på frøet. I 2009 blev der observeret en reduktion i infektionsniveauet af V. dahliae på det høstede frø, når de anvendte stamfrø var behandlet med Thiram.

Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Deleuran, Lise Christina

2012-01-01

347

SSC San Diego San Diego, CA 92152--5001  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

this report was performed for the Expeditionary Warfare Division of theOffice of Naval Research (ONR 353) and the Command and Control Project Officer (ONR 31) by theSSC San Diego Signal Processing & Communication Technology Branch (D855).ACKNOWLEDGMENTSWe have the pleasure to acknowledge the assistance of Greg Adams. Among other things,he provided access without charge to the West Tower and the Anechoic Chamber. The measurementof the antenna parameters would have been difficult without his help. Dr. John Meloling providedaccess to the Hewlett Packard network analyzer for the measurement of impedance. Jim Birkettprovided the signal generator, a shed to conduct the radiation hazard experiments and much adviceand expertise. Clark Hendrickson provided much equipment and encouragement. KianoushRouzbehani used the EIGER code to predict the heating of jell and other fluids by the Mark I vestantenna. The New Professional, Ming Kwong, helped during the assessment of radiation hazards.CDR C. Peter Haglind (Swedish Navy), CWO3 Frank Canez, and LCDR Charles Wrightson providedvery significant assistance in their roles as head of the COMWIN Project.We would also like to thank Professor Jovan Lebaric and Professor Richard Adler of the NavalPostgraduate School (NPS). The concept of the COMWIN System was originated and developed byNPS and their students.iiiEXECUTIVE SUMMARYThe project to develop a broadband, man-carried antenna began in May 1999. There were twoobjectives. The first objective was to develop an antenna system whose visual signature did notdistinguish the radio operator from any other soldier. The solution to this first objective was tointegrate the antenna into the uniform of the soldier. Hence, the project is called COMbat WearIntegration (COMWI...

R. C. Adams; R. S. Abramo; J. L. Parra; J. F. Moore; Ernest L. Valdes; Usn R. C. Kolb

348

A spatio-temporal model for the invasion of New Zealand archipelago by the Pacific rat Rattus exulans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] New Zealand is at the southern limits of the human-extended geographic range of the Pacific rat Rattus exulans. On the two main islands, radiocarbon dates on rat bones from natural sites show that rat populations were established more than 1000 years before permanent human settlement, presumably during transient visits by Polynesian voyagers. Both main islands were colonised after these first contacts, but offshore and outlying islands were not reached by rats until after Polynesian settlement about 700 years BP. Chatham Island was not colonised by Pacific rats until about 650 years BP. I present a model that relates the time of first appearance of rats in the fossil record and the exploitation of native fauna to the pattern of spread of the rat through the archipelago. I hypothesise that the stepwise spread of the rat through the archipelago is mirrored by the pattern of reduction and extinction of indigenous fauna vulnerable to rat predation. The 1000 year delay between the arrival of rats and permanent human settlement suggests that the New Zealand biota was already stressed by an introduced predator before humans added habitat destruction and over-hunting. (author). 65 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

1999-01-01

349

ISSR molecular characterization and leaf volatiles analysis of Pittosporum undulatum Vent. naturalized in the Azores archipelago (Portugal)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pittosporum undulatum from the Azores archipelago was characterized by both molecular and volatiles analyses. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) evaluation was performed based on a random sampling of 77 individuals from a total of 123 samples collected on all the Azorean islands. Molecular studies grouped the samples mainly according to the geographical collection site, with some exceptions. Leaf volatiles were isolated by distillation-extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) from all the 123 samples. Cluster analysis based on the leaf volatiles chemical composition defined three main clusters, not related to sample site collection, and was based mainly on the relative amounts of limonene (3-89%), sabinene (0.1-64%) and terpinen-4-ol (traces-43%). Clusters obtained from both molecular studies and volatiles composition were not superimposable and no correlation between ISSR markers and volatile oils could be drawn. The results suggest that there is a high genetic variability among individuals of P. undulatum that can explain the invasive ability of this species in the Azores archipelago. The detailed characterization of this alien weed species may assist finding potential commercial uses as well as management strategies to help its eradication and/or control.

Mendes MD; Lima AS; Trindade H; Correia AID; Barroso JG; Pedro LG; Figueiredo AC

2011-05-01

350

Recent cryptic extinction of squamate reptiles on Yoronjima Island of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, inferred from garbage dump remains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report recent skeletal remains of squamate reptiles screened from an old garbage dump deposit found on Yoronjima Island, a small island of the Ryukyu Archipelago, in the subtropical northwestern Pacific. Identified remains include at least three species of terrestrial snakes, one sea snake, and seven species of lizards. Among these, the Ryukyu Short-legged Skink, Ateuchosaurus pellopleurus; Kuroiwa’s Leopard Gecko, Goniurosaurus kuroiwae; and one unidentified Gekko species constitute entirely new findings. For a further two snake species and one lizard species, the evidence presented here is the first specimen-based documentation that these species existed on this island, where they are now evidently absent. The present absence of these species on Yoronjima is mainly attributable to predation by the Japanese Weasel, Mustela itatsi, introduced in the mid-1950s. Our results demonstrate a prominent case of recent, sizable deterioration of insular herpetofaunal diversity, which has never been documented with certainty in the Ryukyu Archipelago, and suggest that human influence should be taken into account in biodiversity research in this area.

Yasuyuki Nakamura; Akio Takahashi; Hidetoshi Ota

2013-01-01

351

Population structure and accompanying biota of the snail Turbo (Callopoma) funiculosus (Gastropoda: Turbinidae), on Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The porcelain snail, Turbo funiculosus, is a potential fishery resource that almost has not been studied or used commercially. In March of 1992, we sampled T. funiculosus in Bahía Binners and Bahía Blanca, Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, using 25 m² quadrants. We found that total length varies between 3.0 and 85 mm, proportional weight between 3.0 and 228 g, and density between 6.21 and 9.87 ind/m². The largest organisms (over 50 mm) contain 30.6 % of soft parts. Porcelain snail populations remain unexploited on Revillagedo Archipelago and could be a potential resource under an adequate management strategy. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4): 1079-1084. Epub 2006 Dec. 15.El caracol porcelana, Turbo funiculosus, es un recurso pesquero potencial que casi no ha sido estudiado ni se ha utilizado comercialmente. En marzo de 1992, se realizó un muestreo de T. funiculosus en Bahía Binners y Bahía Blanca, isla Socorro, archipiélago Revillagigedo, empleando cuadrantes de 25 m2. Se encontraron variaciones en la longitud total entre 3.0 y 85 mm, el peso proporcional entre 3.0 y 228 g, y la densidad entre 6.21 y 9.87 ind/m2. Los organismos de mayor tamaño (más de 50 mm) contienen 30.6 % de partes suaves. Las poblaciones del caracol porcelana siguen siendo inexplotadas en el archipiélago Revillagedo y podrían ser un recurso potencial de la industria pesquera bajo un adecuado plan de manejo.

Oscar E Holguin Quiñones; Jesús E Michel-Morfín

2006-01-01

352

Absolute palaeointensity of Oligocene (28-30 Ma) lava flows from the Kerguelen Archipelago (southern Indian Ocean)  

CERN Multimedia

We report palaeointensity estimates obtained from three Oligocene volcanic sections from the Kerguelen Archipelago (Mont des Ruches, Mont des Tempetes, and Mont Rabouillere). Of 402 available samples, 102 were suitable for a palaeofield strength determination after a preliminary selection, among which 49 provide a reliable estimate. Application of strict a posteriori criteria make us confident about the quality of the 12 new mean-flow determinations, which are the first reliable data available for the Kerguelen Archipelago. The Virtual Dipole Moments (VDM) calculated for these flows vary from 2.78 to 9.47 10e22 Am2 with an arithmetic mean value of 6.15+-2.1 10e22 Am2. Compilation of these results with a selection of the 2002 updated IAGA palaeointensity database lead to a higher (5.4+-2.3 10e22 Am2) Oligocene mean VDM than previously reported, identical to the 5.5+-2.4 10e22 Am2 mean VDM obtained for the 0.3-5 Ma time window. However, these Kerguelen palaeointensity estimates represent half of the reliable Ol...

Plenier, G; Coe, R S; Perrin, M; Plenier, Guillaume; Camps, Pierre; Coe, Robert S.; Proxy, Mireille Perrin

2003-01-01

353

Long–term changes of species richness in a breeding bird community of a small Mediterranean archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We analyzed the pattern of species richness changes in a bird–breeding bird community on a small western Mediterranean archipelago (Columbretes Islands) over a 40–year period (1964–2003). The aim of this study was to qualitatively account for the relative roles of local and regional factors in shaping the community. As expected, we found that regional factors (at the metapopulation spatial scale) increased diversity whereas local factors (i.e. ecological) probably prevented further increases in diversity. We found that the archipelago gained four new species (two seabirds and two falconids) during the study period, whereas no extinctions were recorded. The community seems partially or completely closed to some groups of species (e.g. small–sized birds such as passerines and storm–petrels), probably owing to predatory exclusion by Eleonora falcons (Falco eleonorae). As newly arrived species have breeding calendars that do not fully overlap with those of resident species, competition for space in a rather saturated area is prevented. Preservation of rare species which increase gamma (regional) diversity rather than alpha diversity with common species should be the main local conservation goal.

A. Martínez–Abraín; D. Oro; R. Belenguer; V. Ferrís; R. Velasco

2005-01-01

354

Spatio-temporal variation in the diet of Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea in the Azores archipelago, northeast Atlantic  

Science.gov (United States)

The diet of Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea in the Azores was studied in four islands of the archipelago over four breeding seasons, using stomach flushings from 959 birds. Fish were identified from flesh, otoliths and vertebrae and cephalopods from flesh and lower beaks. The frequency of occurrence of prey taxa, and the numerical frequency of fish and cephalopods, showed marked variations both spatially, across the breeding cycle and between years. Overall, cephalopods from 37 species representing 17 families and fish from 33 species representing 18 families were identified, representing over 70 prey species and trebling what was previously known. Histioteuthidae, Ommastrephidae and Cranchiidae were the only cephalopod families present every year and represented two thirds of the cephalopods' consumption by number. Blue jack mackerel Trachurus picturatus was the most abundant prey species present in 1998 and 2002 but was absent in 1999 and 2000, representing on average 57.2% of prey by number in the years it occurred. Apart from blue jack mackerel, most fish species were present in very low numbers with the exception of Cubiceps gracilis, Scomberesox saurus and Maurolicus muellerii. Diaphus adenomus, was recorded for the first time for the Azores archipelago.

Neves, Verónica; Nolf, Dirk; Clarke, Malcolm

2012-12-01

355

Musschia isambertoi M. Seq., R. Jardim, M. Silva & L. Carvalho (Campanulaceae), a new species from the Madeira Archipelago (Portugal)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new species of Musschia Dumort. (Campanulaceae), endemic from Madeira Archipelago (Portugal), is described as Musschia isambertoi M. Seq., R. Jardim, M. Silva & L. Carvalho. Both vegetative and reproductive structures have been studied and are remarkably distinct from the recognized species [M. aurea (L. f.) Dumort. and M. wollastonii Lowe]. A full description and a diagnosis are included as well as line art, color drawings and pictures. Diagnostic characters are discussed and compared with those of the closely related species. The new species has a very restricted distribution occurring in two isolated populations in the Deserta Grande Island (Madeira Archipelago, Portugal). Nomenclatural aspects on the genus Musschia Dumort. are discussed and a diagnostic key for the species is also includedSe describe una nueva especie de Musschia Dumort. (Campanulaceae), endémica del archipiélago de Madeira (Portugal), Musschia isambertoi M. Seq., R. Jardim, M. Silva & L. Carvalho. La morfología de las estructuras vegetativas y florales estudiadas es claramente distinta de la de las otras dos especies conocidas, Musschia aurea (L. f) Dumort. y Musschia wollastonii Lowe. Se incluyen: una descripción y una diagnosis, ilustradas por imágenes, una lámina en blanco y negro y una en color. Se comparan y discuten los caracteres diagnósticos dentro del conjunto de especies del género. La nueva especie es endémica de la isla Deserta Grande (archipiélago de Madeira, Portugal). Se discuten aspectos nomenclaturales y se incluye una clave de las especies conocidas para Madeira.

Carvalho, Lígia; Silva, Magda; Jardim, Roberto; Menezes de Sequeira, Miguel

2007-01-01

356

[Hurricane Paloma's effects on seagrasses along Jardines de la Reina Archipelago, Cuba].  

Science.gov (United States)

Seagrasses are one of the most important coastal ecosystems since they promote organic matter flow, nutrient cycling, food availability and refuge. Until now, reports on damages caused by storms and hurricanes on seagrass beds are uncommon and highly variable. The seagrass meadows of the East end of Jardines de la Reina archipelago were surveyed from Nov. 29th to Dec. 5th of 2008, in order to determinate the effects from the passing of Hurricane Paloma: a category three storm on the Saffir-Simpsom scale. A rapid field assessment of the affected areas was carried out using the manta tow technique. In six sites, seagrass was quantitatively evaluated using a 15cm diameter core (four sampling units per site) and shoot density was calculated. Remote sensing techniques were used to estimate seagrass cover. To estimate the percentage of affected areas, a Region of Interest (ROI) was first created over a Landsat image. The percentage of seagrass affected within the ROI was estimated through direct georeferentiation of the contours of the damaged area and with a comparison to the total seagrass extension. To find possible explanations for damages, a false colour image was created using the near infrared band, to highlight the differences between emerged and submerged zones. The direction of winds was estimated using ArcGis 9.2 creating circular buffers, from the centre of the hurricane and generating lines tangent to the buffers. Seagrass in the region was dominated by the angiosperm Thalassia testudinum. Regional mean density was 1 321 +/- 721 shoots/m2, a value regarded as high for the Caribbean area. Seagrass meadows were partly affected by sediment accumulation on the shoots of T. testudinum and uprooting rhizomes. The 7.6 km2 disturbed area represented 1% of the total seagrass area. Other sites, closer to the centre of the hurricane, did not show any damages on the marine vegetation. The keys location with respect to the hurricane track was the most likely cause of the effects. To the North of the affected area there is an opening among the keys where the generation ofwaves, currents and turbulence could have occurred. Three years after the hurricane event, both vegetation cover loss and silt re-colonization by macroalgae species were observed within the affected area, by showing a patchily-vegetated landscape. This site is currently undergoing a temporal succession whose assessment demands a monitoring scheme, that will provide interesting information to document its future evolution and responsiveness against upcoming natural or anthropogenic events. PMID:24027933

Guimarais, Mayrene; Zúñiga, Adán; Pina, Fabián; Matos, Felipe

2013-09-01

357

Volcanic lakes of the Azores archipelago (Portugal): Geological setting and geochemical characterization  

Science.gov (United States)

A representative set of 30 lakes from the Azores archipelago (Portugal) has been studied to obtain data on their volcanic setting and water geochemistry. The majority of the studied lakes are located inside volcanic craters and subsidence calderas, while the remaining lakes are located in topographic depressions not associated with volcanic centres, in depressions of tectonic origin and inside lava caves. In general, the Azorean volcanic lakes are small, with surface areas between 8.94 × 10- 4 km2 and 4.35 km2 and volumes between 2.4 × 103 and 4.78 × 107 m3; median = 3.99 × 104 m3, presenting maximum depths between 0.8 and 33 m. Mostly of the Na Cl to Na HCO3 type, the lake waters are generally low temperature (11.9 24.6 °C), very dilute (TDS range between 11.0 and 356.2 mg/L; median = 36.8 mg/L) and a clear exception is Furna do Enxofre lake (Graciosa island) that shows a Mg trend. Two types of lake waters can be recognized: 1) one is characterized by Na/Cl ratio close to the seawater value and have evolved, and evolve by marine contribution; and 2) Na HCO3 type waters that, in addition to sea-salt input, have been influenced by other processes (e.g., water rock interaction, hydrothermal seepage into the lake bottom) evident from higher total CO2 content (365.1 mg/L) and SiO2 content (74.9 mg/L), as well demonstrated by in the Furna do Enxofre lake. Nevertheless, volcanic contribution cannot be excluded for some lakes as Furna do Enxofre. Vertical profiles made at the deepest lakes of São Miguel reveal that major-ion content varies little with depth, largely independent of the occurrence of thermally driven density stratification in summer for some lakes. However, dissolved CO2 increases with depth and is kept in the hypolimnion in summer, whereas the HCO3- content is stable, suggesting that CO2 release exceeds acidity neutralization by water rock interaction. During winter, without stratification, the dissolved CO2 increase is less sharp for the majority of the lakes, with the exception of Furnas and Furna do Enxofre lakes. The CO2 enrichment observed for certain lakes (e.g., Furna do Enxofre and Furnas) implies a volcanic input. Moreover, as these lakes themselves are located near hydrothermal surface manifestations, they therefore offer good targets of volcano monitoring in the Azores.

Cruz, J. V.; Antunes, P.; Amaral, C.; França, Z.; Nunes, J. C.

2006-08-01

358

[Hurricane Paloma's effects on seagrasses along Jardines de la Reina Archipelago, Cuba].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seagrasses are one of the most important coastal ecosystems since they promote organic matter flow, nutrient cycling, food availability and refuge. Until now, reports on damages caused by storms and hurricanes on seagrass beds are uncommon and highly variable. The seagrass meadows of the East end of Jardines de la Reina archipelago were surveyed from Nov. 29th to Dec. 5th of 2008, in order to determinate the effects from the passing of Hurricane Paloma: a category three storm on the Saffir-Simpsom scale. A rapid field assessment of the affected areas was carried out using the manta tow technique. In six sites, seagrass was quantitatively evaluated using a 15cm diameter core (four sampling units per site) and shoot density was calculated. Remote sensing techniques were used to estimate seagrass cover. To estimate the percentage of affected areas, a Region of Interest (ROI) was first created over a Landsat image. The percentage of seagrass affected within the ROI was estimated through direct georeferentiation of the contours of the damaged area and with a comparison to the total seagrass extension. To find possible explanations for damages, a false colour image was created using the near infrared band, to highlight the differences between emerged and submerged zones. The direction of winds was estimated using ArcGis 9.2 creating circular buffers, from the centre of the hurricane and generating lines tangent to the buffers. Seagrass in the region was dominated by the angiosperm Thalassia testudinum. Regional mean density was 1 321 +/- 721 shoots/m2, a value regarded as high for the Caribbean area. Seagrass meadows were partly affected by sediment accumulation on the shoots of T. testudinum and uprooting rhizomes. The 7.6 km2 disturbed area represented 1% of the total seagrass area. Other sites, closer to the centre of the hurricane, did not show any damages on the marine vegetation. The keys location with respect to the hurricane track was the most likely cause of the effects. To the North of the affected area there is an opening among the keys where the generation ofwaves, currents and turbulence could have occurred. Three years after the hurricane event, both vegetation cover loss and silt re-colonization by macroalgae species were observed within the affected area, by showing a patchily-vegetated landscape. This site is currently undergoing a temporal succession whose assessment demands a monitoring scheme, that will provide interesting information to document its future evolution and responsiveness against upcoming natural or anthropogenic events.

Guimarais M; Zúñiga A; Pina F; Matos F

2013-09-01

359

Two contemporaneous magma series on Mayotte Island, Comores Archipelago, Indian Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

The Comores archipelago is comprised of four islands all of which are characterised by alkaline lavas. On Mayotte, two clearly separate magma series can be defined. The origin of such contemporaneous but compositionally different series in several oceanic islands is still a subject of a debate. The mineralogy and geographically locations allow to identify three different lava groups. (1) The north lava group composed of relatively homogeneous alkaline basalts. (2) The north-east group comprised of tephrites to trachy-phonolites series and (3) the south lava group is made up of a nephelinite to phonolite series. Ol+cpx+plag are the main phenocryst phases in the north and north-east lavas, whereas the south lava series have ol+cpx+nepheline as phenocrysts. Composition of clinopyroxene is variable with diopside compositions in the north alkaline basalts and tephrites, and diopside to aegerine compositions in the south nephelinite lavas. A regular enrichment of Na content in plagioclases phenocrysts and groundmass crystals from the lavas of the north group to those from the north-east is observed. In contrast, alkali-feldspars are present in the south lavas. The crystallisation of clinopyroxene instead of plagioclase after olivine fractionation in the north lavas suggests that fractionation occurred at pressure between 0.4 and 0.9 GPa, which is consistent with the presence of Na-rich cpx-cores in all lava groups. The major element composition of lavas from Mayotte allow to define two distinct magma series: a moderately undersaturated and a highly undersaturated series. The moderately undersaturated series is composed of the north alkali basalt and the north-east tephrite lavas, whereas the south nephlinites represent the highly undersaturated series. Compilation of published age determinations and new Ar/Ar datings suggest that the north lavas erupted from 7.7 Ma to 4.4 Ma, followed by the north-east lavas erupted from 4.7 Ma to 1.4 Ma. The south lavas erupted contemporaneously from 7.7 Ma to 2.7 Ma. Basic volcanic activity resumed in the North between 2.9 Ma and 1.2 Ma, and from 2 Ma to 1.5 Ma in the South. Taken together, these preliminary petrological and geochemical results suggest that Mayotte island was constructed by two volcanoes. These volcanoes were active at the same time producing two distinct magma series. Migration of the activity of the northern volcano to the east occurred with emission of increasingly differentiated lavas with time. Depth of crystallisation can be evaluated at more than 15 km for alkaline basalt and tephrite lavas, which corresponds to the mantle-crust interface.

Debeuf, D.; Bachèlery, P.; Sigmarsson, O.

2003-04-01

360

76 FR 6491 - San Diego County Water Authority Subregional Natural Community Conservation Program/Habitat...  

Science.gov (United States)

...mesa mint (Pogogyne nudiuscula; endangered), Otay tarplant (Deinandra conjugens; threatened), San Diego ambrosia (Ambrosia pumila; endangered), San Diego button-celery (Eryngium aristulatum var. parishii; endangered), San...

2011-02-04

 
 
 
 
361

Particularidades del escurrimiento de la cuenca cubana San Juan/ Runoff particularities of Cuban basin San Juan  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La cuenca San Juan, dividida en las subcuencas San Juan, San Agustín y Cañas, difiere totalmente de otras cuencas de la provincia. Los altos valores de los módulos del escurrimiento medio de los ríos y sus distribuciones dentro del año e hiperanual confirman esta particularidad, la cual fue comprobada con las investigaciones complementarias realizadas durante el periodo seco del 2011. El análisis del comportamiento del escurrimiento de la subcuenca San Agustín-Cañ (more) as, incluyendo el funcionamiento del trasvase MatanzasMayabeque, conllevó a los decisores a desarrollar un programa de gestión integrada de los recursos hídricos de esta cuenca. Abstract in english The San Juan basin, divided into sub-basins San Juan, San Agustín and Cañas, is completely different from other basins in the province. The high modular values of average river runoff, its within-year distribution and its overyear distribution confirm this peculiarity, which was checked with additional research conducted during the dry period of 2011. The behavior of the subbasin runoff of San Agustín-Cañas, including the operation of the water diversion canal Matanza (more) sMayabeque, led the decision makers to develop an integrated water resources management program for this basin.

Rosario Rodríguez, Katia Luisa; Petrova Nicolaevna, Viera; Cuéllar Valenzuela, Alberto; Acosta Freyre, Dailene; Hernández Valdés, Armando; Llanusa Ruiz, Haydée

2013-12-01

362

[Presence of carbonic anhydrase in 2 fish of the Kerguelen archipelago, Channichthys rhinoceratus lacking hemoglobin, and Notothenia megellanica with a normal blood formulation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An antarctic hemoglobin-free Fish, living in the Kerguelen archipelago, Channichthys rhinoceratus, is devoid of carbonic anhydrase in the blood but has a high content of this enzyme in the gills which appears to be twice that of another normal species living in the same area. Notothenia magellancia. This enzyme appears to play an important role in the osmoregulation of the Channichthyidae.

Feller G; Péqueux A; Hamoir G

1981-10-01

363

Phylogeography and historical demography of the anadromous fish Leucopsarion petersii in relation to geological history and oceanography around the Japanese Archipelago.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phylogeographical patterns of marine and diadromous organisms are often influenced by dynamic ocean histories. For example, the marine realm around the Japanese Archipelago is an interesting area for phylogeographical research because of the wide variation in the environments driven by repeated shifts in sea level in the Quaternary. We analysed mitochondrial cyt b gene and nuclear myh6 gene sequences for individuals collected from throughout the range of the anadromous fish Leucopsarion petersii to assess the lineage divergence, phylogeographical pattern and historical demography in relation to geological history and oceanographic features around the archipelago. Leucopsarion petersii has two major lineages (the Japan Sea and Pacific Ocean lineages), which diverged during the late-early to middle Pleistocene. Geographical distributions of the two lineages were closely related to the pathways of the two warm currents, the Tsushima Current and the Kuroshio Current, that flow past the archipelago. Evidence of introgressive hybridization between these lineages was found at two secondary contact zones. Demographic tests suggested that the Japan Sea and Pacific Ocean lineages carried the genetic signal of different historical demographic processes, and these signals are probably associated with differences in habitat stability during recent glacial periods. The Japan Sea lineage has a larger body-size and more vertebrae, probably in relation to severe habitat conditions through Pleistocene climatic oscillations. Thus, the two lineages have long independent evolutionary histories, and the phylogeographical structure and demography of this species have been influenced both by historical events and the present-day oceanography around the Japanese Archipelago.

Kokita T; Nohara K

2011-01-01

364

Modal characteristics of the basic hydrometeorological elements in the water regions of the oil and gas bearing deposits of the Baku archipelago  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results are cited of a study of the general patterns in the distribution of elements of waves, wind and currents of the water regions of the Baku archipelago, obtained from an analysis of materials from many years of observation at hydrometeorological stations on the island of Sangi Mugan and Bulla island.

Seidova, N.A.

1983-01-01

365

Phylogeography and historical demography of the anadromous fish Leucopsarion petersii in relation to geological history and oceanography around the Japanese Archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phylogeographical patterns of marine and diadromous organisms are often influenced by dynamic ocean histories. For example, the marine realm around the Japanese Archipelago is an interesting area for phylogeographical research because of the wide variation in the environments driven by repeated shifts in sea level in the Quaternary. We analysed mitochondrial cyt b gene and nuclear myh6 gene sequences for individuals collected from throughout the range of the anadromous fish Leucopsarion petersii to assess the lineage divergence, phylogeographical pattern and historical demography in relation to geological history and oceanographic features around the archipelago. Leucopsarion petersii has two major lineages (the Japan Sea and Pacific Ocean lineages), which diverged during the late-early to middle Pleistocene. Geographical distributions of the two lineages were closely related to the pathways of the two warm currents, the Tsushima Current and the Kuroshio Current, that flow past the archipelago. Evidence of introgressive hybridization between these lineages was found at two secondary contact zones. Demographic tests suggested that the Japan Sea and Pacific Ocean lineages carried the genetic signal of different historical demographic processes, and these signals are probably associated with differences in habitat stability during recent glacial periods. The Japan Sea lineage has a larger body-size and more vertebrae, probably in relation to severe habitat conditions through Pleistocene climatic oscillations. Thus, the two lineages have long independent evolutionary histories, and the phylogeographical structure and demography of this species have been influenced both by historical events and the present-day oceanography around the Japanese Archipelago. PMID:21062386

Kokita, Tomoyuki; Nohara, Kenji

2010-11-09

366

House mouse colonization patterns on the sub-Antarctic Kerguelen Archipelago suggest singular primary invasions and resilience against re-invasion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Starting from Western Europe, the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) has spread across the globe in historic times. However, most oceanic islands were colonized by mice only within the past 300 years. This makes them an excellent model for studying the evolutionary processes during early stages of new colonization. We have focused here on the Kerguelen Archipelago, located within the sub-Antarctic area and compare the patterns with samples from other Southern Ocean islands. RESULTS: We have typed 18 autosomal and six Y-chromosomal microsatellite loci and obtained mitochondrial D-loop sequences for a total of 534 samples, mainly from the Kerguelen Archipelago, but also from the Falkland Islands, Marion Island, Amsterdam Island, Antipodes Island, Macquarie Island, Auckland Islands and one sample from South Georgia. We find that most of the mice on the Kerguelen Archipelago have the same mitochondrial haplotype and all share the same major Y-chromosomal haplotype. Two small islands (Cochons Island and Cimetière Island) within the archipelago show a different mitochondrial haplotype, are genetically distinct for autosomal loci, but share the major Y-chromosomal haplotype. In the mitochondrial D-loop sequences, we find several single step mutational derivatives of one of the major mitochondrial haplotypes, suggesting an unusually high mutation rate, or the occurrence of selective sweeps in mitochondria. CONCLUSIONS: Although there was heavy ship traffic for over a hundred years to the Kerguelen Archipelago, it appears that the mice that have arrived first have colonized the main island (Grande Terre) and most of the associated small islands. The second invasion that we see in our data has occurred on islands that are detached from Grande Terre and were likely to have had no resident mice prior to their arrival. The genetic data suggest that the mice of both primary invasions originated from related source populations. Our data suggest that an area colonized by mice is refractory to further introgression, possibly due to fast adaptations of the resident mice to local conditions.

Hardouin EA; Chapuis JL; Stevens MI; van Vuuren JB; Quillfeldt P; Scavetta RJ; Teschke M; Tautz D

2010-01-01

367

New IP SAN Era in Cluster Mirroring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Storage replication is one of the back bones for network environments. While many forms of Network Attached Storage (NAS), Storage Area Networks (SAN) and other forms of network storage exist, there is a need for a reliable storage replication technique between distant sites (> 1 Km). Such technology allows setting new standards and removes demerits of network failover and failback systems for virtual servers; specifically, the growing storage need for effective disaster recovery (DR) planning. The purpose of this manuscript is to identify growing technologies such as IP-SAN that allow with remote storage cluster replication for virtual servers. This study (Cluster Replication) provides an analysis of improving the uptime and availability of SAN. For higher levels of availability, mirrored images maintained in Active/Active Cluster mirroring can provide a system with No Single Points of Failure, which is designed to improve the overall uptime of the storage system for organizations with 7x24x365 requirements.

Mr. Rajendra Purohit; Mr. Amit Mishra

2012-01-01

368

Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Lake Azul (Azores archipelago, Portugal) and its implications for the NAO signal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Azores archipelago lies in the southern area of the dipole that defines the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). During the negative phase of the NAO, the Azores high pressure is displaced southwards allowing the storms to cross the islands increasing the precipitation in this area and also in southern Europe. This fact makes them excellent key places to perform accurate high-resolution climate reconstructions. Lake Azul (37o 52' 21"N - 37o52'21"W) is a monomictic lake infilling the volcanic complex of Sete Cidades which is located in São Miguel island. This monomictic and eutrophic lake was formed around 22000 cal. years B.P. by consecutive collapses of the underneath volcanic caldera. The last eruption of the Sete Cidades crater complex was radiocarbon-dated at 500-650 cal years B.P. At present, macrophytes are restricted to the lake shore and consist mainly of Potamogeton spp., Myriophyllum alterniflorum, Ceratophyllum demersum, Nymphaea alba, and, Chara fragilis. Moreover, this crater complex has steep borders mainly covered by exotic plant species, such Cryptomeria japonica, Pittosporum undulatum and Hedychium gardnerianum. Antropogenic changes in the catchment have occurred in the last centuries including deforestation, permanent pastures (around 31%), production forest (57%) and the human settlements. In September 2011, fourteen sediment cores, up to 2.5 m long, were collected using a gravity corer from a UWITEC raft. A multiproxy characterization of these cores was carried out including smear slides, X-Ray Fluorescence, X-Ray diffraction, magnetic properties, diatom content, and bulk organic matter (d13C, d15N, TN, TOC). The chronological model was obtained by plant remains and pollen concentrates radiocarbon-dating. From base to top, three lithological units have been established from the retrieved cores: volcaniclastic rocks (lapilli), light grey laminated mud, and poor laminated light brown mud with frequent dark layers rich in plant debris. The radiocarbon date at the base of this fine mixture manifests the record for the last ca 650 cal. years B.P., which corresponds to the last recorded eruption. The dark brown layers are dominated by organic matter (low XRF signal and almost no diatoms) whereas light brown facies are mainly made up of terrigenous particles (high XRF signal and high content of benthic diatoms) and vascular plant macroremains. Bulk organic matter analyses have revealed that algae constitute the main compound of the organic fraction. However, the organic matter in the dark layers is composed by C3 plants, coherent with the clastic nature of this facies deposited during flood events. Increase of precipitation, ruled by the negative phase of the NAO, together with the steep borders of the Sete Cidades crater prompts a substantial increase in the erosion of the catchment and hence an enhancement of runoff that reaches Azul Lake and the occurrence of the flood events. Therefore, identifying, characterizing and counting the dark layers would allow to reconstruct the intensity and periodicity of the negative phase of the NAO climate mode.

Jesús Rubio, Maria; Sanchez, Guiomar; Saez, Alberto; Vázquez-Loureiro, David; Bao, Roberto; José Pueyo, Juan; Gómez-Paccard, Miriam; Gonçalves, Vitor; Raposeiro, Pedro M.; Francus, Pierre; Hernández, Armand; Margalef, Olga; Buchaca, Teresa; Pla, Sergi; Barreiro-Lostres, Fernando; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Giralt, Santiago

2013-04-01

369

75 FR 53332 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Arizona  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation San Carlos Irrigation Project, Arizona AGENCY: Bureau of...on the rehabilitation of San Carlos Irrigation Project (SCIP) water delivery facilities...County, Arizona. SCIP canals convey irrigation water from the Gila River and...

2010-08-31

370

Evaluation of current SANS cryostat performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cryostat is one of the components for a Small Angle Neutron Scattering (Sans) system. It is the main part of which neutron beam from is cooled by passing it into a solid beryllium (Be) cooled at a liquid nitrogen temperature. The cryostat is converting most fast neutron to thermal neutron ranging from 0.001 to 0.2 MeV energies. The quality of thermal neutron produced will determine the quality of data or samples analyzed using SANS. In this paper, the current cryostat is evaluated based on temperature and pressure that affect the cryostat performance and propose design which will enhance or improved the cooling performance of cryostat. (Author)

2004-01-01

371

Site testing at San Pedro Mártir  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este art culo revisamos el trabajo realizado para medir la turbulencia atmosf erica al nivel del suelo en el Observatorio Astron omico Nacional en San Pedro M artir. Arguimos, basados en resultados m as modernos obtenidos a lo largo de m as de una d ecada, que la mediana de la calidad de imagen es de 0.55 segundos de arco a una altura de 15m. Este an alisis comprueba que San Pedro M artir es uno de los mejores sitios del mundo en cuanto a calidad de imagen y probablemente el mejor.

J. Echeverru00EDa

2003-01-01

372

Nanostructural characterisation of catalysts by SANS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of restructured clays used as catalysts in small- and large-scale chemical reactions, have been studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Analysis of the spectra provides detailed information both on the nanopore structure and the surface texture of these materials. Additionally, pillared inter-layered clays (PILCs) have a great potential for industrial utilisation in catalysis, sorption and separations. PILCs have been studied with contrast-matching SANS in order to independently resolve the structure of each phase since by matching the neutron scattering length density of the clay or the pillars, the scattering curve results only from the non-contrast matched phase

2004-07-15

373

Karyological study of Amphisbaena ridleyi (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae), an endemic species of the Archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, Pernambuco, Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The karyotype of Amphisbaena ridleyi, an endemic species of the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, in State of Pernambuco, Brazil, is described after conventional staining, Ag-NOR impregnation and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a telomeric probe. The diploid number is 46, with nine pairs of macrochromosomes (three metacentrics, four subtelocentrics and two acrocentrics) and 14 pairs of microchromosomes. The Ag-NOR is located in the telomeric region of the long arm of metacentric chromosome 2 and FISH revealed signals only in the telomeric region of all chromosomes. Further cytogenetic data on other amphisbaenians as well as a robust phylogenetic hypothesis of this clade is needed in order to understand the evolutionary changes on amphisbaenian karyotypes.

Laguna MM; Amaro RC; Mott T; Yonenaga-Yassuda Y; Rodrigues MT

2010-01-01

374

Karyological study of Amphisbaena ridleyi (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae), an endemic species of the Archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, Pernambuco, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The karyotype of Amphisbaena ridleyi, an endemic species of the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, in State of Pernambuco, Brazil, is described after conventional staining, Ag-NOR impregnation and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a telomeric probe. The diploid number is 46, with nine pairs of macrochromosomes (three metacentrics, four subtelocentrics and two acrocentrics) and 14 pairs of microchromosomes. The Ag-NOR is located in the telomeric region of the (more) long arm of metacentric chromosome 2 and FISH revealed signals only in the telomeric region of all chromosomes. Further cytogenetic data on other amphisbaenians as well as a robust phylogenetic hypothesis of this clade is needed in order to understand the evolutionary changes on amphisbaenian karyotypes.

Laguna, Marcia Maria; Amaro, Renata Cecília; Mott, Tamí; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

2010-01-01

375

A new genus and species of hatschekiid copepod (Siphonostomatoida) from groupers (Actinopterygii: Serranidae) collected off the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new genus and species of copepod, Mihbaicola sakamakii n. g., n. sp., belonging to the siphonostomatoid family Hatschekiidae, is described based on the females collected from inside the tissue of the branchiostegal membrane in three species of the groupers, Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål) (type-host), E. merra Bloch and Cephalopholis leopardus (Lacépède), collected off Okinawa-jima Island and Iriomote-jima Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, North Pacific Ocean. The new genus can be distinguished from other hatschekiid genera by a combination of the following characters in the female: the head is composed of the cephalosome and the pedigerous somite; the cephalothorax is expanded into a pair of posteroventral lobes carrying leg 1; legs 1 and 2 are biramous and composed of the protopod and both rami are 2-segmented; leg 3 is absent; and leg 4 is represented by a rounded lobe with a chitinous pointed apical process.

Uyeno D

2013-01-01

376

A new genus and species of hatschekiid copepod (Siphonostomatoida) from groupers (Actinopterygii: Serranidae) collected off the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new genus and species of copepod, Mihbaicola sakamakii n. g., n. sp., belonging to the siphonostomatoid family Hatschekiidae, is described based on the females collected from inside the tissue of the branchiostegal membrane in three species of the groupers, Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål) (type-host), E. merra Bloch and Cephalopholis leopardus (Lacépède), collected off Okinawa-jima Island and Iriomote-jima Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, North Pacific Ocean. The new genus can be distinguished from other hatschekiid genera by a combination of the following characters in the female: the head is composed of the cephalosome and the pedigerous somite; the cephalothorax is expanded into a pair of posteroventral lobes carrying leg 1; legs 1 and 2 are biramous and composed of the protopod and both rami are 2-segmented; leg 3 is absent; and leg 4 is represented by a rounded lobe with a chitinous pointed apical process. PMID:23263944

Uyeno, Daisuke

2012-12-15

377

Comprehensive evaluation of macroheterogeneity and physical-geological conditions for sediment accumulation on structures of the North Baku Archipelago  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study is made of the heterogeneity of collectors for the main oil-saturated objects of the PT in the northern part of the Baku ARchipelago, in particular, such parameters of