WorldWideScience
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Space schemes of ecological zonation and morphology of the atolls lagoons and reef complex of an oceanic archipelago of the Caribbean: San Andres and Providence (Colombia)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oceanic atolls and reef-complexes of the Archipelago of San Andres and Providencia exhibit semi-enclosed to rather open lagoon basins, where various characteristic bottom habitats occur. Certain areas of the lagoon floor are covered by sediments, being in some settings vegetated by algae or sea grass, and other areas by coralline framework of different types according to the composition and dominance of coral species and to their morphology and level of reef development. This study seeks to determine the spatial distribution patterns of lagoon bottom habitats based on the analysis of gradients of most relevant physical factors. Patterns in the occurrence and abundance of most habitats became evident in relation with wave-energy level, water depth, and the occurrence of islands. Some morphological reef types are oriented in a preferential direction and show spatial arrangements of development that are presumably related to prevailing current speed and direction and wave exposure

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Miocene and Pleistocene mollusks from San Andres Island (Caribbean Sea, Colombia) and Paleogeographic considerations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

San Andres Island is the largest emerged portion of the oceanic archipelago of San Andres and Providencia, southwestern Caribbean Sea; it originated as a coralline atoll during Miocene times. The central and highest part of the island consists of a calcareous crest, the San Andres Formation, formed by Neogene lagoonal and reefal deposits. This crest is surrounded by a calcareous platform of Pleistocene age (San Luis Formation) which emerges only along the island coast, whereas its most part is submerged and covered by a Recent reef complex. Fossil material of molluscs from these two formations was collected in various sites throughout the island and taxonomically identified. In the four sites sampled in the San Andres Formation, material belonging to 19 gastropod and 37 bivalve species was obtained, most of them relatively well represented in other geologic formations of the Caribbean region that are stratigraphically situated between the upper Miocene and the middle Pliocene. Some elements occurring in this formation, such as Ostrea haitiensis, Meretrix dariena and Siphocypraea henekeni, were widely distributed in the Caribbean Miocene Province. In the San Luis Formation, material belonging to 18 gastropod and 11 bivalve species was obtained, most of them also represented in the Recent molluscan fauna of the region. The estimated age of this formation is Sangamonian, hence corresponding to similar formations occurring in Grand Cayman, Jamaica, Hispaniola, the Netherld Cayman, Jamaica, Hispaniola, the Netherlands Antilles and other Caribbean islands, with which it also shows a great similarity in the composition of the molluscan fauna.

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Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

Started in 1997, Archipelago offers up a farrago of poetry, fiction, photo collages, and other such artistic endeavors once (sometimes twice) a year. It's a delight to learn about, and interested parties will appreciate looking over their most recent offerings. Of course, they won't want to stop at the latest material, as they can also delve into their online archive. To give curious parties a sense of Archipelago's contents, they have recently featured Frank McGuinness' piece "Andy Warhol Says A Mass", the poems of Katherine E. Young, and the transcript of a talk on Thomas Jefferson and intellectual property rights given by Jeffrey H. Matsuura. Visitors wishing to take a copy of Archipelago away from their computer screen can also click on a PDF version that is more than appropriate for printing out and taking to their favorite coffeehouse or literary salon.

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Origins of the Salado, Seven Rivers, and San Andres salt margins in Texas and New Mexico: Revision 1: Topical report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present boundaries of the San Andres, Seven Rivers, and Salado salts generally lie along the periphery of the Palo Duro and Tucumcari Basins. Various geologic mechanisms occurring singularly or in combination determined the positions of the salt margins. These mechanisms include nondeposition of salt and syndepositional and postdepositional dissolution. In New Mexico, San Andres units pinch out against the Pedernal and Sierra Grande Uplifts, indicating that nondeposition established the original salt margins there. Syndepositional dissolution of exposed Upper San Andres salts occurred in response to Guadalupian upwarp of the basin margins. Triassic erosion differentially removed Permian salt-bearing formations along the uplifts. Late Tertiary dissolution is indicated by fill of north-south trending collapse valleys. In Texas, Guadalupian upwarp along the Amarillo Uplift caused pinchout of Units 2 and 3 in the Lower San Andres and influenced the deposition of subsequent salt-bearing strata. The discontinuity of Upper San Andres evaporites across the Amarillo Uplift suggests syndepositional dissolution. Along the eastern and northeastern basin margin, dissolution may have accompanied Triassic erosion of locally uplifted Upper Permian strata. Tertiary dissolution is recognized beneath anomalously thick Ogallala Formation sections that overlie collasped Permian strata. 49 refs., 31 figs., 2 tabs

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Sarucallis kahawaluokalani (Kirkaldy) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a new invasive aphid on San Andres island and mainland Colombia, with notes on other adventive species  

OpenAIRE

The crape myrtle aphid Sarucallis kahawaluokalani (Kirkaldy) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) collected on Lagerstroemia indica (Lythraceae) is herein reported as a new invasive species in the city of Palmira, State of Valle del Cauca, and on San Andres island, in the State of San Andres, Old Providence and Santa Catalina, Colombia. The species is illustrated and diagnosed. A brief review of recent invasive species in Colombia, i.e., Ceroplastes rubens Maskell (Hemiptera: Coccidae), Crypticerya multici...

Kondo, Takumasa; Corte?s, Ronald Simbaqueba

2014-01-01

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RESPUESTA DEL AMBIENTE MARINO A ALGUNOS EVENTOS METEOROLÓGICOS SINÓPTICOS MEDIDOS SOBRE LOS ARRECIFES DE SAN ANDRÉS Y DE LAS ISLAS DEL ROSARIO, CARIBE COLOMBIANO* / RESPONSE OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT TO SOME SYNOPTIC WEATHER EVENTS MEASURED ON THE REEFS OF SAN ANDRES ISLAND AND ROSARIO ISLANDS, COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Continuous measurements were taken of oceanographic and meteorological parameters for two stations of the Global Ocean Observing System of the Southwest Caribbean, framed in the INAP project. The response of the surface layer, to atmospheric events, allowed to differentiate the pass of two cold fron [...] ts by Johnny Cay station (San Andres Island) and the arrival of the "Veranillo" in the sensors of Tesoro Island (Islas del Rosario, Cartagena). The cold fronts produced a decrease in the atmospheric pressure, air temperature, caused radical changes in wind direction and speed followed by precipitation. This situation lowered the sea surface temperature, the surface layer pH and rose momentarily the sea level. The "Veranillo" came to Archipelago of Rosario generating a strong increase in wind speed and solar radiation. The response in the sea surface layer was evident through a significant increase in sea level.

Carolina, Gutiérrez-Moreno; Milena, Marrugo; Carlos Alberto, Andrade.

2012-06-01

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Survey of benthic dinoflagellates associated to beds of Thalassia testudinumin San Andres Island, Seaflower biosphere reserve, Caribbean Colombia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to determine the occurrence of epiphytic toxic dinoflagellates in the coastal waters of San Andres Island, Caribbean Colombia, we analyzed the sea grass beds on the northern and eastern sides of the island. We found seven species of toxicogenic dinoflagellates, belonging to the genera Prorocentrum and Ostreopsis. The cell densities were generally low if compared with previous studies in other Caribbean sites, ranging from 0 to 836 cells/dry weights. The species encountered are known to produce toxins causing the diarrheic shellfish poisoning and ciguatera, poisonings which have been documented in the island.

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Facies and stratigraphy of the San Andres formation, northern and northwestern shelves of the Midland basin, Texas and New Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The San Andres Formation on the Northern and Northwestern shelves of the Midland Basin is a progradational stratigraphic unit consisting predominantly of carbonate facies. Lithofacies include dolomite, laminated anhydrite and dolomite, massive bedded anhydrite, limestone, salt, and red beds. These lithofacies represent depositional environments that include deep-water outer shelf, shallow-water inner shelf, shallow-water to emergent shoals, and a sabkha complex that comprises intertidal to supratidal algal mud flats, hypersaline lagoons or brine pans, and terrigenous mud flats. Deposition was cyclic; a cycle began with a transgression followed by a gradual shoaling-upward sequence. Cycles commonly terminated with subaerial exposure before renewed transgression initiated a new cycle. Much of the dolomitization probably occurred during periods of subaerial exposure in schizohaline environments. Porosity probably was developed also during subaerial exposure. San Andres reservoirs of the Northern and Northwestern shelves yielded 12.7% of the total oil production for Texas in 1980. Trapping mechanisms are both structural and stratigraphic. 44 references.

Ramondetta, P.J.; Guetzow, D.D.; Dauzat, R.; Merritt, R.; Garza, J.

1982-01-01

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APPLICATION OF WATER-JET HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNOLOGY TO DRILL AND ACIDIZE HORIZONTAL DRAIN HOLES, TEDBIT (SAN ANDRES) FIELD, GAINES COUNTY, TEXAS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The San Andres Formation is one of the major hydrocarbon-producing units in the Permian Basin, with multiple reservoirs contained within the dolomitized subtidal portions of upward shoaling carbonate shelf cycles. The test well is located in Tedbit (San Andres) Field in northeastern Gaines County, Texas, in an area of scattered San Andres production associated with local structural highs. Selected on the basis of geological and historical data, the Oil and Gas Properties Wood No. 1 well is considered to be typical of a large number of San Andres stripper wells in the Permian Basin. Thus, successful completion of horizontal drain holes in this well would demonstrate a widely applicable enhanced recovery technology. Water-jet horizontal drilling is an emerging technology with the potential to provide significant economic benefits in marginal wells. Forecast benefits include lower recompletion costs and improved hydrocarbon recoveries. The technology utilizes water under high pressure, conveyed through small-diameter coiled tubing, to jet horizontal drain holes into producing formations. Testing of this technology was conducted with inconclusive results. Paraffin sludge and mechanical problems were encountered in the wellbore, initially preventing the water-jet tool from reaching the kick-off point. After correcting these problems and attempting to cut a casing window with the water-jet milling assembly, lateral jetting was attempted without success.

Michael W. Rose

2005-09-22

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La situación sociolingüística de la lengua creole de San Andrés Isla: el caso de San Luis / The sociolinguistic situation of creole language in San Andres Island: San Luis case study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente artículo describe la situación lingüística de un sector tradicional de la Isla de San Andrés, Colombia llamado San Luis: los ámbitos de uso de las diferentes lenguas que allí coexisten; las funciones que cumplen y la relación entre lengua e identidad de los habitantes. Esta descripción s [...] urge de un estudio sociolingüístico llevado a cabo durante los años 2009 y 2010. Las conclusiones e interpretaciones de los hechos y de la información proporcionada se logran a partir de encuestas, observación participante, entrevistas e historias de vida. Los principales resultados sugieren la vitalidad de la lengua creole en los sectores tradicionales de la Isla, la expansión de ámbitos de uso del español y la posible pérdida del inglés. Como conclusiones se plantea la importancia de implementar una educación bilingüe intercultural que favorezca la protección y mantenimiento de la lengua creole y la comprensión entre pobladores y hablantes de diversas lenguas. Abstract in english This paperaims at describing the linguistic situation of a particular sector on San Andres Island, Colombia called San Luis. It illustrates the use of three different languages, their functions and the relationship between language and speakers' identity based on the results of a sociolinguistic stu [...] dy developed in 2009 and 2010 in this local area. Surveys, participant observation, interviews and life stories were used to collect information on how much these languagesareseen as part of the ethnical identity of native inhabitants on the island. Results show that there is a continuous expansion of Spanish and a possible loss of English on the island which leads to a need ofan intercultural bilingual education in order to promote a better understanding among diverse cultural and linguistic groups.

Deyanira Sindy, Moya Chaves.

2014-01-01

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Pseudopterosin content variability of the purple sea whip Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae at the islands of San Andres and Providencia (SW Caribbean).  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine pseudopterosin composition and concentration in colonies of Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae from the islands of San Andres and Providencia, we collected fragments of individual colonies at various sites and depth ranges around the islands. Chromatographic profiles of the polar fraction, particularly those obtained by HPLC-MS analyses, allowed us to recognize two different chemotypes. Chemotype 1 characterized samples from Providencia whereas chemotype 2 characterized samples from San Andres. A complex pseudopterosin mixture (compounds 1-13) characterized chemotype 1. These compounds were isolated by a combination of chromatographic methods and identified by spectroscopic methods (MS, UV, 1H, and 13C NMR). We identified the known pseudopterosins G and K and seco-pseudopterosin A. We also isolated and identified seven new compounds, pseudopterosins P-V, isomers of known pseudopterosins. Pseudopterosins G and K were found at concentrations ranging between 1 and 3% of the animal dry mass. Pseudopterosins Q and U were the major compounds reaching up to 6% of the animal dry mass at some locations. Major metabolites in chemotype 2 had a molecular weight and fragmentation pattern different from that observed in the pseudopterosins, as determined by HPLC-MS. Total pseudopterosin concentration in this chemotype was below 3% dry mass at all sites. Total pseudopterosin concentration was significantly higher in chemotype 1, with concentrations ranging between 4 and 20% dry mass. At most locations on Providencia, however, total pseudopterosin concentration ranged between 11 and 15% dry mass. Concentrations exceed reports from other locations in the Caribbean. Furthermore, pseudopterosin composition in our samples is quite different from those in specimens of P. elisabethae from the Bahamas and Bermuda. Pseudopterosins G, K, and P-V are characteristic of P. elisabethae colonies from the island of Providencia, while pseudopterosins A-D are characteristic of colonies of P. elisabethae from the Bahamas islands, and pseudopterosins E-L have been isolated from P. elisabethae from the Bahamas and Bermuda. The overall morphology of P. elisabethae can be variable, and chemical differences are not correlated to specific morphs. We confirmed the species identity of each colony by morphological and sclerite analysis and found no significant differences in sclerite dimensions among different colonies and chemotypes. PMID:15303322

Puyana, Monica; Narvaez, Ginna; Paz, Alejandro; Osorno, Oscar; Duque, Carmenza

2004-06-01

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An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For a part of the Foster and South Cowden (Grayburg-San Andres) oil fields, improvement in oil production has been accomplished, in part, by using ?pipeline fracturing? technology in the most recent completion to improve fluid flow rates, and filtration of waterflood injection water to preserve reservoir permeability. The 3D seismic survey acquired in conjunction with this DOE project has been used to calculate a 3D seismic inversion model, which has been analyzed to provide detailed maps of porosity within the productive upper 250 feet of the Grayburg Formation. Geologic data, particularly from logs and cores, have been combined with the geophysical interpretation and production history information to develop a model of the reservoir that defines estimations of remaining producible oil. The integrated result is greater than the sum of its parts, since no single data form adequately describes the reservoir. Each discipline relies upon computer software that runs on PC-type computers, allowing virtually any size company to affordably access the technology required to achieve similar results.

Richard Weinbrandt; Robert C. Trentham; William Robinson

1997-10-23

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Recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito, Baja California, por el lobo fino de Guadalupe / The re-colonization of the Archipelago of San Benito, Baja California, by the Guadalupe fur seal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el estado actual de la recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito por el lobo fino de Guadalupe (Arctocephalus townsendi). El archipiélago tiene una gran importancia para esta especie, ya que puede consolidarse en un futuro como otro sitio de reproducción, [...] lo que implicaría un gran avance en su recuperación natural. El incremento y la estructura poblacional, el comportamiento alimenticio, la duración de los viajes de alimentación (que evidencian una fuente importante de alimento cercana) y la atención a las crías son factores que permiten analizar y estudiar el proceso de crecimiento de San Benito como una nueva colonia reproductiva. Esta expansión del territorio puede ser reflejo de la naturaleza gregaria de la especie y la fidelidad hacia los sitios reproductivos. La importancia de este trabajo radica en que es una descripción inicial de la recolonización de una especie que estuvo a punto de desaparecer. Puede esperarse que el número de individuos en el archipiélago continúe aumentando, ya que es poco probable que a corto plazo el espacio reproductivo y la disponibilidad de alimento limiten el nacimiento de crías y el crecimiento de la población. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to analize the re-colonization process of the San Benito Archipelago by the Guadalupe fur seal (Arctocephalus townsendi). The archipelago is of great importance for the species, since it can be consolidated in the future as a breeding colony, which would imply a great achiev [...] ement for the fur seal's natural recovery. Population growth, population structure, feeding behavior, foraging trips duration (which shows an important feeding area near), behavior and pup attendance, are characteristics that help analyze and study this process; where San Benito grows as a colony and, therefore, is established as a new breeding colony. Furthermore, this expansion of the breeding territory might reflect the gregarious nature of the species, and fidelity to breeding areas as well. The importance of this work is that it is an initial description of the recolonization of a species that almost disappears. It can be expected to continue increasing the number of individuals at the archipelago, since it is unlikely that in a short period of time, the breeding territory and the food availability limit the birth of offspring and the population growth.

Manuel, Esperón-Rodríguez; Juan Pablo, Gallo-Reynoso.

2012-03-01

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Estado de conservación de las especies vegetales utilizadas para la artesanía en el valle de San Andrés, Pinar del Río, Cuba / Conservation state of the vegetable species used for the craft in San Andres's valley, Pinar del Rio, Cuba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La investigación titulada: Estado de conservación de las especies vegetales utilizadas para la artesanía en el valle de San Andrés, Pinar del Río, Cuba tuvo una duración de dos años en diferentes etapas, comenzando por la caracterización físico geográfica del área de estudio y de los productos fores [...] tales no madereros presentes. Este trabajo está basado en investigaciones de campo, encuestas etnobiológicas, revisión de la bibliografía, observaciones biofenológicas sobre los productos forestales no madereros presentes en el área de estudio, su estado actual y diferentes usos. Los principales resultados obtenidos fueron conocer los productos vegetales utilizados por artesanos, los productos fabri-cados y el estado actual y perspectivas de la población de estos productos. Al concluir el trabajo se recomienda incrementar la repobla-ción de estas plantas para garantizar en un futuro la materia prima usada por los artesanos en la zona del valle de San Andrés, cumpliendo así el objetivo de la investigación que fue sistematizar los conocimientos sobre la existencia y el uso de estos productos y conocer el impacto ambiental, social y económico que causa la explotación de estos recursos naturales en el valle de San Andrés. Abstract in english The investigation untitled: Conservation state of the vegetable species used for the craft in San Andres's valley, Pinar del Rio, Cuba was carried out during two years, in different stages, beginning with the physical and geographical characterization of the studying area and the not forestry produc [...] ts present on it, this work is based on field investigations, etnobiological requests, bibliography searching, biophenological observations on the not forestry products present in the studying area, its current state and different uses. The main results obtained were to know the vegetable products used by artisans, the manufactured products, the current state and the population perspectives of these products. When concluding the work it is recommended to deepen with the repopulation of these plants to guarantee in a future the prevail matter used by the artisans in the area of San Andre's' valley, arriving by this way to the objective of the investigation that was to systematize the knowledge of the existence and the use of these products and to know the environmental, social and economic impact that causes the exploitation of these natural resources in San Andres's valley.

C. O., Pimentel Pimentel; V., Castañeta Valdez.

2007-12-01

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Petrographic report on samples from units 4 and 5 salt, lower San Andres formation, J. Friemel No. 1 well, Deaf Smith County, Palo Duro Basin, Texas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of mineralogic and petrographic analyses performed on samples of salt-bearing rock from a potential repository site in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas. The samples are from Permian Units 4 and 5 salt, Lower San Andres Formation, J. Friemel No. 1 well, Deaf Smith County, Texas. The mineralogic and petrographic data were obtained from polished thin sections cut parallel to the axis of the core for each sample. The polished thin sections were examined in order to determine the abundances of soluble (halite) and insoluble components (anhydrite, clay, carbonate, quartz, gypsum, etc.). The information reported here includes mineral associations (detrital, authigenic, cement, alteration, etc.), texture, grain size, and sedimentary fabrics. The report also includes representative photomicrographs with superimposed bar scales. Photomicrographs of polished thin sections have the up-core direction designated. X-ray diffraction was also used for identification of soluble and insoluble minerals. 7 refs., 2 tabs

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CARACTERIZACIÓN DE PLAYAS DE ANIDACIÓN Y ZONAS DE ALIMENTACIÓN DE TORTUGAS MARINAS EN EL ARCHIPIÉLAGO DE SAN BERNARDO, CARIBE COLOMBIANO / Characterization of nesting beaches and feeding areas of marine turtles at the San Bernardo Archipelago, Colombian Caribbean  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El archipiélago de San Bernardo ha sido reconocido como un hábitat de anidación esporádica y alimentación de las tortugas verde, carey y caguamo. Teniendo en cuenta estos antecedentes y debido a que el archipiélago presenta áreas coralinas, praderas de pastos marinos y playas arenosas relevantes en [...] el Caribe colombiano, cuya oferta ambiental no ha sido descrita para el recurso tortugas marinas, se realizó este estudio entre julio y octubre de 2002, cuyos objetivos fueron describir las playas de anidación y zonas de alimentación en función de su geomorfología, aspectos bióticos y, para las últimas áreas, algunos oceanográficos. Fueron evaluadas siete playas potenciales de anidación y 20 bajos de alimentación para identificar las amenazas naturales y antrópicas para las tortugas y los hábitats. La carey es la única especie que aún anida en la zona, pero sus áreas de desove se han reducido por la erosión del mar y la construcción existente (blindaje). Los únicos lugares de anidación encontrados fueron el costado sureste de isla Palma y el norte de isla Tintipán. En áreas de alimentación, la mayoría de las estaciones (n=14) presentaron pastos marinos con predominio de fondo blando. A partir de la caracterización de estas áreas se describieron como objeto de alimentación de la carey nueve especies de esponjas y tres de algas. Con el objeto de documentar los componentes de la dieta de las tortugas en el archipiélago, cinco contenidos estomacales de carey y seis de verde fueron analizados. Los ítems más abundantes para la carey fueron las esponjas Eicionemia sp. y Geodia sp. (96% en peso seco) y en la tortuga verde los pastos Thalassia testudinum y Syringodium filiforme (98% en peso seco), observados comúnmente en campo. En áreas de forrajeo la captura directa de tortugas juveniles y adultas fue la amenaza principal, por lo que se deben dirigir esfuerzos para reducir el número de individuos capturados, determinar el grado de intervención y las posibles soluciones. Abstract in english The San Bernardo Archipelago, in the Colombian Caribbean zone, is well recognized for being a sporadic nesting and feeding area for the green, hawksbill and loggerhead turtles. Due to the fact that the San Bernardo Archipelago has outstanding coral areas, marine grasses and sandy beaches and their e [...] nvironmental offers for the marine turtles have not been described yet, it was opportune to carry out this study between July and October of 2002. Thus, this research tends to fill this gap by describing the nesting beaches and feeding areas according to their geomorphologic and biotic aspects and, for the later areas, some oceanographic aspects too. Seven potential nesting beaches and 20 stations on feeding areas were evaluated to identify natural and anthropogenic threats that could affect sea turtles and their habitats. The only species that still nests on these islands is the hawksbill turtle, but its nesting areas are being reduced because of erosion and constructions on the beach. The remaining nesting places observed during the 2002 season were on the southeastern side of Palma island and on the northern side of Tintipán island. In the feeding areas, the majority of stations (n=14) have marine grass with predominance of soft bottom. From these characterizations in the feeding areas, nine sponges and two seaweeds species were described as index species hawksbill turtles feed on. In order to gather information about the marine turtles diet components, five stomach contents of hawskbill turtle and six of green turtle were analyzed. They showed that the sponges Eicionemia sp. and Geodia sp. are the principal diet components (96% dry weight) in the hawksbill turtle diet. In the case of the green turtle, Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme grasses were identified as index species (98% dry weight); they were the most common during the field observations. The principal threat for sea turtles was the direct capture o

Martha Patricia, Rincón-Díaz; Clara Jimena, Rodríguez-Zárate.

2004-12-01

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Descripción morfoagronómica de materiales de plátano (Musa AAB, ABB) y banano (Musa AAA) cultivados en San Andrés Isla / Morpho-agronomic Description of Plantain (Musa AAB, ABB) and Banana (Musa AAA) Materials Grown in San Andres Island  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Durante el primer semestre de 2005 se estudiaron los cultivares de plátano y banano en fincas y parcelas de 15 agricultores típicos participantes en programas conjuntos de la Secretaría de Agricultura y Pesca de San Andrés Isla y de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Caribe. A partir de descri [...] ptores de INIBAP, IPGRI y CIRAD y revisiones bibliográficas.se describen morfológicamente los materiales de Musa cultivados en la Isla, así como las prácticas de los productores isleños, Se identificaron cuatro clones del subgrupo plátano (Musa AAB): un Hartón (‘Horse’) y tres Dominico-Hartón (‘Tallo Negro’, ‘Tallo Blanco’ y ‘Cincuenta’) del subgrupo ABB se hallaron un material de Bluggoe (‘Boscó’) y un Felipita. El subgrupo banano AAA presentó dos materiales Gros Michel (denominados Común y Chino) y uno de banano (Rojo). El plátano tiene gran importancia para los agricultores de la Isla, siendo el Boscó el clon más aceptado entre consumidores por su adaptación a las condiciones edafológicas y climáticas. El banano es menos cultivado; ya que los suelos, el clima y las enfermedades como sigatoka negra, condicionaron el desarrollo de clones. El trabajo sugiere prácticas de fácil implementación que podrían aumentar la producción en los sistemas de huerto mixto tropical que predominan en la Isla. Abstract in english During the first semester, 2005 we studied the plantain and banana cultivars in small farms of 15 volunteer regular producers, who were participating in joint programs of the Agriculture and Fisheries Secretariat of San Andres Island and the Colombian National University Caribbean Headquarters. We d [...] escribed morphologically the Musa cultivars identified in the island, as well as agricultural practices of the island producers, using the INIBAP, IPGRI and CIRAD (1996) descriptors and bibliographical reviews. We identified four clones within the plantain sub-group Musa AAB: a Horn type and three French-Horn; and within the ABB sub-group a Bluggoe (dubbed “Boscó”) and a Felipita type. The banana sub-group AAA had two Gros Michel type, known as “Banano Común” and “Banano Chino”, as well as one of red banana (“Banano Rojo”). The plantain culture has paramount importance for San Andres farmers, and the clone named “Boscó” is the preferred one for its taste, and its adaptation to the edaphic and climatic conditions. Banana is less cultivated; the soil and the climate, as well as diseases (v.gr. the leaf spot disease or sigatoka) determined the growth of their clones. This work suggests a list of easy to implement agronomic practices that would enhance the production of the predominant producing systems of the island.

Oscar Javier, Parra Pachón; Daniel Gerardo, Cayón Salinas; Jaime, Polanía Vorenber.

2009-10-01

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Analysis of the re-colonization of San Benito Archipelago by Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi) / Análisis de la recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito por el lobo fino de Guadalupe (Arctocephalus townsendi)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La explotación del lobo fino de Guadalupe (LFG) durante los siglos XVIII y XIX casi extinguió a la especie. El LFG se distribuye desde las islas Revillagigedo (México) hasta el golfo de Farallones (USA). En la actualidad las colonias reproductivas se encuentran en la isla de Guadalupe y en el archip [...] iélago de San Benito (ASB). El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el proceso de re-colonización y el estado actual del LFG en el ASB. También se informan los primeros nacimientos y la ocupación de la isla del Oeste del ASB. Con base en los censos de 1997 a 2007, la población creció con una tasa de incremento anual de 21,6%. Se estudió el tamaño de la población, la tendencia de crecimiento de la colonia, biología reproductiva y preferencias alimentarias. Se contaron 2,227 individuos en el ASB. Tres especies de calamar se encontraron como el principal componente de la dieta (Loligo opalescens, Onychoteuthis banksii y Dosidicus gigas). La territorialidad, los patrones de actividad y el comportamiento reproductivo, muestran una conducta similar entre los individuos de isla Guadalupe y ASB. Se calculó la tasa de crecimiento promedio de las crías del ASB y se comparó con la tasa de crecimiento de las crías de isla Guadalupe (ASB: 6.7 ± 1.4 kg y 68,9 ± 2.64 cm; isla Guadalupe 5.9 ± 0.5 kg, y 67.29 ± 4.3 cm). Se midió la duración de los viajes de alimentación de las hembras, indicando que la colonia de San Benito probablemente se encuentra cerca de una importante zona de alimentación. En cuanto a los patrones de asistencia materna, estos podrían indicar una estrategia de lactancia-viajes de alimentación diferente entre SBA e isla Guadalupe. Se puede esperar que la población de lobos finos en San Benito siga creciendo, ya que no hay limitantes en cuanto al espacio reproductivo y los recursos alimenticios disponibles en la zona. Abstract in english Exploitation of the Guadalupe fur seal (GFS) during the XVIII and XIX centuries almost extirpated the species. GFS were distributed from the Revillagigedo islands (Mexico) to the gulf of Farallones (USA). At present, reproductive colonies are found at Guadalupe Island and San Benito Archipelago (SBA [...] ). The aim of this work was to analyze the process of re-colonization and the current status of GFS at SBA. The first births and the occupation of the west island of the SBA are also reported. Census data from 1997 to 2007 indicated an annual growth rate for the population of 21.6%. The population size, growth tendency of the colony, reproductive biology, and food preferences were also studied. A total of 2,227 GFS were counted at SBA. Three squid species (Loligo opalescens, Onychoteuthis banksii, Dosidicus gigas) were found to be the main dietary components. Territoriality, activity patterns, and reproductive behavior were similar for the seals from Guadalupe Island and SBA. The mean growth rate for pups from SBA was calculated and compared to that of the pups at Guadalupe Island (SBA: 6.7 ± 1.4 kg, 68.9 ± 2.64 cm; Guadalupe Island: 5.9 ± 0.5 kg, 67.29 ± 4.3 cm). The length of food foraging trips by females was measured, suggesting that the SBA colony is probably near an important feeding area. Maternal care patterns could indicate different strategies of nursing-foraging trips between the SBA and Guadalupe Island. The population of fur seals at SBA is expected to increase as there are no limitations in terms of reproductive space or available food resources in the area.

Manuel, Esperón-Rodríguez; Juan Pablo, Gallo-Reynoso.

2012-03-01

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Analysis of the re-colonization of San Benito Archipelago by Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi Análisis de la recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito por el lobo fino de Guadalupe (Arctocephalus townsendi  

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Full Text Available Exploitation of the Guadalupe fur seal (GFS during the XVIII and XIX centuries almost extirpated the species. GFS were distributed from the Revillagigedo islands (Mexico to the gulf of Farallones (USA. At present, reproductive colonies are found at Guadalupe Island and San Benito Archipelago (SBA. The aim of this work was to analyze the process of re-colonization and the current status of GFS at SBA. The first births and the occupation of the west island of the SBA are also reported. Census data from 1997 to 2007 indicated an annual growth rate for the population of 21.6%. The population size, growth tendency of the colony, reproductive biology, and food preferences were also studied. A total of 2,227 GFS were counted at SBA. Three squid species (Loligo opalescens, Onychoteuthis banksii, Dosidicus gigas were found to be the main dietary components. Territoriality, activity patterns, and reproductive behavior were similar for the seals from Guadalupe Island and SBA. The mean growth rate for pups from SBA was calculated and compared to that of the pups at Guadalupe Island (SBA: 6.7 ± 1.4 kg, 68.9 ± 2.64 cm; Guadalupe Island: 5.9 ± 0.5 kg, 67.29 ± 4.3 cm. The length of food foraging trips by females was measured, suggesting that the SBA colony is probably near an important feeding area. Maternal care patterns could indicate different strategies of nursing-foraging trips between the SBA and Guadalupe Island. The population of fur seals at SBA is expected to increase as there are no limitations in terms of reproductive space or available food resources in the area.La explotación del lobo fino de Guadalupe (LFG durante los siglos XVIII y XIX casi extinguió a la especie. El LFG se distribuye desde las islas Revillagigedo (México hasta el golfo de Farallones (USA. En la actualidad las colonias reproductivas se encuentran en la isla de Guadalupe y en el archipiélago de San Benito (ASB. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el proceso de re-colonización y el estado actual del LFG en el ASB. También se informan los primeros nacimientos y la ocupación de la isla del Oeste del ASB. Con base en los censos de 1997 a 2007, la población creció con una tasa de incremento anual de 21,6%. Se estudió el tamaño de la población, la tendencia de crecimiento de la colonia, biología reproductiva y preferencias alimentarias. Se contaron 2,227 individuos en el ASB. Tres especies de calamar se encontraron como el principal componente de la dieta (Loligo opalescens, Onychoteuthis banksii y Dosidicus gigas. La territorialidad, los patrones de actividad y el comportamiento reproductivo, muestran una conducta similar entre los individuos de isla Guadalupe y ASB. Se calculó la tasa de crecimiento promedio de las crías del ASB y se comparó con la tasa de crecimiento de las crías de isla Guadalupe (ASB: 6.7 ± 1.4 kg y 68,9 ± 2.64 cm; isla Guadalupe 5.9 ± 0.5 kg, y 67.29 ± 4.3 cm. Se midió la duración de los viajes de alimentación de las hembras, indicando que la colonia de San Benito probablemente se encuentra cerca de una importante zona de alimentación. En cuanto a los patrones de asistencia materna, estos podrían indicar una estrategia de lactancia-viajes de alimentación diferente entre SBA e isla Guadalupe. Se puede esperar que la población de lobos finos en San Benito siga creciendo, ya que no hay limitantes en cuanto al espacio reproductivo y los recursos alimenticios disponibles en la zona.

Manuel Esperón-Rodríguez

2012-03-01

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An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. Annual report, August 1, 1996--July 31, 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this two-phase study is to demonstrate an integrated methodology for reservoir characterization of shallow shelf carbonate reservoir that is feasible, and cost effective for the independent operator. Furthermore, it will provide one of the first public demonstrations of the enhancement of reservoir characterization using high-resolution three dimensional (3D) seismic data. This particular project is evaluating the Grayburg and San Andres reservoirs in the Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. This 68 year old field was approaching its economic limit and the leases evaluated would have been abandoned in 10 years. A multidisciplinary approach to waterflood design and implementation, along with the addition of reserves by selective infill drilling and deepening, is being applied to this field. This approach in reservoir development will be applicable to a wide range of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs throughout the US. The first phase of the project included the design, acquisition, and interpretation of the 3D seismic survey, the collection and evaluation of geologic (core and log) data, and engineering (historical production, well test, injection) data from a variety of sources. From this work, a geologically based production history model was simulated. Based on the recommendations made at the end of Phase One, three new wells were drilled, one existing well was deepened, two wells were worked over, one TA`d well was re-entered, and one well was converted to injection. In addition, the quality of the injection water was greatly improved, a step necessary prior to increasing injection in the project area. The realignment of the waterflood and all additional well work await the completion of the seismic based history match and engineering simulation.

Trentham, R.C.; Weinbrandt, R.; Robinson, W.

1997-12-01

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Reproduction of Blackfin tuna Thunnus atlanticus (Perciformes: Scombridae) in Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, Equatorial Atlantic, Brazil / Reproducción del atún de aleta negra Thunnus atlanticus (Perciformes: Scombridae) en el Archipiélago San Pedro y San Pablo, Atlántico Ecuatorial, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A pesar de la importancia de las capturas del atún de aleta negra Thunnus atlanticus en el noreste de Brasil y en las cercanías del Archipiélago San Pedro y San Pablo (ASPSP), hay una escasez de información sobre su reproducción, especialmente en las islas. La reproducción del atún de aleta negra en [...] este archipiélago se estudió de diciembre 2008 a julio 2010. Con este fin, se recolectaron 361 gónadas de hembras y machos, los machos fueron predominantemente más frecuentes en la muestra total, con una proporción sexual de 1?:2.2 ?. La longitud furcal todos los ejemplares muestreados varió entre 38 y 98 cm, y los machos fueron más abundantes en las clases de mayor longitud. Los valores medios mensuales del índice gonadal (IG) variaron de 6.6 (SD=4.1) a 58.4 (SD=34.7) y de 2.6 (SD=1.3) a 66.2 (SD=30.4) para hembras y machos, respectivamente. Los mayores valores de IG para ambos sexos fueron observados el inicio del primer semestre. Los análisis histológicos mostraron que la mayoría de los ovarios y testículos correspondieron a especímenes aptos para reproducirse. Sin embargo, hembras con ovarios maduros, con gran cantidad de oócitos hidratados y folículos post ovulatorios, se encontraron principalmente de diciembre a marzo, que se considera es la época de reproducción del atún de aleta negra alrededor del ASPSP. Abstract in english The reproduction of Blackfin tuna Thunnus atlanticus has been described for coastal regions, and for a long time, this species was considered to be a strictly continental spawner. Recently, this species was observed around a seamount habitat 500 nautical miles Northeast of Brazil, located between So [...] uth America and Africa. In this study we describe the reproductive biology of Blackfin tuna at Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (SPSPA). Male and female gonads were sampled from December 2008 to July 2010, and analyzed macro and microscopically. A total of 361 fish were sampled (247 males and 114 females). Males were more common than females, with a sex ratio of 2.2 ?:1?. The fork length (FL) of all sampled specimens ranged from 38 to 98cm, and larger length classes were more frequent in males. It was possible to distinguish six maturity phases for females: immature, developing, spawning capable, actively spawning, regressing and recovering. Five phases were identified for males: immature, developing, spawning capable, actively spawning and recovering. The gonad index (GI) mean monthly values ranged from 6.6 (SD=4.1) to 58.4 (SD=34.7) for females, and from 2.6 (SD=1.3) to 66.2 (SD=30.4) for males. For both sexes, the largest GI values were observed at the beginning of the first semester of the year. Size at first maturity was estimated at 48cm FL and 55cm FL for females and males respectively. Approximately 80% of the specimens were adults and considered to be in reproductive conditions. Histological analysis of the ovaries and testes showed that most of the specimens were sexually mature and were reproductively active during all months of the year. However, females with mature ovaries, with large amounts of hydrated oocytes and post-ovulatory follicles, were mainly found from December to March, thus these months may constitute the main spawning season in SPSPA. Batch fecundity varied between 272 025 and 1 140 584 oocytes for 56 and 68cm FL females respectively. Oocyte development and spawning patterns suggest a multiple spawning behavior. The results revealed that Blackfin tuna is using the SPSPA as a spawning ground, similar to other species commonly observed in the same area during the same reproductive season.

Natalia P.A., Bezerra; , Fernandes; Fernanda V., Albuquerque; Vanessa, Pedrosa; Fábio, Hazin; Paulo, Travassos.

1327-13-01

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The social construction of bath in two communities temazcal of the mixteca region: Santiago Yolomecatl and San Andres Chicahuaxtla  

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Full Text Available The bathroom of temazcal is a knowledge of pre-Hispanic roots still practiced in rural and indigenous communities in our country. Studies on the temazcal have focused on its forms of construction and operation, however, the many therapeutic benefits temazcal bath attached to the human body, and women in particular, not have been sufficiently documented. In this case, two communities of the Oaxacan mixteca were studied: Santiago Yolomecatl and San Andrés Chicahuaxtla. In this study, a questionnaire was applied to 20 per cent of families in each of the communities, a questionnaire to allopathic doctors and six stories of life at temazcaleras. The results indicate a coincidence between patients and doctors in the study populations on the medicinal uses of the temazcal bath: after childbirth and for muscle aches, however, interviewed temazcaleras indicate diseases that cures this bath are: angina, flu, rheumatism,scars, muscle aches after childbirth and cramping. For its part, doctors support the idea of preserving the temazcal bath because it is a healing means to treat diseases through steam and faster recovery of the body. The constructivist analysis of the responses gathered in questionnaires and life stories shows that the medicinal uses of the temazcal, before being recognised as such go through a process of evaluation, filtration and social construction. This process of acceptance, perception and recognition occurs through rules of knowledge, ideological connotations, rules and socialsymbols.

Alberto Valdés Cobos

2013-01-01

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First report of Anagyrus kamali Moursi and Gyranusoidea indica Shafee, Alam and Agarwal (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), parasitoids of the pink hibiscus mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on San Andres Island, Colombia / Primer reporte de Anagyrus kamali Moursi y Gyranusoidea indica Shafee, Alam y Agarwal (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), parasitoides de la cochinilla rosada del hibisco Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) en la isla de San Andres, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se reporta por primera vez la presencia de Anagyrus kamali Moursi y Gyranusoidea indica Shafee, Alam y Agarwal (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), parasitoides de la cochinilla rosada del hibisco (CRH), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) en la Isla de San Andrés, Colombia. Se provee [...] n notas breves para diferenciar las dos especies de parasitoides. Abstract in english Here we report for the first time the presence of Anagyrus kamali Moursi and Gyranusoidea indica Shafee, Alam and Agarwal (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), parasitoids of the pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on San Andres Island, Colombia. Brief no [...] tes are provided to allow differentiation of the two parasitoid species.

Evans, Gregory; Takumasa, Kondo; María Fernanda, Maya-Álvarez; Lilliana María, Hoyos-Carvajal; John Albeiro, Quiroz; Marcela, Silva-Gómez.

2012-12-01

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Major Andre  

Science.gov (United States)

If most Revolutionary era people seem two-dimensional their lives simpler to understand than ours, it may be only that history, with the benefit of hindsight, clarifies. Examines a profile of Major John Andre, the British liaison officer in Benedict Arnold's plan to surrender West Point, as both hero and villain to show the complexity of early…

Henisch, B. A.; Henisch, H. K.

1976-01-01

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DINOFLAGELADOS POTENCIALMENTE TÓXICOS ASOCIADOS A MATERIAL ORGÁNICO FLOTANTE (DRIFT) EN SAN ANDRÉS ISLA, RESERVA INTERNACIONAL DE LA BIOSFERA - SEAFLOWER / Potentially toxic Dinoflagellates associated to drift in San Andres Island, International Biosphere Reservation - Seaflower  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Con el propósito de evaluar la abundancia y la composición de dinoflagelados potencialmente tóxicos asociados al material orgánico flotante (drift) en la isla de San Andrés, se seleccionaron siete sitios de muestreo a lo largo de la margen Norte y Este, paralelos a la barrera arrecifal y a las princ [...] ipales praderas de fanerógamas marinas y macroalgas de la isla. Durante la época de mayor intensidad de vientos, se recolectaron muestras de drift; se identificaron los sustratos a especie y posteriormente se sumergieron en solución 1:1 agua de mar filtrada y solución de Transeau. Luego de agitar vigorosamente las muestras para remover los dinoflagelados, se tamizo la suspensión con una malla de 80 µm y el filtrado se observó al microscopio óptico. Se encontraron cinco sustratos, dos especies de pastos marinos y tres de macroalgas. Sobre los sustratos se identificaron doce especies de dinoflagelados, diez reportadas como tóxicas, causantes de diarrea, parálisis y ciguatera. La abundancia de dinoflagelados varió ampliamente con promedios máximos (±DE) de 15 354±15 749 células/g peso seco de sustrato. De las especies de dinoflagelados, cinco son nuevos registros para San Andrés. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en los valores de diversidad de dinoflagelados entre drift y praderas de pastos y macroalgas, no obstante, la abundancia fue mucho mayor en el drift. Los resultados indican que el drift es un importante sustrato para dinoflagelados y dada su naturaleza flotante, representa tal vez el vector más importante para la dispersión de estos agentes de toxicidad en la isla. Para mitigar el efecto de eventos tóxicos asociados a dinoflagelados en salud pública, pesca y turismo, es necesario diseñar un plan de manejo del material orgánico flotante, que permita mejorar el entendimiento de su composición y dinámica temporal, monitorear las toxinas asociadas e implementar mecanismos de recolección y tratamiento. Abstract in english To assess the composition and abundance of potentially toxic dinoflagellates associated to drift on San Andres island, we selected seven sampling sites along the northern and eastern side of the island. During the wind season, we collected drift samples, identified the main substrates to species, an [...] d submerged them in 1:1 filtered seawater and Transeau solution. After shaking to remove the dinoflagellates, we sieved through an 80 µm screen and analyzed the detached dinoflagellates under an optical microscope. We found five substrates, two seagrass species and three macroalgae. Associated to these substrates, we identified twelve dinoflagellates species, ten of which are reported as toxic and are known to produce diarrhea, paralysis and ciguatera, syndromes reported in San Andrés and other Caribbean places where their frequency is apparently increasing. The dinoflagellate abundance presented strong variation with maximum average values (±SD) of 15354±15749 cel. /g of substrate dry weight. Five of the dinoflagellates associated to drift are new records for the island. We did not found significant differences in diversity of benthic dinoflagellates between drift and seagrass and macroalgae beds; however, the abundance was much higher in drift. The results showed that drift is a very important substrate for potentially toxic dinoflagellates and, considering its buoyant nature, it may represent one of the main dispersion vectors for these species on the island. To mitigate the effect of intoxication events on public health, fisheries and tourism, it is necessary to design a floating organic material management plan, improve the understanding of drift composition and its temporal dynamics, as well as to monitor associated toxins and pursue collection and treatment mechanisms of the floating biomass.

JOSÉ ERNESTO, MANCERA-PINEDA; MARCIAL, MONTALVO-TALAIGUA; BRIGITTE, GAVIO.

2014-06-30

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COMPOSICIÓN Y DENSIDAD DE CORALES JUVENILES EN DOS ARRECIFES PROFUNDOS DE SAN ANDRÉS ISLA, CARIBE COLOMBIANO / Composition and density of juvenile corals at two deep reefs in San Andres Island, Colombian Caribbean  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El reclutamiento de corales en un arrecife determina el mantenimiento, la renovación y la estructura futura de las comunidades coralinas. Con el objeto de conocer la composición, densidad y el valor de importancia de corales juveniles escleractínios ([...] estrearon dos localidades (Reggae Nest y El Faro) en la terraza profunda de sotavento, a 20 m de profundidad, en la isla de San Andrés. Así mismo, se cuantificó la frecuencia de mortalidad parcial, total, enfermedades y signos de depredación en los juveniles, en 47 cuadrantes de 1m², distribuidos a lo largo de una cuerda guía. Se registró un total de 397 juveniles coralinos pertenecientes a 16 especies. La densidad promedio y riqueza de juveniles no mostraron diferencias significativas entre Reggae Nest y El Faro. La densidad promedio de las localidades fue alta respecto a lo registrado en arrecifes colombianos y baja en relación a otros arrecifes del Caribe. Las especies con valores de importancia mayores, Agaricia agaricites, Scolymia sp. y Porites astreoides, aportaron el 54.9 % de todos los juveniles, lo que concuerda con lo hallado en otros arrecifes del Caribe. Los géneros de juveniles con mayor densidad, cobertura y frecuencia no concordaron con los adultos dominantes (ej. Montastraea, Colpophyllia, Diploria y Siderastrea); ya que M. annularis y Diploria sp. exhibieron los valores más bajos de importancia como juveniles. Las comunidades coralinas de Reggae Nest y El Faro, deterioradas en las últimas décadas, podría recuperarse naturalmente, teniendo en cuenta la siguiente evidencia: 1) alta densidad de corales juveniles respecto al Caribe colombiano; 2) alta riqueza de juveniles, representados en 16 de las 23 especies de corales adultos registrados para la isla; 3) alto porcentaje de especies comunes entre juveniles y adultos (mantenimiento de cada población); 4) bajos porcentajes de mortalidad parcial (0.7 %; 3 juveniles de 397) y de blanqueamiento encontrados en los juveniles (0.5 %; 2 juveniles de 397). Queda aún por comprobar, la sobrevivencia a largo plazo, si estos juveniles son de especies fugitivas o si la comunidad de constructores está siendo reemplazada. Abstract in english Coral reef recruitment is a fundamental process because it determines the maintenance, renovation and future reef structure. In order to determine the composition, density and importance value of scleractinian juvenile corals ([...] ampled (Reggae Nest and El Faro) at the deep leeward terrace site of San Andres Island. In adittion, in 47 quadrants of 1m² distributed throughout a guide line, frequency of partial mortality, total diseases and depredation signs in juvenile corals were quantified. A total of 397 juveniles of 16 species were registered. The average density and richness of juveniles were not significantly different between Reggae Nest and El Faro. The average density of both localities was high compared to other colombian reefs and lower compared to other reefs in the Caribbean. The species with higher importance value, Agaricia agaricites, Scolymia sp. and Porites astreoides, represented 54.9% of all juveniles, similar to other Caribbean reefs. The genera of juveniles with higher importance value were not the same as the dominant adults (ej. Montastraea, Colpophyllia, Diploria and Siderastrea); which showed the lowest importance value as juveniles (Montastraea annularis and Diploria sp.). The coral communities of Reggae Nest and El Faro, deteriorated in the last decades, could recover naturally, considering the following evidence: 1) high juvenile coral density compared to the Colombian Caribbean; 2) high richness of juveniles, 16 from the 23 coral adults species reported for the island; 3) high percentage of common species between juveniles and adults (maintenance of each population); 4) low partial mortality (0.7%; 3 of 397 juveniles) and bleaching found in juvenile corals (0.5%; 2 juveniles of 397). It is still to verify if these juveniles are fugitive species or if the co

Andrés M, Vidal; Claudia M, Villamil; Alberto, Acosta.

2005-12-01

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Chiloe : archipelago, Chile  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bogen beskriver den særegne arkitektur, som kendetegner den sydchilenske øgruppe Chiloe Archipelago. Huse i træ udviklet i en lang tradition fra fiskerlandsbyernes Palafitos til et stort antal kirker, hvoraf 16 er på Unescos liste. Videreført i moderne arkitektur. 52 sider.

28

Alexander Archipelago, Southeastern Alaska  

Science.gov (United States)

West of British Columbia, Canada, and south of the Yukon Territory, the southeastern coastline of Alaska trails off into the islands of the Alexander Archipelago. The area is rugged and contains many long, U-shaped, glaciated valleys, many of which terminate at tidewater. The Alexander Archipelago is home to Glacier Bay National Park. The large bay that has two forks on its northern end is Glacier Bay itself. The eastern fork is Muir inlet, into which runs the Muir glacier, named for the famous Scottish-born naturalist John Muir. Glacier Bay opens up into the Icy Strait. The large, solid white area to the west is Brady Icefield, which terminates at the southern end in Brady's Glacier. To locate more interesting features from Glacier Bay National Park, take a look at the park service map. As recently as two hundred years ago, a massive ice field extended into Icy Strait and filled the Glacier Bay. Since that time, the area has experienced rapid deglaciation, with many large glaciers retreating 40, 60, even 80 km. While temperatures have increased in the region, it is still unclear whether the rapid recession is part of the natural cycle of tidewater glaciers or is an indicator of longer-term climate change. For more on Glacier Bay and climate change, read an online paper by Dr. Dorothy Hall, a MODIS Associate Science Team Member. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

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Evolución de la arquitectura fluvial en sucesiones del Plioceno-Pleistoceno del centro-este de Argentina (aloformación Punta San Andres  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los depósitos de la Aloformación Punta San Andrés (Plio-Pleistoceno, registran la evolución de diferentes estilos de sistemas fluviales. Durante la primera etapa de la misma evolución, se desarrollaron sistemas de carga mixta, con canales de baja sinuosidad y alta participación de depósitos de planicie de inundación. Durante la segunda etapa, se verificó el cambio hacia un sistema de canales de mayor sinuosidad, entrelazados, donde los depósitos de planicie de inundación no tuvieron tanto protagonismo. Finalmente, la tercera etapa se caracterizó por el desarrollo de un sistema fluvial entrelazado clásico, sin preservación de depósitos de planicie de inundación. Durante la acumulación de la Aloformación Punta San Andrés, la glacioeustacia en asociación con el clima condicionó directamente el balance entre la tasa de generación de acomodación y el aporte sedimentario. Sin embargo, el análisis comparativo de los diversos índices e indicadores (arquitectura fluvial, paleosuelos, etc. ha mostrado una variabilidad para los sistemas bajo estudio la cual puede asignarse a diferentes jerarquías de procesos. De esta manera, se identificaron ciclos de agradación fluvial representados por una alternancia de alta frecuencia entre paleosuelos vérticos y cálcicos. En este caso las fluctuaciones en el nivel de base fueron las responsables de los cambios cíclicos en la tasa de generación de espacio de acomodación y de aporte sedimentario. La evolución de los sistemas depositacionales identificados puede asignarse a ciclos de mayor jerarquía, los cuales controlaron el diseño del drenaje mediante cambios en el espacio de acomodación y representan cambios en la tasa de generación de espacio de acomodación relacionados a cambios glacieustáticos de escala global.The deposits of the Punta San Andrés Alloformation (Plio-Pleistocene register the evolution of different styles of fluvial systems. During the first stage of this evolution, a mixed-load system was developed which included low-sinuosity channels and a high participation of floodplain deposits. During the second stage the system shifted towards a higher sinuosity, braided fluvial system where the floodplain deposits didn't have so much participation. Finally, the third stage was characterized by the development of a classic braided fluvial system, without any preservation of floodplain deposits. During the Punta San Andrés Alloformation accummulation, glaci-eustatic changes and climate exerted a fundamental control on the balance between generation of accommodation space rate and sedimentary supply. Nevertheless, comparative analysis of the diverse indicators (fluvial architecture, paleosols, etc. has shown a strong variability for the studied depositional systems that can be assigned to different process hierarchies. In this way, fluvial aggradational cycles are represented by high-frequency alternation between calcic and vertic paleosols. In this case, base level fluctuations were responsible for the cyclic accommodation rate - sediment supply change. The evolution of the identified depositional systems can be assigned to higher-order cycles, which controlled drainage design by changes in accommodation space and represents changes in the rate of generation of accommodation space linked to glaci-eustatic changes at a global scale.

Elisa Beilinson

2012-12-01

30

Evolución de la arquitectura fluvial en sucesiones del Plioceno-Pleistoceno del centro-este de Argentina (aloformación Punta San Andres)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los depósitos de la Aloformación Punta San Andrés (Plio-Pleistoceno), registran la evolución de diferentes estilos de sistemas fluviales. Durante la primera etapa de la misma evolución, se desarrollaron sistemas de carga mixta, con canales de baja sinuosidad y alta participación de depósitos de plan [...] icie de inundación. Durante la segunda etapa, se verificó el cambio hacia un sistema de canales de mayor sinuosidad, entrelazados, donde los depósitos de planicie de inundación no tuvieron tanto protagonismo. Finalmente, la tercera etapa se caracterizó por el desarrollo de un sistema fluvial entrelazado clásico, sin preservación de depósitos de planicie de inundación. Durante la acumulación de la Aloformación Punta San Andrés, la glacioeustacia en asociación con el clima condicionó directamente el balance entre la tasa de generación de acomodación y el aporte sedimentario. Sin embargo, el análisis comparativo de los diversos índices e indicadores (arquitectura fluvial, paleosuelos, etc.) ha mostrado una variabilidad para los sistemas bajo estudio la cual puede asignarse a diferentes jerarquías de procesos. De esta manera, se identificaron ciclos de agradación fluvial representados por una alternancia de alta frecuencia entre paleosuelos vérticos y cálcicos. En este caso las fluctuaciones en el nivel de base fueron las responsables de los cambios cíclicos en la tasa de generación de espacio de acomodación y de aporte sedimentario. La evolución de los sistemas depositacionales identificados puede asignarse a ciclos de mayor jerarquía, los cuales controlaron el diseño del drenaje mediante cambios en el espacio de acomodación y representan cambios en la tasa de generación de espacio de acomodación relacionados a cambios glacieustáticos de escala global. Abstract in english The deposits of the Punta San Andrés Alloformation (Plio-Pleistocene) register the evolution of different styles of fluvial systems. During the first stage of this evolution, a mixed-load system was developed which included low-sinuosity channels and a high participation of floodplain deposits. Duri [...] ng the second stage the system shifted towards a higher sinuosity, braided fluvial system where the floodplain deposits didn't have so much participation. Finally, the third stage was characterized by the development of a classic braided fluvial system, without any preservation of floodplain deposits. During the Punta San Andrés Alloformation accummulation, glaci-eustatic changes and climate exerted a fundamental control on the balance between generation of accommodation space rate and sedimentary supply. Nevertheless, comparative analysis of the diverse indicators (fluvial architecture, paleosols, etc.) has shown a strong variability for the studied depositional systems that can be assigned to different process hierarchies. In this way, fluvial aggradational cycles are represented by high-frequency alternation between calcic and vertic paleosols. In this case, base level fluctuations were responsible for the cyclic accommodation rate - sediment supply change. The evolution of the identified depositional systems can be assigned to higher-order cycles, which controlled drainage design by changes in accommodation space and represents changes in the rate of generation of accommodation space linked to glaci-eustatic changes at a global scale.

Elisa, Beilinson.

2012-12-01

31

Andres Sütevaka näitus Stockholmis  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Sütevaka Andrese abstraktsete maalide näitus Stockholmi Eesti Majas. Sütevaka Andres ja näituse avamisele sõitnud tema loomingu kollektsionäär Matti Milius kohtusid Moderna Museeti direktori David Elliotiga teadvustamaks Tartu ja Pärnu kunstielu.

2000-01-01

32

Graafikatriennaali peapreemia Andres Talile  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Tallinna XII graafikatriennaali preemiad: grand prix - Andres Tali; 3 võrdset preemiat - Janne Laine, Leonards Laganovskis, Peeter Laurits; diplomid - Lynne Allen, Lucrecia Urbano, Vladimir Tshaika, Zora Stanè, Endi Poskovic, Päivikki Kallio; EKM preemia - Tif Bitmap; Tallinna linna preemia - Ülle Marks ja Jüri Kass; eripreemiad: - J. Laine (Eesti Pank), Vive Tolli (Paletti Eesti AS), Martins Ratniksh, Juris Boiko, T. Bitmap (Balteco AS). Žürii koosseis

2001-01-01

33

Regional Oceanography of the Philippine Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Confined by the intricate configuration of the Philippine Archipelago, forced by the monsoonal climate and tides, responding to the remote forcing from the open Pacific and adjacent seas of Southeast Asia, the internal Philippine seas present a challenging environment to both observe and model. The Philippine Experiment (PhilEx observations reported here provide a view of the regional oceanography for specific periods. Interaction with the western Pacific occurs by way of the shallow San Bernardino and Surigao straits. More significant interaction occurs via Mindoro and Panay straits with the South China Sea, which is connected to the open Pacific through Luzon Strait. The Mindoro/Panay throughflow reaches into the Sulu Sea and adjacent Bohol and Sibuyan seas via the Verde Island Passage and the straits of Tablas and Dipolog. The deep, isolated basins are ventilated by flow over confining topographic sills, causing upward displacement of older residence water, made more buoyant by vertical mixing, which is then exported to surrounding seas to close the overturning circulation circuit.

Arnold L. Gordon

2011-03-01

34

Surface Ocean Circulation and Dynamics in the Philippine Archipelago Region  

Science.gov (United States)

The dynamics of the seasonal surface circulation in the Philippine Archipelago (117E-128E, 0N-14N) are investigated using a high-resolution Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) for the period of 2004 - March 2008. Three experiments are performed to estimate the relative importance of local, remote and tidal forcing. On annual mean, circulation in the Sulu Sea is dominated by the inflow from the South China Sea at the Mindoro and Balabac Straits, outflow into the Sulawesi Sea at the Sibutu Passage, and cyclonic circulation in the Sulu basin. A strong jet forms in the northeast Sulu Sea when currents from the Mindoro and Tablas Straits converge. Within the Archipelago, strong westward currents in the Bohol Sea carry the western Pacific (WP) Water from the Surigao Strait into the Sulu Sea via the Dipolog Strait. In the Sibuyan Sea, currents flow westward, which carry part of the WP water from the San Bernardino Strait into the Sulu Sea via the Tablas Strait. The surface circulations exhibit strong seasonal variations or reversals from winter to summer. The variations of volume transports above 40m at the Mindoro Strait, Balabac Strait and Sibutu Passage of the Sulu Sea and at the Verde Island Passage are dominated by remote forcing, although local forcing can be large sometimes. At the Tablas and Dipolog Straits, variations of transports result from both remote and local forcing. The cyclonic (anticyclonic) gyres during winter (summer) in the Sulu Sea and seasonally reversing currents in the Archipelago result mainly from local forcing. Nonlinear rectification of tides acts to reduce the mean transports at the Surigao, San Bernardino and Dipolog Straits, and it also affects the Sulu Sea circulation perhaps by tidal mixing and shifting the locations of jets and eddies.

Han, W.; Moore, A. M.; Levin, J.; Zhang, B.; Arango, H. G.; Curchitser, E.; di Lorenzo, E.; Gordon, A. L.; Lin, J.

2008-12-01

35

Sucesión temprana de la taxocenosis Mollusca-Annelida-Crustacea en raíces sumergidas de mangle rojo en San Andrés Isla, Caribe colombiano / Early succession of the taxocenosis Mollusca-Annelida-Crustacea on red mangrove submerged roots in San Andres Island, Colombian Caribbean  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se analizó la sucesión temprana de los taxa Annelida, Mollusca y Crustacea asociados a las raíces sumergidas de Rhizophora mangle (mangle rojo), empleando ramas del mismo como sustrato artificial (unidades experimentales). El análisis se relacionó con algunas variables físico-químicas y ambientales [...] durante 188 días en San Andrés Isla, entre noviembre 2002 y mayo 2003, en tres estaciones de dos bahías, Hooker y Honda. Se identificaron 34.175 individuos en 130 unidades experimentales, los anélidos mostraron la mayor proporción (77,1%). Se generó un análisis de ordenación y clasificación (dendrograma y un escalamiento multidimensional no métrico-NMDS) para cada uno de los tres taxa estudiados. Los análisis revelaron débil similaridad entre la parte interna de Bahía Hooker y las estaciones restantes. Se calcularon los índices de diversidad de Shannon-Wiener, uniformidad de Pielou, riqueza de Margalef y predominio de Simpson a lo largo del estudio; los tres primeros presentaron mayores valores en Bahía Hooker que en Honda, mientras que el índice de predominio fue mayor en Bahía Honda. Hubo organismos pioneros como el anélido Spirorbis sp. y transitorios como los crustáceos; los moluscos parecieron necesitar periodos más prolongados para asentarse. Estas respuestas revelan que características geomorfológicas, presencia o ausencia de corrientes de agua dulce, mareas y lluvias, principalmente, y factores antrópicos pueden influir en el desarrollo de estas comunidades. Dispersión larval y proximidad con otros ecosistemas aumentan o disminuyen las poblaciones; sólo algunos organismos adaptados a condiciones extremas se establecen y mantienen en el área. Bajo condiciones favorables, la abundancia y diversidad de especies tienden a aumentar Abstract in english The early succession of the taxa Annelida, Mollusca and Crustacea on Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) submerged roots was analyzed using old branches as ground (which were the experimental units) in San Andres Island. The analysis was related to some physico-chemical and environmental variables duri [...] ng 188 days, between November/2002 and May/2003, in Hooker and Honda bays. A total of 34,175 individuals in 130 experimental units were counted, where the annelids represented the largest proportion (77.1%) from the whole sample. A dendrogram and a nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were constructed for each one of the three studied taxa. The analyses showed a weak similarity between the internal part of the Hooker Bay and the remaining stations. Shannon-Wiener diversity, Pielou evenness, Margalef richness and Simpson predominance indexes were calculated throughout the study; the three first indices showed greater values in Hooker Bay than in Honda Bay, while the predominance index was greater in Bay Honda. There were pioneers organisms such as Spirorbis sp., and transient ones, such as crustaceans, whilst molluscs seemed to need longer periods to settle in. These responses reveal that geomorphological characteristics, presence or absence of freshwater currents, tides and rainfall mainly, as well as anthropic factors can influence the development of these communities. Larval dispersion and the proximity to other ecosystems increase or reduce the populations, and only some organisms, adapted to extreme conditions, settle down and maintain in the area. Under favorable conditions, abundance and species diversity tend to increase

Patricia E, Romero-Murillo; Jaime, Polanía.

2008-04-01

36

Andres Kollist teadusraamatukogude nõukogu esimeheks  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

8. sept. 2009 valis teadusraamatukogude nõukogu oma uueks esimeheks Tallinna Ülikooli Akadeemilise Raamatukogu direktori Andres Kollisti, senine nõukogu esimees Martin Hallik astus kohalt tagasi ning pühendus ELNET Konsortsiumi juhatuse esimehena raamatukogude avalike huvide eest seismisele

2009-01-01

37

Tidally Driven Exchange in an Archipelago Strait: Biological and Optical Responses  

OpenAIRE

Measurements in San Bernardino Strait, one of two major connections between the Pacific Ocean and the interior waters of the Philippine Archipelago, captured 2–3 m s-1 tidal currents that drove vertical mixing and net landward transport. A TRIAXUS towed profiling vehicle equipped with physical and optical sensors was used to repeatedly map subregions within the strait, employing survey patterns designed to resolve tidal variability of physical and optical properties. Strong flow over the si...

Jones, Burt H.; Lee, Craig M.; Gerardo Toro-Farmer; Boss, Emmanuel S.; Gregg, Michael C.; Cesar Villanoy

2011-01-01

38

Island Movements: Thinking with the Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Whether in Homer or Plato, Shakespeare or Huxley, throughout history, thinking about islands has shaped how we think about human nature and our place in the world. However, to date archipelagos have received far less attention. This is problematic because we live, increasingly, in a world of island-island movements and not static forms. Not only in the more obvious cases of the Caribbean, Hawaii or the Philippines but, as Stratford et al (2011 say, many ‘continental forms’ like Canada and Australia are in fact archipelagos composed of thousands of island movements. To this list we can add more manufactured archipelagos: wind turbine arrays, industrial oil and military constellations. The key question therefore arises: what does it mean to think with the archipelago? This paper argues firstly that archipelagic thinking denaturalizes the conceptual basis of space and place, and therefore engages ‘the spatial turn’ presently sweeping the social sciences and humanities. Secondly, such thinking highlights the trope of what I call ‘metamorphosis’, of the adaptation and transformation of material, cultural and political practices through island movements. In both cases, I argue that thinking with the archipelago requires an important shift in how we frame analysis and engagement.

Jonathan Pugh

2013-05-01

39

Suursaadik Andres Talvik : Prantsusmaa ei ole euroliidu laienemise pooldaja / Andres Talvik ; interv. Marianne Mikko  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Eesti suursaadik Prantsusmaal Andres Talvik Prantsusmaa presidendivalimistest, paremäärmuslase Jean-Marie Le Peni pääsemisest selle II vooru, prantslaste vastuseisust EL-i laienemisele, Prantsuse-Saksa suhetest. Andres Talviku elulooandmeid

Talvik, Andres, 1947-

2002-01-01

40

Andres Tali sõnavõtt ettekannete päeval = Andres Tali's speech given on the lecture day / Andres Tali  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Kaasaegse Kunsti Eesti Keskuse ettekannete päev "Kunstnike moraalsed valikud kultuurikonfliktides" 27.04.2006 Tallinna Kunstihoones. Oma installatsioonist "Pastoraalne pastishsh" ning videost "Vägivald ja propaganda - The Movie" samas 8.04.-28.05.2006 avatud Elin Kardi, Marko Mäetamme, Marco Laimre ja Andres Tali ühisnäitusel "Vägivald ja propaganda"

Tali, Andres, 1956-

2006-01-01

41

Cossidae of the Socotra Archipelago (Yemen  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The taxonomy of the family Cossidae (Lepidoptera of the Socotra Archipelago is revised. Five species are recognized, including two new species (Mormogystia brandstetteri and Meharia hackeri, and dubious identifications and records are discussed. Adults and genitalia are illustrated and bionomic details, molecular evidence and a synonymic checklist of Socotra Cossidae genera is provided. A review of their distribution reveals that at least 80 percent of Socotro`s Cossidae species are unique to the archipelago which is renowned for its endemism.

Aidas Saldaitis

2011-08-01

42

Andres Tarand omas mahlas / Mart Soidro  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Rets. rmt.: Tarand, Andres. Kiri ei põle ära : päevaraamat 1980-...[Tallinn] : Eesti Päevalehe AS, 2005. Euroopa Parlamendi saadiku päevaraamat 40 kirja koostamisest, avaldamisest ja võimu vastureaktsioonidest

Soidro, Mart, 1963-

2006-01-01

43

Andres Tarandi tööd tunnustati kõrge autasuga  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Euroopa Parlamendi saadik Andres Tarand sai silmapaistvate saavutuste eest Saksa Sotsiaaldemokraatliku Partei autasu nimega "Die Rote Bock". Tema ise peab seda tunnustuseks kogu Eesti sotsiaaldemokraatiale

2009-01-01

44

Cafe Lyon = Cafe Lyon / Andres Labi  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Cafe Lyon (Meistri 22, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Autorid: Janno Roos, Andres Labi, Kristel Jakobson (Ruumilabor). Prantsuse Lütseumi direktori Lauri Leesi arvamus. Disainibüroo Ruumilabor lühitutvustus

Labi, Andres, 1977-

2013-01-01

45

Shear Wave Splitting Beneath the Galapagos Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

We report measurements of teleseismic shear wave splitting in the Galápagos Archipelago. The inferred lateral variations in azimuthal anisotropy allow us to examine the dynamics of an evolving hotspot-ridge system. The data are from SKS and SKKS phases, as well as S waves from deep sources, recorded by a relatively dense network of 10 portable broadband seismometers deployed from 1999 to 2003 for the IGUANA (Imaging Galápagos Upwelling and Neotectonics of the Archipelago) experiment and from the GSN broadband station in Santa Cruz (PAYG). We find a delay time between fast and slow shear waves of 0.4 to 0.9 s and fast polarization directions of N85-90° E beneath five stations at the leading and southern edge of the archipelago. Despite clear seismic signals, we did not find any anisotropy at the six stations located in the interior of the archipelago. For those stations that show shear wave splitting, there is an increase in the delay time toward the expected location of the Galápagos hotspot at the western edge of the archipelago. With the exception of Española, fast polarization directions (N85-90° E) are close to the current direction of absolute plate motion of the overlying Nazca plate (N91° E). The lack of azimuthal anisotropy in the interior of the archipelago is interpreted as an absence of strongly oriented mantle fabric beneath these stations. The apparent isotropy in this dynamic region, where we expect considerable mantle strain, is surprising. It is not likely that the olivine a-axis is oriented vertically beneath the interior of the archipelago as the Galápagos plume is thought to lie at the western edge. It is also unlikely that there are two layers of perpendicularly-oriented anisotropy which are solely confined to the center of the archipelago. However, there appears to be some correlation between the region of apparent isotropy and a zone of anomalously low upper mantle velocities imaged beneath Santiago and Marchena from surface waves by Villagomez and others, though the low-velocity region is spatially more confined. This pattern suggests that the presence of melt in the upper mantle may weaken the effects of fabric on shear wave splitting, as suggested by Holtzman and others. An alternative explanation is that the flow field in the near ridge setting is complex, resulting in apparent isotropy. Due to the very young lithospheric age and to the effect of both the neighboring ridge and Galápagos hotspot, the lithosphere thickness is likely thinner than 40 km. Therefore no more than about 40% of the recorded delay time could originate from the lithosphere. We propose that the splitting pattern in the Galápagos Archipelago may be the result of plate drag and frozen lithospheric anisotropy which, beneath the center of the archipelago, is weakened by the presence of melt in the upper mantle.

Fontaine, F. R.; Burkett, P. G.; Hooft, E. E.; Toomey, D. R.; Solomon, S. C.; Silver, P. G.

2004-12-01

46

Narcotráfico, violencia y crisis social en el Caribe insular colombiano: El caso de la isla de San Andrés en el contexto del Gran Caribe / Drug Traffiking, Violence and the Social Crisis in Colombian Caribbean Islands: The Case of San Andrés Island in the Context of the Great Caribbean  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene por objetivo presentar un diagnóstico preliminar de la magnitud del tráfico de drogas, sus dinámicas, modalidades, y las condiciones sociales y económicas que favorecen el desarrollo de este negocio ilegal en la isla de San Andrés (Colombia). El análisis se desarrolla, no [...] obstante, en el marco de la condición histórica y natural de "zona de tránsito" de drogas, armas y otros recursos ilegales, que se le atribuye a la región del Gran Caribe, entendida como un continuo geográfico, histórico y cultural en el que se observan patrones comunes en materia de amenazas a la seguridad, la geopolítica de las relaciones con Estados Unidos y los efectos sociales y económicos derivados del flagelo del narcotráfico. En este sentido, el caso de la isla de San Andrés (Colombia) se examina más como parte de la dinámica insular gran caribeña que como parte de las tendencias propias del negocio en la Colombia continental, lo que permite, sin embargo, establecer las conexiones entre ambos espacios regionales -el insular y el continental- y, a la vez, evaluar el impacto regional del fenómeno a partir de las conexiones ilegales que desde el archipiélago se establecen con algunos países vecinos del Gran Caribe. Finalmente, se sostiene la hipótesis de que el fenómeno del narcotráfico se instala en la isla como resultado de factores geohistóricos, culturales y socioeconómicos que en conjunto han determinado la participación activa de distintos sectores de la sociedad en este negocio ilegal. Abstract in english The objective of thispaper is to present a preliminary diagnosis of the magnitude, dynamics, and modalities of drug trafficking, together with the social and economic conditions that support the development of this illegal activity in the island of San Andres (Colombia). Analysis is conducted within [...] a framework that identifies this trafficking zone as a natural and historic corridor for trade in weapons, drugs, and other illicit materials typically attributed to the Great Caribbean where patterns of security threats, geopolitical relations with the United States, and social and economic impacts of the narcotrafficking epidemic are commonly observed. The article presents San Andres Island (Colombia) as a case that adheres more to the insular dynamics of the Great Caribbean region rather than one that mimics the tendencies of continental Colombia. This perspective permits the establishment of connections between both regional spaces -insular and continental-, and simultaneously evaluates the phenomenon´s regional impact by exploring the illegal connections formed in the archipelago with neighboring Caribbean countries. Finally, the hypothesis is sustained that the trafficking phenomenon on the island is a result of historical, cultural and socio­economic factors that explain the active participation of certain sectors of the island´s society in these illegal activities.

Silvia, Mantilla.

2011-06-01

47

Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

1991-01-01

48

Island Movements: Thinking with the Archipelago  

OpenAIRE

Whether in Homer or Plato, Shakespeare or Huxley, throughout history, thinking about islands has shaped how we think about human nature and our place in the world. However, to date archipelagos have received far less attention. This is problematic because we live, increasingly, in a world of island-island movements and not static forms. Not only in the more obvious cases of the Caribbean, Hawaii or the Philippines but, as Stratford et al (2011) say, many ‘continental forms’ like Canada an...

Jonathan Pugh

2013-01-01

49

Mesophotic coral ecosystems in the Hawaiian Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

Efforts to map coral reef ecosystems in the Hawaiian Archipelago using optical imagery have revealed the presence of numerous scleractinian, zoothanthellate coral reefs at depths of 30-130+ m, most of which were previously undiscovered. Such coral reefs and their associated communities have been recently defined as mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs). Several types of MCEs are found in Hawai‘i, each of which dominates a different depth range and is characterized by a unique pattern of coral community structure and colony morphology. Although MCEs are documented near both ends of the archipelago and on many of the islands in between, the maximum depth and prevalence of MCEs in Hawai‘i were found to decline with increasing latitude. The Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) had significantly deeper and greater percentages of scleractinian coral, and peaks in cover of both scleractinian corals and macroalgae occurred within depth bins 20 m deeper than in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Across the archipelago, as depth increased the combined percentage of living cover of mega benthic taxa declined sharply with increasing depth below 70 m, despite the widespread availability of hard substrate.

Rooney, J.; Donham, E.; Montgomery, A.; Spalding, H.; Parrish, F.; Boland, R.; Fenner, D.; Gove, J.; Vetter, O.

2010-06-01

50

Vulkaner andre steder i Solsystemet  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Der er vulkaner mange andre steder end på Jorden. De indre fire jordlignende planeter har, ligesom mange af solsystemets måner og asteroider, vulkaner, der dog for de flestes vedkommende er udslukte for mange hundrede millioner år siden. Der er direkte observeret vulkanudbrud på Jorden og på Jupiters måne, Io, og man regner man med at Venus og formentlig også Mars stadig er vulkansk aktive. Ved at rette blikket ud i solsystemet har vi  mulighed for at studere vulkansk aktivitet under helt anderledes betingelser end her på Jorden. Hvad sker der f.eks., hvis tyngdekraften er svagere, eller planetens overflade måske er gloende varm? Vulkanerne andre steder i Solsystemet overgår på mange måder dem på Jorden. Venus er den planet i solsystemet, der har flest vulkaner, Mars har de største og højeste vulkaner, asteroiden Vesta har de ældste, og Jupiters måne Io har de mest aktive vulkaner i solsystemet. De koldeste vulkaner findes på nogle af månerne i det ydre solsystem. Her er det ikke smeltet sten men derimod ammoniakvand, der strømmer ned og størkner på vulkanernes sider.

Haack, Henning

2007-01-01

51

Andres Tolts 60 : omanäoliste vaikelude imeline maailm / Andres Tolts ; intervjueerinud Tiina Kolk ; kommenteerinud Jaan Elken  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Andres Toltsi näitused "Asjad" Hobusepea galeriis 12. oktoobrini, "Näitus" Tallinna Kunstihoones 25. oktoobrini, "Varane Tolts" Haus galeriis 13. novembrini. Pikemalt näitusest "Näitus", kuraator Harry Liivrand

Tolts, Andres, 1949-2014

2009-01-01

52

Pühajärve veekeskus = Pühajärve Spa / Andres Alver  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Projekteerija: Alver Trummal Arhitektid. Autorid Andres Alver, Indrek Rünkla, Ulla Mets, Tarmo Laht, sisekujundaja Helle Neemre, konstruktor Väino Taidur. Projekt 2002, valmis 2003. I ja II korruse plaan, lõige, 2 välis- ja 5 sisevaadet

Alver, Andres, 1953-

2004-01-01

53

Andres Tarand omas mahlas / Mart Soidro  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Rets. rmt.: Andres Tarand. Kiri ei põle ära. Päevaraamat 1980... Eesti Päevalehe AS, 2005. Raamatu põhiosa kooasneb kaheksast pikemast kirjutisest aastatest 1980-1982. Arvustuses on juttu 40 kirja allkirjadest.

Soidro, Mart, 1963-

2006-01-01

54

Viljandi arhitektuurivõistluse parimad tööd Andres Lemberilt  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Viljandi metsakalmistu kabeli arhitektuurivõistluse tulemused: I ja II preemia - Andres Lember, III - Emil Urbel ja Ott Hirvesoo, ergutuspreemiad - Ott Kadarik, Villem Tomiste ja Mihkel Tüür ning Veronika Valk, Yoko Alender ja Tuuli Köller

2005-01-01

55

Chemical quality of water and sediment in the bays of Sabana-Camaguey archipelago  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical quality of water and sediment was analyzed in some bays of Sabana-Camaguey Archipelago (SCA). This analysis was done using the existing information that covers from 1976 to 2011. In the rainy one there was oxygen sub-saturation in the bays of West Santa Clara, East Santa Clara, Puerto de Sagua and Los Perros. The nature of organic matter was quite complex and BOD5 and COD values greater than 2 mg.L-1prevailed. The ammonia concentrations were between 2 and 5 ??mol.L -1, and organic nitrogen represented 90 % of total nitrogen. Phosphorus in water was not very abundant, it acted as limiting nutrient for primary producers. Sediments were characterized by significant amounts of organic carbon and low content of organic nitrogen. The bays of Cardenas, San Juan de los Remedios, Buenavista and Los Perros, were impacts of heavy metals

56

Drifter Observations of Small-Scale Flows in the Philippine Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents observations of near-surface current trajectories made with water-following drifters in the Philippine archipelago. The data describe small-scale flows around obstacles and provide some snapshots of regional currents that both add insight into conceptual views of circulation on a variety of scales. The most interesting tracks are those collected in San Bernardino Strait, where the interaction of energetic tidal flows with small islands, seamounts, and headlands give rise to flows with vorticity and strain rate that can exceed 100f on scales < 1 km. The observations show some of the high Rossby number flows that challenge regional circulation models. Much of the data inform subgrid-scale motions that models must presently parameterize.

J. Carter Ohlmann

2011-03-01

57

The cave?adapted arthropod fauna from Madeira archipelago  

OpenAIRE

This work provides an overview of the hypogean fauna from the Madeira archipelago, presenting a list of obligated cave-dwelling species. A total of 6 troglobiont species in 5 orders have been described to date. The cave fauna in Madeira can be considered poor when compared with either the local epigean fauna or the cave fauna of other Macaronesian archipelagos. Curious is the occurrence of one wood-louse cave species (Trichoniscus bassoti), which apparently is the only troglobite ...

Serrano, Artur R. M.; Borges, Paulo A. V.

2010-01-01

58

Historical tsunami in the Azores archipelago (Portugal)  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of its exposed northern mid-Atlantic location, morphology and plate-tectonics setting, the Azores Archipelago is highly vulnerable to tsunami hazards associated with landslides and seismic or volcanic triggers, local or distal. Critical examination of available data - written accounts and geologic evidence - indicates that, since the settlement of the archipelago in the 15th century, at least 23 tsunami have struck Azorean coastal zones. Most of the recorded tsunami are generated by earthquakes. The highest known run-up (11-15 m) was recorded on 1 November 1755 at Terceira Island, corresponding to an event of intensity VII-VIII (damaging-heavily damaging) on the Papadopolous-Imamura scale. To date, eruptive activity, while relatively frequent in the Azores, does not appear to have generated destructive tsunami. However, this apparent paucity of volcanogenic tsunami in the historical record may be misleading because of limited instrumental and documentary data, and small source-volumes released during historical eruptions. The latter are in contrast with the geological record of massive pyroclastic flows and caldera explosions with potential to generate high-magnitude tsunami, predating settlement. In addition, limited evidence suggests that submarine landslides from unstable volcano flanks may have also triggered some damaging tsunamigenic floods that perhaps were erroneously attributed to intense storms. The lack of destructive tsunami since the mid-18th century has led to governmental complacency and public disinterest in the Azores, as demonstrated by the fact that existing emergency regulations concerning seismic events in the Azores Autonomous Region make no mention of tsunami and their attendant hazards. We suspect that the coastal fringe of the Azores may well preserve a sedimentary record of some past tsunamigenic flooding events. Geological field studies must be accelerated to expand the existing database to include prehistoric events-information essential for more precisely estimating the average tsunami recurrence rate for the Azores over a longer period. A present-day occurrence of a moderate to intense tsunami (i.e., the size of the 1755 event) would produce societal disruption and economic loss orders of magnitudes greater than those of previous events in Azorean history. To reduce risk from future tsunami, comprehensive assessment of tsunami hazards and the preparation of hazards-zonation maps are needed to guide governmental decisions on issues of prudent land-use planning, public education and emergency management.

Andrade, C.; Borges, P.; Freitas, M. C.

2006-08-01

59

Eesti fond rahastab Vene infotehnoloogiat / Andres Reimer  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Martinson Trigon Venture Partners (MTVP) loob uue tarkvarainvesteeringute fondi, mis viib endise NSVL-i alale kuni 780 miljonit krooni, fond võtab sihiks kümmekond uut ettevõtet. MTVP esimese fondi investeeringutest. Fondide juhi Andres Susi selgitusi. Lisa: Martinson Trigon Venture Partners osalusega firmad; Vt. samas: Moskvas pole raha ja geeniused kohtunud

Reimer, Andres

2006-01-01

60

Tee-ehitajad jagavad miljardeid / Andres Reimer  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Tallinna-Tartu-Luhamaa maantee nüüdisajastamiseks alustatakse projekte ligi 9,2 miljardi krooni väärtuses, tööde põhimaht tehakse järgmise seitsme aasta jooksul. Tee-ehitusettevõtted on tee-ehituse konkursi ootel. Kommenteerivad: Andres Gailit, Toomas Tootsi, Peeter Shkepast, Heiki Pormeister. Kaart, tabel. Lisa: Eesti pikim tee

Reimer, Andres

2006-01-01

61

Hydrogeology of the Azores volcanic archipelago (Portugal)  

Science.gov (United States)

The archipelago of the Azores is made of nine islands of volcanic origin located in the North Atlantic Ocean, with an area of 2333 km2 and approximately 237500 inhabitants, which are 98% dependant from groundwater sources for their water consumption. Therefore, groundwater is a resource that plays a vital role as drinking water source and as ecosystem support matrix. Nevertheless, besides the environmental, social and economical value of groundwater, this resource is subject to an increase pressure and in several islands water quality deterioration is shown by monitoring data. This pressure is also shown by the 42.7% increase expected for domestic use until the year 2020 at the Azores, with higher groundwater abstraction. The Azores climate can be considered as marine temperate, which is reflected by the low thermal amplitude and high precipitation. A well-established difference between a dry season and a colder and wet season occurs, as from October to March about 75% of the annual precipitation is registered. The average annual precipitation at the Azores is 1930 mm, exceeding by far the average annual actual evapotranspiration, which is 581 mm. Recharge rates range from 8.5% to 62.1%, and the highest values are observed at Pico, Terceira, Faial, São Miguel and Graciosa islands, especially in areas where the terrain is covered by recent basaltic lava flows and the soil cover is sparse. Groundwater resources estimates point to a total volume of about 1600x106 m3/yr. Values above the recharge median, equal to 101.3x106 m3/yr. were estimated for the São Miguel, São Jorge, Terceira and Flores islands. Despite differences in the islands growth, as a result of successive volcanic eruptions of various types, groundwater occurrence can be described in function of two main aquifers systems: (1) the basal aquifer system, which corresponds to fresh-water lenses floating on underlying salt water, and (2) perched-water bodies, which are usually drained by springs spread in the volcanic edifices slopes. The basal aquifer system is in the coastal area, presenting generally a very low hydraulic gradient. Hydrogeological surveys that have been made in the Azores archipelago points out to more than 1000 springs and wells spread all over the archipelago (950 springs and 83 drilled wells). Spring distribution is heterogeneous, with densities varying between 0.01 springs/km2 at Pico island and 0.72 springs/km2 estimated at Santa Maria. Specific capacity ranges from 1.4x10-2 to 266.7 L/sm, with a median value of 32.3 L/sm. Transmissivity also present a large range, with values ranging between 1.65x10-5 and 4.03x10-1 m2/s, and a median of 3.66x10-2 m2/s. The heterogeneous distribution shown by these values expresses the influence of the hydrogeological characteristics of volcanic terrain, resulting from syngenetic characteristics and secondary processes, like weathering. The highest values are observed in wells drilled in recent basaltic lava flows, which generally are thin and fractured, with frequent clincker levels interbedded, and the lowest data was estimated in the older volcanic formations of Santa Maria island. Groundwater on perched-water bodies, excluding the numerous mineral waters that are spread in several islands of the archipelago, present usually a low mineralization, shown by the electrical conductivity values (36-725 S/cm; median=158.0 S/cm). The average temperature is equal to 15°C. Waters have an average temperature of 15°C and are mainly slightly acid to slightly alkaline, with a pH range from 4.7 to 8.6, but showing a median value of 7.2. The main water types are Na-Cl to Na-HCO3 waters, with numerous samples lying in the intermediate compositional fields that characterize Na-Cl-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-Cl waters. The groundwater composition in the basal aquifer system is usually from the Na-Cl type and presents a higher mineralization, resulting in a median value for electrical conductivity equal to 1044 S/cm, expressing the influence of sea salts mixture.

Cruz, J.; Coutinho, R.; Antunes, P.; Freire, P.

2009-04-01

62

New geological data of New Siberian Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The area of New Siberian Archipelago (NSA) encompasses different tectonic blocks is a clue for reconstruction of geological structure and geodynamic evolution of East Arctic. According to palaeomagnetic study two parts of the archipelago - Bennett and Anjou Islands formed a single continental block at least from the Early Palaeozoic. Isotope dating of De Long Islands igneous and sedimentary rocks suggests Neoproterozoic (Baikalian) age of its basement. The De Long platform sedimentary cover may be subdivided into two complexes: (1) intermediate of PZ-J variously deformed and metamorphosed rocks and (2) K-KZ of weakly lithified sediments. The former complex comprises the Cambrian riftogenic volcanic-clastic member which overlain by Cambrian-Ordovician turbiditic sequence, deposited on a continental margin. This Lower Palaeozoic complex is unconformably overlain by Early Cretaceous (K-Ar age of c.120 Ma) basalts with HALIP petrochemical affinities. In Anjou Islands the intermediate sedimentary complex encompasses the lower Ordovician -Lower Carboniferous sequence of shallow-marine limestone and subordinate dolomite, mudstone and sandstone that bear fossils characteristic of the Siberian biogeographic province. The upper Mid Carboniferous - Jurassic part is dominated by shallow-marine clastic sediments, mainly clays. The K-KZ complex rests upon the lower one with angular unconformity and consists mainly of coal-bearing clastic sediments with rhyolite lavas and tuffs in the bottom (117-110 Ma by K-Ar) while the complexe's upper part contains intraplate alkalic basalt and Neogene-Quaternary limburgite. The De-Long-Anjou block's features of geology and evolution resemble those of Wrangel Island located some 1000 km eastward. The Laptev Sea shelf outcrops in intrashelf rises (Belkovsky and Stolbovoy Islands) where its geology and structure may be observed directly. On Belkovsky Island non-dislocated Oligocene-Miocene sedimentary cover of littoral-marine coal-bearing unconformably overlies folded basement. The latter encompasses two sedimentary units: the Middle Devonian shallow-marine carbonate and Late-Devonian-Permian olistostrome - flysch deposited in transitional environment from carbonate platform to passive margin. Dating of detrital zircons suggests the Siberian Platform and Taimyr-Severnaya Zemlya areas as the most possible provenance. The magmatic activity on Belkovsky Island resulted in formation of Early Triassic gabbro-dolerite similar to the Siberian Platform traps. Proximity of Belkovsky Island to the north of Verkhoyansk foldbelt allows continuation of the latter into the Laptev Sea shelf. The geology of Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Island is discrepant from the rest of the NSA. In the south of Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Island the ophiolite crops complex out: it is composed of tectonic melange of serpentinized peridotite, bandedf gabbro, pillow-basalt, and pelagic sediments (black shales and cherts). All the rocks underwent epidot - amphibolite, glaucophane and greenschist facies metamorphism. The ophiolite is intruded by various in composition igneous massifs - from gabbro-diorite to leuco-granite, which occurred at 110-120 Ma. The Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Island structure is thought to be a westerly continuation of the South Anui suture of Chukchi.

Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Evgeniy

2014-05-01

63

"Vettpidavad allikad" = "Watertight sources" / Janno Roos, Andres Labi  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Eesti Ajaloomuuseumis avatud näituse kujundasid Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor). Kuraator Krista Sarv. Graafiline disain: Identity. Eksponeeritud allveeuuringute käigus leitu. Arhitektuuriajaloolase Leele Välja arvamus

Roos, Janno, 1976-

2013-01-01

64

Juubelitervitus (eks)avangardist Andres Toltsile / Eero Kangor  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Andres Toltsi isikunäitused "Näitus" (kuraator Harry Liivrand) Tallinna Kunstihoones 25. oktoobrini, "Asjad" Hobusepea galeriis 30. sept.-12. oktoobrini ja sünnipäevanäitus Haus Galeriis 13. novembrini

Kangor, Eero, 1982-

2009-01-01

65

PT symmetric Aubry-Andre model  

Science.gov (United States)

PT symmetric Aubry-Andre model describes an array of N coupled optical waveguides with position-dependent gain and loss. We show that the reality of the spectrum depends sensitively on the degree of quasi-periodicity for small number of lattice sites. We obtain the Hofstadter butterfly spectrum and discuss the existence of the phase transition from extended to localized states. We show that rapidly changing periodical gain/loss materials almost conserve the total intensity.

Yuce, C.

2014-06-01

66

The Flora of Ze?evo (Hvar Archipelago, Croatia)  

OpenAIRE

The islet of Ze?evo belongs to Hvar Archipelago and it is situated two kilometres north-east of Vrboska on the island of Hvar (Croatia). The area of islet is protected as a Significant landscape. During vegetation periods from 2006 to 2010 a total of 216 vascular plant taxa were recorded. From those, 12 taxa were recorded for Hvar Archipelago for the first time. The taxa were classified within 65 families and 161 genera. The most abundant families are legumes (Fabaceae 13%), daisies (Asterac...

Mario Skelin; Ivica Ljubi?i?; Ivan Skelin; Ivana Vitasovi? Kosi?; Sandro Bogdanovi?

2014-01-01

67

Investigating the multifractality of point precipitation in the Madeira archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this work is to contribute to a better understanding of the variability of precipitation in the Madeira archipelago. This archipelago is located in the Atlantic subtropical belt under the direct influence of the Azores high pressure system. It is formed by Madeira Island (728 km2) and Porto Santo Island (42 km2) and by two other groups of very small inhabited islands. The complex topography of the islands in the Madeira archipelago and their small size play a crucial role in the local precipitation regime, which is marked by high spatial variability. This paper explores the invariance of properties manifested across scales and determines the fractal and multifractal behaviour observed in the temporal structure of precipitation using daily and 10-min time series from several locations scattered over the main islands. The period covered by the precipitation records is 34 years for the daily data and almost 4 months for the 10-min data. The results show that the temporal structure of precipitation in the Madeira Archipelago exhibits scale-invariant and multifractal properties. The empirical exponent functions describing the scaling statistical properties of the precipitation intensity were characterized using multifractal parameters; these parameters are increasing our awareness of the dynamics of this process in these islands.

de Lima, M. I. P.; de Lima, J. L. M. P.

2009-04-01

68

Investigating the multifractality of point precipitation in the Madeira archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to contribute to a better understanding of the variability of precipitation in the Madeira archipelago. This archipelago is located in the Atlantic subtropical belt under the direct influence of the Azores high pressure system. It is formed by Madeira Island (728 km2 and Porto Santo Island (42 km2 and by two other groups of very small inhabited islands. The complex topography of the islands in the Madeira archipelago and their small size play a crucial role in the local precipitation regime, which is marked by high spatial variability.

This paper explores the invariance of properties manifested across scales and determines the fractal and multifractal behaviour observed in the temporal structure of precipitation using daily and 10-min time series from several locations scattered over the main islands. The period covered by the precipitation records is 34 years for the daily data and almost 4 months for the 10-min data. The results show that the temporal structure of precipitation in the Madeira Archipelago exhibits scale-invariant and multifractal properties. The empirical exponent functions describing the scaling statistical properties of the precipitation intensity were characterized using multifractal parameters; these parameters are increasing our awareness of the dynamics of this process in these islands.

M. I. P. de Lima

2009-04-01

69

mtDNA microevolution in Southern Chile's archipelagos.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genetic variability of four predominantly Indian populations of southern Chile's archipelagos was examined by determining the frequencies of four mitochondrial DNA haplogroups that characterize the American Indian populations. Over 90% of the individuals analyzed presented Native American mtDNA haplogroups. By means of an unweighted group pair method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram, a principal component analysis (PCA) derived from a distance matrix of mtDNA, and the exact test of population differentiation, we are able to prove the existence of a North-South cline. The populations in the northern part of the archipelagos are genetically similar to the Huilliche tribe, while the groups from the South are most closely related to the Fueguino tribe from the extreme South of Chile, and secondarily to the Pehuenche and Mapuche, who are found to the North and East of Chiloé archipelago. These results are consistent with a colonization of the southern archipelagos from Tierra del Fuego. We evaluate the evolutionary relationships of the population of the Chiloé area to groups from other geographic areas of Chile, using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Three Amerindian clusters are identified: one formed by the Aymará and Atacameño, a second by the Huilliche, and a third including the Mapuche, Pehuenche, and Fueguino tribes, and the population inhabiting the South of the Chiloé arcipelago. These groups exhibit a North-South gradient in the frequency of haplogroup B, confirmed by F(ST) tests. PMID:16323203

García, Federico; Moraga, Mauricio; Vera, Soledad; Henríquez, Hugo; Llop, Elena; Aspillaga, Eugenio; Rothhammer, Francisco

2006-03-01

70

The flow of radionuclides through the Canadian archipelago  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transport of contaminants to the Canadian Arctic by air and in water and their concentration through the marine food web has lead to enhanced levels of contaminants in several foods of Canadian northern inhabitants. Artificial radionuclides in the marine water can be used to determine water circulation and to trace contaminant transport through the Canadian Archipelago

71

Hydrogeology framework of the Azores archipelago (Portugal)  

Science.gov (United States)

The archipelago of the Azores is made of nine islands located in the North Atlantic Ocean, spread along a 600 km-long NW-SE strip, approximately 1600 km from Portugal mainland. All the islands are of volcanic origin and only in Santa Maria, the eastern most island of the Azores, are there sedimentary units interbedded in the volcanic succession of basic nature. Groundwater resources in the Azores are essential both as drinking water source and for ecosystem support. The Azores climate can be considered as marine temperate, with an average annual precipitation at the Azores equal to 1930 mm, exceeding by far the average annual actual evapotranspiration (581 mm). From October to March about 75% of the annual precipitation is registered, which also influences recharge distribution along the year. Recharge rates range from 8.5% to 62.1%, with the highest values been observed at Pico, Terceira, Faial, São Miguel and Graciosa islands, especially in areas where the terrain is covered by recent basaltic lava flows and the soil cover is thin, and the groundwater resources estimates point to a total volume of about 1600x106 m3/yr. Despite differences in the volcanic successions observed in the several islands, resulting from volcanic eruptions of various types, groundwater occurrence can be generally described in terms of two main aquifers systems: (1) the basal aquifer system, which corresponds to fresh-water lenses floating on underlying salt water, and (2) perched-water bodies, which are usually drained by springs spread in the volcanic edifices slopes. Specific well capacity ranges between 1.40x10-2 L/sm and 266.67 L/sm, with a median of 32.29 L/sm (Cruz 2001a, 2004). The values exhibit marked variability among the wells from the different islands. The highest specific capacity is observed on Pico and Graciosa, with wells drilled in recent basaltic lava flows, which generally are thin and fractured with frequently interbedded clincker levels. Transmissivity values also present a large range, with values between 1.65x10-5 and 4.03x10-1 m2/s, and a median of 3.66x10-2 m2/s. Groundwater on perched-water bodies present usually a low mineralization, shown by the electrical conductivity values (36-725 ?S/cm; median=158.0 ?S/cm), and an average temperature of 15 C. Waters are mainly slightly acid to slightly alkaline, with a pH range from 4.7 to 8.6, with a median value of 7.2. The main water types are Na-Cl to Na-HCO3 waters, with numerous samples lying in the intermediate compositional fields that characterize Na-Cl-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-Cl waters. Groundwater composition in the basal aquifer system is usually from the Na-Cl type, presenting a higher mineralization (median value for electrical conductivity equal to 1044 ?S/cm), as a result of the mixture with a seawater component. The more than 100 mineral water discharges observed in the Azores present a large range of chemical characteristics, been Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl the dominant water types, despite a few samples of the Na-SO4 type. Discharge temperature ranges between 15 C and 99.5 C (median=35 C), conductivity between 139 and 43100 ?S/cm (median=906 ?S/cm), and pH between 2.2 and 7.82 (median=5.78), reflecting the several mechanism that influence water composition.

Cruz, J. V.; Coutinho, R. M.

2011-12-01

72

Samarbejdets natur hos mennesket og andre aber  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Omfattende grader af dele-adfærd og samarbejde hos mennesker finder sted overalt på jorden, men det er ikke et menneskeligt særtræk at være generøs og dele. Mange dyrearter deler med artsfæller, skønt måden, der deles på varierer mellem dyrearter. Igennem de sidste 20 år er der foretaget omfattende forskning omkring delings-adfærd hos andre aber end mennesket og forsøgene har givet os indsigt i flere forskellige ting omkring den menneskelige samarbejdsnatur i forhold til andre dyrs. Delingsadfærden hos mennesket antager former, der på nogle punkter er langt mere sammenlignelige med fjernere beslægtede aber end med menneskeaberne. Visse dyrearter viser sig desuden at klare sig mærkbart bedre end menneskeaberne i samarbejdsforsøg, hvor menneskelige signaler skal forstås. Især hunde udmærker sig ved dette og lader til at gå til opgaven med omtrent lige så få gnidninger som småbørn. Dette kan forklares ved, at der implicit i evnen til menneskeligt samarbejde ligger en motivation for at indgå i opgaveløsende relationer og en basal tillidsfuldhed omkring flokmedlemmer, som ikke er en selvfølgelighed for alle flokdyr, men som mennesket har fremavlet hos den tamme hund.

Byrnit, Jill

2015-01-01

73

Pelagic microplastics around an archipelago of the Equatorial Atlantic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plastic marine debris is presently widely recognised as an important environmental pollutant. Such debris is reported in every habitat of the oceans, from urban tourist beaches to remote islands and from the ocean surface to submarine canyons, and is found buried and deposited on sandy and cobble beaches. Plastic marine debris varies from micrometres to several metres in length and is potentially ingested by animals of every level of the marine food web. Here, we show that synthetic polymers are present in subsurface plankton samples around Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. To explain the distribution of microplastics around the Archipelago, we proposed a generalised linear model (GLM) that suggests the existence of an outward gradient of mean plastic-particle densities. Plastic items can be autochthonous or transported over large oceanic distances. One probable source is the small but persistent fishing fleet using the area. PMID:23953893

Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Costa, Monica F; Barletta, Mário; Cysneiros, Francisco José A

2013-10-15

74

Landslides density map of S. Miguel Island, Azores archipelago  

OpenAIRE

The Azores archipelago is located in the Atlantic Ocean and is composed of nine volcanic islands. S. Miguel, the largest one, is formed by three active, E-W trending, trachytic central volcanoes with caldera (Sete Cidades, Fogo and Furnas). Chains of basaltic cinder cones link those major volcanic structures. An inactive trachytic central volcano (Povoação) and an old basaltic volcanic complex (Nordeste) comprise the easternmost part of the island. Since the settlement of the island ...

Valada?o, P.; Gaspar, J. L.; Queiroz, G.; Ferreira, T.

2002-01-01

75

Preliminary Paleomagnetic results for Faial Island (Azores archipelago)  

OpenAIRE

We present preliminary paleomagnetic results dor Faial Island (central group of Azores Archipelago, North Atlantic Ocean). Our sampling strategy was focused on a collection of samples from lava flows that represent a large temporal window according to previous geochronological data. Main results show that: (i) onshore volcanic activity began during the Matuyama geomagnetic chron; (ii) the southern branch of the Faial graben probably corresponds to an oldest volcano; (iii) paleomagnetic result...

Silva, Pedro; Henry, Bernard; Hildenbrand, Anthony; Marques, Fernando; Madureira, Pedro

2008-01-01

76

Complex geophysical wake flows. Madeira Archipelago case study  

Science.gov (United States)

Idealized studies of island wakes often use a cylinder-like island to generate the wake, whereas most realistic studies use a close representation of the oceanic bathymetry immersed in a complex representation of the "ambient" geophysical flows. Here, a system of multiple islands was placed into numerical and experimental channels, in order to focus on the complexity of the archipelago wake, including (a) the influence of small neighboring islands and (b) the role of the island-shelf. The numerical geostrophic and stratified channel was built using a three-dimensional primitive equation model, considering a realistic representation of the Madeira archipelago bathymetry, with prescribed initial and boundary conditions. Results from the simulations show that the neighboring islands alter the near-field wake. Small eddies generated by the neighboring islands lead to destabilization of the shear layers of the larger island. Laboratory experiments carried out in the Coriolis rotating tank corroborated this near-field disruptive mechanism. The neighboring island perturbation effect was present whatever the direction of the incoming flow, but under different regimes. North-south wakes produced geostrophic eddies (? R d), whereas west-east wakes produced (exclusively) ageostrophic submesoscale eddies (Madeira archipelago, and may serve as guide for future multiscale numerical studies and in situ campaigns.

Caldeira, Rui Miguel A.; Sangrà, Pablo

2012-05-01

77

Mangrove forest composition and structure in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem that provides many services, but in Panama, as in other countries, they are under threat due to a variety of human activities. Nowadays, large areas of mangroves continue to be lost without been described and lack of management strategies. This study focused on the mangrove structure in the two largest islands, Isla del Rey and Isla San Jose, of Las Perlas Archipelago (LPA), Pacific Panama. Assessment of Landsat satellite imagery revealed loss of mangroves in the LPA of 965ha in the period 1974-1986, and 248ha in the period 1986-2000. The majority of the loss (>77%) from the two study islands was due to timber extraction and agricultural development. In May 2006, permanent plots following the CARICOMP protocol were established at two sites on Isla del Rey (R1 and R2) and one site on Isla San Jose (SJ) where standardized metrics such as species, height and diameter at breast height of adult trees and seedlings were recorded. Forest structure differed at the three sites, although R1 and R2 were most similar. At R1, Laguncularia racemosa was the important species and R2 was dominated by Pelliciera rhizophorae. Examination of the forest structure and classified imagery indicated that these sites are spatially dynamic and appear to be rejuvenating. The forest structure would indicate that the sites have been growth-limited previously by human activities and possibly by other factors. SJ was dominated by Rhizophora mangle and appears to have a mature forest with large adult trees and few seedlings. It does not appear to have shown the same extent of spatial regrowth as the other two sites between 1986 and 2000 and is relatively static. The establishment of permanent plots and monitoring will be useful as part of the management plan, as the LPA shows a variety of mangrove structures and could be subject to further coastal development. PMID:20737843

McGowan, Tom; Cunningham, Sarah L; Guzmán, Héctor M; Mair, James M; Guevara, José M; Betts, Tanja

2010-09-01

78

Film Diegost - kriitikavaba kummardus / Andres Must  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

PÖFFi filme - Argentiina mängufilm legendaarse jalgpalluri Diego Maradona jumaldamisest "Teel Maradona juurde" ("El camino de San Diego") : stsenarist ja režissöör Carlos Sorin. Artikkel on peamiselt Maradonast, vähesel määral filmist

Must, Andres

2007-01-01

79

Raio Piiroja : mängijatest ei suudetud maksimumi pigistada / Andres Kalvik  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 19. nov., lk. 13. Eesti koondis võlgneb EM-valikturniiri viimase kohtumise 2:0 Andorra üle suuresti Andres Operile. Kommenteerib Andorra koondise peatreener David Rodrigo

Kalvik, Andres, 1982-

2007-01-01

80

Peaosa nii teatrilaval kui ka kinolinal / Andres Laasik  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Natalja Murina-Puustusmaast, kes mängib peaosa Vene Teatri uuslavastuses "Besame mucho", mille Afolf Käis on lavastanud Eduardo de Filippo näidendi "Silinder" järgi, ja Andres Puustusmaa filmis "Rotilõks", mille võtted algavad peagi

Laasik, Andres, 1960-

2010-01-01

81

Andres Noormets : filmilik fantaasiateater lohe ja armastusega / Dea Martinjonis  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

"Meremaa võlur. Päeva kaldad", näidend Ursula K Le Guini "Meremaa võluri" teemadel, kirjutanud Andreas W ja lavastanud Andres Noormets, kunstnik Silver Vahtre, valguskunstnik Airi Eras, helikujundaja ja videograafik Andreas W. Esietendus Ugalas 29. aprillil

Martinjonis, Dea

1999-01-01

82

Haapsalu Gümnaasiumi võimla = Haapsalu Gymnasium Gym / Andres Alver  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Projekteerija: Alver Trummal Arhitektid OÜ. Arhitektid Andres Alver, Sven Koppel, Tarmo Laht, Ulla Mets. Projekt 1998-1999, hoone valmis 2001. 11 ill.: asendi- ja korruse plaan, pikilõige, välis- ja sisevaated

Alver, Andres, 1953-

2001-01-01

83

Eestlased nõutavad kildu Hiina majandusbuumist / Sirje Rank, Andres Kärssin  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 30. juuni lk. 5. Eesti ettevõtted on huvitatud kaubavahetusest Hiinaga. Diagramm. Vt. samas: Andres Kärssin. Eesti suuremad rõivatootjad valmistavad kolmandiku toodetest Hiinas ; Sirje Rank. Hiina turg on segu võimalustest ja riskidest

Rank, Sirje, 1966-

2004-01-01

84

Alvis Hermanis - ma ütlen ... Ehk jõuab Eestissegi / Andres Keil  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Lätlaste teatrifestivalist "Spelmanu Nakts" ("Showcase") ja muljeid nähtud etendustest. Ka Valmiera Draamateatrist, kus viimased aastad töötab eestlane Jaanus Johanson ja kus praegu Andres Lepik lavastab Andrus Kivirähki "Eesti matust"

Keil, Andres, 1974-

2006-01-01

85

Om den juridiske metode – og andre viden-skabelige metoder  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Denne artikel handler om, hvilke spørgsmål og problemer juraen og andre human- og samfundsvidenskabelige discipliner beskæftiger sig med. Den handler også om, hvilke forskellige metoder, jurister og andre human- og samfundsvidenskabelige forskere gør brug af. I artiklen beskriver jeg desuden, hvordan de forskellige videnskabelige discipliner historiske har udviklet sig, ligesom jeg beskriver, hvordan undervisningen på forskellige samfunds-videnskabelige uddannelser er tilrettelagt for at ruste de studerende til en fremtidige karriere inden for de, også temmeligt forskellige, hverv, som de færdige kandidater typisk bliver ansat i efter endt uddannelse. Det er mit håb, at denne artikels beskrivelse af forskellene mellem juraen og andre human- og samfundsvidenskaber kan bidrage til, at jurastuderende får en bedre forståelse for juraens særlige beskaffenhed – herunder forstår, hvordan juraen skiller sig ud fra andre samfundsvidenskaber.

Rattleff, Pernille

2015-01-01

86

Eesti Energia esindused = Eesti Energia branches / Andres Labi, Janno Roos  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Eesti Energia klienditeeninduse kontorite sisekujundusest. Autorid: Janno Roos, Andres Labi ja Liisa Põime (Ruumilabor). Visuaalne identiteet: Tank.Teenuste disain: Urmas Pastarus. ESLi aastapreemiate žürii esimehe Kaido Kivi ning žürii liikme Raivo Puusepa arvamused

Labi, Andres, 1977-

2013-01-01

87

Andres Puustusmaa - mees nagu jalgratas ehk Seitseteist kevadist hetke enne Moskva rongi väljumist / Andres Puustusmaa ; interv. Margus Mikomägi  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Venemaal tegutseva Eestist pärit režissööri Andres Puustusmaa mängufilm "18-14" esilinastub 10. jaanuaril Eestis. Lisaks tõlge filmi tutvustavast tekstist (www.1814.ru) : "Tsarskoje Selo Kõrilõikaja ja lütseumi kasvandikud". Artikkel rubriigis "Teatriküljed 1/25"

Puustusmaa, Andres

2008-01-01

88

Rain Tolk ja Andres Maimik : Eesti filmi keigarid, geeniused ja ullikesed / Piret Reiljan  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Rain Tolk, Andres Maimik, kelle tragikoomiline film "Jan Uuspõld läheb Tartusse" (OÜ "Kuukulgur Film") on üks vaadatuimad eesti filme läbi aegade. Ka teised neist : kommenteerivad Jan Uuspõld, Maria Ulfsak-Sheripova, Andres Keil, Urmas Pardane ja Mikk Rand

Reiljan, Piret, 1983-

2007-01-01

89

Characterisation of a basin mire in the Azores archipelago  

OpenAIRE

The Azores archipelago in the North Atlantic is an extremely important area for biodiversity because it is rich in rare species and habitats, and almost undisturbed. The Lagoa do Madruga is a small basin mire located at 956 m a.s.l. on Santa Bárbara Mountain, Terceira Island. It is an extremely good example of a peatland type that was first discovered in 1998, and has not previously been described in the international literature. This paper provides baseline information on its flora, vegetat...

Dias, E.; Mendes, C.

2007-01-01

90

Primitive helium and neon isotopes in Terceira island (Azores archipelago)  

OpenAIRE

We present the first neon data, as well as new helium data, on Terceira Island (Azores archipelago, Portugal). Clear 20Ne and 21Ne excesses compared to air are observed (20Ne/22Ne > 11.2) and moreover, the samples show a more primitive 21Ne/22Ne ratio than MORB, confirming that the Azores hotspot can be considered as sampling a “primitive”, relatively undegassed, reservoir. Most 4He/3He isotopic ratios range between 80,000 and 63,500 (not, vert, similar 9 to 11.5 R/Ra), being similar to t...

Madureira, Pedro; Moreira, P.; Mata, M.; J Alle?gre, C. J.

2005-01-01

91

Commensal Leucothoidae (Crustacea, Amphipoda of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Part III: coral rubble-dwellers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Commensal leucothoid amphipods have been collected from coral rubble samples throughout the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Seven new species are described in two genera with valuable location data. A new locality is presented for Paranamixis misakiensis Thomas, 1997. An identification key to all described Leucothoidae of the Ryukyu Archipelago is provided.

Kristine White

2012-03-01

92

Coastal eutrophication: Causes, consequences and perspectives in the Archipelago areas of the northern Baltic Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

Coastal eutrophication has, since the early 1970s, become the foremost threat to the marine ecosystem of the Archipelago Sea (the Åland Islands and the SW Finnish archipelago) in the northern Baltic Sea. Nutrient levels (N, P) have risen significantly both in coastal areas and basin-wide, which has led to increased primary production (both pelagic and benthic), decreased transparency, increasing amounts of oxygen-consuming drift-algal mats at shallow and intermediate bottoms, and changes in zoobenthos and fish communities. Local nutrient input originates mainly from agriculture, riverine input, municipal wastewaters, aquaculture and airborne loading. Levels indicate an even distribution of nutrients from the inner areas to the open coast, reducing the natural diluting or filtering effects of the mosaic archipelago system. Future prospects for the archipelago and coastal ecosystem are poor unless local and regional measures to drastically reduce nutrient levels of the archipelago are undertaken. Even then, positive effects are unlikely to show immediately.

Bonsdorff, E.; Blomqvist, E. M.; Mattila, J.; Norkko, A.

1997-01-01

93

The Flora of Ze?evo (Hvar Archipelago, Croatia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The islet of Ze?evo belongs to Hvar Archipelago and it is situated two kilometres north-east of Vrboska on the island of Hvar (Croatia. The area of islet is protected as a Significant landscape. During vegetation periods from 2006 to 2010 a total of 216 vascular plant taxa were recorded. From those, 12 taxa were recorded for Hvar Archipelago for the first time. The taxa were classified within 65 families and 161 genera. The most abundant families are legumes (Fabaceae 13%, daisies (Asteraceae s.l. 9.2%, grasses (Poaceae 8.3% and mints (Lamiaceae 5.1%. According to the analysis of life forms the largest portion of therophytes (45.4% and hemicryptophytes (21.3% were found. Phytogeographical analysis reveals predominance of the Mediterranean fl oral element (63.4%, followed by widespread plants (12.5% and Euro-Asian floral element (9.7%. Five endemics and five endangered species were recorded, among them three are vulnerable (VU: Ophrys bertolonii Moretti, O. sphegodes Mill., Salsola kali L. and two are endangered (EN: Glaucium flavum Crantz and Carex extensa Gooden. Three rare plant species of Croatian flora: Ophrys liburnica Devillers et Devillers-Tersch, Scaligeria cretica (Mill. Boiss. and Narcissus serotinus L. were found.

Mario Skelin

2014-09-01

94

Primitive neon isotopes in Terceira Island (Azores archipelago) [rapid communication  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the first neon data, as well as new helium data, on Terceira Island (Azores archipelago, Portugal). Clear 20Ne and 21Ne excesses compared to air are observed ( 20Ne/ 22Ne > 11.2) and moreover, the samples show a more primitive 21Ne/ 22Ne ratio than MORB, confirming that the Azores hotspot can be considered as sampling a "primitive", relatively undegassed, reservoir. Most 4He/ 3He isotopic ratios range between 80,000 and 63,500 (˜ 9 to 11.5 R/Ra), being similar to those previously reported by [1] [M. Moreira, R. Doucelance, B. Dupré, M. Kurz, C.J. Allègre, Helium and lead isotope geochemistry in the Azores archipelago, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 169 (1999) 189-205] . A more primitive 4He/ 3He ratio of ˜ 50,000 (R/Ra ˜ 15) was obtained in one sample, but we cannot completely exclude the possibility of a cosmogenic 3He contribution for this sample. Our study illustrates that the neon systematics can be more capable than helium to constrain the ultimate origin of hotspots in geodynamic settings dominated by plume-ridge interaction.

Madureira, Pedro; Moreira, Manuel; Mata, João; Allègre, Claude Jean

2005-05-01

95

The Idea of the Archipelago: Contemplating Island Relations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Creative, innovative, and timely research on islands and island futures is warranted and pressing, not least because island(ers are poorly served by established tropes of them as subordinate to continents or mainlands. Opportunities exist to provide a more thoroughgoing account of island life and island relations, and the seven papers in this special issue address that task. In works that consider islands in the Timor Sea, the Caribbean, the Pacific, Atlantic and Southern Oceans, and that span several different disciplinary frames—archival-historical, critical theoretical, literary, cultural, geopolitical, sociological and artistic—these papers evidence both the diversity of approach to thinking with the archipelago, and numerous points in common. Among the latter is an understanding that island relations are built on connection, assemblage, mobility, and multiplicity, and a commitment to critically examine the ways in which these entanglements affect and give effect to island life. The models of island relationality brought to light by this collective focus on the archipelago reveal new and diverse connections of island peoples with their physical and cultural environments, and with the world beyond; create spaces for growing resilience, association and engagement; and invite further study.

Elaine Stratford

2013-05-01

96

Characterizing Dynamic Bedforms Using Multibeam Bathymetry in the Haro Strait and San Juan Channel Areas of British Columbia, Canada, and the San Juan Islands, Washington, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

The San Juan Islands in the U.S. and British Columbia, Canada, are an archipelago located in Northwestern Washington, between the Northern Cascades Mountain Range and the Olympic Peninsula and are the result of tectonic compressional processes. This region has experienced a complex tectonic history of convergence, thrust faulting, uplift, subsidence, glaciation, tidal scour and sediment transport (deposition and erosion) that in turn have produced diverse marine benthic habitats. There are a variety of habitats including dynamic bedforms, moraines, and glacially scoured fractured and faulted bedrock outcrops. Multibeam bathymetric and backscatter data image the bedforms in detail and show they are concentrated within the waterways of the San Juan Islands, including Haro Strait, the Strait of Juan de Fuca and San Juan Channel. These bedforms may provide habitat for marine species, including migrating salmon. An interpreted map will be presented that focuses on the characterization of marine benthic habitats based on high-resolution (Simrad EM 1002 95 kHz) multibeam bathymetry and backscatter data. This study will assist in a better understanding of the physical and biological characteristics of the San Juan Islands Archipelago, especially near established Marine Protected Areas and will benefit effective implementation of resource management objectives.

Lopez, H. L.; Greene, H.

2003-12-01

97

Historic and recent occurrences of pinnipeds in the Archipelago of the Azores  

OpenAIRE

The Archipelago of the Azores (Portugal) is located between 37º and 41ºN and 25º and 31ºW and crosses the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It is the most isolated archipelago in the Atlantic, situated 1600 km west of mainland Portugal and 3500 km from the eastern coast of the United States of America. At present, the only population of seals occurring in the Portuguese territory is found on Desertas Islands, Archipelago of Madeira, where a colony of 24 Mediterranean monk seals, Monachus monachus (Herm...

Silva, Mo?nica A.; Brito, Cristina; Santos, Sara V.; Barreiros, Joa?o P.

2009-01-01

98

Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs from the Aleutian archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

We collected 136 fresh and unhatched eggs from bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests and assessed productivity on eight islands in the Aleutian archipelago, 2000 to 2002. Egg contents were analyzed for a broad spectrum of organochlorine (OC) contaminants, mercury (Hg), and stable isotopes of carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (SigmaPCBs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and Hg in bald eagle eggs were elevated throughout the archipelago, but the patterns of distribution differed among the various contaminants. Total PCBs were highest in areas of past military activities on Adak and Amchitka Islands, indicating local point sources of these compounds. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were higher on Amchitka Island, which was subjected to much military activity during World War II and the middle of the 20th century. Concentrations of SigmaPCBs also were elevated on islands with little history of military activity (e.g., Amlia, Tanaga, Buldir), suggesting non-point sources of PCBs in addition to point sources. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were highest in eagle eggs from the most western Aleutian Islands (e.g., Buldir, Kiska) and decreased eastward along the Aleutian chain. This east-to-west increase suggested a Eurasian source of contamination, possibly through global transport and atmospheric distillation and/or from migratory seabirds. Eggshell thickness and productivity of bald eagles were normal and indicative of healthy populations because concentrations of most contaminants were below threshold levels for effects on reproduction. Contrary to our predictions, contaminant concentrations were not correlated with stable isotopes of carbon (delta13C) or nitrogen (delta15N) in eggs. These latter findings indicate that contaminant concentrations were influenced more by point sources and geographic location than trophic status of eagles among the different islands. PMID:17702538

Anthony, Robert G; Miles, A Keith; Ricca, Mark A; Estes, James A

2007-09-01

99

Helium and lead isotope geochemistry of the Azores Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

New helium and lead isotopic data for basalts from the Azores archipelago (North Atlantic) show that the Azores have 4He/ 3He ratios both higher and lower than MORB values. Good covariations of helium and lead isotopes are observed at the scale of the archipelago, and suggest the coexistence of two mantle components in the Azores which are identified by data from São Miguel and Terceira. The eastern part of São Miguel island displays radiogenic helium ( 4He/ 3He > 140,000, R/ RaTerceira basalts contain relatively unradiogenic/primitive 4He/ 3He ratios, with a minimum value of 64,000 ( R/ Ra=11.3), and relatively high lead isotopic ratios ( 206Pb/ 204Pb = 20.02, 207Pb/ 204Pb = 15.64 and 208Pb/ 204Pb = 39.35). We propose that the Terceira source has a composition produced by a mixing between recycled oceanic crust (high 206Pb/ 204Pb) and entrained lower mantle (high 3He) material. The São Miguel island isotopic signature may be due to sampling of local (km-size) heterogeneity located at relatively shallow depth. The preferred origin of this heterogeneity is the Jurassic delamination of subcontinental lithosphere, which occurred during rifting and opening of the North Atlantic. The primitive helium ratios were also observed on the Mid Atlantic ridge at 38.5°N, reflecting plume-ridge interaction, whereas radiogenic ratios (>100,000) were observed at latitude higher than 40°N and may reflect the influence of the São Miguel component at the ridge.

Moreira, Manuel; Doucelance, Régis; Kurz, Mark D.; Dupré, Bernard; Allègre, Claude Jean

1999-05-01

100

Coexistence of reef organisms in the Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The first study on coexistence of reef benthic organisms in Brazilian coral reefs was done in three localities of the Abrolhos Archipelago. Organisms were recorded in concentric circle samples (10 and 20 cm in diameter randomly laid on transects. Type and frequency of "coexistence events" between pairs of organisms were determined. Most frequent organisms (massive and branched coralline algae, Favia gravida, and Agaricia agaricites also had many significant positive coexistence events. These results might be related to the abundances of these organisms. The most frequent coral (Siderastrea stellata, however, exhibited only a few significant coexistence events (9% of 32 tests. Since the great majority of events were positive, and since there was high variation in the species/groups involved in significant events in different localities, benthic communities of Abrolhos Archipelago may well be structured primarily by abiotic rather than biotic factors.Se hizo el primer estudio de coexistencia de organismos bénticos de arrecifes brasileños en tres localidades del Archipiélago de Abrolhos, registrando la presencia de organismos en círculos de 10 y 20 cm de diametro, distribuidos al azar en transectos. La mayoría de los organismo frecuentes (algas coralinas macizas y ramificadas, Favia gravida y Agaricia agaricites mostraron la más alta "coexistencia positiva", tal vez por su abundancia. El coral más frecuente (Siderastrea stellata, sin embargo, mostró apenas algunos eventos de coexistencia significativos (9% de 32 ensayos. Debido a que la mayor parte de los eventos fue positiva, y considerando que existe una alta variabilidad en las interacciones significativas en diferentes localidades, las comunidades bénticas del Archipiélago de Abrolhos pueden haber sido estructuradas principalmente por factores abióticos, mas que por factores bióticos.

Monica M Lins de Barros

2000-12-01

101

Parts harvendas ootamatult Eesti Energia nõukogu / Andres Eilart  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts otsustas 1. juulil päevapealt Eesti Energia nõukogu liikme kohalt tagasi kutsuda Aivar Reiviku ning Rein Kuusmiku, kes olid vastu Eesti Energia üle viie miljoni euro suurusele investeeringule Weroli rapsiõlitehase juurde rajatavasse elektri- ja küttejaama. Uuteks nõukogu liikmeteks said Andres Saame ja Toomas Tauts

Eilart, Andres

2011-01-01

102

Tallinna Lennujaama kauba- ja tolliterminaal. Lennujaama 2, Tallinn / Andres Põime  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Kaubateeninduskeskuse puhul on tegemist suure, plaanimõõtudes 36x102 meetrise metallkonstruktsioonis, sandwich tüüpi paneelidega kaetud laohoonega, kus ühelt poolt tuuakse tollitav kaup lennukitelt sisse ja teiselt poolt viiakse tollitud kaup välja. Peatöövõtja : Normanni Linnagrupi AS. Ehitaja : Merko. Peaprojekteerija : K-Projekt. Arhitektuurne lahendus : Stuudio 3. Arhitekt Andres Põime ; töögrupp Vivian Oruvee, Tiiu Raudsepp, Reet Põime. Projekt 1997-98, valmis 1998.

Põime, Andres

1998-01-01

103

Revolver, kala ja harmoonia / Andres Tolts ; intervjueerinud Kadri Karro  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Andres Toltsi juubelinäitused Tallinnas: "Näitus" Tallinna Kunstihoones 25.9-25.10, "Asjad" Hobusepea galeriis 30.9-12.10, "Juubelinäitus" Haus galeriis 8.10-13.11. Kunstnik räägib oma loomingust, revolvri ja kala motiivist oma töödes, mõttekaaslusest, eestiaegsest maailmavaatest, harmooniast ja isikupärast kunstis ning elus, ilust ja inetusest, kaasaja kunstnike vajadusest oma loomingut sõnade abil seletada

Tolts, Andres, 1949-2014

2009-01-01

104

"Octagon Magic": Andre Norton and Revitalizing the Girls' Book.  

Science.gov (United States)

Argues that Andre Norton's "Octagon Magic" is neither a conventional girls' book, nor a witch tale, nor a time fantasy but rather a unique coming-of-age story best understood within the context of theorists such as Carol Gilligan, Mary Belenk, and Jean Baker Miller. (TB)

Dressel, Janice Hartwick; Molson, Francis J.

1996-01-01

105

Baltoscandal on lõppenud, uued mõtted on saadud / Andres Keil  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Eesti teater oli Baltoscandalil koondatud olematu teatri mõiste alla. Andres Noormetsa "Reunioon", Mart Kangro ja Ansambel U "Mäng", Marco Laimre "Vangistus", Asko Künnapi "Säälpool jõge", Anders Härmi "Cooking and Shitting", Sven Kuntu "Miks Eesti mehed ei tantsi?", Linnar Priimäe "Inimese lõhn"

Keil, Andres, 1974-

2006-01-01

106

Seed dispersal by common ravens Corvus corax among island habitats (Canarian Archipelago)  

OpenAIRE

The role of the common raven (Corvus corax; Caovidae) as a seed dispersal agent for plants in the Canary Islands was studied by analysing 2672 pellets collected from all islands of the archipelago. Seeds of 16 species of phanerpgams were found (foue endemic to the Canaries, three endemic to the Macaronesian islands, six not endemic, and three introduced by man). Vegetation in this archipelago is highly structured according to altitude creating different types of macrohabitats. The quality of...

Nogales, Manuel; Herna?ndez, Elizabeth C.; Valde?s, Francisco

1999-01-01

107

78 FR 21344 - In the Matter of: Andro Telemi, a/k/a Andre Telimi, a/k/a Andre Telemi; 8868 Bluffdale Drive, La...  

Science.gov (United States)

...k/a Andre Telimi, a/k/a Andre Telemi; 8868 Bluffdale Drive, La Tuna Canyon, CA 91352; Order Denying Export Privileges...Telemi'') with a last known address at: 8868 Bluffdale Drive, La Tuna Canyon, CA 91352, and when acting for or on...

2013-04-10

108

Biogeographic, climatic and spatial drivers differentially affect ?-, ?- and ?-diversities on oceanic archipelagos.  

Science.gov (United States)

Island biogeographic studies traditionally treat single islands as units of analysis. This ignores the fact that most islands are spatially nested within archipelagos. Here, we took a fundamentally different approach and focused on entire archipelagos using species richness of vascular plants on 23 archipelagos worldwide and their 174 constituent islands. We assessed differential effects of biogeographic factors (area, isolation, age, elevation), current and past climate (temperature, precipitation, seasonality, climate change velocity) and intra-archipelagic spatial structure (archipelago area, number of islands, area range, connectivity, environmental volume, inter-island distance) on plant diversity. Species diversity of each archipelago (?) was additively partitioned into ?, ?, nestedness and replacement ?-components to investigate the relative importance of environmental and spatial drivers. Multiple regressions revealed strong effects of biogeography and climate on ? and ?, whereas spatial factors, particularly number of islands, inter-island distance and area range, were key to explain ?. Structural equation models additionally suggested that ? is predominantly determined by indirect abiotic effects via its components, particularly ?. This highlights that ? and the spatial arrangement of islands are essential to understand insular ecology and evolution. Our methodological framework can be applied more widely to other taxa and archipelago-like systems, allowing new insights into biodiversity origin and maintenance. PMID:24759857

Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Weigelt, Patrick; Kissling, W Daniel; Kreft, Holger

2014-06-01

109

Helium isotopes in hydrothermal volcanic fluids of the Azores archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the first helium isotope data for thermal waters and gas emissions on the islands of Terceira, Graciosa, Faial, Pico and Flores, as well as new data for Sao Miguel. The results allow us to track current mantle degassing associated with the Azores hot spot, to delineate its spatial distribution and to discuss its possible origin. As a general rule, we find that free gases tend to display somewhat higher 3He/ 4He ratio than groundwaters. We argue that this difference is likely due to radiogenic helium inputs to aquifers during water-rock interactions and, therefore, that gas phases are the fluid carriers with the most representative of mantle source signature. The measured 3He/ 4He ratios (normalized to the air ratio, Ra) range from lower-than-MORB values (5.23-6.07 Ra) on central Sao Miguel, to MORB values on Faial (8.53 Ra) and Flores (8.04 Ra) - located on either side of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge - and to plume-type values on Graciosa (11.2 Ra) and Terceira (13.5 Ra) where free gases also display ten times higher-than-MORB CO 2/ 3He ratios (1.8-2.6 × 10 10). Such a wide He isotopic range and its spatial distribution corroborate with available data for volcanic rocks, indicating that plume's head presently underlies the central part of the archipelago. The plume-type 3He/ 4He ratios on Terceira and Graciosa agree with geochemical and seismic evidence of a deep-rooted mantle plume feeding the Azores hot spot. Our finding that high 3He/ 4He ratios correspond to low 3He concentrations and high (arc-type) CO 2/ 3He values exclude a simple plume supply of 3He-rich primitive mantle. Instead, the simultaneity of both elevated CO 2/ 3He and 3He/ 4He ratios is best explained by a 3He-rich contribution from the lower mantle diluted in a CO 2-rich feeding plume that contains a recycled altered oceanic plate component. The alternative possibility of an enhanced time-integrated 3He/(U + Th) ratio in the Azores plume due to a greater compatibility of helium relative to U and Th during melting events is difficult to reconcile with the enriched pattern of volcanic rocks from the central islands. In any case, the Azores plume should derive from a mantle reservoir that could escape convective homogenization for a very long period of time, in agreement with sub-chondritic osmium isotopic ratios in volcanic rocks from the central islands of the archipelago.

Jean-Baptiste, P.; Allard, P.; Coutinho, R.; Ferreira, T.; Fourré, E.; Queiroz, G.; Gaspar, J. L.

2009-04-01

110

Läänemere strateegia arvestab kodanike ettepanekutega / Jose Palma Andres ; interv. Erkki Bahovski  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Euroopa Komisjoni regionaalpoliitika peadirektoraadi direktor Jose Palma Andres vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad avalikku debatti Läänemere strateegia üle ning Venemaa partnerlust Läänemere strateegias. Lisa: [Läänemere strateegia

Palma Andres, Jose

2008-01-01

111

Lapsevanemad protestivad KG-s 1. klassi võtmise katsete alusel / Andres Sepp  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Kuressaare Gümnaasiumist välja jäänud 7-aastase poisi vanemad Meeli ja Andres Lauk kutsuvad oma protestiga ühinema kõiki teisi lapsevanemaid, kes peavad õigustamatuks laste kooli võtmist katsete alusel

Sepp, Andres, 1976-

2004-01-01

112

Film, ruum ja narratiiv : "Mis juhtus Andres Lapeteusega?" ning "Viini postmark" / Eva Näripea  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Analüüsitakse narratiivi aegruumi loomise viise juhtumi analüüsi vormis, vaadeldes kaht eesti mängufilmi : G. Kromanovi "Mis juhtus Andres Lapeteusega?" (Tallinnfilm, 1966) ja Veljo Käsperi "Viini postmark" (Tallinnfilm, 1967)

Näripea, Eva

2006-01-01

113

Mineral waters characterization in the Azores archipelago (Portugal)  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of the hydrogeochemistry of more than 100 mineral waters in the Azores archipelago (Portugal) was conducted on São Miguel, Terceira, São Jorge, Faial, Pico Graciosa and Flores islands. About 75% of the discharges are located at São Miguel, whereas the rest are more equally distributed over the other islands. Springs are dominant (74%), but drilled wells and boiling pools comprise about 10% of the studied discharges. Only 2% of discharges represent hand-dug wells. Results show a large range of chemical characteristics and diverse water types: discharge temperature range between 15 °C and 99.5 °C (median = 35 °C), conductivity between 139 and 43,100 ?S/cm (median = 906 ?S/cm), and pH between 2.2 and 7.82 (median = 5.78). The dominant water types are Na-HCO 3 and Na-Cl, representing two main trends ("hydrothermal" and "marine"), despite a few samples of the Na-SO 4 type. Relative minor and trace element contents reinforce conclusions drawn from major-ion compositions that major hydrogeochemical processes are: evolution of deep hydrothermal fluids, adsorption of magmatic volatiles, steam-heating of perched-aquifers, and mixing of deep fluids with marine or near-surface hydrothermal fluids.

Cruz, J. Virgílio; Freire, Pedro; Costa, Andrea

2010-02-01

114

Characterisation of a basin mire in the Azores archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Azores archipelago in the North Atlantic is an extremely important area for biodiversity because it is rich in rare species and habitats, and almost undisturbed. The Lagoa do Madruga is a small basin mire located at 956 m a.s.l. on Santa Bárbara Mountain, Terceira Island. It is an extremely good example of a peatland type that was first discovered in 1998, and has not previously been described in the international literature. This paper provides baseline information on its flora, vegetation communities, structure and hydrology. Thirty-one plant species including eight Sphagnum species and nine endemic vascular plants have been recorded, and four plant communities are distinguished. The maximum peat depth is three metres. The mire receives flowing water from its margins and from a small stream entering at its eastern end, in addition to intercepted precipitation and fog. The accumulated water forms pools and soakways which feed other wetlands downstream. The conservation status of the mire is good, but it is subject to increasing pressure from garbage generated during maintenance operations at a nearby antenna array.

E. Dias

2007-10-01

115

Promotional archipelagoes of change. Spatial analysis of Dinosauro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the last decades, the post industrial Latin American cities have become important economic centers in the world. Their integration into the world economy helped those cities become in the favorite places for the linking functions and activities to the world nets of commerce, productions culture, etc. These urban centers which are expanding gradually into segmented developing areas have caused an apparent space duality between the private and public activities as it can be seen though the differential access to goods and services by the society. At present, there has been an increase in cultural activities which form change promoting archipelagoes subject to several dimensions of analysis. The inequity in the distribution of economic and educational resources causes unequal ways of access to consumption of these areas of cultural production, and of goods and services, what gives place to situations of social exclusion and inclusion. To understand this fact related to money behavior, we have selected an area situated in the northwest of Cordoba capital city, in Argentina, which is a shopping mall called Dinosaurio Group. In this essay we present an exploration into the conflicts caused to the cities through the expansion of the segmented urban centers, promoters of change, and its relationship with the public and private space.

116

Landslides density map of S. Miguel Island, Azores archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Azores archipelago is located in the Atlantic Ocean and is composed of nine volcanic islands. S. Miguel, the largest one, is formed by three active, E-W trending, trachytic central volcanoes with caldera (Sete Cidades, Fogo and Furnas. Chains of basaltic cinder cones link those major volcanic structures. An inactive trachytic central volcano (Povoação and an old basaltic volcanic complex (Nordeste comprise the easternmost part of the island. Since the settlement of the island early in the 15th century, several destructive landslides triggered by catastrophic rainfall episodes, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occurred in different areas of S. Miguel. One unique event killed thousands of people in 1522. Houses and bridges were destroyed, roads were cut, communications, water and energy supply systems became frequently disrupted and areas of fertile land were often buried by mud. Based on (1 historical documents, (2 aerial photographs and (3 field observations, landslide sites were plotted on a topographic map, in order to establish a landslide density map for the island. Data obtained showed that landslide hazard is higher on (1 the main central volcanoes where the thickness of unconsolidated pyroclastic deposits is considerable high and (2 the old basaltic volcanic complex, marked by deep gullies developed on thick sequences of lava flows. In these areas, caldera walls, fault scarps, steep valley margins and sea cliffs are potentially hazardous.

P. Valadão

2002-01-01

117

A finite volume model simulation for the Broughton Archipelago, Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

A finite volume circulation model is applied to the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia, Canada and used to simulate the three-dimensional velocity, temperature, and salinity fields that are required by a companion model for sea lice behaviour, development, and transport. The absence of a high resolution atmospheric model necessitated the installation of nine weather stations throughout the region and the development of a simple data assimilation technique that accounts for topographic steering in interpolating/extrapolating the measured winds to the entire model domain. The circulation model is run for the period of March 13-April 3, 2008 and correlation coefficients between observed and model currents, comparisons between model and observed tidal harmonics, and root mean square differences between observed and model temperatures and salinities all showed generally good agreement. The importance of wind forcing in the near-surface circulation, differences between this simulation and one computed with another model, the effects of bathymetric smoothing on channel velocities, further improvements necessary for this model to accurately simulate conditions in May and June, and the implication of near-surface current patterns at a critical location in the 'migration corridor' of wild juvenile salmon, are also discussed.

Foreman, M. G. G.; Czajko, P.; Stucchi, D. J.; Guo, M.

118

Mida teeks tulevane kultuuriminister 500 miljoni krooniga? / interv. Andres Keil  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Suuremate erakondade kultuurispetsialistid (kultuuriministrikandidaadid) Urmas Paet, Andres Herkel, Peeter Jalakas, Indrek Saar, Jaak Allik, samuti kultuuriminister Raivo Palmaru vastavad küsimustele, mis on suurimad ohud eesti keele ja rahvuskultuuri säilimisele, milline on kultuuriministeeriumi ja -ministri portfelli staatus praeguses valitsuses, kas kultuuri rahastamine riigieelarvest on piisav, mille poolest erineb nende erakonna nägemus kultuuripoliitikast teiste erakondade omast, kuhu nad suunaksid 50, 500 miljonit, kui see oleks nende käsutuses

2007-01-01

119

A conservation strategy in San Andres Island: school projects and values in environmental education  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the scope of showing and preserving an island endangered species, the Swanka turtle, a campaign and an environmental education program were conducted. The campaign consisted in showing the species to the community, its characteristics and its threats, through mass media and visits to different local schools. The environmental education program was carried out through a Scholar Environmental Project, which consisted on the conformation of an environmental group, where cognitive, attitudinal and participative aspects were worked together. Using a constrictive methodology the children developed some knowledge about the species and Its habitats. The scope was that they modified attitudes and behaviors towards situations that contribute to environmental damage; the reinforcement of values was the central point during all the activities. The knowledge gained by the pupils and the observed changes on their attitudes and participation show the positive results that arise when the action of environmental education focuses on the people and not the resources that are to be preserved

120

Geochemistry of Isla Santa Cruz, Galapagos Archipelago, Ecuador  

Science.gov (United States)

The geochemistry of Galapagos volcanoes extends to more depleted signatures than most hotspots, and do not appear to follow a classical tholeiitic to alkalic evolutionary sequence (i.e., Hawaiian Islands). Thus far, no such predictable sequence has been identified for Galapagos volcanoes. Isla Santa Cruz is one of the oldest volcanoes in the archipelago. Bow (1979) identified 3 volcanic stages: the Platform Series, the Shield Series, and the Shield-Modifying stage. The Platform Series defines a liquid line of descent that differs from the one shared by the Shield and Shield-Modifying units, which are genetically related to each other. Within the Shield and Shield-Modifying lavas, K2O/TiO2 ratios reveal three distinct compositional sub-groups: 1) a MORB-like, low-K suite (0.25). These 3 sub-groups are geographically distributed across the island; the low-K suite is only in the north, whereas the alkaline suite constitutes the center highlands and the tholeiitic suite is on the eastern and northern flanks. Variations in La/Sm and Sm/Yb indicate that the magmas supplying the Shield and Shield-Modifying units were generated over a wide range of melting conditions: the alkaline suite melts were generated at the greatest depths and from the smallest melt fraction of the three suites, whereas the low-K suite originates from shallower, greater extents of melting; the tholeiitic lavas were generated at depths intermediate between the other 2 sub-groups. None of the lavas from Santa Cruz resemble material erupted at Fernandina volcano, the presumed center of the plume; radiogenic isotope ratios from previous research indicate that all Santa Cruz lavas are significantly more depleted than western Galapagos lavas. The ~1.2 Ma Platform Series is the most enriched of the Santa Cruz units. The Shield and Shield-Modifying lavas are all shifted towards more depleted signatures, approaching those of MORB, in terms of isotopic and incompatible trace element ratios and were erupted approximately 0.5 Ma. We consider several working hypotheses to explain these observations. First, lavas collected on Santa Cruz may be a late rejuvenescent phase, dominated by melting of the depleted upper mantle. Santa Cruz, however, is located too close to the plume center to have been generated via either of the prevailing rejuvenescence volcanism models (Bianco et al., 2005; Ribe & Christensen, 1999). An alternative hypothesis to explain the depleted signatures at Santa Cruz is that the lithosphere underlying the island is shallower than it is beneath the western archipelago, lengthening melt columns to shallower depths and allowing greater melt amounts of depleted upper mantle. Finally, it is possible that when Santa Cruz was forming ~3 million years ago, the plume center was located closer to the GSC, resulting in dilution of plume material by ridge-related magmas. In our presentation, we assess these models in light of new major and trace element data from fieldwork on Santa Cruz.

Wilson, E. L.; Schwartz, D. M.; Van Kirk, R.; Harpp, K.

2012-12-01

121

Littoral Decapods of Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Decapod community inhabiting the rocky littoral of eight bays from Socorro island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, was studied during March 1992. Samples were collected from one-square meter plots placed following transects drawn perpendicularly to the shoreline along the intertidal zone. Species richness and abundance were determined in each bay, as well as the similarity between bays using Morisita’s index. Organisms collected belong to six families, 20 genera and 26 species of the Brachyura and Anomura infraorders. Xanthidae was the family with the highest number of species, and the highest species richness was recorded at the V. Lozano bay. Pachygrapsus transversus, Xanthodius cooksoni and Calcinus explorator were the most abundant species in nearly all localities. Dendrogram obtained define two groups of bays at a similarity level above 0.67, given the similarity in the crab’s species richness and their abundance between bays in the island.Se estudió la comunidad de cangrejos del litoral rocoso de ocho bahías de la Isla Socorro, Archipiélago Revillagigedo en marzo de 1992. Las muestras fueron colectadas en cuadrantes de un m² a lo largo de transectos perpendiculares a la costa en la zona intermareal. Se determinó la riqueza específica, la abundancia por especie para cada bahía, así como la similitud entre bahías mediante el índice de Morisita. Los organismos colectados pertenecen a seis familias, 20 géneros y 26 especies de los infraordenes Brachyura y Anomura. La familia con el mayor número de especies fue Xanthidae y la mayor riqueza específica se registró en la bahía V. Lozano. Pachygrapsus transversus, Xanthodius cooksoni y Calcinus explorator fueron las más abundantes en casi todas las localidades. En el dendrograma se definen dos agrupaciones con nivel de similitud superior a 0.67, dada la semejanza en la riqueza específica de cangrejos y las abundancias entre las bahías.

Silvia Mille-Pagaza

2003-03-01

122

Fishing mortality rates of giant clams (Family Tridacnidae) from the Sulu Archipelago and Southern Palawan, Philippines  

Science.gov (United States)

Average size frequency distributions of Tridacna squamosa, T. gigas, Hippopus hippopus and H. porcellanus harvested from the Sulu Archipelago and Southern Palawan areas from 1978 1985 were derived from export records and a warehouse inventory of giant clam shells. Average species mortality rates ( Z) were estimated and were used to approximate average fishing mortality rates ( F) over the period 1978 1985. Crude estimates of exploitation rates ( F/Z) indicate that populations of these species are already overexploited. These findings have serious implications in view of the fact that the Sulu Archipelago and Southern Palawan are thought to be the last strongholds of giant clams in Philippine waters.

Villanoy, Cesar L.; Juinio, Antoinette R.; Meñez, Lambert Anthony

1988-05-01

123

Tsunami hazard assessment for the Azores archipelago: a historical review  

Science.gov (United States)

The Azores islands due to its complex geographical and geodynamic setting are exposed to tsunamigenic events associated to different triggering mechanisms, local or distant. Since the settlement of the Azores, in the fifteenth century, there are several documents that relate coastal areas flooding episodes with unusually high waves which caused death and destruction. This work had as main objective the characterization of the different events that can be associated with tsunamigenic phenomena, registered in the archipelago. With this aim, it was collected diverse documentation like chronics, manuscripts, newspaper articles and magazines, scientific publications, and international databases available online. From all the studied tsunami events it was identified the occurrence of some teletsunamis, among which the most relevant was triggered by the 1st November 1755 Lisbon earthquake, with an epicenter SW of Portugal, which killed 6 people in Terceira island. It is also noted the teletsunami generated by the 1761 earthquake, located in the same region as the latest, and the one generated in 1929 by an earthquake-triggered submarine landslide in the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. From the local events, originated in the Azores, the most significant were the tsunamis triggered by 1757 and 1980 earthquakes, both associated with the Terceira Rift dynamics. In the first case the waves may also be due to earthquake-triggered. With respect to tsunamis triggered by sea cliffs landslides it is important to mention the 1847 Quebrada Nova and the 1980 Rocha Alta events, both located in the Flores Island. The 1847 event is the deadliest tsunami recorded in Azores since 10 people died in Flores and Corvo islands in result of the propagated wave. The developed studies improve knowledge of the tsunami sources that affected the Azores during its history, also revealing the importance of awareness about this natural phenomenon. The obtained results showed that the tsunami hazard in the Azores is mostly driven from the events triggered by distant earthquakes and local earthquakes and landslides. In this context, were identified 12 tsunami events. In another context, it were identified 6 events associated with coastal areas flooding due to floods and/or extreme weather phenomena, hypothetically identified as meteotsunamis. It should be stressed that, despite the differences associated with their triggering mechanisms, both the tsunamis generated by geological factors and those related to atmospheric phenomena may have similar impact. Although the absence of reports identifying tsunamis associated with volcanic activity, the eruptive history of the Azores active volcanoes shows high magnitude eruptions with considerable tsunamigenic potential.

Cabral, Nuno; Ferreira, Teresa; Queiroz, Maria Gabriela

2010-05-01

124

Mangrove forest composition and structure in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los bosques de manglar son ecosistemas importantes que proveen muchos servicios, pero éstos están bajo la amenaza de una variedad de actividades humanas y grandes áreas de manglar continúan perdiéndose en Panamá. Este estudio está enfocado en la estructura de manglar de las dos islas más grandes del [...] Archipiélago de Las Perlas en el Pacifico Panameño (LPA), la Isla del Rey y la Isla San José. La evaluación de las imágenes del satélite Landsat revela la pérdida de manglares en LPA de 965ha en el periodo entre 1974-1986, y de 286ha en el periodo 1986-2000. La mayor parte de la pérdida (>77%) en las dos islas estudiadas fue debida a la extracción de madera y al desarrollo agrícola. En mayo de 2006, se establecieron parcelas permanentes siguiendo el protocolo de CARICOMP en dos sitios en la isla del Rey (R1 y R2) y un sitio en la Isla San José (SJ) donde especies, altura y diámetro a la altura de la copa de árboles adultos y jóvenes fueron registradas. La estructura del bosque difirió en los tres sitios, sin embargo R1 y R2 fueron los más similares. En R1, Laguncularia racemosa fue la especie más dominante y Pelliceria rhizophora en R2. El análisis de la estructura del bosque y de imágenes clasificadas indicó que estos sitios son espacialmente dinámicos y parecen estar regenerándose. La estructura del bosque indica que el crecimiento en los sitios ha estado limitado por las actividades humanas y posiblemente por otros factores. SJ fue dominado por Rhizophora mangle y parece tener un bosque maduro con árboles adultos grandes y pocos jóvenes. Éste sitio no parece mostrar la misma extensión de rebrote espacial de los otros dos sitios entre 1986-2000 y es relativamente estático. El establecimiento de parcelas permanentes y el monitoreo serán útiles en la implementación del plan de manejo, ya que los manglares del LPA tienen una variedad estructural y podrían estar sujetos a un mayor desarrollo costero. Abstract in english Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem that provides many services, but in Panama, as in other countries, they are under threat due to a variety of human activities. Nowadays, large areas of mangroves continue to be lost without been described and lack of management strategies. This study focused [...] on the mangrove structure in the two largest islands, Isla del Rey and Isla San Jose, of Las Perlas Archipelago (LPA), Pacific Panama. Assessment of Landsat satellite imagery revealed loss of mangroves in the LPA of 965ha in the period 1974-1986, and 248ha in the period 1986-2000. The majority of the loss (>77%) from the two study islands was due to timber extraction and agricultural development. In May 2006, permanent plots following the CARICOMP protocol were established at two sites on Isla del Rey (R1 and R2) and one site on Isla San Jose (SJ) where standardized metrics such as species, height and diameter at breast height of adult trees and seedlings were recorded. Forest structure differed at the three sites, although R1 and R2 were most similar. At R1, Laguncularia racemosa was the important species and R2 was dominated by Pelliciera rhizophorae. Examination of the forest structure and classified imagery indicated that these sites are spatially dynamic and appear to be rejuvenating. The forest structure would indicate that the sites have been growth-limited previously by human activities and possibly by other factors. SJ was dominated by Rhizophora mangle and appears to have a mature forest with large adult trees and few seedlings. It does not appear to have shown the same extent of spatial regrowth as the other two sites between 1986 and 2000 and is relatively static. The establishment of permanent plots and monitoring will be useful as part of the management plan, as the LPA shows a variety of mangrove structures and could be subject to further coastal development. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3): 857-869. Epub 2010 September 01.

Tom, McGowan; Sarah L, Cunningham; Héctor M, Guzmán; James M, Mair; José M, Guevara; Tanja, Betts.

2010-09-01

125

Mangrove forest composition and structure in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem that provides many services, but in Panama, as in other countries, they are under threat due to a variety of human activities. Nowadays, large areas of mangroves continue to be lost without been described and lack of management strategies. This study focused on the mangrove structure in the two largest islands, Isla del Rey and Isla San Jose, of Las Perlas Archipelago (LPA, Pacific Panama. Assessment of Landsat satellite imagery revealed loss of mangroves in the LPA of 965ha in the period 1974-1986, and 248ha in the period 1986-2000. The majority of the loss (>77% from the two study islands was due to timber extraction and agricultural development. In May 2006, permanent plots following the CARICOMP protocol were established at two sites on Isla del Rey (R1 and R2 and one site on Isla San Jose (SJ where standardized metrics such as species, height and diameter at breast height of adult trees and seedlings were recorded. Forest structure differed at the three sites, although R1 and R2 were most similar. At R1, Laguncularia racemosa was the important species and R2 was dominated by Pelliciera rhizophorae. Examination of the forest structure and classified imagery indicated that these sites are spatially dynamic and appear to be rejuvenating. The forest structure would indicate that the sites have been growth-limited previously by human activities and possibly by other factors. SJ was dominated by Rhizophora mangle and appears to have a mature forest with large adult trees and few seedlings. It does not appear to have shown the same extent of spatial regrowth as the other two sites between 1986 and 2000 and is relatively static. The establishment of permanent plots and monitoring will be useful as part of the management plan, as the LPA shows a variety of mangrove structures and could be subject to further coastal development. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3: 857-869. Epub 2010 September 01.Los bosques de manglar son ecosistemas importantes que proveen muchos servicios, pero éstos están bajo la amenaza de una variedad de actividades humanas y grandes áreas de manglar continúan perdiéndose en Panamá. Este estudio está enfocado en la estructura de manglar de las dos islas más grandes del Archipiélago de Las Perlas en el Pacifico Panameño (LPA, la Isla del Rey y la Isla San José. La evaluación de las imágenes del satélite Landsat revela la pérdida de manglares en LPA de 965ha en el periodo entre 1974-1986, y de 286ha en el periodo 1986-2000. La mayor parte de la pérdida (>77% en las dos islas estudiadas fue debida a la extracción de madera y al desarrollo agrícola. En mayo de 2006, se establecieron parcelas permanentes siguiendo el protocolo de CARICOMP en dos sitios en la isla del Rey (R1 y R2 y un sitio en la Isla San José (SJ donde especies, altura y diámetro a la altura de la copa de árboles adultos y jóvenes fueron registradas. La estructura del bosque difirió en los tres sitios, sin embargo R1 y R2 fueron los más similares. En R1, Laguncularia racemosa fue la especie más dominante y Pelliceria rhizophora en R2. El análisis de la estructura del bosque y de imágenes clasificadas indicó que estos sitios son espacialmente dinámicos y parecen estar regenerándose. La estructura del bosque indica que el crecimiento en los sitios ha estado limitado por las actividades humanas y posiblemente por otros factores. SJ fue dominado por Rhizophora mangle y parece tener un bosque maduro con árboles adultos grandes y pocos jóvenes. Éste sitio no parece mostrar la misma extensión de rebrote espacial de los otros dos sitios entre 1986-2000 y es relativamente estático. El establecimiento de parcelas permanentes y el monitoreo serán útiles en la implementación del plan de manejo, ya que los manglares del LPA tienen una variedad estructural y podrían estar sujetos a un mayor desarrollo costero.

Tom McGowan

2010-09-01

126

Tuamotu Archipelago in South Pacific as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft  

Science.gov (United States)

Tuamotu Archipelago in the South Pacific, looking southeast, as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 141st revolution of the earth. Photographed from an altitude of 110 nautical miles, at ground elapsed time of 224 hours and 18 minutes.

1968-01-01

127

Ecological footprint of road traffic on Cres-Lošinj Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cres-Lošinj Archipelago is the largest insular traffic unit in Northern Adriatic. The archipelago consists of two large islands, Cres and Lošinj, and 27 smaller islands located among Kvarner, Kvarneri?, Rijeka Bay and open sea. From the point of view of traffic, this area gravitates mostly toward Rijeka traffic node. Traffic development of the islands was determined in the second half of the 20th century with the development of ferry traffic and road traffic on the islands. Today, the Archipelago is characterized by prominent seasonal variations of road traffic intensity due to dominant role of tourism in space valorisation. This research included partial determination of Ecological Footprint of road traffic on the islands on the basis of CO2 emission and capacity of insular surfaces to absorb CO2.The author also created a model for calculating road mileage on the islands and indirectly calculated CO2 emission. The results indicated significant seasonal variations of CO2 emission on the islands, which are closely related to tourist valorisation of space and the number of non-residential vehicles on the islands. The paper also provides the ratio between residential and non-residential vehicles on the island, which influence the emission in accordance with their energy efficiency. The research showed that the capacity of CO2 absorption on Cres-Lošinj Archipelago is approximately 40 times greater than CO2 emission from road traffic during one year.

Hrvoje Grofelnik

2010-12-01

128

Dissemination of antibiotic resistant Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli from wild birds of Azores Archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antibiotic-resistant is profoundly important to human and animal health, but the environmental reservoirs of resistance determinants are poorly understood, in particular in wild environments in remote Archipelagos. Moreover, the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in wild bird populations is rather unknown. In the present study, we used the Azores Islands as a model study for antimicrobial resistance in a remote Archipelago, and examined the antibiotic resistance profile in enterococci and Escherichia coli recovered from faecal samples of wild birds collected in this Archipelago. A total of 138 enterococci and 115 E. coli isolates were analyzed for resistance to antimicrobial agents. Of the enterococcal isolates, Enterococcus faecalis was the most prevalent detected species (59 isolates), followed by Enterococcus faecium (40 isolates), Enterococcus durans (27 isolates) and Enterococcus hirae (12 isolates). The enterococci strains showed high percentages of resistance to tetracycline (32.6%), to ciprofloxacin (19.6%) and to erythromycin (11.6%). Lower level of resistance (Azores Archipelago and the possible implications involved in transferring these resistances either to other animals or to humans. PMID:24047647

Santos, Tiago; Silva, Nuno; Igrejas, Gilberto; Rodrigues, Pedro; Micael, Joana; Rodrigues, Tiago; Resendes, Roberto; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Marinho, Catarina; Gonçalves, David; Cunha, Regina; Poeta, Patrícia

2013-12-01

129

Carbon cycling in the Arctic Archipelago: the export of Pacific carbon to the North Atlantic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Arctic Ocean is expected to be disproportionately sensitive to climatic changes, and is thought to be an area where such changes might be detected. The Arctic hydrological cycle is influenced by: runoff and precipitation, sea ice formation/melting, and the inflow of saline waters from Bering and Fram Straits and the Barents Sea Shelf. Pacific water is recognizable as intermediate salinity water, with high concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, flowing from the Arctic Ocean to the North Atlantic via the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. We present DIC data from an east-west section through the Archipelago, as part of the Canadian International Polar Year initiatives. The fractions of Pacific and Arctic Ocean waters leaving the Archipelago and entering Baffin Bay, and subsequently the North Atlantic, are computed. The eastward transport of carbon from the Pacific, via the Arctic, to the North Atlantic is estimated.

Altered mixing ratios of Pacific and freshwater in the Arctic Ocean have been recorded in recent decades. Any climatically driven alterations in the composition of waters leaving the Arctic Archipelago may have implications for anthropogenic CO2 uptake, and hence ocean acidification, in the subpolar and temperate North Atlantic.

E. H. Shadwick

2009-01-01

130

Carbon Cycling in the Arctic Archipelago: The Export of Pacific Carbon to the North Atlantic  

Science.gov (United States)

The Arctic Ocean is expected to be disproportionately sensitive to climatic changes, and thought to be an area where such changes might be detected. The Arctic hydrological cycle is influenced by: runoff and precipitation, sea ice formation/melting, and the inflow of saline waters from Bering and Fram Straits and the Barents Sea Shelf. Pacific water is recognizable as low salinity water, with high concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), flowing from the Arctic Ocean to the North Atlantic via the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. We present DIC data from an east-west section through the Archipelago, as part of the Canadian International Polar Year initiatives. The fractions of Pacific and Arctic Ocean waters leaving the Archipelago and entering Baffin Bay, and subsequently the North Atlantic, are computed. The eastward transport of carbon from the Pacific, via the Arctic, to the North Atlantic is estimated. Altered mixing ratios of Pacific and freshwater in the Arctic Ocean have been recorded in recent decades. Any climatically driven alterations in the composition of waters leaving the Arctic Archipelago may have implications for anthropogenic CO2 uptake, and hence ocean acidification, in the subpolar and temperate North Atlantic.

Shadwick, E. H.; Papakyriakou, T.; Prowe, A. E. F.; Leong, D.; Moore, S.; Thomas, H.

2009-04-01

131

Diseño de una minicadena productiva para apicultura orgánica en San Andrés Islas a través de un itinerario de ruta como herramienta de gestión e integración / A roadmap itinerary as an integrative management tool in the design of a mini productive chain for organic beekeeping on San Andrés Island  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En Colombia, la apicultura es una actividad económica en consolidación, que representa un potencial de riqueza por los múltiples beneficios que se pueden obtener a través de la explotación artesanal o industrial. En el sector agropecuario es una de las 37 cadenas productivas registradas ante el Mini [...] sterio de Agricultura y Desarrollo Rural; es objeto de priorización en procesos de investigación, desarrollo e innovación (I+D+i), en aras de incrementar su productividad y competitividad, involucrando la sostenibilidad de la población rural y el componente industrial. El Archipiélago de San Andrés, Providencia y Santa Catalina es objeto de iniciativas de desarrollo rural, impulso empresarial y fortalecimiento, pues ante la coyuntura socioeconómica por la disminución del territorio marítimo, busca diversificar las actividades económicas de la población raizal. Con la metodología de alianzas productivas y los itinerarios de ruta como herramienta de gestión e integración se diseñó, desde el enfoque tecnológico, la estructura de la minicadena productiva de eslabones y segmentos; las directrices fueron los procesos productivos de tipo orgánico, selección de tecnologías, proveedores y mecanismos de certificación al producto y capacitación al recurso humano requerido, mediante un proceso analítico jerárquico utilizando el software Expert Choice. Se estructuraron lineamientos desde la base de política pública y sectorial, consignada en la agenda única nacional de I+D+i de la cadena y lineamientos establecidos (plan de desarrollo del departamento, plan de ciencia y tecnología, CONPES y plan de ordenamiento territorial). La minicadena y el paquete tecnológico de apicultura orgánica son un insumo de competitividad para el archipiélago. Abstract in english In Colombia, beekeeping is an economic activity under consolidation, which represents a potential wealth for the many benefits that can be obtained through craft or industrial exploitation. It is one of the 37 productive agricultural-chains formed and registered through the Ministry of Agriculture a [...] nd Rural Development, and is subject to research, development and innovation (R+D+i) priority processes to increase productivity and competitiveness, involving both the sustainability of the rural population and the industrial component. The Archipelago of San Andres, Providencia and Santa Catalina is the subject of rural development initiatives, business and strategic planning because of the socioeconomic situation due to the reduction in maritime territory, seeks to diversify the economic activities of the native population. Within the framework of the productive chains and the strategy of the roadmaps itineraries as a management and integration tool, the mini productive chain was design, contemplating organic production process and rules, selection of technologies, suppliers and product certification mechanisms to the human resource and training required, through an analytic hierarchy process using Expert Choice software. Finally, a work plan was defined as the sole national research agenda R+D+i (Research + Development + innovation) for the national productive chain and the guidelines established in the department's development plan, the science and technology plan, the CONPES and the Territorial Order Plan.

Diego Hernando, Flórez Martínez; Sídney, Ward Argota.

2013-12-01

132

Kaitseväe korralduse seadus muudab asjaajamise lihtsamaks ja selgemaks / Andres Anvelt ; interv. Liivi Parrest  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Kaitseväe korralduse seaduse rakendamise projektirühma juht Andres Anvelt selgitab muudatusi 1. jaan 2009 kehtima hakkavas seaduses. Lisatud: § 57. Seaduse rakendamine ; § 37. Kaitseväe volitused kaitseväeluure teostamisel ; § 41. Osalemine julgeolekuasutuste tegevuses ; § 23. Kaitseväe juhtimise alused

Anvelt, Andres, 1969-

2008-01-01

133

Proceedings of the 3. Summer School Jorge Andre Swieca in Nuclear Physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book contents the lectures and seminars presented during the Jorge Andre Swieca III Summer School-Nuclear Physics 1987 which happened in February 1987 in Itaipava - Rio de Janeiro - Brazil. (A.C.A.S.)

134

Ületades piire = Crossing the Bordes / Anders Härm, Tarmo Maiste ; interv. Andres Kurg, Triin Ojari  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Intervjuu Veneetsia 7. arhitektuuribiennaali Eesti ekspositsiooni "Simulacrum City" autorite Anders Härmi ja Tarmo Maistega. Eesti väljapanekust (arhitektuurifotod - Arne Maasik; filmi, stsenaarium ja kontseptsioon - Andres Maimik, Jaak Kilmi, muusika - Taavi Laatsit), biennaalist. 13 ill

Härm, Anders, 1977-

2000-01-01

135

Koerajuhi amet lisab tavatööle vürtsi / Rainer Lang, Andres Vesselov, Rainis Oper ; interv. Tanel Saarmann  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Koerajuhid piirivalve-seersant Rainer Lang Saatsest, piirivalve-veebel Rainis Oper Värskast ning Saatse kordoni ülem piirivalve-kapten Andres Vesselov räägivad koerajuhiks saamisest ning teenistuskoerte koolitamisest. Lisa: Kagu PVP teenistuskoerad; Osalemine võistlustel 2008

Lang, Rainer

2008-01-01

136

Pahede koht on ajaloo prügikastis! Kas ikka on? / Andres Maimik, Maris Jesse ; intervjueerinud Sigrid Kõiv  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Proua Evelin Ilves tegi ettepaneku, et arstid võiksid inimesi innustada isikliku eeskujuga ja viia ennast tervislikku vormi. Filmimees Andres Maimik ja terviseedendaja Maris Jesse arutavad, kas on võimalik pahelisi eluviise välja juurida

Maimik, Andres, 1970-

2009-01-01

137

Vallavanemate hinnang aastatele 2008 ja 2009 / Jüri Lillsoo, Kalmer Märtson, Andre Sepp  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Milline oli aasta 2008 Teie valla jaoks, kui silmas pidada kiiret süvenevat majanduslangust? Mida oodata aastast 2009?Küsimustele vastavad Anija vallavanem Jüri Lillsoo, Kuusalu vallavanem Kalmer Märtson ja Raasiku vallavanem Andre Sepp

Lillsoo, Jüri, 1943-

2009-01-01

138

Mis juhtus Andres Lapeteusega? : error'ist kõrgklassi homo soveticus'e näitel / Liisa Kaljula  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Autor analüüsib 2014. a. Tallinna Semiosalongi loengute sarja põhiteema - error'i mõiste avamiseks ühe inimliigi kujunemislugu - Eesti filmiklassikast tuntud tegelaskuju Andres Lapeteuse tõusu ning langust homo soveticus'ena

Kaljula, Liisa, 1982-

2014-01-01

139

Andres Herkel : Venemaa esindaja ENPA presidendiks ei sobi / Haldi Ellam, Ravil Khair Al-Din  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Vene ajalehe Kommersant väitel on Eesti parlamendi süüdistused ENPA presidendi Rene van der Lindeni vastu seotud Mihhail Margelovi võimaliku valimisega uueks presidendiks. Kristiina Ojuland ja Andres Herkel lükkavad väite tagasi

Ellam, Haldi

2007-01-01

140

Kunagine käsitsi padrunite valmistaja E-Arsenal sõjatöösturite areenil / Andres Reimer  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Sõjatehasest E-Arsenal saab viie aasta jooksul tuhande töötajaga kõrgtehnoloogiakontsern, rahvusvahelisele turule hakatakse tootma militaartarkvara, isikukaitsevahendeid, roboteid. Kommenteerivad Ingvar Pärnamäe, Priit Alamäe, Andres Taklaja, Tõnu Vaher. Lisa: Arsenali sõjatehas. Diagramm: Tulevikuväljavaatega kahjumifirma

Reimer, Andres

2008-01-01

141

"Riigikogu hoone 90" = "Estonian parliament building 90" / Janno Roos, Andres Labi  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2012. aasta näituse kujunduse preemia pälvinud näitusest (Lossiplats 1A). Kujunduse autorid Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor). Kuraator Mait Väljas. Graafiline disain: Identity. Sisearhitekti ja ESLi aastapreemiate žürii liikme Mari Kurismaa ning arhitektuuriajaloolase Leele Välja arvamused

Roos, Janno, 1976-

2013-01-01

142

Optimaalse haridusmudeli poole / Tõnis Lukas, Andres Jõgar, Jüri Ojamaa...[jt.] ; üles kirjutanud Karl Kello  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Tartus 3. aprillil toimunud ümarlaua vestlusest, millest võttis osa haridus- ja teadusminister Tõnis Lukas, Kõrvküla Põhikooli direktor Andres Jõgar, Abja Gümnaasiumi direktor Jüri Ojamaa, Nõo vallavanem Rain Sangernebo ja Tartu haridusosakonna juhataja Boris Goldman

2009-01-01

143

Et relevant flyvevåben i et afbalanceret forsvar – kun muligt med andre flytyper : Debatindlæg  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Indlægget peger på at Danmark har mere end den ene mulighed for at sammensætte Flyvevåbnet end den ensidige debat som tilhængerne af Joint Strike Fighter peger på. Også med andre og billigere flytyper kan Flyvevåbnet løse meget relevante fremtidige opgaver.

Jensen, Lars H. Ehrensvärd

2009-01-01

144

SUTD-i koorik = SUTD Gridshell / Andres Sevtšuk, Raul Kalvo  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Singapuri Tehnoloogia ja Disaini Ülikooli (SUTD) raamatukogu paviljon. Eskiis valmis esimese aasta üliõpilastele korraldatud töötoas. Algse ideega töötas edasi City Form Lab (arhitektid Andres Sevtšuk, Raul Kalvo). Paviljon pandi kokku ligi saja üliõpilase osalusel. Valmis: mai 2013

Sevtšuk, Andres, 1981-

2013-01-01

145

Samoje doverennoje litso gossudarstva / Andres Lipstok ; interv. Areg Arutjunjan, interv. Aleksandr Ikonnikov  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Eesti Panga president Eesti Panga majandusprognoosist lähitulevikuks, võimalikust majanduskriisist, USA kinnisvarakriisi mõjust Eestile, Eesti krooni võimalikust devalveerimisest, Eesti Panga rahapoliitikast, kommertspankades hoitavate hoiuste tagamisest, oma tööst, lemmikautomargist, toidueelistustest, lemmikharrastustest ning edukusest. Lisa: Andres Lipstok

Lipstok, Andres, 1957-

2007-01-01

146

Tallinna idee / Andres Alver, Ott Alver, Marten Kaevats ; intervjueerinud Margit Mutso ; kommenteerinud Douglas Gordon  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

17. veebruaril esitleti raamatut "Tallinna idee", mis on koostatud Eesti Kunstiakadeemia 4. kursuse arhitektuuritudengite kursuseprojektide põhjal. Tallinna teemal vestlevad tudengid Ott Alver ja Marten Kaevats ning nende juhendaja professor Andres Alver

Alver, Andres, 1953-

2011-01-01

147

Postsotsialismist vaatemängulinna = From Post-Socialism to the City of the Spectacle / Andres Kurg  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Büroo Alver Trummal Arhitektid töödest, Andres Alverist ja Tiit Trummalist. Ärihoonest Tallinnas Rävala pst. 4. Autorid: Andres Alver, Tiit Trummal, Tarmo Laht, Indrek Rünkla, Ulla Mets, Sven Koppel. Konstruktor Eido Uustalu (Eesti Projekt). Projekt 2001, valmis 2006. City Plazast Tallinnas Tartu mnt. 2. Autorid: A. Alver, T. Trummal, T. Laht, I. Rünkla, Martin Melioranski, U. Mets. Konstruktor: Tiit Masso, Pike Projekt. Sisekujundus (fuajeed, restoran): Pille Lausmäe. Projekt 2001, valmis 2004. Lõige, põhiplaan, 3 värv. välis- ja 5 sisevaadet

Kurg, Andres, 1975-

2007-01-01

148

77 FR 54811 - Safety Zone; TriRock San Diego, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

...aforementioned portion of the San Diego Bay from September 9...impacts only a small area of San Diego Harbor, and will be...AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS 0 1. The authority citation...TriRock Triathlon; San Diego Bay, San Diego,...

2012-09-06

149

Andre blikke på forældres positioner i børns mobning  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hvilken rolle spiller forældrene i børns mobning i skolen? Det er et emne, der igennem de senere år har været genstand for tiltagende opmærksomhed blandt både forskere, politikere, og forskellige børneretslige og skolepolitiske organisationer i Danmark. I takt med, at mobning blandt de danske skolebørn er blevet en stadig mere synlig problematik, er interessen for forældrenes andel i og ansvar for børns mobning også blevet skærpet. På tværs af interesseniveauer synes indgangen til problematikken at være den, at der findes kausale sammenhænge imellem børns sociale adfærd i skolen og deres forældres måder at opdrage og fungere som rollemodeller på. I min forskning på området har jeg taget et andet afsæt og har interesseret mig for, hvordan forældres positioner og mulige agens i dette felt betinges af og virker sammen med en række andre aktører på såvel lokale som på samfundsmæssige og politiske niveauer.

Hein, Nina

2014-01-01

150

About peculiarities of hydrocarbons deposits location in the productive series of the Baku archipelago area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text : In Azerbaijan domestic and foreign companies hold wide-scaled prospecting operations in the central and southern parts of the Baku Archipelago and also in the Kobystan. There are hydrocarbons deposits determined in the northern of the Baku Archipelago. Deposits location by phase condition of hydrocarbons mainly follows the general regularity determined on many oil and gas bearing areas, pass of oil deposits to oil-gas and gas-condensate ones in the direction of increase of layers occurrence depth. There is also a considerable influence of a tectonic factor on the area location of deposits observed, expressing in difference of deposits height on different tectonic blocks and also there is an influence of a lithological factor. Results of works conducted on drilling and wells testing are still not enough for judging about lack of oil and gas content.

151

Diversity and distribution of arthropods in native forests of the Azores archipelago  

OpenAIRE

Since 1999, our knowledge of arthropods in native forests of the Azores has improved greatly. Under the BALA project (Biodiversity of Arthropods of Laurisilva of the Azores), an extensive standardised sampling protocol was employed in most of the native forest cover of the Archipelago. Additionally, in 2003 and 2004, more intensive sampling was carried out in several fragments, resulting in nearly a doubling of the number of samples collected. A total of 6,770 samples from 100 sites distribut...

Borges, P. A. V.; Gaston, K. J.; Gaspar, C.

2008-01-01

152

How has time and space affected plant biodiversity in the Hjälmö-Lådna archipelago?  

OpenAIRE

Traditionally European farmland management has declined during the last century, mainly due to abandonment or intensification. When traditional management is replaced by new methods many species are negatively affected and often threatened with extinction. In this thesis, the Stockholm archipelago is used as a platform to study the effects of land use change over time. The overall aim is to examine how time and space affects plant biodiversity in a rural landscape, with focus on heterogeneous...

Reimark, Josefin

2011-01-01

153

Development of a Hindcast/Forecast Model for the Philippine Archipelago  

OpenAIRE

This article discusses the challenges of developing a regional ocean prediction model for the Philippine Archipelago, a complex area in terms of geometry, bathymetry-dominated dynamics and variability, and strong local and remote wind forcing, where there are limited temporal and spatial ocean measurements. We used the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) for real-time forecasting during the Philippines Experiment (2007–2009) observational program. The article focuses on the prediction exp...

Arango, Hernan G.; Levin, Julia C.; Enrique Curchitser; Bin Zhang; Moore, Andrew M.; Weiqing Han; Gordon, Arnold L.; Craig Lee; Girton, James B.

2011-01-01

154

Local Culture as a Resource in Regional Development in the Southwest-Finland Archipelago  

OpenAIRE

In cultural and regional politics in the European Union, and in practice for instance in the Southwest-Finland Archipelago, local culture and cultural heritage are considered resources. Global boundlessness, heterogeneity and change are basic qualities of culture. However, in regional development, culture is seen and used as a number of different local cultures with their own essential cultural heritage. The culture of local everyday life is opposite to, and in tension with, the construct of ...

Katriina Siivonen

2009-01-01

155

Social, Economical and Technical Evaluation of a reverse osmosis drinking water plant in the Stockholm Archipelago  

OpenAIRE

The drinking water plant in this case study is a combined groundwater and reverse osmosisplant in the Stockholm archipelago. The reverse osmosis purification step was added to theplant in 1995. This technique is relatively new in Sweden and there are possibilities for it tobecome a good complement to conventional drinking water treatment. The plant has used thistechnique for over 10 years with good results. It is therefore of great interest to evaluate anddocument it for the possibility to im...

Lindkvist, Jonas

2007-01-01

156

Prevalence of Calodium hepaticum (Syn. Capillaria hepatica) in house mice (Mus musculus) in the Azores archipelago  

OpenAIRE

Calodium hepaticum (Syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a zoonotic liver nematode of mammals distributed worldwide. Rodents are believed to be the main reservoirs of this nematode. In this paper, prevalence of the parasite was analyzed in liver histological sections from 51 house mice (Mus musculus) caught in human-inhabited houses, from two localities (Furnas and Rabo de Peixe) on São Miguel island from the Azores archipelago (Portugal). Mean prevalence of infection was 19.6%, with 33.3% pre...

Resendes, Ana; Amaral, Andre?; Rodrigues, Armindo; Almeria, S.

2009-01-01

157

Aesthetics and Empire: The Sense of Feminine Beauty in the Making of the US Imperial Archipelago  

OpenAIRE

This article examines the “sense of beauty” in the United States imperial archipelago, composed of the island territories of Cuba, Hawai`i, Philippines, and Puerto Rico, all acquired in 1898. The theoretical connection among these two elements –aesthetics and empire– is provided by a revision of the concepts “economy of colonial desire” and “complex of visuality.” This paper analyzes the most advanced visual technology of the late nineteenth century: the mass- produced, printe...

Thompson, Lanny

2013-01-01

158

Biogeographical survey and characterization of indigenous yeasts from the vineyards of the azores archipelago  

OpenAIRE

This study aims at the characterization of the fermentative yeasts flora of the vineyards from Azores, for biodiversity preservation and the constitution of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain collection. During the harvest of 2009, 88 grape samples were collected from eight islands of the archipelago, that belonged to traditional (Arinto, Verdelho and Terrantez) and hybrid grape varieties. The sampling plan covered 36 locations, including vineyards in appellations of origin and abandoned v...

Neves, J. Drumonde; Lima, Maria Teresa; Schuller, Dorit

2010-01-01

159

Multiscale Physical and Biological Dynamics in the Philippine Archipelago: Predictions and Processes  

OpenAIRE

The Philippine Archipelago is remarkable because of its complex geometry, with multiple islands and passages, and its multiscale dynamics, from the large-scale open-ocean and atmospheric forcing, to the strong tides and internal waves in narrow straits and at steep shelfbreaks. We employ our multiresolution modeling system to predict and study multiscale dynamics in the region, without the use of any synoptic in situ data, so as to evaluate modeling capabilities when only sparse remotely sens...

Lermusiaux, Pierre F. J.; Haley Jr, Patrick J.; Leslie, Wayne G.; Arpit Agarwal; Logutov, Oleg G.; Burton, Lisa J.

2011-01-01

160

Preemia pooleli jäänud väljaku eest märgib muutust mõtteviisis / Andres Alver, Tiit Trummal, Veljo Kaasik ; intervjueerinud Urve Eslas  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Veljo Kaasik, Andres Alver ja Tiit Trummal pälvisid Eesti Kultuurkapitali aastapreemia Vabaduse väljaku (Tallinn) projekteerimise eest. Arhitektid räägivad linnaruumi arendamisest, väljaku planeeringust

Alver, Andres, 1953-

2010-01-01

161

Characterization of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR in overall Indonesian archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

Indonesia has largest mangrove forest in the world, total area around 3.5 million ha or 17% - 23% from mangrove forest in the world. Mangrove forest provides products and services, such as carbon balance of the coastal zone. Mapping and monitoring biomass of mangrove is very important but field survey of mangrove biomass and productivity in overall Indonesia is very difficult. Global-scale mosaics with HH and HV backscatter of Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) which is 50-m spatial resolution has been generated. This image available for identification and monitoring mangrove forest. The Objective of this research to investigate characterization of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR in overall Indonesian archipelago. Methodology consists of collecting ALOS-PALSAR image for overall Indonesian archipelago, preprocessing and mosaicking, collecting region of interest of mangrove forest, plotting, ground survey, characterization and classification. The result of this research has showed characterization of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR. Indonesian mangrove forest types has HH value around -10 dB until -7 dB and HV value around -17 dB until -13 dB. Higher of HH and HV backscatters value indicated higher of level biomass. Based on scatter plot of HH and HV, Indonesian mangrove forest can be classified in three level biomass. Generally level biomass of mangrove forest in Indonesia archipelago is moderate.

Darmawan, S.; Takeuchi, W.; Vetrita, Y.; Winarso, G.; Wikantika, K.; Sari, D. K.

2014-06-01

162

S-to-P Receiver Function Analysis of Shallow Mantle Seismic Interfaces Beneath the Galápagos Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

We map seismic discontinuities in the shallow mantle beneath the Galápagos archipelago with S-to-P receiver functions. The results are used to investigate the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary and plume-lithosphere interactions in a near-ridge, hotspot setting. The Galápagos is an excellent laboratory for studying these features because intraplate volcanism is located proximal to the spreading center, thus variations in seismic structure due to plate age and melting processes are expected. We analyze data collected from 1999 to 2002 with a temporary seismic array of 13 ocean island broadband stations and the permanent GSN station PAYG. We use a deconvolution method that solves for the receiver functions and the source spectra. High seismic noise on the ocean island stations limits our analysis to a relatively low-frequency band (.03 - .1 Hz). At these frequencies, synthetic modeling of thin lithosphere (25 to 60 km) indicates that the minimum usually measured in S and SKS receiver functions does not correspond directly to the interface depth due to interference with crustal phases. Furthermore we cannot resolve a lithospheric boundary thinner than approximately 40 km if the crust is thicker than approximately 20 km. Beneath the Galápagos archipelago, we find a velocity discontinuity at depths in rough agreement with the base of a high velocity lid imaged with surface wave tomography. Synthetic modeling indicates the high-velocity lid is thinner in the northern and eastern parts of the archipelago (~45-50 km in thickness). Beneath the southern and southwestern archipelago the high-velocity lid is thicker (~60-70 km). These high velocity lid thicknesses are greater than the lithospheric thickness of 30 km to 40 km predicted by half-space cooling models. Previous tomographic studies indicate that the Galápagos plume shoals from south to north beneath the western archipelago, coincident with an observed thinning of the high-velocity lid. Variations in the lid's thickness may be due to increasing plate age southwards, variations in plate dehydration due to partial melting, or the effect of melt accumulation at an interface.

Byrnes, J.; Hooft, E. E.; Toomey, D. R.

2012-12-01

163

Evolution at a different pace: distinctive phylogenetic patterns of cone snails from two ancient oceanic archipelagos.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ancient oceanic archipelagos of similar geological age are expected to accrue comparable numbers of endemic lineages with identical life history strategies, especially if the islands exhibit analogous habitats. We tested this hypothesis using marine snails of the genus Conus from the Atlantic archipelagos of Cape Verde and Canary Islands. Together with Azores and Madeira, these archipelagos comprise the Macaronesia biogeographic region and differ remarkably in the diversity of this group. More than 50 endemic Conus species have been described from Cape Verde, whereas prior to this study, only two nonendemic species, including a putative species complex, were thought to occur in the Canary Islands. We combined molecular phylogenetic data and geometric morphometrics with bathymetric and paleoclimatic reconstructions to understand the contrasting diversification patterns found in these regions. Our results suggest that species diversity is even lower than previously thought in the Canary Islands, with the putative species complex corresponding to a single species, Conus guanche. One explanation for the enormous disparity in Conus diversity is that the amount of available habitat may differ, or may have differed in the past due to eustatic (global) sea level changes. Historical bathymetric data, however, indicated that sea level fluctuations since the Miocene have had a similar impact on the available habitat area in both Cape Verde and Canary archipelagos and therefore do not explain this disparity. We suggest that recurrent gene flow between the Canary Islands and West Africa, habitat losses due to intense volcanic activity in combination with unsuccessful colonization of new Conus species from more diverse regions, were all determinant in shaping diversity patterns within the Canarian archipelago. Worldwide Conus species diversity follows the well-established pattern of latitudinal increase of species richness from the poles towards the tropics. However, the eastern Atlantic revealed a striking pattern with two main peaks of Conus species richness in the subtropical area and decreasing diversities toward the tropical western African coast. A Random Forests model using 12 oceanographic variables suggested that sea surface temperature is the main determinant of Conus diversity either at continental scales (eastern Atlantic coast) or in a broader context (worldwide). Other factors such as availability of suitable habitat and reduced salinity due to the influx of large rivers in the tropical area also play an important role in shaping Conus diversity patterns in the western coast of Africa. PMID:25121824

Cunha, Regina L; Lima, Fernando P; Tenorio, Manuel J; Ramos, Ana A; Castilho, Rita; Williams, Suzanne T

2014-11-01

164

33 CFR 110.224 - San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez...Anchorage Grounds § 110.224 San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez...Within the navigable waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay,...

2010-07-01

165

History of San Marco  

Science.gov (United States)

A brief history is reported of the first San Marco project, a joint program of the United States and Italy. The Project was a three phase effort to investigate upper air density and associated ionosphere phenomena. The initial phase included the design and development of the spacecraft, the experiments, the launch complex, and a series of suborbital flights, from Wallops Island. The second phase, consisting of designing, fabricating, and testing a spacecraft for the first orbital mission, culminated in an orbital launch also from Wallops Island. The third phase consisted of further refining the experiments and spacecraft instrumentation and of establishing a full-bore scout complex in Kenya. The launch of San Marco B, in April 1967, from this complex into an equatorial orbit, concluded the initial San Marco effort.

Caporale, A. J.

1968-01-01

166

San Diego Zoo  

Science.gov (United States)

The Zoological Society of San Diego brings to the web the San Diego Zoo, the San Diego Wild Animal Park, and the Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species. Each unit of the zoo has a main page, from which the user can meet the animals and find out about the humans who watch over them. The photographs of new arrivals at the zoo should be a big draw, and there is informative text underlying the visuals. The "Guest Book" is a game in which users attempt to match animals with their "signatures": the tracks they leave. Use the table of contents to find your way to the animals you're most interested in.

167

San Salvador Microbial Observatory  

Science.gov (United States)

This web site is home of the San Salvador Microbial Observatory, a project investigating the anhydrophilic, halotolerant microbial mats of San Salvador, Bahamas. This project has been developed to address the influence water availability has on structural diversification, community composition, production, and carbon sequestration in microbial mats. The web site includes general information about the project, a research description plan, an introduction to microbial mats, links to other microbial observatories and interesting sites, and a collection of photos. This is a helpful resource for those investigating microbial mat communities.

Tim Steppe

168

Toward a Theory of Island Pedogeography: Testing the driving forces for pedological assemblages in archipelagos of different origins  

Science.gov (United States)

The Theory of Island Biogeography has been based on biodiversity studies and used as a powerful predictive tool. Currently pedogeography does not have a similar theoretical construct. Although island biodiversity and biological assemblages have been topics of widespread interest in biogeography, ecology and conservation biology, soil scientists have conducted few studies of pedodiversity and pedological assemblages in archipelagos. Several studies have demonstrated that pedodiversity and biodiversity patterns have striking similarities in very disparate environments and at different scales, thus it is possible to test for a similar construct of island pedogeography. We analyze similarities and differences in the pedosphere for three archipelagos with different origins: (i) oceanic-intra-plate chains islands (Hawaiian Islands), (ii) oceanic-intra-plate cluster islands (Canary Islands), (iii) non-marine land-bridge islands with volcanism associated with plate boundary conditions (Aegean Islands) and (iv) as a comparison, islands in a nonplate boundary setting (the British Isles). In the Canary Islands, we also compiled selected biological, physiographical, geological and climatic data for further analysis of pedodiversity, climatic diversity, geodiversity and biodiversity. Our pedogeographic analysis of the three archipelagos indicates archipelagos of varying origins contain different soil assemblages with plate tectonics as the main driving force. The similarities between pedodiversity and biodiversity are more remarkable than the differences. We tested the hypothesis that soil taxa distributions on island chains can be modelled as a power function similar to the species-area relationship (SAR) proposed by McArthur and Wilson for archipelagos. The SAR functional relationship has been widely corroborated in other biodiversity studies. The same patterns were obtained for pedodiversity and biodiversity in the British Isles, and after that in the Aegean Archipelago. In this study we show similar results in the Canary Islands. Furthermore, in the Canary Archipelago, a strong relationship exists between pedodiversity, biodiversity, climate diversity, habitat heterogeneity and relief. For the Hawaii Archipelago, we did not obtain a statistically significant relationship because soil inventories are not published for the smallest islands and islets. However, Hawaii does have a chronosequence from the older to the younger land units. Overall, the dynamics of the underlying plate tectonic hot spots seems to be the major driving force affecting the various diversity types. Based on these results, we suggest a theoretical proposal of "Island pedogeography" consistent and similar to the Theory of Island Biogeography, in view that the latter one also predicts the pedodiversity of soil assemblages in archipelagos. This study illustrates several possibilities for further research in soil geography.

Ibáñez, Juan-José; Effland, William R.

2011-12-01

169

78 FR 58878 - Safety Zone; San Diego Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

...clear during the San Diego Shark Fest Swim. Persons and vessels...and reduce burden. 10. Protection of Children We have analyzed...under Executive Order 13045, Protection of Children from Environmental...T11-595 Safety Zone; San Diego Shark Fest Swim; San Diego...

2013-09-25

170

San Diego Flyby  

Science.gov (United States)

This scene shows Landsat Thematic Mapper data from the shortwave infrared (TM band 5), infrared (TM band 4), and visible green (TM band 2) channels of San Diego. The TM data was collected by Landsat 5 on the 12th of September, 1996.

Jesse Allen

1999-04-09

171

SAN PEDRO WATERSHED DATABASE  

Science.gov (United States)

The San Pedro River Geo-Data Browser was jointly developed by the Landscape Ecology Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (Tucson, AZ). Since 1995, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EP A) and U...

172

SAN PEDRO GEODATA BROWSER  

Science.gov (United States)

The San Pedro Data Browser was developed by the Landscape Ecology Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Las Vegas, NV). The goal of the Landscape Sciences Program is to improve decision-making relative to natural and human resource management through the development...

173

Remembering San Diego  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After 6 years of existence the ITER EDA project in San Diego, USA, was terminated by desition of the US Congress. This article describes how nice it was for everybody as long as it lasted and how sad it is now

174

Microbiological and mycological beach sand quality in a volcanic environment: Madeira archipelago, Portugal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Madeira forms a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago, whose economy is largely dependent on tourism. There, one can encounter different types of sand beach: natural basaltic, natural calcareous and artificial calcareous. Microbiological and mycological quality of the sand was analyzed in two different years. Bacterial indicators were detected in higher number in 2010 (36.7% of the samples) than in 2011 (9.1%). Mycological indicators were detected in a similar percentage of samples in 2010 (68.3%) and 2011 (75%), even though the total number of colonies detected in 2010 was much higher (827 in 41 samples) than in 2011 (427 in 66 samples). Enterococci and potentially pathogenic and allergenic fungi (particularly Penicillium sp.) were the most common indicators detected in both years. Candida sp. yeast was also commonly detected in the samples. The analysis of the 3rd quartile and maximum numbers of all indicators in samples showed that artificial beaches tend to be more contaminated than the natural ones. However, a significant difference between the variables was lacking. More monitoring data (number of bathers, sea birds, radiation intensity variation, and a greater number of samples) should be collected in order to confirm if these differences are significant. In general, the sand quality in the archipelago's beaches was good. As the sand may be a vector of diseases, an international common set of indicators and values and a compatible methodologies for assessing sand contamination, should be defined, in order to provide the bather's with an indication of beach sand quality, rather than only the water. - Highlights: • Microbial indicators were studied in the beach sands of Madeira archipelago. • Differences between years may be attributed to extreme weather. • Sand of artificial beaches has higher levels of microbial contamination. • Microbial analysis of the sand showed that the beaches have mainly good quality

175

Microbiological and mycological beach sand quality in a volcanic environment: Madeira archipelago, Portugal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Madeira forms a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago, whose economy is largely dependent on tourism. There, one can encounter different types of sand beach: natural basaltic, natural calcareous and artificial calcareous. Microbiological and mycological quality of the sand was analyzed in two different years. Bacterial indicators were detected in higher number in 2010 (36.7% of the samples) than in 2011 (9.1%). Mycological indicators were detected in a similar percentage of samples in 2010 (68.3%) and 2011 (75%), even though the total number of colonies detected in 2010 was much higher (827 in 41 samples) than in 2011 (427 in 66 samples). Enterococci and potentially pathogenic and allergenic fungi (particularly Penicillium sp.) were the most common indicators detected in both years. Candida sp. yeast was also commonly detected in the samples. The analysis of the 3rd quartile and maximum numbers of all indicators in samples showed that artificial beaches tend to be more contaminated than the natural ones. However, a significant difference between the variables was lacking. More monitoring data (number of bathers, sea birds, radiation intensity variation, and a greater number of samples) should be collected in order to confirm if these differences are significant. In general, the sand quality in the archipelago's beaches was good. As the sand may be a vector of diseases, an international common set of indicators and values and a compatible methodologies for assessing sand contamination, should be defined, in order to provide the bather's with an indication of beach sand quality, rather than only the water. - Highlights: • Microbial indicators were studied in the beach sands of Madeira archipelago. • Differences between years may be attributed to extreme weather. • Sand of artificial beaches has higher levels of microbial contamination. • Microbial analysis of the sand showed that the beaches have mainly good quality.

Pereira, Elisabete; Figueira, Celso; Aguiar, Nuno; Vasconcelos, Rita [Universidade da Madeira, Caminho da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal (Portugal); Vasconcelos, Sílvia [Laboratório Regional de Veterinária e Segurança Alimentar, Caminho das Quebradas de Baixo n° 79, 9000-254 Funchal (Portugal); Calado, Graça [Laboratório de Saúde Pública, IASaúde, Rua das Pretas n° 1, 9004-515 Funchal (Portugal); Brandão, João [Instituto Nacional de Saúde Dr. Ricardo Jorge, Avenida Padre Cruz, 1649-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Prada, Susana, E-mail: susana@uma.pt [Universidade da Madeira, Caminho da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal (Portugal); Centro de Vulcanologia e Avaliação de Riscos Geológicos, Universidade dos Açores, Rua da Mãe de Deus, Edifício do Complexo Científico, 3° Andar — Ala Sul, 9500-321 Ponta Delgada (Portugal)

2013-09-01

176

Apolar Compounds in Seaweeds from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago (Northeastern Coast of Brazil)  

OpenAIRE

Hyphenated techniques of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer were used to determine fatty acids in eleven species of seaweeds from Fernando de Noronha archipelago. The main compounds detected in all studied species were the alcohol phytol and the fatty acids 14?:?0; 15?:?0; 16?:?0; 18?:?0; 18?:?1 n9; 18?:?2 ?9,12; 20?:?4; 20?:?5. These fatty acids are commonly found in seaweeds present in warm regions. Thus, we found no specificity in the presence ...

Leandro de Santis Ferreira; Izabel Cristina Casanova Turatti; Norberto Peporine Lopes; Thais Guaratini; Pio Colepicolo; Eurico Cabral de Oliveira Filho; Ricardo Clapis Garla

2012-01-01

177

An Integrated Bathymetric and Topographic Digital Terrain Model of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO) [Jakobsson et al. 2000], contains the most up-to-date digital bathymetric model of the entire Canadian Arctic Archipelago. IBCAO is a seamless bathymetric/topographic Digital Terrain Model (DTM) that incorporates three primary data sets: all available bathymetric data at the time of compilation; the US Geological Survey GTOPO30 topographic data; and the World Vector Shoreline for coastline representation. The horizontal grid cell size is 2.5 x 2.5 km on a Polar Stereographic projection, which is adequate for regional visualization and analysis, but which may not be sufficient for certain geoscientific and oceanographic applications. However, the database that was constructed during the IBCAO project holds bathymetric data of a high quality throughout most of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, justifying a compilation resolution that is better than 2.5 x 2.5 km. This data is primarily from historical hydrographic surveys that were carried out by the Canadian Hydrographic Survey (CHS). The construction of a higher resolution bathymetry/topography DTM of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (complete with an error estimation of interpolated grid cells) requires a consideration of historical metadata which contains detailed descriptions of horizontal and vertical datums, positioning systems, and the depth sounding systems that were deployed during individual surveys. A significant portion of this metadata does not exist in digital form; it was not available during the IBCAO compilation, although due to the relatively low resolution of the original DTM (2.5 x 2.5 km), its absence was considered a lesser problem. We have performed "data detective" work and have extracted some of the more crucial metadata from CHS archives and are thus able to present a preliminary version of a seamless Digital Terrain Model of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. This represents a significant improvement over the original IBCAO DTM in this area. The use of a merged seamless bathymetry/topography model substantially facilitates the overlay and incorporation of other spatially referenced geological and geophysical datasets. For example, one intended use of the model is to merge the results from the mapping of regional glacial morphology features, in order to further address the glacial history of the region. Jakobsson, M., Cherkis, N., Woodward, J., Coakley, B., and Macnab, R., 2000, A new grid of Arctic bathymetry: A significant resource for scientists and mapmakers, EOS Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v. 81, no. 9, p. 89, 93, 96.

Alm, G.; Macnab, R.; Jakobsson, M.; Kleman, J.; McCracken, M.

2002-12-01

178

Mobility concepts using excess power from proposed renewable energy supply system on Graciosa Island, Azores Archipelago  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of excess energy from the planned renewable electricity generation system of Graciosa Island, Azores Archipelago, has been examined focussing on its use as energy source for mobility concepts. Battery-electric vehicles with different load management and vehicle-to-grid schemes as well as renewable power methane fuelled vehicles have been considered against a baseline scenario featuring conventional diesel vehicles. The simulation results include related costs and carbon dioxide emissions as well as the size of energy storage and amount of backup fuels needed. Both alternative vehicle types can benefit from using excess energy and may significantly reduce the need for imported fossil fuels.

Arnhold, O.; Hlusiak, M.; Moehrke, F.; Breyer, C. [Reiner Lemoine Institut gGmbH, Berlin (Germany)

2011-07-01

179

Definitions of Trollskär Formation and Sandön Formation in the Archipelago Sea, northern Baltic Sea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The formal stratigraphy of Late-Quaternary late- and post-glacial sediments in the Archipelago Sea, northern Baltic Sea, is revised. The Trollskär Allomember and Sandön Allomember were previously incorrectly defined as allostratigraphic units based on an acousticdiscontinuity, even though their contact is gradational in the studied sediment cores. These allostratigraphic units are formally redefined herein as the lithostratigraphic units Trollskär Formation and Sandön Formation, which belong to the Korppoo Alloformation.The purpose is to forestall misconceptions concerning temporal relationships and depositional processes at the transition of these two units.

Joonas J. Virtasalo

2010-07-01

180

Hybridization occurs between Drosophila simulans and D. sechellia in the Seychelles archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drosophila simulans and D. sechellia are sister species that serve as a model to study the evolution of reproductive isolation. While D. simulans is a human commensal that has spread all over the world, D. sechellia is restricted to the Seychelles archipelago and is found to breed exclusively on the toxic fruit of Morinda citrifolia. We surveyed the relative frequency of males from these two species in a variety of substrates found on five islands of the Seychelles archipelago. We sampled different fruits and found that putative D. simulans can be found in a variety of substrates, including, surprisingly, M. citrifolia. Putative D. sechellia was found preferentially on M. citrifolia fruits, but a small proportion was found in other substrates. Our survey also shows the existence of putative hybrid males in areas where D. simulans is present in Seychelles. The results from this field survey support the hypothesis of current interbreeding between these species in the central islands of Seychelles and open the possibility for fine measurements of admixture between these two Drosophila species to be made. PMID:24773151

Matute, D R; Ayroles, J F

2014-06-01

181

[Characteristic analysis on the anions and pH profiles of rainwater of Zhoushan Archipelago].  

Science.gov (United States)

Rainwater samples were collected at Zhoushan Archipelago in 2002 - 2003, 4 main anion concentrations (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-)) and pH value of rainwater sample were determined. The concentration variation range and character were depicted. Principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) were used to acquire a further knowledge on the characteristics of anions and pH value. Distribution character of samples was clearly depicted in the new PC1-PC2 ordinate generated by orthogonal projection and the reasons that caused the outliers in samples were discussed. In order to get the latent variables which most distinguishably effect the sample distribution, data profiles were investigated by factor analysis: two latent variables were responsible for the sample distribution within sufficient analysis accuracy, SO4(2-) -NO3- factor (FA1), called as "anthropogenic factor", and Cl- (FA2), called as "marine factor", which corresponding to PC1 and PC2 in orthogonal projection respectively. Results from factor analysis were more practical than from orthogonal projection, that is, the reasons attributed the outlier sample distribution at Zhoushan Archipelago were ascribed into two latent variables: anthropogenic factor (SO4(2-) -NO3-) and marine factor (Cl-). PMID:16366469

Lin, Yu-Fei; Liu, Su-Mei; Ji, Lei; Zhang, Guo-Sen; Mao, Xu-Bin; Zhang, Jing

2005-09-01

182

Development of a Hindcast/Forecast Model for the Philippine Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article discusses the challenges of developing a regional ocean prediction model for the Philippine Archipelago, a complex area in terms of geometry, bathymetry-dominated dynamics and variability, and strong local and remote wind forcing, where there are limited temporal and spatial ocean measurements. We used the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS for real-time forecasting during the Philippines Experiment (2007–2009 observational program. The article focuses on the prediction experiments before and during the exploratory cruise period, June 6–July 3, 2007. The gathered observations were not available in real time, so the 4-Dimensional Variational (4D-Var data assimilation experiments were carried out in hindcast mode. The best estimate of ocean state (nowcast is determined by combining satellite-derived products for sea surface temperature and height, and subsurface temperature and salinity measurements from several hydrographic assets over a sequential five-day data assimilation window. The largest source of forecast uncertainty is from the prescribed lateral boundary conditions in the nearby Pacific Ocean, especially excessive salt flux. This result suggests that remote forcing and inflows from the Pacific are crucial for predicting ocean circulation in the Philippine Archipelago region. The lateral boundary conditions are derived from 1/12° global Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM daily snapshots. The incremental, strong-constraint 4D-Var data assimilation successfully decreased temperature and salinity errors of the real-time, nonassimilative control forecast by 38% and 49%, respectively.

Hernan G. Arango

2011-03-01

183

An invasive fish and the time-lagged spread of its parasite across the Hawaiian archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

Efforts to limit the impact of invasive species are frustrated by the cryptogenic status of a large proportion of those species. Half a century ago, the state of Hawai'i introduced the Bluestripe Snapper, Lutjanus kasmira, to O'ahu for fisheries enhancement. Today, this species shares an intestinal nematode parasite, Spirocamallanus istiblenni, with native Hawaiian fishes, raising the possibility that the introduced fish carried a parasite that has since spread to naïve local hosts. Here, we employ a multidisciplinary approach, combining molecular, historical, and ecological data to confirm the alien status of S. istiblenni in Hawai'i. Using molecular sequence data we show that S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are genetically affiliated with source populations in French Polynesia, and not parasites at a geographically intermediate location in the Line Islands. S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are a genetic subset of the more diverse source populations, indicating a bottleneck at introduction. Ecological surveys indicate that the parasite has found suitable intermediate hosts in Hawai'i, which are required for the completion of its life cycle, and that the parasite is twice as prevalent in Hawaiian Bluestripe Snappers as in source populations. While the introduced snapper has spread across the entire 2600 km archipelago to Kure Atoll, the introduced parasite has spread only half that distance. However, the parasite faces no apparent impediments to invading the entire archipelago, with unknown implications for naïve indigenous Hawaiian fishes and the protected Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument. PMID:23468894

Gaither, Michelle R; Aeby, Greta; Vignon, Matthias; Meguro, Yu-ichiro; Rigby, Mark; Runyon, Christina; Toonen, Robert J; Wood, Chelsea L; Bowen, Brian W

2013-01-01

184

A multiproxy reconstruction of NAO evolution in the Azores archipelago since 1350 AD  

Science.gov (United States)

The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the main atmospheric circulation pattern affecting climate variability in the Northern Hemisphere, having a major impact on both marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Instrumental records of the NAO are relatively short, and therefore paleoenvironmental multiproxy approaches become fundamental to better understand its behaviour for longer scale periods. The NAO is often defined as a large-scale meridional oscillation dipole of air pressure between the Azores High and the Iceland Low. Some of the NAO definitions include the use of sea level pressure from Ponta Delgada station in Azores, and thus any NAO reconstruction would gain in robustness if it includes paleoenvironmental information from this archipelago located at the southern end of the meridional dipole that characterizes the NAO pattern. However, to the best of our knowledge, very few historical and long-term reconstructions have been conducted in the Azores Islands. We present a ca. 600-year-long multiproxy reconstruction of the NAO evolution based on facies analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning, elemental and isotope geochemistry on bulk organic matter and the preliminary study of diatom and chironomid content from the sedimentary record of Lake Empadadas (37° 49' N - 25° 44' W, Azores Archipelago, Portugal). The precipitation regime in Azores Archipelago (i.e. intra and inter-annual variability) is clearly influenced by the NAO index, thus periods with dominant positive NAO index values (NAO+) are usually characterized by low winter precipitation in the Azores. Conversely, negative NAO phases (NAO-) induce high winter precipitation in the archipelago. These patterns suggest that past (winter) precipitation changes on the Azores may be partially used as a proxy for NAO changes, and thus a proxy for more large-scale changes in the North Atlantic region. According to this multiproxy characterization of the Lake Empadadas sediments four main climatic (and NAO) stages since 600 cal years BP have been established. The first stage (1350-1460 AD) correspond to dark-brown to black mud facies with high values in lake productivity and moderately shallow waters, which however represent the deepest condition during the studied interval. Mineralogical composition and high organic matter content also suggest a humid climate with abundant precipitations that might be related to a predominantly NAO- phase. The second stage, spanning between 1460 and 1800 AD, is represented by a similar facies presented by the previous phase. This stage is however characterized by a transitional period from a wet to more arid climate, probably related to a change in NAO conditions (from NAO- to NAO+), with lower values of lake productivity and lake level than the previous stage. From 1800 AD until 1930 AD (third stage) banded brown to pale-brown silty and muddy facies were deposited. During this stage the lowest lake water table and productivity in the whole sequence were reached suggesting a predominantly NAO+ phase in concordance with instrumental NAO records. However, heavy rainfall catastrophic events are recorded in the sequence as very coarse (gravely) alluvial intervals that may be related with intense NAO- negative winters or alternatively to autumn Tropical Storms that can reach the archipelago. Finally, the uppermost interval of the sequence is composed by brown to ochre massive mud. A lake level rise and a progressive increase in the productivity suggest a relatively humid fourth stage from AD 1930 until present, a period characterized with more NAO- values.

Hernández, Armand; Doolittle, Sara; Bao, Roberto; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Rubio-Inglés, Maria J.; Sánchez-López, Guiomar; Vázquez-Loureiro, David; Gonçalves, Vitor; Raposeiro, Pedro M.; Marques, Helena S.; Sáez, Alberto; Giralt, Santiago

2014-05-01

185

The San Andreas Fault  

Science.gov (United States)

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication discusses the San Andreas Fault in California; specifically what has caused the fault, where it is located, surface features that characterize it, and movement that has occurred. General earthquake information includes an explanation of what earthquakes are, and earthquake magnitude versus intensity. Earthquakes that have occurred along the fault are covered, as well as where the next large one may occur and what can be done about large earthquakes in general.

Sandra Schulz

186

Vabade kunstide lõputööd / Andres Tali ; intervjueerinud R[eet] V[arblane] ; kommenteerinud Andreas Trossek  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

EKA vabade kunstide teaduskonna dekaan Andres Tali lõpetajate tasemest. 15 magistrikraadi kaitsnud üliõpilase tööd olid enamikus väljas festivali "Tase'11" raames magistritööde näitusel Rotermanni kvartalis 22.05.-5.06.2011. Bakalaureusetaseme lõpetamisest portfoolioga. Andreas Trossek Kristi Kongi, Eva Labotkini, Laura Tootsi, Reimo Võsa-Tangsoo ja Stella Salumaa magistritöödest

Tali, Andres, 1956-

2011-01-01

187

Rakvere valimisliidrid unistasid 2002. aastal linna tulevikust / Tauno Teder, Andres Pulver  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Keskerakonna linnapeakandidaat Jaak Kaseväli, Isamaaliidu esinumber Mihkel Juhkami, Rahvaliidu esinumber Niina Mihhejeva, Mõõdukate esinumber Peep Vassiljev, Res Publica linnavolikogu esimehe kandidaat Anne Nõgu, valimisliidust Tarvas Priit Verlin, valimisliidust Kodulinn Andres Jaadla ja Reformierakonna linnapeakandidaat Matti Jõe oma visioonist, milline näeb Rakvere välja 2005. aastal

Teder, Tauno

2005-01-01

188

Hotell 'Bernhard' Otepääl. Otepää aedlinn, Kolga tee 22a / Andres Lunge  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Otepää aedlinnas asuva U. Tiirmaa poolt kuuekümnendatel projekteeritud Tartu Katseremonditehase puhkebaasi rekonstrueerimine. Kavandati uus peasissepääs, täiendav tubadekorrus, restoran, vastuvõtufuajee jm. ning juurdeehitusena osaliselt maaalune lisakorpus konverentsisaali jm. ruumidega. Tellija: AS Regel. Projekteerija: Tareke Projekt OÜ. Arhitekt Andres Lunge. Sisekujundaja Taisi Kadarik. Ehitus: AS Regel, 1996-1998. Projekt 1995, 1998, valmis 1998

Lunge, Andres

1998-01-01

189

Spatial Econometric Model for Economics Development in Archipelago of Riau, as a Defense System Development in Republic of Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Province of Archipelago of Riau is a region in Indonesia which is adjacent to Singapore and Malaysia. This province has a great potential conditions diversity and natural resources. Planning on public prosperity improvement is necessary in order to increase loyalty and nationalism to Republic of Indonesia. The aim of this research is to build a spatial econometric model of economic growth in Province of Archipelago of Riau. One of the results shows that in recent 4 years Batam always gives the largest contribution to GRDP in Province of Archipelago of Riau. This can be understood that the contribution is more than 72.0% not only based on GRDP at current prices, but also based on GRDP at constant prices. Economic growth rate in regions in Province of Archipelago of Riau is higher than national economic growth rate. The model fits well because the coefficient of determination R2 is more than 85%. There are only 3 worse models, i.e. based on building construction in Batam (with R2= 59.6%, in Tanjungpinang (with R2=74.0%, and based on transportation and communication in Tanjungpinang (with R2=37.1%.

Susanti Linuwih

2010-08-01

190

Blood antioxidant parameters and cardiovascular risk factors in subjects from the city of Ponta Delgada (Azores' Archipelago, Portugal)  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this work was to evaluate serum selenium, copper and zinc concentrations, as well as the whole blood glutathione peroxidase and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities in subjects from the city of Ponta Delgada (S. Miguel Island, Azores’ Archipelago). The study of their relationship with generally accepted cardiovascular risk factors was also an objective. […].

Pava?o, Maria Leonor; Figueiredo, Teresa; Santos, Vi?ctor; Lopes, Paula Alexandra; Ferin, Rita; Santos, Maria Cristina; Vicente, Lui?s; Viegas-crespo, Ana Maria; Ne?ve, Jean

2001-01-01

191

First records of Ostreopsis heptagona, O. cf. siamensis and O. cf. ovata – in the Azores archipelago, Portugal  

OpenAIRE

During summer 2008, surveys were carried out around São Miguel island in the Azores archipelago (36–39ºN, 25–31ºW). [...]. Species of Ostreopsis were morphologically characterized with an Olympus BX50 equipped with epifluorescence, following Penna et al. [...].

Silva, A.; Brotas, Vanda; Orive, E.; Neto, Ana I.

2010-01-01

192

Detailed geochemical survey data release for the San Andres-Oscura Mountains special study area, New Mexico  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work reported here includes field data and the results of analyses for uranium and additional elements for each sample. This special study is a follow-up to the uranium reconnaissance previously conducted by Los Alamos in the surrounding Tularosa NTMS quadrangle as part of the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR). The HSSR program is part of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE), which is designed to provide an improved estimate of the available information for industry use in the development and production of uranium resources. Each rock sample collected for this special study was crushed and the minus 100-mesh fraction was put into a prewashed 25-ml polyethylene vial and a clean 4-ml rabbit before undergoing analysis. The possibility exists of sample contamination with crusher alloys, especially in the rhyolite samples. The samples were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, europium, gold, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, potassium, rubidium, samarium, scandium, selenium, silver, sodium, strontium, tantalum, terbium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, ytterbium, zinc, and zirconium. Descriptions of field and analytical methods can be found in Appendix II-A. Sample locations are pl in Appendix II-A. Sample locations are plotted on Plate I. All samples were analyzed for uranium by delayed neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in samples were determined by neutron-activation analysis, x-ray fluorescence, and arc-source emission spectrography. Analytical results for samples are reported as parts per million

193

RECOGNITION OF INTERSTITIAL ANHYDRITE DISSOLUTION: A CAUSE OF SECONDARY POROSITY, SAN ANDRES LIMESTONE, NEW MEXICO, AND UPPER MINNELUSA FORMATION, WYOMING.  

Science.gov (United States)

Direct evidence for subsurface dissolution of interstitial anhydrite in both dolomite grainstones and quartz sandstones includes: cleavage-related dissolution fringe on anhydrite crystal surfaces, and isolated remnants of optically continuous (formerly poikilotopic) anhydrite. Experimentally etched anhydrite surfaces exhibit features that directly compare to the dissolution fringe, whereas experimentally grown anhydrite does not. A deduced sequence of anhydrite dissolution within dolomite grainstones and quartz sandstones is presented. Refs.

Schenk, Christopher J.; Richardson, Randall W.

1985-01-01

194

An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas, Class II  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the project were to: (1) Thoroughly understand the 60-year history of the field. (2) Develop a reservoir description using geology and 3D seismic. (3) Isolate the upper Grayburg in wells producing from multiple intervals to stop cross flow. (4) Re-align and optimize the upper Grayburg waterflood. (5) Determine well condition, identify re-frac candidates, evaluate the effectiveness of well work and obtain bottom hole pressure data for simulation utilizing pressure transient testing field wide. (6) Quantitatively integrate all the data to guide the field operations, including identification of new well locations utilizing reservoir simulation.

Trentham, Robert C.; Weinbrandt, Richard; Robinson, William C.; Widner, Kevin

2001-05-03

195

Characteristics of nitrogen mineralization rates and controlling factors in forest soils in Japanese archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Introduction The nitrogen (N) dynamics in forest soils in the Japanese archipelago varies widely because it extends for 3000 km and the climatic zone ranges from cool-temperate to subtropical region. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the soil N transformation characteristics and its controlling factors across a wide area because the changes in N dynamics due to the climate change are expected to differ from region to region. In this study, we selected more than 30 sites from across the Japanese archipelago and measured net rates of soil N mineralization and nitrification. Also, we measured the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil to clarify the controlling factors. 2. Materials and methods We established an experimental plot (20 * 20 m) at each site, and at each plot, five soil sampling locations were established. At each sampling location, mineral soil samples were collected from 0-10, 10-30, 30-50 cm in depth. Net and gross N mineralization and nitrification rate, soil pH(H2O), water soluble cation (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, NH4+, Al3+), anion (Cl-, NO3-, SO42-), and organic carbon (WSOC) were measured. From the net N mineralization and nitrification rate measured by laboratory incubation at three different temperatures (15, 20, 25 °C), Q10min, Q10nit (Q10 of N mineralization and nitrification) and average net rate at 20 °C (N20min and N20nit) were calculated. 3. Results and discussion In most of the sites, net N mineralization and nitrification rates were higher in the shallower soil layers. N20min and N20nit ranged 0.01-3.23 and 0.00-3.00 mgN/kg/d, respectively and Q10min and Q10nit ranged 1.09-24.16 and 1.38-20.10 respectively. There was a pattern that low rates soil (N20 < 0.5 mgN/kg/d) had high Q10 values. Soils which had high N mineralization rates had also high nitrification rates. Soils with high N mineralization and nitrification rate were mostly located in the northern region (Hokkaido Island and Tohoku region) in Japan. This suggests that soil type distribution in the archipelago and soil CN contents are related to the N mineralization and nitrification rates.

Urakawa, R.; Ohte, N.; Shibata, H.; Isobe, K.; Oda, T.; Watanabe, T.; Fukuzawa, K.; Ugawa, S.; Hishi, T.; Enoki, T.; Tateno, R.; Fukushima, K.; Nakanishi, A.; Saigusa, N.; Yamao, Y.; Oyanagi, N.; Hattori, D.; Nakata, M.; Kenta, T.; Toda, H.; Inagaki, Y.; Hirai, K.

2013-12-01

196

High-resolution simulation of the circulation in the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Archipelagos  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the first high-resolution simulation of the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos archipelagos implemented with the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). Our model resolves tides and our simulation consists of two nested grids of respectively 4 and 2 km horizontal resolution. This oceanic region is constituted of the juxtaposition of very large and shallow banks, and very deep basins. Our modeling study shows that the dominant influence is the salinity from the sub-tropical gyre, which varies latitudinally with seasons. Less salty surface waters entered the archipelago from September to November from the north and through the Old Bahama (OBC) and the North West Providence (NWPC) channels as the western Atlantic saline waters moved south. Saltier Atlantic waters arrived from the south in December and moved north till the next fall. This salinity flux is mitigated by the atmospheric forcing on the banks as well as the water temperature, which varied diurnally, what modified the water density causing this water to be unique to the banks, yielding its own seasonality as seen in their SST. The banks were colder in winter and warmer in summer than their surrounding waters. Fronts were formed at every ebb tide in winter, spring, and fall. However the influence of bank waters on the surrounding waters was shown to be limited because of the dominant influence of the large-scale flow and of the local production of water masses by wind and cyclone driven upwelling. Bank waters were contained at the front where they mixed with the surrounding waters as shown by the short time presence of the fronts. Local wind, in addition to the tide was also shown to be a significant forcing which is responsible for some of the short scale variability 5-30 days in Florida Current transport, the NWPC, the OBC, the Windward Passage (WP), and the Antilles Current (AC). Finally, the study also confirmed the mesoscale eddy influence at seasonal scales (100 days) on the AC transport as well as on the FC, through a possible leakage of eddy flux through the NWPC. A similar influence was found south of the archipelago, where mesoscale eddy could also influence WP transport.

Chérubin, Laurent M.

2014-09-01

197

Noble gas tracers of mantle processes beneath the Galápagos archipelago (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent measurements in dredged glassy basalts from the western and northern submarine edges of the Galápagos archipelago (R/V Revelle/Drift04 and R/V Melville/MV1007 expeditions, respectively) allow a new examination of the spatial distribution of the noble gas isotopic compositions. The large dynamic range in helium isotopic compositions (6.5 to 30 times atmosphere (Ra)) coupled with the spatial distribution of recent submarine and subaerial volcanism provides a unique picture of mantle dynamics. The highest 3He/4He in the Galápagos are found in basalts from Fernandina volcano at the western edge of the archipelago, which also has the most unradiogenic neon isotopic compositions, suggesting that Fernandina lies above the hotspot center. The high helium isotopic signal drops off asymmetrically to the north and south of Fernandina, with higher 3He/4He ratios found to the South, ranging from 10 to 20 Ra near Cerro Azul, Sierra Negra, and Floreana. To the north of Fernandina, 3He/4He ratios decrease rapidly, reaching values close to MORB at Volcan Ecuador (9.8 to 11.4 Ra), Volcan Wolf (8.1 to 9.2 Ra), and Roca Redonda (7.6 to 9.5 Ra). Preliminary data suggests that He, Ne, and Ar isotopes are correlated in basalts from the western edge of the Galápagos. Using neon isotope data to correct 40Ar/36Ar for atmospheric influence shows that 3He/4He is negatively correlated with (extrapolated) 40Ar/36Ar, and strongly suggests that the noble gas variations relate to mantle source, which has important implications for deep earth noble gas budgets. New data from seamounts in the area between the Galápagos Spreading Center (GSC) and the main archipelago reveal relatively small hotspot helium contributions. The region between the GSC and Isla Pinta is characterized by 3He/4He close to MORB (7.3 to 7.7 Ra). The only evidence of hotspot helium contributions is observed at the southernmost end of the Wolf Darwin Lineament (9.3 Ra) and at the shoal between Genovesa and Marchena (9.5 Ra), which are separated by low values near Isla Pinta (6.5 to 6.9 Ra). This remarkable spatial variability in 3He/4He relates to heterogeneities within the upwelling hotspot, coupled with mantle melting at various depths, as the upwelling material advects to the northeast. The most striking result is the lack of (large) helium anomalies near the GSC, in contrast with other non-volatile geochemical indicators of hotspot influence, indicating that helium is extremely incompatible and is efficiently removed during the initial stages of hotspot upwelling.

Kurz, M. D.; Harpp, K. S.; Geist, D.; Fornari, D. J.; Curtice, J.; Lott, D. E.; Jenkins, W. J.

2010-12-01

198

Millised on teie suhted RKAS-iga? / Eero Järvekülg, Toivo Luik, Andres Elmik, Toomas Raju...[jt.  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Küsimusele vastab Carl Robert Jakobsoni Gümnaasiumi direktor Eero Järvekülg, Puiatu Erikooli direktor Toivo Luik, Märjamaa Gümnaasiumi direktor Andres Elmik, Rõuge Põhikooli direktor Toomas Raju, Nõo Reaalgümnaasiumi direktor Jaanus Järveoja ja Varstu Keskkooli direktor Maido Mändmets

2008-01-01

199

Mida arvate koolikohustusliku ea tõstmisest 18. eluaastani? / Eero Järvekülg, Boris Goldman, Rein Eglon, Andres Ammas...[jt.  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Küsimusele vastavad Carl Robert Jakobsoni nim. gümnaasiumi direktor Eero Järvekülg, Tartu linnavalitsuse haridusosakonna juhataja Boris Goldman, Pärnu Koidula gümnaasiumi direktor Rein Eglon, Haapsalu gümnaasiumi direktor Andres Ammas ja Väike-Maarja gümnaasiumi ja õppekeskuse direktor Raili Sirgmets

2008-01-01

200

Esimene Eesti maja Hiinas = The first Estonian house in China / Andres Põime, Lauri Vaimel ; interv. Triin Ojari  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Vestlus Pekingi Eesti saatkonna arhitektuurikonkursi võidutöö autoritega. Tulemused: I preemia - Andres Põime, Lauri Vaimel, II - Erik Nobel, Christian Jensen, Kristen Herup Sovang, Soren Andersson, Pille Kivihall, Dan Ljungar, Hans Willadsen (Taani), III - Kalle Vellevoog, Velle Kadalipp, Tiiu Truus, Martin Prommik

Põime, Andres

2008-01-01

201

Kas toiduainete hind on õiglane? Ei, isegi odav! / Andres Sooniste, Juhan Särgava, Kristjan Kongo, Kati Kusmin ; intervjueerinud Sulev Oll  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Vestlusringis toiduainete hindade üle arutamas on Tarbijakaitse ameti peadirektor Andres Sooniste, Põllumeeste Keskliidu president Juhan Särgava, Fazer Eesti ASi juhatuse esimees Kristjan Kongo ja ETK juhatuse esimees Kati Kusmin

2010-01-01

202

Sõiduautode treilervedajad loodavad tööle Euroopa Liidu Riikides / Sven Aria, Andres Sallo ; intervjueerinud Tanel Raig ; kommenteerinud Merike Riipinen  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Treilervedudele spetsialiseerunud OÜ Autologistika logistikadirektor Sven Aria ja OÜ Aatomik-Transport juhatuse esimees Andres Sallo vastavad küsimustele, mis puudutavad sõiduautode transpordi osatähtsust ettevõtte käibest, osatähtsuse vähenemist, edasisi plaane sõiduautode transpordiks mõeldud treilerite kasutamise osas ning kulude kokkuhoidu ettevõttes

Aria, Sven, 1968-

2009-01-01

203

Potential speciation of morphotypes in the photosymbiotic ascidian Didemnum molle in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Four morphotypes are recognized in the photosymbiotic ascidian Didemnum molle in the Ryukyu Archipelago: three color morphs (white, dark gray, and brown) of small-type colonies and one large-type colony (white with gray patches). The genetic variation among these four morphotypes was investigated by constructing phylogenetic trees based on a 401-bp fragment of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of 29 specimens collected from five islands (Okinawajima, Sesokojima, Ikeijima, Kumejima, and Ishigakijima). The results support the monophyly of the genus Didemnum and that of the four morphotypes of D. molle. Moreover, the phylogenetic trees discriminated four clades corresponding to each morphotype. The geographic differences of the sequences were much smaller than the differences among the morphotypes, suggesting that the four morphotypes in D. molle are discrete sibling species.

Hirose, M.; Yokobori, S.; Hirose, E.

2009-03-01

204

Functional analysis of the newly established plants induced by nesting gulls on Riou archipelago (Marseille, France)  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent population explosion of Yellow-legged gulls ( Larus cachinnans), nesting on the Riou archipelago, off Marseille (France), has perturbed the flora and the vegetation of this site. The present study consists of a functional approach to the newly established plant species through an analysis of some of their vital attributes. Small islets appear to be more affected by floristic turnover than larger islands. In some cases, more than 50 % of the current flora was not present 35 years ago. The newly established taxa show special adaptations to the severe ecological pressure induced by gull colonies and to the characteristics of the Mediterranean climate. These plant species are mostly therophytes or hemicryptophytes and have a ruderal or a stress-tolerant strategy. Gulls' contribution to propagule dispersal from the continent appears to be very slight, dispersal by wind being the prevalent mode.

Vidal, Eric; Médail, Frédéric; Tatoni, Thierry; Vidal, Patrick; Roche, Philip

1998-06-01

205

Models of oceanic island biogeography: changing perspectives on biodiversity dynamics in archipelagoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Models of biogeographic processes can both enhance and inhibit our ability to ask questions that guide our understanding of patterns and processes. The two ‘traditional’ models of island biogeography, the Equilibrium Model and the Vicariance Model, raise important and insightful questions about relevant processes, but both fail to raise many crucial questions. An example involving the non-volant mammals of the Philippine archipelago shows that both models highlight some, but not all, relevant patterns and processes. The more recently proposed General Dynamic Model successfully combines many of the positive aspects of the two traditional models, but leaves some important questions unasked. We pose a number of questions here that may help guide further development of models of island biogeography.

Lawrence R Heaney

2013-12-01

206

Geothermal availability in Indonesia, volcanic archipelagoes. Kazan renkan no gunto Indonesia no chinetsu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper introduces activities of major volcanic mountains in Indonesia and the current status of its geothermal development. Vigorous volcanic activities in the Indonesian archipelagoes are exemplified by eruptions of Mt. Tambora in Sumbawa Island, Krakatau volcano, Mt. Merapi, Papandayan volcano in Java Island. Estimated geothermal reserve reaches 895 MW according to explorations in candidate geothermal sites at Kamojang, Darajat, Dieng, Salak, etc. in Java Island. The Kamojang geothermal site has a large number of geysers, boiling mud pots, and sulfur hot springs. Pertamina, a national organization, has built the Rancabam Kamojang geothermal power plant, which is operating with a power output of 140 MW. The paper describes briefly geothermal developments being carried out at the Dieng area in Java Island, and other areas in Slawesi Island, Bali Island, Flores Island, and Sumatra Island. 17 figs.

1993-02-01

207

Crustal deformation study in the Canary Archipelago by the analysis of GPS observations  

Science.gov (United States)

The Canary Archipelago is an active volcanic region located in the African plate, at 100 Km of the northwest coast of Africa. The Complutense University of Madrid, Institute of Astronomy and Geodesy (CSIC-UCM) and University of Jaén, established a GPS Network in this region and carried out six observations campaigns from 2002 to 2009. The focus of thiswork is processing and analyzing these observations to study the geodynamic behavior of the stations of this network. The data have been computed with the Bernese GPS Software Version 5.0 obtaining individual solutions of coordinates for each session and campaign, the coordinate velocities of the stations and the time series of baselines formed between them. Results show consistency of station velocities compared to behaviour of areas permanent stations and baselines stability. No deformations could be detected.

Martín, Adriana; Sevilla, Miguel; Zurutuza, Joaquín

2014-06-01

208

Recent International and Domestic Migration in the Maltese Archipelago: An Economic Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Migration strategies often permit densely populated island territories to alleviate unemployment, ease pressure on limited resources, and compensate for the absence of economic diversification. This paper evaluates two types of recent migratory flows affecting the Maltese archipelago: international migration to and from the islands triggered or intensified by European Union membership; and domestic, inter-island movements between the ‘mainland’ (Malta and the smaller island (Gozo.The descriptive statistics used are based on published data, whilst the qualitative evaluation is derived from focus groups and interviews with stakeholders. Conclusions suggest that emigration remains an overall positive experience at the individual level, with constructive spill-over effects, mingling of cultures and better use of resources at the national level. Such benefits can be expected to increase if authorities design policies which encourage rather than discourage migratory flows.

Rose Marie Azzopardi

2012-05-01

209

Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity and Antimycobacterial Activity of Madeira Archipelago Endemic Helichrysum Dietary and Medicinal Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The potential bioactivity of dietary and medicinal endemic Helichrysum plants from Madeira Archipelago was explored, for the first time, in order to supply new information for the general consumer. In vitro antioxidant properties were investigated using DPPH, ABTS•+, FRAP and ?-Carotene assays, and the total phenolic content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC were also determined. Although the results generally showed a large variation among the three analyzed plants, the methanolic extracts showed the highest antioxidant capacity. Exception is made for H. devium n-hexane extract that showed good radical scavenger capacity associated to compounds with good reducing properties. In the Artemia salina toxicity assay and antimycobaterial activity, H. devium was the most potent plant with the lowest LD50 at 216.7 ± 10.4 and MIC ? 50 ?g·mL?1. Chemometric evaluation (Principal Component Analysis—PCA showed close interdependence between the ABTS, TPC and TFC methods and allowed to group H. devium samples.

Sandra C. Gouveia-Figueira

2014-10-01

210

Tuvalu, Sovereignty and Climate Change: Considering Fenua, the Archipelago and Emigration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tuvalu is a Pacific atoll nation-state that has come to stand for predicaments implicating climate change, forced emigration and resettlement, and loss of territory and sovereignty. Legal and policy remedies seek to address such challenges by radically reframing how sovereignty is conceived. Drawing on literary and legal theory, we seek to extend such work in the terms of cultural geography and anthropology by considering how the archipelago and cultural practices known as fenua could be deployed as symbolic and material resources emphasizing mobility and connection, in contrast to normative ideas of sovereignty, whose orientation to territory imperils atoll states. Our fundamental argument is that legal and policy reforms addressing climate change emigration must be enriched by accounting for the emotional geographies that attend the changing real and conceptual borders of sovereignty and by creating alternative spaces of hope and action.

Carol Farbotko

2013-05-01

211

Unexpectedly high radioactivity burdens in ice-rafted sediments from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unexpectedly high specific activities of 137Cs (1800-2000 Bq kg-1 dry weight) have been detected in fine-grained sediments entrained in multi-year sea ice floes grounded in Resolute Bay near the center of the Northwest Passage through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. These results are remarkable because: (1) the specific activities are about two orders of magnitude higher than average specific activities detected in previous studies of sea ice rafted sediments from the Arctic Ocean (2) two independent observations of these unexpectedly high specific activities were made several years apart (3) the sampling site is on the opposite side of the Arctic basin from potential radioactive sources such as disposal and weapons testing sites of the former Soviet Union and nuclear fuel reprocessing sites in western Europe, and (4) the closest compositional match to known geologic source regions is Banks Island, on the western edge of the Arctic Archipelago, although a smaller number of grains from one of the two samples were mineralogically matched to sediments in the Laptev Sea. Consequently, the sediments are probably not from a single distinct source and were likely mixed during sea ice transport. Coupled with previous observations of higher radionuclide specific activities in some sea ice rafted sediments relative to bottom sediments, these new observations indicate that comparatively high as well as variable radioactive contaminant burdens in ice raftedioactive contaminant burdens in ice rafted sediments must be common and geographically independent of proximity to known contaminant sources. The mechanisms that would facilitate these unexpected high radionuclide burdens in sea ice are not known and require additional study, as well as investigations of the implications for the transport and fate of contaminants in Arctic sea ice

212

New data on Perkinsus mediterraneus in the Balearic Archipelago: locations and affected species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Perkinsus mediterraneus, a protozoan parasite that can cause perkinsosis (marine mollusc disease), was first detected in oysters Ostrea edulis from Mahon (Minorca, Balearic Islands, Spain) in 2004. Several years later it was also found in Andratx Harbour (Majorca, Balearic Islands) and in the Gulf of Manfredonia (Adriatic coast of Italy) in oyster populations. Since 2007, Perkinsus surveys have been conducted in different localities and shellfish species in the Balearic Archipelago. In the present work, we found P. mediterraneus in the Balearic Islands infecting oyster and other shellfish species. We describe infection with P. mediterraneus for the first time in Arca noae and Mimachlamys varia. The detection was carried out using Ray's fluid thioglycolate medium (RFTM), histology and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methodologies. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (including ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2) of P. mediterraneus ribosomal DNA was sequenced from infected bivalve gills (or from the body in Chamelea gallina) from Balearic Archipelago localities. Twelve haplotypes with a strong genetic similarity between them (97-100%) were observed in our samples. These data were completed with 12 more haplotypes from GenBank sequences. The phylogenetic relationship between Balearic P. mediterraneus haplotypes found in this study, those previously obtained in Mahon Harbour, and the Perkinsus spp. sequences available in GenBank clearly grouped the different Perkinsus spp. in distinct clades supported by strong bootstrap values. Moreover, these analyses detected different P. mediterraneus groups in O. edulis from Minorca Island. No abnormal mortalities or decline in populations were detected during the survey, except for C. gallina, which is also affected by Marteilia refringens. PMID:25392044

Valencia, J M; Bassitta, M; Picornell, A; Ramon, C; Castro, J A

2014-11-14

213

Distribution and estimated release of sediment phosphorus in the northern Baltic Sea archipelagos  

Science.gov (United States)

Phosphorus contents in the sediments were determined in archipelago areas of the northern Baltic Sea (Svealand in Sweden and Åland, SW Finland and W Uusimaa in Finland) during 2008-2012. Spatial and vertical distribution of phosphorus was studied by analysing sediment samples from 345 stations of different seabed substrate types. A sequential extraction method was applied to evaluate the pool of the potentially mobile phosphorus, i.e., the amount of phosphorus that can be expected to be released from sediments to water with time, and possibly support primary production. In addition, vertical distribution of immobile phosphorus forms in the sediments was used as a tool to assess phosphorus burial. The uppermost 2 cm of sediments were calculated to contain 126,000 tonnes of phosphorus in the study area covering 19,200 km2 of the seafloor. Subtracting the assumed average background content (i.e. that assumed to be buried) of this total phosphorus content gave an estimation of 31,000-37,000 tonnes of potentially mobile phosphorus at the sediment surface. Redox sensitive iron-bound phosphorus accounts for two thirds of this pool. Compared with the total phosphorus input from the catchment of the entire Baltic Sea - 29,000 tonnes in 2009 - it can be concluded that the store of phosphorus that can be released with time from the sediments is large, and that internal phosphorus recycling processes thus may play a key role in phosphorus fluxes in the coastal zone. Spreading of hypoxia in the future, as recent modelling and sediment proxy results suggest, is likely to severely deteriorate the water quality, particularly in the archipelago areas where the water exchange is slow.

Puttonen, Irma; Mattila, Johanna; Jonsson, Per; Karlsson, O. Magnus; Kohonen, Tuula; Kotilainen, Aarno; Lukkari, Kaarina; Malmaeus, J. Mikael; Rydin, Emil

2014-05-01

214

San Diego's Capital Planning Process  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes San Diego's capital planning process. As part of its capital planning process, the San Diego Unified School District has developed a systematic analysis of functional quality at each of its school sites. The advantage of this approach is that it seeks to develop and apply quantifiable metrics and standards for the more…

Lytton, Michael

2009-01-01

215

75 FR 55975 - Safety Zone; San Diego Harbor Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

...read as follows: Sec. 165.T11-332 Safety Zone; San Diego Harbor Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All the navigable waters of the San Diego Bay bounded by the...

2010-09-15

216

77 FR 42647 - Safety Zone: San Diego Symphony POPS Fireworks; San Diego, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

...navigable waters of San Diego Bay in support of the San...from a barge in San Diego Bay. The barge will be located...a portion of San Diego Bay from 9 p.m. to 10 p...safety or security of people, places or vessels...Fireworks; San Diego, California. (a) Location....

2012-07-20

217

Lean versus Quick Response Manufacturing og andre koncepter - er Lean den eneste ene?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Begrebet Lean har gennem de senere år vundet en enorm udbredelse. Antallet af publikationer om Lean har været eksplosivt stigende, og mange virksomheder har gennemført eller gennemfører Lean-projekter. Er Lean et nyt koncept? Er Lean den eneste løsning? Kan Lean kombineres med tankegange og principper fra andre koncepter? Artiklen er opdelt i fire hovedafsnit. I første afsnit skitseres baggrunden for Lean. I andet afsnit skitseres kort indholdet i Lean. I tredje afsnit skitseres tankegangen bag Quick Response Manufacturing - et begreb, der har mange ligheder med Lean, men som har fokus på løsning af en anden produktionsopgave. I fjerde afsnit skitseres kort relationerne mellem Lean og to andre begreber, Six Sigma og TPM, der begge har samme mål som Lean, men forskellige udgangspunkter og forskellige indfaldsvinkler.

Michelsen, Aage U

2005-01-01

218

Analysis of lichen species for atmospheric pollution biomonitoring in the Santo Andre municipality, Sao Paulo, Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied for the determination of trace elements in Canoparmelia texana species collected in nonpolluted areas of Atlantic Forest and in six sites of Santo Andre Municipality, SP, Brazil. Concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cs, Co, Fe, K, La, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, U, and Zn were determined and comparisons were made between the results obtained in lichens from different sites

219

Composition of volatile oil, isolated from Duchesnea Indica (Andr.) Focke  

OpenAIRE

The herbage of mock strawberry, Duchesnea indica (Andr.) Focke, Rosaceae, on hydro distillation yields an aromatic pale yellow oil (0.1%). GC-MS analysis revealed that the herb essential oil contained carvacryl acetate (30.5%), valencene (7.6%), nona-hexacontanoic acid (7.2%), aristalone (5.3%), dehydro-aromadendrene (4.6%), eicosane (4.1%), and 2-hexa-decan-ol (4.1%), as major components.

Umesh B; Thoppil J

2006-01-01

220

Udviklingen af TPM (Total Productive Maintenance) - og relationer til andre koncepter  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Koncepterne TPS, TQC og TPM har gennem årtier undergået en løbende udvikling, og for alle tre koncepter gælder, at deres indhold herved gradvist er blevet udvidet - fra at omfatte specifikke problemstillinger i produktionen til at omfatte næsten hele virksomheden. I artiklen skitseres træk af denne udvikling, primært med henblik på belysning af baggrunden for TPM og dermed for forståelse af det indhold, TPM har i dag, samt hvorledes dette koncept kan relateres til de to andre koncepter.

Michelsen, Aage U.

2003-01-01

221

Association of bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2) and urinary bladder tumours in cattle from the Azores archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urinary bladder tumours in cattle are caused by chronic ingestion of bracken fern and BPV-1/2 infection. The objective of the present study was to assess if BPV-2 was present in urinary bladder lesions from cattle with chronic enzootic haematuria (CEH) from the Azores archipelago (Portugal), in order to gain further information regarding the epidemiologic distribution of this virus. Samples were analysed using PCR specific primers for BPV-2 DNA and an immunohistochemistry for BPV E5 oncoprotein detection. We found a 28% incidence rate of BPV-2 DNA in different types of tumours and cystitis cases (13 out of 46 samples). Tested positive samples for PCR were also positive for the viral E5 oncoprotein; protein immunolabeling was mainly detected within the cytoplasm of urothelial cells, displaying a juxtanuclear distribution. This is the first report of BPV-2 detection in urinary bladder tumours associated with CEH in cattle from the Azores archipelago. PMID:20189209

Resendes, Ana R; Roperto, Sante; Trapani, Francesca; Urraro, Chiara; Rodrigues, Armindo; Roperto, Franco; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe

2011-06-01

222

Taxonomy and biogeography of the coastal fishes of Juan Fernández Archipelago and Desventuradas Islands, Chile / Taxonomía y biogeografía de los peces costeros del Archipiélago de Juan Fernández y de las islas Desventuradas, Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Las islas Desventuradas (San Félix y San Ambrosio) y del Archipiélago de Juan Fernández (Robinson Crusoe y Alejandro Selkirk) son islas oceánicas de origen volcánico ubicadas en el Pacífico Sudeste, frente a Chile. Sobre la base de material recolectado desde 1997 hasta la fecha, revisiones de colecc [...] iones de las expediciones del R/V Anton Bruun y actualizaciones taxonómicas, la fauna de peces litorales del Archipélago de Juan Fernández y las islas Desventuradas tienen un total de 52 especies, con 41 y 43 especies, respectivamente. Los peces costeros endémicos de Juan Fernández son solamente cinco (12,2%) y tres son las especies registradas aquí como nuevas para las islas (Gymnothorax cf. obesus, Gnathophis sp., Suezichthys sp.). Las Desventuradas tienen solamente dos especies endémicas (4,6%) y cuatro son los nuevos registros (Scorpaenodes englerti, Maxillicosta reticulata, Suezichthys sp., Aseraggodes bahamondei). El reducido número de especies endémicas para Juan Fernández comparado con trabajos previos (15 especies) se debe a que muchas resultaron ser endémicas de ambos grupos de islas (22 especies = 42,3% total peces litorales), apoyando la propuesta que ambos grupos de islas debieran formar una sola unidad biogeográfica. La extensión oriental de la región Indo Pacífico Oeste para incluir la cordillera de Nazca, las islas Desventuradas y Juan Fernández encuentra apoyo en este trabajo. La afinidad zoogeográfica entre las Desventuradas y las islas del Pacífico Oeste (Isla de Pascua hasta Australia) incluye 16 especies, agregando cinco nuevos registros a listas anteriores. Filogenias de tres géneros señalan un centro de origen en el Pacífico Oeste, con uno o más eventos de dispersión hacia las islas Desventuradas y Juan Fernández. Este patrón de dispersión puede repetirse en otros siete géneros de pocas especies y relativamente restringidas en distribución. Solo una filogenia (Odontesthes) propone un origen continental con una dispersión hacia el Oeste, sin embargo otros tres géneros parecen tener este mismo patrón de dispersión. Abstract in english The Desventuradas Islands (San Félix and San Ambrosio) and Juan Fernández Archipelago (Robinson Crusoe and Alejandro Selkirk) are oceanic islands of volcanic origin located in the southeastern Pacific off Chile. Based on new material collected since 1997, revision of the R/V Anton Bruun expeditions [...] collections, and a taxonomic update, the coastal fish fauna of Juan Fernández Archipelago and Desventuradas Islands found a total of 52 species, with 41 and 43 species, respectively. The number of coastal fish species recorded herein as endemic for Juan Fernández is only five (12,2%) and three species are new records (Gymnothorax cf. obesus, Gnathophis sp., Suezichthys sp). The Desventuradas Islands have only two endemic species (4,6%) and four species are new records (Scorpaenodes englerti, Maxillicosta reticulata, Suezichthys sp., Aseraggodes bahamondei). The reduced number of endemic species for the Juan Fernández Islands as compared with previous accounts (15 species) is the result that more species were found to be endemic to both islands groups (22 species = 42,3% all coastal fishes), suggesting these two island groups should be considered a single biogeographic unit. The eastern extension of the Indo West Pacific Region to include the Nazca Ridge, Desventuradas and Juan Fernández Islands is supported herein. The zoogeographical affinities between Desventuradas and western Pacific Islands (Easter Island to Australia), includes 16 species, adding five new species to previous lists. Relationships of three genera indicate a Western Pacific origin with one or more dispersal events to the Desventuradas and Juan Fernández Islands. Another seven genera, with relatively few species and restricted distribution, may have this same pattern. Only one phylogenetic study indicates a continental origin with a westward dispersal (Odontesthes), however another thr

Brian S, Dyer; Mark W, Westneat.

2010-12-01

223

Spatial distribution of oxygen-18 and deuterium in stream- and groundwaters across the Japanese archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The stable isotope signatures of local stream- and groundwater are commonly used for the hydrological processes assuming that these tracers reflect the characteristics and history of the recharge water, i.e., local precipitation. To validate this assumption, one important step is to compare the signature of local precipitation with that of stream- and groundwater. In this study, the spatial distribution of oxygen-18 and deuterium in stream- and groundwaters across the Japanese archipelago is considered. The streamwater samples were collected at 1278 forest catchments during the summer season of 2003. As the groundwater samples, we collected 142 commercial bottled waters with as many different sources across Japan as possible. The precipitation data were collected from previous studies and unpublished data kindly offered by many researchers, as well as new data for this study. We found a clear liner relationship for the streamwater as; deltaD = 6.85 delta18O + 6.11 (r2= 0.89), and for the groundwater, i.e., deltaD = 7.32 delta18O + 9.90 (r2 = 0.93). The delta18O in the streamwater, as well as in the groundwater, had negative correlation with the latitude and the ground surface elevation at the sampling point. The regression equations to the latitude were similar each other; y=-0.35x+3.4 (r2=0.43) for streamwater and y=-0.35x+3.6 (r2=0.45) for groundwater, respectively. The equations to the elevation were also similar each other; y=-0.0028x-8.0(r2=0.30) for the streamwater and y = -0.0032x-8.1(r2 = 0.35) for the groundwater. Thus, the latitude and altitude effects, which are commonly observed in precipitation, are also reflected to the stream- and the groundwater. Moreover, the isotope signature of the recharge water is well conserved along the infiltration processes. The observed d-excess in precipitation were commonly higher in winter and lower in summer. The values in both stream- and groundwater were clearly divided along the backbone mountains; higher at Japan Sea side, and lower at Pacific Ocean side of the Japanese archipelago. These spatial patterns may be caused by the seasonality of monthly precipitation. At Japan Sea side it is much snowfall and seasonality in precipitation are rather small. In contrast, it is much rainfall during summer with small precipitation during winter at Pacific Ocean side. Comparing the mean weighted values of the precipitation with the arithmetic mean values of the stream- or groundwater, these were well agreed at Pacific Ocean side, however, less agreed and the values of the rainfall were smaller at Japan Sea side. Therefore, the lower values at Pacific Ocean side reflect the summer plentiful precipitations, and the higher values at Japan Sea side are affected by the delayed snowmelt. The spatial distribution of isotope signature in stream- and groundwaters clearly reflected the geographical features and precipitation patterns of the Japanese archipelago. Therefore, the stream- or groundwater dataset is valuable as a proxy for the isotopic compositions of precipitation. Especially, the commercial bottled waters are, if available, very easy to collect and very powerful tool for the hydrological researches.

Katsuyama, M.; Yoshioka, T.; Konohira, E.; Tayasu, I.; Tani, M.

2011-12-01

224

Surface layer salinity gradients and flow patterns in the archipelago coast of SW Finland, northern Baltic Sea  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The highly fragmented Archipelago Sea in the northern Baltic Sea forms part of a sill area between two large sea basins. In addition to the water exchange between the basins, its waters are influenced by runoff, and thus the sea area has both sill and estuarine characteristics. We studied surface layer salinity gradients and their applicability in defining water exchange patterns through and within the region. A broad scale salinity pattern was detected during two sequenti...

Suominen, Tapio; Tolvanen, Harri; Kalliola, Risto

2010-01-01

225

Nutritional status and metabolism of the coral Stylophora subseriata along a eutrophication gradient in Spermonde Archipelago (Indonesia)  

OpenAIRE

Coral responses to degrading water quality are highly variable between species and depend on their tro- phic plasticity, acclimatization potential, and stress resis- tance. To assess the nutritional status and metabolism of the common scleractinian coral, Stylophora subseriata, in situ experiments were carried along a eutrophication gra- dient in Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia. Coral frag- ments were incubated in light and dark chambers to measure photosynthesis, respiration, and calcific...

Sawall, Yvonne; Teichberg, Mirta C.; Seemann, Janina; Litaay, Magdalena; Jompa, Jamaluddin; Richter, Claudio

2011-01-01

226

Fishes associated with spinner dolphins at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, tropical Western Atlantic: an update and overview  

OpenAIRE

An update is presented for fish species associated with spinner dolphins at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, tropical Western Atlantic, providing a general view of their diversity. The associates are mostly reef-dwelling fishes that feed on the dolphin wastes. Twelve species are habitual or occasional plankton-eaters and two species are herbivores that occasionally forage on floating pieces of algae. One species is a strict carnivore, one species is a hitchhiker that forages on a variety of f...

Ivan Sazima; Cristina Sazima; José Martins da Silva-Jr

2006-01-01

227

Absolute palaeointensity of Oligocene (28-30 Ma) lava flows from the Kerguelen Archipelago (southern Indian Ocean).  

OpenAIRE

We report palaeointensity estimates obtained from three Oligocene volcanic sections from the Kerguelen Archipelago (Mont des Ruches, Mont des Tempetes, and Mont Rabouillere). Of 402 available samples, 102 were suitable for a palaeofield strength determination after a preliminary selection, among which 49 provide a reliable estimate. Application of strict a posteriori criteria make us confident about the quality of the 12 new mean-flow determinations, which are the first reli...

Plenier, Guillaume; Camps, Pierre; Coe, Robert; Perrin, Mireille

2003-01-01

228

Automicrites in modern cyanobacterial stromatolitic deposits of Rangiroa, Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia: Biochemical parameters underlaying their formation  

OpenAIRE

This paper provides evidence of the role of the proteinaceous constituents of the sedimentary organic matter in the control of (Ca, Mg) carbonate precipitation within recent stromatolitic sediments belonging to the kopara-type (Rangiroa, Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia). Millimeter- to cm-thick alternating carbonate-rich and carbonate-poor layers allow the separation by hand of these two contrasted types of layers (with respect to carbonate content). The study aims, (1) to decipher the ...

Gautret, Pascale; Trichet, Jean

2005-01-01

229

Pollination in small islands by occasional visitors: the case of Daucus carota subsp. commutatus (Apiaceae) in the Columbretes archipelago, Spain  

OpenAIRE

This study investigates the pollination ecology and related floral traits of the species Daucus carota subsp. commutatus in the isolated archipelago of Columbretes, E. Spain, where bees are absent. Two populations were studied: a small population found on a relatively large island (Grossa) inhabited nowadays by three people; and a larger population on a smaller non-inhabited island (Foradada). The plant, found also in other rocky coastal enclaves of the west Mediterranean, is totally self-com...

Pe?rez Ban?o?n, Celeste; Petanidou, Theodora; Marcos Garci?a, Mari?a A?ngeles

2006-01-01

230

Marine invertebrate fauna of the Chausey archipelago: an annotated checklist of historical data from 1828 to 2008  

OpenAIRE

The first updated list of the marine invertebrate fauna of the Chausey archipelago (Normand-Breton Gulf, France) is presented. All publications regarding the natural history of the area, as well as the existing collections of marine invertebrates from 1828 to 2008 were examined. A total of 769 species (including 245 Arthropoda, 197 Mollusca, 146 Polychaeta), have been recorded in this area covering 5000 ha. This species richness is largely the result of the complexity of benthic habitatsof th...

Godet, Laurent; Le Mao, Patrick; Grant, Cindy; Olivier, Fre?de?ric

2010-01-01

231

Size distribution and genetic diversity of the offshore rockfish (Pontinus kuhlii) from three Atlantic archipelagos and seamounts  

Science.gov (United States)

The offshore rockfish (Pontinus kuhlii) is a widespread demersal fish in the temperate eastern Atlantic. This species inhabits hard bottoms at depths between 100 and 600m and it is an important resource for the Azorean commercial fishing fleet. During several research fishing surveys in the Azores, Madeira and Cape Verde archipelagos diverse biological data on this species were collected. The degree of geographical population differentiation across the three Atlantic archipelagos was examined using two mitochondrial markers, control region (CR) and cytochrome b (cyt b). A total of 44 specimens were sequenced for each marker revealing high haplotypic diversity (CR: Hd=0.9736; cyt b: Hd=0.8520) and low nucleotide diversity (CR: ?=0.0171; cyt b: ?=0.0059). The sample size from the different subareas was limited but sufficient to reveal that no genetic structure was evident (?ST=-0.0465 to -0.0224), suggesting the existence of one panmictic population. Despite very different exploitation rates between archipelagos, the size structure of P. kuhlii was very similar and inter-annual variation was also low. Exploitation rates are probably too low to significantly affect the size structure, even in the Azores where the species is a secondary target of the commercial fishery. In the Azores region this species is more abundant on seamounts, however bigger fishes tend to occur on island slope than on seamounts.

Catarino, Diana; Stefanni, Sergio; Menezes, Gui M.

2013-12-01

232

76 FR 75908 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

...University of California, San Diego Officials of the University of California, San Diego have determined that: The...ceded to the United States an area that includes present-day San Diego County. The...

2011-12-05

233

Height Connections and Land Uplift Rates in West-Estonian Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

Land uplift rates are largest in the western part of Estonia. The uplift is due to post-glacial rebound. In 2001-2011, the Estonian national high-precision levelling network was completely renewed and levelled. This was the third precise levelling campaign in the re-gion. The first one had taken place before the Second World War and the second one in the 1950s. The Estonian mainland was connected with the two largest islands (Saaremaa and Hiiumaa) in the west-Estonian archipelago using the water level monitoring (hydrody-namic levelling) method. Three pairs of automatic tide gauges were installed on opposite coasts of each waterway. The tide gauges were equipped with piezoresistive pressure sen-sors. This represented the first use of such kind of equipment in Estonia. The hydrodynamic levelling series span up to two calendar years. Nevertheless, the obtained hydrodynamic levelling results need to be additionally verified using alternative geodetic methods. The obtained results were compared with the previous high-precision levelling data from the 1960s and 1970s. As well, the new Estonian gravimetric geoid model and the GPS survey were used for GPS-levelling. All the three methods were analyzed, and the preliminary results coincided within a 1-2 cm margin. Additionally, the tide gauges on the mainland and on both islands were connected using high-precision levelling. In this manner, three hydrodynamic and three digital levelling height differences formed a closed loop with the length of 250 km. The closing error of the loop was less than 1 cm. Finally, the Fennoscandian post-glacial rebound was determined from repeated levelling as well as from repeated GPS survey. The time span between the two campaigns of the first-order GPS survey was almost 13 years. According to new calculations, the relative land uplift rates within the study area reached up to +2 mm/year. This is an area with a rela-tively small amount of input data for the Nordic models. In addition, a comparison with the Fennoscandian land uplift model NKG2005LU is presented. The results coincided with this model within a 1-mm range. Keywords: hydrodynamic levelling, post-glacial land uplift, GPS-levelling, West-Estonian archipelago.

Jürgenson, H.; Liibusk, A.; Kall, T.

2012-04-01

234

Northern California near San Francisco  

Science.gov (United States)

A part of northern California centered near San Francisco Bay (38.0N, 122.0W) photographed at 3 p.m. January 1, 1974, from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This near vertical view encompasses the coastline from Monteray Bay (right) to about 50 miles north of Point Reyes (left) and includes, from bottom to top, San Francisco Bay (center), Sacramento Valley (left center), San Joaquin Valley (right center), and the snow-covered Sierra Nevada. Afternoon shadows sharply delineate a valley which parallels San Francisco Bay, crosses Point Reyes, and lies between the Bay and the Pacific coastline. This valley marks the location of the San Andreas Fault. Forces acting on the crust are causing the land west (bottom) of the fault line to move north relative to land on the east side. Agricultural areas in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys are indicated by the tan areas which are easily discerned in contrast to the green-gray background.

1974-01-01

235

77 FR 48532 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: San Diego State University, San Diego, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

...Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: San Diego State University, San Diego, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior...SUMMARY: The San Diego State University Archaeology Collections...

2012-08-14

236

A new species of Echium (Boraginaceae from the island of Porto Santo (Madeira Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new species endemic from the island of Porto Santo (Madeira Archipelago is described as Echium portosanctensis J.A. Carvalho, Pontes, Batista-Marques & R. Jardim. Morphological studies based on reproductive and vegetative traits revealed a set of diagnostic characters confirming separation of E. portosanctensis from other recognized species at sectional level. A taxonomic diagnosis, a morphological description and illustrations of the new species are provided. Images, distribution maps, ecological data and a key for Madeiran species of Echium are also provided. Diagnostic characters, conservation status, threats and speciation mechanisms are discussed. In addition, reports on the occurrence of E. candicans on the island of Porto Santo are also discussed.Echium portosanctensis J.A. Carvalho, Pontes, Batista-Marques & R. Jardim se describe para la isla de Porto Santo (Achipiélago de Madeira. Estudios morfológicos basados en datos reproductivos y vegetativos revelan una serie de caracteres diagnósticos que confirman la separación de E. portosanctensis de otras especies de su sección. Se aportan una diagnosis taxonómica, una descripción morfológica e ilustraciones para esta nueva especie. Se presentan imágenes, mapas de distribución, datos ecológicos y una clave para las especies de Madeira. Se discuten los caracteres diagnósticos, el estado de conservación, amenazas, y los mecanismos de especiación. También se discuten datos previos sobre la presencia de E. candicans en la isla de Porto Santo.

Jardim, Roberto

2010-12-01

237

Effects of fish stocking on ecosystem services: an overview and case study using the Stockholm Archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, we focus on documented and possible effects of fish stocking in terms of ecosystem services. The increasing use of fish stocking between 1970 and 2000 in the semiurban setting of Stockholm archipelago, Sweden, is used as case study. The objective is to analyze this management practice from an ecosystem perspective, accounting for both the ecological and social context of releasing fish. The results show that enhancements of four native species (Salmo S. trutta, Salmo salar, Stizostedion lucioperca, and Anguilla anguilla) have dominated over new introductions of one nonnative species. (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The major objective has been to increase fish catches for local resource users. Involved stakeholders include three management agencies, one hydropower company, and several local sport fishing associations. Documented effects focus on recapture and production rates. However, our analysis suggests that additional positive or negative effects on biodiversity, food web dynamics, mobile links, or ecological information may also result, with possible consequences for the long-term provision of food, game, and aesthetic values. We conclude that a more adaptive and cooperative management approach could benefit from a deeper analysis of where, when, and what species is released, by whom, which stakeholders that use the fish and those ecosystem services the fish generate, and of the role of formal and informal institutions for monitoring and evaluating the success of releasing fish. PMID:15156349

Holmlund, Cecilia M; Hammer, Monica

2004-06-01

238

Summertime community structure of intertidal macrobenthos in Changdao Archipelago, Shandong Province, China  

Science.gov (United States)

The community structure of intertidal macrobenthos in Changdao Archipelago (north of Shandong Peninsula, between Bohai Bay and the northern Yellow Sea) was examined based on samples collected from 14 stations in five transects in June 2007. Three stations corresponding to high, medium and low tidal areas were set up for each transect. A total of 68 macrobenthic species were found in the research region, most of which belonged to Mollusca and Crustacea. The average abundance and biomass of the macrobenthos was 1 383 ind./m2 and 372.41 g/m2, respectively. The use of an arbitrary similarity level of 20% resulted in identification of five groups among the 14 stations in the research region. There were remarkable differences in the biomass, abundance and Shannon-Wiener diversity index of the different sediments. Specifically, the order of biomass was rocky shores > gravel > mud-sand > coarse sand > stiff mud, while the order of abundance was rocky shores > coarse sand > mud-sand > gravel > stiff mud, and that of the diversity index was mud-sand > gravel > stiff mud > rocky shores > coarse sand. The above results revealed that the sediment type was the most important factor affecting the structure of the macrobenthic community of the intertidal zone.

Wang, Xiaochen; Li, Xinzheng; Li, Baoquan; Wang, Hongfa

2009-09-01

239

Spatial distribution of oxygen-18 and deuterium in stream waters across the Japanese archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The spatial distribution of oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition (?18O and ?2H of stream waters across Japan was clarified with a data set compiling sample data obtained from 1278 forest catchments during the summer of 2003. Both ?18O and ?2H values showed positive correlations with the mean annual air temperature and annual evapotranspiration, and negative correlations with latitude and elevation. Deuterium excess (d excess values in stream waters were higher on the Sea of Japan side, and lower on the Pacific Ocean side, of the Japanese archipelago. The d excess in precipitation was generally higher in winter and lower in summer in Japan. The Sea of Japan side experiences a great deal of snowfall, and seasonal changes in monthly precipitation are rather small. In contrast, the Pacific Ocean side experiences a large amount of rainfall during summer with low levels of precipitation during the winter. Therefore, the lower d excess in stream waters on the Pacific Ocean side reflects summer precipitation, and the higher values on the Sea of Japan side are affected by delayed recharge from snowmelt. The isoscapes of stream water connote not only spatially integrated but also temporally integrated isotope signals of precipitation, and provide a framework for addressing applied hydrological, ecological, or meteorological research questions at regional scales, such as the effects of climate change.

M. Katsuyama

2014-09-01

240

Aesthetics and Empire: The Sense of Feminine Beauty in the Making of the US Imperial Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article examines the “sense of beauty” in the United States imperial archipelago, composed of the island territories of Cuba, Hawai`i, Philippines, and Puerto Rico, all acquired in 1898. The theoretical connection among these two elements –aesthetics and empire– is provided by a revision of the concepts “economy of colonial desire” and “complex of visuality.” This paper analyzes the most advanced visual technology of the late nineteenth century: the mass- produced, printed photograph. In particular, it focuses upon the representations of feminine beauty as found the illustrated “new-possessions” books which described recent island acquisitions of the United States. The connections between aesthetics and the forms of governance in each territory will also be elucidated.Este artículo examina el “sentido de belleza” en el archipiélago imperial estadounidense, compuesto de los territorios isleños de Cuba, Hawai`i, Filipinas y Puerto Rico, todos adquiridos en 1898. La conexión teórica entre estos dos elementos –estética e imperio– se establece mediante una revisión de los conceptos de “economía de deseo colonial” y el “complejo de visualidad”. Este artículo analiza la tecnología visual más avanzada del siglo diecinueve tardío: la fotografía impresa. En particular, se enfoca en las representaciones de belleza femenina en los libros ilustrados de las “nuevas posesiones” los cuales describían las adquisiciones recientes de los Estados Unidos. También, se dilucidarán las conexiones entre estética y las formas de gobernanza en cada territorio.

Thompson, Lanny

2013-12-01

241

The volcanic-subvolcanic rocks of the fernando de noronha archipelago, southern atlantic ocean: Mineral chemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

Fernando de Noronha archipelago presents an older Remédios Formation with subvolcanic intrusions, belonging to two different alkaline series, the sodic (undersaturated: basanites, tephrites, essexites, tephriphonolites, phonolites), and potassic ones (mildly undersaturated to silicic, with alkali basalts, basaltic trachyandesites, trachyandesites, trachytes), and lamprophyres. The upper Quixaba Formation presents nephelinite flows and basanites. A third minor unit, São José, is constituted by basanites carrying mantle xenoliths. Magnesian olivines occur in the Remédios basanites and alkali basalts, and in nephelinites. Melilites are present as groundmass grains in melilite melanephelinites (MEM). Clinopyroxenes (cpx) are mostly salites to titaniferous salites (Remédios sodic series), grading into aegirines in the differentiated aphyric phonolites. Cpx in the lamprophyres show disequilibrium textures. In the Quixaba flows, cpx are salites, enriched in Mg (especially in MEM). Amphiboles, remarkably, are common in tephriphonolites and phonolites and in basaltic trachyandesites, sometimes with disequilibrum zoning textures, and a conspicuous phase in lamprophyres. Dark micas are present as groundmass plates in MEM, OLM and PYM (olivine and pyroxene melanephelinites), with compositional variety (enriched in Ti, Ba, Sr) depending on the composition of the parent rock; BaO can be as high as 16-19%. Feldspars crystallize as calcic plagioclases, sanidines and anorthoclases, depending on the rock types, as phenocrysts and in groundmass, both in Quixaba and Remédios rocks; they are absent in nephelinites. Nephelines are found in Remédios sodic series types and Quixaba rocks. Haüyne and noseane are rarely observed in Remédios rocks.

Lopes, Rosana; Ulbrich, Mabel; Ulbrich, Horstpeter

2014-12-01

242

Descriptions of two azooxanthellate Palythoa species (Subclass Hexacorallia, Order Zoantharia) from the Ryukyu Archipelago, southern Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Two new species of zoantharians (Hexacorallia, Zoantharia, Sphenopidae), Palythoa mizigama sp. n. and Palythoa umbrosa sp. n., are described from the Ryukyu Archipelago, southern Japan. Unlike almost all other known Palythoa spp., both species are azooxanthellate and inhabit low-light environments such as floors or sides of caves, crevasses, or hollows of shallow coral reefs. The two species were initially considered to be the same species from their similar habitat environments and highly similar morphological features. However, phylogenetic analyses of nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA, mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA, and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences revealed that these two species have a genetically distant relationship within the genus Palythoa. Morphological characteristics, including polyp size, tentacle number, external/internal coloration, and types and sizes of cnidae were examined in this study. As a result, only tentacle coloration was found to be useful for the morphological distinction between the two species. Palythoa mizigama possesses white tentacles with black horizontal stripes while Palythoa umbrosa possesses white tentacles without any stripe patterns. Considering their distant phylogenetic relationship, it can be assumed that their unique yet similar morphological and ecological characteristics developed independently in each species as an example of parallel evolution. PMID:25685008

Irei, Yuka; Sinniger, Frederic; Reimer, James Davis

2015-01-01

243

Multiscale Physical and Biological Dynamics in the Philippine Archipelago: Predictions and Processes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Philippine Archipelago is remarkable because of its complex geometry, with multiple islands and passages, and its multiscale dynamics, from the large-scale open-ocean and atmospheric forcing, to the strong tides and internal waves in narrow straits and at steep shelfbreaks. We employ our multiresolution modeling system to predict and study multiscale dynamics in the region, without the use of any synoptic in situ data, so as to evaluate modeling capabilities when only sparse remotely sensed sea surface height is available for assimilation. We focus on the February to March 2009 period, compare our simulation results to ocean observations and utilize our simulations to quantify and discover oceanic features in the region. The findings include: the physical drivers for the biogeochemical features; the diverse circulation features in each sub-sea and their variations on multiple scales; the flow fields within the major straits and their variabliity; the transports to and from the Sulu Sea and the corresponding balances; and finally, the multiscale mechanisms involved in the formation of the deep Sulu Sea water.

Pierre F.J. Lermusiaux

2011-03-01

244

Winds of time: Lessons from Utö in the Stockholm Archipelago, 1990–2001  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When investigating the success or failure of different wind power projects, it is essential to take into account how they were historically situated. This study focuses on attempts to develop wind power in an archipelago setting, at Utö in Sweden. It has been argued that the development of Swedish wind power slowed during the 1990s; by revisiting the early days of wind power, looking at resistance and support, and connecting success factors, this can be further investigated. Whereas earlier research pointed out institutional conditions and site-specific conditions as crucial for successful wind power development and acceptance, the picture can be made more complete by discussing how wind power projects are affected by time-specific historical conditions. In the case of Utö, these can partly be associated with a newly launched political support program that gave the project political legitimacy and added a “pioneering spirit” to the endeavor. Conversely, when wind power is not seen as “pioneering” or “experimental” any more, but as a mere industrial activity, other incentives may need to be offered to municipalities. -- Highlights: •When evaluating wind power projects, the historical context is important to complement the picture. •The case of Utö is tells important lessons of the Swedish early 1990s. •Success factors in this case: political legitimacy, local support, pioneering spirit, promising technology. •This wind power establishment was not seen as a threat to recreation or landscape. •Lessons for today: how to deal with socio-political acceptance when wind power becomes “industrial”

245

An integrated approach to characterize the basal aquifer of a volcanic island, Santa Cruz, Galapagos Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The main shield of Santa Cruz Island, at the center of the Galapagos Archipelago, is formed by series of thick fractured basaltic lava flows dissected by faults. The low-lying, extensive "basal" aquifer is the unique groundwater body currently identified on the island and is subjected to sea-water intrusion. Water abstracted from fault scarps in the coastal area and a 150 m deep borehole further inland is brackish and requires expensive desalination technique. Sea-water intrusion was mapped from electrical resistivity imaging with an airborne electromagnetic SkyTEM survey. At the regional and local scales, the fracturation network was described from satellite imagery and field measurements. A groundwater monitoring network was set up. The hydraulic properties of this heterogeneous geological environment was characterized by pumping tests and tidal signal propagation. In order to investigate recharge dynamics, a yearlong climatic monitoring was conducted in the humid highlands and compared to water level fluctuations in the deep borehole. Hydrodynamic properties were determined and recharge processes identified. Since cooling joints form a dense network of fractures, the aquifer is highly permeable. This facilitates sea-water intrusion and freshwater drainage to the ocean. Surprisingly, the highly conductive heterogeneities formed by fault scarps are not regional preferential groundwater flow paths. This is compatible with structural and geomorphological observations made at the ground surface where faults are seen to be discontinuous successions of "en echelon" tension fractures. A 2D numerical model will be used to determine the optimal location of a new borehole.

Pryet, A.; Minh Vu, T.; Adler, P. M.; Deffontaines, B.; d'Ozouville, N.; Violette, S.; Fortin, J.

2011-12-01

246

Satellite observations of regular eddies in bays of the Shantar Archipelago, Sea of Okhotsk  

Science.gov (United States)

Eddies with diameters of 4-40 km are formed near headlands running out into the sea in bays of the Shantar Archipelago. Such eddies play an important part in the dispersion of ice and plankton. The formation of these eddies is studied based on satellite and marine observations. To construct velocity vectors, images from the Aqua and Terra satellites were used (the data of channel 1 of the MODIS radiometer with a spatial resolution of 250 m). The measurements of currents were made by sequential satellite images with an interval of about 100 min. Large ice floes were chosen to determine currents by satellite data. Vectors of ice displacement were constructed and their velocities were calculated for each pair of images. The flow convergence is estimated using these data. The marine observations include direct observations of currents and CTD data. The observations of currents were obtained with electromagnetic meters mounted on anchored buoys. The results of direct observations point to tidal currents as the main mechanism for the formation of short-lived but regular convergence regions associated with headland eddies.

Rogachev, K. A.

2012-12-01

247

Integrating terrestrial and marine archives of Late Wisconsinan ice stream dynamics in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

During Late Wisconsinan glaciation the northern Laurentide and Innuitian ice sheets converged over the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. This ice sheet complex included several major ice streams, which constituted important dynamical components. Discharging into the Beaufort Sea and Baffin Bay, these ice streams were a primary control on ice sheet mass balance and ice age sedimentation on adjacent continental margins, including the Arctic Ocean basin. This study presents a new compilation of multibeam echosounder data, sub-bottom profiler data, radiocarbon ages, and marine sediment cores acquired primarily during regional surveys with the CCGS Amundsen. These data characterize the nature and thickness of seafloor sediments in Parry Channel (and many of its connecting channels) and Amundsen Gulf. When combined with the results of terrestrial geomorphological mapping of the adjacent islands, this dataset constrains the maximum extent, chronology, and behaviour of former ice streams in M'Clure Strait, Viscount Melville Sound, Lancaster Sound, and Amundsen Gulf. Importantly, these data highlight complex patterns of past ice stream flow during regional deglaciation. These results contribute to a better understanding of the causal mechanisms that occasioned retreat of the terrestrial and marine sectors of the Laurentide and Innuitian ice sheets. As well, this study helps to quantify past iceberg fluxes to the Arctic Ocean, which has implications for assessing past climate, and the origin of ice-rafted sediment and deep iceberg scours in the Arctic Ocean basin.

Lakeman, Thomas; Blasco, Steve; MacLean, Brian; Bennett, Robbie; England, John; Hughes Clarke, John; Covill, Bob; Patton, Eric

2014-05-01

248

Spatial distribution of oxygen-18 and deuterium in stream waters across the Japanese archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The spatial distribution of oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition (?18O and ?2H) of stream waters across Japan was clarified with a data set compiling sample data obtained from 1278 forest catchments during the summer of 2003. Both ?18O and ?2H values showed positive correlations with the mean annual air temperature and annual evapotranspiration, and negative correlations with latitude and elevation. Deuterium excess (d excess) values in stream waters were higher on the Sea of Japan side, and lower on the Pacific Ocean side, of the Japanese archipelago. The d excess in precipitation was generally higher in winter and lower in summer in Japan. The Sea of Japan side experiences a great deal of snowfall, and seasonal changes in monthly precipitation are rather small. In contrast, the Pacific Ocean side experiences a large amount of rainfall during summer with low levels of precipitation during the winter. Therefore, the lower d excess in stream waters on the Pacific Ocean side reflects summer precipitation, and the higher values on the Sea of Japan side are affected by delayed recharge from snowmelt. The isoscapes of stream water connote not only spatially integrated but also temporally integrated isotope signals of precipitation, and provide a framework for addressing applied hydrological, ecological, or meteorological research questions at regional scales, such as the effects of climate change.

Katsuyama, M.; Yoshioka, T.; Konohira, E.

2014-09-01

249

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air from Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece): Natural versus anthropogenic sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study presents the chemical composition of VOCs in air and gas discharges collected at Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece). The main goals are i) to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic VOC sources and ii) to evaluate their impact on local air quality. Up to 63 different VOCs were recognized and quantitatively determined in 6 fumaroles and 19 air samples collected in the Lakki caldera, where fumarolic emissions are located, and the outer ring of the island, including the Mandraki village and the main harbor. Air samples from the crater area show significant concentrations of alkanes, alkenes, cyclic, aromatics, and S- and O-bearing heterocycles directly deriving from the hydrothermal system, as well as secondary O-bearing compounds from oxidation of primary VOCs. At Mandraki village, C6H6/?(methylated aromatics) and ?(linear)/?(branched) alkanes ratios 2O–CO2–H2S rich and discharge a large variety of VOC species. •Benzene/toluene ratios identify anthropogenic and natural sources of VOCs in air. •Aldehydes in air are produced by oxidation of alkanes and alkenes. •Geogenic furans and hydrogenated halocarbons in air are recalcitrant. -- Anthropogenic and natural VOCs in air are distinguished on the basis of aromatic, O-substituted, S-substituted and halogenated compounds

250

Population dynamics of the mushroom coral Heliofungia actiniformis in the Spermonde Archipelago, South Sulawesi, Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

The fungiid Heliofungia actiniformis is one of the most popular coral species in the Indonesian aquarium trade, yet information on the biology of this species is limited. H. actiniformis growth rates, population size-frequency distributions and the seasonality of recruitment rates were measured at three replicate sites in the Spermonde Archipelago, South Sulawesi. Growth and population models were applied to estimate coral ages, mortality rates and the size of maximum yield. Growth decreased linearly with polyp size. High numbers of attached polyps budded from clusters of stalks attached to the reef, with each cluster originating from the settlement of a sexually produced larva. Neither the settlement of sexual recruits, nor their asexual budding, showed seasonality. The overall population structure reflected the high mortality rates of young, attached polyps ( Z = 0.5-0.6 yr-1), and the much lower mortalities of free-living individuals ( Z = 0.05-0.08 yr-1). There were no statistically significant differences in overall mortality rates and the age-frequency distributions of polyps aged 0-15 years between the sites. Differences in the abundance of large H. actiniformis polyps at the three replicate sites were correlated with percent cover of coral rubble. The application of the Beverton and Holt model revealed the highest biomass per H. actiniformis recruit was 12 cm, corresponding to a polyp age of 20 years.

Knittweis, L.; Jompa, J.; Richter, C.; Wolff, M.

2009-09-01

251

Descriptions of two azooxanthellate Palythoa species (Subclass Hexacorallia, Order Zoantharia) from the Ryukyu Archipelago, southern Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new species of zoantharians (Hexacorallia, Zoantharia, Sphenopidae), Palythoamizigama sp. n. and Palythoaumbrosa sp. n., are described from the Ryukyu Archipelago, southern Japan. Unlike almost all other known Palythoa spp., both species are azooxanthellate and inhabit low-light environments such as floors or sides of caves, crevasses, or hollows of shallow coral reefs. The two species were initially considered to be the same species from their similar habitat environments and highly similar morphological features. However, phylogenetic analyses of nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA, mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA, and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences revealed that these two species have a genetically distant relationship within the genus Palythoa. Morphological characteristics, including polyp size, tentacle number, external/internal coloration, and types and sizes of cnidae were examined in this study. As a result, only tentacle coloration was found to be useful for the morphological distinction between the two species. Palythoamizigama possesses white tentacles with black horizontal stripes while Palythoaumbrosa possesses white tentacles without any stripe patterns. Considering their distant phylogenetic relationship, it can be assumed that their unique yet similar morphological and ecological characteristics developed independently in each species as an example of parallel evolution. PMID:25685008

Irei, Yuka; Sinniger, Frederic; Reimer, James Davis

2015-01-01

252

Number of endemic and native plant species in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

By simple and multiple regression analyses we investigate updated species numbers of endemic and native vascular plants and seed plants in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters. We find that the best models to describe species numbers are regression models with log-transformed species numbers as dependent and log-transformed modified area (i.e. area not covered with barren lava) as an independent variable. This holds both for total species number, for native species number, for endemic species number and for total number of seed plants as well as number of endemic seed plants. For the ratio between endemic and native species, modified area is also the major significant variable, but with a negative regression slope. Multiple regression models show that some isolation measures are significant contributors and may explain some of the residual variation, but their contribution to total explained variation is in general small. The results show that the species area relationships are different for native and endemic species. This is discussed in relation to classical island biogeographical models, and the concepts of radiative speciation.

Willerslev, Eske; Hansen, Anders J.

2002-01-01

253

Imaging rapidly deforming ocean island volcanoes in the western Galápagos archipelago, Ecuador  

Science.gov (United States)

Using local body wave arrival-time tomography methods to determine 3-D seismic velocity structure, we imaged the plumbing system of Sierra Negra Volcano, Galápagos. This hot spot volcanic chain includes some of the fastest deforming volcanoes in the world, making this an ideal location to study shield volcano plumbing systems. We inverted P and S wave arrivals recorded on a 15-station temporary array between July 2009 and June 2011 using an a priori 1-D velocity model constrained by offshore refraction studies. With local seismicity from nearby volcanoes as well as the ring fault system, the model resolution is good between depths of 3 and 15.5 km. The propagation of S waves throughout this volume argues against any large high-melt accumulations, although a shallow melt sill may exist above 5 km. We image a broad low-velocity region (>25 km laterally) below Sierra Negra at depths ~8-15 km. No large, regional velocity increase is found within the limits of good resolution, suggesting that crust is thicker than 15 km beneath the western Galápagos archipelago. Our results are consistent with crustal accretion of mafic cumulates from a large-volume magma chamber that may span the boundary between preplume and accreted crust. The similarity between our results and those of Hawaii leave open the possibility that the crust has also been thickened by under-plating.

Tepp, Gabrielle; Ebinger, Cynthia J.; Ruiz, Mario; Belachew, Manahloh

2014-01-01

254

Historical change of mercury pollution in remote Yongle archipelago, South China Sea.  

Science.gov (United States)

We collected three ornithogenic coral sand sedimentary profiles from Jinyin Island, Jinqing Island and Guangjin Island of Yongle archipelago, South China Sea and reconstructed the deposition flux of anthropogenic Hg over the past 700 years in the study area. On the whole, the anthropogenic Hg flux is relatively low; it remained at a low level before the Industrial Revolution with a small peak at about 1450-1550 AD, which may record the enhanced metallurgy activity in Ming Dynasty of China. During the 20th century, the deposition flux of anthropogenic Hg increased rapidly, but two troughs occurred during the periods around 1940s and 1970s, corresponding to the economic depression caused by World War II, Civil War in China (1945-1949), and the Culture Revolution (1966-1976) in China. Since the 1970s the deposition flux of anthropogenic Hg has been persistently increasing, apparently the result of fast economic development in East and Southeast Asia countries around South China Sea. PMID:22284978

Liu, Xiaodong; Xu, Liqiang; Chen, Qianqian; Sun, Liguang; Wang, Yuhong; Yan, Hong; Liu, Yi; Luo, Yuhan; Huang, Jing

2012-04-01

255

Restrictions on the compatibility of equipment in archipelago countries: PERTAMINA experiences in Indonesia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Being an archipelago state, the sea area of Indonesia is four times larger than its land area. Oil and natural gas play significant roles in the country`s economic development. These activities at sea are showing signs of increasing, inevitably rendering the marine environment and living resources vulnerable to oil spills. Accidents, particularly grounding and collision occurrences in Malacca and the Singapore Straits sea lanes pose imminent threats. At PERTAMINA, the state-owned oil, gas and geothermal enterprise, oil spill contingency planning is entrusted to the Corporate Center for Environment Protection, Health and Safety. Marine activities are managed under the Directorate of Shipping, Harbour and Communication. In this paper oil spill response planning and coordination activities, which are based on the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA) tiered preparedness concept, are described. The tiered preparedness concept addresses the limited availability of equipment, and incorporates specific response plans for each type of spill scenario (e.g. passing tanker, loading/unloading ship at terminal, major inland spill, etc), for each area of operation. It also specifies the type of equipment that must be available in the area to respond to the type of spill (using the concept of maximum credible spill in each case) that may occur in that area. 5 figs.

Suwasono, D.; Putri, E. T. [PERTAMINA - Corporate Center for Environment Protection, Health and Safety (Indonesia)

1997-10-01

256

AN ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN THE SCLERACTINIAN CORAL TISSUES OF KARIMUNJAWA ARCHIPELAGO, INDONESIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Karimunjawa archipelago, marine national park, has been considered to be a relatively pristine area that have more than 90 species of corals. This study was conducted to detect any concentrations heavy metal levels in the tissues of eight coral species. Based on life-forms, selected coral species are classified as massive (Porites lutea and Goniastrea retiformis, submassive (Galaxea fascicularis and Stylophora pistillata, foliaceous (Pavona decussata and Montipora foliosa and branching/ramosa (Acropora aspera and Pocillopora damicornis. The concentration of heavy metals in the coral tissues were assessed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS technique. The present experimental results demonstrated that metal in coral tissues were no significant difference between sites. Concentration levels of five heavy metals were found to be in the order of Pb>Zn>Cr>Cd>Cu. Relating heavy metal concentrations to life-form corals, there were no significant differences of all the metals (except Pb, the highest concentration of Pb were found in foliaceous type of corals. The high level of Pb in foliaceous coral life-form (Pavona decussata and Montipora foliosa, indicating that these coral species are usefull as potential candidates of biomonitoring material for this metal. However, the use of corals as biomonitors should be considered carefully in biological and local environmental factors.

Agus Sabdono

2009-10-01

257

Patch-Based Generative Shape Model and MDL Model Selection for Statistical Analysis of Archipelagos  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We propose a statistical generative shape model for archipelago-like structures. These kind of structures occur, for instance, in medical images, where our intention is to model the appearance and shapes of calcifications in x-ray radio graphs. The generative model is constructed by (1) learning a patch-based dictionary for possible shapes, (2) building up a time-homogeneous Markov model to model the neighbourhood correlations between the patches, and (3) automatic selection of the model complexity by the minimum description length principle. The generative shape model is proposed as a probability distribution of a binary image where the model is intended to facilitate sequential simulation. Our results show that a relatively simple model is able to generate structures visually similar to calcifications. Furthermore, we used the shape model as a shape prior in the statistical segmentation of calcifications, where the area overlap with the ground truth shapes improved significantly compared to the case where the prior was not used.

Ganz, Melanie; Nielsen, Mads

2010-01-01

258

San Bernardino County Museum  

Science.gov (United States)

The San Bernardino County Museum is a regional museum with exhibits and collections in cultural and natural history. Special exhibits, the Exploration Station live animal discovery center, extensive research collections, and public programs for adults, families, students, and children are all part of the museum experience. The Museum is surrounded by citrus groves, and orange blossoms perfume the air. The Zimmerman Citrus Kiosk explores citrus agricultural history in Southern California. Death Valley Alive! is a new traveling exhibit, available for rent, where visitors can explore the natural history and culture of the Death Valley region from its geologic beginnings 1.3 billion years ago. Online exhibits include The Importance of Museum Collections, The Barstow Fossil Beds, Motherlode of the Miocene, The Etiwanda Fan, and for kids, Mimicry, a study in camouflage and adaptation. Teacher Resources include professional development and workshops, and Trading Places, where 21 hours of time spent volunteering in the Museum earns a free program for your class. Sample opportunities include writing activities for study kits, developing post-visit activities, creating a museum gallery guide, translating student materials into Spanish, or developing an independent idea. There are programs for youth, Scouts, and adults, as well as various publications available in anthropology, archeology, biology, geology and history.

259

Circulation in the Philippine Archipelago Simulated by 1/12° and 1/25° Global HYCOM and EAS NCOM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three ocean models, 1/25° global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM, 1/12° global HYCOM, and EAS NCOM nested in global NCOM, were used to provide a global context for simulation of the circulation within the Philippine Archipelago as part of the Philippines Experiment (PhilEx. The Philippine Archipelago provides two significant secondary routes for both the Indonesian throughflow and the western boundary current of the Pacific northern tropical gyre. The deeper route enters the archipelago from the north through Mindoro Strait, after passing through Luzon Strait and the South China Sea. The second route enters directly from the Pacific via the shallow Surigao Strait and passes through Dipolog Strait downstream of the Bohol Sea. Both pathways exit via Sibutu Passage and the adjacent Sulu Archipelago along the southern edge of the Sulu Sea, and both are deeper than the pathway into the Indonesian Archipelago via Karimata Strait in the Java Sea. Within the Philippine Archipelago, these pathways make the dominant contribution to the mean circulation and much of its variability, while their outflow contributes to the flow through Makassar Strait, the primary conduit of the Indonesian throughflow, at all depths above the Sibutu Passage sill. Because of the narrow straits and small interior seas, the simulations are very sensitive to model resolution (4.4 km in 1/25° global HYCOM, 8.7 km in 1/12° global HYCOM, and 9.6 km in EAS NCOM in this latitude range and to topographic errors, especially sill depths. The model simulations for 2004 and 2008 (the latter the central year of the PhilEx observational program show extreme opposite anomalous years with anomalously strong southward Mindoro transport in 2004 and mean northward transport in 2008, but with little effect on the Surigao-Dipolog transport. Satellite altimetry verified the associated HYCOM sea surface height anomalies in the western tropical Pacific and the South China Sea during these extreme years. A 15-month (December 2007–March 2009 PhilEx mooring in Mindoro Strait measured velocity nearly top to bottom at a location close to the sill. The 1/12° global HYCOM, which showed the strongest flow above 200 m lay west of the mooring, was used to adjust a Mindoro transport estimate from the mooring data for cross-sectional distribution of the velocity, giving 0.24 Sv northward over the anomalous observational period. The results from the observational period were then used to adjust the 2004–2009 model transport, giving a mean of 0.95 Sv southward. The 1/25° global HYCOM simulated the observed four-layer flow in Dipolog Strait and the vigorous and persistent cyclonic gyre in the western Bohol Sea, observed during all four PhilEx cruises and in ocean color imagery. This gyre was poorly simulated by the two models with ~ 9 km resolution. Finally, a 1/12° global HYCOM simulation with tides generated the hydrostatic aspect of the internal tides within the Philippine Archipelago, including a strong internal tidal beam initiated at Sibutu Passage and observed crossing the Sulu Sea.

Harley E. Hurlburt

2011-03-01

260

Y-chromosome and surname analysis of the native islanders of San Andrés and Providencia (Colombia).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Archipelago of San Andrés and Providencia is a Colombian Department in the western waters of the Caribbean Sea. Most of its inhabitants belong to the African-Colombian group known as raizal. This group has unique cultural traits that are derived from centuries of admixture of the primarily African slaves and European colonists. Currently, not much is known about the genetic profile of this population. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the Y-chromosome STR genetic structure and relationship to previously published reference populations. A total of 54 natives from the islands were selected based on the genealogical criterion of having three generations of ancestors born in the Archipelago. Seventeen Y-STRs were analyzed, supplemented by information on the first surname inherited. The genetic substructure hypothesis in the studied islands was tested, and no significant differences were found (p>0.05). Y-chromosome haplogroups were predicted, and E1b1a and R1b were the most commonly found haplogroups. They account for more than 80% of the sample. The E1b1a and R1ba haplogroups are common in the African and European populations, respectively. For comparative genetic analysis, genetic distances were calculated with respect to populations from the Caribbean, Colombia, Europe and Africa. We found greater similarity between the African and Caribbean populations. The surname analysis demonstrated that most of the time, the "raizales" with the same surname also shared the same Y-STR haplotype. This suggests that some kinship relationship exists between participants with the same surname, which was confirmed by the haplotype diversity levels found in the studied islands. PMID:23290785

Alonso, Luz Angela; Usaquén, William

2013-02-01

261

33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait...connecting waters in California. 165.1185...Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait...connecting waters in California. (a) Location...of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay,...

2010-07-01

262

San Language Development for Education in South Africa: The South African San Institute and the San Language Committees  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on the 3 San communities in South Africa: the !Xun, the Khwe, and the [image omitted]Khomani San. The !Xun and Khwe communities are living in Platfontein, near Kimberley in the Northern Cape. The [image omitted]Khomani San community is living in Upington and in the southern Kalahari, which are also in the Northern Cape. This…

Pamo, Billies

2011-01-01

263

Chinatown Chinese: The San Francisco Dialect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses factors that make the language spoken in San Francisco's Chinatown so dynamic and, at times, inconsistent. Provides a glossary that includes transliterated and partially transliterated terms, translated terms, new terms, and special San Francisco terms. (Author/GC)

Dong, Lorraine; Hom, Marlon K.

1980-01-01

264

33 CFR 165.754 - Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR. 165.754 Section 165.754 Navigation...Seventh Coast Guard District § 165.754 Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR. (a) Regulated...

2010-07-01

265

76 FR 55796 - Safety Zone; TriRock Triathlon, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

...USCG-2011-0789] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; TriRock Triathlon, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary...safety zone upon the specified navigable waters of the San Diego Bay, San Diego, California, in support of...

2011-09-09

266

76 FR 1386 - Safety Zone; Centennial of Naval Aviation Kickoff, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

...Safety Zone; Centennial of Naval Aviation Kickoff, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice...proposes a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of San Diego Bay in San Diego, CA in support of the...

2011-01-10

267

75 FR 38412 - Safety Zone; San Diego POPS Fireworks, San Diego, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

...RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego POPS Fireworks, San Diego, CA...PART 165--REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS 0 1. The authority citation for...165.T11-338 Safety Zone; San Diego POPS Fireworks, San Diego,...

2010-07-02

268

76 FR 45693 - Safety Zone; San Diego POPS Fireworks, San Diego, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

...RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego POPS Fireworks, San Diego, CA...PART 165--REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS 0 1. The authority citation for...165.T11-431; Safety zone; San Diego POPS Fireworks, San Diego,...

2011-08-01

269

Fishery of the Green Jack Caranx caballus (Osteichytes: Carangidae) in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish El jurel verde o “cojinúa”, Caranx caballus, se distribuye a lo largo de la costa del Pacífico Oriental. En el Archipiélago de Las Perlas, Panamá, la cojinúa fue pescada sin control para sostener mercados locales hasta el 2007, fecha en la que esta región fue declarada área marina protegida. En este [...] primer estudio para Panamá, se analizaron desde junio de 2005 a junio de 2006, 4 990 individuos en las descargas del Mercado Central de Mariscos provenientes de Las Perlas. La longitud media total de esta especie fue de 36.1±6.4cm y la longitud óptima, 38.9cm. Aproximadamente, 68% de los individuos muestreados poseen longitudes dentro de ±10% de la longitud óptima, pero sólo seis (15%) eran mega-reproductores. Los parámetros de la ecuación de von Bertalanffy describen la especie como de larga vida y de rápido crecimiento, mientras que las tasas de mortalidad indican que la cojinúa está bajo una alta presión de pesca. La longitud estándar a la que la mitad de la población es sexualmente madura es 38.8cm y el tamaño de maduración masiva, 33cm. Sólo entre el 10-13% de los individuos muestreados son inmaduros. La cojinúa se reproduce 2-3 veces al año, con picos en diciembre, abril y probablemente septiembre, y recluta a la población por lo menos dos veces al año. Los valores mínimos anuales del Índice ENSO/LNSO multivariado (MEI) son los mejores predictores de la CPUE de esta especie (R²=0.54). Nuestros resultados demuestran que la cojinúa en el Pacífico Panameño está sobreexplotada por lo que recomendamos elevar la talla mínima de captura para permitir que aumente la proporción de mega-reproductores en la población con el fin de garantizar la sostenibilidad del recurso. Abstract in english Green Jacks, Caranx caballus, are distributed along the Eastern Pacific coast. In Panama, C. caballus was heavily fished around Las Perlas Archipelago to sustain local markets until 2007, when the archipelago was declared a marine protected area. This first study in Panama, analyzed a sample of 4 99 [...] 0 individuals from Las Perlas, obtained monthly from June 2005 to June 2006, from landings at the central fish market. Average total length was 36.1±6.4cm and optimum length 38.9cm. Approximately 68% of fish lengths were within ±10% of the optimal length but only six (15%) were considered mega-spawners. The von Bertalanffy parameters describe a long-lived and fast growing species, while mortality rates revealed that C. caballus is under high fishing pressure. Standard length at which half of the population is mature was 38.8cm, and the size at which individuals matured massively, 33cm. Only 10-13% of the fish were immature. C. caballus reproduces two to three times per year, with peaks in December, April, and probably September, and recruits to the population at least twice per year. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) was best predicted by minimum annual values of the Multivariate ENSO/ LNSO Index (MEI) (R²=0.54). Results show that C. caballus in Pacific Panama is overfished. We recommend the raising of the minimum capture/landing size of this species in order to increase the proportion of megaspawners in the population and guarantee the sustainability of this resource.

James M., Mair; Roberto, Cipriani; Hector M., Guzman; David, Usan.

1271-12-01

270

Fishery of the Green Jack Caranx caballus (Osteichytes: Carangidae in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Green Jacks, Caranx caballus, are distributed along the Eastern Pacific coast. In Panama, C. caballus was heavily fished around Las Perlas Archipelago to sustain local markets until 2007, when the archipelago was declared a marine protected area. This first study in Panama, analyzed a sample of 4 990 individuals from Las Perlas, obtained monthly from June 2005 to June 2006, from landings at the central fish market. Average total length was 36.1±6.4cm and optimum length 38.9cm. Approximately 68% of fish lengths were within ±10% of the optimal length but only six (15% were considered mega-spawners. The von Bertalanffy parameters describe a long-lived and fast growing species, while mortality rates revealed that C. caballus is under high fishing pressure. Standard length at which half of the population is mature was 38.8cm, and the size at which individuals matured massively, 33cm. Only 10-13% of the fish were immature. C. caballus reproduces two to three times per year, with peaks in December, April, and probably September, and recruits to the population at least twice per year. Catch per unit effort (CPUE was best predicted by minimum annual values of the Multivariate ENSO/ LNSO Index (MEI (R²=0.54. Results show that C. caballus in Pacific Panama is overfished. We recommend the raising of the minimum capture/landing size of this species in order to increase the proportion of megaspawners in the population and guarantee the sustainability of this resource.El jurel verde o “cojinúa”, Caranx caballus, se distribuye a lo largo de la costa del Pacífico Oriental. En el Archipiélago de Las Perlas, Panamá, la cojinúa fue pescada sin control para sostener mercados locales hasta el 2007, fecha en la que esta región fue declarada área marina protegida. En este primer estudio para Panamá, se analizaron desde junio de 2005 a junio de 2006, 4 990 individuos en las descargas del Mercado Central de Mariscos provenientes de Las Perlas. La longitud media total de esta especie fue de 36.1±6.4cm y la longitud óptima, 38.9cm. Aproximadamente, 68% de los individuos muestreados poseen longitudes dentro de ±10% de la longitud óptima, pero sólo seis (15% eran mega-reproductores. Los parámetros de la ecuación de von Bertalanffy describen la especie como de larga vida y de rápido crecimiento, mientras que las tasas de mortalidad indican que la cojinúa está bajo una alta presión de pesca. La longitud estándar a la que la mitad de la población es sexualmente madura es 38.8cm y el tamaño de maduración masiva, 33cm. Sólo entre el 10-13% de los individuos muestreados son inmaduros. La cojinúa se reproduce 2-3 veces al año, con picos en diciembre, abril y probablemente septiembre, y recluta a la población por lo menos dos veces al año. Los valores mínimos anuales del Índice ENSO/LNSO multivariado (MEI son los mejores predictores de la CPUE de esta especie (R²=0.54. Nuestros resultados demuestran que la cojinúa en el Pacífico Panameño está sobreexplotada por lo que recomendamos elevar la talla mínima de captura para permitir que aumente la proporción de mega-reproductores en la población con el fin de garantizar la sostenibilidad del recurso.

James M. Mair

2012-09-01

271

Copepod distribution and production in a Mid-Atlantic Ridge archipelago  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O arquipélago de São Pedro e São Paulo (ASPSP) está localizado próximo ao Equador, no oceano Atlântico. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar variações espaciais nos padrões de abundância da comunidade de Copepoda, e da biomassa e produção das três espécies de Calanoida mais abundantes no ASPSP. Amost [...] ras de plâncton foram coletadas com rede com 300 µm de abertura de malha, ao longo de quatro transectos (norte, leste, sul e oeste do ASPSP), com quatro estações cada. Todos os transectos exibiram uma tendência de redução da densidade dos Copepoda com o aumento da distância do ASPSP, provado estatisticamente para o Norte. A densidade variou de 3,33 a 182,18 ind.m?3, e diferenças também foram observadas entre o primeiro perímetro (primeira faixa de distância circular) e os demais. A biomassa total variou de 15,25 a 524,50 10?3 mg C m?3 e a produção de 1,19 a 22,04 mg C m?3d?1. A biomassa e produção de Undinula vulgaris (Dana, 1849), Acrocalanus longicornis Giesbrecht, 1888 e Calocalanus pavo (Dana, 1849) apresentaram diferenças entre alguns transectos. Uma tendência de declínio da biodiversidade e produção com o aumento da distância do arquipélago foi observada, sugerindo que pequenas feições como o ASPSP podem afetar a comunidade em áreas oceânicas oligotróficas tropicais. Abstract in english The Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (SPSPA) are located close to the Equator in the Atlantic Ocean. The aim of this study was to assess the spatial variations in the copepod community abundance, and the biomass and production patterns of the three most abundant calanoid species in the SPSPA. [...] Plankton samples were collected with a 300 µm mesh size net along four transects (north, east, south and west of the SPSPA), with four stations plotted in each transect. All transects exhibited a tendency toward a decrease in copepod density with increasing distance from the SPSPA, statistically proved in the North. Density varied from 3.33 to 182.18 ind.m?3, and differences were also found between the first perimeter (first circular distance band) and the others. The total biomass varied from 15.25 to 524.50 10?3 mg C m?3 and production from 1.19 to 22.04 10?3 mg C m?3d?1. The biomass and production of Undinula vulgaris (Dana, 1849), Acrocalanus longicornis Giesbrecht, 1888 and Calocalanus pavo (Dana, 1849) showed differences between some transects. A trend of declining biodiversity and production with increasing distance from archipelago was observed, suggesting that even small features like the SPSPA can affect the copepod community in tropical oligotrophic oceanic areas.

PEDRO A.M.C., MELO; MAURO DE, MELO JÚNIOR; SILVIO J. DE, MACÊDO; MOACYR, ARAUJO; SIGRID, NEUMANN-LEITÃO.

1719-17-01

272

Mineral water discharges at the Azores archipelago (Portugal): hydrogeological setting, chemical composition and mapping  

Science.gov (United States)

The geological setting of the Azores archipelago, located in the North Atlantic ocean, about 1500 km form Portugal mainland and made of 9 islands of volcanic origin, enhances the multiplicity of surface hydrothermal manifestations. Therefore, a field survey made possible to identify 101 mineral water discharges in the Azores, mainly of CO2-rich cold waters and thermal waters, spread along São Miguel (75%), Terceira (6%), Graciosa (7%), Pico (2%), Faial (3%), São Jorge (5%) and Flores ( 2%) islands, as well as fumarolic grounds. Furnas and Fogo central volcanoes, two of the three composite active volcanoes that dominates the geology of São Miguel, the largest island of the archipelago, represent respectively about 41% and 24% of the discharges from the Azores. Discharges are mainly from fissured aquifers, made of basaltic or trachitic lava flows. Instead, discharges from porous aquifers, made of pyroclastic deposits, mainly of pumice type, are less common, and are more frequent at São Miguel island. The studied discharges correspond mainly to springs (75), and also to boiling pools (10), at fumarolic grounds, 14 drilled wells and 2 large-diameter wells. The boiling pools are only observable at São Miguel island, while drilled wells were made at São Miguel, Terceira and Graciosa. Groundwater at Azores occurs in two major aquifers systems: (1) the basal aquifer system, which corresponds to fresh-water lenses floating on underlying salt water, and (2) in perched-water bodies. The basal aquifer system is in the coastal area, presenting generally a very low hydraulic gradient. From the 14 drilled wells only two are in perched-water bodies. Considering mineral springs, the majority discharge from perched-water bodies (77%), while all the boiling pools also discharge in altitude, also from perched -water bodies. During the field survey an extensive campaign of sample collection was made in all islands, in order to characterize the chemical composition of these waters, which presents a large range of water types and mineralization magnitude. Several groups of waters are defined: (1) Na-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-Cl type waters, to which almost all the thermal and CO2-rich waters belong, (2) Na-Cl type waters, to which discharges from the basal aquifer system belong and (3) acid-SO4 type waters, to which some of the boiling waters of São Miguel island belong. A few samples show intermediate facies between these main water types. The pH range between 2.2 and 7.82, discharge temperature between 15°C and 99.5°C (median=35°C), and conductivity varies between 139 and 43100 S/cm (median=906 S/cm). The main hydrogeochemical processes are the CO2-dominated volatile absorption, water-rock interaction and mixture with hydrothermal fluids. Sulfate dominated composition is explained by the influence of steam heating, and the Na-Cl water type result from mixture with sea salts. For the purpose of mapping mineral water discharges at the Azores a geochemical atlas was made using ESRI ArcGis 9.1 software. Data was divided in classes according to quartile values and spatial analysis was made through thematic mapping, for several features, as hydrogeological setting, water types and variables as discharge temperature, pH, conductivity, free CO2 and major elements content. In the present contribution several examples of the hydrogeological maps are shown.

Freire, P.; Cruz, J.; Coutinho, R.; Costa, A.; Antunes, P.

2009-04-01

273

The archipelago of Fernando de Noronha: an intriguing malformed toad hotspot in South America.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malformed anurans raise concern among scientists, because deformities may relate to the recent global crisis among amphibian populations, although declining populations also may be associated with other causes (e.g., diseases, over-exploitation, and land use/land cover change). We examined a sample of toads (Rhinella jimi, Bufonidae) from an introduced population in the Archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, Brazil where malformations of anurans were thought to be high. Our sample of 159 specimens from the site revealed that 44.6% of all specimens had one or more malformations. Incidence of malformed toads on the mainland sites was substantially lower: 10.5% at Itamaracá, and 3.7% at Propriá. We describe the malformations observed, including six undescribed types of malformation of anurans, and we pose possible hypotheses to explain this high incidence of malformed toads. In addition to existing hypotheses, we suggest for the first time the hypothesis that lack of predation pressures contributes to numbers of malformed toads. We indicate the need of specific studies to understand the causes of malformations in the R. jimi population of Fernando de Noronha, which is thought to be extreme foci of malformed amphibians in the world. Our results may improve local conservation action plans as this is an alien population that may be affecting endemic fauna, and may affect populations in other parts of the world, because toad species of the genus Rhinella are recognized as exceptional colonizers. More importantly, unknown variables in these toads' environment are evidently affecting toads during development, which should be a concern for all species that inhabit the area, perhaps even humans. PMID:20112047

Toledo, Luís Felipe; Ribeiro, Ricardo S

2009-09-01

274

Invasive house mice facing a changing environment on the Sub-Antarctic Guillou Island (Kerguelen Archipelago).  

Science.gov (United States)

Adaptation to new environments is a key feature in evolution promoting divergence in morphological structures under selection. The house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) introduced on the Sub-Antarctic Guillou Island (Kerguelen Archipelago) had and still has to face environmental conditions that likely shaped the pattern and pace of its insular evolution. Since mouse arrival on the island, probably not more than two centuries ago, ecological conditions dramatically differed from those available to their Western European commensal source populations. In addition, over the last two decades, the plant and animal communities of Guillou Island were considerably modified by the eradication of rabbits, the effects of climate change and the spread of invasive species detrimental to native communities. Under such a changing habitat, the mouse response was investigated using a morphometric quantification of mandible and molar tooth, two morphological structures related to food processing. A marked differentiation of the insular mice compared with their relatives from Western Europe was documented for both mandibles and molar shapes. Moreover, these shapes changed through the 16 years of the record, in agreement with expectations of drift for the molar, but more than expected by chance for the mandible. These results suggest that mice responded to the recent changes in food resources, possibly with a part of plastic variation for the mandible prone to bone remodelling. This pattern exemplifies the intricate interplay of evolution, ecology and plasticity that is a probable key of the success of such an invasive rodent facing pronounced shifts in food resources exploitation under a changing environment. PMID:23331296

Renaud, S; Hardouin, E A; Pisanu, B; Chapuis, J-L

2013-03-01

275

Lepidoptera : Systematic catalogue of the entomofauna of the Madeira Archipelago and Selvagens Islands 1  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  Being the first of a series dealing with the entomofauna of the Madeira and Selvagens Islands, this catalogue is a list of all Lepidoptera recorded from this region of Macaronesia, with references to the relevant literature. The checklist includes 37 families, 211 genera and 331 species. 31 species are recorded from Madeira for the first time, and exact data and locality are given for these in the notes. 32 species, which had previously been recorded from Madeira, are removed from the list of Lepidoptera found in the Madeira Islands being misidentifications, doubtful and unconfirmed records, undetermined species requiring further study and accidentally introduced species which have not established themselves in Madeira. No genus of Lepidoptera is endemic to Madeira, but 81 species are endemic to the Madeira Archipelago, and a further 36 species are considered Macaronesian endemics. One species occurs as two distinct subspecies on Madeira Island and Deserta Grande, respectively. We also comment on taxonomicand nomenclatorial problems in a number of species and provide information on host plants in Madeira and other biological details. Index to Latin names of Lepidoptera and host plants are given. The reference list includes 431 references for Madeiran Lepidoptera. The following nomenclatorial changes are proposed: Clepsis retiferana (Stainton, 1859) is removed from synonymy with C. subcostana (Stainton, 1859) (sp. rev.), Cyclophora maderensis ssp. lundbladi (Bryk, 1940) is a synonym of C. maderensis ssp. maderensis (Bethune-Baker, 1891) (n. syn). Agrotis selvagensis Pinker & Bacallado, 1978 is a synonym of A. lanzarotensis Rebel, 1894 (n. syn) and Agrotis trux spp. maderensis Pinker, 1971 is a synonym of A. trux ssp. trux (Hübner, 1824) (n. syn.).

Aguiar, António M. Franquinho; Karsholt, Ole

2009-01-01

276

Predicting the occurrence of rocky reefs in a heterogeneous archipelago area with limited data  

Science.gov (United States)

The lack of spatial distribution data on marine habitats often presents an obstacle to their protection. The Annex I of the Habitats Directive (European Council Directive 92/43/EEC) lists habitats that are important in biodiversity protection and should be maintained (or restored) to a favourable conservation status. The habitats listed should be protected within an ecological network of protected areas, the Natura 2000 network. However, in the past the establishment of the marine Natura 2000 network has been largely based on insufficient knowledge on the distribution of the habitats. Annex I habitat type reefs are defined as formations of hard compact biogenic or geogenic substrata, which arise from the seafloor in the sublittoral and littoral zone. As obtaining marine data is time-consuming and costly, the bathymetric and substratum data needed for their identification on a larger scale are often scarce. Furthermore, the use of data may be limited due to e.g. national security reasons. This study identifies reefs in a complex archipelago area in the northern Baltic Sea using the best, although limited, data currently available. In the area reefs are elevated rocky outcrops and the associated algal communities and blue mussel beds are vital in maintaining biodiversity in the relatively species poor Baltic Sea. In addition to identifying the physical reef structures, an estimate of their ecological value is obtained by modelling the distribution of four key species occurring on reefs. The results are encouraging, as 55 out of 68 of the potential reefs ground-truthed were confirmed to be reefs. Furthermore the number of predicted species occurring on the reefs, correlated significantly with the number of species observed. The presented maps serve as a valuable background for more detailed mapping of the species diversity occurring on reefs as well as for monitoring their ecological status. Map-based information on important habitats is essential in conservation and marine spatial planning to minimize human impact on marine ecosystems.

Rinne, Henna; Kaskela, Anu; Downie, Anna-Leena; Tolvanen, Harri; von Numers, Mikael; Mattila, Johanna

2014-02-01

277

Petrology of ultramafic xenoliths in Cenozoic alkaline rocks of northern Madagascar (Nosy Be Archipelago)  

Science.gov (United States)

Late Miocene basanites of Nosy Be and Nosy Sakatia islands (Nosy Be Archipelago, northern Madagascar) carry spinel-facies anhydrous ultramafic xenoliths (lherzolites, harzburgites and wehrlites). Geothermobarometric estimates indicate that these xenoliths derive from shallow mantle depths of 35-40 km, with those from Nosy Be island showing equilibration T (averages in the range of 945-985 °C) lower than the Nosy Sakatia analogues (averages ranging from 1010 to 1110 °C). One Nosy Sakatia mantle xenolith exhibits relatively fertile lherzolite composition, with trace and major element mineral chemistry consistent with a residual character after low degrees (1-2%) of mafic melt extraction. We interpret this composition as that resembling a depleted mantle (DM)-like lithospheric composition before metasomatic overprints. The other lherzolites and harzburgites display petrochemical characters consistent with variable extent of partial melting (up to 18%), associated with pronounced metasomatic overprints caused by migrating melts, as highlighted by enrichments in highly incompatible trace elements (e.g. light rare earth elements, LREE and Sr), together with the abundant occurrence of wehrlitic lithologies. The variability of petrochemical features points to different styles of metasomatism and metasomatic agents. The estimated composition of the parental melts of wehrlites matches that of host basanites. The combination of this evidence with the petrographic features, characterized by coarse-granular to porphyroclastic textures and by the presence of olivine without kink-banding, suggests that wehrlites are veins or pockets of high pressure cumulates within the mantle peridotite. The same melts also metasomatized via porous-flow percolation some lherzolites and harzburgites. Distinctly, a group of lherzolites and harzburgites was metasomatized by a different alkaline melt having markedly lower incompatible trace element contents. Late infiltration of metasomatic fluids is responsible for the spongy texture of some clinopyroxenes of lherzolites, harzburgites and wehrlites.

Rocco, Ivana; Lustrino, Michele; Zanetti, Alberto; Morra, Vincenzo; Melluso, Leone

2013-01-01

278

Receiver function imaging of lithospheric structure and the onset of melting beneath the Galápagos Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The Galápagos Archipelago represents an opportunity to investigate the properties of young oceanic lithosphere, the effects of a hotspot anomaly on lithospheric thickness, and melting dynamics in a hotspot-ridge interaction. Here we use data recorded by the SIGNET array and permanent station PAYG on the Islands Santa Cruz and Isabela, respectively. We used P-to-S (Ps) and S-to-P (Sp) receiver functions to constrain crust and mantle structure. A simultaneous deconvolution method was used to constrain 1-D structure and also for the modeling of robust features. A migrated extended multitaper method was used to investigate 3-D structural variations. Ps images a velocity increase with depth at 11±7 km, probably the base of the pre-plume crust, or old Moho. Sp imaging and modeling images a second, deeper velocity increase at 37±7 km depth. A velocity decrease with depth is imaged on average at 75±12 km likely associated with the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. This discontinuity is imaged deeper, 82 km, in the southwest and shallower, 66 km, in the northeast near the spreading ridge. Although the trend is consistent with lithospheric thickening with age, the thickness is much larger than predicted by conductive cooling models of 0-10 My oceanic lithosphere. We infer a compositional contribution to velocity variations. Finally, a velocity increase with depth is imaged at ˜125 to 145±15 km depth that is likely associated with the onset of melting. The discontinuity is imaged deeper in 3 sectors of the Galápagos platform-ridge region, all coincident with the slowest surface wave shear velocity anomalies in the upper 100 km. One is located in the southwest in a hypothesized plume location. The other two are to the northwest and northeast, possibly illuminating multiple plume diversions related to complex plume-ridge interactions.

Rychert, Catherine A.; Harmon, Nicholas; Ebinger, Cynthia

2014-02-01

279

Diversity and distribution of arthropods in native forests of the Azores archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since 1999, our knowledge of arthropods in native forests of the Azores has improved greatly. Under the BALA project (Biodiversity of Arthropods of Laurisilva of the Azores, an extensive standardised sampling protocol was employed in most of the native forest cover of the Archipelago. Additionally, in 2003 and 2004, more intensive sampling was carried out in several fragments, resulting in nearly a doubling of the number of samples collected. A total of 6,770 samples from 100 sites distributed amongst 18 fragments of seven islands have been collected, resulting in almost 140,000 specimens having been caught. Overall, 452 arthropod species belonging to Araneae, Opilionida, Pseudoscorpionida, Myriapoda and Insecta (excluding Diptera and Hymenoptera were recorded. Altogether, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Araneae and Lepidoptera comprised the major proportion of the total diversity (84% and total abundance (78% found. Endemic species comprised almost half of the individuals sampled. Most of the taxonomic, colonization, and trophic groups analysed showed a significantly left unimodal distribution of species occurrences, with almost all islands, fragments or sites having exclusive species. Araneae was the only group to show a strong bimodal distribution. Only a third of the species was common to both the canopy and soil, the remaining being equally exclusive to each stratum. Canopy and soil strata showed a strongly distinct species composition, the composition being more similar within the same stratum regardless of the location, than within samples from both strata at the same location. Possible reasons for these findings are explored. The procedures applied in the sampling protocol are also discussed.

Borges, P.A.V.

2008-01-01

280

Arctic environments and global change: Evidence in deep permafrost temperatures, Canadian arctic archipelago  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In considering the role of the polar regions in future global change, one may look toward these regions for evidence of past environmental change. Deep ground temperatures provide one window on past surface temperatures, which may be interpreted in terms not only of past climate but also of past environmental conditions. Across the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, there is no consistent curvature in deep ground temperature profiles that can be modeled in terms of warming of the past century. This contrasts with the result reported by Lachenbruch et al. [1986] for the Prudhoe Bay area of Alaska and may be a consequence of the much larger region and wider well spacing considered in the Canadian case. Any curvature present varies from well to well and may be interpreted in terms of surface temperature changes of the order of 1-3 K on the scale of decades to centuries. However, there is some evidence that these surface temperature histories may arise from long-term changes in paleoenvironmental factors as well as climate. For instance, the paleoclimate derived from oxygen isotope data at the Agassiz Ice Cap has been compared with the geothermal signature at a well some 180 km to the west. For the Little Ice Age (LIA), the Agassiz paleoclimate explains only half the measured variation in ground temperatures at the geothermal site; the remaining variation may be due to other environmental effects, such as an increase in snow cover following the LIA. This is consistent with extrwing the LIA. This is consistent with extrapolated surface temperatures 7 K higher than other Arctic sites and the unusually deep snow cover observed today

281

Genetic variation in the invasive avian parasite, Philornis downsi (Diptera, Muscidae on the Galápagos archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the dispersal and genetic structure of invasive insects across islands is important for designing management plans that are appropriate at spatial and temporal scales. For invasive parasites, population dynamics are largely determined by the distribution and density of their host species. The introduced parasitic fly, Philornis downsi, parasitises nestlings of endemic birds on all major islands of the Galápagos archipelago. The fly's high mortality and fitness impacts are of conservation concern for vulnerable and declining species of Darwin's finches. Using microsatellite data in Bayesian clustering and landscape genetic analyses, we examine gene flow and dispersal in P. downsi between three islands and across habitats (highlands, lowlands and examine for the presence of population bottlenecks. We also examine variation at the mitochondrial gene CO1 across islands to establish if cryptic species were present. Results Both the mitochondrial and microsatellite data were consistent with there being a single species across islands. We found low genetic differentiation between islands and strong evidence for inter-island gene flow, or shared recent ancestry among individuals. Landscape genetic analysis identified two genetic clusters: one encompassing Santa Cruz and Isabela, and one on Floreana Island. There was no evidence of genetic differentiation between habitats and molecular variance was mainly attributable to within individuals. The combined P. downsi population was found to have undergone a population bottleneck. Conclusion Philornis downsi populations have high connectivity within and between islands, with low levels of genetic differentiation between Floreana and the other two islands examined. The genetic bottleneck found across islands suggests there was a small founding population or few introduction events of P. downsi. The high dispersal capacity and wide habitat use of P. downsi highlights the significant threat that this parasite poses to the Galápagos avifauna. Our findings are relevant for assessing the viability of methods to control P. downsi on Galápagos, such as the sterile insect technique.

Donnellan Steve

2008-07-01

282

An Example of Inverse Magnetic Fabric in a Lava Pile From the Kerguelen Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of their low degree of anisotropy associated with a relatively high magnetic susceptibility, AMS measurements of lava flows often provide scattered results and a large number of sample is needed to well define the mean directions. However, the use of complementary AMS methods combined with other technics allow to infer flowing directions of lava piles. Such a study was performed on six volcanic sections (9 up to 20 lava flows) from the Kerguelen Archipelago(southern Indian Ocean) in order to complete regional geological observations of Nougier (1970) and identify the locations of the different eruptive centers. Unfortunately, one of these sequences, the Mont de la RabouillŠre, yielded an unexpected inverse fabric which did not allowed us to undoubtly interpret its flowing direction. We thus present a detailed analysis of this particular section including an additional AMS study on the same samples but at a demagnetized state. To complete this approach, we determined the anhysteretic remanent anisotropy (ARA) of theses samples to compare the magnetic fabrics obtained. Also further rock magnetic studies were performed. Normal and high resolution FORC analysis of one sample per flow were realized in order to detect eventual characteristic signatures associated with the inverse fabric. Endly, an Electron BackScattered Diffraction analysis (EBSD) of one thin section allowed to determine the cristalline orientation of the plagioclases to check its relation with the magnetic signal. Surprisingly, the [001] axis of the plagioclase minerals was found to be aligned with the mean kmax determined using the AMS. The study is still on progress but our preliminary interpretations indicate that the inverse magnetic fabric can be used to infer a confident flowing direction for this section. J. Nougier, 1970. Contribution a l'etude geologique et geomorphologique des iles Kerguelen. C.N.F.R.A., Vol 27, 2 tomes, 440pp and 256pp

Plenier, G.; Bascou, J.; Gattacceca, J.; Camps, P.; Rochette, P.

2003-12-01

283

Multiscaling statistics of high frequency global solar radiation data in the Guadeloupean Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The part of the solar power production from photovoltaiccs systems is constantly increasing in the electric grids. Solar energy converter devices such as photovoltaic cells are very sensitive to instantaneous solar radiation fluctuations. Thus rapid variation of solar radiation due to changes in the local meteorological condition can induce large amplitude fluctuations of the produced electrical power and reduce the overall efficiency of the system. When large amount of photovoltaic electricity is send into a weak or small electricity network such as island network, the electric grid security can be in jeopardy due to these power fluctuations. The integration of this energy into the electrical network remains a major challenge, due to the high variability of solar radiation in time and space. To palliate these difficulties, it is essential to identify the characteristic of these fluctuations in order to anticipate the eventuality of power shortage or power surge. A good knowledge of the intermittency of global solar radiation is crucial for selecting the location of a solar power plant and predicting the generation of electricity. This work presents a multifractal analysis study of 367 daily global solar radiation sequences measured with a sampling rate of 1 Hz over one year at Guadeloupean Archipelago (French West Indies) located at 16o15'N latitude and 60o30'W longitude. The mean power spectrum computed follows a power law behaviour close to the Kolmogorov spectrum. The intermittent and multifractal properties of global solar radiation data are investigated using several methods. Under this basis, a characterization for each day using three multifractal parameters is proposed.

Calif, R.; Schmitt, F. G.; Huang, Y.; Soubdhan, T.

2013-12-01

284

Beyond EM-1: Lavas from Afanasy-Nikitin Rise and the Crozet Archipelago, Indian Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

Lavas from Afanasy-Nikitin Rise, possibly the Late Cretaceous product of the Crozet hotspot, cover a wide range of isotopic compositions that includes the lowest (206Pb204Pb)t (to 16.77) and ?Nd(t) (to -8) values yet found among oceanic islands or spreading centers worldwide, as well as high (87Sr/86Sr)t (to 0.7066). In contrast, young basalts from the Crozet Archipelago exhibit a narrow range of variation around ?Nd ˜ +4, 87Sr/86Sr ˜ 0.7040, and 206Pb/204Pb ˜ 19.0, closely resembling that of shield lavas of the Réunion hotspot. The Afanasy-Nikitin rocks also have much higher Ba/Nb, Ba/Th, and Pb/Ce than modern oceanic island or ridge lavas, as well as high La/Nb. The data do not obviously support the Crozet plume model but, assuming the model to be plate tectonically correct, would indicate that the plume-source composition either changed dramatically or that Afanasy-Nikitin magmatism involved significant amounts of nonplume mantle. The low 206Pb/204Pb, low ?Nd lavas provide the best evidence to date of the sort of material that, by variably contaminating much of the Indian mid-ocean-ridge basalt (MORB) source asthenosphere, may be responsible for the isotopic difference between most Indian MORB and Pacific or North Atlantic MORB. The combined isotopic and trace element results suggest an ultimate origin in the continental crust or mantle lithosphere for this material, although whether it was cycled through the deep mantle or resided at shallow levels in the convecting mantle cannot currently be determined.

Mahoney, J. J.; White, W. M.; Upton, B. G. J.; Neal, C. R.; Scrutton, R. A.

1996-07-01

285

Geological hazards in the Azores archipelago: Volcanic terrain instability and human vulnerability  

Science.gov (United States)

The islands of the Azores archipelago are geologically young and located in a tectonically and volcanically active region. Not surprisingly, the islands are subject to many geological hazards, including earthquakes, landslides, and coastal erosion; some selected examples are discussed in this paper. As demonstrated by two recent earthquakes (1980, Terceira; 1998, Faial), the principal damage was related to one or more of these factors: (1) unsafe location of structures near faults; (2) unstable foundation soils; (3) poor quality of building materials and construction methods; (4) disregard of building codes; and (5) lack of building maintenance. Major landsliding events in the Azores (e.g., Ponta da Fajã, Ribeira Quente, and Fajã dos Cubres) typically are triggered by intense, long-duration precipitation and (or) earthquake-induced ground shaking. The loose, unconsolidated nature of the rocks and soils of these volcanic islands is another significant contributing factor, sometimes aggravated by ground instability caused by human activity. Coastal erosion is prevalent on the north coast of São Miguel and the south coast of Faial, mostly resulting from natural circumstances (e.g., steepness of cliffs, differential erosion, intense wave action during storms) and also from human activity (e.g., poorly engineered drainage works on cliff faces). Where severe, coastal erosion can pose a risk to populations and societal infrastructures situated near the tops of the seacliffs. To mitigate the risk of these and other geological hazards in the Azores, it is necessary to (1) prepare hazards and risks maps of the affected areas; (2) adopt prudent land-use planning that considers the hazards; (3) upgrade the building codes in the hazardous areas; (4) initiate slope-stabilization programs; (5) preserve the natural environmental integrity of the regions; and (6) educate the affected populace and governmental officials about the possibilities and consequences of hazardous processes.

Malheiro, A.

2006-08-01

286

Patterns of coral disease across the Hawaiian archipelago: relating disease to environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing a negative association, but no significant explanatory power was offered for PorTLS. PMID:21655248

Aeby, Greta S; Williams, Gareth J; Franklin, Erik C; Kenyon, Jean; Cox, Evelyn F; Coles, Steve; Work, Thierry M

2011-01-01

287

Macrophytobenthic flora of the Abrolhos Archipelago and the Sebastião Gomes Reef, Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

The Abrolhos Bank, located on the coast of Bahia, Brazil, harbors the largest coral reef system in the South Atlantic. This area has attracted the attention of biologists because of its peculiar mushroom-shaped structures, locally known as "chapeirões", and endemic species of corals and other organisms. The macrophytobenthos compartment plays an important ecological role in the functioning of the bank, and some reports on the presence of seaweeds and seagrasses have been published; however, the data are fragmentary, and a more detailed survey of the macrophytobenthos compartment is lacking. Here we consolidate the information available and add new data obtained from two expeditions focused on seaweed and seagrass diversity from two sectors of the bank: the islands of the Abrolhos archipelago (AA) and the Sebastião Gomes Reef (SG). These sites were selected for their contrasting characteristics. Specifically, SG (15 km off the mouth of the Caravelas River) is subjected to a broader range of anthropogenic impacts and to input of terrigenous sediments, while the AA (54 km offshore) is surrounded by calcareous biogenic sediments, has clearer water and is less affected by human activities. Macrophytobenthic species richness on both reference areas is larger than previously thought. Considering previous records, there are 164 species of macrophytes in AA and 111 species in SG, of which 59 and 74 species are first records for each respective location. The higher species richness at the AA may result from a higher habitat complexity and lower turbidity, but a potential negative effect of enhanced human impacts at SG cannot be ruled out. Considering that macroalgae are relevant components of the benthic community, as producers and structurer organisms, the data presented herein provide a reliable baseline for future environmental studies, and thus may contribute to improve management policies within the unique ecosystem of Abrolhos.

Torrano-Silva, Beatriz N.; Oliveira, Eurico C.

2013-11-01

288

Update: San Andreas Fault experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

Satellite laser ranging techniques are used to monitor the broad motion of the tectonic plates comprising the San Andreas Fault System. The San Andreas Fault Experiment, (SAFE), has progressed through the upgrades made to laser system hardware and an improvement in the modeling capabilities of the spaceborne laser targets. Of special note is the launch of the Laser Geodynamic Satellite, LAGEOS spacecraft, NASA's only completely dedicated laser satellite in 1976. The results of plate motion projected into this 896 km measured line over the past eleven years are summarized and intercompared.

Christodoulidis, D. C.; Smith, D. E.

1984-01-01

289

Structure of microemulsions by SANS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to determine the structure of microemulsions in the system hydrocarbon-water-sodium di-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT). SANS spectra taken in a deuterated solvent showed a perfect Guinier fit with a radius of gyration of 15A regardless of the amount of AOT from 0.1 to 5% present. By varying the proportions of deuterated and undeuterated solvent to vary the contrast between the micelles and the solvent, it is concluded that the micelles are basically monodispersed spherical aggregations of 22 AOT molecules

290

Marketing San Juan Basin gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Marketing natural gas produced in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado principally involves four gas pipeline companies with significant facilities in the basin. The system capacity, transportation rates, regulatory status, and market access of each of these companies is evaluated. Because of excess gas supplies available to these pipeline companies, producers can expect improved take levels and prices by selling gas directly to end users and utilities as opposed to selling gas to the pipelines for system supply. The complexities of transporting gas today suggest that the services of an independent gas marketing company may be beneficial to smaller producers with gas supplies in the San Juan Basin

291

Local Andr\\'{e}-Oort conjecture for the universal abelian variety  

OpenAIRE

We prove a $p$-adic analogue of the Andr\\'{e}-Oort conjecture for subvarieties of the universal abelian varieties containing a dense set of special points. Let $g$ and $n$ be integers with $n \\geq 3$ and $p$ a prime number not dividing $n$. Let $R$ be a finite extension of $W[{\\mathbb F}_p^{\\mathrm alg}]$, the ring of Witt vectors of the algebraic closure of the field of $p$ elements. The moduli space $\\cA = \\cA_{g,1,n}$ of $g$-dimensional principally polarized abelian varie...

Scanlon, Thomas

2004-01-01

292

Edouard Andre (1840-1911, Jardinero-Naturalista y sus viajes por Colombia y el Ecuador  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En la literatura botánica de Colombia y el Ecuador figura ocasionalmente con tono de notable indiferencia el nombre de EDOUARD ANDRÉ, célebre jardinero-naturalista francés, que visitó estos dos países allá por los años de 1875-1876. Por esta razón, los datos biográficos que se incluyen a continuación pueden ser de interés. Los debo principalmente a la exquisita gentileza de MADAME DUPRAT, bibliotecaria del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, de París, quien recientemente me ha suministrado copia de los datos biográficos de ANDRE, publicados en la Revue horticote (numero del 1o de noviembre de 1911, agotado.

Chardon Carlos E.

1947-06-01

293

Origen y microdiferenciación de la población del Archipiélago de Chiloé / Origin and microdifferentiation of Chiloé Archipelago population  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las etnias originarias del archipiélago de Chiloé presentan características culturales que plantean preguntas acerca de su origen como entidad genética independiente y distinta del grupo continental. Al respecto, hemos caracterizado las frecuencias de los cuatro haplogrupos amerindios fundadores del [...] ADN mitocondrial en cuatro poblaciones del archipiélago. El componente aborigen materno de estas poblaciones fue superior al 90 %. El análisis de distancias genéticas sugiere una segregación norte-sur en donde las poblaciones septentrionales aparecen más relacionadas con la etnia continental Huilliche. Aún cuando el análisis de diferenciación interpoblacional y de componentes principales muestran una singularidad en el grupo insular, ésta puede ser interpretada a partir de datos genéticos, etnohistóricos y arqueológicos Abstract in english The cultural diversity of Chiloé archipelago’s population raises questions about its ethnic origin. To determinate whether this population forms a distinct genetic-cultural entity in relation to continental groups, four populations were characterized genetically. Gene frequencies for the four Amerin [...] dian mitochondrial DNA haplogroups were analyzed. The studied groups exhibit an important aboriginal maternal genetic contribution since over 90 % of the individuals analyzed presented Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups. Although the genetic distance analysis indicates a north-south segregation, in agreement with ethnohistoric information, a relationship between groups of the Northern part of the archipelago with the Huilliche population is observed. Nevertheless, the exact test of population differentiation and the principal component analysis indicate a singularity in the insular group which can be explained combining genetic, ethnohistoric and archeological data

FEDERICO, GARCÍA; MAURICIO, MORAGA; SOLEDAD, VERA; HUGO, HENRÍQUEZ; ELENA, LLOP; CARLOS, OCAMPO; EUGENIO, ASPILLAGA; FRANCISCO, ROTHHAMMER.

2004-09-01

294

A complex evolutionary history in a remote archipelago: phylogeography and morphometrics of the Hawaiian endemic Ligia isopods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compared to the striking diversification and levels of endemism observed in many terrestrial groups within the Hawaiian Archipelago, marine invertebrates exhibit remarkably lower rates of endemism and diversification. Supralittoral invertebrates restricted to specific coastal patchy habitats, however, have the potential for high levels of allopatric diversification. This is the case of Ligia isopods endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago, which most likely arose from a rocky supralittoral ancestor that colonized the archipelago via rafting, and diversified into rocky supralittoral and inland lineages. A previous study on populations of this isopod from O'ahu and Kaua'i revealed high levels of allopatric differentiation, and suggested inter-island historical dispersal events have been rare. To gain a better understanding on the diversity and evolution of this group, we expanded prior phylogeographic work by incorporating populations from unsampled main Hawaiian Islands (Maui, Moloka'i, Lana'i, and Hawai'i), increasing the number of gene markers (four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes), and conducting Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Our study revealed new lineages and expanded the distribution range of several lineages. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the study area are complex, with Hawai'i, O'ahu, and the Maui-Nui islands sharing major lineages, implying multiple inter-island historical dispersal events. In contrast, the oldest and most geographically distant of the major islands (Kaua'i) shares no lineages with the other islands. Our results did not support the monophyly of all the supralittoral lineages (currently grouped into L. hawaiensis), or the monophyly of the terrestrial lineages (currently grouped into L. perkinsi), implying more than one evolutionary transition between coastal and inland forms. Geometric-morphometric analyses of three supralittoral clades revealed significant body shape differences among them. A taxonomic revision of Hawaiian Ligia is warranted. Our results are relevant for the protection of biodiversity found in an environment subject to high pressure from disturbances. PMID:24386463

Santamaria, Carlos A; Mateos, Mariana; Taiti, Stefano; DeWitt, Thomas J; Hurtado, Luis A

2013-01-01

295

Changing Use Patterns, Changing Feedback Links: Implications for Reorganization of Coastal Fisheries Management in the Stockholm Archipelago, Sweden  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Property rights are important institutions for regulating the use of valuable natural resources from coastal ecosystems. In this case study, we identify and analyze property rights and user patterns related to small-scale coastal fisheries in the Stockholm Archipelago, Sweden. User patterns and user groups have changed significantly over the last century, as commercial fishing has been increasingly replaced by recreational activities. Interviews with local resource users and owners of water properties in two different areas, Möja and Ornö parishes within the Stockholm Archipelago, revealed a very diverse pattern of property and user rights, with a large number of water and fishing rights owners. Recreational fisheries, including both sport and household fishing, seem to predominate in both areas, but ownership differs. In Möja, most waters are collectively owned, whereas in Ornö, individual ownership predominates. Very few examples of local influence on fisheries management were found in either area, although the social structure for joint management does exist in Möja. Instead, larger-scale institutions at the regional, national, or international level regulate fisheries, often not addressing local conditions and fish populations. The ongoing shift in resource use has created a heterogeneous user group, and the limitations of centralized management authorities in dealing with the diversity in the coastal ecosystem have created mismatches within the social–ecological system. Combined with a large-scale decline in coastal fish stocks, these mismatches challenge the existing local property rights arrangements as well as the more centralized regulatory management structure. A key issue for fisheries management is how to develop and stimulate appropriate distribution of management functions at different geographical scales and organizational levels. The complexity and diversity in archipelago fisheries call for multilevel arrangements and cross-scale coordination, and initiatives have been taken by both central governmental authorities and local user groups to collaborate concerning habitat restoration and protection of important spawning grounds.

Maria Åqvist Almlöv

2006-12-01

296

Interpretation of the P-T-XCO2 environment during metamorphism of carbonates, central Utö, Stockholm archipelago.  

OpenAIRE

This thesis attempts to interpret the metamorphic condition and fluid composition experienced by metacarbonates on Utö, located in the south-eastern parts of the Stockholm archipelago. Utö is a part of the Svecofennian domain, and the area Bergslagen, that has hosted several mines over the last millennia. The bedrock in this area has been dated by the U-Pb technique to 1.90-1.87 Ga, placing it in the Paleoproterozoic era (Allen et al. 1996, Lundström et al. 1998). The rocks, of the studied...

Lundin, Linne?a

2013-01-01

297

A basic radial dike swarm of Boa Vista (Cape Verde Archipelago); its significance in the evolution of the island  

OpenAIRE

A basic radial dike swarm unrelated to other basic units of Boa Vista (Cape Verde Archipelago) has been localized and characterized in the central sector of the island. According to new radiometric data three main stages in the evolution of Boa Vista are distinguished: the earlier (the Old Volcanic Complex: 17–16 Ma) is equivalent to the shield building stage of Hawaii and the later (the Recent Volcanics (8–4 Ma) is in some aspects comparable to the post-erosional stage. An im...

Ancochea Soto, Eumenio; Herna?n Reguera, Francisco; Huertas Coronel, Mari?a Jose?; Brandle, J. L.

2012-01-01

298

Helium and neon isotopes in São Miguel island basalts, Azores Archipelago: New constraints on the “low 3He” hotspot origin  

OpenAIRE

Lavas from the São Miguel Island, Azores Archipelago, have peculiar isotopic compositions, including radiogenic lead and strontium and un-radiogenic neodymium. The peculiar isotopic trend of São Miguel is evident in the lead-lead diagram where both 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios are high for a given 206Pb/204Pb ratio compared to other oceanic island basalts. This signature is unique among OIBs and is particularly evident in the Nordeste area, the oldest part of São Miguel i...

Moreira, Manuel; Kanzari, Aisha; Madureira, Pedro

2012-01-01

299

On three endemic species of the linyphiid spider genus Canariphantes Wunderlich, 1992 (Araneae, Linyphiidae) from the Azores archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe Canariphantes junipericola n. sp. and C. relictus n. sp., new single-island endemic linyphiid spiders from the islands of Flores and Santa Maria (Azorean archipelago, Macaronesia), respectively. The female of the first species was incorrectly assigned to Canariphantes acoreensis (Wunderlich, 1992), a species occurring in four islands in the Central Group of Azores (Faial, Pico, São Jorge and Terceira). The latter species is transferred to Canariphantes, its male redescribed and the female genitalia described for the first time. We discuss the systematic affinities of these new species and comment on their conservation status.  PMID:25082047

Crespo, Luís Carlos; Bosmans, Robert; Cardoso, Pedro; Borges, Paulo A V

2014-01-01

300

Megachile timberlakei Cockerell (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae): Yet another bee species from the Galápagos Archipelago  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We here report the leaf-cutter bee Megachile (Eutricharaea) timberlakei Cockerell 1920 (Megachilidae) as a third bee species in the Gala´pagos. The species is currently known from the Hawaiian Islands and was collected during floral inventories on San Cristo´ bal. We provide floral records as well as a diagnosis and comparative comments that will assist bee researchers to easily recognize this species from other native and adventive Megachile Latreille to the Americas. We also discuss the possible routes to the Gala´pagos.

Rasmussen, Claus; Carrión, A.

2012-01-01

301

San Antonio Zoological Gardens & Aquarium  

Science.gov (United States)

Special services for teachers and students include programs for classes and summer camps. A variety of land and aquatic animals are on display; website contains a section on animal training; adopt-an-animal program offered. Free screensaver. Admission fees apply. Located in San Antonio, Texas.

302

San Diego Area Traffic Report  

Science.gov (United States)

Maxwell Laboratories and Caltrans have made availible real- time traffic information for San Diego, California, USA freeways via the World Wide Web. Current freeway speeds and flow rates, along with daily construction closures and updated freeway incident reports are available in both graphical and text formats. The information is normally updated about once a minute.

303

Suboxic dolomite formation linked to the sedimentary Mn cycle, Archipelago Los Roques, Venezuela  

Science.gov (United States)

The preferential formation of Ca-rich dolomite precursors in modern peritidal environments has been associated with the degradation of buried microbial mats, with complexation of Ca and Mg cations by extracellular polysaccharides, and alkalinity generation, mostly through bacterial sulfate reduction. However, it remains unclear why Ca-dolomite would not occur in suboxic sediments where bacterial Mn(IV) and/or Fe(III) reduction are important sources of alkalinity, and the role, if any, of Fe- and Mn-recycling in its diagenetic stabilization to more stoichiometric dolomite is unknown. In a shoaling-upward parasequence in the Archipelago Los Roques, Venezuela, an abundance of Ca-dolomite coincides with a relative decrease in bulk-sediment iron concentrations. These sediments were analyzed with multiple analytical tools, including EPMA, ICP-MS, synchrotron-based XRF, XRD, and spatially resolved XANES. Results demonstrate that the distribution of spheroidal aggregates of nanometer-scale Ca-rich dolomite rhombohedra is linked with interstitial elemental sulfur and manganese accumulations, with Mn occurring in several oxidation states (Fig. 1). Based on our observations at this novel dolomite-forming site, we suggest that in peritidal settings the burial of metal-reactive microbial mats act as a barrier capable of concentrating dissolved reactive species that promote greater sediment residence times in suboxic (manganic) zones, where the recycling of Mn not only plays an important role in the remineralization of organic matter, but also sustains elevated alkalinity and dissolved pore water sulfide concentrations. The last two effects have been previously suggested to promote Mg dehydration, the major kinetic barrier to dolomite nucleation. Figure 1. Normalized Mn K-edge merged spectra of a 5 x 5 ?m analytical area bearing dolomite cements. A: The K-edge exhibits two main features at about 6554 and 6558 eV. B: Intermediate Mn (III) is identified by the positive slope of the first derivative of the XANES spectra in the interval 6547.9-6549.0 eV. C: A least-squares fitting of the spectra was performed to quantify the Mn species present. The spectra can be fitted with four model compounds, Mn2O3 (52.5 × 5.2%), MnCO3 (22.2 × 1.3%), gamma-MnOOH (15.0 × 5.0%), and Mn3O4 (10.3 × 7.7%), suggesting that these phases coexist in the dolomite-bearing microcrystalline cements.

Petrash, D.; Lalonde, S.; Gonzalez, G.; Gingras, M.; Konhauser, K.

2013-12-01

304

The stable archipelago in the region of the Pallas and Hansa dynamical families  

Science.gov (United States)

Among highly inclined asteroids, the region of the central main belt between the 3J:-1A and 5J:-2A mean-motion resonances has long been known to host the Pallas and Hansa dynamical families. This region is characterized by the presence of the ?6,?5 and ?16 secular resonances, which in conjunction with the 8J:-3A mean-motion resonance divide the area into eight regions, the stable islands of the archipelago. Using a set of proper elements available at the Asteroids Dynamic Site (AstDyS) at the time, Gil-Hutton identified a family around (686) Gersuind and two more minor clumps around (945) Barcelona and (148) Gallia in the space of synthetic proper elements. In this work I compute a new set of synthetic proper elements for 2310 numbered and 2142 multi-opposition objects in this region. The use of the frequency-modified Fourier transform method allowed me to obtain non-negative estimates of the proper frequency of argument of pericentre precession g for members of the Hansa families characterized by values of eforced larger than efree, and to solve the problem of the non-linear dependence of g versus n observed by Carruba & Michtchenko. My analysis shows that the two minor clumps of Gil-Hutton should now be considered dynamical families. Also, a new family in the domains of both proper elements (a, e, sini) and frequencies (n, g, g + s) around (1222) Tina is discovered in this work, as well as a new frequency family around (4203) Brucato. Nine minor clumps, one of which is visible in both domains, are also observed. The taxonomical analysis of family members suggests that the Pallas family is compatible with a B-type composition (but two members are classified as C interlopers), while the Hansa family is possibly an S-type one. Sloan Digital Sky Survey Moving Object Catalog (SDSS-MOC3) data suggest that the Barcelona family might be an Sq group, and the Gersuind, Gallia and Tina ones should belong to the S complex. Geometric albedo data seem to confirm the possibility that the Barcelona and Gersuind families belong to the S complex. Data on cumulative size distributions, collisions time-scales, rotation rates and dynamics in this region are also revised in this work.

Carruba, V.

2010-10-01

305

Geology of the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago and the North Kara Terrane in the Russian high Arctic  

Science.gov (United States)

The Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago is located at 80°N near the continental shelf break, between the Kara and Laptev seas. Sedimentary successions of Neoproterozoic and Palaeozoic age dominate the bedrock geology. Together with Northern Tajmyr, Severnaya Zemlya constitutes the main land areas of the North Kara Terrane (NKT), which is inferred here to have been a part of the Timanide margin of Baltica, i.e. an integral part of Baltica at least since the Vendian. Vendian turbidites derived from the Timanide Orogen are inferred to have been deposited on Neoproterozoic greenschist facies, granite-intruded basement. Shallow-water siliclastic deposition in the Early to Mid-Cambrian was followed by highly organic-rich shales in the Late Cambrian and influx of more turbidites. An episode of folding, the Kan’on River deformation, separates these formations from the overlying Tremadocian conglomerates and sandstones. In the Early Ordovician, rift-related magmatic rocks accompanied the deposition of variegated marls, sandstones, carbonates and evaporites. Dark shales and gypsiferous limestones characterise the Mid-Ordovician. Late Ordovician quartz-sandstones mark a hiatus, followed by carbonate rocks that extend up into and through most of the Silurian. The latter give way upwards into Old Red Sandstones, which are inferred to have been deposited in a Caledonian foreland basin. Deformation, reaching the area in the latest Devonian or earliest Carboniferous and referred to as the Severnaya Zemlya episode, is thought to be Caledonian-related. The dominating E-vergent structure was controlled by décollement zones in Ordovician evaporite-bearing strata; detachment folds and thrusts developed in the west and were apparently impeded by a barrier of Ordovician igneous rocks in the east. Below the décollement zones, the Neoproterozoic to Early Ordovician succession was deformed into open to close folds. The exposed strata in the lower structural level have been juxtaposed with those in the upper structural level along the major N-trending Fiordovoe Lake Fault Zone, which involved several kilometres of dextral strike-slip movement and downthrow to the west. A major Early Carboniferous unconformity separates the folded Mid-Palaeozoic and older rocks from overlying Carboniferous formations, as on Franz Joseph Land and Svalbard. Subsequent latest Palaeozoic to Early Mesozoic orogeny, as on Taimyr, apparently had little influence on the Severnaya Zemlya successions.

Lorenz, Henning; Männik, Peep; Gee, David; Proskurnin, Vasilij

2008-05-01

306

Musschia isambertoi M. Seq., R. Jardim, M. Silva & L. Carvalho (Campanulaceae, a new species from the Madeira Archipelago (Portugal  

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Full Text Available A new species of Musschia Dumort. (Campanulaceae, endemic from Madeira Archipelago (Portugal, is described as Musschia isambertoi M. Seq., R. Jardim, M. Silva & L. Carvalho. Both vegetative and reproductive structures have been studied and are remarkably distinct from the recognized species [M. aurea (L. f. Dumort. and M. wollastonii Lowe]. A full description and a diagnosis are included as well as line art, color drawings and pictures. Diagnostic characters are discussed and compared with those of the closely related species. The new species has a very restricted distribution occurring in two isolated populations in the Deserta Grande Island (Madeira Archipelago, Portugal. Nomenclatural aspects on the genus Musschia Dumort. are discussed and a diagnostic key for the species is also includedSe describe una nueva especie de Musschia Dumort. (Campanulaceae, endémica del archipiélago de Madeira (Portugal, Musschia isambertoi M. Seq., R. Jardim, M. Silva & L. Carvalho. La morfología de las estructuras vegetativas y florales estudiadas es claramente distinta de la de las otras dos especies conocidas, Musschia aurea (L. f Dumort. y Musschia wollastonii Lowe. Se incluyen: una descripción y una diagnosis, ilustradas por imágenes, una lámina en blanco y negro y una en color. Se comparan y discuten los caracteres diagnósticos dentro del conjunto de especies del género. La nueva especie es endémica de la isla Deserta Grande (archipiélago de Madeira, Portugal. Se discuten aspectos nomenclaturales y se incluye una clave de las especies conocidas para Madeira.

Menezes de Sequeira, Miguel

2007-12-01

307

Spatio-temporal variation in the diet of Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea in the Azores archipelago, northeast Atlantic  

Science.gov (United States)

The diet of Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea in the Azores was studied in four islands of the archipelago over four breeding seasons, using stomach flushings from 959 birds. Fish were identified from flesh, otoliths and vertebrae and cephalopods from flesh and lower beaks. The frequency of occurrence of prey taxa, and the numerical frequency of fish and cephalopods, showed marked variations both spatially, across the breeding cycle and between years. Overall, cephalopods from 37 species representing 17 families and fish from 33 species representing 18 families were identified, representing over 70 prey species and trebling what was previously known. Histioteuthidae, Ommastrephidae and Cranchiidae were the only cephalopod families present every year and represented two thirds of the cephalopods' consumption by number. Blue jack mackerel Trachurus picturatus was the most abundant prey species present in 1998 and 2002 but was absent in 1999 and 2000, representing on average 57.2% of prey by number in the years it occurred. Apart from blue jack mackerel, most fish species were present in very low numbers with the exception of Cubiceps gracilis, Scomberesox saurus and Maurolicus muellerii. Diaphus adenomus, was recorded for the first time for the Azores archipelago.

Neves, Verónica; Nolf, Dirk; Clarke, Malcolm

2012-12-01

308

Long-term changes of species richness in a breeding bird community of a small Mediterranean archipelago  

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Full Text Available We analyzed the pattern of species richness changes in a bird–breeding bird community on a small western Mediterranean archipelago (Columbretes Islands over a 40–year period (1964–2003. The aim of this study was to qualitatively account for the relative roles of local and regional factors in shaping the community. As expected, we found that regional factors (at the metapopulation spatial scale increased diversity whereas local factors (i.e. ecological probably prevented further increases in diversity. We found that the archipelago gained four new species (two seabirds and two falconids during the study period, whereas no extinctions were recorded. The community seems partially or completely closed to some groups of species (e.g. small–sized birds such as passerines and storm–petrels, probably owing to predatory exclusion by Eleonora falcons (Falco eleonorae. As newly arrived species have breeding calendars that do not fully overlap with those of resident species, competition for space in a rather saturated area is prevented. Preservation of rare species which increase gamma (regional diversity rather than alpha diversity with common species should be the main local conservation goal.

Martínez-Abraín, A.

2005-12-01

309

Accidental and ideal island cities: islanding processes and urban design in Belize City and the urban archipelagos of Europe  

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Full Text Available This paper explores processes of islanding, de-islanding, and re-islanding in the context of island cities. Although today popularly associated with rural, peripheral, and isolated landscapes, concepts of the ideal city coincided in Medieval and Renaissance Europe with emergent notions of the ideal island. Major European cities such as Amsterdam, Paris, and Copenhagen were established on densely urbanized small islands. In accordance with dominant political and military philosophies, they were subsequently developed through comprehensive urban design into vast yet coherent urban archipelagos. In contrast, the contemporary development of Belize City as an island city took place through piecemeal land reclamation, absent comprehensive urban design, resulting in a very different kind of urban archipelago. Neither the coherent European island cities nor Belize City are generally regarded as islands today, yet their histories of urban development evidence the impact of spatial attributes of islandness on urban form. Comprehensive urban design efforts are currently directed at land reclamation and waterfront revitalization in Belize City, aiming to restore Belize City’s island city status. We argue that cities can be islanded, de-islanded, and re-islanded in the minds of their inhabitants and that it is necessary to recognize the connection between ideal islands and ideal cities in order to understand the islanding process in full.

Elizabeth Pigou-Dennis

2014-11-01

310

Absolute palaeointensity of Oligocene (28-30 Ma) lava flows from the Kerguelen Archipelago (southern Indian Ocean)  

CERN Document Server

We report palaeointensity estimates obtained from three Oligocene volcanic sections from the Kerguelen Archipelago (Mont des Ruches, Mont des Tempetes, and Mont Rabouillere). Of 402 available samples, 102 were suitable for a palaeofield strength determination after a preliminary selection, among which 49 provide a reliable estimate. Application of strict a posteriori criteria make us confident about the quality of the 12 new mean-flow determinations, which are the first reliable data available for the Kerguelen Archipelago. The Virtual Dipole Moments (VDM) calculated for these flows vary from 2.78 to 9.47 10e22 Am2 with an arithmetic mean value of 6.15+-2.1 10e22 Am2. Compilation of these results with a selection of the 2002 updated IAGA palaeointensity database lead to a higher (5.4+-2.3 10e22 Am2) Oligocene mean VDM than previously reported, identical to the 5.5+-2.4 10e22 Am2 mean VDM obtained for the 0.3-5 Ma time window. However, these Kerguelen palaeointensity estimates represent half of the reliable Ol...

Plenier, G; Coe, R S; Perrin, M; Plenier, Guillaume; Camps, Pierre; Coe, Robert S.; Proxy, Mireille Perrin

2003-01-01

311

78 FR 19103 - Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano Escort; Bahia de San Juan; San Juan, PR  

Science.gov (United States)

...Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2013-0166] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano Escort; Bahia de San Juan; San Juan, PR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final...

2013-03-29

312

La fiesta de San Juan en San Pedro Manrique (Soria  

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Full Text Available San Pedro Manrique 1 es una villa soriana, perteneciente al partido judicial de Agreda, y que dista 46 kms. de la capital de la provincia. Se halla situada en la parte norte de la misma, mirando, pues, al Ebro, donde desemboca el Linares que riega su término, situado entre las sierras Cebollera y el Moncayo. Está a una altura de 1.075 m. sobre el nivel del mar y cuenta con 1.000 habitantes en números redondos.

L. CORTÉS

2009-10-01

313

San Antonio Museum of Art  

Science.gov (United States)

Created in 1925 as the San Antonio Museum Association, the organization later became the San Antonio Museum of Art (SAMA) and also operated the Witte Museum of Science and History. Over its long history, the SAMA has become well-known for its collection of pre-Columbian art, along with its holdings in 18th through 20th century American and European paintings and sculpture. On their website, visitors can peruse their upcoming events, view highlights from their collection, and look over interactive features about their new and previous shows. Two of the archived highlights here include an exhibit on photography from the Mexican Revolution and their collection of Asian art. Teachers should make sure and look over their "Education" area, as it contains materials to use in the classroom, as well as information about special programs at SAMA.

314

San Diego Zoo: Kid Territory  

Science.gov (United States)

This San Diego Zoo website is absolutely packed with fun and informative stuff for kids, and features not only the residents of the zoo, but also the people who work there. Read All About It offers a look at how the San Diego Zoo began, why we give scientific names to animals, why animal enrichment is important, and much more. Science in Action offers simple experiments to do at home or in the classroom, like exploring what life would be like without an opposable thumb (with tape, not via amputation). The website also provides interesting essays on zoo-related careers, as well as cool multimedia games, animal-themed recipes, and loads of other great features.

315

Surmahiirte tants; Pühapäeva hommik; Unistus venna külaskäigust; Kolm päeva voodipuhkust; Veepiir; Ei sugutunnuseid ega muid iseärasusi : [Luuletused] / Wallace Stevens ; inglise k. tlk. ja järelsõna: Andres Ehin  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Autorist lk. 212. Luuletuste 'Unistus venna külaskäigust', 'Kolm päeva voodipuhkust', 'Veepiir' ja 'Ei sugutunnuseid ega muid iseärasusi', mis on samuti ekslikult sealsamas W. Stevensile omistatud, autor on tegelikult Carlos Stewal. Vt. Ehin, Andres. Veavabandus // Looming. 1995. Nr. 5. Lk. 718

Stevens, Wallace

1996-01-01

316

1 küsimus noorele juhile : Kui raha ja aeg ei piira, siis mida tahaksite elus juurde õppida? / Jekaterina Eilart, Andres Urb, Mariana Kolesnik... [jt.  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Küsimusele vastavad Hamburg ja Partnerid töötaja Jekaterina Eilart, Sampo Life Eesti varahaldur Andres Urb, Marati peadisainer Mariana Kolesnik, katusefirma Evari juht Rain Kala, endine tudengiorganisatsiooni AIESEC Eesti president Lauri Lahi ning internetiturundaja Marjam Vaher

2010-01-01

317

Jõekääru Jazz täitis eesmärgi nii korraldajate, esinejate kui publiku poolelt / Allan Liik, Hedvig Hanson, Andre Maaker, Ain Agan...[jt.] ; foto ja küsitl. Kaire Tensuda  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Jõekääru Jazz'ile järgneval nädalal tõi ürituse peakorraldaja Allan Liik toimetusse seal esinenud muusikud. Vestlusringis olid: Allan Liik, Hedvig Hanson, Andre Maaker, Ain Agan, Raivo Tafenau ja Sergio Bastos

2007-01-01

318

Phylogeography and historical demography of the anadromous fish Leucopsarion petersii in relation to geological history and oceanography around the Japanese Archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phylogeographical patterns of marine and diadromous organisms are often influenced by dynamic ocean histories. For example, the marine realm around the Japanese Archipelago is an interesting area for phylogeographical research because of the wide variation in the environments driven by repeated shifts in sea level in the Quaternary. We analysed mitochondrial cyt b gene and nuclear myh6 gene sequences for individuals collected from throughout the range of the anadromous fish Leucopsarion petersii to assess the lineage divergence, phylogeographical pattern and historical demography in relation to geological history and oceanographic features around the archipelago. Leucopsarion petersii has two major lineages (the Japan Sea and Pacific Ocean lineages), which diverged during the late-early to middle Pleistocene. Geographical distributions of the two lineages were closely related to the pathways of the two warm currents, the Tsushima Current and the Kuroshio Current, that flow past the archipelago. Evidence of introgressive hybridization between these lineages was found at two secondary contact zones. Demographic tests suggested that the Japan Sea and Pacific Ocean lineages carried the genetic signal of different historical demographic processes, and these signals are probably associated with differences in habitat stability during recent glacial periods. The Japan Sea lineage has a larger body-size and more vertebrae, probably in relation to severe habitat conditions through Pleistocene climatic oscillations. Thus, the two lineages have long independent evolutionary histories, and the phylogeographical structure and demography of this species have been influenced both by historical events and the present-day oceanography around the Japanese Archipelago. PMID:21062386

Kokita, Tomoyuki; Nohara, Kenji

2011-01-01

319

Strong genetic population structure in the boring giant clam, Tridacna crocea, across the Indo-Malay Archipelago: implications related to evolutionary processes and connectivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Even though the Indo-Malay Archipelago hosts the world's greatest diversity of marine species, studies on the genetic population structure and gene flow of marine organisms within this area are rather rare. Consequently, not much is known about connectivity of marine populations in the Indo-Malay Archipelago, despite the fact that such information is important to understand evolutionary and ecological processes in the centre of marine biodiversity. This study aims to investigate the genetic population structure of the boring giant clam, Tridacna crocea. The analysis is based on a 456-bp fragment of the cytochrome oxidase I gene from 300 individuals collected from 15 localities across the Indo-Malay Archipelago. Tridacna crocea shows a very strong genetic population structure and isolation by distance, indicating restricted gene flow between almost all sample sites. The observed Phi(ST)-value of 0.28 is very high compared to other studies on giant clams. According to the pronounced genetic differences, the sample sites can be divided into four groups from West to East: (i) Eastern Indian Ocean, (ii) Java Sea, (iii) South China Sea, Indonesian throughflow, as well as seas in the East of Sulawesi, and (iv) Western Pacific. This complex genetic population structure and pattern of connectivity, characterised by restricted gene flow between some sites and panmixing between others can be attributed to the geological history and prevailing current regimes in the Indo-Malay Archipelago. PMID:18662232

Kochzius, Marc; Nuryanto, Agus

2008-09-01

320

Cuartel San Carlos. Yacimiento veterano  

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Full Text Available El Cuartel San Carlos es un monumento histórico nacional (1986 de finales del siglo XVIII (1785-1790, caracterizado por sufrir diversas adversidades en su construcción y soportar los terremotos de 1812 y 1900. En el año 2006, el organismo encargado de su custodia, el Instituto de Patrimonio Cultural del Ministerio de Cultura, ejecutó tres etapas de exploración arqueológica, que abarcaron las áreas Traspatio, Patio Central y las Naves Este y Oeste de la edificación. Este trabajo reseña el análisis de la documentación arqueológica obtenida en el sitio, a partir de la realización de dicho proyecto, denominado EACUSAC (Estudio Arqueológico del Cuartel San Carlos, que representa además, la tercera campaña realizada en el sitio. La importancia de este yacimiento histórico, radica en su participación en los acontecimientos que propiciaron conflictos de poder durante el surgimiento de la República y en los sucesos políticos del siglo XX. De igual manera, se encontró en el sitio una amplia muestra de materiales arqueológicos que reseñan un estilo de vida cotidiana militar, así como las dinámicas sociales internas ocurridas en el San Carlos, como lugar estratégico para la defensa de los diferentes regímenes que atravesó el país, desde la época del imperialismo español hasta nuestros días.

Mariana Flores

2007-01-01

321

75 FR 15611 - Safety Zone; United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

...as follows: PART 165--REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS 0 1. The authority citation for part 165 continues...Zone; United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. (a) Location. The limits of the...

2010-03-30

322

78 FR 35593 - Special Local Regulation; Christmas Boat Parade, San Juan Harbor; San Juan, PR  

Science.gov (United States)

...Register. B. Regulatory History and Information The current...the United States during the Christmas Boat Parade. D. Discussion...San Juan is sponsoring the Christmas Boat Parade. The event will...Special Local Regulation; Christmas Boat Parade, San Juan...

2013-06-13

323

Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Lake Azul (Azores archipelago, Portugal) and its implications for the NAO signal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Azores archipelago lies in the southern area of the dipole that defines the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). During the negative phase of the NAO, the Azores high pressure is displaced southwards allowing the storms to cross the islands increasing the precipitation in this area and also in southern Europe. This fact makes them excellent key places to perform accurate high-resolution climate reconstructions. Lake Azul (37o 52' 21"N - 37o52'21"W) is a monomictic lake infilling the volcanic complex of Sete Cidades which is located in São Miguel island. This monomictic and eutrophic lake was formed around 22000 cal. years B.P. by consecutive collapses of the underneath volcanic caldera. The last eruption of the Sete Cidades crater complex was radiocarbon-dated at 500-650 cal years B.P. At present, macrophytes are restricted to the lake shore and consist mainly of Potamogeton spp., Myriophyllum alterniflorum, Ceratophyllum demersum, Nymphaea alba, and, Chara fragilis. Moreover, this crater complex has steep borders mainly covered by exotic plant species, such Cryptomeria japonica, Pittosporum undulatum and Hedychium gardnerianum. Antropogenic changes in the catchment have occurred in the last centuries including deforestation, permanent pastures (around 31%), production forest (57%) and the human settlements. In September 2011, fourteen sediment cores, up to 2.5 m long, were collected using a gravity corer from a UWITEC raft. A multiproxy characterization of these cores was carried out including smear slides, X-Ray Fluorescence, X-Ray diffraction, magnetic properties, diatom content, and bulk organic matter (d13C, d15N, TN, TOC). The chronological model was obtained by plant remains and pollen concentrates radiocarbon-dating. From base to top, three lithological units have been established from the retrieved cores: volcaniclastic rocks (lapilli), light grey laminated mud, and poor laminated light brown mud with frequent dark layers rich in plant debris. The radiocarbon date at the base of this fine mixture manifests the record for the last ca 650 cal. years B.P., which corresponds to the last recorded eruption. The dark brown layers are dominated by organic matter (low XRF signal and almost no diatoms) whereas light brown facies are mainly made up of terrigenous particles (high XRF signal and high content of benthic diatoms) and vascular plant macroremains. Bulk organic matter analyses have revealed that algae constitute the main compound of the organic fraction. However, the organic matter in the dark layers is composed by C3 plants, coherent with the clastic nature of this facies deposited during flood events. Increase of precipitation, ruled by the negative phase of the NAO, together with the steep borders of the Sete Cidades crater prompts a substantial increase in the erosion of the catchment and hence an enhancement of runoff that reaches Azul Lake and the occurrence of the flood events. Therefore, identifying, characterizing and counting the dark layers would allow to reconstruct the intensity and periodicity of the negative phase of the NAO climate mode.

Jesús Rubio, Maria; Sanchez, Guiomar; Saez, Alberto; Vázquez-Loureiro, David; Bao, Roberto; José Pueyo, Juan; Gómez-Paccard, Miriam; Gonçalves, Vitor; Raposeiro, Pedro M.; Francus, Pierre; Hernández, Armand; Margalef, Olga; Buchaca, Teresa; Pla, Sergi; Barreiro-Lostres, Fernando; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Giralt, Santiago

2013-04-01

324

Resonant extended states in driven quasiperiodic lattices: Aubry-Andre localization by design  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider a quasiperiodic Aubry-Andre (AA) model and add a weak time-space-periodic perturbation. The undriven AA model is chosen to be well in the localized regime. The driving term controls the effective number of propagation channels. For a spatial resonance which reduces the reciprocal space dynamics to an effective one-dimensional two-leg ladder, the ac perturbation resonantly couples certain groups of localized eigenstates of the undriven AA model and turns them into extended ones. Slight detuning of the spatial and temporal frequencies off resonance returns these states into localized ones. We analyze the details of the resonant extended eigenstates using Floquet representations. In particular, we find that their size grows linearly with the system size. Initial wave packets overlap with resonant extended eigenstates and lead to ballistic spreading.

Morales-Molina, L.; Doerner, E.; Danieli, C.; Flach, S.

2014-10-01

325

78 FR 48646 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest...SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet...Supervisor's Office of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and...

2013-08-09

326

75 FR 65609 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest...SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet...Supervior's Office of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and...

2010-10-26

327

76 FR 27304 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest...SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet...Supervisor's Office of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and...

2011-05-11

328

76 FR 9540 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest...SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet...Supervisor's Office of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and...

2011-02-18

329

76 FR 2331 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest...SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet...Supervisor's Office of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and...

2011-01-13

330

77 FR 50459 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest...SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet...Supervisor's Office of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and...

2012-08-21

331

75 FR 78675 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest...SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet...Supervisor's Office of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and...

2010-12-16

332

76 FR 30903 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest...SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet...Supervisor's Office of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and...

2011-05-27

333

75 FR 51749 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest...SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet...Supervisor's Office of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and...

2010-08-23

334

Development and Characterization of EST-SSR Markers for the Solidago virgaurea Complex (Asteraceae in the Japanese Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Premise of the study: We developed simple sequence repeat (SSR markers from expressed sequence tags (ESTs for the Solidago virgaurea complex, an ecologically and morphologically diverse species complex in the Japanese archipelago, to elucidate population genetic structure and examine taxonomic boundaries. Methods and Results: Utilizing the RNA sequencing data obtained by next-generation sequencing techniques, 15 polymorphic EST-SSR markers with three to 14 alleles were developed, most of which were transferable to different Solidago species native to Eurasia and North America. Conclusions: The EST-SSR markers developed in this study may be useful for elucidating the population structure and taxonomic delimitation of the species complex, as well as for investigating the population genetics and reproductive ecology of Solidago species.

Shota Sakaguchi

2014-07-01

335

Karyological study of Amphisbaena ridleyi (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae), an endemic species of the Archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, Pernambuco, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The karyotype of Amphisbaena ridleyi, an endemic species of the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, in State of Pernambuco, Brazil, is described after conventional staining, Ag-NOR impregnation and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a telomeric probe. The diploid number is 46, with nine [...] pairs of macrochromosomes (three metacentrics, four subtelocentrics and two acrocentrics) and 14 pairs of microchromosomes. The Ag-NOR is located in the telomeric region of the long arm of metacentric chromosome 2 and FISH revealed signals only in the telomeric region of all chromosomes. Further cytogenetic data on other amphisbaenians as well as a robust phylogenetic hypothesis of this clade is needed in order to understand the evolutionary changes on amphisbaenian karyotypes.

Marcia Maria, Laguna; Renata Cecília, Amaro; Tamí, Mott; Yatiyo, Yonenaga-Yassuda; Miguel Trefaut, Rodrigues.

336

Biology of Grapsus grapsus (L innaeus, 1758) (Brachyura, Grapsidae) in the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, Equatorial Atlantic Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

Eleven expeditions were undertaken to the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago to study the reproductive biology of Grapsus grapsus, providing additional information on limb mutilation and carapace colour. MATURE software was used to estimate morphological maturity, while gonadal analyses were conducted to estimate physiological maturity. The puberty moult took place at larger size in males (51.4 mm of carapace length) than in females (33.8 mm), while physiological maturity occurred at a similar size in males (38.4 mm) and in females (33.4 mm). Above 50 mm, the proportion of red males increased in the population, indicating that functional maturity is also related to colour pattern. Small habitat and high local population density contributed to the high rate of cannibalism. The low diversity of food items, absence of predators of large crabs and high geographic isolation are the determinants of unique behavioural and biological characteristics observed in the G. grapsus population.

Freire, A. S.; Pinheiro, M. A. A.; Karam-Silva, H.; Teschima, M. M.

2011-09-01

337

Karyological study of Amphisbaena ridleyi (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae, an endemic species of the Archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, Pernambuco, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The karyotype of Amphisbaena ridleyi, an endemic species of the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, in State of Pernambuco, Brazil, is described after conventional staining, Ag-NOR impregnation and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with a telomeric probe. The diploid number is 46, with nine pairs of macrochromosomes (three metacentrics, four subtelocentrics and two acrocentrics and 14 pairs of microchromosomes. The Ag-NOR is located in the telomeric region of the long arm of metacentric chromosome 2 and FISH revealed signals only in the telomeric region of all chromosomes. Further cytogenetic data on other amphisbaenians as well as a robust phylogenetic hypothesis of this clade is needed in order to understand the evolutionary changes on amphisbaenian karyotypes.

Marcia Maria Laguna

2010-01-01

338

Variability of the Intertropical Convergence Zone recorded in coral isotopic records from the central Indian Ocean (Chagos Archipelago)  

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We have analyzed the stable oxygen isotopic composition of two Porites corals from the Chagos Archipelago, which is situated in the geographical center of the Indian Ocean. Coral ? 18O at this site reliably records temporal variations in precipitation associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Precipitation maxima occur in boreal winter, when the ITCZ forms a narrow band across the Indian Ocean. The Chagos then lies within the center of the ITCZ, and rainfall is strongly depleted in ? 18O. A 120-yr coral isotopic record indicates an alternation of wet and dry intervals lasting 15 to 20 yr. The most recent 2 decades are dominated by interannual variability, which is tightly coupled to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This is unprecedented in the 120 yr of coral record. As the ITCZ is governed by atmospheric dynamics, this provides evidence of a major change in the coupled ENSO-monsoon system.

Pfeiffer, Miriam; Dullo, Wolf-Christian; Eisenhauer, Anton

2004-05-01

339

Karyological study of Amphisbaena ridleyi (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae), an endemic species of the Archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, Pernambuco, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The karyotype of Amphisbaena ridleyi, an endemic species of the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, in State of Pernambuco, Brazil, is described after conventional staining, Ag-NOR impregnation and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a telomeric probe. The diploid number is 46, with nine pairs of macrochromosomes (three metacentrics, four subtelocentrics and two acrocentrics) and 14 pairs of microchromosomes. The Ag-NOR is located in the telomeric region of the long arm of metacentric chromosome 2 and FISH revealed signals only in the telomeric region of all chromosomes. Further cytogenetic data on other amphisbaenians as well as a robust phylogenetic hypothesis of this clade is needed in order to understand the evolutionary changes on amphisbaenian karyotypes. PMID:21637605

Laguna, Marcia Maria; Amaro, Renata Cecília; Mott, Tamí; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

2010-01-01

340

Phylogeography of the brackish water clam Corbicula japonica around the Japanese archipelago inferred from mitochondrial COII gene sequences.  

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We investigated the phylogeography of the Asian brackish water clam, Corbicula japonica, to clarify its demographic history using partial mitochondrial COII gene sequences (990 bp) from 283 individuals collected from around the Japanese archipelago and adjacent areas. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the presence of two major groups within our samples: monophyletic Group I comprising Lineages A-E of C. japonica and paraphyletic Group II consisting of Corbicula sp. Lineages A-C were distributed in Japan and Sakhalin Island, and Lineages D, E, and Corbicula sp. were distributed in the Korean Peninsula. Nested clade analysis (NCA) revealed that Lineage A-the dominant lineage in Japan-consisted of Pacific and Japan Sea lineages, the latter comprising southern and northern Japan Sea groups. Genetic diversity indices of the southern group were higher than those of the northern group, suggesting historical range expansion in the Sea of Japan from southwest to northeast. Geographical distribution of these genetic groups appears to have been influenced by major ocean currents around the Japanese archipelago. Dominant haplotypes in the star-shaped haplotype network of Lineage A were distributed throughout the entire distribution range of each genetic group, implying rapid range expansion of this species. The results of mismatch distribution analysis and molecular clock estimation suggest that expansion of lineage A occurred during the late Middle or Late Pleistocene. In contrast, restricted or past gene flow suggested by NCA and the many unique haplotypes (110/123; 89.4%) present in Lineage A suggest that gene flow among extant populations is rather limited. PMID:24601779

Yamada, Mitsuya; Ishibashi, Ryo; Toyoda, Kei; Kawamura, Kouichi; Komaru, Akira

2014-03-01

341

A five million year record of compositional variations in mantle sources to magmatism on Santiago, southern Cape Verde archipelago  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

High-precision Pb isotope data and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope data are presented together with major and trace element data for samples spanning the 4.6 Ma history of volcanism at Santiago, in the southern Cape Verde islands. Pb isotope data confirm the positive ¿8/4 signature of the southern islands indicating that the north-south compositional heterogeneity in the Cape Verde archipelago has persisted for at least 4.6 Ma. The Santiago volcanics show distinct compositional differences between the old, intermediate and young volcanics, and suggest greater involvement of an enriched mantle (EM1)-like source over time. Isotopic variations in the Santiago volcanics indicate convergence towards a homogeneous EM1-like end-member and distinct temporal variations in the FOZO-like end-member. Santiago and Santo Antão (a northern island, Holm et al. 2006), show a simultaneous decrease in 208Pb/204Pb of the high 206Pb/204Pb FOZO-like source with time. Such systematic archipelago-wide variations in the FOZO-like component suggest that this component is more likely to be present as a coherent package of recycled ocean crust rather than as multiple small heterogeneities dispersed in the upwelling mantle. The temporal variations in 208Pb/204Pb reflect minor lateral variations in Th/U of this recycled ocean crust package entering the melting zone beneath the islands. The location of the EM1-like component is more equivocal. A shallow lithospheric location is possible, but this would require a coincidence between spatial compositional variations in the lithosphere (EM1 is spatially restricted to the southern islands) and flow lines in the upwelling mantle revealed by seismic anisotropy. Therefore, we favour a deeper asthenospheric mantle source for the EM1-like source

Barker, Abigail K.; Holm, Paul Martin

2010-01-01

342

A 5 million year record of compositional variations in mantle sources to magmatism on Santiago, southern Cape Verde archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

High-precision Pb isotope data and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope data are presented together with major and trace element data for samples spanning the 4.6 Ma history of volcanism at Santiago, in the southern Cape Verde islands. Pb isotope data confirm the positive ?8/4 signature of the southern islands indicating that the north-south compositional heterogeneity in the Cape Verde archipelago has persisted for at least 4.6 Ma. The Santiago volcanics show distinct compositional differences between the old, intermediate and young volcanics, and suggest greater involvement of an enriched mantle (EM1)-like source over time. Isotopic variations in the Santiago volcanics indicate convergence towards a homogeneous EM1-like end-member and distinct temporal variations in the FOZO-like end-member. Santiago and Santo Antão (a northern island, Holm et al. 2006), show a simultaneous decrease in 208Pb/204Pb of the high 206Pb/204Pb FOZO-like source with time. Such systematic archipelago-wide variations in the FOZO-like component suggest that this component is more likely to be present as a coherent package of recycled ocean crust rather than as multiple small heterogeneities dispersed in the upwelling mantle. The temporal variations in 208Pb/204Pb reflect minor lateral variations in Th/U of this recycled ocean crust package entering the melting zone beneath the islands. The location of the EM1-like component is more equivocal. A shallow lithospheric location is possible, but this would require a coincidence between spatial compositional variations in the lithosphere (EM1 is spatially restricted to the southern islands) and flow lines in the upwelling mantle revealed by seismic anisotropy. Therefore, we favour a deeper asthenospheric mantle source for the EM1-like source.

Barker, Abigail K.; Holm, Paul M.; Peate, David W.; Baker, Joel A.

2010-07-01

343

Reconstructing the colonisation and diversification history of the endemic freshwater crab (Seychellum alluaudi) in the granitic and volcanic Seychelles Archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

The endemic, monotypic freshwater crab species Seychellum alluaudi was used as a template to examine the initial colonisation and evolutionary history among the major islands in the Seychelles Archipelago. Five of the "inner" islands in the Seychelles Archipelago including Mahé, Praslin, Silhouette, La Digue and Frégate were sampled. Two partial mtDNA fragments, 16S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was sequenced for 83 specimens of S. alluaudi. Evolutionary relationships between populations were inferred from the combined mtDNA dataset using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences. Analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA) were used to examine genetic variation among and within clades. A haplotype network was constructed using TCS while BEAST was employed to date the colonisation and divergence of lineages on the islands. Phylogenetic analyses of the combined mtDNA data set of 1103 base pairs retrieved a monophyletic S. alluaudi group comprised three statistically well-supported monophyletic clades. Clade one was exclusive to Silhouette; clade two included samples from Praslin sister to La Digue, while clade three comprised samples from Mahé sister to Frégate. The haplotype network corresponded to the three clades. Within Mahé, substantial phylogeographic substructure was evident. AMOVA results revealed limited genetic variation within localities with most variation occurring among localities. Divergence time estimations predated the Holocene sea level regressions and indicated a Pliocene/Pleistocene divergence between the three clades evident within S. alluaudi. The monophyly of each clade suggests that transoceanic dispersal is rare. The absence of shared haplotypes between the three clades, coupled with marked sequence divergence values suggests the presence of three allospecies within S. alluaudi. PMID:21824522

Daniels, Savel R

2011-11-01

344

75 FR 55270 - Safety Zone; NASSCO Launching of USNS Washington Chambers, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

...Zone; NASSCO Launching of USNS Washington Chambers, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary...temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of the San Diego Bay in support of the NASSCO Ship Launching...

2010-09-10

345

75 FR 8106 - Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Alameda, Santa Clara...Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge located in Alameda, Santa...Mail: San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex, 9500...

2010-02-23

346

Dynamic changes in enzyme activities and phenolic content during in vitro rooting of tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.) plantlets  

OpenAIRE

The dynamic changes of phenolic content and peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), indole-3-acetic acid oxidase (IAAO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities were assessed during the in vitro rooting process of three cultivars of tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.). These changes in enzyme-related activity and phenolic content__observed at the level of the whole plant__differed during the first 20 days of the rooting process in easy-to-root ‘Feng Dan Bai’ cultivar and d...

Songlin He

2011-01-01

347

San Diego's High School Dropout Crisis  

Science.gov (United States)

This article highlights San Diego's dropout problem and how much it's costing the city and the state. Most San Diegans do not realize the enormous impact high school dropouts on their city. The California Dropout Research Project, located at the University of California at Santa Barbara, has estimated the lifetime cost of one class or cohort of…

Wilson, James C.

2012-01-01

348

News from San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 4 to 8 December 2012 in San Antonio held the 35th annual meeting SABCS - San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium. Like every year, and now were present thousands of oncologists from around the world to hear the latest results of clinical studies, the new findings of experimental oncology and translational research. (author)

349

Pheromone chirality of asian palm weevils,Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.) andR. vulneratus (Panz.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Production of 4-methyl-5-nonanol, and 4-methyl-5-nonanone by two sympatric Asian palm weevils,Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.) andR. vulneratus (Panz.) suggested that enantiospecificity of either compound could impart species specificity of pheromone communication. Weevil-produced, racemic 4-methyl-5-nonanol and 4-methyl-5-nonanone and their stereoselectively synthesized optical isomers were subjected to gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS) on a chiral Cyclodex-B column. Only theS,S stereoisomer of 4-methyl-5-nonanol was EAD active and was produced by bothR. ferrugineus andR. vulneratus. Production and EAD activity of (S)-4-methyl-5-nonanone exceeded that of its antipode in both weevils. In field experiments in Java. (4S, 5S)-4-methyl-5-nonanol and the stereoisomeric mixture were equally attractive. The 4R,5R stereoisomer was inactive. The corresponding ketone enantiomers neither enhanced nor reduced attraction to (4S,5S)-4-methyl-5-nonanol. Lack of apparent differences betweenR. ferrugineus andR. vulneratus pheromones suggests that synonomy of both weevils should be considered unless other pre- or postzygotic reproductive isolating mechanisms are disclosed in future studies. PMID:24227415

Perez, A L; Hallett, R H; Gries, R; Gries, G; Cameron Oehlschlager, A; Borden, J H

1996-02-01

350

San Diego Natural History Museum  

Science.gov (United States)

The San Diego Natural History Museum traces its roots to a group of amateur naturalists, who formed the San Diego Society of Natural History in 1874. Today the Museum strives to help visitors interpret the natural world through research, education and exhibits. Active research in scientific field work and systematics has been ongoing since the Societies inception, and current fields of interest include Entomology, Botany, Geology, Mineralogy, Paleontology, and Birds and Mammals. The Museum offers an online specimen database, as well as information on publications, collections care and conservation, symposia and workshops and bi-national expeditions. There are a number of changing exhibits at the facility, and one can bring nature into your classroom, art studio, and home by becoming a member of the Museum's Loan Program. The program has over 1100 specimens that represent biologic and geologic diversity throughout the world. The Museums program Proyecto Bio-regional de Educación Ambiental, or PROBEA, designs innovative environmental education curricula to train educators, and engage teachers, students and others in projects to benefit their local environment.

351

Edificio San Cristobal -Alicante- España  

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Full Text Available The San Cristóbal Building has been constructed in the very center of the city of Alicante and is considered as one of the most singular buildings of Europe. Among its outstanding characteristic, we can point out. In addition to the facade -unique- in fire-lacquered aluminium, the fact of its extremely deep foundations lined by hundreds of tons of concrete due to the geological conditions of the ground. It has four parking floors, ground floor, four floors four dwellings. The construction of this building, which lasted two years, signifies a step forward and a decisive contribution to world architecture.

Se ha construido en Alicante, en pleno centro de la ciudad, el Edificio San Cristóbal considerado como uno de los más singulares de Europa. Entre sus características más destacadas podemos señalar, además de la fachada - única- de aluminio lacado al fuego, el hecho de tener una cimentación muy profunda revestida por cientos de toneladas de hormigón debido a las condiciones geológicas del suelo. Posee cuatro plantas de aparcamiento, planta baja, cuatro plantas de oficinas y cuatro viviendas. La construcción de este edificio, cuya duración ha sido de dos años, ha supuesto un avance y un decisivo aporte a la arquitectura mundial.

Navarro Guzmán, Alfonso

1980-11-01

352

RheoSANS: simultaneous SANS and rheology measurements on the Quokka SANS instrument  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The highly penetrative and non-ionising nature of neutrons make the SANS measurement particularly suited to examine toe response of soft materials to an external stimulus. In this case we consider the response of a complex fluid. an aqueous solution of a block co-polymer. to shear flow in a couette cell consisting of two concentric quartz cylinders with a variable gap between The couette shear cell is connected to a commercial Paar Physica MCR 500 rheometer. Depending on the ability to maintain laminar flow, rheometric tests may be performed at shear rates from 0.1 to 2000s-1 and at temperatures from -5 to 80cC. The jacket responsible for thermal control of the sample allows access of neutron beam in directions radial and tangential to the now direction. In the tangential direction the need to use a highly collimated beam to illuminate the gap provides a serious limitation to neutron flux at the sample. A trap may be used to prevent the evaporation of solvents. SANS data from the detector may be acquired in either of two modes. Acquisitions may be triggered by voltage output from rheometer (e.g shear rate), or using the detector in list mode where detector counts are post-binned to provide the optimal signal to noise for example in kinetic studies. A further possibility of the latter mode rs the study of shear induced structural changes in a steady perturbed slate such as an oscillatory smear.

353

Morphological and karyotypic differentiation in Caranx lugubris (Perciformes: Carangidae) in the St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago, mid-Atlantic Ridge  

Science.gov (United States)

Isolated oceanic islands constitute interesting model systems for the study of colonization processes, as several climatic and oceanographic phenomena have played an important role in the history of the marine ichthyofauna. The present study describes the presence of two morphotypes of Caranx lugubris, in the St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago located in the mid-Atlantic. Morphotypes were compared in regard to their morphological and cytogenetic patterns, using C-banding, Ag-NORs, staining with CMA3/DAPI fluorochromes and chromosome mapping by dual-color FISH analysis with 5S rDNA and 18S rDNA probes. We found differences in chromosome patterns and marked divergence in body patterns which suggest that different populations of the Atlantic or other provinces can be found in the Archipelago of St. Peter and St. Paul.

Jacobina, Uedson Pereira; Martinez, Pablo Ariel; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Garcia, José; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Molina, Wagner Franco

2014-03-01

354

Strukturelle studier af biomolekylære komplekser og syntetiske polymer systemer ved anvendelse af små-vinkel spredning, SANS og SAXS  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Det er velkendt at krystallers velbeskrevne periodiske struktur giver anledning til interferens når Røntgen stråler sendes igennem materialet. Denne såkaldte ”Bragg spredning” blev teoretisk forklaret af William Lawrence Bragg og William Henry Bragg for 100 år siden, i 1913, på basis af observationer hvor de fandt at Røntgen stråler danner karakteristiske mønstre når de sendes gennem en krystal. Men Røntgen-bølgerne interfererer naturligvis også når de sendes gennem materialer som ikke er krystallinske, det kan være væsker, suspensioner eller amorfe systemer. Det mønster, som Røntgen-strålen danner, vil dog ikke have karakter af intense Bragg refleksioner, som kendes fra krystaller, men snarere have karakter af diffus spredning. Ligesom analyser af Bragg refleksionerne kan give detaljeret indsigt i krystallernes opbygning af molekyler og molekylernes indre struktur, kan detaljeret analyse af den diffuse spredning give indsigt i materialets atomare struktur. Røntgen stråling er den relevante type elektromagnetiske stråling, da bølgelængden på ca 1Å svarer til typiske atomare afstande. En anden type stråling med bølgelængde af samme størrelsesorden er neutron stråling. Men medens Røntgen strålingen i det væsentlige afhænger af hvordan elektronerne fordeles i materialet, er neutron-spredningen givet ved fordelingen af forskellige atom- kerner. Specielt gælder det at spredningen af neutroner fra brint-kernen generelt er meget forskellig fra spredningen fra andre atomer. Neutron spredning giver derfor ofte et billede af fordelingen af brint. Røntgen og neutron spredning er således komplementære teknikker som ’ser’ forskellige karakterer af den molekylære struktur. Den diffuse spredning måles i røntgen eller neutron diffraktometre. Der er specielt stor interesse for at studere strukturer på nano-skala niveau. Det kan være strukturen af proteiner og andre biomolekyler, strukturen af selv-organiserede systemer som den biologiske lipid-membran, mikro-emulsioner eller termoplastiske materialer. Med bølgelængder af størrelsesordenen Ångstrøm vil den diffuse spredning fra sådanne nano-skala strukturer komme meget tæt ved selve strålen. Der skal derfor måles ved meget små vinkler. Metoden til sådanne studier kaldes naturligt små-vinkel spredning (Small-Angle Scattering), hvoraf der finde de to primære metoder, SANS og SAXS med anvendelse af henholdsvis Neutron- og Røntgen-stråling (X-ray). I foredraget vil teknikkerne blive præsenteret og der vil blive vist eksempler på nuværende om kommende faciliteter. Der vil endvidere blive vist eksempler på hvordan kombination af SAXS og SANS kan benyttes til af give detaljeret strukturel indsigt i biomolekylære komplekser. Vi vil også vise hvordan teknikken kan bruges til at forstå og designe avancerede komplekse ordnede strukturer på nanometer længdeskala og hvordan mikro-reologien i komplekse væsker er et resultat af strukturelle ændringer

Mortensen, Kell

355

Long-term landscape evolution of the Basal Complexes of Fuerteventura and La Gomera Islands, Canary Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The Canarias archipelago consists from seven volcanic islands located at the northwestern African margin. Among them only Fuerteventura and La Gomera islands show distinctive wide exposures of the basal complex (BC) that is characteristic with complex geological history. The basal complex was exposed on the western part of Fuerteventura and northwestern sector of La Gomera because of giant landslide(s) which have removed most of the shield stage volcanic rocks (Ancochea et al., 1996; 2006; Stillman, 1999). Generally, landslides are a common feature in the earlier constructive stages of the entire archipelago and many other volcanic islands (McGuire, 1996). Integration of low temperature thermochronological data, and time-Temperature (t-T) numerical modelling have proven to be a powerful tool for reconstructing the thermal and tectonic history, defining and quantifying long-term landscape evolution in variety of geological settings. Therefore, zircon and apatite fission-track techniques and t-T paths modelling were applied to 36 samples representing the main rock units of the BC on both islands. Fuerteventura BC has experienced two very rapid cooling/exhumation events. While, La Gomera BC shows one long-lived very fast cooling/exhumation event. Interestingly, these very rapid cooling/exhumation events are synchronous with these major landslides. There are many reasons for the major landslides on such a volcanic island (see e.g. McGuire, 1996)., But, the most sufficient triggers for these huge mass wasting/landslides events on Fuerteventura and La Gomera are recommended to be the continuous igneous intrusions and dikes which have the potential to decrease the edifice stability, igneous extrusions which add new materials at the surface leading to over-steeping and overloading (McGuire, 1996), and major climatic changes of the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum (Herold et al., 2011). References Ancochea, E., Brändle, J.L., Cubas, C.R.,Hernán, F.,Huertas, M.J., 1996. Volcanic complexes in the eastern ridge of the Canary Islands: the Miocene activity of the Island of Fuerteventura. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 70, 183-204. Ancochea, E., Hernán, F., Huertas, M.J., Brändle, J.L., Herrera, R., 2006. A new chronostratigraphical and evolutionary model for La Gomera: implications for the overall evolution of the Canarian Archipelago. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 157, 271-293. Herold, N., Huber, M., Greenwood, D.R., Müller, R.D., Seton, M., 2011. Early to Middle Miocene monsoon climate in Australia. Geology 39, 3-6. McGuire, W.J., 1996. Volcano instability: a review of contemporary themes. In: McGuire, W.J., Jones, A.P., Neuberg, J. (Eds.), Volcano Instability on the Earth and Terrestrial Planets. Geological Society of London, Special Publication 110, 1-23. Stillman, C.J., 1999. Giant Miocene landslides and the evolution of Fuerteventura, Canary Islands. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 94, 89-104.

Mansour, Sherif; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Albinger, Marie; Stoeckli, Daniel F.

2014-05-01

356

40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago and implications for the origin of alkaline volcanism in the NE Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

The Fernando de Noronha archipelago, centered ~ 250 km off the northeastern coast of Brazil, is comprised of a diverse suite of alkaline volcanic rocks commonly associated with a mantle-plume origin. Although previous K-Ar determinations divide the three main volcanic formations of the archipelago (Remédios, Quixaba and São José formations) into two age groups, a few ages conflicting with the stratigraphic framework were suspected to suffer from excess argon. To evaluate the presence or absence of excess Ar and to improve the geochronological database for the archipelago, we have dated, by the laser incremental-heating 40Ar/39Ar method, the exact same hand specimens previously dated by K-Ar. The 22 samples studied here yield plateau ages for at least one of the two grains analyzed and none of the specimens contain significant excess Ar. Our results derive a chronostratigraphic sequence for the archipelago that is consistent with the earlier K-Ar determinations. The main discrepancy is related to some basanitic rocks of São José formation, interpreted as the youngest eruptive products which are in fact coeval with the oldest subareal volcanic activity at Fernando de Noronha. Our revised eruptive chronology defines a hiatus of nearly 3 Ma separating an older period of volcanism between 12.5 ± 0.1 and 9.0 ± 0.1 Ma comprising the Remédios and São José formations and a younger episode forming the Quixaba formation between 6.2 ± 0.1 and 1.3 ± 0.1 Ma. Moreover, these results confirm that much of the activity at Fernando de Noronha was contemporaneous with alkaline volcanism well onshore in northeastern Brazil, supporting the suggestion that this hotspot may be a product of small-scale, plate-driven convection in the upper mantle.

Perlingeiro, Gabriela; Vasconcelos, Paulo M.; Knesel, Kurt M.; Thiede, David S.; Cordani, Umberto G.

2013-01-01

357

Geological history and oceanography of the Indo-Malay Archipelago shape the genetic population structure in the false clown anemonefish (Amphiprion ocellaris).  

Science.gov (United States)

Like many fishes on coral reefs, the false clown anemonefish, Amphiprion ocellaris, has a life history with two different phases: adults are strongly site attached, whereas larvae are planktonic. Therefore, the larvae have the potential to disperse, but the degree of dispersal potential depends primarily on the period of the larval stage, which is only 8-12 days in A. ocellaris. In this study, we investigated the genetic population structure and gene flow in A. ocellaris across the Indo-Malay Archipelago by analysing a fragment of the mitochondrial control region. Population genetic analysis, using AMOVA, revealed a significant and high overall phi(ST)-value of 0.241 (P < 0.001), clearly showing limited gene flow. Haplotype network analysis detected eight distinct clades corresponding mainly to different geographical areas, which were most probably separated during sea level low stands in the Pleistocene. The distribution of the clades among the different populations indicated slow partial re-mixing mainly in the central region of the archipelago. Major surface currents seem to facilitate larval dispersal, indicated by higher connectivity along major surface currents in the region (e.g. Indonesian Throughflow). Four main groups were found by the hierarchical AMOVA within the archipelago. These different genetic lineages should be managed and protected as separate ornamental fishery stocks and resource contributing to the genetic diversity of the area. Regarding the high diversity and the differentiation among areas within the Indo-Malay Archipelago of A. ocellaris populations, the centre-of-origin theory is supported to be the main mechanism by which the high biodiversity evolved in this area. PMID:19238702

Timm, Janne; Kochzius, Marc

2008-09-01

358

Vertical and Horizontal Genetic Connectivity in Chromis verater, an Endemic Damselfish Found on Shallow and Mesophotic Reefs in the Hawaiian Archipelago and Adjacent Johnston Atoll  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding vertical and horizontal connectivity is a major priority in research on mesophotic coral ecosystems (30–150 m). However, horizontal connectivity has been the focus of few studies, and data on vertical connectivity are limited to sessile benthic mesophotic organisms. Here we present patterns of vertical and horizontal connectivity in the Hawaiian Islands-Johnston Atoll endemic threespot damselfish, Chromis verater, based on 319 shallow specimens and 153 deep specimens. The mtDNA markers cytochrome b and control region were sequenced to analyze genetic structure: 1) between shallow (<30 m) and mesophotic (30–150 m) populations and 2) across the species' geographic range. Additionally, the nuclear markers rhodopsin and internal transcribed spacer 2 of ribosomal DNA were sequenced to assess connectivity between shallow and mesophotic populations. There was no significant genetic differentiation by depth, indicating high levels of vertical connectivity between shallow and deep aggregates of C. verater. Consequently, shallow and deep samples were combined by location for analyses of horizontal connectivity. We detected low but significant population structure across the Hawaiian Archipelago (overall cytochrome b: ?ST?=?0.009, P?=?0.020; control region: ?ST?=?0.012, P?=?0.009) and a larger break between the archipelago and Johnston Atoll (cytochrome b: ?ST?=?0.068, P<0.001; control region: ?ST?=?0.116, P<0.001). The population structure within the archipelago was driven by samples from the island of Hawaii at the southeast end of the chain and Lisianski in the middle of the archipelago. The lack of vertical genetic structure supports the refugia hypothesis that deep reefs may constitute a population reservoir for species depleted in shallow reef habitats. These findings represent the first connectivity study on a mobile organism that spans shallow and mesophotic depths and provide a reference point for future connectivity studies on mesophotic fishes. PMID:25517964

Tenggardjaja, Kimberly A.; Bowen, Brian W.; Bernardi, Giacomo

2014-01-01

359

New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic) with an updated regional checklist for the family.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setiaalexandrae sp. n., Setiaermelindoi sp. n., Setianetoae sp. n., and Manzoniamartinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined. PMID:25685020

Cordeiro, Ricardo; Ávila, Sérgio P

2015-01-01

360

Extensive sampling of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Northwest Passage (Canadian Arctic Archipelago) reveals population differentiation across multiple spatial and temporal scales  

OpenAIRE

As global warming accelerates the melting of Arctic sea ice, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) must adapt to a rapidly changing landscape. This process will necessarily alter the species distribution together with population dynamics and structure. Detailed knowledge of these changes is crucial to delineating conservation priorities. Here, we sampled 361 polar bears from across the center of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago spanning the Gulf of Boothia (GB) and M'Clintock Channel (MC). We use DNA ...

Campagna, Leonardo; Coeverden Groot, Peter J.; Saunders, Brenda L.; Atkinson, Stephen N.; Weber, Diana S.; Dyck, Markus G.; Boag, Peter T.; Lougheed, Stephen C.

2013-01-01

361

Vabariigi aastapäev San Franciscos / Heino Valvur ; foto: Heino Valvur  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

veebruarikuu möödus San Franciscos Eesti Vabariigi 88. aastapäeva pühitsedes: traditsiooniliselt tähistas aastapäeva San Francisco Seenioride Klubi koosviibimisega, E.E.L.K. San Francisco koguduses peeti jumalateenistus ja koosviibimine, kus noored esitasid rahvalaule, San Francisco Eesti Selts tähistas aastapäeva 25. veebruaril aktuse ja koosviibimisega

Valvur, Heino

2006-01-01

362

Moving Towards SAN Storage: An Enterprise Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract – One of the major components of any enterprise IT infrastructure is data storage. There has been continuous effort to explore new storage technologies to improve performance with respect to input/output operations, data availability, consolidation of storage assets and data protection and archiving. Storage has moved from the traditional Direct Attached Storage (DAS to Network Attached Storage (NAS and now to Storage Area Networks (SAN. Traditional storage subsystems like Server Attached Storage (SAS and Network Attached Storage (NAS use disks directly attached to servers over a Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI bus. However, these have limited capabilities keeping in view the rapidly expanding storage needs. The SAN technology holds great promises to be used for enterprises where issues like data availability, serviceability, consolidation of storage and reliability are major concerns. It can provide high speed data transfer with many other storage services, backboned with a high speed Fibre Channel (FC. Storage-area networks are also more popular and efficient way of building large storage systems both in an enterprise environment and for multi-domain storage service providers. SAN design and implementation requires careful analysis before SAN can be used as an enterprise storage solution. In this paper we provide an overview of SAN technology from the view point of building large storage systems in an enterprise environment. We also discuss on return on investment (ROI which can justify the adoption of SAN in an enterprise. Further, it compares two specific technologies, namely, FC SAN and IP SAN. In the sequel different design considerations are made to recommend suitable SAN implementations in order to meet the requirements of any enterprise.

rabi prasad padhy

2012-08-01

363

SanG, a transcriptional activator, controls nikkomycin biosynthesis through binding to the sanN-sanO intergenic region in Streptomyces ansochromogenes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptomyces ansochromogenes SanG is a pathway-specific regulator that mainly controls the transcription of two transcriptional units involved in nikkomycin biosynthesis. SanG consists of three major functional domains: an N-terminal Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory protein (SARP) domain, a central ATPase domain, and a C-terminal half homologous to guanylate cyclases belonging to the LuxR family. SanG was expressed in Escherichia coli as a C-terminally His(6)-tagged protein. The purified SanG-His( 6) was shown to be a dimer in solution by dynamic light scattering. An electrophoretic mobility-shift assay showed that the purified SanG protein could bind to the DNA fragment containing the bidirectional sanN-sanO promoter region. The SanG-binding sites within the bidirectional sanN-sanO promoter region were determined by footprinting analysis and identified a consensus-directed repeat sequence 5'-CGGCAAG-3'. SanG showed significant ATPase/GTPase activity in vitro, and addition of ATP/GTP enhanced the affinity of SanG for target DNA, but ATP/GTP hydrolysis was not essential for SanG binding to the target DNA. However, real-time reverse transcription PCR showed that mutation of the ATPase/GTPase domain of SanG significantly decreased the transcriptional level of sanN-I and sanO-V. These results indicated that the ATPase/GTPase activity of SanG modulated the transcriptional activation of SanG target genes during nikkomycin biosynthesis. PMID:19959580

He, Xihong; Li, Rui; Pan, Yuanyuan; Liu, Gang; Tan, Huarong

2010-03-01

364

Malaria incidence and prevalence on Pemba Island before the onset of the successful control intervention on the Zanzibar Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria incidence has been reported to decrease substantially in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, including the Zanzibar Archipelago in East Africa. A cohort study with an intensive follow-up on Pemba Island just before the onset of the highly successful malaria control intervention was conducted. The reported estimates of parasite prevalence and incidence can serve as a robust baseline to evaluate the effect size of the successful interventions and the potential contribution of quality controls and other factors associated with research studies in the decreased estimate of transmission. Methods In a rural clinic, two successive cohorts of 537 children total aged 2-23 months were followed for six months each with an intensive visitation schedule of bi-weekly follow-up. Robust estimates of incidence and prevalence according to four different malaria definitions were obtained. Results Malaria incidence and prevalence placed Pemba Island in a hyperendemic rather than holoendemic setting for the years 2003-2005. Overall parasite prevalence was estimated to be 39% - with monthly estimates varying between 30% and 50%. Incidence of malaria varied between 2.3 and 3.8 malaria episodes per year based on a diagnosis of fever and various microscopy-based parasite thresholds and between 4.8 and 5.7 based on a diagnosis of fever and 100 parasites/microliter analogous to detection by rapid diagnostic tests. Both parasite densities and malaria incidence increased with age and rainy season. Malaria incidence also varied substantially between the individual villages within the study area. Conclusions Pemba Island was previously considered holo-endemic for Malaria. The data suggest that the transmission situation on Pemba Island was significantly lower in 2003-2005 suggesting a hyper-endemic or meso-endemic transmission environment. The figures were obtained just before the onset of the highly successful malaria control intervention by impregnated bed nets and IRS on the Zanzibar Archipelago and provide robust estimates of the malaria transmission situation prior to the control programme. Together with other published data, the results suggest that malaria transmission had started to decrease before the onset of the control programme. The local heterogeneity in malaria incidence highlights the importance of a micro-epidemiological approach in the context of malaria control and elimination.

Othman Mashavu K

2010-01-01

365

33 CFR 334.1065 - U.S. Coast Guard Station, San Francisco Bay, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco Bay, California...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false U.S. Coast Guard Station, San Francisco Bay, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco Bay, California; restricted area. 334...334.1065 U.S. Coast Guard Station, San Francisco Bay, Yerba Buena Island, San...

2010-07-01

366

The San Marco project - Prospects and programs  

Science.gov (United States)

Activities planned for the Italian equatorial space-launch facility at San Marco (on the east coast of Africa) are discussed. The advantages of the site are considered: namely that all orbits (including low equatorial and low polar orbits) can be reached economically from San Marco at all times of the year. In addition, the equatorial site is advantagenous not only for launch operations but also for data reception and the control of satellites in LEO. Particular consideration is given to the CRA-NASA San Marco D program, which envisages the launching of a satellite into multistationary orbit.

Broglio, L.

367

33 CFR 165.776 - Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico  

Science.gov (United States)

...Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico 165.776 Section 165.776 Navigation and Navigable...Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico (a) Location . The following area is a security zone: All waters...

2010-07-01

368

33 CFR 165.1102 - Security Zone; Naval Base Point Loma; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Naval Base Point Loma; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. 165.1102 Section 165.1102 Navigation...165.1102 Security Zone; Naval Base Point Loma; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. (a) Location....

2010-07-01

369

APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the fifth and sixth annual reporting periods (8/3/98-8/2/00) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the cross well seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted, the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction was conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and ten wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

2002-01-09

370

APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

2001-06-16

371

APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the seventh annual reporting period (8/3/00-8/2/01) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the interwell seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted and the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction were conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and six wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

Tom Beebe

2003-05-05

372

APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO2) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

373

Generalisering og validering af model for afdrift af pesticider til læhegn og andre marknære biotoper  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

I det netop afsluttede projekt ”Generalisering og validering af model for sprøjtemiddelafdrift til læhegn og andre marknære biotoper” har vi målt, hvor meget af det sprøjtemiddel, landmanden sprøjter ud, der ender i markens læhegn. Målingerne er anvendt til at videreudvikle og validere en model, der kan forudsige afdriften af de fleste sprøjtemidler under forskellige betingelser. Modellen kan tage hensyn til de givne egenskaber for pesticidet og til dysens dråbestørrelser, hvordan vejret er og om der er en sprøjtefri zone mellem traktoren og naturen uden for marken. Desuden kan modellen differentiere mellem forskellige højder i læhegn. Som forventet var afdriften til læhegn mindre ved brug af en luftinjektions-dyse end ved sprøjtning med fladsprede-dyse i den samme mark. Forskellen i afdrift mellem de to typer af dyser viser, at der er potentiale for, via valg af sprøjteudstyr, at reducere mængden af pesticider, der lander i læhegnene og dermed reducerer blomstring og frugtsætning. Samtidig viser såvel målinger som modelberegninger, at der ikke er den store effekt af sprøjtefrie bufferzoner på afdriften til læhegn, specielt ikke i den øverste del af læhegnene, hvor frugterne ofte er mest talrige.

Bruus, Marianne; LØfstrØm, Per

2014-01-01

374

Performance of BATAN-SANS instrument  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SANS data from some standard samples have been obtained using BATAN-SANS instrument in Serpong. The experiments were performed for various experimental set-ups that involve different detector positions and collimator lengths. This paper describes the BATAN-SANS instrument briefly as well as the data taken from those experiments and followed with discussion of the results concerning the performance and calibration of the instrument. The standard samples utilized in these experiments include porous silica, polystyrene-poly isoprene, silver behenate, poly ball and polystyrene-poly (ethylene-alt-propylene). Even though the results show that BATAN-SANS instrument is in good shape, but rooms for improvements are still widely open especially for the velocity selector and its control system. (author)

Ikram, Abarrul; Insani, Andon [National Nuclear Energy Agency, P and D Centre for Materials Science and Technology, Serpong (Indonesia)

2003-03-01

375

A Community Stormwater Investigation, San Francisco, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

The San Francisco Bay watershed covers 40% of the State of California. Nonpoint source pollutants from cars, lawns, houses, parks and people residing within the watershed contribute contamination into San Francisco Bay. To measure the contribution from our neighborhoods we collected runoff from storm-drains at 10 different sites around San Francisco and tested them for heavy metals, Total Organic Carbons (TOC), and Methylene Blue Active Substances (MBAS) during a six-month period. Each sample site location is situated within one block of each participant's home. The goal of this study was to determine the contaminants contributed as nonpoint source pollution into San Francisco Bay. Our results show that a variety of contaminants are entering the Bay's ecosystem via sources in our residential settings. While this contribution may be thought of as unsubstantial, our results show that our neighborhoods are significant sources of watershed pollution.

Chio, J.; Garcia, E.; Hernandez, M.; Devine, M.; Isip, N.; Jiang, J.; Li, A.; Li, D.; Lopez, J.; Mark, J.; McGuire, S.; Navarro, K.; Negrete, R.; Orellana, S.; Yun, C.; Bissell, M.; Neiss, J.

2008-12-01

376

Radon emanation on San Andreas Fault  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is stated that subsurface radon emanation monitored in shallow dry holes along an active segment of the San Andreas fault in central California shows spatially coherent large temporal variations that seem to be correlated with local seismicity. (author)

377

Surviving the Present: San Francisco Public Library.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the services of the San Francisco Public Library with respect to the effects of Proposition 13 and inflation, and describes the roles of the Main Library, the Business Branch, the Chinatown Branch, and the Communications Center. (CHC)

Bourne, Tom

1981-01-01

378

The 40Ar/39Ar age dating of the Madeira Archipelago and hotspot track (eastern North Atlantic)  

Science.gov (United States)

The 40Ar/39Ar ages for 35 volcanic rocks and 14C ages for two charcoal samples from the Madeira Archipelago and Ampère Seamount (eastern North Atlantic) are presented. The volcanic evolution of Madeira can be divided into a voluminous shield stage (>4.6-0.7 Ma) and a subsequent low-volume posterosional stage (Madeira rift arm and the N-S oriented Desertas rift arm. Average growth rates for the submarine (5500 km3/Ma) and subaerial (100-150 km3/Ma) shield stages on Madeira are among the lowest found for ocean island volcanoes. It is proposed that Madeira represents the present location of a >70 Myr old hotspot which formed Porto Santo Island (11.1-14.3 Ma), Seine, Ampère (31 Ma), Corral Patch and Ormond (65-67 Ma [Féraud et al., 1982, 1986]) Seamounts, and the Serra de Monchique (70-72 Ma [McIntyre and Berger, 1982]) complex in southern Portugal. Age and spatial relationships result in a calculated absolute African plate motion above the hotspot of 1.2 cm/yr around a rotation pole located at 43°36'N/ 24°33'W.

Geldmacher, Jörg; van den Bogaard, Paul; Hoernle, Kaj; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich

2000-02-01

379

Comparing the information content of coral reef geomorphological and biological habitat maps, Amirantes Archipelago (Seychelles), Western Indian Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing the use of geomorphological map products in marine spatial planning has the potential to greatly enhance return on mapping investment as they are commonly two orders of magnitude cheaper to produce than biologically-focussed maps of benthic communities and shallow substrates. The efficacy of geomorphological maps derived from remotely sensed imagery as surrogates for habitat diversity is explored by comparing two map sets of the platform reefs and atolls of the Amirantes Archipelago (Seychelles), Western Indian Ocean. One mapping campaign utilised Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imagery (19 wavebands, 1 m spatial resolution) to classify 11 islands and associated reefs into 25 biological habitat classes while the other campaign used Landsat 7 + ETM imagery (7 bands, 30 m spatial resolution) to generate maps of 14 geomorphic classes. The maps were compared across a range of characteristics, including habitat richness (number of classes mapped), diversity (Shannon-Weiner statistic) and thematic content (Cramer's V statistic). Between maps, a strong relationship was revealed for habitat richness (R2 = 0.76), a moderate relationship for class diversity and evenness (R2 = 0.63) and a variable relationship for thematic content, dependent on site complexity (V range 0.43-0.93). Geomorphic maps emerged as robust predictors of the habitat richness in the Amirantes. Such maps therefore demonstrate high potential value for informing coastal management activities and conservation planning by drawing on information beyond their own thematic content and thus maximizing the return on mapping investment.

Hamylton, S.; Andréfouët, S.; Spencer, T.

2012-10-01

380

Effect of lipid extraction on analyses of stable carbon and stable nitrogen isotopes in coastal organisms of the Aleutian archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

We tested whether extracting lipids reduced confounding variation in ??13C and ??15N values by analyzing paired lipid-extracted (LE) and non-lipid-extracted (NLE) samples of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus (L., 1766)) whole eggs, muscle tissue from nine seabird and one terrestrial bird species, muscle tissue from four marine fish species, and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L., 1758) collected from the Aleutian archipelago, Alaska. Lipid extraction significantly increased ??13C by an average of 2.0??? in whole eggs, 0.8??? in avian muscle, 0.2??? in fish muscle, and 0.6??? in blue mussels. Lower ??13C values in NLE samples covaried positively with lipid content across all sample types. Lower ??13C values in NLE samples were not correlated with lipid content within bald eagle eggs and blue mussels, but covaried positively with percent lipid in avian and fish muscles. Neither lipid extraction nor percent lipid significantly changed ??15N values for any sample type. Lower ??13C values in most NLE avian and fish muscle tissues should not confound interpretation of pelagic versus nearshore sources of primary production, but lipid extraction may be necessary when highly precise estimates of ??13C are needed. Lipid extraction may not be necessary when only ??15N is of interest. ?? 2007 NRC.

Ricca, M.A.; Miles, A.K.; Anthony, R.G.; Deng, X.; Hung, S.S.O.

2007-01-01

381

Species differentiation on a dynamic landscape: shifts in metapopulation genetic structure using the chronology of the Hawaiian Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

Species formation during adaptive radiation often occurs in the context of a changing environment. The establishment and arrangement of populations, in space and time, sets up ecological and genetic processes that dictate the rate and pattern of differentiation. Here, we focus on how a dynamic habitat can affect genetic structure, and ultimately, differentiation among populations. We make use of the chronology and geographical history provided by the Hawaiian archipelago to examine the initial stages of population establishment and genetic divergence. We use data from a set of 6 spider lineages that differ in habitat affinities, some preferring low elevation habitats with a longer history of connection, others being more specialized for high elevation and/or wet forest, some with more general habitat affinities. We show that habitat preferences associated with lineages are important in ecological and genetic structuring. Lineages that have more restricted habitat preferences are subject to repeated episodes of isolation and fragmentation as a result of lava flows and vegetation succession. The initial dynamic set up by the landscape translates over time into discrete lineages. Further work is needed to understand how genetic changes interact with a changing set of ecological interactions amongst a shifting mosaic of landscapes to achieve species formation.

Roderick, George K.; Croucher, Peter J.P.; Vandergast, Amy G.; Gillespie, Rosemary G.

2012-01-01

382

Silicic acid enrichment of subantarctic surface water from continental inputs along the Patagonian archipelago interior sea (41-56°S)  

Science.gov (United States)

We estimated Si?, the surplus or deficit of orthosilicic acid (DSi) relative to nitrate available for diatom growth, in the Chilean Patagonian Archipelago Interior Sea (PAIS). Si? and salinity were negatively correlated in the PAIS because of the mixing of high nitrate, low DSi subantarctic surface water and high DSi, low nitrate continental freshwater runoff. Both the slope and the intercept of this relationship decreased from northern to southern Patagonia, which was likely a consequence of reduced DSi inputs from several overlapping hydrological, biological and geological drivers along this gradient. In general, lower freshwater DSi concentrations were expected below 46°S, and a lower total DSi load was expected from reduced runoff below 51°S. The north-south decreasing DSi concentration trend may be linked to dilutions from a higher proportion of runoff in latitudes with higher precipitation rates (45-53°S), the transition to more resistant granitic rocks and glacial melt-water from the Northern and Southern Patagonia Ice Fields (46-51°S) and a reduced density of volcanoes active during the Holocene (48-56°S). The intensification of a southward DSi deficit may be a forcing factor involved in the reported southward reductions in plankton biomass and a more frequent occurrence of non-diatom blooms in southern PAIS.

Torres, Rodrigo; Silva, Nelson; Reid, Brian; Frangopulos, Máximo

2014-12-01

383

Distribution and bioavailability of cadmium in ornithogenic coral-sand sediments of the Xisha archipelago, South China Sea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total cadmium (Cd) concentrations in four ornithogenic coral-sand sedimentary profiles displayed a strong positive correlation with guano-derived phosphorus, but had no correlation with plant-originated organic matter in the top sediments. These results indicate that the total Cd distributions were predominantly controlled by guano input. Bioavailable Cd and zinc (Zn) had a greater input rate in the top sediments with respect to total Cd and total Zn, and a positive correlation with total organic carbon (TOC) derived from plant humus. Multi-regression analysis showed that the total Cd and TOC explained over 80% of the variation of bioavailable Cd, suggesting that both guano and plant inputs could significantly influence the distribution of bioavailable Cd, and that plant biocycling processes contribute more to the recent increase of bioavailable Cd. A pollution assessment indicates that the Yongle archipelago is moderately to strongly polluted with guano-derived Cd. - Guano and plant biocycling processes can exert different influences on the distributions of total Cd and bioavailable Cd in coral-sand ornithogenic sediments.

384

First Record of Black Band Disease in the Hawaiian Archipelago: Response, Outbreak Status, Virulence, and a Method of Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

A high number of coral colonies, Montipora spp., with progressive tissue loss were reported from the north shore of Kaua‘i by a member of the Eyes of the Reef volunteer reporting network. The disease has a distinct lesion (semi-circular pattern of tissue loss with an adjacent dark band) that was first observed in Hanalei Bay, Kaua‘i in 2004. The disease, initially termed Montipora banded tissue loss, appeared grossly similar to black band disease (BBD), which affects corals worldwide. Following the initial report, a rapid response was initiated as outlined in Hawai‘i’s rapid response contingency plan to determine outbreak status and investigate the disease. Our study identified the three dominant bacterial constituents indicative of BBD (filamentous cyanobacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria) in coral disease lesions from Kaua‘i, which provided the first evidence of BBD in the Hawaiian archipelago. A rapid survey at the alleged outbreak site found disease to affect 6-7% of the montiporids, which is higher than a prior prevalence of less than 1% measured on Kaua‘i in 2004, indicative of an epizootic. Tagged colonies with BBD had an average rate of tissue loss of 5.7 cm2/day over a two-month period. Treatment of diseased colonies with a double band of marine epoxy, mixed with chlorine powder, effectively reduced colony mortality. Within two months, treated colonies lost an average of 30% less tissue compared to untreated controls. PMID:25774800

Aeby, Greta S.; Work, Thierry M.; Runyon, Christina M.; Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Ushijima, Blake; Videau, Patrick; Beurmann, Silvia; Callahan, Sean M.

2015-01-01

385

Habitat-mediated impact of alien mink predation on common frog densities in the outer archipelago of the Baltic Sea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alien predators have been recognised as one possible cause for amphibian declines around the world, but little is known of habitat-mediated predation impacts especially on adult amphibians. We studied common frog Rana temporaria under American mink Mustela vison predation in the outer archipelago of the Baltic Sea, south-western Finland. Using egg batches as an index of breeding frog female numbers we compared frog numbers and densities between a large, long-term mink-removal area and a comparable control area. Frog numbers in the removal area were at least 2.7-fold higher than those in the control area. In the presence of mink, frog densities increased with the amount of vegetation cover on the islands, indicating that mink predation affected frog densities especially on less-vegetated islands. An opposite trend appeared to be true for frogs in the mink-removal area, where other predators like snakes could induce a decline of frog densities on more vegetated islands. Shrub or grass vegetation seems to provide frogs shelter against alien mink predation. Our result highlights the importance of landscape-level habitat management as a conservation tool for amphibian populations. PMID:20151155

Salo, Pälvi; Ahola, Markus P; Korpimäki, Erkki

2010-06-01

386

Origin of iron-oxide and silicate melt rocks in Paleogene sediments of southern Ellesmere Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Nunavut  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Between Vendom Fiord and Makinson Inlet on southern Ellesmere Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Nunavut, isolated and fault-bounded Early Tertiary basins are exposed. The basin deposits are Paleocene to Eocene in age and overlie unconformably folded Ordovician and Silurian carbonates of the Paleozoic Franklinian Basin that were affected by intense, pre-Paleocene weathering and karstification in places. The Tertiary sediments consist mainly of dark unconsolidated sand and silt and are interbedded with many centimetre- to metre-thick coal seams. In several places, round orange and red 'spots' occur within the dark grey Tertiary basin fills and are clustered on top of the dark grey Tertiary occurrences. The 'spots' are up to 100 m in diameter and consist of consolidated burnt shards of clay or clinker. In the centre of the reddish 'spots,' dark, massive, and partly high-magnetic lava- or slag-like rocks are poorly exposed as masses that are a decimetre or less in scale. These rocks were investigated using thin section studies, as well as X-ray diffraction and X-ray flourescence analyses. The melt rocks are composed of glass, cordieritegroup minerals, hematite, magnetite, tridymite, mullite, and cristobalite. They represent paralavas resulting from subsurface combustion of the Tertiary coal seams under conditions similar to those in a blast furnace. An origin by anthropogenic activity or a volcanic origin can be ruled out.

Piepjohn, K.; Estrada, S.; Reinhardt, L.; von Gosen, W.; Andruleit, H. [Federal Institute of Geoscience & Natural Resources, Hannover (Germany)

2007-07-15

387

How Tourist Destinations Could Be Stereotyped and Misplaced by Structural Forces? - A Case of Penghu Archipelago, Taiwan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tourist destination image is important for strategic marketing and tourist choice. While many studies focus on images and their influencing factors, images are wrongly considered only for sale, compromising local authenticity and local life. With a critical review of development plans and the results of a questionnaire survey, this paper argues that images often stereotype and misplace tourist destination, in particularly for images brought about by structural forces. Islands are lands surrounded by ocean and often taken as full of marine and coastal resources and sceneries. In Penghu archipelago, marine environment is important for local livelihood and tourist destination. However, with the case of Erkan, we realize that, along with the evidence from interviews and surveys, most Erkan tourists do not come for its marine or natural resources. Erkan, as a fishing village, was turned into a tourism destination for tis vernacular architecture and folklore products irrelevant to its marine environment. With structural endeavours and official makeover of places, places are stereotyped and often become out of place.

Tu Han-Chun

2014-01-01

388

Distinguishing between natural and aquaculture-derived sediment concentrations of heavy metals in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Marine sediment samples were collected in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia, to assess the use of a geochemical normalization technique in the identification of a chemical tracer of aquaculture waste material. Zinc and copper were suggested as tracers of feed pellets, while copper was considered an indicator of anti-foulant agents used on netpen systems. The sediment samples were analyzed for carbon, nitrogen, organic matter, water, trace-element, and free sulfide concentrations, and sediment grain-size distribution. Sediment texture analysis revealed a wide range of substrate types from sand to silty loam categories. Strong relationships between sediment texture, sediment porosity, and organic content were observed across both near-field and far-field stations. Excess zinc and copper sediment concentrations, identified using a lithium-normalization technique, were restricted to near-field sampling stations (0 and 30 m from netpen systems). The relationships between these metal tracers and organic content and sulfur concentrations were explored to account for variations in sediment concentrations of zinc and copper

389

Spectral response of the coral rubble, living corals, and dead corals: study case on the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

Coral reefs play important ecological services such as providing foods, biodiversity, nutrient recycling etc. for human society. On the other hand, they are threatened by human impacts such as illegal fishing and environmental changes such as rises of sea water temperature and sea level due to global warming. Thus, it is very important to monitor dynamic spatial distributions of coral reefs and related habitats such as coral rubble, dead coral, bleached corals, seagrass, etc. Hyperspectral data, in particular, offer high potential for characterizing and mapping coral reefs because of their capability to identify individual reef components based on their detailed spectral response. We studied the optical properties by measuring in situ spectra of living corals, dead coral and coral rubble covered with algae. Study site was selected in Spermonde archipelago, South Sulawesi, Indonesia because this area is included in the highest diversity of corals in the world named as Coral Triangle, which is recognized as the global centre of marine biodiversity and a global priority for conservation. Correlation analysis and cluster analysis support that there are distinct differences in reflectance spectra among categories. Common spectral characteristic of living corals, dead corals and coral rubble covered with algae was a reflectance minimum at 674 nm. Healthy corals, dead coral covered with algae and coral rubble covered with algae showed high similarity of spectral reflectance. It is estimated that this is due to photsynthetic pigments.

Nurdin, Nurjannah; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Yamano, Hiroya; Arafat, Gulam; Rani, Chair; Akbar AS, M.

2012-10-01

390

First record of black band disease in the Hawaiian archipelago: response, outbreak, status, virulence, and a method of treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

A high number of coral colonies, Montipora spp., with progressive tissue loss were reported from the north shore of Kaua‘i by a member of the Eyes of the Reef volunteer reporting network. The disease has a distinct lesion (semi-circular pattern of tissue loss with an adjacent dark band) that was first observed in Hanalei Bay, Kaua‘i in 2004. The disease, initially termedMontipora banded tissue loss, appeared grossly similar to black band disease (BBD), which affects corals worldwide. Following the initial report, a rapid response was initiated as outlined in Hawai‘i’s rapid response contingency plan to determine outbreak status and investigate the disease. Our study identified the three dominant bacterial constituents indicative of BBD (filamentous cyanobacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria) in coral disease lesions from Kaua‘i, which provided the first evidence of BBD in the Hawaiian archipelago. A rapid survey at the alleged outbreak site found disease to affect 6-7% of the montiporids, which is higher than a prior prevalence of less than 1% measured on Kaua‘i in 2004, indicative of an epizootic. Tagged colonies with BBD had an average rate of tissue loss of 5.7 cm2/day over a two-month period. Treatment of diseased colonies with a double band of marine epoxy, mixed with chlorine powder, effectively reduced colony mortality. Within two months, treated colonies lost an average of 30% less tissue compared to untreated controls.

Aeby, Greta S.; Work, Thierry M.; Runyon, Christina M.; Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Ushijima, Blake; Videau, Patrick; Beurmann, Silvia; Callahan, Sean M.

2015-01-01

391

Coral reef habitats mapping of Spermonde Archipelago using remote sensing compared with in situ survey of fish abundance  

Science.gov (United States)

Coral reefs worldwide are now facing so great threat due to various impacts that their monitoring is urgently required for conservation and management. To understand status of coral reef ecosystem and find out indicator fish species for health of ecosystem, mapping seabed habitats with remote sensing and in situ visual survey of fish assemblage by snorkeling were conducted in coral reefs in Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia. ALOS AVNIR-2 multi-band imagery on 14 October 2010 was analyzed to map four habitats: live coral, dead coral, seagrass and sand-rubble. Groundtruth data were obtained using towed video camera and sidescan sonar in May and June 2011. Depth-Invariant indices (DI-indices) based on ratios of radiance values between bands were applied as a water column correction. Overall classification accuracy in Tau-coefficient of mapping with the DI-indices (0.66) didn't differ significantly (pinside the circle with 50m-diameter which includes the fish transect. We detected significant correlations between abundance of five fish groups and specific habitats, especially butterflyfish and live coral. This result corresponds to the past reports that butterflyfish was a good indicator of healthy corals, suggesting meaningfulness of studying relationships between fish abundance and spatial distribution of habitats in larger scale.

Sawayama, Shuhei; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Nurdin, Nurjannah

2012-10-01

392

Distinguishing between natural and aquaculture-derived sediment concentrations of heavy metals in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Marine sediment samples were collected in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia, to assess the use of a geochemical normalization technique in the identification of a chemical tracer of aquaculture waste material. Zinc and copper were suggested as tracers of feed pellets, while copper was considered an indicator of anti-foulant agents used on netpen systems. The sediment samples were analyzed for carbon, nitrogen, organic matter, water, trace-element, and free sulfide concentrations, and sediment grain-size distribution. Sediment texture analysis revealed a wide range of substrate types from sand to silty loam categories. Strong relationships between sediment texture, sediment porosity, and organic content were observed across both near-field and far-field stations. Excess zinc and copper sediment concentrations, identified using a lithium-normalization technique, were restricted to near-field sampling stations (0 and 30 m from netpen systems). The relationships between these metal tracers and organic content and sulfur concentrations were explored to account for variations in sediment concentrations of zinc and copper.

Sutherland, T.F. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, DFO-UBC Centre for Aquaculture and Environmental Research, 4160 Marine Drive, West Vancouver BC, V7V 1N6 (Canada)], E-mail: sutherlandt@pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca; Petersen, S.A.; Levings, C.D. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, DFO-UBC Centre for Aquaculture and Environmental Research, 4160 Marine Drive, West Vancouver BC, V7V 1N6 (Canada); Martin, A.J. [Lorax Environmental Services Ltd., 2289 Burrard St. Vancouver BC, V6J 3H9 (Canada)

2007-09-15

393

Genetic variability and efficiency of DNA microsatellite markers for paternity testing in horse breeds from the Brazilian Marajó archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, 15 microsatellite DNA loci used in comparative tests by the International Society for Animal Genetics were applied to the evaluation of genetic diversity and management, and the efficiency of paternity testing in Marajoara horses and Puruca ponies from the Marajó Archipelago. Based on the genotyping of 93 animals, mean allelic diversity was estimated as 9.14 and 7.00 for the Marajoara and Puruca breeds, respectively. While these values are similar to those recorded in most European breeds, mean levels of heterozygosity were much lower (Marajoara 49%, Puruca 40%, probably as a result of high levels of inbreeding in the Marajó populations. The mean informative polymorphic content of this 15-marker system was over 50% in both breeds, and was slightly higher in the Marajoara horses. The discriminative power and exclusion probabilities derived from this system were over 99% for both populations, emphasizing the efficacy of these markers for paternity testing and genetic management in the two breeds.

Sávio P. Reis

2008-01-01

394

Cacao use and the San Lorenzo Olmec  

OpenAIRE

Mesoamerican peoples had a long history of cacao use—spanning more than 34 centuries—as confirmed by previous identification of cacao residues on archaeological pottery from Paso de la Amada on the Pacific Coast and the Olmec site of El Manatí on the Gulf Coast. Until now, comparable evidence from San Lorenzo, the premier Olmec capital, was lacking. The present study of theobromine residues confirms the continuous presence and use of cacao products at San Lorenzo between 1800 and 1000 BC...

Powis, Terry G.; Cyphers, Ann; Gaikwad, Nilesh W.; Grivetti, Louis; Cheong, Kong

2011-01-01

395

SAFOD Penetrates the San Andreas Fault  

OpenAIRE

SAFOD, the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (Fig. 1), completed an important milestone in July 2005 by drilling through the San Andreas Fault at seismogenic depth. SAFOD is one of three major components of EarthScope, a U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) initiative being conducted in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The International Continental Scientific DrillingProgram (ICDP) provides engineering and technical support for the project as well as online access ...

Zoback, M. D.

2006-01-01

396

Abrupt along-strike change in tectonic style: San Andreas fault zone, San Francisco Peninsula  

Science.gov (United States)

Seismicity and high-resolution aeromagnetic data are used to define an abrupt change from compressional to extensional tectonism within a 10- to 15-km-wide zone along the San Andreas fault on the San Francisco Peninsula and offshore from the Golden Gate. This 100-km-long section of the San Andreas fault includes the hypocenter of the Mw = 7.8 1906 San Francisco earthquake as well as the highest level of persistent microseismicity along that ???470-km-long rupture. We define two distinct zones of deformation along this stretch of the fault using well-constrained relocations of all post-1969 earthquakes based a joint one-dimensional velocity/hypocenter inversion and a redetermination of focal mechanisms. The southern zone is characterized by thrust- and reverse-faulting focal mechanisms with NE trending P axes that indicate "fault-normal" compression in 7- to 10-km-wide zones of deformation on both sides of the San Andreas fault. A 1- to 2-km-wide vertical zone beneath the surface trace of the San Andreas is characterized by its almost complete lack of seismicity. The compressional deformation is consistent with the young, high topography of the Santa Cruz Mountains/Coast Ranges as the San Andreas fault makes a broad restraining left bend (???10??) through the southernmost peninsula. A zone of seismic quiescence ???15 km long separates this compressional zone to the south from a zone of combined normal-faulting and strike-slip-faulting focal mechanisms (including a ML = 5.3 earthquake in 1957) on the northernmost peninsula and offshore on the Golden Gate platform. Both linear pseudo-gravity gradients, calculated from the aeromagnetic data, and seismic reflection data indicate that the San Andreas fault makes an abrupt ???3-km right step less than 5 km offshore in this northern zone. A similar right-stepping (dilatational) geometry is also observed for the subparallel San Gregorio fault offshore. Persistent seismicity and extensional tectonism occur within the San Andreas right stepover region and at least 15 km along-strike both to the SE and NW. The 1906 San Francisco earthquake may have nucleated within the San Andreas right stepover, which may help explain the bilateral nature of rupture of this event. Our analysis suggests two seismic hazards for the San Francisco Peninsula in addition to the hazard associated with a M = 7 to 8 strike-slip earthquake along the San Andreas fault: the potential for a M ??? 6 normal-faulting earthquake just 5-8 km west of San Francisco and a M = 6+ thrust faulting event in the southern peninsula.

Zoback, M.L.; Jachens, R.C.; Olson, J.A.

1999-01-01

397

municipios Maracaibo y San Francisco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El estudio de las Organizaciones No Gubernamentales estuvo dirigido a caracterizar la diversidad de grupos y asociaciones que bajo el termino genérico de ONG?s existen en los municipios Maracaibo y San Francisco, los más poblados y relevantes en la vida política, económica, social y cultural del estado Zulia-Venezuela. Se planteó una investigación exploratoria y descriptiva. El resultado permitió reconocer a Existe un crecimiento sostenido de las ONG en estos municipios: b los sectores con mayor concentración son el de salud; educación; deporte y recreación; arte y cultura. c Las instituciones que promueven más organizaciones son la iglesia y el Estado, lo que supone es este último caso una reducción de las funciones que le corresponden, además de la minimización de costos y conflictos laborales. d Ambivalencia en la orientación de su funcionamiento: Algunas ONG?s implementan prácticas próximas a la mercantilización de los servicios con lo cual legitiman estrategias del modelo económico neoliberal mientras otras contribuyen a fortalecer la democratización de los servicios públicos. Se concluye que el crecimiento y características de las ONGs en estos municipios estuvo vinculado en los noventa y comienzos de la década de 2000 por la aplicación de las políticas públicas neoliberales.

Rosa E. Ortiz

2005-01-01

398

77 FR 42638 - Safety Zone: Sea World San Diego Fireworks, Mission Bay; San Diego, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

...1625-AA00 Safety Zone: Sea World San Diego Fireworks, Mission...Mission Bay in support of the Sea World San Diego Fireworks. This safety...Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The Coast Guard...B. Basis and Purpose Sea World is sponsoring the Sea...

2012-07-20

399

78 FR 10062 - Safety Zone; Sea World San Diego Fireworks, Mission Bay; San Diego, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

...1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sea World San Diego Fireworks, Mission...Mission Bay in support of the Sea World San Diego Fireworks. This safety...Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The Coast Guard...sections 1221 et seq.). Sea World is sponsoring the Sea...

2013-02-13

400

77 FR 60899 - Safety Zone; Sea World San Diego Fireworks, Mission Bay; San Diego, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

...1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sea World San Diego Fireworks, Mission...Mission Bay in support of the Sea World San Diego Fireworks. This safety...Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The Coast Guard...S.C 1221 et seq.). Sea World is sponsoring the Sea...

2012-10-05

401

The San Andreas Fault 'Supersite' (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

An expanded and permanent Supersite has been proposed to the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) for the San Andreas Fault system, based upon the successful initial Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Geohazard Supersite for the Los Angeles region from 2009-2013. As justification for the comprehensive San Andreas Supersite, consider the earthquake history of California, in particular the devastating M 7.8 San Francisco earthquake of 1906, which occurred along the San Andreas Fault, as did an earthquake of similar magnitude in 1857 in southern California. Los Angeles was only a small town then, but now the risk exposure has increased for both of California's megacities. Between the San Francisco and Los Angeles urban areas lies a section of the San Andreas Fault known to creep continually, so it has relatively less earthquake hazard. It used to be thought of as capable of stopping earthquakes entering it from either direction. Transitional behavior at either end of the creeping section is known to display a full range of seismic to aseismic slip events and accompanying seismicity and strain transient events. Because the occurrence of creep events is well documented by instrumental networks such as CISN and PBO, the San Andreas Supersite can be expected to be especially effective. A good baseline level of geodetic data regarding past events and strain accumulation and release exists. Many prior publications regarding the occurrence of geophysical phenomena along the San Andreas Fault system mean that in order to make novel contributions, state-of-the-art science will be required within this Supersite region. In more recent years, the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake struck adjacent to the San Andreas Fault and caused the most damage along the western side of the San Francisco Bay Area. More recently, the concern has focused on the potential for future events along the Hayward Fault along the eastern side of San Francisco Bay. In Southern California, earthquakes struck in 1992 (Landers), 1994 (Northridge) and 1999 (Hector Mine) as well as the 2010 El Mayor - Cucapah (EM-C) earthquake (just south of the US-Mexico border). Of these four notable events, all produced extensive surface faulting except for the 1994 Northridge event, which was close to the Los Angeles urban area on a buried thrust fault. Northridge caused by far the most destruction, topping $20B (US) and resulting in 57 fatalities due to its location under an urban area. The Landers, Hector Mine and EM-C events occurred in desert areas away from major urban centers, and each proved to be a new and unique test-bed for making rapid progress in earthquake science and creative use of geodetic imagery. InSAR studies were linked to GPS deformation and mapping of surface ruptures and seismicity in a series of important papers about these earthquakes. The hazard in California remains extremely high, with tens of millions of people living in close proximity to the San Andreas Fault system as it runs past both San Francisco and Los Angeles. Dense in-situ networks of seismic and geodetic instruments are continually used for research and earthquake monitoring, as well as development of an earthquake early warning capability. Principles of peer review from funding agencies and open data availability will be observed for all data. For all of these reasons, the San Andreas Fault system is highly appropriate for consideration as a world-class permanent Supersite in the GEO framework.

Hudnut, K. W.

2013-12-01

402

Compact High Resolution SANS using very cold neutrons (VCN-SANS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SANS (Small Angle Neutron Scattering) is a popular method for elucidation of nano-scale structures. However science continually challenges SANS for higher performance, prompting exploration of ever-more exotic and expensive technologies. We propose a compact high resolution SANS, using very cold neutrons, magnetic focusing lens and a wide-angle spherical detector. This system will compete with modern 40 m pinhole SANS in one tenth of the length, matching minimum Q, Q-resolution and dynamic range. It will also probe dynamics using the MIEZE method. Our prototype lens (a rotating permanent-magnet sextupole), focuses a pulsed neutron beam over 3-5 nm wavelength and has measured SANS from micelles and polymer blends. (authors)

403

Sources of organochlorine contaminants and mercury in seabirds from the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska: Inferences from spatial and trophic variation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Persistent organochlorine compounds and mercury (Hg) have been detected in numerous coastal organisms of the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska, yet sources of these contaminants are unclear. We collected glaucous-winged gulls, northern fulmars, and tufted puffins along a natural longitudinal gradient across the western and central Aleutian Islands (Buldir, Kiska, Amchitka, Adak), and an additional 8 seabird species representing different foraging and migratory guilds from Buldir Island to evaluate: 1) point source input from former military installations, 2) westward increases in contaminant concentrations suggestive of distant source input, and 3) effects of trophic status (?15N) and carbon source (?13C) on contaminant accumulation. Concentrations of ? polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and most chlorinated pesticides in glaucous-winged gulls consistently exhibited a 'U'-shaped pattern of high levels at Buldir and the east side of Adak and low levels at Kiska and Amchitka. In contrast, concentrations of ? PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in northern fulmars and tufted puffins did not differ among islands. Hg concentrations increased westward in glaucous-winged gulls and were highest in northern fulmars from Buldir. Among species collected only at Buldir, Hg was notably elevated in pelagic cormorants, and relatively high ? PCBs were detected in black-legged kittiwakes. Concentrations of ? PCBs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p' DDE), and Hg dichloroethylene (p,p' DDE), and Hg were positively correlated with ?15N across all seabird species, indicating biomagnification across trophic levels. The east side of Adak Island (a former military installation) was a likely point source of ? PCBs and p,p' DDE, particularly in glaucous-winged gulls. In contrast, elevated levels of these contaminants and Hg, along with PCB congener and chlorinated pesticide compositional patterns detected at Buldir Island indicated exposure from distant sources influenced by a combination of atmospheric-oceanic processes and the migratory movements of seabirds

404

Four new bat species (Rhinolophus hildebrandtii complex) reflect Plio-Pleistocene divergence of dwarfs and giants across an Afromontane archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gigantism and dwarfism evolve in vertebrates restricted to islands. We describe four new species in the Rhinolophus hildebrandtii species-complex of horseshoe bats, whose evolution has entailed adaptive shifts in body size. We postulate that vicissitudes of palaeoenvironments resulted in gigantism and dwarfism in habitat islands fragmented across eastern and southern Africa. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences recovered two clades of R. hildebrandtii senso lato which are paraphyletic with respect to a third lineage (R. eloquens). Lineages differ by 7.7 to 9.0% in cytochrome b sequences. Clade 1 includes R. hildebrandtii sensu stricto from the east African highlands and three additional vicariants that speciated across an Afromontane archipelago through the Plio-Pleistocene, extending from the Kenyan Highlands through the Eastern Arc, northern Mozambique and the Zambezi Escarpment to the eastern Great Escarpment of South Africa. Clade 2 comprises one species confined to lowland savanna habitats (Mozambique and Zimbabwe). A third clade comprises R. eloquens from East Africa. Speciation within Clade 1 is associated with fixed differences in echolocation call frequency, and cranial shape and size in populations isolated since the late Pliocene (ca 3.74 Mya). Relative to the intermediate-sized savanna population (Clade 2), these island-populations within Clade 1 are characterised by either gigantism (South African eastern Great Escarpment and Mts Mabu and Inago in Mozambique) or dwarfism (Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge, Zimbabwe and Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa). Sympatry between divergent clades (Clade 1 and Clade 2) at Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge (NW Zimbabwe) is attributed to recent range expansions. We propose an "Allometric Speciation Hypothesis", which attributes the evolution of this species complex of bats to divergence in constant frequency (CF) sonar calls. The origin of species-specific peak frequencies (overall range = 32 to 46 kHz) represents the allometric effect of adaptive divergence in skull size, represented in the evolution of gigantism and dwarfism in habitat islands. PMID:22984399

Taylor, Peter J; Stoffberg, Samantha; Monadjem, Ara; Schoeman, Martinus Corrie; Bayliss, Julian; Cotterill, Fenton P D

2012-01-01

405

Phylogeography of the mottled spinefoot Siganus fuscescens: Pleistocene divergence and limited genetic connectivity across the Philippine archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

Historical isolation during Pleistocene low sea level periods is thought to have contributed to divergence among marine basin populations across the Coral Triangle. In the Philippine archipelago, populations in the South China Sea, Sulu Sea-inland seas, and Philippine Sea-Celebes Sea basins might have been partially isolated. Meanwhile, present-day broadscale oceanographic circulation patterns suggest connectivity between these basins. To evaluate hypotheses regarding the influence of historical and contemporary factors on genetic structure, phylogeographic patterns based on mitochondrial control region sequences for a reef-associated fish, Siganus fuscescens, were analysed. Three distinct lineages were recovered. One lineage was identified as the morphologically similar species Siganus canaliculatus, while two lineages are monophyletic with S. fuscescens. Clade divergence and demographic expansion in S. fuscescens occurred during the Pleistocene. A strong signal of latitudinal structure was detected (?(CT) ?=?0.188), driven by marked differences in clade distribution: one clade is widely distributed (clade A), while a second clade (clade B) has a restricted northern distribution. Regional structure of clade A is consistent with the basin isolation hypothesis (?(CT) ?=?0.040) and suggests isolation of the South China Sea (?(CT) ?=?0.091). Fine-scale structure was observed in the South China Sea and south Philippine Sea, while Sulu Sea and inland seas were unstructured. Genetic structure across multiple spatial scales (archipelagic, regional, and fine-scale within basins) suggests the influence of vicariant barriers and contemporary limits to gene flow in S. fuscescens that may be influenced by oceanographic circulation, geographical distance between available habitats, and latitudinal temperature differences. PMID:20875063

Ravago-Gotanco, R G; Juinio-Meñez, M A

2010-10-01

406

Sea lice infestations on juvenile chum and pink salmon in the Broughton Archipelago, Canada, from 2003 to 2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

Juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chum salmon O. keta were sampled by beach or purse seine to assess levels of sea lice infestation in the Knight Inlet and Broughton Archipelago regions of coastal British Columbia, Canada, during the months of March to July from 2003 to 2012. Beach seine data were analyzed for sea lice infestation that was described in terms of prevalence, abundance, intensity, and intensity per unit length. The median annual prevalence for chum was 30%, ranging from 14% (in 2008 and 2009) to 73% (in 2004), while for pink salmon, the median was 27% and ranged from 10% (in 2011) to 68% (in 2004). Annual abundance varied from 0.2 to 5 sea lice per fish with a median of 0.47 for chum and from 0.1 to 3 lice (median 0.42) for pink salmon. Annual infestation followed broadly similar trends for both chum and pink salmon. However, the abundance and intensity of Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi, the 2 main sea lice species of interest, were significantly greater on chum than on pink salmon in around half of the years studied. Logistic regression with random effect was used to model prevalence of sea lice infestation for the combined beach and purse seine data. The model suggested inter-annual variation as well as a spatial clustering effect on the prevalence of sea lice infestation in both chum and pink salmon. Fish length had an effect on prevalence, although the nature of this effect differed according to host species. PMID:23872858

Patanasatienkul, Thitiwan; Sanchez, Javier; Rees, Erin E; Krkosek, Martin; Jones, Simon R M; Revie, Crawford W

2013-07-22

407

Geography, deer, and host biodiversity shape the pattern of Lyme disease emergence in the Thousand Islands Archipelago of Ontario, Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Thousand Islands region of eastern Ontario, Canada, Lyme disease is emerging as a serious health risk. The factors that influence Lyme disease risk, as measured by the number of blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) vectors infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, are complex and vary across eastern North America. Despite study sites in the Thousand Islands being in close geographic proximity, host communities differed and both the abundance of ticks and the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection in them varied among sites. Using this archipelago in a natural experiment, we examined the relative importance of various biotic and abiotic factors, including air temperature, vegetation, and host communities on Lyme disease risk in this zone of recent invasion. Deer abundance and temperature at ground level were positively associated with tick abundance, whereas the number of ticks in the environment, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection, and the number of infected nymphs all decreased with increasing distance from the United States, the presumed source of this new endemic population of ticks. Higher species richness was associated with a lower number of infected nymphs. However, the relative abundance of Peromyscus leucopus was an important factor in modulating the effects of species richness such that high biodiversity did not always reduce the number of nymphs or the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection. Our study is one of the first to consider the interaction between the relative abundance of small mammal hosts and species richness in the analysis of the effects of biodiversity on disease risk, providing validation for theoretical models showing both dilution and amplification effects. Insights into the B. burgdorferi transmission cycle in this zone of recent invasion will also help in devising management strategies as this important vector-borne disease expands its range in North America. PMID:24416435

Werden, Lisa; Barker, Ian K; Bowman, Jeff; Gonzales, Emily K; Leighton, Patrick A; Lindsay, L Robbin; Jardine, Claire M

2014-01-01

408

Nutritional status and metabolism of the coral Stylophora subseriata along a eutrophication gradient in Spermonde Archipelago (Indonesia)  

Science.gov (United States)

Coral responses to degrading water quality are highly variable between species and depend on their trophic plasticity, acclimatization potential, and stress resistance. To assess the nutritional status and metabolism of the common scleractinian coral, Stylophora subseriata, in situ experiments were carried along a eutrophication gradient in Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia. Coral fragments were incubated in light and dark chambers to measure photosynthesis, respiration, and calcification in a number of shallow reefs along the gradient. Chlorophyll a (chl a), protein content, maximum quantum yield ( F v/ F m), and effective quantum yield (? PS II) were measured on the zooxanthellae, in addition to host tissue protein content and biomass. Photosynthetic rates were 2.5-fold higher near-shore than mid-shelf due to higher areal zooxanthellae and chl a concentrations and a higher photochemical efficiency (? PS II). A 2- and 3-fold increase in areal host tissue protein and biomass was found, indicating a higher nutritional supply in coastal waters. Dark respiration, however, showed no corresponding changes. There was a weak correlation between calcification and photosynthesis (Pearson r = 0.386) and a lack of metabolic stress, as indicated by constant respiration and F v/ F m and the "clean" and healthy appearance of the colonies in spite of high turbidity in near-shore waters. The latter suggests that part of the energetic gains through increased auto- and heterotrophy were spent on metabolic expenditures, e.g., mucus production. While coastal pollution is always deleterious to the reef ecosystem as a whole, our results show that the effect on corals may not always be negative. Thus, S. subseriata may be one of the few examples of corals actually profiting from land-based sources of pollution.

Sawall, Y.; Teichberg, M. C.; Seemann, J.; Litaay, M.; Jompa, J.; Richter, C.

2011-09-01

409

Fishes associated with spinner dolphins at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, tropical Western Atlantic: an update and overview  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Uma atualização é apresentada sobre as espécies de peixes associados a golfinhos-rotadores no Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, Atlântico Ocidental, fornecendo uma visão geral sobre sua diversidade. Os peixes associados são principalmente habitantes recifais que se alimentam de dejetos dos golfinh [...] os. Doze espécies são planctófagas habituais ou ocasionais e duas são herbívoras que se alimentam ocasionalmente de algas à deriva. Uma espécie é carnívora estrita, uma vive fixada aos golfinhos e seu alimento é variado, incluindo parasitos e tecido morto dos golfinhos, e uma é carnívora que se junta aos grupos de golfinhos durante a caça a peixes e lulas. Prevemos que a lista de peixes associados a golfinhos-rotadores seja expandida principalmente com adição de planctófagos habituais ou ocasionais. Abstract in english An update is presented for fish species associated with spinner dolphins at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, tropical Western Atlantic, providing a general view of their diversity. The associates are mostly reef-dwelling fishes that feed on the dolphin wastes. Twelve species are habitual or occasion [...] al plankton-eaters and two species are herbivores that occasionally forage on floating pieces of algae. One species is a strict carnivore, one species is a hitchhiker that forages on a variety of foods including parasites and dead tissue from the dolphins, and one species is a carnivore that joins the dolphin groups to forage on schools of small fishes or squids. We predict that the list of fish associated with spinner dolphins will expand mostly with addition of habitual or occasional plankton-eaters.

Ivan, Sazima; Cristina, Sazima; José Martins da, Silva-Jr.

2006-12-01

410

Fishes associated with spinner dolphins at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, tropical Western Atlantic: an update and overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An update is presented for fish species associated with spinner dolphins at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, tropical Western Atlantic, providing a general view of their diversity. The associates are mostly reef-dwelling fishes that feed on the dolphin wastes. Twelve species are habitual or occasional plankton-eaters and two species are herbivores that occasionally forage on floating pieces of algae. One species is a strict carnivore, one species is a hitchhiker that forages on a variety of foods including parasites and dead tissue from the dolphins, and one species is a carnivore that joins the dolphin groups to forage on schools of small fishes or squids. We predict that the list of fish associated with spinner dolphins will expand mostly with addition of habitual or occasional plankton-eaters.Uma atualização é apresentada sobre as espécies de peixes associados a golfinhos-rotadores no Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, Atlântico Ocidental, fornecendo uma visão geral sobre sua diversidade. Os peixes associados são principalmente habitantes recifais que se alimentam de dejetos dos golfinhos. Doze espécies são planctófagas habituais ou ocasionais e duas são herbívoras que se alimentam ocasionalmente de algas à deriva. Uma espécie é carnívora estrita, uma vive fixada aos golfinhos e seu alimento é variado, incluindo parasitos e tecido morto dos golfinhos, e uma é carnívora que se junta aos grupos de golfinhos durante a caça a peixes e lulas. Prevemos que a lista de peixes associados a golfinhos-rotadores seja expandida principalmente com adição de planctófagos habituais ou ocasionais.

Ivan Sazima

2006-12-01

411

Periodic behavior of soil CO2 emissions in diffuse degassing areas of the Azores archipelago: Application to seismovolcanic monitoring  

Science.gov (United States)

Time series of soil CO2 efflux recorded in the Azores archipelago volcanic-hydrothermal areas feature daily and seasonal variations. The recorded CO2 efflux values were lower during summer than in the winter season. The diurnal CO2 efflux values were higher at dawn and lower in the early afternoon, contrary to that observed in biogenic environments. CO2 efflux cycles correlated well with the environmental variables, such as air temperature, wind speed, and barometric pressure, which also showed low- and high-frequency periodicities. Several simulations were performed here using the Transport of Unsaturated Groundwater and Heat 2 (TOUGH2) geothermal simulator to complement the study of Rinaldi et al. (2012). The effects of the water table depth, air temperature perturbation amplitude, and soil thermal gradient contributed to an explanation of the contrasts observed in the diurnal (S1) and semidiurnal (S2) soil CO2 efflux peaks for the different monitoring sites and seasons. Filtering techniques (multivariate regression analysis and fast Fourier transform filters) were also applied to the recorded time series to remove effects of external variables on the soil CO2 efflux. The resulting time series (the residuals) correspond to the best approach to the deep-seated (volcanic/hydrothermal) CO2 emissions and thus should be used in seismovolcanic monitoring programs. Even if no evident correlation can be established yet between the soil CO2 residuals and seismicity over the monitore