WorldWideScience

Sample records for san andres archipelago

  1. Creole-based Trilingual Education in the Caribbean Archipelago of San Andres, Providence and Santa Catalina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morren, Ronald C.

    2002-01-01

    Depicts the impetus and drive behind the development of a primary trilingual education curriculum for the Western Caribbean Archipelago of San Andre, Providence, and Santa Catalina. Based on outcomes in other multilingual education projects, hypothesizes positive academic gains in all areas at a cost benefit to the national government. (Author/VWL)

  2. Space schemes of ecological zonation and morphology of the atolls lagoons and reef complex of an oceanic archipelago of the Caribbean: San Andres and Providence (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oceanic atolls and reef-complexes of the Archipelago of San Andres and Providencia exhibit semi-enclosed to rather open lagoon basins, where various characteristic bottom habitats occur. Certain areas of the lagoon floor are covered by sediments, being in some settings vegetated by algae or sea grass, and other areas by coralline framework of different types according to the composition and dominance of coral species and to their morphology and level of reef development. This study seeks to determine the spatial distribution patterns of lagoon bottom habitats based on the analysis of gradients of most relevant physical factors. Patterns in the occurrence and abundance of most habitats became evident in relation with wave-energy level, water depth, and the occurrence of islands. Some morphological reef types are oriented in a preferential direction and show spatial arrangements of development that are presumably related to prevailing current speed and direction and wave exposure

  3. Marine macroalgae in the agronomy and potential use of floating sargassum for manure production in the San Andres and Providencia Archipelago, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is made on the use of marine macroalgae in agronomy and the potential that floating Sargassum arriving to san Andres and Providencia has for this activity. This Sargassum, which has been a nuisance for the tourist economy of the islands, promises to be an excellent resource for manure production

  4. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - San Andres and Providencia (Fact Sheet); NREL(National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Archipelago of San Andres, Providencia, and Santa Catalina (unpopulated), also known as San Andres and Providencia, which is equidistant between Costa Rica and Jamaica and 775 kilometers northwest of Colombia. The archipelago is part of Colombia, though Nicaragua has also laid claim to it.

  5. Miocene and Pleistocene mollusks from San Andres Island (Caribbean Sea, Colombia) and Paleogeographic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Andres Island is the largest emerged portion of the oceanic archipelago of San Andres and Providencia, southwestern Caribbean Sea; it originated as a coralline atoll during Miocene times. The central and highest part of the island consists of a calcareous crest, the San Andres Formation, formed by Neogene lagoonal and reefal deposits. This crest is surrounded by a calcareous platform of Pleistocene age (San Luis Formation) which emerges only along the island coast, whereas its most part is submerged and covered by a Recent reef complex. Fossil material of molluscs from these two formations was collected in various sites throughout the island and taxonomically identified. In the four sites sampled in the San Andres Formation, material belonging to 19 gastropod and 37 bivalve species was obtained, most of them relatively well represented in other geologic formations of the Caribbean region that are stratigraphically situated between the upper Miocene and the middle Pliocene. Some elements occurring in this formation, such as Ostrea haitiensis, Meretrix dariena and Siphocypraea henekeni, were widely distributed in the Caribbean Miocene Province. In the San Luis Formation, material belonging to 18 gastropod and 11 bivalve species was obtained, most of them also represented in the Recent molluscan fauna of the region. The estimated age of this formation is Sangamonian, hence corresponding to similar formations occurring in Grand Cayman, Jamaica, Hispaniola, the Netherlands Antilles and other Caribbean islands, with which it also shows a great similarity in the composition of the molluscan fauna.

  6. Final San Andres National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan CCP was written to guide management on San Andres NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  7. San Andres, Providence and Santa Catalina: a challenge of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satisfactorily to implement the postulates of Biosphere Reserve Sea flower in the Archipelago of San Andres, Providencia and Santa Catalina demands to conjugate national, regional and local efforts in order to surpass the complex economic and social situation untied in this zone of the country after the loss of competitiveness and benefits that the model of Free Port meant to him from 1953 and which they have let perceive itself from principles of the Nineties when Colombia adopted the economic opening like development policy, changes that have resulted in the deterioration of the natural resources and the atmosphere of the islands and finally in the quality of life of their inhabitants and that imposes to this zone of the national territory the challenge to reach the balance man-nature that implies the concept of Biosphere Reserve, category acquired by the Archipelago before UNESCO in the 2000 The absence of agreed economic model with geographic, space, social, cultural and environmental conditions of the Archipelago, together with factors like: (i) political national that does not know the particularities and specificities of this zone of the country, (ii) inter institutional lack of joint in the different levels from the public administration which they concur there, (iii) absence of operation of the Gobernacion Departamental like administrator of the regional public management, (IV) absence of effectiveness population policy to control their indiscriminate increase and (v) lack of social conscience of inhabitants as visitors of the islands with respect to the adapted use of their natural resources and its constitutional and legal obligations to participate in the management like executors or veedors, among other aspects, jeopardizes their development in order to reach the environmental sustainability

  8. INCIDENCIA DE LA DEPREDACIÓN POR PECES EN CORALES PÉTREOS DE CUATRO ATOLONES DEL ARCHIPIÉLAGO DE SAN ANDRÉS Y PROVIDENCIA (CARIBE COLOMBIANO) / INCIDENCE OF FISH PREDATION ON STONY CORALS AT FOUR ATOLIS OF THE ARCHIPELAGO OF SAN ANDRES AND PROVIDENCIA (COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jaime, Garzón-Ferreira; María Catalina, Reyes-Nivia.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de datos registrados en 1994 y 1995 durante un estudio de línea de base llevado a cabo en cuatro atolones del archipiélago de San Andrés y Providencia (Albuquerque, Courtown, Roncador y Serrana), se analizó la incidencia de la depredación por peces en coral vivo y su relación con la abundan [...] cia de los peces loro Sparisoma viride y Scarus vetula. De las especies de corales depredadas, Montastraea annularis y M. faveolata presentaron la mayor incidencia de depredación, con 25.9% y 18.7% respectivamente. Se encontró que no hay diferencias significativas en la incidencia de depredación entre los atolones (Kruskal-Wallis, p = 0.07). Al comparar entre unidades geomorfológicas, la laguna presentó la mayor incidencia de depredación (14.3%) e igualmente las mayores abundancias de S. viride y S. vetula, sin embargo no se encontró una relación significativa entre ambas variables. Las mayores incidencias de depredación y abundancia de loros en la laguna pueden estar asociadas con la dominancia en este ambiente del complejo Montastraea spp., puesto que dichos corales se han reconocido como los sustratos de pastoreo preferidos por estos peces loro. La depredación por peces, sumada a los demás factores de deterioro presentes en los atolones, probablemente ha contribuido a la degradación reciente de sus arrecifes coralinos. Abstract in english Based on data recorded in 1994 and 1995 during a baseline study carried out at four western Caribbean atolls (Albuquerque, Courtown, Roncador and Serrana) of the San Andrés and Providencia archipelago, the incidence of hard coral predation by fishes and its relation with the abundance of the parrotf [...] ishes Sparisoma viride and Scarus vetula was analyzed. Among affected corals, Montastraea annularis and M. faveolata showed the highest incidence of fish bites (29.5% and 18.7% respectively). There were no significant differences between the atolls on the incidence of coral predation by fishes (Kruskall-Wallis, p = 0.07). When comparing between geomorphologic units the lagoon showed the highest level of predation (14.3%), and also the largest populations of S. viride and S. vetula, but both parameters were not significantly related. Highest predatory incidence and parrotfish abundance in the lagoon could be related to the dominance of the Montastraea spp. complex in this environment, because these coral species have been recognized as the preferred grazing substrates for the two parrotfishes. The predatory activity by the parrotfishes probably has contributed to the general degradation process of the coral reefs in the atolls, when combined with the other agents of stress.

  9. MASSIVE QUANTITIES OF PELAGIC Sargassum ON THE SHORES OF SAN ANDRES ISLAND, SOUTHWESTERN CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte GAVIO

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We report an unusual biomass of floating Sargassum, composed of the species S. fluitans and S. natans, that reached the northeastern coast of San Andres island in September 2014. The time and size of the event is unprecedented to the island.Cantidades masivas de Sargassum pelágicos en las costas de San Andrés Isla, Caribe suroccidentalSe reporta la llegada de una biomasa inusual de Sargassum flotante, compuesta por las especies S. fluitans y S. natans, a la costa nororiental de la isla de San Andrés. La época y el tamaño del evento nunca habían sido reportados anteriormente para la isla. 

  10. Origins of the Salado, Seven Rivers, and San Andres salt margins in Texas and New Mexico: Revision 1: Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present boundaries of the San Andres, Seven Rivers, and Salado salts generally lie along the periphery of the Palo Duro and Tucumcari Basins. Various geologic mechanisms occurring singularly or in combination determined the positions of the salt margins. These mechanisms include nondeposition of salt and syndepositional and postdepositional dissolution. In New Mexico, San Andres units pinch out against the Pedernal and Sierra Grande Uplifts, indicating that nondeposition established the original salt margins there. Syndepositional dissolution of exposed Upper San Andres salts occurred in response to Guadalupian upwarp of the basin margins. Triassic erosion differentially removed Permian salt-bearing formations along the uplifts. Late Tertiary dissolution is indicated by fill of north-south trending collapse valleys. In Texas, Guadalupian upwarp along the Amarillo Uplift caused pinchout of Units 2 and 3 in the Lower San Andres and influenced the deposition of subsequent salt-bearing strata. The discontinuity of Upper San Andres evaporites across the Amarillo Uplift suggests syndepositional dissolution. Along the eastern and northeastern basin margin, dissolution may have accompanied Triassic erosion of locally uplifted Upper Permian strata. Tertiary dissolution is recognized beneath anomalously thick Ogallala Formation sections that overlie collasped Permian strata. 49 refs., 31 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Borehole televiewer improves completion results in a permian basin San Andres reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerke, E.A.; Van Akkeren, T.J.

    1988-02-01

    The borehole televiewer (BHTV) is an acoustic logging tool that has a fine vertical resolution (1/3 in. (8.5 mm)) that is extremely useful for detecting bedding orientation, thin high-permeability zones, lithology changes, and zones of secondary or vuggy porosity. BHTV logs were acquired from 10 wells during the recent infill drilling of the North Hobbs (Grayburg/San Andres) Unit. These logs, when correlated with conventional logs and core data, have improved completion strategies, resulting in higher oil and lower water production in new infill wells.

  12. Morphology and it structures of the coralline formations of San Bernardo's archipelago, Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The archipelago of San Bernardo is an extensive reef complex of coralline origin located off the Caribbean coast of Colombia. In order to determine the distribution, morphological features, structure, and zonation patterns of the bottom environments of this area, employing aerial photography and observations in the field, thematic maps were produced and a series of data upon the structure of the sessile benthic biota was gathered. The complex comprises an area of more than 250 km2; of which more than 60% corresponds to bottoms with notable coral cover (> 60% of the bottom) extending to depths of nearly 30m. Three geomorphological units and seven main types of habitats or ecological units were recognized

  13. Sarucallis kahawaluokalani (Kirkaldy) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a new invasive aphid on San Andres island and mainland Colombia, with notes on other adventive species

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo,Takumasa; Cortés, Ronald Simbaqueba

    2014-01-01

    The crape myrtle aphid Sarucallis kahawaluokalani (Kirkaldy) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) collected on Lagerstroemia indica (Lythraceae) is herein reported as a new invasive species in the city of Palmira, State of Valle del Cauca, and on San Andres island, in the State of San Andres, Old Providence and Santa Catalina, Colombia. The species is illustrated and diagnosed. A brief review of recent invasive species in Colombia, i.e., Ceroplastes rubens Maskell (Hemiptera: Coccidae), Crypticerya multici...

  14. MASSIVE QUANTITIES OF PELAGIC Sargassum ON THE SHORES OF SAN ANDRES ISLAND, SOUTHWESTERN CARIBBEAN / Cantidades masivas de Sargassum pelágicos en las costas de San Andrés Isla, Caribe suroccidental

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Brigitte, GAVIO; M. Natalia, RINCÓN-DÍAZ; Adriana, SANTOS-MARTÍNEZ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta la llegada de una biomasa inusual de Sargassum flotante, compuesta por las especies S. fluitans y S. natans, a la costa nororiental de la isla de San Andrés. La época y el tamaño del evento nunca habían sido reportados anteriormente para la isla. [...] Abstract in english We report an unusual biomass of floating Sargassum, composed of the species S. fluitans and S. natans, that reached the northeastern coast of San Andres island in September 2014. The time and size of the event is unprecedented to the island. [...

  15. RESPUESTA DEL AMBIENTE MARINO A ALGUNOS EVENTOS METEOROLÓGICOS SINÓPTICOS MEDIDOS SOBRE LOS ARRECIFES DE SAN ANDRÉS Y DE LAS ISLAS DEL ROSARIO, CARIBE COLOMBIANO* / RESPONSE OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT TO SOME SYNOPTIC WEATHER EVENTS MEASURED ON THE REEFS OF SAN ANDRES ISLAND AND ROSARIO ISLANDS, COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina, Gutiérrez-Moreno; Milena, Marrugo; Carlos Alberto, Andrade.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Continuous measurements were taken of oceanographic and meteorological parameters for two stations of the Global Ocean Observing System of the Southwest Caribbean, framed in the INAP project. The response of the surface layer, to atmospheric events, allowed to differentiate the pass of two cold fron [...] ts by Johnny Cay station (San Andres Island) and the arrival of the "Veranillo" in the sensors of Tesoro Island (Islas del Rosario, Cartagena). The cold fronts produced a decrease in the atmospheric pressure, air temperature, caused radical changes in wind direction and speed followed by precipitation. This situation lowered the sea surface temperature, the surface layer pH and rose momentarily the sea level. The "Veranillo" came to Archipelago of Rosario generating a strong increase in wind speed and solar radiation. The response in the sea surface layer was evident through a significant increase in sea level.

  16. BLOOMS OF EPHEMERAL GREEN ALGAE IN SAN ANDRES ISLAND, INTERNATIONAL BIOSPHERE RESERVE SEAFLOWER, SOUTHWESTERN CARIBBEAN / Florecimientos de algas verdes efimeras en la isla de San Andrés, Reserva Internacional de Biosfera Seaflower, Caribe suroccidental

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Brigitte, GAVIO; Jose Ernesto, MANCERA PINEDA.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos la presencia de florecimientos persistentes del alga verde Chaetomorpha linum en la isla de San Andrés, Caribe suroccidental. [...] Abstract in english We report the presence of persistent blooms of Chaetomorpha linum in San Andres island, Southwestern Caribbean, during the year 2013. [...

  17. Survey of benthic dinoflagellates associated to beds of Thalassia testudinumin San Andres Island, Seaflower biosphere reserve, Caribbean Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine the occurrence of epiphytic toxic dinoflagellates in the coastal waters of San Andres Island, Caribbean Colombia, we analyzed the sea grass beds on the northern and eastern sides of the island. We found seven species of toxicogenic dinoflagellates, belonging to the genera Prorocentrum and Ostreopsis. The cell densities were generally low if compared with previous studies in other Caribbean sites, ranging from 0 to 836 cells/dry weights. The species encountered are known to produce toxins causing the diarrheic shellfish poisoning and ciguatera, poisonings which have been documented in the island.

  18. Brachiopods from off the San Bernardo Archipelago (Colombian Caribbean), with comments on specific synonymies in Tichosina Cooper, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Alexis; Gracia, Adriana; Patarroyo, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Colombian brachiopod faunas have not been studied extensively. Only three brachiopod species have been reported from the Colombian Caribbean Sea so far, namely Argyrotheca barrettiana (Davidson, 1866), Terebratulina latifrons Dall, 1920, and the cosmopolitan Platidia anomioides (Scacchi & Philippi, 1844). In this work, brachiopods collected from deep-water environments (90-250 m) off the San Bernardo Archipelago, collected during the MARCORAL cruise, are examined. The studied material consists of four species, two of which are new records for Colombia: Terebratulina cailleti Crosse, 1865 and Tichosina plicata Cooper, 1977. The genus Tichosina belongs to the family Terebratulidae and comprises twenty extant species occurring across the Caribbean. Based on a revision of published descriptions and illustrations, we synonymize Tichosina bullisi Cooper, 1977 and Tichosina dubia Cooper, 1977 with Tichosina plicata Cooper, 1977. Remarkably, apart from reports from southern Guiana, T. plicata is restricted to the margins of the Caribbean plate.  PMID:25661925

  19. Cadmium and lead levels along the estuarine ecosystem of Tigre River-San Andres Lagoon, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Sauceda, María de la Luz; Pérez-Castañeda, Roberto; Sánchez-Martínez, Jesús Genaro; Aguirre-Guzmán, Gabriel

    2012-10-01

    Cadmium and lead levels were evaluated in water and sediment along the estuarine ecosystem of Tigre River-San Andres Lagoon (Gulf of Mexico) during September to December 2009. Significant highest metal concentration in water (0.45 mg L(-1) Cd and 3.94 mg L(-1) Pb) and sediment (2.83 mg kg(-1) Cd and 6.61 mg kg(-1) Pb) were found at the mouth of the Tigre River, where the fishing town of El Moron is located. Cadmium levels in sediment were above limits associated with adverse biological effects on aquatic fauna, so negative impacts on natural populations of aquatic organisms would be expected to occur. This in turn could affect the fishery resources inhabiting this ecosystem. PMID:22872375

  20. Cadmium, lead and zinc concentrations in water, sediment and oyster (Crassostrea virginica) of San Andres Lagoon, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Sauceda, María de la Luz; Aguirre-Guzmán, G; Sánchez-Martínez, J G; Pérez-Castañeda, R

    2011-04-01

    The spatial distribution of cadmium, lead and zinc concentrations in water, sediment and oysters from San Andres Lagoon was evaluated. Significantly higher cadmium (0.33 mg L(-1)) and lead (0.70 mg L(-1)) concentrations in water were observed in front of the mouth of Tigre river, whereas, zinc concentration (5.0 mg L(-1)) was significantly higher in the south part of the lagoon. Similarly, lead and zinc values in sediment (1.01 and 9.29 ?g g(-1), respectively) and oyster tissue (0.86 and 3.19 ?g g(-1), respectively) were significantly higher in the south part of the lagoon. Levels of cadmium and lead in oyster tissue were positively related to those found in sediment. However, concerning zinc no evident relationship was found. Such differences in regression analyses may be explained by differential bioaccumulation of xenobiotic (cadmium, lead) and essential (zinc) metals. PMID:21336861

  1. La situación sociolingüística de la lengua creole de San Andrés Isla: el caso de San Luis / The sociolinguistic situation of creole language in San Andres Island: San Luis case study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Deyanira Sindy, Moya Chaves.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo describe la situación lingüística de un sector tradicional de la Isla de San Andrés, Colombia llamado San Luis: los ámbitos de uso de las diferentes lenguas que allí coexisten; las funciones que cumplen y la relación entre lengua e identidad de los habitantes. Esta descripción s [...] urge de un estudio sociolingüístico llevado a cabo durante los años 2009 y 2010. Las conclusiones e interpretaciones de los hechos y de la información proporcionada se logran a partir de encuestas, observación participante, entrevistas e historias de vida. Los principales resultados sugieren la vitalidad de la lengua creole en los sectores tradicionales de la Isla, la expansión de ámbitos de uso del español y la posible pérdida del inglés. Como conclusiones se plantea la importancia de implementar una educación bilingüe intercultural que favorezca la protección y mantenimiento de la lengua creole y la comprensión entre pobladores y hablantes de diversas lenguas. Abstract in english This paperaims at describing the linguistic situation of a particular sector on San Andres Island, Colombia called San Luis. It illustrates the use of three different languages, their functions and the relationship between language and speakers' identity based on the results of a sociolinguistic stu [...] dy developed in 2009 and 2010 in this local area. Surveys, participant observation, interviews and life stories were used to collect information on how much these languagesareseen as part of the ethnical identity of native inhabitants on the island. Results show that there is a continuous expansion of Spanish and a possible loss of English on the island which leads to a need ofan intercultural bilingual education in order to promote a better understanding among diverse cultural and linguistic groups.

  2. Estado de conservación de las especies vegetales utilizadas para la artesanía en el valle de San Andrés, Pinar del Río, Cuba / Conservation state of the vegetable species used for the craft in San Andres's valley, Pinar del Rio, Cuba

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C. O., Pimentel Pimentel; V., Castañeta Valdez.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación titulada: Estado de conservación de las especies vegetales utilizadas para la artesanía en el valle de San Andrés, Pinar del Río, Cuba tuvo una duración de dos años en diferentes etapas, comenzando por la caracterización físico geográfica del área de estudio y de los productos fores [...] tales no madereros presentes. Este trabajo está basado en investigaciones de campo, encuestas etnobiológicas, revisión de la bibliografía, observaciones biofenológicas sobre los productos forestales no madereros presentes en el área de estudio, su estado actual y diferentes usos. Los principales resultados obtenidos fueron conocer los productos vegetales utilizados por artesanos, los productos fabri-cados y el estado actual y perspectivas de la población de estos productos. Al concluir el trabajo se recomienda incrementar la repobla-ción de estas plantas para garantizar en un futuro la materia prima usada por los artesanos en la zona del valle de San Andrés, cumpliendo así el objetivo de la investigación que fue sistematizar los conocimientos sobre la existencia y el uso de estos productos y conocer el impacto ambiental, social y económico que causa la explotación de estos recursos naturales en el valle de San Andrés. Abstract in english The investigation untitled: Conservation state of the vegetable species used for the craft in San Andres's valley, Pinar del Rio, Cuba was carried out during two years, in different stages, beginning with the physical and geographical characterization of the studying area and the not forestry produc [...] ts present on it, this work is based on field investigations, etnobiological requests, bibliography searching, biophenological observations on the not forestry products present in the studying area, its current state and different uses. The main results obtained were to know the vegetable products used by artisans, the manufactured products, the current state and the population perspectives of these products. When concluding the work it is recommended to deepen with the repopulation of these plants to guarantee in a future the prevail matter used by the artisans in the area of San Andre's' valley, arriving by this way to the objective of the investigation that was to systematize the knowledge of the existence and the use of these products and to know the environmental, social and economic impact that causes the exploitation of these natural resources in San Andres's valley.

  3. Recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito, Baja California, por el lobo fino de Guadalupe / The re-colonization of the Archipelago of San Benito, Baja California, by the Guadalupe fur seal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuel, Esperón-Rodríguez; Juan Pablo, Gallo-Reynoso.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el estado actual de la recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito por el lobo fino de Guadalupe (Arctocephalus townsendi). El archipiélago tiene una gran importancia para esta especie, ya que puede consolidarse en un futuro como otro sitio de reproducción, [...] lo que implicaría un gran avance en su recuperación natural. El incremento y la estructura poblacional, el comportamiento alimenticio, la duración de los viajes de alimentación (que evidencian una fuente importante de alimento cercana) y la atención a las crías son factores que permiten analizar y estudiar el proceso de crecimiento de San Benito como una nueva colonia reproductiva. Esta expansión del territorio puede ser reflejo de la naturaleza gregaria de la especie y la fidelidad hacia los sitios reproductivos. La importancia de este trabajo radica en que es una descripción inicial de la recolonización de una especie que estuvo a punto de desaparecer. Puede esperarse que el número de individuos en el archipiélago continúe aumentando, ya que es poco probable que a corto plazo el espacio reproductivo y la disponibilidad de alimento limiten el nacimiento de crías y el crecimiento de la población. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to analize the re-colonization process of the San Benito Archipelago by the Guadalupe fur seal (Arctocephalus townsendi). The archipelago is of great importance for the species, since it can be consolidated in the future as a breeding colony, which would imply a great achiev [...] ement for the fur seal's natural recovery. Population growth, population structure, feeding behavior, foraging trips duration (which shows an important feeding area near), behavior and pup attendance, are characteristics that help analyze and study this process; where San Benito grows as a colony and, therefore, is established as a new breeding colony. Furthermore, this expansion of the breeding territory might reflect the gregarious nature of the species, and fidelity to breeding areas as well. The importance of this work is that it is an initial description of the recolonization of a species that almost disappears. It can be expected to continue increasing the number of individuals at the archipelago, since it is unlikely that in a short period of time, the breeding territory and the food availability limit the birth of offspring and the population growth.

  4. First report of Anagyrus kamali Moursi and Gyranusoidea indica Shafee, Alam and Agarwal (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), parasitoids of the pink hibiscus mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on San Andres Island, Colombia / Primer reporte de Anagyrus kamali Moursi y Gyranusoidea indica Shafee, Alam y Agarwal (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), parasitoides de la cochinilla rosada del hibisco Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) en la isla de San Andres, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Evans, Gregory; Takumasa, Kondo; María Fernanda, Maya-Álvarez; Lilliana María, Hoyos-Carvajal; John Albeiro, Quiroz; Marcela, Silva-Gómez.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta por primera vez la presencia de Anagyrus kamali Moursi y Gyranusoidea indica Shafee, Alam y Agarwal (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), parasitoides de la cochinilla rosada del hibisco (CRH), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) en la Isla de San Andrés, Colombia. Se provee [...] n notas breves para diferenciar las dos especies de parasitoides. Abstract in english Here we report for the first time the presence of Anagyrus kamali Moursi and Gyranusoidea indica Shafee, Alam and Agarwal (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), parasitoids of the pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on San Andres Island, Colombia. Brief no [...] tes are provided to allow differentiation of the two parasitoid species.

  5. Descripción morfoagronómica de materiales de plátano (Musa AAB, ABB) y banano (Musa AAA) cultivados en San Andrés Isla / Morpho-agronomic Description of Plantain (Musa AAB, ABB) and Banana (Musa AAA) Materials Grown in San Andres Island

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oscar Javier, Parra Pachón; Daniel Gerardo, Cayón Salinas; Jaime, Polanía Vorenber.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Durante el primer semestre de 2005 se estudiaron los cultivares de plátano y banano en fincas y parcelas de 15 agricultores típicos participantes en programas conjuntos de la Secretaría de Agricultura y Pesca de San Andrés Isla y de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Caribe. A partir de descri [...] ptores de INIBAP, IPGRI y CIRAD y revisiones bibliográficas.se describen morfológicamente los materiales de Musa cultivados en la Isla, así como las prácticas de los productores isleños, Se identificaron cuatro clones del subgrupo plátano (Musa AAB): un Hartón (‘Horse’) y tres Dominico-Hartón (‘Tallo Negro’, ‘Tallo Blanco’ y ‘Cincuenta’) del subgrupo ABB se hallaron un material de Bluggoe (‘Boscó’) y un Felipita. El subgrupo banano AAA presentó dos materiales Gros Michel (denominados Común y Chino) y uno de banano (Rojo). El plátano tiene gran importancia para los agricultores de la Isla, siendo el Boscó el clon más aceptado entre consumidores por su adaptación a las condiciones edafológicas y climáticas. El banano es menos cultivado; ya que los suelos, el clima y las enfermedades como sigatoka negra, condicionaron el desarrollo de clones. El trabajo sugiere prácticas de fácil implementación que podrían aumentar la producción en los sistemas de huerto mixto tropical que predominan en la Isla. Abstract in english During the first semester, 2005 we studied the plantain and banana cultivars in small farms of 15 volunteer regular producers, who were participating in joint programs of the Agriculture and Fisheries Secretariat of San Andres Island and the Colombian National University Caribbean Headquarters. We d [...] escribed morphologically the Musa cultivars identified in the island, as well as agricultural practices of the island producers, using the INIBAP, IPGRI and CIRAD (1996) descriptors and bibliographical reviews. We identified four clones within the plantain sub-group Musa AAB: a Horn type and three French-Horn; and within the ABB sub-group a Bluggoe (dubbed “Boscó”) and a Felipita type. The banana sub-group AAA had two Gros Michel type, known as “Banano Común” and “Banano Chino”, as well as one of red banana (“Banano Rojo”). The plantain culture has paramount importance for San Andres farmers, and the clone named “Boscó” is the preferred one for its taste, and its adaptation to the edaphic and climatic conditions. Banana is less cultivated; the soil and the climate, as well as diseases (v.gr. the leaf spot disease or sigatoka) determined the growth of their clones. This work suggests a list of easy to implement agronomic practices that would enhance the production of the predominant producing systems of the island.

  6. Descripción morfoagronómica de materiales de plátano (Musa AAB, ABB y banano (Musa AAA cultivados en San Andrés Isla Morpho-agronomic Description of Plantain (Musa AAB, ABB and Banana (Musa AAA Materials Grown in San Andres Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Javier Parra Pachón

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Durante el primer semestre de 2005 se estudiaron los cultivares de plátano y banano en fincas y parcelas de 15 agricultores típicos participantes en programas conjuntos de la Secretaría de Agricultura y Pesca de San Andrés Isla y de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Caribe. A partir de descriptores de INIBAP, IPGRI y CIRAD y revisiones bibliográficas.se describen morfológicamente los materiales de Musa cultivados en la Isla, así como las prácticas de los productores isleños, Se identificaron cuatro clones del subgrupo plátano (Musa AAB: un Hartón (‘Horse’ y tres Dominico-Hartón (‘Tallo Negro’, ‘Tallo Blanco’ y ‘Cincuenta’ del subgrupo ABB se hallaron un material de Bluggoe (‘Boscó’ y un Felipita. El subgrupo banano AAA presentó dos materiales Gros Michel (denominados Común y Chino y uno de banano (Rojo. El plátano tiene gran importancia para los agricultores de la Isla, siendo el Boscó el clon más aceptado entre consumidores por su adaptación a las condiciones edafológicas y climáticas. El banano es menos cultivado; ya que los suelos, el clima y las enfermedades como sigatoka negra, condicionaron el desarrollo de clones. El trabajo sugiere prácticas de fácil implementación que podrían aumentar la producción en los sistemas de huerto mixto tropical que predominan en la Isla.During the first semester, 2005 we studied the plantain and banana cultivars in small farms of 15 volunteer regular producers, who were participating in joint programs of the Agriculture and Fisheries Secretariat of San Andres Island and the Colombian National University Caribbean Headquarters. We described morphologically the Musa cultivars identified in the island, as well as agricultural practices of the island producers, using the INIBAP, IPGRI and CIRAD (1996 descriptors and bibliographical reviews. We identified four clones within the plantain sub-group Musa AAB: a Horn type and three French-Horn; and within the ABB sub-group a Bluggoe (dubbed “Boscó” and a Felipita type. The banana sub-group AAA had two Gros Michel type, known as “Banano Común” and “Banano Chino”, as well as one of red banana (“Banano Rojo”. The plantain culture has paramount importance for San Andres farmers, and the clone named “Boscó” is the preferred one for its taste, and its adaptation to the edaphic and climatic conditions. Banana is less cultivated; the soil and the climate, as well as diseases (v.gr. the leaf spot disease or sigatoka determined the growth of their clones. This work suggests a list of easy to implement agronomic practices that would enhance the production of the predominant producing systems of the island.

  7. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE PLAYAS DE ANIDACIÓN Y ZONAS DE ALIMENTACIÓN DE TORTUGAS MARINAS EN EL ARCHIPIÉLAGO DE SAN BERNARDO, CARIBE COLOMBIANO / Characterization of nesting beaches and feeding areas of marine turtles at the San Bernardo Archipelago, Colombian Caribbean

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Martha Patricia, Rincón-Díaz; Clara Jimena, Rodríguez-Zárate.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El archipiélago de San Bernardo ha sido reconocido como un hábitat de anidación esporádica y alimentación de las tortugas verde, carey y caguamo. Teniendo en cuenta estos antecedentes y debido a que el archipiélago presenta áreas coralinas, praderas de pastos marinos y playas arenosas relevantes en [...] el Caribe colombiano, cuya oferta ambiental no ha sido descrita para el recurso tortugas marinas, se realizó este estudio entre julio y octubre de 2002, cuyos objetivos fueron describir las playas de anidación y zonas de alimentación en función de su geomorfología, aspectos bióticos y, para las últimas áreas, algunos oceanográficos. Fueron evaluadas siete playas potenciales de anidación y 20 bajos de alimentación para identificar las amenazas naturales y antrópicas para las tortugas y los hábitats. La carey es la única especie que aún anida en la zona, pero sus áreas de desove se han reducido por la erosión del mar y la construcción existente (blindaje). Los únicos lugares de anidación encontrados fueron el costado sureste de isla Palma y el norte de isla Tintipán. En áreas de alimentación, la mayoría de las estaciones (n=14) presentaron pastos marinos con predominio de fondo blando. A partir de la caracterización de estas áreas se describieron como objeto de alimentación de la carey nueve especies de esponjas y tres de algas. Con el objeto de documentar los componentes de la dieta de las tortugas en el archipiélago, cinco contenidos estomacales de carey y seis de verde fueron analizados. Los ítems más abundantes para la carey fueron las esponjas Eicionemia sp. y Geodia sp. (96% en peso seco) y en la tortuga verde los pastos Thalassia testudinum y Syringodium filiforme (98% en peso seco), observados comúnmente en campo. En áreas de forrajeo la captura directa de tortugas juveniles y adultas fue la amenaza principal, por lo que se deben dirigir esfuerzos para reducir el número de individuos capturados, determinar el grado de intervención y las posibles soluciones. Abstract in english The San Bernardo Archipelago, in the Colombian Caribbean zone, is well recognized for being a sporadic nesting and feeding area for the green, hawksbill and loggerhead turtles. Due to the fact that the San Bernardo Archipelago has outstanding coral areas, marine grasses and sandy beaches and their e [...] nvironmental offers for the marine turtles have not been described yet, it was opportune to carry out this study between July and October of 2002. Thus, this research tends to fill this gap by describing the nesting beaches and feeding areas according to their geomorphologic and biotic aspects and, for the later areas, some oceanographic aspects too. Seven potential nesting beaches and 20 stations on feeding areas were evaluated to identify natural and anthropogenic threats that could affect sea turtles and their habitats. The only species that still nests on these islands is the hawksbill turtle, but its nesting areas are being reduced because of erosion and constructions on the beach. The remaining nesting places observed during the 2002 season were on the southeastern side of Palma island and on the northern side of Tintipán island. In the feeding areas, the majority of stations (n=14) have marine grass with predominance of soft bottom. From these characterizations in the feeding areas, nine sponges and two seaweeds species were described as index species hawksbill turtles feed on. In order to gather information about the marine turtles diet components, five stomach contents of hawskbill turtle and six of green turtle were analyzed. They showed that the sponges Eicionemia sp. and Geodia sp. are the principal diet components (96% dry weight) in the hawksbill turtle diet. In the case of the green turtle, Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme grasses were identified as index species (98% dry weight); they were the most common during the field observations. The principal threat for sea turtles was the direct capture of adults and juveniles in feeding areas, for what effort

  8. An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. Annual report, August 1, 1996--July 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trentham, R.C.; Weinbrandt, R.; Robinson, W.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this two-phase study is to demonstrate an integrated methodology for reservoir characterization of shallow shelf carbonate reservoir that is feasible, and cost effective for the independent operator. Furthermore, it will provide one of the first public demonstrations of the enhancement of reservoir characterization using high-resolution three dimensional (3D) seismic data. This particular project is evaluating the Grayburg and San Andres reservoirs in the Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. This 68 year old field was approaching its economic limit and the leases evaluated would have been abandoned in 10 years. A multidisciplinary approach to waterflood design and implementation, along with the addition of reserves by selective infill drilling and deepening, is being applied to this field. This approach in reservoir development will be applicable to a wide range of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs throughout the US. The first phase of the project included the design, acquisition, and interpretation of the 3D seismic survey, the collection and evaluation of geologic (core and log) data, and engineering (historical production, well test, injection) data from a variety of sources. From this work, a geologically based production history model was simulated. Based on the recommendations made at the end of Phase One, three new wells were drilled, one existing well was deepened, two wells were worked over, one TA`d well was re-entered, and one well was converted to injection. In addition, the quality of the injection water was greatly improved, a step necessary prior to increasing injection in the project area. The realignment of the waterflood and all additional well work await the completion of the seismic based history match and engineering simulation.

  9. Analysis of the re-colonization of San Benito Archipelago by Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi Análisis de la recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito por el lobo fino de Guadalupe (Arctocephalus townsendi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Esperón-Rodríguez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of the Guadalupe fur seal (GFS during the XVIII and XIX centuries almost extirpated the species. GFS were distributed from the Revillagigedo islands (Mexico to the gulf of Farallones (USA. At present, reproductive colonies are found at Guadalupe Island and San Benito Archipelago (SBA. The aim of this work was to analyze the process of re-colonization and the current status of GFS at SBA. The first births and the occupation of the west island of the SBA are also reported. Census data from 1997 to 2007 indicated an annual growth rate for the population of 21.6%. The population size, growth tendency of the colony, reproductive biology, and food preferences were also studied. A total of 2,227 GFS were counted at SBA. Three squid species (Loligo opalescens, Onychoteuthis banksii, Dosidicus gigas were found to be the main dietary components. Territoriality, activity patterns, and reproductive behavior were similar for the seals from Guadalupe Island and SBA. The mean growth rate for pups from SBA was calculated and compared to that of the pups at Guadalupe Island (SBA: 6.7 ± 1.4 kg, 68.9 ± 2.64 cm; Guadalupe Island: 5.9 ± 0.5 kg, 67.29 ± 4.3 cm. The length of food foraging trips by females was measured, suggesting that the SBA colony is probably near an important feeding area. Maternal care patterns could indicate different strategies of nursing-foraging trips between the SBA and Guadalupe Island. The population of fur seals at SBA is expected to increase as there are no limitations in terms of reproductive space or available food resources in the area.La explotación del lobo fino de Guadalupe (LFG durante los siglos XVIII y XIX casi extinguió a la especie. El LFG se distribuye desde las islas Revillagigedo (México hasta el golfo de Farallones (USA. En la actualidad las colonias reproductivas se encuentran en la isla de Guadalupe y en el archipiélago de San Benito (ASB. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el proceso de re-colonización y el estado actual del LFG en el ASB. También se informan los primeros nacimientos y la ocupación de la isla del Oeste del ASB. Con base en los censos de 1997 a 2007, la población creció con una tasa de incremento anual de 21,6%. Se estudió el tamaño de la población, la tendencia de crecimiento de la colonia, biología reproductiva y preferencias alimentarias. Se contaron 2,227 individuos en el ASB. Tres especies de calamar se encontraron como el principal componente de la dieta (Loligo opalescens, Onychoteuthis banksii y Dosidicus gigas. La territorialidad, los patrones de actividad y el comportamiento reproductivo, muestran una conducta similar entre los individuos de isla Guadalupe y ASB. Se calculó la tasa de crecimiento promedio de las crías del ASB y se comparó con la tasa de crecimiento de las crías de isla Guadalupe (ASB: 6.7 ± 1.4 kg y 68,9 ± 2.64 cm; isla Guadalupe 5.9 ± 0.5 kg, y 67.29 ± 4.3 cm. Se midió la duración de los viajes de alimentación de las hembras, indicando que la colonia de San Benito probablemente se encuentra cerca de una importante zona de alimentación. En cuanto a los patrones de asistencia materna, estos podrían indicar una estrategia de lactancia-viajes de alimentación diferente entre SBA e isla Guadalupe. Se puede esperar que la población de lobos finos en San Benito siga creciendo, ya que no hay limitantes en cuanto al espacio reproductivo y los recursos alimenticios disponibles en la zona.

  10. Analysis of the re-colonization of San Benito Archipelago by Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi) / Análisis de la recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito por el lobo fino de Guadalupe (Arctocephalus townsendi)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuel, Esperón-Rodríguez; Juan Pablo, Gallo-Reynoso.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La explotación del lobo fino de Guadalupe (LFG) durante los siglos XVIII y XIX casi extinguió a la especie. El LFG se distribuye desde las islas Revillagigedo (México) hasta el golfo de Farallones (USA). En la actualidad las colonias reproductivas se encuentran en la isla de Guadalupe y en el archip [...] iélago de San Benito (ASB). El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el proceso de re-colonización y el estado actual del LFG en el ASB. También se informan los primeros nacimientos y la ocupación de la isla del Oeste del ASB. Con base en los censos de 1997 a 2007, la población creció con una tasa de incremento anual de 21,6%. Se estudió el tamaño de la población, la tendencia de crecimiento de la colonia, biología reproductiva y preferencias alimentarias. Se contaron 2,227 individuos en el ASB. Tres especies de calamar se encontraron como el principal componente de la dieta (Loligo opalescens, Onychoteuthis banksii y Dosidicus gigas). La territorialidad, los patrones de actividad y el comportamiento reproductivo, muestran una conducta similar entre los individuos de isla Guadalupe y ASB. Se calculó la tasa de crecimiento promedio de las crías del ASB y se comparó con la tasa de crecimiento de las crías de isla Guadalupe (ASB: 6.7 ± 1.4 kg y 68,9 ± 2.64 cm; isla Guadalupe 5.9 ± 0.5 kg, y 67.29 ± 4.3 cm). Se midió la duración de los viajes de alimentación de las hembras, indicando que la colonia de San Benito probablemente se encuentra cerca de una importante zona de alimentación. En cuanto a los patrones de asistencia materna, estos podrían indicar una estrategia de lactancia-viajes de alimentación diferente entre SBA e isla Guadalupe. Se puede esperar que la población de lobos finos en San Benito siga creciendo, ya que no hay limitantes en cuanto al espacio reproductivo y los recursos alimenticios disponibles en la zona. Abstract in english Exploitation of the Guadalupe fur seal (GFS) during the XVIII and XIX centuries almost extirpated the species. GFS were distributed from the Revillagigedo islands (Mexico) to the gulf of Farallones (USA). At present, reproductive colonies are found at Guadalupe Island and San Benito Archipelago (SBA [...] ). The aim of this work was to analyze the process of re-colonization and the current status of GFS at SBA. The first births and the occupation of the west island of the SBA are also reported. Census data from 1997 to 2007 indicated an annual growth rate for the population of 21.6%. The population size, growth tendency of the colony, reproductive biology, and food preferences were also studied. A total of 2,227 GFS were counted at SBA. Three squid species (Loligo opalescens, Onychoteuthis banksii, Dosidicus gigas) were found to be the main dietary components. Territoriality, activity patterns, and reproductive behavior were similar for the seals from Guadalupe Island and SBA. The mean growth rate for pups from SBA was calculated and compared to that of the pups at Guadalupe Island (SBA: 6.7 ± 1.4 kg, 68.9 ± 2.64 cm; Guadalupe Island: 5.9 ± 0.5 kg, 67.29 ± 4.3 cm). The length of food foraging trips by females was measured, suggesting that the SBA colony is probably near an important feeding area. Maternal care patterns could indicate different strategies of nursing-foraging trips between the SBA and Guadalupe Island. The population of fur seals at SBA is expected to increase as there are no limitations in terms of reproductive space or available food resources in the area.

  11. Etnomapa: Uso de los recursos naturales por los mayas itzaes de San José y San Andrés del Petén, Guatemala / Ethnomap: use of natural resources by the mayan itzaes of San Jose and San Andres, Peten, Guatemala

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E, Lara Ponce; L, Caso-Barrera; M, Aliphat; B, Ramírez; A, Gil; G, García.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la riqueza e importancia del concepto de etnomapa, como herramienta de análisis cultural y espacial por medio de un mapa elaborado por pobladores mayas itzaes de dos asentamientos localizados en el Petén, Guatemala. El estudio se llevó a cabo entre octubre 2006 y septiembre de 20 [...] 07, se completó con la aplicación de encuestas mediante muestreo proporcional a unidades familiares itzaes de dos poblados del Petén central, San José (n = 40) y San Andrés (n = 22). A través de la interpretación de la información y mediante el enfoque de sistemas, se logró dilucidar los componentes agrícolas y los recursos naturales que practican y utilizan los mayas en ambas localidades. Los resultados hallados sugieren que los sistemas agrícolas y de utilización de los bosques tropicales húmedos practicados por los itzaes, representan una actividad económica importante, caracterizada por una amplia utilización de especies agrícolas y naturales. Estas actividades representan una base de recursos fundamental para los itzaes. Las características de estos sistemas son comparables a los encontrados en otros estudios en diferentes grupos mayas confirmando la diversidad de posibilidades de los modelos de adaptación y manejo de recursos de los itzaes. La creación del etnomapa valida del profundo conocimiento local, de la distribución territorial de los recursos naturales y antropogénicos. Se posibilita además el analizar los cambios que enfrentan los poblados itzaes, debido a las presiones socioeconómicas y tecnológicas que se desarrollan actualmente en la región del Petén central de Guatemala. Abstract in english This article analyses the richness and importance of the concept of the ethnomap, as a tool for cultural and spatial analyses, based on a map prepared by mayan Itzae inhabitants of two communities located in El Petén, Guatemala. The study took place between October 2006 and September 2007, and inclu [...] ded surveys carried out with a proportional sampling of Itzae family units in two settlements of the central Petén, San José (n = 40) and San Andrés (n = 22). A systems theory was applied in the analysis and interpretation of the data, resulting in the definition of the agricultural components and the natural resources that the Mayas use in the two communities. Findings suggest that the agricultural and tropical forest activities carried out by the Itzaes represent important economic activities, characterised by the use of a wide range of natural and agricultural species. These activities represent a fundamental resource base for the Itzae-maya population. The characteristics of these systems are comparable to those recorded by other studies on different Maya groups, confirming the diversity of possibilities for the adaptation and resource management models of the Itzaes. The ethnomap validates the profound local knowledge of the territorial distribution of anthropogenic and natural resources. It also makes it possible to analyse the changes facing the local Itzae populations, following the socioeconomic and technological pressures that are present in the central Petén region of Guatemala.

  12. DINOFLAGELADOS POTENCIALMENTE TÓXICOS ASOCIADOS A MATERIAL ORGÁNICO FLOTANTE (DRIFT) EN SAN ANDRÉS ISLA, RESERVA INTERNACIONAL DE LA BIOSFERA - SEAFLOWER / Potentially toxic Dinoflagellates associated to drift in San Andres Island, International Biosphere Reservation - Seaflower

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JOSÉ ERNESTO, MANCERA-PINEDA; MARCIAL, MONTALVO-TALAIGUA; BRIGITTE, GAVIO.

    2014-06-30

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de evaluar la abundancia y la composición de dinoflagelados potencialmente tóxicos asociados al material orgánico flotante (drift) en la isla de San Andrés, se seleccionaron siete sitios de muestreo a lo largo de la margen Norte y Este, paralelos a la barrera arrecifal y a las princ [...] ipales praderas de fanerógamas marinas y macroalgas de la isla. Durante la época de mayor intensidad de vientos, se recolectaron muestras de drift; se identificaron los sustratos a especie y posteriormente se sumergieron en solución 1:1 agua de mar filtrada y solución de Transeau. Luego de agitar vigorosamente las muestras para remover los dinoflagelados, se tamizo la suspensión con una malla de 80 µm y el filtrado se observó al microscopio óptico. Se encontraron cinco sustratos, dos especies de pastos marinos y tres de macroalgas. Sobre los sustratos se identificaron doce especies de dinoflagelados, diez reportadas como tóxicas, causantes de diarrea, parálisis y ciguatera. La abundancia de dinoflagelados varió ampliamente con promedios máximos (±DE) de 15 354±15 749 células/g peso seco de sustrato. De las especies de dinoflagelados, cinco son nuevos registros para San Andrés. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en los valores de diversidad de dinoflagelados entre drift y praderas de pastos y macroalgas, no obstante, la abundancia fue mucho mayor en el drift. Los resultados indican que el drift es un importante sustrato para dinoflagelados y dada su naturaleza flotante, representa tal vez el vector más importante para la dispersión de estos agentes de toxicidad en la isla. Para mitigar el efecto de eventos tóxicos asociados a dinoflagelados en salud pública, pesca y turismo, es necesario diseñar un plan de manejo del material orgánico flotante, que permita mejorar el entendimiento de su composición y dinámica temporal, monitorear las toxinas asociadas e implementar mecanismos de recolección y tratamiento. Abstract in english To assess the composition and abundance of potentially toxic dinoflagellates associated to drift on San Andres island, we selected seven sampling sites along the northern and eastern side of the island. During the wind season, we collected drift samples, identified the main substrates to species, an [...] d submerged them in 1:1 filtered seawater and Transeau solution. After shaking to remove the dinoflagellates, we sieved through an 80 µm screen and analyzed the detached dinoflagellates under an optical microscope. We found five substrates, two seagrass species and three macroalgae. Associated to these substrates, we identified twelve dinoflagellates species, ten of which are reported as toxic and are known to produce diarrhea, paralysis and ciguatera, syndromes reported in San Andrés and other Caribbean places where their frequency is apparently increasing. The dinoflagellate abundance presented strong variation with maximum average values (±SD) of 15354±15749 cel. /g of substrate dry weight. Five of the dinoflagellates associated to drift are new records for the island. We did not found significant differences in diversity of benthic dinoflagellates between drift and seagrass and macroalgae beds; however, the abundance was much higher in drift. The results showed that drift is a very important substrate for potentially toxic dinoflagellates and, considering its buoyant nature, it may represent one of the main dispersion vectors for these species on the island. To mitigate the effect of intoxication events on public health, fisheries and tourism, it is necessary to design a floating organic material management plan, improve the understanding of drift composition and its temporal dynamics, as well as to monitor associated toxins and pursue collection and treatment mechanisms of the floating biomass.

  13. ESPONJAS Y OTROS MICROHÁBITATS DE OFIUROS (OPHIUROIDEA: ECHINODERMATA) EN AMBIENTES ARRECIFALES DEL ARCHIPIÉLAGO DE SAN BERNARDO (CARIBE COLOMBIANO) / Sponges and other ophiuroid microhabitats (Ophiuroidea: Echinodermata) at reef environments of San Bernardo Archipelago (Colombian Caribbean).

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sonia, Bejarano Chavarro; Sven, Zea; Juan Manuel, Díaz.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Los ofiuroideos son habitantes conspicuos de microhábitats expuestos y crípticos en arrecifes coralinos. Esta investigación pretendió conocer la composición de la comunidad de ofiuroideos encontrada en microhábitats ofrecidos por esponjas y por otros componentes arrecifales de diferente naturaleza ( [...] biótica vs. abiótica) y posición sobre el sustrato (elevada vs. no elevada) en los arrecifes de la zona Montastraea spp. en el archipiélago de Islas de San Bernardo (Caribe colombiano). Evaluando la abundancia de organismos en relación con la disponibilidad los diferentes microhábitats, se determinaron esquemas de ocupación exclusiva o preferencial de algún componente vertical particular, como insumo inicial de la existencia de relaciones ecológicas benéficas. Se realizaron muestreos en tres estaciones, en cada una se censaron tres transectos de 20 m de longitud recorridos durante el día y uno durante la noche, cuantificando visualmente la presencia y abundancia de ofiuroideos y la oferta (área o volumen) de todos los microhábitats. Se encontró un total de 11 tipos de microhábitats, siendo las estructuras de crecimiento vertical (entre ellas las esponjas y octocorales), los componentes más frecuentes en la totalidad del área de estudio. La comunidad ofiuroidea estuvo compuesta por 22 morfotipos. Solo Ophiopsila sp. 1 (de hábitos excavadores) se restringió a un solo tipo de sustrato en particular, en tanto que varias de las restantes se restringieron al uso de estructuras o espacios proporcionados por éstas, según condiciones particulares ofrecidas (elevación, naturaleza, cripticidad) y no según su identidad. La ocupación de superficies inferiores de componentes no elevados, estuvo determinada por la necesidad de ocupar espacios crípticos. Esta necesidad estuvo vinculada con especies fotosensibles, vulnerables a la depredación y a su inherente búsqueda de protección. Los componentes elevados y entre ellos 13 especies de esponjas fueron ocupados de manera característica por el complejo Ophiothrix angulata - O. orstedii y por O. suensonii. Se discuten los atributos de las esponjas (con diferentes morfologías) que proporcionan distintas ventajas para cada una de las especies ofiuroideas encontradas allí. Se sugiere la existencia de una probable relación ecológica no obligada entre estas especies de ofiuroideos y algunas de las esponjas más frecuentemente ocupadas, cuya existencia y naturaleza deben ser sometidas a comprobación experimental. Abstract in english Ophiuroids are conspicuous dwellers of exposed and cryptic microhabitats available in coral reefs. This investigation pretended to discern ophiuroid community composition at microhabitats available in sponges and other reef components of different character (biotic vs. abiotic) or position over the [...] substrate (elevated vs. non-elevated), at shallow reefs within the Montastraea spp. zone at San Bernardo Archipelago (Colombian Caribbean). Evaluating the abundance of organisms related to availability of different microhabitats, schemes of exclusive or preferential occupation of a particular elevated component were determined. These schemes, are discussed as initial cues that suggest the existence of benefic ecological relations. Samplings were performed at three stations. Four 20 meter transects were surveyed on each station, three during daytime and one during night. Presence and abundance of ophiuroids and microhabitat availability (area or volume) were quantified visually. Eleven types of microhabitats were identified. Vertical microhabitats and specially sponges and octocorals, were the most common substrate components at the study area. The ophiuroid community was composed by 22 morphotypes. Only Ophiopsila sp. 1 (with excavating habits) was restricted to one particular kind of substrate. Many other species did not use restrictedly any particular type of microhabitat, but used exclusively structures of particular characteristics (elevation, character or cripticity). The occupation of inferior surfaces

  14. Identidades ambientales, un caso comparativo entre el Trapecio amazónico y el Archipiélago de San Andrés: A Comparative Case Study of the Colombian Amazon region and the Archipelago of San Andrés / Environmental Identities / Identidades ambientais, um caso comparativo entre o Trapézio amazônico e o Arquipélago de San Andrés

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pablo, De La Cruz.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A partir da definição de identidade ambiental, o artigo compara os processos de transformação identitária que vêm ganhando lugar no Trapézio amazônico colombiano e no Arquipélago de San Andrés, por serem dois casos de redefinição histórica da etnicidade com referência ao meio geográfico, ao e [...] ncontro com a colombianidade, à agudização do discurso e às tensões que os capitais e os agentes institucionais ao redor do tradicional. Analisa-se o crescente turismo, a influência das agências de cooperação e seus efeitos no deslocamento do sagrado a uma "cultura teatral". Abstract in spanish Resumen A partir de la definición de identidad ambiental, el artículo compara los procesos de transformación identitaria que han tenido lugar en el Trapecio amazónico colombiano y en el Archipiélago de San Andrés, por cuanto son dos casos de redefinición histórica de la etnicidad con referencia al m [...] edio geográfico, al encuentro con la colombianidad, a la agudización del discurso y a las tensiones que los capitales y los agentes institucionales generan en torno a lo tradicional. Se analiza el creciente turismo, la influencia de las agencias de cooperación y sus efectos en el desplazamiento de lo sagrado hacia una "cultura teatral". Abstract in english Abstract The article compares the processes of identity transformation in the Colombian Amazon region and the Archipelago of San Andrés on the basis of the definition of environmental identity. These two cases illustrate the historical redefinition of ethnicity with respect to geographical environme [...] nt, the encounter with what it means to be Colombian, the intensification of discourse, and the tensions generated by the financial capital and the institutional agents around the traditions. The paper also discusses the growth of tourism, the influence of cooperation agencies, and their effects on the shift from the sacred toward a "theatrical culture".

  15. COMPOSICIÓN Y DENSIDAD DE CORALES JUVENILES EN DOS ARRECIFES PROFUNDOS DE SAN ANDRÉS ISLA, CARIBE COLOMBIANO / Composition and density of juvenile corals at two deep reefs in San Andres Island, Colombian Caribbean

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrés M, Vidal; Claudia M, Villamil; Alberto, Acosta.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El reclutamiento de corales en un arrecife determina el mantenimiento, la renovación y la estructura futura de las comunidades coralinas. Con el objeto de conocer la composición, densidad y el valor de importancia de corales juveniles escleractínios ([...] estrearon dos localidades (Reggae Nest y El Faro) en la terraza profunda de sotavento, a 20 m de profundidad, en la isla de San Andrés. Así mismo, se cuantificó la frecuencia de mortalidad parcial, total, enfermedades y signos de depredación en los juveniles, en 47 cuadrantes de 1m², distribuidos a lo largo de una cuerda guía. Se registró un total de 397 juveniles coralinos pertenecientes a 16 especies. La densidad promedio y riqueza de juveniles no mostraron diferencias significativas entre Reggae Nest y El Faro. La densidad promedio de las localidades fue alta respecto a lo registrado en arrecifes colombianos y baja en relación a otros arrecifes del Caribe. Las especies con valores de importancia mayores, Agaricia agaricites, Scolymia sp. y Porites astreoides, aportaron el 54.9 % de todos los juveniles, lo que concuerda con lo hallado en otros arrecifes del Caribe. Los géneros de juveniles con mayor densidad, cobertura y frecuencia no concordaron con los adultos dominantes (ej. Montastraea, Colpophyllia, Diploria y Siderastrea); ya que M. annularis y Diploria sp. exhibieron los valores más bajos de importancia como juveniles. Las comunidades coralinas de Reggae Nest y El Faro, deterioradas en las últimas décadas, podría recuperarse naturalmente, teniendo en cuenta la siguiente evidencia: 1) alta densidad de corales juveniles respecto al Caribe colombiano; 2) alta riqueza de juveniles, representados en 16 de las 23 especies de corales adultos registrados para la isla; 3) alto porcentaje de especies comunes entre juveniles y adultos (mantenimiento de cada población); 4) bajos porcentajes de mortalidad parcial (0.7 %; 3 juveniles de 397) y de blanqueamiento encontrados en los juveniles (0.5 %; 2 juveniles de 397). Queda aún por comprobar, la sobrevivencia a largo plazo, si estos juveniles son de especies fugitivas o si la comunidad de constructores está siendo reemplazada. Abstract in english Coral reef recruitment is a fundamental process because it determines the maintenance, renovation and future reef structure. In order to determine the composition, density and importance value of scleractinian juvenile corals ([...] ampled (Reggae Nest and El Faro) at the deep leeward terrace site of San Andres Island. In adittion, in 47 quadrants of 1m² distributed throughout a guide line, frequency of partial mortality, total diseases and depredation signs in juvenile corals were quantified. A total of 397 juveniles of 16 species were registered. The average density and richness of juveniles were not significantly different between Reggae Nest and El Faro. The average density of both localities was high compared to other colombian reefs and lower compared to other reefs in the Caribbean. The species with higher importance value, Agaricia agaricites, Scolymia sp. and Porites astreoides, represented 54.9% of all juveniles, similar to other Caribbean reefs. The genera of juveniles with higher importance value were not the same as the dominant adults (ej. Montastraea, Colpophyllia, Diploria and Siderastrea); which showed the lowest importance value as juveniles (Montastraea annularis and Diploria sp.). The coral communities of Reggae Nest and El Faro, deteriorated in the last decades, could recover naturally, considering the following evidence: 1) high juvenile coral density compared to the Colombian Caribbean; 2) high richness of juveniles, 16 from the 23 coral adults species reported for the island; 3) high percentage of common species between juveniles and adults (maintenance of each population); 4) low partial mortality (0.7%; 3 of 397 juveniles) and bleaching found in juvenile corals (0.5%; 2 juveniles of 397). It is still to verify if these juveniles are fugitive species or if the community of builder species may be replaced.

  16. Testitud kristlus / Andres Põder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põder, Andres, 1949-

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Evangeelse Luterliku Kiriku peapiiskopi Andres Põder'i essee Juuda evangeeliumi tõlke ja Dan Browni menupõneviku "Da Vinci kood" teemadel. Ilmunud ka: Põder, Andres. Pärimuste pöördepunkt : kõned ja kirjutised. - Tallinn : Kunst, 2007, lk 302-308

  17. Andres Puustusmaa esikfilm Moskva filmifestivalil / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    Eestist pärit režissööril Andres Puustusmaal esilinastub 29. juunil Moskva filmifestivali raames tema esimene täispikk mängufilm, Venemaa ja Ukraina ühistöö "Armastuse punane pärl" ("Krasnõi zhemtshug ljubvi"), peaosas Oksana Fandera, operaatoriks soomlane Timo Salminen. Valmis on ka teine mängufilm "1814", mis koos eespool nimetatuga tuleb kinodesse septembris. Ka Moskva festivali kavast

  18. Evolución de la arquitectura fluvial en sucesiones del Plioceno-Pleistoceno del centro-este de Argentina (aloformación Punta San Andres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Beilinson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los depósitos de la Aloformación Punta San Andrés (Plio-Pleistoceno, registran la evolución de diferentes estilos de sistemas fluviales. Durante la primera etapa de la misma evolución, se desarrollaron sistemas de carga mixta, con canales de baja sinuosidad y alta participación de depósitos de planicie de inundación. Durante la segunda etapa, se verificó el cambio hacia un sistema de canales de mayor sinuosidad, entrelazados, donde los depósitos de planicie de inundación no tuvieron tanto protagonismo. Finalmente, la tercera etapa se caracterizó por el desarrollo de un sistema fluvial entrelazado clásico, sin preservación de depósitos de planicie de inundación. Durante la acumulación de la Aloformación Punta San Andrés, la glacioeustacia en asociación con el clima condicionó directamente el balance entre la tasa de generación de acomodación y el aporte sedimentario. Sin embargo, el análisis comparativo de los diversos índices e indicadores (arquitectura fluvial, paleosuelos, etc. ha mostrado una variabilidad para los sistemas bajo estudio la cual puede asignarse a diferentes jerarquías de procesos. De esta manera, se identificaron ciclos de agradación fluvial representados por una alternancia de alta frecuencia entre paleosuelos vérticos y cálcicos. En este caso las fluctuaciones en el nivel de base fueron las responsables de los cambios cíclicos en la tasa de generación de espacio de acomodación y de aporte sedimentario. La evolución de los sistemas depositacionales identificados puede asignarse a ciclos de mayor jerarquía, los cuales controlaron el diseño del drenaje mediante cambios en el espacio de acomodación y representan cambios en la tasa de generación de espacio de acomodación relacionados a cambios glacieustáticos de escala global.The deposits of the Punta San Andrés Alloformation (Plio-Pleistocene register the evolution of different styles of fluvial systems. During the first stage of this evolution, a mixed-load system was developed which included low-sinuosity channels and a high participation of floodplain deposits. During the second stage the system shifted towards a higher sinuosity, braided fluvial system where the floodplain deposits didn't have so much participation. Finally, the third stage was characterized by the development of a classic braided fluvial system, without any preservation of floodplain deposits. During the Punta San Andrés Alloformation accummulation, glaci-eustatic changes and climate exerted a fundamental control on the balance between generation of accommodation space rate and sedimentary supply. Nevertheless, comparative analysis of the diverse indicators (fluvial architecture, paleosols, etc. has shown a strong variability for the studied depositional systems that can be assigned to different process hierarchies. In this way, fluvial aggradational cycles are represented by high-frequency alternation between calcic and vertic paleosols. In this case, base level fluctuations were responsible for the cyclic accommodation rate - sediment supply change. The evolution of the identified depositional systems can be assigned to higher-order cycles, which controlled drainage design by changes in accommodation space and represents changes in the rate of generation of accommodation space linked to glaci-eustatic changes at a global scale.

  19. Evolución de la arquitectura fluvial en sucesiones del Plioceno-Pleistoceno del centro-este de Argentina (aloformación Punta San Andres)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elisa, Beilinson.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los depósitos de la Aloformación Punta San Andrés (Plio-Pleistoceno), registran la evolución de diferentes estilos de sistemas fluviales. Durante la primera etapa de la misma evolución, se desarrollaron sistemas de carga mixta, con canales de baja sinuosidad y alta participación de depósitos de plan [...] icie de inundación. Durante la segunda etapa, se verificó el cambio hacia un sistema de canales de mayor sinuosidad, entrelazados, donde los depósitos de planicie de inundación no tuvieron tanto protagonismo. Finalmente, la tercera etapa se caracterizó por el desarrollo de un sistema fluvial entrelazado clásico, sin preservación de depósitos de planicie de inundación. Durante la acumulación de la Aloformación Punta San Andrés, la glacioeustacia en asociación con el clima condicionó directamente el balance entre la tasa de generación de acomodación y el aporte sedimentario. Sin embargo, el análisis comparativo de los diversos índices e indicadores (arquitectura fluvial, paleosuelos, etc.) ha mostrado una variabilidad para los sistemas bajo estudio la cual puede asignarse a diferentes jerarquías de procesos. De esta manera, se identificaron ciclos de agradación fluvial representados por una alternancia de alta frecuencia entre paleosuelos vérticos y cálcicos. En este caso las fluctuaciones en el nivel de base fueron las responsables de los cambios cíclicos en la tasa de generación de espacio de acomodación y de aporte sedimentario. La evolución de los sistemas depositacionales identificados puede asignarse a ciclos de mayor jerarquía, los cuales controlaron el diseño del drenaje mediante cambios en el espacio de acomodación y representan cambios en la tasa de generación de espacio de acomodación relacionados a cambios glacieustáticos de escala global. Abstract in english The deposits of the Punta San Andrés Alloformation (Plio-Pleistocene) register the evolution of different styles of fluvial systems. During the first stage of this evolution, a mixed-load system was developed which included low-sinuosity channels and a high participation of floodplain deposits. Duri [...] ng the second stage the system shifted towards a higher sinuosity, braided fluvial system where the floodplain deposits didn't have so much participation. Finally, the third stage was characterized by the development of a classic braided fluvial system, without any preservation of floodplain deposits. During the Punta San Andrés Alloformation accummulation, glaci-eustatic changes and climate exerted a fundamental control on the balance between generation of accommodation space rate and sedimentary supply. Nevertheless, comparative analysis of the diverse indicators (fluvial architecture, paleosols, etc.) has shown a strong variability for the studied depositional systems that can be assigned to different process hierarchies. In this way, fluvial aggradational cycles are represented by high-frequency alternation between calcic and vertic paleosols. In this case, base level fluctuations were responsible for the cyclic accommodation rate - sediment supply change. The evolution of the identified depositional systems can be assigned to higher-order cycles, which controlled drainage design by changes in accommodation space and represents changes in the rate of generation of accommodation space linked to glaci-eustatic changes at a global scale.

  20. Andres Sütevaka näitus Stockholmis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Sütevaka Andrese abstraktsete maalide näitus Stockholmi Eesti Majas. Sütevaka Andres ja näituse avamisele sõitnud tema loomingu kollektsionäär Matti Milius kohtusid Moderna Museeti direktori David Elliotiga teadvustamaks Tartu ja Pärnu kunstielu.

  1. Graafikatriennaali peapreemia Andres Talile

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Tallinna XII graafikatriennaali preemiad: grand prix - Andres Tali; 3 võrdset preemiat - Janne Laine, Leonards Laganovskis, Peeter Laurits; diplomid - Lynne Allen, Lucrecia Urbano, Vladimir Tshaika, Zora Stanè, Endi Poskovic, Päivikki Kallio; EKM preemia - Tif Bitmap; Tallinna linna preemia - Ülle Marks ja Jüri Kass; eripreemiad: - J. Laine (Eesti Pank), Vive Tolli (Paletti Eesti AS), Martins Ratniksh, Juris Boiko, T. Bitmap (Balteco AS). Žürii koosseis

  2. Konrad Mäe auhind Andres Toltsile

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    9. novembril antakse Kadrioru Kunstimuuseumis Andres Toltsile pidulikult üle Konrad Mäe nimeline maalikunsti aastapreemia (50000 krooni) "esteetilise suuna pikaajalise tulemusliku viljelemise eest maalikunstis", näituste "Näitus" ja "Asjad" eest

  3. Maailmaparandajad / Ole Ry, Susanne Andres

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ry, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Terapeudid Ole Ry ja Susanne Andres räägivad Dr David Berceli loodud TRE (Tension & Trauma Releasing Exercises) harjutuste kasutamise kogemusest erinevate psüühiliste traumade ja pingetega klientide tervise parandamisel

  4. Diagnoser og andre sygdomsbegreber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gannik, Dorte Effersøe

    1995-01-01

    Diagnoser kan forstås som modeller, der er opbygget af fælles karakteristika ved flere patienters sygdomsbilleder. Modeller er imidlertid ikke det samme som virkeligheden. I almen praksis er diagnosen som værktøj i krise. På mange patienter kan den ikke bruges, og på andre giver den et ufuldstændigt eller vildledende billede. Det er afgørende for brugbarheden, hvilke karakteristika fra virkeligheden der indgår i sygdomsmodellen. Mange "sygdomme" synes at have en forskellig "natur" i befolkningen...

  5. La Biblioteca Max von Buch de la Universidad de San Andrés y sus investigadores: Segunda parte de Un estudio de las necesidades de información, hábitos y características de Investigadores en Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales The Max von Buch library of the Universidad de San Andres and its researchers: Second part of A study of the information needs, habits and characteristics of Humanities and Social Science Researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Münster

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Tal como fue mencionado en el artículo anterior el presente estudio fue elaborado con el propósito de entender e identificar las necesidades, el proceso de búsqueda de información, las características y los hábitos de los investigadores en Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad de San Andrés (UdeSA. En esta segunda parte del mismo se ha intentado identificar y evaluar su conducta en la Biblioteca Max von Buch de la Universidad a través del uso de los servicios que ésta les ofrece. Se ponen a consideración los resultados de una encuesta realizada, de la que se adjunta la segunda parte del formulario, con el fin de detectar sus necesidades de información.As mentioned in the previous article, the present study was conducted to understand and identify the characteristics, needs and habits of research from the Humanities and Social Sciences researchers at the Universidad de San Andres (UdeSA. This second part tries to identify and evaluate their performance at the Max von Buch library of the University through the services that it provides them. The results of the survey are presented, together with the second part of the questionnaire, with the aim of identifying information needs.

  6. Sucesión temprana de la taxocenosis Mollusca-Annelida-Crustacea en raíces sumergidas de mangle rojo en San Andrés Isla, Caribe colombiano / Early succession of the taxocenosis Mollusca-Annelida-Crustacea on red mangrove submerged roots in San Andres Island, Colombian Caribbean

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricia E, Romero-Murillo; Jaime, Polanía.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la sucesión temprana de los taxa Annelida, Mollusca y Crustacea asociados a las raíces sumergidas de Rhizophora mangle (mangle rojo), empleando ramas del mismo como sustrato artificial (unidades experimentales). El análisis se relacionó con algunas variables físico-químicas y ambientales [...] durante 188 días en San Andrés Isla, entre noviembre 2002 y mayo 2003, en tres estaciones de dos bahías, Hooker y Honda. Se identificaron 34.175 individuos en 130 unidades experimentales, los anélidos mostraron la mayor proporción (77,1%). Se generó un análisis de ordenación y clasificación (dendrograma y un escalamiento multidimensional no métrico-NMDS) para cada uno de los tres taxa estudiados. Los análisis revelaron débil similaridad entre la parte interna de Bahía Hooker y las estaciones restantes. Se calcularon los índices de diversidad de Shannon-Wiener, uniformidad de Pielou, riqueza de Margalef y predominio de Simpson a lo largo del estudio; los tres primeros presentaron mayores valores en Bahía Hooker que en Honda, mientras que el índice de predominio fue mayor en Bahía Honda. Hubo organismos pioneros como el anélido Spirorbis sp. y transitorios como los crustáceos; los moluscos parecieron necesitar periodos más prolongados para asentarse. Estas respuestas revelan que características geomorfológicas, presencia o ausencia de corrientes de agua dulce, mareas y lluvias, principalmente, y factores antrópicos pueden influir en el desarrollo de estas comunidades. Dispersión larval y proximidad con otros ecosistemas aumentan o disminuyen las poblaciones; sólo algunos organismos adaptados a condiciones extremas se establecen y mantienen en el área. Bajo condiciones favorables, la abundancia y diversidad de especies tienden a aumentar Abstract in english The early succession of the taxa Annelida, Mollusca and Crustacea on Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) submerged roots was analyzed using old branches as ground (which were the experimental units) in San Andres Island. The analysis was related to some physico-chemical and environmental variables duri [...] ng 188 days, between November/2002 and May/2003, in Hooker and Honda bays. A total of 34,175 individuals in 130 experimental units were counted, where the annelids represented the largest proportion (77.1%) from the whole sample. A dendrogram and a nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were constructed for each one of the three studied taxa. The analyses showed a weak similarity between the internal part of the Hooker Bay and the remaining stations. Shannon-Wiener diversity, Pielou evenness, Margalef richness and Simpson predominance indexes were calculated throughout the study; the three first indices showed greater values in Hooker Bay than in Honda Bay, while the predominance index was greater in Bay Honda. There were pioneers organisms such as Spirorbis sp., and transient ones, such as crustaceans, whilst molluscs seemed to need longer periods to settle in. These responses reveal that geomorphological characteristics, presence or absence of freshwater currents, tides and rainfall mainly, as well as anthropic factors can influence the development of these communities. Larval dispersion and the proximity to other ecosystems increase or reduce the populations, and only some organisms, adapted to extreme conditions, settle down and maintain in the area. Under favorable conditions, abundance and species diversity tend to increase

  7. A conjecture of Yves Andre

    OpenAIRE

    Yafaev, Andrei

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we prove, assuming the Generalised Riemann Hypothesis, a conjecture of Yves Andre that that asserts that a curve in a Shimura variety containing an infinite set of special points is of Hodge type.

  8. The Andre-Oort conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Klingler, Bruno; Yafaev, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we prove, assuming the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis, the Andr?e-Oort conjecture on the Zariski closure of sets of special points in a Shimura variety. In the case of sets of special points satisfying an additional assumption, we prove the conjecture without assuming the GRH.

  9. Andres Ellamaa : suurperede seostamine asotsiaalsusega mõjub koletislikult / Andres Ellamaa ; interv. Indrek Veiserik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ellamaa, Andres, 1944-

    2008-01-01

    Vestlus doktor Andres Ellamaaga suurperede toetamisest, kunstlikust viljastamisest. Lisaks: Kuidas kommenteerite dr. Andres Ellamaa 2. juuni Postimehes ilmunud artikli järel tekkinud diskussiooni avalikkuses ja meedias? Kommenteerivad Tallinna Arstide Liidu juhatuse liige Peeter Mardna ja Jõgeva haigla juhataja Peep Põdder

  10. Andres Noormets - olemuselt luuletaja, vormilt lavastaja / Andres Noormets ; intervjueerinud Tiiu Laks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Andres, 1963-

    2010-01-01

    Andres Noormets endast, oma lavastustest, näitlemisest ja lavastamisest, elu mõttest, uue otsimisest oma teatritöödega, sellest, mis endiselt paelub teatris ja praegusi teatritegemisi enim mõjutab, ise kirjutamisest jm. Andres Noormetsa eluloolisi andmeid

  11. Suursaadik Andres Talvik : Prantsusmaa ei ole euroliidu laienemise pooldaja / Andres Talvik ; interv. Marianne Mikko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talvik, Andres, 1947-

    2002-01-01

    Eesti suursaadik Prantsusmaal Andres Talvik Prantsusmaa presidendivalimistest, paremäärmuslase Jean-Marie Le Peni pääsemisest selle II vooru, prantslaste vastuseisust EL-i laienemisele, Prantsuse-Saksa suhetest. Andres Talviku elulooandmeid

  12. Andres Tali sõnavõtt ettekannete päeval = Andres Tali's speech given on the lecture day / Andres Tali

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tali, Andres, 1956-

    2006-01-01

    Kaasaegse Kunsti Eesti Keskuse ettekannete päev "Kunstnike moraalsed valikud kultuurikonfliktides" 27.04.2006 Tallinna Kunstihoones. Oma installatsioonist "Pastoraalne pastishsh" ning videost "Vägivald ja propaganda - The Movie" samas 8.04.-28.05.2006 avatud Elin Kardi, Marko Mäetamme, Marco Laimre ja Andres Tali ühisnäitusel "Vägivald ja propaganda"

  13. Cafe Lyon = Cafe Lyon / Andres Labi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Labi, Andres, 1977-

    2013-01-01

    Cafe Lyon (Meistri 22, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Autorid: Janno Roos, Andres Labi, Kristel Jakobson (Ruumilabor). Prantsuse Lütseumi direktori Lauri Leesi arvamus. Disainibüroo Ruumilabor lühitutvustus

  14. Andres Tarandi tööd tunnustati kõrge autasuga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Euroopa Parlamendi saadik Andres Tarand sai silmapaistvate saavutuste eest Saksa Sotsiaaldemokraatliku Partei autasu nimega "Die Rote Bock". Tema ise peab seda tunnustuseks kogu Eesti sotsiaaldemokraatiale

  15. Vulkaner andre steder i Solsystemet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack, Henning

    2007-01-01

    Der er vulkaner mange andre steder end på Jorden. De indre fire jordlignende planeter har, ligesom mange af solsystemets måner og asteroider, vulkaner, der dog for de flestes vedkommende er udslukte for mange hundrede millioner år siden. Der er direkte observeret vulkanudbrud på Jorden og på Jupiters måne, Io, og man regner man med at Venus og formentlig også Mars stadig er vulkansk aktive. Ved at rette blikket ud i solsystemet har vi  mulighed for at studere vulkansk aktivitet under helt anderledes betingelser end her på Jorden. Hvad sker der f.eks., hvis tyngdekraften er svagere, eller planetens overflade måske er gloende varm? Vulkanerne andre steder i Solsystemet overgår på mange måder dem på Jorden. Venus er den planet i solsystemet, der har flest vulkaner, Mars har de største og højeste vulkaner, asteroiden Vesta har de ældste, og Jupiters måne Io har de mest aktive vulkaner i solsystemet. De koldeste vulkaner findes på nogle af månerne i det ydre solsystem. Her er det ikke smeltet sten men derimod ammoniakvand, der strømmer ned og størkner på vulkanernes sider.

  16. Island Movements: Thinking with the Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Pugh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Whether in Homer or Plato, Shakespeare or Huxley, throughout history, thinking about islands has shaped how we think about human nature and our place in the world. However, to date archipelagos have received far less attention. This is problematic because we live, increasingly, in a world of island-island movements and not static forms. Not only in the more obvious cases of the Caribbean, Hawaii or the Philippines but, as Stratford et al (2011 say, many ‘continental forms’ like Canada and Australia are in fact archipelagos composed of thousands of island movements. To this list we can add more manufactured archipelagos: wind turbine arrays, industrial oil and military constellations. The key question therefore arises: what does it mean to think with the archipelago? This paper argues firstly that archipelagic thinking denaturalizes the conceptual basis of space and place, and therefore engages ‘the spatial turn’ presently sweeping the social sciences and humanities. Secondly, such thinking highlights the trope of what I call ‘metamorphosis’, of the adaptation and transformation of material, cultural and political practices through island movements. In both cases, I argue that thinking with the archipelago requires an important shift in how we frame analysis and engagement.

  17. Narcotráfico, violencia y crisis social en el Caribe insular colombiano: El caso de la isla de San Andrés en el contexto del Gran Caribe Drug Traffiking, Violence and the Social Crisis in Colombian Caribbean Islands: The Case of San Andrés Island in the Context of the Great Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mantilla

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene por objetivo presentar un diagnóstico preliminar de la magnitud del tráfico de drogas, sus dinámicas, modalidades, y las condiciones sociales y económicas que favorecen el desarrollo de este negocio ilegal en la isla de San Andrés (Colombia. El análisis se desarrolla, no obstante, en el marco de la condición histórica y natural de "zona de tránsito" de drogas, armas y otros recursos ilegales, que se le atribuye a la región del Gran Caribe, entendida como un continuo geográfico, histórico y cultural en el que se observan patrones comunes en materia de amenazas a la seguridad, la geopolítica de las relaciones con Estados Unidos y los efectos sociales y económicos derivados del flagelo del narcotráfico. En este sentido, el caso de la isla de San Andrés (Colombia se examina más como parte de la dinámica insular gran caribeña que como parte de las tendencias propias del negocio en la Colombia continental, lo que permite, sin embargo, establecer las conexiones entre ambos espacios regionales -el insular y el continental- y, a la vez, evaluar el impacto regional del fenómeno a partir de las conexiones ilegales que desde el archipiélago se establecen con algunos países vecinos del Gran Caribe. Finalmente, se sostiene la hipótesis de que el fenómeno del narcotráfico se instala en la isla como resultado de factores geohistóricos, culturales y socioeconómicos que en conjunto han determinado la participación activa de distintos sectores de la sociedad en este negocio ilegal.The objective of thispaper is to present a preliminary diagnosis of the magnitude, dynamics, and modalities of drug trafficking, together with the social and economic conditions that support the development of this illegal activity in the island of San Andres (Colombia. Analysis is conducted within a framework that identifies this trafficking zone as a natural and historic corridor for trade in weapons, drugs, and other illicit materials typically attributed to the Great Caribbean where patterns of security threats, geopolitical relations with the United States, and social and economic impacts of the narcotrafficking epidemic are commonly observed. The article presents San Andres Island (Colombia as a case that adheres more to the insular dynamics of the Great Caribbean region rather than one that mimics the tendencies of continental Colombia. This perspective permits the establishment of connections between both regional spaces -insular and continental-, and simultaneously evaluates the phenomenon´s regional impact by exploring the illegal connections formed in the archipelago with neighboring Caribbean countries. Finally, the hypothesis is sustained that the trafficking phenomenon on the island is a result of historical, cultural and socio­economic factors that explain the active participation of certain sectors of the island´s society in these illegal activities.

  18. Narcotráfico, violencia y crisis social en el Caribe insular colombiano: El caso de la isla de San Andrés en el contexto del Gran Caribe / Drug Traffiking, Violence and the Social Crisis in Colombian Caribbean Islands: The Case of San Andrés Island in the Context of the Great Caribbean

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia, Mantilla.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene por objetivo presentar un diagnóstico preliminar de la magnitud del tráfico de drogas, sus dinámicas, modalidades, y las condiciones sociales y económicas que favorecen el desarrollo de este negocio ilegal en la isla de San Andrés (Colombia). El análisis se desarrolla, no [...] obstante, en el marco de la condición histórica y natural de "zona de tránsito" de drogas, armas y otros recursos ilegales, que se le atribuye a la región del Gran Caribe, entendida como un continuo geográfico, histórico y cultural en el que se observan patrones comunes en materia de amenazas a la seguridad, la geopolítica de las relaciones con Estados Unidos y los efectos sociales y económicos derivados del flagelo del narcotráfico. En este sentido, el caso de la isla de San Andrés (Colombia) se examina más como parte de la dinámica insular gran caribeña que como parte de las tendencias propias del negocio en la Colombia continental, lo que permite, sin embargo, establecer las conexiones entre ambos espacios regionales -el insular y el continental- y, a la vez, evaluar el impacto regional del fenómeno a partir de las conexiones ilegales que desde el archipiélago se establecen con algunos países vecinos del Gran Caribe. Finalmente, se sostiene la hipótesis de que el fenómeno del narcotráfico se instala en la isla como resultado de factores geohistóricos, culturales y socioeconómicos que en conjunto han determinado la participación activa de distintos sectores de la sociedad en este negocio ilegal. Abstract in english The objective of thispaper is to present a preliminary diagnosis of the magnitude, dynamics, and modalities of drug trafficking, together with the social and economic conditions that support the development of this illegal activity in the island of San Andres (Colombia). Analysis is conducted within [...] a framework that identifies this trafficking zone as a natural and historic corridor for trade in weapons, drugs, and other illicit materials typically attributed to the Great Caribbean where patterns of security threats, geopolitical relations with the United States, and social and economic impacts of the narcotrafficking epidemic are commonly observed. The article presents San Andres Island (Colombia) as a case that adheres more to the insular dynamics of the Great Caribbean region rather than one that mimics the tendencies of continental Colombia. This perspective permits the establishment of connections between both regional spaces -insular and continental-, and simultaneously evaluates the phenomenon´s regional impact by exploring the illegal connections formed in the archipelago with neighboring Caribbean countries. Finally, the hypothesis is sustained that the trafficking phenomenon on the island is a result of historical, cultural and socio­economic factors that explain the active participation of certain sectors of the island´s society in these illegal activities.

  19. Cossidae of the Socotra Archipelago (Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Borth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of the family Cossidae (Lepidoptera of the Socotra Archipelago is revised. Five species are recognized, including two new species (Mormogystia brandstetteri and Meharia hackeri, and dubious identifications and records are discussed. Adults and genitalia are illustrated and bionomic details, molecular evidence and a synonymic checklist of Socotra Cossidae genera is provided. A review of their distribution reveals that at least 80 percent of Socotro`s Cossidae species are unique to the archipelago which is renowned for its endemism.

  20. Mis siis juhtus Andres Lapeteusega? / Õie Orav

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Orav, Õie

    2011-01-01

    Režissöör Grigori Kromanovi filmist "Mis juhtus Andres Lapeteusega?" (Tallinnfilm, 1965). Osades: Einari Koppel, Ita Ever, Heino Mandri, Kaljo Kiisk, Uno Loit, Ada Lundver jt. Lühidalt filmi kohta ilmunud arvustustest. Filmi näeb ETV2-s sarjas "Unustatud filmid"

  1. A CANOEING PACKAGE THROUGH THE ARCHIPELAGO : Product Development for 7 Bridges Archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Rajbhandari, Sujan

    2012-01-01

    This thesis was aimed to result in a quality canoeing product for the tourism organization 7 Bridges Archipelago. The motive for the product extension was based on the geographical potential and customer demands in the Western coastal region of Finland. Therefore 7 Bridges Archipelago acted as the commissioning party for this thesis, as the organization will be provided with a completely developed tour package for canoeing. This was a practice-based thesis. The first section of this work ...

  2. Andres Tolts: "Jutud maalikunsti surmast on enneaegsed" / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-

    2009-01-01

    9. novembril anti Kadrioru Kunstimuuseumis pidulikult Andres Toltsile üle 2009. aasta Konrad Mäe preemia, millega kaasneb Enn Johannese kujundatud medal ja 50000 krooni. Žürii tunnustas Andres Toltsi pikaajalist tegevust esteetilise suuna viljelemisel eesti maalikunstis

  3. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages in Tambelan Archipelago, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhartati M. Natsir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs ecosystem is one of favorable sites as habitat of most of marine organismsincluding benthic foraminifera. Foraminiferal assemblages are regularly used as bio-indicators ofenvironmental feasibility for reefs. Hence, the objective of the present study was to recognize theforaminiferal assemblages in the Tambelan Archipelago as a baseline data for monitoring ofenvironmental changes and to plan conservation strategies. The survey was conducted on November2010 at 12 sampling sites around Tambelan Archipelago. A total of 5582 specimens of benthicforaminifera belonging to Order Astrorhizida, Textulariida, Miliolida, and Rotaliida were recorded. Most ofcollected species were recognized as symbiotic-bearing foraminifera; the most common of them whereAmphistegina sp. and Calcarina sp. that counted more than 1000 specimens.

  4. Globaliseerumine : oht või võimalus? / Andres Arrak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arrak, Andres

    2007-01-01

    Globaliseerumise ja võrgustumise muutumine võimaluseks või ohuks sõltub konkreetse riigi majanduse ja tööturu kohanemisvõimest. Globaalsete finantsvoogude kirjeldus, kapitali ja Eestisse tulevate rahavoogude analüüs ning hinnang Eesti tööturu paindlikkusele ja ettevõtjate innovatiivsusele. Graafikud: Otse- ja portfelliinvesteeringute ning laenude sissevool Eestisse 1992-2006; Diagramm: Eesti tööjõuturg sammub Ameerika jälgedes. Vt. samas: Andres Saarniit. Raha ei ole kuhugi kadunud

  5. Eesti fond rahastab Vene infotehnoloogiat / Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimer, Andres

    2006-01-01

    Martinson Trigon Venture Partners (MTVP) loob uue tarkvarainvesteeringute fondi, mis viib endise NSVL-i alale kuni 780 miljonit krooni, fond võtab sihiks kümmekond uut ettevõtet. MTVP esimese fondi investeeringutest. Fondide juhi Andres Susi selgitusi. Lisa: Martinson Trigon Venture Partners osalusega firmad; Vt. samas: Moskvas pole raha ja geeniused kohtunud

  6. Tongue of the ocean, Bahamas Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    A portion of the tongue of the ocean (24.0N, 77.0W), and the Bahamas Bank, Bahamas Archipelago. The light blue region is the shalow sea bottom where the Bahama Bank is no more than 30 ft. deep. At the contact between light and dark blue, an underwater shear cliff drops over a mile in depth. The wavey lines of various shades of blue are caused by the differential coral growth relative to the warm/cool water transfer in and out of the tongue.

  7. "Vettpidavad allikad" = "Watertight sources" / Janno Roos, Andres Labi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roos, Janno, 1976-

    2013-01-01

    Eesti Ajaloomuuseumis avatud näituse kujundasid Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor). Kuraator Krista Sarv. Graafiline disain: Identity. Eksponeeritud allveeuuringute käigus leitu. Arhitektuuriajaloolase Leele Välja arvamus

  8. Bilkørsel med alkohol og andre stoffer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2013-01-01

    Selv om forekomsten af alkohol hos bilister i trafikken i Danmark er halveret siden 80’erne, er alkohol i trafikken stadig et stort problem. Forskningsresultater afdækker, at ikke blot er alkohol hyppigt forekommende i trafikken, men risikoen for færdselsuheld med alvorlige skader er også væsentligt forhøjet, hvis alkoholpromillen er over lovens grænse, eller alkoholen er blandet med andre stoffer. Den højeste risiko for personskadeuheld med alvorlige skader findes hos bilister, der kører med al...

  9. Chemical quality of water and sediment in the bays of Sabana-Camaguey archipelago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical quality of water and sediment was analyzed in some bays of Sabana-Camaguey Archipelago (SCA). This analysis was done using the existing information that covers from 1976 to 2011. In the rainy one there was oxygen sub-saturation in the bays of West Santa Clara, East Santa Clara, Puerto de Sagua and Los Perros. The nature of organic matter was quite complex and BOD5 and COD values greater than 2 mg.L-1prevailed. The ammonia concentrations were between 2 and 5 ??mol.L -1, and organic nitrogen represented 90 % of total nitrogen. Phosphorus in water was not very abundant, it acted as limiting nutrient for primary producers. Sediments were characterized by significant amounts of organic carbon and low content of organic nitrogen. The bays of Cardenas, San Juan de los Remedios, Buenavista and Los Perros, were impacts of heavy metals

  10. Status of the Coral Reefs of the Samoan Archipelago

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this study are twofold: 1 To determine the current status of coral reef fishes and their habitat throughout the Samoan Archipelago. This will be...

  11. STUDY OF DENSITY AND COVERING SEAGRASS AT SPERMONDE ARCHIPELAGO

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Haris; Benny Audi Jaya Gosari1

    2013-01-01

    Study of density and covering seagrass at Spermonde Archipelago was carried out during May 2012 until November 2012. The study included density and percentage cover. Namely 7 species of seagrasses Enhalus acoroides, Cymodocea rotundata, Syringodium isoetifolium, Thalassia hemprichii, Halodule uninervis, Halophila ovalis and H. minorwere collected at Spermonde Archipelago. Enhalus acoroides was recorded as the most dominant species and Syringodium isoetifolium was the limit species at Bone Ba...

  12. Samarbejdets natur hos mennesket og andre aber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrnit, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Omfattende grader af dele-adfærd og samarbejde hos mennesker finder sted overalt på jorden, men det er ikke et menneskeligt særtræk at være generøs og dele. Mange dyrearter deler med artsfæller, skønt måden, der deles på varierer mellem dyrearter. Igennem de sidste 20 år er der foretaget omfattende forskning omkring delings-adfærd hos andre aber end mennesket og forsøgene har givet os indsigt i flere forskellige ting omkring den menneskelige samarbejdsnatur i forhold til andre dyrs. Delingsadfærden hos mennesket antager former, der på nogle punkter er langt mere sammenlignelige med fjernere beslægtede aber end med menneskeaberne. Visse dyrearter viser sig desuden at klare sig mærkbart bedre end menneskeaberne i samarbejdsforsøg, hvor menneskelige signaler skal forstås. Især hunde udmærker sig ved dette og lader til at gå til opgaven med omtrent lige så få gnidninger som småbørn. Dette kan forklares ved, at der implicit i evnen til menneskeligt samarbejde ligger en motivation for at indgå i opgaveløsende relationer og en basal tillidsfuldhed omkring flokmedlemmer, som ikke er en selvfølgelighed for alle flokdyr, men som mennesket har fremavlet hos den tamme hund.

  13. Film Diegost - kriitikavaba kummardus / Andres Must

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Must, Andres

    2007-01-01

    PÖFFi filme - Argentiina mängufilm legendaarse jalgpalluri Diego Maradona jumaldamisest "Teel Maradona juurde" ("El camino de San Diego") : stsenarist ja režissöör Carlos Sorin. Artikkel on peamiselt Maradonast, vähesel määral filmist

  14. Haapsalu Gümnaasiumi võimla = Haapsalu Gymnasium Gym / Andres Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alver, Andres, 1953-

    2001-01-01

    Projekteerija: Alver Trummal Arhitektid OÜ. Arhitektid Andres Alver, Sven Koppel, Tarmo Laht, Ulla Mets. Projekt 1998-1999, hoone valmis 2001. 11 ill.: asendi- ja korruse plaan, pikilõige, välis- ja sisevaated

  15. Kommest Auto ostmisest huvitub ka Hillar Teder / Andres Eilart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eilart, Andres

    2008-01-01

    Kommest Auto ostmise vastu tunnevad huvi suurärimees Andres Sarri, Rootsis Peugeot' sõidukeid müüv Taani päritolu K. W. Bruun Import ja multimiljonär Hillar Teder, kellele kuulub Audisid müüv Reval Auto

  16. Raio Piiroja : mängijatest ei suudetud maksimumi pigistada / Andres Kalvik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalvik, Andres, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 19. nov., lk. 13. Eesti koondis võlgneb EM-valikturniiri viimase kohtumise 2:0 Andorra üle suuresti Andres Operile. Kommenteerib Andorra koondise peatreener David Rodrigo

  17. Truer etnisk diversitet i nabolaget danskernes tillid til andre mennesker?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; SØnderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2015-01-01

    At have bopæl i et mere etnisk sammensat nabolag medfører lavere tillid til andre mennesker blandt etniske danskere. Det viser det første studie, som zoomer helt ind på den nære „mikro-kontekst“, hvor folk bor.

  18. Eesti Energia esindused = Eesti Energia branches / Andres Labi, Janno Roos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Labi, Andres, 1977-

    2013-01-01

    Eesti Energia klienditeeninduse kontorite sisekujundusest. Autorid: Janno Roos, Andres Labi ja Liisa Põime (Ruumilabor). Visuaalne identiteet: Tank.Teenuste disain: Urmas Pastarus. ESLi aastapreemiate žürii esimehe Kaido Kivi ning žürii liikme Raivo Puusepa arvamused

  19. Peaosa nii teatrilaval kui ka kinolinal / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-

    2010-01-01

    Natalja Murina-Puustusmaast, kes mängib peaosa Vene Teatri uuslavastuses "Besame mucho", mille Afolf Käis on lavastanud Eduardo de Filippo näidendi "Silinder" järgi, ja Andres Puustusmaa filmis "Rotilõks", mille võtted algavad peagi

  20. Europan 7 Eestis : Lasnamäe. Pärnu / Tiit Trummal, Andres Kurg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Trummal, Tiit, 1954-

    2004-01-01

    Võistluse "Äärelinna võimalus, linnalik intensiivsus ja elamise mitmekesisus" Eesti-Rootsi ühisžüriis Eestist Urmas Muru, Tiit Trummal, Andres Kurg. Tallinna Lasnamäe (14 tööd) ja Pärnu (47 tööd) võistlusalast, võitnud tööde arhitektide loetelu ja võitnud töödest. Lasnamäe: I preemia - autor hispaanlane Andres Fernandes Atela, kaasautorid prantslased Mathieu Andrieu ja Iman Morshedi. Pärnu: I preemia - autorid rumeenlane Oana-Maria Bogdan, ameeriklane Susan Kelly Shannon, argentiinlane Laura Vescina, hispaanlased Juny Llach ja Parra Colacios

  1. The Andr\\'e-Oort Conjecture for Drinfeld Modular Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Hubschmid, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    We consider the analogue of the Andr\\'e-Oort conjecture for Drinfeld modular varieties which was formulated by Breuer. We prove this analogue for special points with separable reflex field over the base field by adapting methods which were used by Klingler and Yafaev to prove the Andr\\'e-Oort conjecture under the generalized Riemann hypothesis in the classical case. Our result extends results of Breuer showing the correctness of the analogue for special points lying in a cur...

  2. The influence of the geological setting on the morphogenetic evolution of the Tremiti Archipelago (Apulia, Southeastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Andriani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tremiti Archipelago (Southern Adriatic Sea, also called Insulae Diomedae from the name of the Greek hero who first landed there, is an area of high landscape and historical value. It is severely affected by significant geomorphologic processes dominated by mass movements along the coast that constitute the most important and unpredictable natural hazard for the population and cultural heritage. Coastal erosion is favoured by the peculiar geological and structural setting, seismic activity, weathering, development of karst processes, and wave action. The present paper reports on descriptive and qualitative evaluation of the factors controlling landslides and coastline changes based on medium-term in situ observation, detailed surface surveys at selected locations since 1995, and historic and bibliographic data. The Tremiti Archipelago is part of an active seismic area characterised by a shear zone separating two segments of the Adriatic microplate that have shown different behaviour and roll back rates in the subduction underneath the Apennines since middle Pleistocene. Although coastal morphology can be basically considered to be the result of wave action, the continual action of subaerial processes contributes effectively to the mechanism of shoreline degradation. Weathering mainly affects the marly calcisiltites and calcilutites of the Cretaccio Fm. and the friable and low cemented calcarenites and biomicrites of the San Nicola Fm. The cliffs are characterised by different types of failure such as lateral spreads, secondary topples, rock falls and slides. At the Isle of San Nicola, landslides are controlled by the contrast in competence, shear strength and stiffness between the Pliocene re-crystallised dolomitic calcarenites and calcisiltites and the Miocene marly calcilutites and calcisiltites. At the Isles of San Domino and Caprara rock falls are attributed to the undercutting of waves at the base of the cliffs.

  3. The Flora of Ze?evo (Hvar Archipelago, Croatia)

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Skelin; Ivica Ljubi?i?; Ivan Skelin; Ivana Vitasovi? Kosi?; Sandro Bogdanovi?

    2014-01-01

    The islet of Ze?evo belongs to Hvar Archipelago and it is situated two kilometres north-east of Vrboska on the island of Hvar (Croatia). The area of islet is protected as a Significant landscape. During vegetation periods from 2006 to 2010 a total of 216 vascular plant taxa were recorded. From those, 12 taxa were recorded for Hvar Archipelago for the first time. The taxa were classified within 65 families and 161 genera. The most abundant families are legumes (Fabaceae 13%), daisies (Asterace...

  4. Are the 1/3-Octave Band 63- and 125-Hz Noise Levels Predictive of Vessel Activity? The Case in the Cres-Lošinj Archipelago (Northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciulin, Marta; Sebastianutto, Linda; Fortuna, Caterina Maria; Mackelworth, Peter; Holcer, Draško; Gospi?, Nikolina Rako

    2016-01-01

    A 3-years sea ambient-noise (SAN) monitoring was carried out in the Cres-Lošinj Archipelago (Croatia), where a bottlenose dolphin population is threatened by unregulated nautical tourism. A total of 540 5-min SAN samples were collected and analyzed in an Indicator 11.2.1 (Marine Strategy Framework Directive) perspective. The 1/3-octave band center frequencies of 63 and 125 Hz (re 1 ?Pa.rms) proved to be predictive of local predominant ship type over time. However, the noisiest band level was centered on 200 Hz. We therefore suggest measuring a wider frequency band than those requested in Indicator 11.2.1. PMID:26611038

  5. The flow of radionuclides through the Canadian archipelago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of contaminants to the Canadian Arctic by air and in water and their concentration through the marine food web has lead to enhanced levels of contaminants in several foods of Canadian northern inhabitants. Artificial radionuclides in the marine water can be used to determine water circulation and to trace contaminant transport through the Canadian Archipelago

  6. Checklist of the Benthic Marine Plants of the Madeira Archipelago.

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, Ana I.; Cravo, D. C.; Haroun, R. T.

    2001-01-01

    A checklist of the benthic marine plants of the archipelago of Madeira is presented based on published information and personal observations. This list includes 1 Spermatophyte and 359 algal species, comprising 64 Chlorophycota, 64 Chromophycota and 231 Rhodophycota. Fifteen doubtful records for the area are also included.

  7. Internal tides and associated vertical mixing in the Indonesian Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Taira; Hibiya, Toshiyuki

    2015-05-01

    Tidal mixing in the Indonesian Archipelago contributes to regulation of the tropical atmospheric circulation and water-mass transformation in the Indonesian Throughflow. The present study quantifies the vertical diffusivity in the Indonesian Archipelago by driving a high-resolution three-dimensional numerical model and investigates the processes of internal tide generation, propagation, and dissipation. The numerical experiment shows that M2 internal tides are effectively generated over prominent subsurface ridges. The conversion rate from M2 barotropic to baroclinic energy over the whole analyzed model domain is estimated to be 85.5 GW. The generated internal tides dissipate 50-100% of their energy in close proximity to the generation sites ("near-field"), and the remaining baroclinic energy propagates away causing relatively large energy dissipation far from the generation sites ("far-field"). The local dissipation efficiency q, therefore, has an extremely nonuniform spatial distribution, although it has been assumed to be constant in the existing tidal mixing parameterization for the Indonesian Archipelago. Compared with the model-predicted values, the existing parameterization yields the same order of vertical diffusivity averaged within the Indonesian Archipelago, but significantly overestimated (or underestimated) vertical diffusivity in the near-field (or the far-field). This discrepancy is attributable to the fact that the effects of internal wave propagation are completely omitted in the existing parameterization, suggesting the potential danger of using such parameterized vertical mixing in predicting the distribution of SST as well as water-mass transformation in the Indonesian Seas.

  8. A Transnational World Fractured but Not Forgotten: British West Indian Migration to the Colombian Islands of San Andrés and Providence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharika Crawford

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines British West Indian migration to the Colombian archipelago of San Andrés and Providence in the late nineteenth to early twentieth century. While the United Fruit plantations, Panama Canal, oil fields in Venezuela, and railroad projects in Central America generated a strong demand for a large West Indian workforce, no such development took place on San Andrés and Providence. As a result, the profile of West Indian migration looks different than to the Spanish-speaking circum-Caribbean, with more professionals and merchants and fewer unskilled laborers. In the absence of mass migration, there was less hostility toward West Indian newcomers to San Andrés and Providence islands.

  9. The Andr\\'e-Oort Conjecture for Drinfeld Modular Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Hubschmid, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    We consider the analogue of the Andr\\'e-Oort conjecture for Drinfeld modular varieties which was formulated by Breuer. We prove this analogue for special points with separable reflex field over the base field by adapting methods which were used by Klingler and Yafaev to prove the Andr\\'e-Oort conjecture under the generalized Riemann hypothesis in the classical case. Our result extends results of Breuer showing the correctness of the analogue for special points lying in a curve and for special points having a certain behaviour at a fixed set of primes.

  10. 1 küsimus / Andres Jalak, Helle Mäeltsemees, Reet Roos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jalak, Andres, 1953-

    2004-01-01

    Riigikogu Res Publica fraktsiooni aseesimees Andres Jalak vastab küsimusele, miks ta on Järvamaa kohalikus ajalehes esinenud sel aastal vaid ühe korra ning Res Publica Väärikate Kogu esimees Helle Mäeltsemees ja Naiskogu esinaine Reet Roos vastavad küsimusele, kuidas nende juhitavad kogud valmistuvad valimisteks ja mis sihte nad seavad

  11. Baltoscandal on lõppenud, uued mõtted on saadud / Andres Keil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Keil, Andres, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Eesti teater oli Baltoscandalil koondatud olematu teatri mõiste alla. Andres Noormetsa "Reunioon", Mart Kangro ja Ansambel U "Mäng", Marco Laimre "Vangistus", Asko Künnapi "Säälpool jõge", Anders Härmi "Cooking and Shitting", Sven Kuntu "Miks Eesti mehed ei tantsi?", Linnar Priimäe "Inimese lõhn"

  12. Parts harvendas ootamatult Eesti Energia nõukogu / Andres Eilart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eilart, Andres

    2011-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts otsustas 1. juulil päevapealt Eesti Energia nõukogu liikme kohalt tagasi kutsuda Aivar Reiviku ning Rein Kuusmiku, kes olid vastu Eesti Energia üle viie miljoni euro suurusele investeeringule Weroli rapsiõlitehase juurde rajatavasse elektri- ja küttejaama. Uuteks nõukogu liikmeteks said Andres Saame ja Toomas Tauts

  13. Galois orbits and equidistribution: towards the Andre-Oort conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Ullmo, Emmanuel; Yafaev, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we develop a strategy and some technical tools for proving the Andre-Oort conjecture. We give lower bounds for the degrees of Galois orbits of geometric components of special subvarieties of Shimura varieties, assuming the Generalised Riemann Hypothesis. We proceed to show that sequences of special subvarieties whose Galois orbits have bounded degrees are equidistributed in a suitable sense.

  14. Tallinna Lennujaama kauba- ja tolliterminaal. Lennujaama 2, Tallinn / Andres Põime

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põime, Andres

    1998-01-01

    Kaubateeninduskeskuse puhul on tegemist suure, plaanimõõtudes 36x102 meetrise metallkonstruktsioonis, sandwich tüüpi paneelidega kaetud laohoonega, kus ühelt poolt tuuakse tollitav kaup lennukitelt sisse ja teiselt poolt viiakse tollitud kaup välja. Peatöövõtja : Normanni Linnagrupi AS. Ehitaja : Merko. Peaprojekteerija : K-Projekt. Arhitektuurne lahendus : Stuudio 3. Arhitekt Andres Põime ; töögrupp Vivian Oruvee, Tiiu Raudsepp, Reet Põime. Projekt 1997-98, valmis 1998.

  15. H08086: NOS Hydrographic Survey , San Juan Archipelago, 1955-09-09

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  16. H08084: NOS Hydrographic Survey , San Juan Archipelago, 1955-04-13

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  17. Commensal Leucothoidae (Crustacea, Amphipoda of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Part III: coral rubble-dwellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine White

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Commensal leucothoid amphipods have been collected from coral rubble samples throughout the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Seven new species are described in two genera with valuable location data. A new locality is presented for Paranamixis misakiensis Thomas, 1997. An identification key to all described Leucothoidae of the Ryukyu Archipelago is provided.

  18. Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago : Revised Edition

    OpenAIRE

    Bellwood, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Since its publication in 1985, Peter Bellwood’s Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago has been hailed as the sole authoritative work on the subject by the leading expert in the field. Now that work has been fully revised and includes a complete up-to-date summary of the archaeology of the region (and relevant neighboring areas of China and Oceania), as well as a comprehensive discussion of new and important issues (such as the “Eve-Garden of Eden” hypothesis and its relevance to the In...

  19. 'Redefining health care': medical homes or archipelagos to navigate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enthoven, Alain C; Crosson, Francis J; Shortell, Stephen M

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the structure of the health care delivery system, emphasizing physician group practices. The authors argue for comprehensive integrated delivery systems (IDSs). The jumping-off point for their analysis is the recently published Redefining Health Care: Creating Value-Based Competition on Results, by Michael Porter and Elizabeth Teisberg. The authors focus on the book's core idea that competitors should be freestanding integrated practice units (or "islands in archipelagos") versus IDSs (or "medical homes"). In any case, the authors contend that this issue should be resolved by competition to attract and serve informed, cost-conscious, responsible consumers on a level playing field. PMID:17848447

  20. Film, ruum ja narratiiv : "Mis juhtus Andres Lapeteusega?" ning "Viini postmark" / Eva Näripea

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Näripea, Eva, 1980-

    2011-01-01

    Analüüsitakse narratiivi aegruumi loomise viise juhtumi analüüsi vormis, vaadeldes kaht eesti mängufilmi : G. Kromanovi "Mis juhtus Andres Lapeteusega?" (Tallinnfilm, 1966) ja Veljo Käsperi "Viini postmark" (Tallinnfilm, 1967)

  1. Läänemere strateegia arvestab kodanike ettepanekutega / Jose Palma Andres ; interv. Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palma Andres, Jose

    2008-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjoni regionaalpoliitika peadirektoraadi direktor Jose Palma Andres vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad avalikku debatti Läänemere strateegia üle ning Venemaa partnerlust Läänemere strateegias. Lisa: [Läänemere strateegia

  2. Ehitatud võrdsus. Tüüpprojekteerimine 20. sajandi elamuehituses : 23. september - 29. oktoober, Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseum, Rotermanni soolaladu / Andres Kurg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurg, Andres, 1975-

    2000-01-01

    Näitus keskendub linnakorteritele ja -elamutele Eestis, alates 1920. aastate riikliku ehituslaenuga ehitatud korteritest, lõpetades nõukogude perioodi industriaalse massehitusega. Kuraator Andres Kurg, kujundaja arhitektuuribüroo Kolm Pluss Üks

  3. The scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the Maltese Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifsud, David; Mazzeo, Gaetana; Russo, Agatino; Watson, Gillian W

    2014-01-01

    Past works on scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) from the Maltese Archipelago are reviewed. Based on the literature and contemporary collections, a total of 93 species of scale insects belonging to 12 scale insect families are here reported (Aclerdidae 1 species; Asterolecaniidae 4; Coccidae 17; Diaspididae 46; Eriococcidae 5; Kermesidae 1; Margarodidae 1; Micrococcidae 1; Monophlebidae 2; Pseudoccocidae 11; Putoidae 2 and Rhizoecidae 2). Of these, 17 species represent new distribution records. Ten species are excluded from the scale insect fauna of the Maltese Islands. Of the 93 species present, only 29 (31.18%) are probably indigenous and the rest (68.82%) represent established introductions from elsewhere. More than 65% of the indigenous species are typical Mediterranean in distribution, with a few species having a mainly European chorotype. A quarter of the established aliens originate from Eurasia, followed by an East Asian/ Oriental component (20.31%); European (14.06%); Neotropical (14.06%); cryptogenic (14.06%); African (7.81%) and Australasian (4.70%). Movement of live fruit trees and ornamental plants into the Maltese Archipelago from nearby countries is probably the main route for entry of alien scale insects into the country. Some possible future introductions are discussed. PMID:25283672

  4. The Idea of the Archipelago: Contemplating Island Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Stratford

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Creative, innovative, and timely research on islands and island futures is warranted and pressing, not least because island(ers are poorly served by established tropes of them as subordinate to continents or mainlands. Opportunities exist to provide a more thoroughgoing account of island life and island relations, and the seven papers in this special issue address that task. In works that consider islands in the Timor Sea, the Caribbean, the Pacific, Atlantic and Southern Oceans, and that span several different disciplinary frames—archival-historical, critical theoretical, literary, cultural, geopolitical, sociological and artistic—these papers evidence both the diversity of approach to thinking with the archipelago, and numerous points in common. Among the latter is an understanding that island relations are built on connection, assemblage, mobility, and multiplicity, and a commitment to critically examine the ways in which these entanglements affect and give effect to island life. The models of island relationality brought to light by this collective focus on the archipelago reveal new and diverse connections of island peoples with their physical and cultural environments, and with the world beyond; create spaces for growing resilience, association and engagement; and invite further study.

  5. A conservation strategy in San Andres Island: school projects and values in environmental education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the scope of showing and preserving an island endangered species, the Swanka turtle, a campaign and an environmental education program were conducted. The campaign consisted in showing the species to the community, its characteristics and its threats, through mass media and visits to different local schools. The environmental education program was carried out through a Scholar Environmental Project, which consisted on the conformation of an environmental group, where cognitive, attitudinal and participative aspects were worked together. Using a constrictive methodology the children developed some knowledge about the species and Its habitats. The scope was that they modified attitudes and behaviors towards situations that contribute to environmental damage; the reinforcement of values was the central point during all the activities. The knowledge gained by the pupils and the observed changes on their attitudes and participation show the positive results that arise when the action of environmental education focuses on the people and not the resources that are to be preserved

  6. Mangrove forest composition and structure in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom McGowan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem that provides many services, but in Panama, as in other countries, they are under threat due to a variety of human activities. Nowadays, large areas of mangroves continue to be lost without been described and lack of management strategies. This study focused on the mangrove structure in the two largest islands, Isla del Rey and Isla San Jose, of Las Perlas Archipelago (LPA, Pacific Panama. Assessment of Landsat satellite imagery revealed loss of mangroves in the LPA of 965ha in the period 1974-1986, and 248ha in the period 1986-2000. The majority of the loss (>77% from the two study islands was due to timber extraction and agricultural development. In May 2006, permanent plots following the CARICOMP protocol were established at two sites on Isla del Rey (R1 and R2 and one site on Isla San Jose (SJ where standardized metrics such as species, height and diameter at breast height of adult trees and seedlings were recorded. Forest structure differed at the three sites, although R1 and R2 were most similar. At R1, Laguncularia racemosa was the important species and R2 was dominated by Pelliciera rhizophorae. Examination of the forest structure and classified imagery indicated that these sites are spatially dynamic and appear to be rejuvenating. The forest structure would indicate that the sites have been growth-limited previously by human activities and possibly by other factors. SJ was dominated by Rhizophora mangle and appears to have a mature forest with large adult trees and few seedlings. It does not appear to have shown the same extent of spatial regrowth as the other two sites between 1986 and 2000 and is relatively static. The establishment of permanent plots and monitoring will be useful as part of the management plan, as the LPA shows a variety of mangrove structures and could be subject to further coastal development. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3: 857-869. Epub 2010 September 01.

  7. Seismic Hazard Maps for the Maltese Archipelago: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, S.; Panzera, F.; Galea, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Maltese islands form an archipelago of three major islands lying in the Sicily channel at about 140 km south of Sicily and 300 km north of Libya. So far very few investigations have been carried out on seismicity around the Maltese islands and no maps of seismic hazard for the archipelago are available. Assessing the seismic hazard for the region is currently of prime interest for the near-future development of industrial and touristic facilities as well as for urban expansion. A culture of seismic risk awareness has never really been developed in the country, and the public perception is that the islands are relatively safe, and that any earthquake phenomena are mild and infrequent. However, the Archipelago has been struck by several moderate/large events. Although recent constructions of a certain structural and strategic importance have been built according to high engineering standards, the same probably cannot be said for all residential buildings, many higher than 3 storeys, which have mushroomed rapidly in recent years. Such buildings are mostly of unreinforced masonry, with heavy concrete floor slabs, which are known to be highly vulnerable to even moderate ground shaking. We can surely state that in this context planning and design should be based on available national hazard maps. Unfortunately, these kinds of maps are not available for the Maltese islands. In this paper we attempt to compute a first and preliminary probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the Maltese islands in terms of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and Spectral Acceleration (SA) at different periods. Seismic hazard has been computed using the Esteva-Cornell (1968) approach which is the most widely utilized probabilistic method. It is a zone-dependent approach: seismotectonic and geological data are used coupled with earthquake catalogues to identify seismogenic zones within which earthquakes occur at certain rates. Therefore the earthquake catalogues can be reduced to the activity rate, the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter relationship and an estimate of the maximum magnitude. In this article we also defined a new seismogenic zones in the central Mediterranean never considered before. In order to determine the ground motion parameters related to a specified probability of exceedance, the above statistical parameters are combined with ground motion prediction equations. Seismic hazard computations have been performed within the island boundaries. The preliminary maps for PGA distribution on rock site obtained for a 10% probability of exceedance shows values ranging between 0.09-0.18 g whereas, SA for 0.2, 04, 1.0 s show values of about 0.21-0.40 g, 0.14-0.24 g and 0.05-0.08 g respectively.

  8. Paleomagnetic Study of Azores Archipelago: Volcano-Tectonic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, P. F.; Henry, B.; Marques, F. O.; Madureira, P.; Miranda, J. M. A.; Lourenco, N. V.; Madeira, J.; Hildenbrand, A.; Nunes, J. C.; Roxerová, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Oceanic islands are by nature unstable volcanic buildings generally marked by rapid growth that alternates with destruction due to a variety of mass-wasting processes, including giant sector collapses, vertical caldera subsidence, fault generation/propagation, shallow landslides and coastal erosion. Due to its diverse volcanic and tectonic frameworks, the Azores archipelago represents an excellent case study for geophysical and geological proposes. Main results of a paleomagnetic study, conducted on oriented samples from approximately 60 accessible lava piles of three islands of Azores archipelago central group (Faial, Pico and Terceira islands) and covering as much as possible spatially and temporally these islands are: i) The paleomagnetic polarity is in close agreement with the radiometric results known for these islands; ii) Onshore volcanic activity began during the Matuyama geochron for Faial and during Brunhes for Terceira and Pico; iii) The mean ChRMs from Terceira and Pico islands result in a paleomagnetic pole similar to the ones retrieved from the studies of Johnson et al (1998) and Silva et al (2012), from S. Miguel and S. Jorge islands (other islands of Azores archipelago), respectively; iv) ChRMs from Faial show an elliptical distribution perpendicular to the WNW-ESE grabben that is the major structure of the island, suggesting tilting towards SSW of the southern wall and towards NNE of the northern one. The presence of listric faults plunging towards the middle of the grabben and aligned along the N110º azimuth could explain the elliptical distribution of paleomagnetic directions. This study is a contribution for the research project REGENA (PTDC/GEO-FIQ/3648/2012). References Johnson, C.L., Wijbrans, J.R., Constable, C.G., Gee, J., Staudigel, H., Tauxe, L., Forjaz, V.-H., Salgueiro, M., 1998. 40Ar/39Ar ages and paleomagnetism of S. Miguel lavas,Azores, Earth planet. Sci. Lett., 160, 637-649. Silva, PF; Henry, B; Marques, FO; Hildenbrand, A., Madureira, P., Mériaux, C; Kratinová, Z. Palaeomagnetic study of a sub-aerial volcanic ridge (São Jorge Island, Azores) for the past 1.3 Myr: evidence for the Cobb Mountain Subchron, volcano flank instability and tectono-magmatic implications. Geophysical Journal International, 188, 3, 959-978, 2012

  9. La guerre des recensions (autour d'une note d'Andr\\'e Weil en 1940)

    CERN Document Server

    Audin, Michèle

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the reviews of a Comptes rendus note by Andr\\'e Weil in 1940 in the three journals Jahrbuch \\"uber die Fortschritte der Mathematik, Zentralblatt f\\"ur Mathematik und ihre Grenzgebiete and Mathematical Reviews, together with the context of the publication of these reviews.

  10. Tennis star Andre Agassi initiates a photovoltaic school project in Las Vegas; Spiel, Satz, Solar. Tennisstar Andre Agassi setzt fuer sein Schulprojekt in Las Vegas auf Photovoltaik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Matthew

    2011-03-15

    Tennis star Andre Agassi founded a private school already in 2001. The school is located in a problem area of Las Vegas and is to give challenged children access to better education. The school, named ''Andre Agassi College Preparatory Academy'' has the biggest roof-mounted PV system in the state of Nevada. In the final stage, it will have an installed capacity of 540 kW.

  11. Study on the accident oil spill pollution in Wanshan Archipelago sea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses diffusion model and transfer model of instantaneous oil spilling with static point source for forecasting and studying the accident oil spilling pollution in Wanshan Archipelago sea area. The paper also presents prevention and cure measures

  12. The biogeography of fermentative yeast populations from the vineyards of the Azores archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, J. Drumonde; Lima, Maria Teresa; Schuller, Dorit

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at the characterization of the fermentative yeasts flora of the vineyards from the Azores archipelago, for biodiversity preservation and the constitution of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain collection. During the harvests of 2009 and 2010, 163 (88 and 75) grape samples were collected from eight islands of the archipelago, that belonged to traditional (Arinto, Verdelho and Terrantez) and hybrid grape varieties. The sampling plan covered 36 locations, including vineyards in app...

  13. Seed dispersal by common ravens Corvus corax among island habitats (Canarian Archipelago)

    OpenAIRE

    Nogales, Manuel; Hernández, Elizabeth C.; Valdés, Francisco

    1999-01-01

    The role of the common raven (Corvus corax; Caovidae) as a seed dispersal agent for plants in the Canary Islands was studied by analysing 2672 pellets collected from all islands of the archipelago. Seeds of 16 species of phanerpgams were found (foue endemic to the Canaries, three endemic to the Macaronesian islands, six not endemic, and three introduced by man). Vegetation in this archipelago is highly structured according to altitude creating different types of macrohabitats. The quality of...

  14. Introduced guppies being the first record of freshwater fish on the Cape Verdean archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Kay Lucek; Mélissa Lemoine

    2013-01-01

    The Cape Verdean islands form a distinct aquatic freshwater ecoregion characterised by mainly temporal water bodies with an adapted invertebrate community. Freshwater fish were not yet recorded from the archipelago. During a non-exhaustive screen of freshwater bodies on five islands of the archipelago, the first presence of freshwater fish was recorded in an artificial reservoir. Using barcoding sequences, the species was identified to be introduced guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a highly inv...

  15. Essential metal Zn in sponge Callyspongia aerizusa from Spermonde Archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Lydia Melawaty; Alfian Noor; Tjodi Harlim; Nicole De Voogd

    2014-01-01

    Spermonde Archipelago has been found to have a high sponge biodiversity. Sponges that have feeding behavior as filter feeder can be exposed to heavy metals, including Zn metal. Zn is an essential metal that is physiologically needed by sponge to catalyze chemical reactions and generally operates on enzymes. A study on Zn pollution level in Spermonde Archipelago from zone I to Zone IV was conducted by analyzing Zn concentration in sponges, sediments, and seawater. Physic...

  16. Baseline assessment of the reef fish assemblage from Cagarras Archipelago, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos A. Rangel; Laís C. T. Chaves; Cassiano Monteiro-Neto

    2007-01-01

    The extensive Brazilian coast comprises diverse reef fish communities. Here, we report a pioneer study on the reef fish community composition of the Cagarras Archipelago. This rocky reef system consists of a small group of coastal islands 5 km south off Ipanema Beach, Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. A relatively diverse and disturbed fish community (99 species from 39 families) was found in this archipelago. Two different visual census techniques were utilized and a large difference was observed...

  17. Vegetation and Climate history of Franz Jozef Land Archipelago in the Late Holocene according pollen data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosevich, Ekaterina; Anisimov, Michail; Sapelko, Tatyana

    2015-04-01

    The archipelago Franz-Josef Land is situated in the Arctic Ocean (80°40' N, 54°50'E). It is one of the important areas for arctic research due to organization of Russian Arctic National Park there. Therefore, an interest to the environmental history of this territory grows up and any new data might have a high value. However, geographical remoteness of the archipelago is the reason why there are not much work has been done up to date. .A focus of our researches is vegetation and climate reconstruction during the Late Holocene history according pollen data. In frame of studying of the Franz Josef Land during complex expedition of Russian Arctic National Park on the islands geomorphological and botanical researches was occurred. Nowadays the typical island of archipelago presents the ice cap and glacier-free marine terraces of 35 m high at maximum, where solifluction and permafrost are developed. The archipelago has a maritime Arctic climate. Vegetation of archipelago Franz-Josef Land presents the northern type of Polar Desert. It includes 57 species of vascular plants (Poaceae, Juncaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Brassicaceae, Saxifragaceae etc). We studied the peat core from the southern part of Majbel Island, in the archipelago Franz Josef Land. More than a half of the island is covered by glacier. The core was sampled at the inner margin of ice-free high marine terrace, near the southern slope of bedrock hill. We received preliminary pollen data and radiocarbon data 3010±80 C14 y.a. at the bottom. The pollen concentration is low, but we manage to make some reconstructions of vegetation and climate. For correct interpretation of our results, we used surface samples from different islands of archipelago (Jackson, Hooker, Greely, Alexsandra land, Yeva-Liv, Appolonov, Georg land, Kane, Bell). Subrecent spectra include species presented in flora of region, but also those which are not founded at this region in this time.

  18. Promotional archipelagoes of change. Spatial analysis of Dinosauro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decades, the post industrial Latin American cities have become important economic centers in the world. Their integration into the world economy helped those cities become in the favorite places for the linking functions and activities to the world nets of commerce, productions culture, etc. These urban centers which are expanding gradually into segmented developing areas have caused an apparent space duality between the private and public activities as it can be seen though the differential access to goods and services by the society. At present, there has been an increase in cultural activities which form change promoting archipelagoes subject to several dimensions of analysis. The inequity in the distribution of economic and educational resources causes unequal ways of access to consumption of these areas of cultural production, and of goods and services, what gives place to situations of social exclusion and inclusion. To understand this fact related to money behavior, we have selected an area situated in the northwest of Cordoba capital city, in Argentina, which is a shopping mall called Dinosaurio Group. In this essay we present an exploration into the conflicts caused to the cities through the expansion of the segmented urban centers, promoters of change, and its relationship with the public and private space.

  19. Aasta Põllumeheks 2004 valiti Aavo Mölder ja Andres Härm / Silja Lättemäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lättemäe, Silja, 1952-

    2004-01-01

    Tallinnas Rahvusraamatukogus anti Aasta Põllumehe tiitel Tartumaa Tähtvere valla meestele - AS Tartu Agro juhile Aavo Mölderile ja Haage Agro OÜ juhile Andres Härmile. Tiitlivõitjate auks võttis sõna ka vabariigi president Arnold Rüütel

  20. "Riigikogu hoone 90" = "Estonian parliament building 90" / Janno Roos, Andres Labi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roos, Janno, 1976-

    2013-01-01

    Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2012. aasta näituse kujunduse preemia pälvinud näitusest (Lossiplats 1A). Kujunduse autorid Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor). Kuraator Mait Väljas. Graafiline disain: Identity. Sisearhitekti ja ESLi aastapreemiate žürii liikme Mari Kurismaa ning arhitektuuriajaloolase Leele Välja arvamused

  1. Proceedings of the 3. Summer School Jorge Andre Swieca in Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contents the lectures and seminars presented during the Jorge Andre Swieca III Summer School-Nuclear Physics 1987 which happened in February 1987 in Itaipava - Rio de Janeiro - Brazil. (A.C.A.S.)

  2. Korterelamu Tallinnas Weizenbergi 29 = Apartment Building in Tallinn, at 29 Weizenbergi Street / Andres Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alver, Andres, 1953-

    2001-01-01

    Puitvoodriga betoonist kastjas hoone. Projekteerija Alver Trummal Arhitektid. Arhitektid Andres Alver ja Tarmo Laht. Eriosad: Eesti Projekt. Projekt 1998, valmis 2000. 3 ill.: põhiplaan, välisvaade, Pille Lausmäe kujundatud korteri vaade

  3. Ületades piire = Crossing the Bordes / Anders Härm, Tarmo Maiste ; interv. Andres Kurg, Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Härm, Anders, 1977-

    2000-01-01

    Intervjuu Veneetsia 7. arhitektuuribiennaali Eesti ekspositsiooni "Simulacrum City" autorite Anders Härmi ja Tarmo Maistega. Eesti väljapanekust (arhitektuurifotod - Arne Maasik; filmi, stsenaarium ja kontseptsioon - Andres Maimik, Jaak Kilmi, muusika - Taavi Laatsit), biennaalist. 13 ill

  4. Andres Herkel : Venemaa esindaja ENPA presidendiks ei sobi / Haldi Ellam, Ravil Khair Al-Din

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ellam, Haldi

    2007-01-01

    Vene ajalehe Kommersant väitel on Eesti parlamendi süüdistused ENPA presidendi Rene van der Lindeni vastu seotud Mihhail Margelovi võimaliku valimisega uueks presidendiks. Kristiina Ojuland ja Andres Herkel lükkavad väite tagasi

  5. SUTD-i koorik = SUTD Gridshell / Andres Sevtšuk, Raul Kalvo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtšuk, Andres, 1981-

    2013-01-01

    Singapuri Tehnoloogia ja Disaini Ülikooli (SUTD) raamatukogu paviljon. Eskiis valmis esimese aasta üliõpilastele korraldatud töötoas. Algse ideega töötas edasi City Form Lab (arhitektid Andres Sevtšuk, Raul Kalvo). Paviljon pandi kokku ligi saja üliõpilase osalusel. Valmis: mai 2013

  6. Mis juhtus Andres Lapeteusega? : error'ist kõrgklassi homo soveticus'e näitel / Liisa Kaljula

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaljula, Liisa, 1982-

    2014-01-01

    Autor analüüsib 2014. a. Tallinna Semiosalongi loengute sarja põhiteema - error'i mõiste avamiseks ühe inimliigi kujunemislugu - Eesti filmiklassikast tuntud tegelaskuju Andres Lapeteuse tõusu ning langust homo soveticus'ena

  7. Kunagine käsitsi padrunite valmistaja E-Arsenal sõjatöösturite areenil / Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimer, Andres

    2008-01-01

    Sõjatehasest E-Arsenal saab viie aasta jooksul tuhande töötajaga kõrgtehnoloogiakontsern, rahvusvahelisele turule hakatakse tootma militaartarkvara, isikukaitsevahendeid, roboteid. Kommenteerivad Ingvar Pärnamäe, Priit Alamäe, Andres Taklaja, Tõnu Vaher. Lisa: Arsenali sõjatehas. Diagramm: Tulevikuväljavaatega kahjumifirma

  8. Koerajuhi amet lisab tavatööle vürtsi / Rainer Lang, Andres Vesselov, Rainis Oper ; interv. Tanel Saarmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lang, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    Koerajuhid piirivalve-seersant Rainer Lang Saatsest, piirivalve-veebel Rainis Oper Värskast ning Saatse kordoni ülem piirivalve-kapten Andres Vesselov räägivad koerajuhiks saamisest ning teenistuskoerte koolitamisest. Lisa: Kagu PVP teenistuskoerad; Osalemine võistlustel 2008

  9. Tallinna idee / Andres Alver, Ott Alver, Marten Kaevats ; intervjueerinud Margit Mutso ; kommenteerinud Douglas Gordon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alver, Andres, 1953-

    2011-01-01

    17. veebruaril esitleti raamatut "Tallinna idee", mis on koostatud Eesti Kunstiakadeemia 4. kursuse arhitektuuritudengite kursuseprojektide põhjal. Tallinna teemal vestlevad tudengid Ott Alver ja Marten Kaevats ning nende juhendaja professor Andres Alver

  10. Postsotsialismist vaatemängulinna = From Post-Socialism to the City of the Spectacle / Andres Kurg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurg, Andres, 1975-

    2007-01-01

    Büroo Alver Trummal Arhitektid töödest, Andres Alverist ja Tiit Trummalist. Ärihoonest Tallinnas Rävala pst. 4. Autorid: Andres Alver, Tiit Trummal, Tarmo Laht, Indrek Rünkla, Ulla Mets, Sven Koppel. Konstruktor Eido Uustalu (Eesti Projekt). Projekt 2001, valmis 2006. City Plazast Tallinnas Tartu mnt. 2. Autorid: A. Alver, T. Trummal, T. Laht, I. Rünkla, Martin Melioranski, U. Mets. Konstruktor: Tiit Masso, Pike Projekt. Sisekujundus (fuajeed, restoran): Pille Lausmäe. Projekt 2001, valmis 2004. Lõige, põhiplaan, 3 värv. välis- ja 5 sisevaadet

  11. Andre blikke på forældres positioner i børns mobning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Hvilken rolle spiller forældrene i børns mobning i skolen? Det er et emne, der igennem de senere år har været genstand for tiltagende opmærksomhed blandt både forskere, politikere, og forskellige børneretslige og skolepolitiske organisationer i Danmark. I takt med, at mobning blandt de danske skolebørn er blevet en stadig mere synlig problematik, er interessen for forældrenes andel i og ansvar for børns mobning også blevet skærpet. På tværs af interesseniveauer synes indgangen til problematikken at være den, at der findes kausale sammenhænge imellem børns sociale adfærd i skolen og deres forældres måder at opdrage og fungere som rollemodeller på. I min forskning på området har jeg taget et andet afsæt og har interesseret mig for, hvordan forældres positioner og mulige agens i dette felt betinges af og virker sammen med en række andre aktører på såvel lokale som på samfundsmæssige og politiske niveauer.

  12. SAN CARLOS APACHE PAPERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROESSEL, ROBERT A., JR.

    THE FIRST SECTION OF THIS BOOK COVERS THE HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF THE SAN CARLOS APACHE INDIANS, AS WELL AS AN HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM. THE SECOND SECTION IS DEVOTED TO THE PROBLEMS OF TEACHERS OF THE INDIAN CHILDREN IN GLOBE AND SAN CARLOS, ARIZONA. IT IS DIVIDED INTO THREE PARTS--(1)…

  13. Littoral Decapods of Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mille-Pagaza

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Decapod community inhabiting the rocky littoral of eight bays from Socorro island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, was studied during March 1992. Samples were collected from one-square meter plots placed following transects drawn perpendicularly to the shoreline along the intertidal zone. Species richness and abundance were determined in each bay, as well as the similarity between bays using Morisita’s index. Organisms collected belong to six families, 20 genera and 26 species of the Brachyura and Anomura infraorders. Xanthidae was the family with the highest number of species, and the highest species richness was recorded at the V. Lozano bay. Pachygrapsus transversus, Xanthodius cooksoni and Calcinus explorator were the most abundant species in nearly all localities. Dendrogram obtained define two groups of bays at a similarity level above 0.67, given the similarity in the crab’s species richness and their abundance between bays in the island.Se estudió la comunidad de cangrejos del litoral rocoso de ocho bahías de la Isla Socorro, Archipiélago Revillagigedo en marzo de 1992. Las muestras fueron colectadas en cuadrantes de un m² a lo largo de transectos perpendiculares a la costa en la zona intermareal. Se determinó la riqueza específica, la abundancia por especie para cada bahía, así como la similitud entre bahías mediante el índice de Morisita. Los organismos colectados pertenecen a seis familias, 20 géneros y 26 especies de los infraordenes Brachyura y Anomura. La familia con el mayor número de especies fue Xanthidae y la mayor riqueza específica se registró en la bahía V. Lozano. Pachygrapsus transversus, Xanthodius cooksoni y Calcinus explorator fueron las más abundantes en casi todas las localidades. En el dendrograma se definen dos agrupaciones con nivel de similitud superior a 0.67, dada la semejanza en la riqueza específica de cangrejos y las abundancias entre las bahías.

  14. Intrathermocline eddies at the Juan Fernández Archipelago, southeastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Andrade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS results, combined with chlorophyll-? (Chl-? and satellite altimetry information as well as information from oceanographic cruises were analyzed to identify interactions between intrathermocline eddies (ITEs and the Juan Fernández Archipelago (JFA, and discuss their potential impact on surface Chl-? concentrations. The JFA is located off the coast of central Chile (33°S, and is composed of three main islands: Robinson Crusoe (RC, Alejandro Selkirk (AS and Santa Clara (SC. Results indicate that the surface and subsurface anticyclonic eddies that interact with the JFA are formed primarily within the coastal transition zone between 33° and 39°S. ITEs are present within the JFA region with a semiannual frequency, mainly during the austral autumn, and have a weak surface expression in relation to the adjacent surface eddies, with a slow displacement (1.16 to 1.4 km d-1 in a northwest direction and a coherent structure for periods of ? 1 year. During the ITEs' interaction with RC-SC islands and an adjacent seamount, a slight (prominent thermocline deflection of the upper limit (lower was observed. The horizontal extent (~70-100 km was greater than the internal Rossby deformation radius and the average vertical extent was ~400 m. The interaction between the weak surface expression of ITEs, identified with satellite altimetry, and the JFA persisted during autumn for nine weeks until reaching the winter period. Approximately one month after the beginning of the interaction between ITEs and the islands, increases in surface Chl-? associated with the eddy were observed, with values up to three times higher than adjacent oceanic waters.

  15. Intensification of the Atlantic Deep Circulation by the Canadian Archipelago Throughflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komuro, Y.; Hasumi, H.

    2004-12-01

    In the northern high latitudes, where deep water formation occurs, horizontal freshwater transport in the form of seawater and sea ice is a major component of the freshwater budget. The horizontal freshwater transport controls the surface salinity in this region, and thus has a significant impact on the deep water formation process and the resultant Atlantic deep circulation. In this study, we focus on the freshwater transport through the Canadian Archipelago, and investigate how the intensity of the Atlantic deep circulation depend on opening and closing of the Canadian Archipelago. An ice-ocean coupled model is used; it consists of the oceanic component COCO3 (CCSR Ocean Component Model version 3) and the sea ice component including dynamics and thermodynamics. The horizontal resolution is 1 degree. Restoring surface salinity to observed data is not employed. When the Canadian Archipelago is opened, the Atlantic deep circulation strengthens by 21 %. The deep water formation in the northern North Atlantic is responsible for the enhancement. The flow of a low salinity water through the Canadian Archipelago does not directly affect the deep water formation in the northern North Atlantic, since it flows only in the western part of the Labrador Sea. The confinement of the flow in the western Labrador Sea is caused by the reproduction of the cyclonic circulation there. Instead, the surface salinity in the deep water formation region is affected by the East Greenland Current, which flows from the Fram Strait along the east coast of Greenland and increases its salinity by opening the Canadian Archipelago. Consequently, the deep water formation is activated there and the Atlantic deep circulation strengthens. Thus, it is suggested that the Canadian Archipelago throughflow does not directly suppress the deep water formation in the northern North Atlantic, but indirectly activate it by the increase in salinity of the East Greenland Current.

  16. Mangrove forest composition and structure in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tom, McGowan; Sarah L, Cunningham; Héctor M, Guzmán; James M, Mair; José M, Guevara; Tanja, Betts.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Los bosques de manglar son ecosistemas importantes que proveen muchos servicios, pero éstos están bajo la amenaza de una variedad de actividades humanas y grandes áreas de manglar continúan perdiéndose en Panamá. Este estudio está enfocado en la estructura de manglar de las dos islas más grandes del [...] Archipiélago de Las Perlas en el Pacifico Panameño (LPA), la Isla del Rey y la Isla San José. La evaluación de las imágenes del satélite Landsat revela la pérdida de manglares en LPA de 965ha en el periodo entre 1974-1986, y de 286ha en el periodo 1986-2000. La mayor parte de la pérdida (>77%) en las dos islas estudiadas fue debida a la extracción de madera y al desarrollo agrícola. En mayo de 2006, se establecieron parcelas permanentes siguiendo el protocolo de CARICOMP en dos sitios en la isla del Rey (R1 y R2) y un sitio en la Isla San José (SJ) donde especies, altura y diámetro a la altura de la copa de árboles adultos y jóvenes fueron registradas. La estructura del bosque difirió en los tres sitios, sin embargo R1 y R2 fueron los más similares. En R1, Laguncularia racemosa fue la especie más dominante y Pelliceria rhizophora en R2. El análisis de la estructura del bosque y de imágenes clasificadas indicó que estos sitios son espacialmente dinámicos y parecen estar regenerándose. La estructura del bosque indica que el crecimiento en los sitios ha estado limitado por las actividades humanas y posiblemente por otros factores. SJ fue dominado por Rhizophora mangle y parece tener un bosque maduro con árboles adultos grandes y pocos jóvenes. Éste sitio no parece mostrar la misma extensión de rebrote espacial de los otros dos sitios entre 1986-2000 y es relativamente estático. El establecimiento de parcelas permanentes y el monitoreo serán útiles en la implementación del plan de manejo, ya que los manglares del LPA tienen una variedad estructural y podrían estar sujetos a un mayor desarrollo costero. Abstract in english Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem that provides many services, but in Panama, as in other countries, they are under threat due to a variety of human activities. Nowadays, large areas of mangroves continue to be lost without been described and lack of management strategies. This study focused [...] on the mangrove structure in the two largest islands, Isla del Rey and Isla San Jose, of Las Perlas Archipelago (LPA), Pacific Panama. Assessment of Landsat satellite imagery revealed loss of mangroves in the LPA of 965ha in the period 1974-1986, and 248ha in the period 1986-2000. The majority of the loss (>77%) from the two study islands was due to timber extraction and agricultural development. In May 2006, permanent plots following the CARICOMP protocol were established at two sites on Isla del Rey (R1 and R2) and one site on Isla San Jose (SJ) where standardized metrics such as species, height and diameter at breast height of adult trees and seedlings were recorded. Forest structure differed at the three sites, although R1 and R2 were most similar. At R1, Laguncularia racemosa was the important species and R2 was dominated by Pelliciera rhizophorae. Examination of the forest structure and classified imagery indicated that these sites are spatially dynamic and appear to be rejuvenating. The forest structure would indicate that the sites have been growth-limited previously by human activities and possibly by other factors. SJ was dominated by Rhizophora mangle and appears to have a mature forest with large adult trees and few seedlings. It does not appear to have shown the same extent of spatial regrowth as the other two sites between 1986 and 2000 and is relatively static. The establishment of permanent plots and monitoring will be useful as part of the management plan, as the LPA shows a variety of mangrove structures and could be subject to further coastal development. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3): 857-869. Epub 2010 September 01.

  17. Mangrove forest composition and structure in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom McGowan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem that provides many services, but in Panama, as in other countries, they are under threat due to a variety of human activities. Nowadays, large areas of mangroves continue to be lost without been described and lack of management strategies. This study focused on the mangrove structure in the two largest islands, Isla del Rey and Isla San Jose, of Las Perlas Archipelago (LPA, Pacific Panama. Assessment of Landsat satellite imagery revealed loss of mangroves in the LPA of 965ha in the period 1974-1986, and 248ha in the period 1986-2000. The majority of the loss (>77% from the two study islands was due to timber extraction and agricultural development. In May 2006, permanent plots following the CARICOMP protocol were established at two sites on Isla del Rey (R1 and R2 and one site on Isla San Jose (SJ where standardized metrics such as species, height and diameter at breast height of adult trees and seedlings were recorded. Forest structure differed at the three sites, although R1 and R2 were most similar. At R1, Laguncularia racemosa was the important species and R2 was dominated by Pelliciera rhizophorae. Examination of the forest structure and classified imagery indicated that these sites are spatially dynamic and appear to be rejuvenating. The forest structure would indicate that the sites have been growth-limited previously by human activities and possibly by other factors. SJ was dominated by Rhizophora mangle and appears to have a mature forest with large adult trees and few seedlings. It does not appear to have shown the same extent of spatial regrowth as the other two sites between 1986 and 2000 and is relatively static. The establishment of permanent plots and monitoring will be useful as part of the management plan, as the LPA shows a variety of mangrove structures and could be subject to further coastal development. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3: 857-869. Epub 2010 September 01.Los bosques de manglar son ecosistemas importantes que proveen muchos servicios, pero éstos están bajo la amenaza de una variedad de actividades humanas y grandes áreas de manglar continúan perdiéndose en Panamá. Este estudio está enfocado en la estructura de manglar de las dos islas más grandes del Archipiélago de Las Perlas en el Pacifico Panameño (LPA, la Isla del Rey y la Isla San José. La evaluación de las imágenes del satélite Landsat revela la pérdida de manglares en LPA de 965ha en el periodo entre 1974-1986, y de 286ha en el periodo 1986-2000. La mayor parte de la pérdida (>77% en las dos islas estudiadas fue debida a la extracción de madera y al desarrollo agrícola. En mayo de 2006, se establecieron parcelas permanentes siguiendo el protocolo de CARICOMP en dos sitios en la isla del Rey (R1 y R2 y un sitio en la Isla San José (SJ donde especies, altura y diámetro a la altura de la copa de árboles adultos y jóvenes fueron registradas. La estructura del bosque difirió en los tres sitios, sin embargo R1 y R2 fueron los más similares. En R1, Laguncularia racemosa fue la especie más dominante y Pelliceria rhizophora en R2. El análisis de la estructura del bosque y de imágenes clasificadas indicó que estos sitios son espacialmente dinámicos y parecen estar regenerándose. La estructura del bosque indica que el crecimiento en los sitios ha estado limitado por las actividades humanas y posiblemente por otros factores. SJ fue dominado por Rhizophora mangle y parece tener un bosque maduro con árboles adultos grandes y pocos jóvenes. Éste sitio no parece mostrar la misma extensión de rebrote espacial de los otros dos sitios entre 1986-2000 y es relativamente estático. El establecimiento de parcelas permanentes y el monitoreo serán útiles en la implementación del plan de manejo, ya que los manglares del LPA tienen una variedad estructural y podrían estar sujetos a un mayor desarrollo costero.

  18. Diseño de una minicadena productiva para apicultura orgánica en San Andrés Islas a través de un itinerario de ruta como herramienta de gestión e integración / A roadmap itinerary as an integrative management tool in the design of a mini productive chain for organic beekeeping on San Andrés Island

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diego Hernando, Flórez Martínez; Sídney, Ward Argota.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, la apicultura es una actividad económica en consolidación, que representa un potencial de riqueza por los múltiples beneficios que se pueden obtener a través de la explotación artesanal o industrial. En el sector agropecuario es una de las 37 cadenas productivas registradas ante el Mini [...] sterio de Agricultura y Desarrollo Rural; es objeto de priorización en procesos de investigación, desarrollo e innovación (I+D+i), en aras de incrementar su productividad y competitividad, involucrando la sostenibilidad de la población rural y el componente industrial. El Archipiélago de San Andrés, Providencia y Santa Catalina es objeto de iniciativas de desarrollo rural, impulso empresarial y fortalecimiento, pues ante la coyuntura socioeconómica por la disminución del territorio marítimo, busca diversificar las actividades económicas de la población raizal. Con la metodología de alianzas productivas y los itinerarios de ruta como herramienta de gestión e integración se diseñó, desde el enfoque tecnológico, la estructura de la minicadena productiva de eslabones y segmentos; las directrices fueron los procesos productivos de tipo orgánico, selección de tecnologías, proveedores y mecanismos de certificación al producto y capacitación al recurso humano requerido, mediante un proceso analítico jerárquico utilizando el software Expert Choice. Se estructuraron lineamientos desde la base de política pública y sectorial, consignada en la agenda única nacional de I+D+i de la cadena y lineamientos establecidos (plan de desarrollo del departamento, plan de ciencia y tecnología, CONPES y plan de ordenamiento territorial). La minicadena y el paquete tecnológico de apicultura orgánica son un insumo de competitividad para el archipiélago. Abstract in english In Colombia, beekeeping is an economic activity under consolidation, which represents a potential wealth for the many benefits that can be obtained through craft or industrial exploitation. It is one of the 37 productive agricultural-chains formed and registered through the Ministry of Agriculture a [...] nd Rural Development, and is subject to research, development and innovation (R+D+i) priority processes to increase productivity and competitiveness, involving both the sustainability of the rural population and the industrial component. The Archipelago of San Andres, Providencia and Santa Catalina is the subject of rural development initiatives, business and strategic planning because of the socioeconomic situation due to the reduction in maritime territory, seeks to diversify the economic activities of the native population. Within the framework of the productive chains and the strategy of the roadmaps itineraries as a management and integration tool, the mini productive chain was design, contemplating organic production process and rules, selection of technologies, suppliers and product certification mechanisms to the human resource and training required, through an analytic hierarchy process using Expert Choice software. Finally, a work plan was defined as the sole national research agenda R+D+i (Research + Development + innovation) for the national productive chain and the guidelines established in the department's development plan, the science and technology plan, the CONPES and the Territorial Order Plan.

  19. Alkohol, andre rusmidler og vold i epidemiologisk perspektiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Pernanen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGDen medisinske interessen for vold og voldsskader har økt kraftig i løpet av de siste to tiårene. Det epidemiologiskeperspektivet på vold har blitt forsterket og et mer etiologisk og preventivt syn på volden er mere merkbarinnenfor sosialmedisinsk forskning. Alkoholen er en etiologisk faktor som har vist seg å være forbundet med voldi de aller fleste samfunn. I denne artikkelen beskrives de viktigste epidemiologiske metodene og funnene i studietav alkoholens sammenheng med vold. Denne sammenhengen har vist seg ikke å være direkte, men er avhengig aven rekke andre faktorer, og noen forskjellige typer av kausal avhengighet beskrives i artikkelen. Den epidemiologiskeforskningen om andre rusmidlers sammenheng med vold er betydelig mindre omfattende enn den er foralkohol. Det er også åpenbart at andre rusmidler ikke er like sterkt sammenknyttet med vold som alkoholen.Pernanen K. Alcohol, other drugs, and violence in an epidemiological perspective.Nor J Epidemiol ENGLISH SUMMARYThe public health approach to violence has become increasingly accepted during the last couple of decades. Thishas led to more epidemiological research into violence, and a stronger medical interest in the etiology and preventionof violence. However, epidemiological research on the prevalence of violence in different societies is stillmainly criminological in nature, being based on information about violence that has come to the attention of thepolice or processed in the courts. The study of the relationship between alcohol use and violent behaviour is alsopredominantly based on police and court materials, although an increasing number of emergency room andhospitalization studies have examined the role of alcohol in injuries caused by violence.There are two basic methodological approaches in the study of the relationship between alcohol use andviolence. The alcohol-involvement studies estimate the extent to which drinking by the offender or the victim waspresent in episodes of violence. Time trend studies and so-called natural experiments measure how rates of violentcrime covary with levels of alcohol consumption in a population. Generally, these studies indicate that alcohol useis a potent factor in determining the prevalence of violent behaviour in a society. However, there is no evidenceshowing that a significant part of alcohol-related violence is directly caused by the presence of alcohol in theorganism. Four types of conditional factors affecting the risk of violent behaviour after drinking are discussed: (1the nature of the alcohol factor, (2 characteristics of the individual drinker, (3 the socio-cultural context in whichdrinking occurs, and (4 situational factors.The epidemiological evidence for a relationship between violence and the use of other drugs is much morescattered. It is complicated by the fact that most drug users use more than one type of drug. When an illegalpsychoactive drug is implicated in violent behaviour, it is often also accompanied by alcohol use. Clinical andexperimental evidence shows that the risk of aggression and physical violence depends, in addition to the type ofdrug, on the amounts used, the method of application, the phase of acute intoxication, and the long-term pattern ofuse. However, the violence associated with the use of illegal drugs is perhaps most closely determined by thecharacteristics of an illegal economy. Rival criminal organizations manufacture, distribute and sell these drugs,and they use violence and threats as a means of regulating this economy. In addition, many drug users resort toviolent crime in an effort to secure the funds needed for their addiction.1996; 6 (1: 29-36.

  20. San Francisco Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Where are today's challenges in accelerator physics?' was the theme of the open session at the San Francisco meeting, the largest ever gathering of accelerator physicists and engineers

  1. Tropical storm off Myanmar coast sweeps reefs in Ritchie's Archipelago, Andaman

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnan, P.; Grinson-George, G.; Vikas, N.; Titus-Immanuel, T.; Goutham-Bharathi, M.P.; Anand, A.; VinodKumar, K.; SenthilKumar, S.

    in the Ritchie's Archipelago where maximum wind speeds of 11 m ssup(-1) was observed; and three around Port Blair which lay on the leeward side of the storm and had not experienced wind speeds of more than 9 m s sup(-1). Corals in the shallow inshore reefs were...

  2. Ecological footprint of road traffic on Cres-Lošinj Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Grofelnik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cres-Lošinj Archipelago is the largest insular traffic unit in Northern Adriatic. The archipelago consists of two large islands, Cres and Lošinj, and 27 smaller islands located among Kvarner, Kvarneri?, Rijeka Bay and open sea. From the point of view of traffic, this area gravitates mostly toward Rijeka traffic node. Traffic development of the islands was determined in the second half of the 20th century with the development of ferry traffic and road traffic on the islands. Today, the Archipelago is characterized by prominent seasonal variations of road traffic intensity due to dominant role of tourism in space valorisation. This research included partial determination of Ecological Footprint of road traffic on the islands on the basis of CO2 emission and capacity of insular surfaces to absorb CO2.The author also created a model for calculating road mileage on the islands and indirectly calculated CO2 emission. The results indicated significant seasonal variations of CO2 emission on the islands, which are closely related to tourist valorisation of space and the number of non-residential vehicles on the islands. The paper also provides the ratio between residential and non-residential vehicles on the island, which influence the emission in accordance with their energy efficiency. The research showed that the capacity of CO2 absorption on Cres-Lošinj Archipelago is approximately 40 times greater than CO2 emission from road traffic during one year.

  3. Long-term changes in macrozoobenthos in the Åland archipelago, northern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perus, Jens; Bonsdorff, Erik

    2004-06-01

    Eutrophication is the major threat for marine ecosystems in coastal and archipelago areas of the Baltic Sea. Eutrophication-induced effects on benthic macrofauna were studied over a 30 year period in the Åland Islands, northern Baltic Sea. This study describes the present soft-bottom community and analyses changes in community structure in definable archipelago zones, and relates them to environmental changes since the 1970s. Similar analyses are made for changes in the benthic communities in the transition zone between the outer archipelago and the open sea over the last decade. Abundance and biomass peaked in the late 1980s after which a general decrease has taken place, but in different ways in the various archipelago zones. This decline seems to be closely linked with local nutrient loads, rather than to the overall trends in the Baltic Sea. A new species in this low-diversity area is the polychaete Marenzelleria viridis, which since its first observation in 1993 has rapidly spread over the entire region and is now among the five most dominant species in the benthic assemblage.

  4. Nepomorpha, Gerromorpha and Leptopodomorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of the Tuscan Archipelago (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianferoni, Fabio; Rocchi, Saverio; Terzani, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides the first checklists for Nepomorpha (12 spp.), Gerromorpha (10 spp.) and Leptopodomopha (5 spp.) of the Tuscan Archipelago; summarizing and updating the knowledge for this area. The presence of the family Micronec- tidae is recorded for the first time in the Archipelago, as well as six species: Nepomorpha - Micronecta scholtzi (Fieber, 1860), Sigara selecta (Fieber, 1848), S. stagnalis (Leach, 1817), S. lateralis (Leach, 1817); Gerromorpha - Gerris asper (Fieber, 1860); Leptopodomorpha - Saldula palustris (Douglas, 1874); increasing the numbers of aquatic Heteroptera sensu lato from 21 to 27 species. The three infraorders are present in only four of the seven major islands of the Tuscan Archipelago (Capraia, Elba, Montecristo and Giglio). The Isle of Elba has been scarcely investigated until now: ten species are newly recorded for this island (doubling the number to 20 spp.), whilst another species has been first recorded for Giglio Island. The most remarkable finding is Gerris asper (Fieber, 1860) on Elba, a species inhabiting marshy areas that is very rare to Italy. Notonecta glauca Linnaeus, 1758 is excluded from the fauna of the Tuscan Archipelago. PMID:26312344

  5. Higher homotopy operations and Andr\\'{e}-Quillen cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Blanc, David; Turner, James M

    2011-01-01

    There are two main approaches to the problem of realizing a $\\Pi$-algebra (a graded group $\\Lambda$ equipped with an action of the primary homotopy operations) as the homotopy groups of a space $X$. Both involve trying to realize an algebraic free simplicial resolution $G_\\bullet$ of $\\Lambda$ by a simplicial space $W_\\bullet$ and proceed by induction on the simplicial dimension. The first provides a sequence of Andr\\'{e}-Quillen cohomology classes in $H_{AQ}^{n+2}(\\Lambda;\\Omega^{n}\\Lambda)$ for $n \\geq 1$ as obstructions to the existence of successive Postnikov sections for $W_\\bullet$ by work of Dwyer, Kan and Stover. The second gives a sequence of geometrically defined higher homotopy operations as the obstructions by earlier work of Blanc; these were identified with the obstruction theory of Dwyer, Kan and Smith in earlier work of the current authors. There are also (algebraic and geometric) obstructions for distinguishing between different realizations of $\\Lambda$. In this paper we 1) provide an explic...

  6. Heidegger y el cristianismo de San Pablo y San Agustín

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco De Lara

    2007-01-01

    Este texto intenta mostrar el sentido de la interpretación de San Pablo y San Agustín que Heidegger lleva a cabo en sus primeros cursos de Friburgo. En concreto, se pretende apuntar al motivo por el que el joven Heidegger recupera aspectos del cristianismo para su proyecto filosófico y cuáles son los elementos concretos que las Epístolas de San Pablo y las Confesiones de San Agustín le aportan. De esta forma, se apreciará, entre otras cosas, la importancia concedida por Heidegger a la acentua...

  7. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 28638 Data, Saipan in the Marianas Archipelago, 200308-200503 (NODC Accession 0067473)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 28638 was deployed in the region of Marianas Archipelago to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files...

  8. Kjøring med mistanke om påvirkning av andre rusmidler enn alkohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asbjørg S. Christophersen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGStatens rettstoksikologiske institutt har i løpet av de siste år registrert en stor økning av prøver fra bilføreremistenkt for kjøring under påvirkning av andre rusmidler enn alkohol. Antall positive saker økte 42% fra1994 til 1995. De hyppigste påviste stoffer er tetrahydrocannabinol, amfetamin, benzodiazepiner og opiater(morfin/kodein. Bruk av tyngre narkotiske stoffer har blitt mer vanlig i trafikksammenheng og antall positivetilfeller har økt betydelig mer enn totalt antall saker. Fra 1994 til 1995 økte antall positive amfetaminprøvermed 75% (fra 533 til 937 og antall positive prøver som følge av heroininntak økte med 87% (fra 92 til 172.Bruk av flere stoffer samtidig er vanlig, over 60 % av sakene i 1995 var positive på mer enn ett stoff, alkoholikke medregnet. De fleste tilfeller var representert av menn i alderen 25-32 år (37%. Kvinner var representerti ca. 11% av sakene.Christophersen AS, Skurtveit S, Mørland J. Drivers suspected to drive under the influence of drugs otherthan alcohol. Nor J Epidemiol 1996; 6 (1: 45-48.ENGLISH SUMMARYThe National Institute of Forensic Toxicology has registered a large increase in the number of samples fromdrivers suspected to drive under influence of drugs other than alcohol. The number of drug positive casesincreased 42% from 1994 to 1995. The most frequent drugs detected are tetrahydrocannabinol, amphetamine,benzodiazepines and opiates (morphine/codeine. The frequency of hard narcotic drug use has increased morethan the total number of cases. From 1994 to 1995, the number of amphetamine positive samples increased75% (from 533 to 937 and the number of samples positive due to heroin use (detection of the metabolite 6-monoacetylmorphine in urine increased 87%. Multi-drug use is common and more than one drug wasdetected in more than 60% of the cases from 1995, alcohol not included. Most of the cases were representedby men 25-32 years old (37%. Women were represented in about 11% of the cases.

  9. Biogeography of the fauna of French Polynesia: diversification within and between a series of hot spot archipelagos

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, Rosemary G.; Claridge, Elin M; Goodacre, Sara L.

    2008-01-01

    The islands of French Polynesia cover an area the size of Europe, though total land area is smaller than Rhode Island. Each hot spot archipelago (Societies, Marquesas, Australs) is chronologically arranged. With the advent of molecular techniques, relatively precise estimations of timing and source of colonization have become feasible. We compile data for the region, first examining colonization (some lineages dispersed from the west, others from the east). Within archipelagos, blackflies (Si...

  10. Distribution and identification of Rhodothemis in the eastern part of the Indo-Australian Archipelago (Odonata: Libellulidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kalkman, Vincent J.; Orr, Albert George

    2014-01-01

    The small libellulid genus Rhodothemis is restricted to Asia and Australia. Two of the four included species were described relatively recently by Lohmann (1984) but much previously documented material was never re-identified and the distribution of species in the Indospecies in the Indo-Australian Archipelago remained poorly known. All material available in the Naturalis Biodiversity Center (RMNH) from the eastern part of the Indo-Australian Archipelago was studied and is here brought on rec...

  11. Invasion of terrestrial enchytraeids into two postglacial tundras: North-eastern Greenland and the Arctic Archipelago of Canada (Enchytraeidae, Oligochaeta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent; Dózsa-Farkas, Klára

    2006-01-01

    The aim was to study the invasion of terrestrial enchytraeids into the two postglacial tundras, North-eastern Greenland and the Arctic Archipelago of Canada. The majority of species recorded have a wide distribution in the Northern Hemisphere and the species diversity is considerably lower than that of potential source regions indicating either strong selection or varied dispersal ability. It appears that the Archipelago is influenced mainly from North America and North-eastern Greenland from Eu...

  12. Surface water quality estimation using remote sensing in the Gulf of Finland and the Finnish Archipelago Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yuanzhi

    2005-01-01

    This thesis deals with surface water quality estimation using remote sensing in the Gulf of Finland and the Archipelago Sea. Satellite remote sensing of water and empirical algorithms for surface water quality variables in coastal waters in the Gulf of Finland and the Archipelago Sea are explained and results from the studies in the area are presented. Concurrent in situ surface water measurements, AISA data, Landsat TM data, ERS-2 SAR data, AVHRR and MODIS data were obtained for selected...

  13. SANS studies of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), chain conformation studies were limited to light and small angle x-ray scattering techniques, usually in dilute solution. SANS from blends of normal and labeled molecules could give direct information on chain conformation in bulk polymers. Water-soluble polymers may be examined in H2O/D2O mixtures using contrast variation methods to provide further information on polymer structure. This paper reviews some of the information provided by this technique using examples of experiments performed at the National Center for Small-Angle Scattering Research (NCSASR)

  14. A comparison of asphaltene model compounds and asphaltenes. The island vs. archipelago models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borton, David J.; Pinkston, David S.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka [Purdue University (United States)], email: dborton@purdue.edu; Gray, Murray; Tan, Xiaoli [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada); Azyat, Khalid; Tykwinski, Rik [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    As heavier crude oil reserves with higher asphaltene content are being more and more exploited, better understanding of asphaltenes becomes a necessity. Two models are proposed for the structure of asphaltenes, a topic of intense debate. The island model presents a large aromatic core with alkyl chains branching out. The archipelago model features multiple aromatic cores that are linked by alkyl chains, with possible alkyl chains branching out also. Several model compounds of the two structural models were studied using a variety of mass spectrometry (MS) methods: laser-induced acoustic desorption combined with electron ionization (LIAD/EI) MS, electrospray ionization (ESI) MS, and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) MS. The observed fragmentation pathways were then compared to those of asphaltenes. Ions from island vs. archipelago model compounds showed distinct fragmentation characteristics, which will help in elucidating the complex molecular structure of asphaltenes.

  15. Floristic species list of the archipelago of Jardines de la Reina, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Acevedo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The floristic inventories contribute directly to knowledge of plant resources of a region. In order to inventory the vascular plant species in the Jardines de la Reina archipelago, field visits were organized and literature review. The study area was represented by 113 infrageneric taxa, 97 genera and 40 families, the keys Anclitas, Grande, Caguamas, Algodón Grande and Caballones possess the higher taxonomic richest. Endemism was low (4,5% and alien plant species represent the 8%. The flora of the archipelago was cha-racterized by high representation of life forms shrubbery and herbaceous, with a predominance of elements neotropical and neotropical-holarctic. The sandy coastal vegetation and coastal xeromorphic scrub exhibited the highest values of specific richness.

  16. Hotell 'Bernhard' Otepääl. Otepää aedlinn, Kolga tee 22a / Andres Lunge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lunge, Andres

    1998-01-01

    Otepää aedlinnas asuva U. Tiirmaa poolt kuuekümnendatel projekteeritud Tartu Katseremonditehase puhkebaasi rekonstrueerimine. Kavandati uus peasissepääs, täiendav tubadekorrus, restoran, vastuvõtufuajee jm. ning juurdeehitusena osaliselt maaalune lisakorpus konverentsisaali jm. ruumidega. Tellija: AS Regel. Projekteerija: Tareke Projekt OÜ. Arhitekt Andres Lunge. Sisekujundaja Taisi Kadarik. Ehitus: AS Regel, 1996-1998. Projekt 1995, 1998, valmis 1998

  17. Lääne-Virumaal võttis valimistel kõige rohkem hääli Kristiina Ojuland / Andres Pulver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pulver, Andres, 1965-

    2007-01-01

    Lääne-Virumaal kogus kõige rohkem hääli Keskerakond, saavutades 7222 valija toetuse. Diagramm: Valimistulemused Lääne-Virumaal. Vt. samas lk. 6-7: Riigikogu valimiste tulemused Lääne-Virumaal ja lk. 15: Kuidas kommenteerite Riigikogu valimiste tulemusi? Vastavad: Marko Pomerants (IRL), Indrek Saar (SDE), Vello Tafenau (ERL), Robert Antropov, Kristiina Ojuland (Reformierakond), Einar Vallbaum, Toomas Varek (Keskerakond), Andres Jaadla (Eestimaa Rohelised)

  18. Pärnu Keskraamatukogu hoone / Markus Kaasik, Andres Ojari, Ilmar Valdur...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    1., 2., 3. korruse ja asendiplaan, joonis, 4 värv. välisvaadet; fotod: Tiit Veermäe; projekteerija: Kolm Pluss Üks arhitektid; autorid: Markus Kaasik, Andres Ojari, Ilmar Valdur, Kalle Komissarov (võistlus 1999-2002), Mihkel Tüür (võistlus 1999), kaasa töötasid: Risto Parve, Pirko Võmma, Merje Müürisepp, Indrek Tiigi, Kaisa Lillemets; konstruktor: Pike; arhitektuurikonkurss: 1999., 1. preemia

  19. Vabade kunstide lõputööd / Andres Tali ; intervjueerinud R[eet] V[arblane] ; kommenteerinud Andreas Trossek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tali, Andres, 1956-

    2011-01-01

    EKA vabade kunstide teaduskonna dekaan Andres Tali lõpetajate tasemest. 15 magistrikraadi kaitsnud üliõpilase tööd olid enamikus väljas festivali "Tase'11" raames magistritööde näitusel Rotermanni kvartalis 22.05.-5.06.2011. Bakalaureusetaseme lõpetamisest portfoolioga. Andreas Trossek Kristi Kongi, Eva Labotkini, Laura Tootsi, Reimo Võsa-Tangsoo ja Stella Salumaa magistritöödest

  20. Helium and Neon isotopic constraints to the lower mantle contribution for Terceira Island magmatism (Azores Archipelago)

    OpenAIRE

    Madureira, Pedro; Moreira, Manuel; Mata, João

    2003-01-01

    We present the first neon data, as well as new helium isotopic analysis, for Terceira Island volcanic (Azores Archipelago, Portugal). Noble gases isotopic ratios show values more primitive than MORB, confirming that the Azores hotspot should be considered as sampling a relatively undegassed mantle reservoir. Our study also illustrates that the Ne systematic is more capable than He to constrain the ultimate origin of hotspots in geodynamic settings dominated by plume-ridge interaction. This is...

  1. Climate characterization and modeling of pineapple greenhouses in the Azores archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, F.J.; Meneses, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    In the Azores Archipelago, Portugal, pineapples are cultivated on the Island of São Miguel, existing around 60 ha of glasshouses dedicated to this crop, being a very important sector for the local economy. The main goal of this work is to characterise the Azores pineapple glasshouse climate and to develop a model that allows predicting its internal air temperature. Climate data were recorded in two meteorological stations, one located inside the greenhouse and the other outside. G...

  2. On the Problem of Economic Power: Lessons from the Natural History of the Hawaiian Archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Funk, Matt

    2009-01-01

    One of the greatest logicians of the twentieth century, Bertrand Russell, proposed that Economic power, unlike military power, is not primary, but derivative. Curiously, this conjecture has received scarce attention. This paper explores this theory. Our illustrative discourse tests this overlooked theory in the light of evolution: We model Homo evolution by sampling the past ?1000 years of cultural evolution in the Hawaiian archipelago. Our analysis concludes Russell's theory is true.

  3. Genetic variation in the invasive avian parasite, Philornis downsi (Diptera, Muscidae) on the Galápagos archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Donnellan Steve; Gardner Michael G; Dudaniec Rachael Y; Kleindorfer Sonia

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Understanding the dispersal and genetic structure of invasive insects across islands is important for designing management plans that are appropriate at spatial and temporal scales. For invasive parasites, population dynamics are largely determined by the distribution and density of their host species. The introduced parasitic fly, Philornis downsi, parasitises nestlings of endemic birds on all major islands of the Galápagos archipelago. The fly's high mortality and fitnes...

  4. Patterns of Coral Disease across the Hawaiian Archipelago: Relating Disease to Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Aeby, Greta S.; Williams, Gareth J.; Franklin, Erik C.; Kenyon, Jean; Cox, Evelyn F.; Coles, Steve; Work, Thierry M

    2011-01-01

    In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites havin...

  5. MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS OF A RESIDENT FRESHWATER FORAGE FISH AT ADAK ISLAND, ALEUTIAN ARCHIPELAGO, ALASKA

    OpenAIRE

    Kenney, Leah A.; von Hippel, Frank A.; Willacker, James J.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2012-01-01

    The Aleutian Archipelago is an isolated arc of over 300 volcanic islands stretching 1,600 km across the interface of the Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean. Although remote, some Aleutian Islands were heavily impacted by military activities from World War II until recently and were exposed to anthropogenic contaminants, including mercury (Hg). Mercury is also delivered to these islands via global atmospheric transport, prevailing ocean currents, and biotransport by migratory species. Mercury ...

  6. Local Culture as a Resource in Regional Development in the Southwest-Finland Archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Katriina Siivonen

    2009-01-01

    In cultural and regional politics in the European Union, and in practice for instance in the Southwest-Finland Archipelago, local culture and cultural heritage are considered resources. Global boundlessness, heterogeneity and change are basic qualities of culture. However, in regional development, culture is seen and used as a number of different local cultures with their own essential cultural heritage. The culture of local everyday life is opposite to, and in tension with, the construct of ...

  7. Number of endemic and native plant species in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, E.; Hansen, Anders J.; Nielsen, K. K.; Adsersen, H.

    2002-01-01

    By simple and multiple regression analyses we investigate updated species numbers of endemic and native vascular plants and seed plants in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters. We find that the best models to describe species numbers are regression models with log-transformed species numbers as dependent and log-transformed modified area (i.e. area not covered with barren lava) as an independent variable. This holds both for total species number, for native species nu...

  8. Progressive migration and anagenesis in Drimys confertifolia of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    López-Sepúlveda, Patricio; Takayama, Koji; Greimler, Josef; Crawford, Daniel J; Peñailillo, Patricio; Baeza, Marcelo; Ruiz, Eduardo; Kohl, Gudrun; TREMETSBERGER, KARIN; Gatica, Alejandro; Letelier, Luis; Novoa, Patricio; Novak, Johannes; Stuessy, Tod F.

    2014-01-01

    A common mode of speciation in oceanic islands is by anagenesis, wherein an immigrant arrives and through time transforms by mutation, recombination, and drift into a morphologically and genetically distinct species, with the new species accumulating a high level of genetic diversity. We investigate speciation in Drimys confertifolia, endemic to the two major islands of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile, to determine genetic consequences of anagenesis, to examine relationships among popul...

  9. Social, Economical and Technical Evaluation of a reverse osmosis drinking water plant in the Stockholm Archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Lindkvist, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    The drinking water plant in this case study is a combined groundwater and reverse osmosisplant in the Stockholm archipelago. The reverse osmosis purification step was added to theplant in 1995. This technique is relatively new in Sweden and there are possibilities for it tobecome a good complement to conventional drinking water treatment. The plant has used thistechnique for over 10 years with good results. It is therefore of great interest to evaluate anddocument it for the possibility to im...

  10. New distributional data on the Orthoptera (Saltatoria of the northern Dodecanese (“Southern Sporadhes” Archipelago, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papapavlou, K. P.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A catalogue of Orthoptera species collected during 1997 from isolated islets of the northern Dodecanese archipelago, Greece, is presented. Information on related taxonomical aspects and ecological parameters is also given.

    Se presenta un catálogo de especies de Ortópteros recogidos durante 1997 en pequeñas islas aisladas del archipiélago del norte del Dodecaneso (Espóradas del sur, Grecia También se incluye información sobre algunos aspectos taxonómicos y ecológicos de las especies recolectadas.

  11. Remembering San Diego

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 6 years of existence the ITER EDA project in San Diego, USA, was terminated by desition of the US Congress. This article describes how nice it was for everybody as long as it lasted and how sad it is now

  12. Valoración socioeconómica del pago por servicios ambientales hidrológicos en Veracruz (Coatepec y San Andrés Tuxtla) / Socioeconomic assessment of hydrologic environmental services in Veracruz (Coatepec and San Andrés Tuxtla)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Lid, del Ángel Pérez; José Alfredo, Villagómez Cortés; Gabriel, Díaz Padilla.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se trabajó en las poblaciones de San Andrés Tuxtla y Coatepec, en el estado de Veracruz, México, que representan zonas que han recibido pago por servicios ambientales hidrológicos (PSAH) desde el año 2004. El objetivo fue analizar el impacto socioeconómico del PSAH en función del mercado local de ag [...] ua, obtener las percepciones sociales del valor del agua y el posible impacto de la aplicación del PSAH. Se utilizó análisis etnográfico, sociológico y valoración contingente en una muestra de 171 consumidores en Coatepec y 228 en San Andrés, así como 85 productores, 45 de ellos de Coatepec. Los resultados mostraron que la población privilegia los valores económicos de los paisajes que componen las zonas de pago. Existe un fuerte potencial para incorporar el reconocimiento social en la generación de servicios ambientales, lo que podría incrementar el pago a los productores para observar un impacto socioeconómico real del PSAH. Se identificaron diferencias entre los actores respecto a valor de un m³ de agua, tanto dentro como entre zonas, ya que los valores fiscales de referencia y del productor fueron mayores en Coatepec. Los programas de conservación y las políticas públicas inherentes deberán considerar la voluntad de todos los actores sociales para obtener un impacto visible. Abstract in english Some areas in San Andres Tuxtla and Coatepec, Veracruz State, Mexico, that have received payment for hydrological environmental services (PHES) since 2004 were studied. The objective was to analyze PES's socioeconomic impact through its effects on the local market for water, to grasp social percepti [...] ons about water value, and to assess the possible impact of implementing PES. Ethnographic, sociological, and contingent valuation analysis were used in a sample of 171 consumers from Coatepec, and 228 from San Andres, as well as a total number of 85 producers, 45 of whom come from Coatepec. Results showed that the public admits an economic value for landscapes where PES are paid. There is a strong potential to incorporate social recognition in the production of environmental services. Differences were found in the value of a cubic meter of water among stakeholders within and between areas, since producer and government stated values were higher in Coatepec. Future environmental conservation programs and public policies should consider the will of all stakeholders to be able to produce visible outcomes.

  13. Aerosol chemistry above an extended Archipelago of the Eastern Mediterranean basin during strong northern winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Athanasopoulou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Detailed aerosol chemical predictions by a carefully designed model system (i.e. PMCAMx, WRF, GEOS-CHEM, along with airborne and ground-based observations, are presented and analyzed over a wide domain covering the Aegean Archipelago. The studied period is ten successive days during the summer of 2011, characterized by the most frequent prevailing wind conditions (Etesian regime. The submicron aerosol load in the lower troposphere above the Archipelago (< 2.2 km altitude is homogenously enriched in sulfate (average modeled and measured submicron sulfate of 5.5 and 5.8 ?g m?3, respectively, followed by organics (2.3 and 4.4 ?g m?3 and ammonium (1.5 and 1.7 ?g m?3. Aerosol concentrations smoothly decline aloft, reaching lower values (< 1 ?g m?3 above 4.2 km altitude. Model performance is found good (according the selected evaluation criteria for sulfate, ammonium, chloride, elemental carbon, organic carbon and total PM10 mass concentration, indicating a satisfactory representation of the aerosol chemistry and precursors. Higher model discrepancies are confined to the highest (e.g. peak sulfate values and lowest ends (e.g. nitrate of the airborne aerosol mass size distribution, as well as in airborne organic concentrations (model underestimation around 50%. The latter is most probably related to the intense fire activity upwind the Archipelago (i.e. Balkan area and Black Sea coastline, which is not represented in the current model application. Overall, the model system shows the best agreement with observations under strong northeastern winds over the Archipelago and up to 2.2 km altitude. The activation of the chemical ageing of biogenic particles is suggested to be used for the aerosol chemistry module, when treating organics in a sufficient nitrogen and sulfate-rich environment, such as that over the Aegean basin. More than 70% of the predicted aerosol mass over the Aegean Archipelago during a representative Etesian episode is related to transport of aerosols and their precursors from outside the modeling domain.

  14. Detailed geochemical survey data release for the San Andres-Oscura Mountains special study area, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work reported here includes field data and the results of analyses for uranium and additional elements for each sample. This special study is a follow-up to the uranium reconnaissance previously conducted by Los Alamos in the surrounding Tularosa NTMS quadrangle as part of the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR). The HSSR program is part of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE), which is designed to provide an improved estimate of the available information for industry use in the development and production of uranium resources. Each rock sample collected for this special study was crushed and the minus 100-mesh fraction was put into a prewashed 25-ml polyethylene vial and a clean 4-ml rabbit before undergoing analysis. The possibility exists of sample contamination with crusher alloys, especially in the rhyolite samples. The samples were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, europium, gold, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, potassium, rubidium, samarium, scandium, selenium, silver, sodium, strontium, tantalum, terbium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, ytterbium, zinc, and zirconium. Descriptions of field and analytical methods can be found in Appendix II-A. Sample locations are plotted on Plate I. All samples were analyzed for uranium by delayed neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in samples were determined by neutron-activation analysis, x-ray fluorescence, and arc-source emission spectrography. Analytical results for samples are reported as parts per million

  15. An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trentham, Robert C.; Weinbrandt, Richard; Robinson, William C.; Widner, Kevin

    2001-05-03

    The objectives of the project were to: (1) Thoroughly understand the 60-year history of the field. (2) Develop a reservoir description using geology and 3D seismic. (3) Isolate the upper Grayburg in wells producing from multiple intervals to stop cross flow. (4) Re-align and optimize the upper Grayburg waterflood. (5) Determine well condition, identify re-frac candidates, evaluate the effectiveness of well work and obtain bottom hole pressure data for simulation utilizing pressure transient testing field wide. (6) Quantitatively integrate all the data to guide the field operations, including identification of new well locations utilizing reservoir simulation.

  16. An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, William C.; Trentham, Robert C.; Widner, Kevin; Wienbrandt, Richard

    1999-06-22

    A project to recover economic amounts of oil from a very mature oil field is being conducted by Laguna Petroleum Corporation of Midland, Texas, with partial funding from a U. S. Department of Energy grant to study shallow carbonate rock reservoirs. The objectives of the project are to use modern engineering methods to optimize oil field management and to use geological and geophysical data to recover untapped potential within the petroleum reservoirs. The integration of data and techniques from these disciplines has yielded results greater than those achievable without their cooperation. The cost of successfully accomplishing these goals is to be low enough for even small independent operators to afford. This article is a report describing accomplishments for the fiscal year 1997-1998.

  17. Millised on teie suhted RKAS-iga? / Eero Järvekülg, Toivo Luik, Andres Elmik, Toomas Raju...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Küsimusele vastab Carl Robert Jakobsoni Gümnaasiumi direktor Eero Järvekülg, Puiatu Erikooli direktor Toivo Luik, Märjamaa Gümnaasiumi direktor Andres Elmik, Rõuge Põhikooli direktor Toomas Raju, Nõo Reaalgümnaasiumi direktor Jaanus Järveoja ja Varstu Keskkooli direktor Maido Mändmets

  18. Esimene Eesti maja Hiinas = The first Estonian house in China / Andres Põime, Lauri Vaimel ; interv. Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põime, Andres

    2008-01-01

    Vestlus Pekingi Eesti saatkonna arhitektuurikonkursi võidutöö autoritega. Tulemused: I preemia - Andres Põime, Lauri Vaimel, II - Erik Nobel, Christian Jensen, Kristen Herup Sovang, Soren Andersson, Pille Kivihall, Dan Ljungar, Hans Willadsen (Taani), III - Kalle Vellevoog, Velle Kadalipp, Tiiu Truus, Martin Prommik

  19. Kas toiduainete hind on õiglane? Ei, isegi odav! / Andres Sooniste, Juhan Särgava, Kristjan Kongo, Kati Kusmin ; intervjueerinud Sulev Oll

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Vestlusringis toiduainete hindade üle arutamas on Tarbijakaitse ameti peadirektor Andres Sooniste, Põllumeeste Keskliidu president Juhan Särgava, Fazer Eesti ASi juhatuse esimees Kristjan Kongo ja ETK juhatuse esimees Kati Kusmin

  20. Microbiological and mycological beach sand quality in a volcanic environment: Madeira archipelago, Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Elisabete; Figueira, Celso; Aguiar, Nuno; Vasconcelos, Rita [Universidade da Madeira, Caminho da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal (Portugal); Vasconcelos, Sílvia [Laboratório Regional de Veterinária e Segurança Alimentar, Caminho das Quebradas de Baixo n° 79, 9000-254 Funchal (Portugal); Calado, Graça [Laboratório de Saúde Pública, IASaúde, Rua das Pretas n° 1, 9004-515 Funchal (Portugal); Brandão, João [Instituto Nacional de Saúde Dr. Ricardo Jorge, Avenida Padre Cruz, 1649-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Prada, Susana, E-mail: susana@uma.pt [Universidade da Madeira, Caminho da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal (Portugal); Centro de Vulcanologia e Avaliação de Riscos Geológicos, Universidade dos Açores, Rua da Mãe de Deus, Edifício do Complexo Científico, 3° Andar — Ala Sul, 9500-321 Ponta Delgada (Portugal)

    2013-09-01

    Madeira forms a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago, whose economy is largely dependent on tourism. There, one can encounter different types of sand beach: natural basaltic, natural calcareous and artificial calcareous. Microbiological and mycological quality of the sand was analyzed in two different years. Bacterial indicators were detected in higher number in 2010 (36.7% of the samples) than in 2011 (9.1%). Mycological indicators were detected in a similar percentage of samples in 2010 (68.3%) and 2011 (75%), even though the total number of colonies detected in 2010 was much higher (827 in 41 samples) than in 2011 (427 in 66 samples). Enterococci and potentially pathogenic and allergenic fungi (particularly Penicillium sp.) were the most common indicators detected in both years. Candida sp. yeast was also commonly detected in the samples. The analysis of the 3rd quartile and maximum numbers of all indicators in samples showed that artificial beaches tend to be more contaminated than the natural ones. However, a significant difference between the variables was lacking. More monitoring data (number of bathers, sea birds, radiation intensity variation, and a greater number of samples) should be collected in order to confirm if these differences are significant. In general, the sand quality in the archipelago's beaches was good. As the sand may be a vector of diseases, an international common set of indicators and values and a compatible methodologies for assessing sand contamination, should be defined, in order to provide the bather's with an indication of beach sand quality, rather than only the water. - Highlights: • Microbial indicators were studied in the beach sands of Madeira archipelago. • Differences between years may be attributed to extreme weather. • Sand of artificial beaches has higher levels of microbial contamination. • Microbial analysis of the sand showed that the beaches have mainly good quality.

  1. Microbiological and mycological beach sand quality in a volcanic environment: Madeira archipelago, Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madeira forms a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago, whose economy is largely dependent on tourism. There, one can encounter different types of sand beach: natural basaltic, natural calcareous and artificial calcareous. Microbiological and mycological quality of the sand was analyzed in two different years. Bacterial indicators were detected in higher number in 2010 (36.7% of the samples) than in 2011 (9.1%). Mycological indicators were detected in a similar percentage of samples in 2010 (68.3%) and 2011 (75%), even though the total number of colonies detected in 2010 was much higher (827 in 41 samples) than in 2011 (427 in 66 samples). Enterococci and potentially pathogenic and allergenic fungi (particularly Penicillium sp.) were the most common indicators detected in both years. Candida sp. yeast was also commonly detected in the samples. The analysis of the 3rd quartile and maximum numbers of all indicators in samples showed that artificial beaches tend to be more contaminated than the natural ones. However, a significant difference between the variables was lacking. More monitoring data (number of bathers, sea birds, radiation intensity variation, and a greater number of samples) should be collected in order to confirm if these differences are significant. In general, the sand quality in the archipelago's beaches was good. As the sand may be a vector of diseases, an international common set of indicators and values and a compatible methodologies for assessing sand contamination, should be defined, in order to provide the bather's with an indication of beach sand quality, rather than only the water. - Highlights: • Microbial indicators were studied in the beach sands of Madeira archipelago. • Differences between years may be attributed to extreme weather. • Sand of artificial beaches has higher levels of microbial contamination. • Microbial analysis of the sand showed that the beaches have mainly good quality

  2. Competing Notions of Diversity in Archipelago Tourism: Transport Logistics, Official Rhetoric and Inter-Island Rivalry in the Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Costa Duarte Ferreira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Contending and competing geographies are often implicitly involved in archipelagic spaces. Various small island states and territories with multi-island geographies have flourishing tourism industries that presuppose an archipelagic experience: visitors are encouraged to explore and sample different island constituents of the territory. This strategy taps into different tourism niche markets, improves local value added, and shares tourism revenue beyond key nodes and urban centers. The organization of such an important economic activity however often reflects a ‘one-size-fits-all’, tightly coordinated, frequently contrived process that does not necessarily speak to the cultural and biogeographical forms of diversity that reside in the archipelago. This paper offers the notion of archipelago as a new way of rethinking problems and challenges encountered in island tourism, and then assesses the implications of this conceptualization on the representation of ‘the archipelago’ in the Azores, Portugal, and reviews what this approach means and implies for sustainable tourism policy.

  3. Seismicity pattern changes before the M = 4.8 Aeolian Archipelago (Italy) earthquake of August 16, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Salvatore; Laudani, Antonino; Mangiagli, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the seismicity patterns associated with an M = 4.8 earthquake recorded in the Aeolian Archipelago on 16, August, 2010, by means of the region-time-length (RTL) algorithm. This earthquake triggered landslides at Lipari; a rock fall on the flanks of the Vulcano, Lipari, and Salina islands, and some damages to the village of Lipari. The RTL algorithm is widely used for investigating precursory seismicity changes before large and moderate earthquakes. We examined both the spatial and temporal characteristics of seismicity changes in the Aeolian Archipelago region before the M = 4.8 earthquake. The results obtained reveal 6-7 months of seismic quiescence which started about 15 months before the earthquake. The spatial distribution shows an extensive area characterized by seismic quiescence that suggests a relationship between quiescence and the Aeolian Archipelago regional tectonics. PMID:24511288

  4. Geocryological Structure and Glaciers Novaya Zemlya archipelago in the context of global climate processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmiansky, Mikhail; Anokhin, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    New Earth glaciation due to the Quaternary glaciation .epohami and modern climate. We distinguish four types of ice sheets: small glaciers and snowfields - a capacity of up to 100 m .; mountain-valley glaciation - up to 200 m .; net (transition to the coverslip) - up to 300 m. and glaciation (ice sheet) - up to 500 m. The archipelago is characterized by continuous permafrost raprosraneniem, which is located under the roof of the seasonally thawed layer at a depth of 0.1 to 3.2 m . The depth is increased by its lakes and man-made Taliko up to 35 m. The temperature of the permafrost Paleozoic sandstones and shales at a depth of 15 m. Reaches -3,5°; limestones and shales containing cryopeg it reaches -2,8° at a depth of 130 m. Power Cryolithozone on drilling data and calculations 265-280 m. The average temperature of ice sheets are formed depending on the type of ice, its cut and the power supply type and morphology of the surface. It differs from the temperature of the surrounding glacier rocks on 3-7° and is at a depth from the surface of the glacier 13-15 m .: -3 - -4,5°; at a depth of 30 m .: -2°. In the age of the Quaternary glaciation entire archipelago was covered with continental ice. Global warming has resulted in a reduction of its area by 25% In the northern part of the South Island there are snowfields and small lednichki. In the area of Matochkin Shar and further north to South Bay Sulmenova, found mainly hanging and cirque glaciers, severely degraded, and in most cases do not reach the sea. At the same time, in the South Bay and Sulmenova and a number of other areas there are powerful lobes were associated with the ice sheet interior of the North Island, and reaching the sea. In the west of the archipelago to reach the sea only a few branches of the Central ice sheet; in the eastern part of the North Island ice sheet breaks in the sea in the form of ice walls up to 400 meters. This part is called the Nordenskiöld glacier. The maximum ice thickness reaches 480 m. Observations of the authors of the glaciers of Novaya Zemlya (Hammer and Sickle, Rose et al.), Carried out in the monitor mode, the last 15 years show an intensive retreat from the shoreline inland archipelago and sharply higher flow of silt-pelitic material kut bays. Lithological changes the picture of the bottom of the bays, which causes certain biogenic transformation of ecosystems.

  5. Rocky bottom fish communities of Cabrera Archipelago National Park (Mallorca, western Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Reñones, Olga; Moranta, Joan; Coll, Marta; Morales-Nin, Beatriz

    1997-01-01

    [EN] In the present study the fish communities of the rocky bottoms of Cabrera Archipelago (Balearic Islands) are analysed and provide data for future evaluation of any changes produced by management. Visual counts were carried out by diving along transects situated in areas of rocky blocks at depths of -10 m, -25 m and -41 m and at vertical cliffs -15 m deep. In the 10 stations studied, 48 species belonging to 19 families have been recorded. The increase in depth principally produced a speci...

  6. New Paleomagnetic Data for the Franz Josef Land Archipelago and their Tectonic Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abashev, V.; Mikhaltsov, N.

    2014-12-01

    On the base of field work on the Franz Josef Land archipelago (FJL) in 2010 and 2011 the new paleomagnetic data are obtained from the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous magmatic complexes. Main focus of this work was concentrated on the Early-Jurassic basalts widely represented on the Hooker island [1]. Together with the previous data [2] statistically reasonable paleomagnetic pole for the age boundary of 190 million years for the FJL is received (PLat.=62.4; PLon.=140.2; dp/dm=5.5/5.0; N=13). Paleomagnetic data allow to assume that the position of the FJL relative to the Europe in the Early Jurassic significantly differs from the present one. But to the Early Cretaceous it reached relative position very close to the presently observed [2]. We suggest that at least during Early-Middle Jurassic there was rifting processes between the North Barentz terrane (FJL and (may be) Svalbard) and the other part of the European tectonic domain. This rift was accompanied by shifting of the FLJ to the north-eastward on about 500 km. Also obtained paleomagnetic data agree with a hypothesis assuming that the FJL was passing over the Icelandic-Siberian hot spot during Jurassic-Cretaceous time: main paleolatitudes correspond to the Island's present latitude and the paleolatitude of the Siberian trapps. Paleomagnetic study of FJL has a reconnaissance character and cannot lead to any ultimate deductions as the data is obviously not enough. And further work on the basaltic covers of the archipelago seems to be very promising. Research was supported by grant RFBR 13-05-00177. 1. Karyakin Yu.V., Shipilov E.V. Geochemical Specialization and the 40Ar/39Ar Age of Basaltoid Magmatism in the Aleksandra Land, Northbrook, Hooker, and Hayes Island (Franz Josef Land Archipelago) // Doklady Akademii Nauk, 2009, Vol.425, No.2, P. 213-217 (in Russian). 2. Bragin V.Yu., Karyakin Yu.V., Mikhaltsov N.E. The Franz Josef Land archipelago: reconnaissance paleomagnetic data // Large igneous provinces of Asia: mantle plumes and metallogeny (Irkutsk, Russia Aug., 20-23, 2011): Abstract vol. - Irkutsk: Petrographica, 2011. - P. 40-43.

  7. Genetic diversity and population structure of an insular tree, Santalum austrocaledonicum in New Caledonian archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Bottin, L.; Verhaegen, D.; TASSIN, J; Olivieri, I.; Bouvet, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    We present a study of the genetic diversity and structure of a tropical tree in an insular system. Santalum austrocaledonicum is endemic to the archipelago of New Caledonia and is exploited for oil extraction from heartwood. A total of 431 individuals over 17 populations were analysed for eight polymorphic microsatellite loci. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 33 and the observed heterozygosity per population ranged from 0.01 in Maré to 0.74 in Ile des Pins. The genetic diversi...

  8. Apolar Compounds in Seaweeds from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago (Northeastern Coast of Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro de Santis Ferreira; Izabel Cristina Casanova Turatti; Norberto Peporine Lopes; Thais Guaratini; Pio Colepicolo; Eurico Cabral Oliveira Filho; Ricardo Clapis Garla

    2012-01-01

    Hyphenated techniques of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer were used to determine fatty acids in eleven species of seaweeds from Fernando de Noronha archipelago. The main compounds detected in all studied species were the alcohol phytol and the fatty acids 14?:?0; 15?:?0; 16?:?0; 18?:?0; 18?:?1 n9; 18?:?2 ?9,12; 20?:?4; 20?:?5. These fatty acids are commonly found in seaweeds present in warm regions. Thus, we found no specificity in the presence of a particular set of fatty acid...

  9. Udviklingen af TPM (Total Productive Maintenance) - og relationer til andre koncepter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Aage U.

    2003-01-01

    Koncepterne TPS, TQC og TPM har gennem årtier undergået en løbende udvikling, og for alle tre koncepter gælder, at deres indhold herved gradvist er blevet udvidet - fra at omfatte specifikke problemstillinger i produktionen til at omfatte næsten hele virksomheden. I artiklen skitseres træk af denne udvikling, primært med henblik på belysning af baggrunden for TPM og dermed for forståelse af det indhold, TPM har i dag, samt hvorledes dette koncept kan relateres til de to andre koncepter.

  10. Lean versus Quick Response Manufacturing og andre koncepter - er Lean den eneste ene?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Aage U

    2005-01-01

    Begrebet Lean har gennem de senere år vundet en enorm udbredelse. Antallet af publikationer om Lean har været eksplosivt stigende, og mange virksomheder har gennemført eller gennemfører Lean-projekter. Er Lean et nyt koncept? Er Lean den eneste løsning? Kan Lean kombineres med tankegange og principper fra andre koncepter? Artiklen er opdelt i fire hovedafsnit. I første afsnit skitseres baggrunden for Lean. I andet afsnit skitseres kort indholdet i Lean. I tredje afsnit skitseres tankegangen bag ...

  11. Forekomst av alkohol og andre rusmidler i blodprøver fra førere involvert i trafikkulykker

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Bjørneboe m.fl

    2009-01-01

     SAMMENDRAGBilkjøring stiller store krav til førernes sansing, oppmerksomhet, informasjonsbearbeiding og evne til åreagere. Førere som er under innflytelse av sentralnervøst aktive stoffer, vil derfor være en potensiell fare itrafikken. I perioden 1.8–31.12. 1993 identifiserte Statens rettstoksikologiske institutt (SRI) 394 ulykkesføreresom politiet hadde rekvirert analyser av med hensyn på narkotiske stoff/sentralnervøst aktive medikamenter(andre rusmidler) og/eller alkohol. Blodprøver fra d...

  12. Avec ou sans voiture

    OpenAIRE

    Rigal, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    L’urbain est-il à construire avec ou sans la voiture ? Voici la question à laquelle répond l’ouvrage collectif Ville et Voiture, réalisé sous la direction d’Ariella Masboungi et soutenu par le ministère français du logement, de l’égalité des territoires et de la ruralité. Si les différents types de textes proposés égrainent certains dégâts subis par les espaces et les habitants du fait de l’automobile, celle-ci constitue malgré tout pour les auteurs un horizon indépassable. En dépit du parado...

  13. Present situation and future prospects of electricity generation in Aegean Archipelago islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aegean Archipelago is a remote Hellenic area, including several hundreds of scattered islands of various sizes. In these islands more than 600,000 people are living mainly in small remote communities. The main economical activities of the islanders are apart from tourism, seafaring, fishery, agriculture and stock farming. One of the major problems of the area is the insufficient infrastructure, strongly related with the absence of an integrated and cost-effective electrification plan. In this context, the present work is concentrated on analyzing the present situation and demonstrating the future prospects of electricity generation in the Aegean Archipelago islands. For this purpose, one should first investigate the time evolution of the corresponding electricity generation parameters (i.e. annual electricity consumption, peak power demand, capacity factor, specific fuel consumption) for the last 30 years. Subsequently, the corresponding diesel and heavy-oil consumption along with the electricity production cost for every specific autonomous power station of the area are investigated. Special attention is paid in order to estimate the contribution of renewable energy sources (RES) in the energy balance of each island. Finally, an attempt is made to describe in brief the most realistic electricity production solutions available, including the operation of hybrid RES-based power plants in collaboration with appropriate energy storage facilities. Additionally, the idea of connecting the islands of the area with the mainland and interconnecting them is also taken into consideration

  14. Possible refugia in the Alexander Archipelago of southeastern Alaska during the late Wisconsin glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, P.E.; Ager, T.A.; Baichtal, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    The interpretation of the extent of late Wisconsin glaciation in southeastern Alaska has varied between geologists and biologists. Maps and reports of the region prepared by geologists commonly indicated that late Wisconsin ice extended as a large uniform front west to the edge of the continental shelf. However, the distribution of plants and animals in the region has led many biologists to suggest that there may have been ice-free areas that served as refugia during the late Wisconsin. Based on analyses of aerial photographs, topographic maps, and bathymetric charts, in conjunction with a review of previous literature and reconnaissance fieldwork throughout the region, this study presents data supporting a limited ice extent in the Alexander Archipelago during the late Wisconsin and identifies possible ice-free areas that may have served as refugia. These areas include (1) the Fairweather Ground, (2) the Herbert Graves Island area, (3) the western coast of southern Baranof Island and adjacent continental shelf, (4) Coronation Island and the adjacent continental shelf, (5) the Warren Island area, (6) the continental shelf from west of Heceta Island to Forrester Island in the south, (7) parts of the west coast of southern Dall Island, and (8) lowland areas in southern Prince of Wales Island. The identification of these possible refugia has bearing on the recolonization of the Alexander Archipelago, as they could have served as centers of biotic dispersal upon regional deglaciation and as stepping stones for early humans with a maritime tradition entering the western hemisphere from Asia. ?? 2007 NRC Canada.

  15. Progressive migration and anagenesis in Drimys confertifolia of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sepúlveda, Patricio; Takayama, Koji; Greimler, Josef; Crawford, Daniel J; Peñailillo, Patricio; Baeza, Marcelo; Ruiz, Eduardo; Kohl, Gudrun; Tremetsberger, Karin; Gatica, Alejandro; Letelier, Luis; Novoa, Patricio; Novak, Johannes; Stuessy, Tod F

    2015-01-01

    A common mode of speciation in oceanic islands is by anagenesis, wherein an immigrant arrives and through time transforms by mutation, recombination, and drift into a morphologically and genetically distinct species, with the new species accumulating a high level of genetic diversity. We investigate speciation in Drimys confertifolia, endemic to the two major islands of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile, to determine genetic consequences of anagenesis, to examine relationships among populations of D. confertifolia and the continental species D. winteri and D. andina, and to test probable migration routes between the major islands. Population genetic analyses were conducted using AFLPs and nuclear microsatellites of 421 individuals from 42 populations from the Juan Fernández islands and the continent. Drimys confertifolia shows a wide genetic variation within populations on both islands, and values of genetic diversity within populations are similar to those found within populations of the continental progenitor. The genetic results are compatible with the hypothesis of high levels of genetic variation accumulating within anagenetically derived species in oceanic islands, and with the concept of little or no geographical partitioning of this variation over the landscape. Analysis of the probability of migration within the archipelago confirms colonization from the older island, Robinson Crusoe, to the younger island Alejandro Selkirk. PMID:25292282

  16. An invasive fish and the time-lagged spread of its parasite across the Hawaiian archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Michelle R; Aeby, Greta; Vignon, Matthias; Meguro, Yu-ichiro; Rigby, Mark; Runyon, Christina; Toonen, Robert J; Wood, Chelsea L; Bowen, Brian W

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to limit the impact of invasive species are frustrated by the cryptogenic status of a large proportion of those species. Half a century ago, the state of Hawai'i introduced the Bluestripe Snapper, Lutjanus kasmira, to O'ahu for fisheries enhancement. Today, this species shares an intestinal nematode parasite, Spirocamallanus istiblenni, with native Hawaiian fishes, raising the possibility that the introduced fish carried a parasite that has since spread to naïve local hosts. Here, we employ a multidisciplinary approach, combining molecular, historical, and ecological data to confirm the alien status of S. istiblenni in Hawai'i. Using molecular sequence data we show that S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are genetically affiliated with source populations in French Polynesia, and not parasites at a geographically intermediate location in the Line Islands. S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are a genetic subset of the more diverse source populations, indicating a bottleneck at introduction. Ecological surveys indicate that the parasite has found suitable intermediate hosts in Hawai'i, which are required for the completion of its life cycle, and that the parasite is twice as prevalent in Hawaiian Bluestripe Snappers as in source populations. While the introduced snapper has spread across the entire 2600 km archipelago to Kure Atoll, the introduced parasite has spread only half that distance. However, the parasite faces no apparent impediments to invading the entire archipelago, with unknown implications for naïve indigenous Hawaiian fishes and the protected Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument. PMID:23468894

  17. Development of a Hindcast/Forecast Model for the Philippine Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernan G. Arango

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the challenges of developing a regional ocean prediction model for the Philippine Archipelago, a complex area in terms of geometry, bathymetry-dominated dynamics and variability, and strong local and remote wind forcing, where there are limited temporal and spatial ocean measurements. We used the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS for real-time forecasting during the Philippines Experiment (2007–2009 observational program. The article focuses on the prediction experiments before and during the exploratory cruise period, June 6–July 3, 2007. The gathered observations were not available in real time, so the 4-Dimensional Variational (4D-Var data assimilation experiments were carried out in hindcast mode. The best estimate of ocean state (nowcast is determined by combining satellite-derived products for sea surface temperature and height, and subsurface temperature and salinity measurements from several hydrographic assets over a sequential five-day data assimilation window. The largest source of forecast uncertainty is from the prescribed lateral boundary conditions in the nearby Pacific Ocean, especially excessive salt flux. This result suggests that remote forcing and inflows from the Pacific are crucial for predicting ocean circulation in the Philippine Archipelago region. The lateral boundary conditions are derived from 1/12° global Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM daily snapshots. The incremental, strong-constraint 4D-Var data assimilation successfully decreased temperature and salinity errors of the real-time, nonassimilative control forecast by 38% and 49%, respectively.

  18. Forekomst av alkohol og andre rusmidler i blodprøver fra førere involvert i trafikkulykker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Bjørneboe m.fl

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGBilkjøring stiller store krav til førernes sansing, oppmerksomhet, informasjonsbearbeiding og evne til åreagere. Førere som er under innflytelse av sentralnervøst aktive stoffer, vil derfor være en potensiell fare itrafikken. I perioden 1.8–31.12. 1993 identifiserte Statens rettstoksikologiske institutt (SRI 394 ulykkesføreresom politiet hadde rekvirert analyser av med hensyn på narkotiske stoff/sentralnervøst aktive medikamenter(andre rusmidler og/eller alkohol. Blodprøver fra disse førerne ble analysert med hensyn på alkohol og etutvidet repertoar av andre rusmidler ved SRI. Da polititjenestemenn og medtrafikanter ofte ikke vil oppdagepåvirkning av andre rusmidler enn alkohol, dels pga. manglende alkohollukt, vil andre rusmidler som ulykkesårsakvære noe underrepresentert i dette materialet sammenliknet med alkohol. Hos 299 av ulykkesførerneble det påvist alkohol og/eller andre rusmidler. 44 førere hadde tatt inn både alkohol og andre rusmidler, mensalkohol og andre rusmidler ble påvist alene i henholdsvis 204 og 51 saker. Totalt ble benzodiazepiner,cannabis, opiater og amfetamin påvist i henholdsvis 54, 30, 17 og 16 saker. Av de 95 som hadde tatt inn andrerusmidler, hadde 34 tatt inn mer enn ett rusmiddel (alkohol ikke medregnet og i 72 av tilfellene ble analysefunnenevurdert (AB og JM til sannsynligvis å ha gitt sentralnervøs påvirkning. Risikoøkningen for trafikkulykkeved nylig bruk av cannabisstoffer og diazepam i høydose ble estimert til å kunne tilsvare en blodalkoholkonsentrasjonpå 1-1,5 promille. Alkohol er det rusmiddel som oftest påvises hos ulykkesførere, menforekomsten av benzodiazepiner, cannabis og amfetamin er såvidt høy blant ulykkesførere at disse stoffenemå anses å være et alvorlig trafikksikkerhetsproblem.Bjørneboe A, Beylich K-M, Christophersen AS, Fosser S, Glad A, Mørland J.Prevalence of alcohol and other intoxicants in blood samples from drivers involved in road trafficaccidents.   ENGLISH SUMMARYIllegal and some legal drugs affect the central nervous system and drivers who use such drugs may represent ahazard in the road traffic. The prevalence of such drugs among drivers involved in accidents depends on theincrease of the accident risk due to the drug and on the prevalence of the drugs among drivers on the road. Inthis study we have examined blood samples from 394 drivers involved in road traffic accidents during theperiod August–December 1993, to determine the prevalence of alcohol and drugs among drivers involved inaccidents. Most of the drivers enrolled in the study were suspected by the police of driving under the influenceof alcohol or drugs. The data are, however, probably somewhat biased, because drivers influenced by alcoholor drugs will, if possible, avoid contact with the police. Furthermore, the police's ability to detect driversinfluenced by drugs is limited. Accordingly, the proportion of influenced drivers and especially drivers influencedby drugs could be too low compared with the proportion among all drivers involved in traffic accidents.In about 2/3 of the blood samples examined, alcohol was found either alone or together with other drugs,and in 1/4 of the cases drugs were found either alone or together with alcohol. The most prevalent drugs werebenzodiazepines (13.7%, cannabis (7.5%, opiates (4.3% and amphetamine (4.1%. In about 3/4 of the drugpositive cases the drug concentration was so high that it was considered likely or very likely that the driverwas influenced by the drug(s. The bias due to the police's inability to detect all drivers influenced by drugs50A. BJØRNEBOE OG MEDARBEIDEREwas estimated. After correction for this bias it was estimated that at least 2.7% of drivers involved in injuryaccidents will have significant concentrations of drugs in the blood and at least 4.4% will have significantblood alcohol concentrations.Based on various sources of drug use in Norway we arrived at rough estimates of increase in risk of beinginvolved in road traffic accidents after different drug intakes. Dr

  19. Archipelago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald A. Wheeler

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Archipiélago Juan Fernández se encuentran diez miembros de la tribu Cariceae (Cyperaceae: cuatro especies de Carex y seis de Uncinia. Ocho de las especies se hallan en la Isla Alejandro Selkirk (= Masafuera; 50 km2, y cuatro en la Isla Robinson Crusoe (= Masatierra; 48 km2. Se describen cuatro nuevos taxones endémicos para el Archipiélago: Carex fernandezensis, C. stuessyi, Uncinia aspericaulis, y U. macloviformis. Sólo dos especies endémicas, Carex berteroniana y Uncinia douglasii, son frecuentes en ambas islas. Otro endemismo, Uncinia costata, es conocido sólo en la localidad de colección del tipo en Alejandro Selkirk. Las tres especies restantes, Uncinia phleoides, U. tenuis, y Carex phalaroides, se encuentran también en el continente Sudamericano, y se cita aquí por primera vez C. phalaroides para el archipiélago. Se lectotipifican los nombres Uncinia costata y U. tenuis f. firmula, y se describe una nueva sección de Carex, sect. Pellucidae, para ubicar a C. stuessyi y taxones afines.

  20. Riparian Habitat - San Joaquin River

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The immediate focus of this study is to identify, describe and map the extent and diversity of riparian habitats found along the main stem of the San Joaquin River,...

  1. 75 FR 39166 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ...San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion on July 16, 2010...voluntary consensus standards. Environment We have analyzed this rule...significant effect on the human environment. This rule is categorically...San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion, San...

  2. Crustal deformation study in the Canary Archipelago by the analysis of GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Adriana; Sevilla, Miguel; Zurutuza, Joaquín

    2014-06-01

    The Canary Archipelago is an active volcanic region located in the African plate, at 100 Km of the northwest coast of Africa. The Complutense University of Madrid, Institute of Astronomy and Geodesy (CSIC-UCM) and University of Jaén, established a GPS Network in this region and carried out six observations campaigns from 2002 to 2009. The focus of thiswork is processing and analyzing these observations to study the geodynamic behavior of the stations of this network. The data have been computed with the Bernese GPS Software Version 5.0 obtaining individual solutions of coordinates for each session and campaign, the coordinate velocities of the stations and the time series of baselines formed between them. Results show consistency of station velocities compared to behaviour of areas permanent stations and baselines stability. No deformations could be detected.

  3. Local Culture as a Resource in Regional Development in the Southwest-Finland Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina Siivonen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In cultural and regional politics in the European Union, and in practice for instance in the Southwest-Finland Archipelago, local culture and cultural heritage are considered resources. Global boundlessness, heterogeneity and change are basic qualities of culture. However, in regional development, culture is seen and used as a number of different local cultures with their own essential cultural heritage. The culture of local everyday life is opposite to, and in tension with, the construct of cultures used in regional development. Accordingly, culture should primarily be safeguarded as a heterogenic, dynamic and interactive process of everyday life. This process is the most important resource of local culture. In addition, culture should be safeguarded as value-based cultural constructions, such as brands or common identities of certain cultures, with for instance cultural heritage as a part of it. In the latter case, a common, transparent definition of these brands, identities and cultural heritages with their different values, is needed.

  4. Models of oceanic island biogeography: changing perspectives on biodiversity dynamics in archipelagoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence R Heaney

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Models of biogeographic processes can both enhance and inhibit our ability to ask questions that guide our understanding of patterns and processes. The two ‘traditional’ models of island biogeography, the Equilibrium Model and the Vicariance Model, raise important and insightful questions about relevant processes, but both fail to raise many crucial questions. An example involving the non-volant mammals of the Philippine archipelago shows that both models highlight some, but not all, relevant patterns and processes. The more recently proposed General Dynamic Model successfully combines many of the positive aspects of the two traditional models, but leaves some important questions unasked. We pose a number of questions here that may help guide further development of models of island biogeography.

  5. Potential speciation of morphotypes in the photosymbiotic ascidian Didemnum molle in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, M.; Yokobori, S.; Hirose, E.

    2009-03-01

    Four morphotypes are recognized in the photosymbiotic ascidian Didemnum molle in the Ryukyu Archipelago: three color morphs (white, dark gray, and brown) of small-type colonies and one large-type colony (white with gray patches). The genetic variation among these four morphotypes was investigated by constructing phylogenetic trees based on a 401-bp fragment of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of 29 specimens collected from five islands (Okinawajima, Sesokojima, Ikeijima, Kumejima, and Ishigakijima). The results support the monophyly of the genus Didemnum and that of the four morphotypes of D. molle. Moreover, the phylogenetic trees discriminated four clades corresponding to each morphotype. The geographic differences of the sequences were much smaller than the differences among the morphotypes, suggesting that the four morphotypes in D. molle are discrete sibling species.

  6. Topological Andr\\'e-Quillen homology for cellular commutative $S$-algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Andrew,; Gilmour, Helen; Reinhard, Philipp

    2007-01-01

    Topological Andr\\'e-Quillen homology for commutative $S$-algebras was introduced by Basterra following work of Kriz, and has been intensively studied by several authors. In this paper we discuss it as a homology theory on CW $S$-algebras and apply it to obtain results on minimal atomic $p$-local $S$-algebras which generalise those of Baker and May for $p$-local spectra and simply connected spaces. We exhibit some new examples of minimal atomic $S$-algebras.

  7. Fishery of the Green Jack Caranx caballus (Osteichytes: Carangidae in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Mair

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Green Jacks, Caranx caballus, are distributed along the Eastern Pacific coast. In Panama, C. caballus was heavily fished around Las Perlas Archipelago to sustain local markets until 2007, when the archipelago was declared a marine protected area. This first study in Panama, analyzed a sample of 4 990 individuals from Las Perlas, obtained monthly from June 2005 to June 2006, from landings at the central fish market. Average total length was 36.1±6.4cm and optimum length 38.9cm. Approximately 68% of fish lengths were within ±10% of the optimal length but only six (15% were considered mega-spawners. The von Bertalanffy parameters describe a long-lived and fast growing species, while mortality rates revealed that C. caballus is under high fishing pressure. Standard length at which half of the population is mature was 38.8cm, and the size at which individuals matured massively, 33cm. Only 10-13% of the fish were immature. C. caballus reproduces two to three times per year, with peaks in December, April, and probably September, and recruits to the population at least twice per year. Catch per unit effort (CPUE was best predicted by minimum annual values of the Multivariate ENSO/ LNSO Index (MEI (R²=0.54. Results show that C. caballus in Pacific Panama is overfished. We recommend the raising of the minimum capture/landing size of this species in order to increase the proportion of megaspawners in the population and guarantee the sustainability of this resource.

  8. Looking inside the Panarea Island (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy by gravity and magnetic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Greco

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show and discuss the results of gravity and magnetic surveys of Panarea Island and its archipelago. The most recent volcanic manifestation occurred in November 2002 with a shallow submarine gas eruption between the islets of Dattilo, Panarelli, Lisca Bianca, Bottaro and Lisca Nera. Currently, the activity of Panarea is monitored through a multidisciplinary study under the umbrella of the Italian Department of Civil Protection with the goal of defining the hazard of this area. With this aim, in May 2006 the first gravity and magnetic surveys of Panarea Island and its archipelago were performed. The offshore magnetic data were obtained using a marine magnetometer, a Geometrics G880, from the Istituto Idrografico dell Marina (IIM. Onshore and offshore magnetic data were integrated into an unique dataset for complete magnetic coverage of the study area. By using two micro-gravimeters (LaCoste & Romberg, gravity data were collected along tracks every 250 meters. The gravity dataset was processed using the standard method. A Bouguer reduction was applied to the free-air gravity dataset using a detailed digital elevation model of the island and the neighbouring sea after evaluation of the optimal Bouguer density to reduce the topographic effect. The result is a Bouguer anomaly map that shows lateral variations in density distribution and the relationships between the shallow volcanic/crustal features and tectonic lineaments. This evidence is also highlighted by the magnetic pattern, which suggests the importance of the youngest volcanic deposits with respect to the magnetic features of the island.

  9. A new species of the genus Sagitta (Phylum Chaetognatha) from the Agatti lagoon (Laccadive Archipelago, Indian Ocean) with comments on endemism

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Casanova, J.P.; Nair, V.R.

    A new chaetognath Sagitta madhupratapi from the Agatti atoll, Laccadive Archipelago is described. The species belongs to the "hispida" group. Though collections were made from other atolls the species was found restricted to the Agatti suggesting...

  10. Revmatoid artritt i Norge – demografi, sykdomskarakteristika og behandling. En sammenligning med andre europeiske land og USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Haugeberg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bakgrunn: Revmatoid artritt (RA er en kronisk inflammatorisk leddsykdom som gir økt sykelighet og dødelighet. Nye biologiske legemidler har de siste 10 årene bedret prognosen betydelig. I 2005 ble QUEST-RA (Quantitative Standard Monitoring of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis prosjektet etablert for å sammenligne sykdomsstatus og behandling hos RA-pasienter i forskjellige land. I denne artikkelen presenteres status for RA-pasienter i Norge sammenlignet med andre europeiske land og USA.Materiale og metode: Tilfeldig utvalgte RA-pasienter fulgt opp ved revmatologisk poliklinikk ved Sørlandet sykehus i Kristiansand (n=100 og St. Olavs Hospital i Trondheim (n=100 ble inkludert. I henhold til protokoll ble demografiske, sykdoms- og behandlingsdata registrert.Resultater: Norske RA-pasienter skilte seg lite fra gjennomsnittet i andre land med hensyn til alder, utdannelse og sykdomsvarighet. Sykdomsalvorlighet og sykdomsstatus til norske RA-pasienter er sammenlignbare med pasienter fra land som har lavest sykdomsaktivitet og best helsestatus. I Norge er andelen som behandles med biologiske legemidler ca 30%, og Norge er blant de land med størst andel pasienter som behandles med denne legemiddelgruppen. Fortolkning: RA-pasienter i Norge er blant de i Europa som har lavest sykdomsaktivitet. En årsak antas å være den relativt utbredte bruken av biologiske legemidler i Norge.

  11. Taxonomy and biogeography of the coastal fishes of Juan Fernández Archipelago and Desventuradas Islands, Chile / Taxonomía y biogeografía de los peces costeros del Archipiélago de Juan Fernández y de las islas Desventuradas, Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Brian S, Dyer; Mark W, Westneat.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Las islas Desventuradas (San Félix y San Ambrosio) y del Archipiélago de Juan Fernández (Robinson Crusoe y Alejandro Selkirk) son islas oceánicas de origen volcánico ubicadas en el Pacífico Sudeste, frente a Chile. Sobre la base de material recolectado desde 1997 hasta la fecha, revisiones de colecc [...] iones de las expediciones del R/V Anton Bruun y actualizaciones taxonómicas, la fauna de peces litorales del Archipélago de Juan Fernández y las islas Desventuradas tienen un total de 52 especies, con 41 y 43 especies, respectivamente. Los peces costeros endémicos de Juan Fernández son solamente cinco (12,2%) y tres son las especies registradas aquí como nuevas para las islas (Gymnothorax cf. obesus, Gnathophis sp., Suezichthys sp.). Las Desventuradas tienen solamente dos especies endémicas (4,6%) y cuatro son los nuevos registros (Scorpaenodes englerti, Maxillicosta reticulata, Suezichthys sp., Aseraggodes bahamondei). El reducido número de especies endémicas para Juan Fernández comparado con trabajos previos (15 especies) se debe a que muchas resultaron ser endémicas de ambos grupos de islas (22 especies = 42,3% total peces litorales), apoyando la propuesta que ambos grupos de islas debieran formar una sola unidad biogeográfica. La extensión oriental de la región Indo Pacífico Oeste para incluir la cordillera de Nazca, las islas Desventuradas y Juan Fernández encuentra apoyo en este trabajo. La afinidad zoogeográfica entre las Desventuradas y las islas del Pacífico Oeste (Isla de Pascua hasta Australia) incluye 16 especies, agregando cinco nuevos registros a listas anteriores. Filogenias de tres géneros señalan un centro de origen en el Pacífico Oeste, con uno o más eventos de dispersión hacia las islas Desventuradas y Juan Fernández. Este patrón de dispersión puede repetirse en otros siete géneros de pocas especies y relativamente restringidas en distribución. Solo una filogenia (Odontesthes) propone un origen continental con una dispersión hacia el Oeste, sin embargo otros tres géneros parecen tener este mismo patrón de dispersión. Abstract in english The Desventuradas Islands (San Félix and San Ambrosio) and Juan Fernández Archipelago (Robinson Crusoe and Alejandro Selkirk) are oceanic islands of volcanic origin located in the southeastern Pacific off Chile. Based on new material collected since 1997, revision of the R/V Anton Bruun expeditions [...] collections, and a taxonomic update, the coastal fish fauna of Juan Fernández Archipelago and Desventuradas Islands found a total of 52 species, with 41 and 43 species, respectively. The number of coastal fish species recorded herein as endemic for Juan Fernández is only five (12,2%) and three species are new records (Gymnothorax cf. obesus, Gnathophis sp., Suezichthys sp). The Desventuradas Islands have only two endemic species (4,6%) and four species are new records (Scorpaenodes englerti, Maxillicosta reticulata, Suezichthys sp., Aseraggodes bahamondei). The reduced number of endemic species for the Juan Fernández Islands as compared with previous accounts (15 species) is the result that more species were found to be endemic to both islands groups (22 species = 42,3% all coastal fishes), suggesting these two island groups should be considered a single biogeographic unit. The eastern extension of the Indo West Pacific Region to include the Nazca Ridge, Desventuradas and Juan Fernández Islands is supported herein. The zoogeographical affinities between Desventuradas and western Pacific Islands (Easter Island to Australia), includes 16 species, adding five new species to previous lists. Relationships of three genera indicate a Western Pacific origin with one or more dispersal events to the Desventuradas and Juan Fernández Islands. Another seven genera, with relatively few species and restricted distribution, may have this same pattern. Only one phylogenetic study indicates a continental origin with a westward dispersal (Odontesthes), however another three genera may have this same pattern of dispersal.

  12. Y-chromosome and surname analysis of the native islanders of San Andrés and Providencia (Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Luz Angela; Usaquén, William

    2013-02-01

    The Archipelago of San Andrés and Providencia is a Colombian Department in the western waters of the Caribbean Sea. Most of its inhabitants belong to the African-Colombian group known as raizal. This group has unique cultural traits that are derived from centuries of admixture of the primarily African slaves and European colonists. Currently, not much is known about the genetic profile of this population. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the Y-chromosome STR genetic structure and relationship to previously published reference populations. A total of 54 natives from the islands were selected based on the genealogical criterion of having three generations of ancestors born in the Archipelago. Seventeen Y-STRs were analyzed, supplemented by information on the first surname inherited. The genetic substructure hypothesis in the studied islands was tested, and no significant differences were found (p>0.05). Y-chromosome haplogroups were predicted, and E1b1a and R1b were the most commonly found haplogroups. They account for more than 80% of the sample. The E1b1a and R1ba haplogroups are common in the African and European populations, respectively. For comparative genetic analysis, genetic distances were calculated with respect to populations from the Caribbean, Colombia, Europe and Africa. We found greater similarity between the African and Caribbean populations. The surname analysis demonstrated that most of the time, the "raizales" with the same surname also shared the same Y-STR haplotype. This suggests that some kinship relationship exists between participants with the same surname, which was confirmed by the haplotype diversity levels found in the studied islands. PMID:23290785

  13. Catching Basking Ide, Leuciscus idus (L.), in the Baltic Sea : Fishing and Local Knowledge in the Finnish and Swedish Archipelagos

    OpenAIRE

    Ståhlberg, Sabira; Svanberg, Ingvar

    2011-01-01

    Ide (Leuciscus idus (L.)) gathers in shallow bays in the Baltic archipelagos during warm summer days. Finnish, Estonian and Swedish islanders called this "basking" or "sunbathing." The phenomenon was previously well known among fishermen, but it is very little researched. Local people caught the basking fish until some decades ago with special techniques, for example closing the bay with nets. Catching basking ide required observation, knowledge, attention and skill, but could provide a large...

  14. Conservation Genetics of the Philippine Tarsier: Cryptic Genetic Variation Restructures Conservation Priorities for an Island Archipelago Primate

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Rafe M.; Weghorst, Jennifer A.; Olson, Karen V.; Duya, Mariano R. M.; Barley, Anthony J.; Duya, Melizar V.; Shekelle, Myron; Neri-Arboleda, Irene; Esselstyn, Jacob A.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.; Ong, Perry S.; Moritz, Gillian L.; Luczon, Adrian; Diesmos, Mae Lowe L.; Diesmos, Arvin C.

    2014-01-01

    Establishment of conservation priorities for primates is a particular concern in the island archipelagos of Southeast Asia, where rates of habitat destruction are among the highest in the world. Conservation programs require knowledge of taxonomic diversity to ensure success. The Philippine tarsier is a flagship species that promotes environmental awareness and a thriving ecotourism economy in the Philippines. However, assessment of its conservation status has been impeded by taxonomic uncert...

  15. Sources and spatial distribution of heavy metals in scleractinian coral tissues and sediments from the Bocas del Toro Archipelago, Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Kathryn L. E.; Seemann, Janina; Dellwig, Olaf; STRUCK, ULRICH; Wild, Christian; Leinfelder, Reinhold R.

    2013-01-01

    Marine ecosystems worldwide are threatened by aquatic pollution; however, there is a paucity in data from the Caribbean region. As such, five heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, copper, zinc, mercury) were measured in tissues of the scleractinian corals Porites furcata and Agaricia tenuifolia and in adjacent sediments in the Bocas del Toro Archipelago, Panama. Samples were collected from five reef sites along a gradient of distance from an international shipping port and were analysed using induc...

  16. Seismicity Pattern Changes before the M = 4.8 Aeolian Archipelago (Italy) Earthquake of August 16, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Gambino; Antonino Laudani; Salvatore Mangiagli

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the seismicity patterns associated with an M = 4.8 earthquake recorded in the Aeolian Archipelago on 16, August, 2010, by means of the region-time-length (RTL) algorithm. This earthquake triggered landslides at Lipari; a rock fall on the flanks of the Vulcano, Lipari, and Salina islands, and some damages to the village of Lipari. The RTL algorithm is widely used for investigating precursory seismicity changes before large and moderate earthquakes. We examined both the spatial ...

  17. Long-term changes and coastal eutrophication. Examples from the Aland Islands and the Archipelago Sea, northern Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsdorff, E; Blomqvist, Em; Mattila, J; Norkko, A

    1997-01-01

    The coastal and archipelago waters of the northern Baltic Sea are influenced by increasing eutrophication (significantly increasing temporal trends in nutrient availability). Increased nutrient levels and pelagic primary production have led to decreased transparency in the water body, increased plankton biomass, and increased amounts of filamentous algae. Large-scale and long-term (15-30 years) comparisons have shown that zoobenthic communities have changed significantly (altered species dive...

  18. A Middle Miocene carbonate embankment on an active volcanic slope : Ilhéu de Baixo, Madeira Archipelago, Eastern Atlantic

    OpenAIRE

    Gudveig Baarli, B.; Cachão, Mário; Silva, Carlos M. da; Johnson, Markes E.; Mayoral Alfaro, Eduardo; Santos, Ana Alexandra Guerreiro dos

    2014-01-01

    Carbonate factories on insular oceanic islands in active volcanic settings are poorly explored. This case study illuminates marginal limestone deposits on a steep volcanic flank and their recurring interruption by deposits linked to volcaniclastic processes. Historically known as Ilhéu da Cal (Lime Island), Ilhéu de Baixo was separated from Porto Santo, in the Madeira Archipelago, during the course of the Quaternary. Here, extensive mines were tunnelled in the Miocene carbonate strata for the...

  19. La Galite Archipelago (Tunisia, North Africa): stratigraphic and petrographic revision and insights for geodynamic evolution of the Maghrebian Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Belayouni, Habib; Brunelli, Daniele; Clocchiatti, Roberto; Di Staso, Angelida; El Hassani, Iz-Eddine El Amrani; Guerrera, Francesco; Kassaa, Samia; Ouazaa, Nejia Laridhi; Martín Martín, Manuel; Serrano Lozano, Francisco; Tramontana, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The location of the La Galite Archipelago on the Internal/External Zones of the Maghrebian Chain holds strong interest for the reconstruction of the geodynamic evolution of the Mesomediterranean Microplate-Africa Plate Boundary Zone. New stratigraphic and petrographic data on sedimentary successions intruded upon by plutonic rocks enabled a better definition of the palaeogeographic and palaeotectonic evolutionary model of the area during the early-middle Miocene. The lower Miocene sedimentary...

  20. Genetic variation in the invasive avian parasite, Philornis downsi (Diptera, Muscidae) on the Galápagos archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Donnellan Steve; Gardner Michael G; Dudaniec Rachael Y; Kleindorfer Sonia

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Understanding the dispersal and genetic structure of invasive insects across islands is important for designing management plans that are appropriate at spatial and temporal scales. For invasive parasites, population dynamics are largely determined by the distribution and density of their host species. The introduced parasitic fly, Philornis downsi, parasitises nestlings of endemic birds on all major islands of the Galápagos archipelago. The fly's high mortality and fitnes...

  1. Termites (Isoptera) in the Azores: an overview of the four invasive species currently present in the archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Maria T.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Nunes, Lina; Myles, Timothy G.; Guerreiro, Orlando; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H.

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution we summarize the current status of the known termites of the Azores (North Atlantic; 37-40° N, 25-31° W). Since 2000, four species of termites have been identified in the Azorean archipelago. These are spreading throughout the islands and becoming common structural and agricultural pests. Two termites of the Kalotermitidae family, Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) and Kalotermes flavicollis (Fabricius) are found on six and three of the islands, respectively. The other two spec...

  2. Vegetation - San Felipe Valley [ds172

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This Vegetation Map of the San Felipe Valley Wildlife Area in San Diego County, California is based on vegetation samples collected in the field in 2002 and 2005...

  3. Exploring the new long-term (150 years) precipitation dataset in Azores archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Armand; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Kutiel, Haim; Valente, Maria A.; Sigró, Javier

    2015-04-01

    Within the scope of the two major international projects of long-term reanalysis for the 20th century coordinated by NOAA (Compo et al. 2011) and ECMWF (Hersbach et al. 2013) the IDL Institute from the University of Lisbon has digitized a large number of long-term stations records from Portugal and former Portuguese Colonies (Stickler et al. 2014). Recently we have finished the digitization of all precipitation values from Ponta Delgada (capital of the Azores archipelago) obtaining an uninterrupted precipitation monthly time series since 1864 and additionally an almost complete corresponding daily precipitation series, with the exception of some years (1864/1872; 1878/1879; 1888/1905; 1931; 1936 and 1938) for which only monthly values are available. Here, we present an annually, seasonally and daily resolution study of the rainfall regime in Ponta Delgada for the last 150 years and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) influence over this precipitation regime. The distribution of precipitation presents an evident seasonal pattern, with a strong difference between the 'rainy season' (November/March) and the 'dry season' (June/August) with very little rainfall. April/May and September/October correspond to the transitional seasons. The mean annual rainfall in Ponta Delgada is approximately 910 mm and is accumulated (on average) in about 120 rainy days. The precipitation regime in Azores archipelago reveals large inter-annual and intra-annual variability and both have increased considerably in the last decades. The entire studied period (1865-2012) shows an increase in the rainfall conditions between a drier earlier period (1865-1938) and a wetter recent period (1939-2012). At daily resolution, we have used an approach based on different characteristics of rain spells (consecutive days with rainfall accumulation) that has been proved to be satisfactory for the analysis of the different parameters related to the rainfall regime (Kutiel and Trigo, 2014). This approach shows that the increase in precipitation is mainly due to more intense events which are reflected by higher rain spell yields (amount of precipitation) and rain spell intensity (amount of precipitation by day) values in the last decades. On the other hand, despite the fact that one of the most widely used NAO definitions includes sea level pressure from the Ponta Delgada station, its long-term impact on the Azores archipelago climate is not well established yet. Here, we assessed the NAO influence over the precipitation regime according to Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. Results show that the inter-annual variability of precipitation is largely modulated by the NAO mode. Correlation values of r=-0.90, r=-0.79 and r=-0.63 were obtained for years with positive (>1) or negative (

  4. Origen y microdiferenciación de la población del Archipiélago de Chiloé / Origin and microdifferentiation of Chiloé Archipelago population

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    FEDERICO, GARCÍA; MAURICIO, MORAGA; SOLEDAD, VERA; HUGO, HENRÍQUEZ; ELENA, LLOP; CARLOS, OCAMPO; EUGENIO, ASPILLAGA; FRANCISCO, ROTHHAMMER.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Las etnias originarias del archipiélago de Chiloé presentan características culturales que plantean preguntas acerca de su origen como entidad genética independiente y distinta del grupo continental. Al respecto, hemos caracterizado las frecuencias de los cuatro haplogrupos amerindios fundadores del [...] ADN mitocondrial en cuatro poblaciones del archipiélago. El componente aborigen materno de estas poblaciones fue superior al 90 %. El análisis de distancias genéticas sugiere una segregación norte-sur en donde las poblaciones septentrionales aparecen más relacionadas con la etnia continental Huilliche. Aún cuando el análisis de diferenciación interpoblacional y de componentes principales muestran una singularidad en el grupo insular, ésta puede ser interpretada a partir de datos genéticos, etnohistóricos y arqueológicos Abstract in english The cultural diversity of Chiloé archipelago’s population raises questions about its ethnic origin. To determinate whether this population forms a distinct genetic-cultural entity in relation to continental groups, four populations were characterized genetically. Gene frequencies for the four Amerin [...] dian mitochondrial DNA haplogroups were analyzed. The studied groups exhibit an important aboriginal maternal genetic contribution since over 90 % of the individuals analyzed presented Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups. Although the genetic distance analysis indicates a north-south segregation, in agreement with ethnohistoric information, a relationship between groups of the Northern part of the archipelago with the Huilliche population is observed. Nevertheless, the exact test of population differentiation and the principal component analysis indicate a singularity in the insular group which can be explained combining genetic, ethnohistoric and archeological data

  5. Origen y microdiferenciación de la población del Archipiélago de Chiloé Origin and microdifferentiation of Chiloé Archipelago population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FEDERICO GARCÍA

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Las etnias originarias del archipiélago de Chiloé presentan características culturales que plantean preguntas acerca de su origen como entidad genética independiente y distinta del grupo continental. Al respecto, hemos caracterizado las frecuencias de los cuatro haplogrupos amerindios fundadores del ADN mitocondrial en cuatro poblaciones del archipiélago. El componente aborigen materno de estas poblaciones fue superior al 90 %. El análisis de distancias genéticas sugiere una segregación norte-sur en donde las poblaciones septentrionales aparecen más relacionadas con la etnia continental Huilliche. Aún cuando el análisis de diferenciación interpoblacional y de componentes principales muestran una singularidad en el grupo insular, ésta puede ser interpretada a partir de datos genéticos, etnohistóricos y arqueológicosThe cultural diversity of Chiloé archipelago’s population raises questions about its ethnic origin. To determinate whether this population forms a distinct genetic-cultural entity in relation to continental groups, four populations were characterized genetically. Gene frequencies for the four Amerindian mitochondrial DNA haplogroups were analyzed. The studied groups exhibit an important aboriginal maternal genetic contribution since over 90 % of the individuals analyzed presented Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups. Although the genetic distance analysis indicates a north-south segregation, in agreement with ethnohistoric information, a relationship between groups of the Northern part of the archipelago with the Huilliche population is observed. Nevertheless, the exact test of population differentiation and the principal component analysis indicate a singularity in the insular group which can be explained combining genetic, ethnohistoric and archeological data

  6. Structure of microemulsions by SANS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to determine the structure of microemulsions in the system hydrocarbon-water-sodium di-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT). SANS spectra taken in a deuterated solvent showed a perfect Guinier fit with a radius of gyration of 15A regardless of the amount of AOT from 0.1 to 5% present. By varying the proportions of deuterated and undeuterated solvent to vary the contrast between the micelles and the solvent, it is concluded that the micelles are basically monodispersed spherical aggregations of 22 AOT molecules

  7. The San Bernabe power substation; La subestacion San Bernabe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez Sanudo, Andres D. [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The first planning studies that gave rise to the San Bernabe substation go back to year 1985. The main circumstance that supports this decision is the gradual restriction for electric power generation that has been suffering the Miguel Aleman Hydro System, until its complete disappearance, to give priority to the potable water supply through the Cutzamala pumping system, that feeds in an important way Mexico City and the State of Mexico. In this document the author describes the construction project of the San Bernabe Substation; mention is made of the technological experiences obtained during the construction and its geographical location is shown, as well as the one line diagram of the same [Espanol] Los primeros estudios de planeacion que dieron origen a la subestacion San Bernabe se remontan al ano de 1985. La circunstancia principal que soporta esta decision es la restriccion paulatina para generar energia que ha venido experimentando el Sistema Hidroelectrico Miguel Aleman, hasta su desaparicion total, para dar prioridad al suministro de agua potable por medio del sistema de bombeo Cutzamala, que alimenta en forma importante a la Ciudad de Mexico y al Estado de Mexico. En este documento el autor describe el proyecto de construccion de la subestacion San Bernabe; se mencionan las experiencias tecnologicas obtenidas durante su construccion y se ilustra su ubicacion geografica, asi como un diagrama unifilar de la misma

  8. Jõekääru Jazz täitis eesmärgi nii korraldajate, esinejate kui publiku poolelt / Allan Liik, Hedvig Hanson, Andre Maaker, Ain Agan...[jt.] ; foto ja küsitl. Kaire Tensuda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Jõekääru Jazz'ile järgneval nädalal tõi ürituse peakorraldaja Allan Liik toimetusse seal esinenud muusikud. Vestlusringis olid: Allan Liik, Hedvig Hanson, Andre Maaker, Ain Agan, Raivo Tafenau ja Sergio Bastos

  9. XII Avatud Ühiskonna Foorumi arutlusring "Euroopa hiilgus ja viletsus - Euroopa Liit 50. Kuidas edasi?" / Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Mark Leonard, Ivan Krastev ; intervjueerinud Andres Kasekamp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2008-01-01

    Pärnus diskuteerisid 10. oktoobril 2007 Euroopa tuleviku teemadel president Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Euroopa Välissuhete Nõukogu tegevjuht Mark Leonard ja Sofias paikneva Liberaalstrateegiate Keskuse juht Ivan Krastev. Vestluse moderaator oli Eesti Välispoliitika Instituudi direktor, Avatud Eesti Fondi nõukogu esimees Andres Kasekamp

  10. 1 küsimus noorele juhile : Kui raha ja aeg ei piira, siis mida tahaksite elus juurde õppida? / Jekaterina Eilart, Andres Urb, Mariana Kolesnik... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Hamburg ja Partnerid töötaja Jekaterina Eilart, Sampo Life Eesti varahaldur Andres Urb, Marati peadisainer Mariana Kolesnik, katusefirma Evari juht Rain Kala, endine tudengiorganisatsiooni AIESEC Eesti president Lauri Lahi ning internetiturundaja Marjam Vaher

  11. Surmahiirte tants; Pühapäeva hommik; Unistus venna külaskäigust; Kolm päeva voodipuhkust; Veepiir; Ei sugutunnuseid ega muid iseärasusi : [Luuletused] / Wallace Stevens ; inglise k. tlk. ja järelsõna: Andres Ehin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stevens, Wallace

    1996-01-01

    Autorist lk. 212. Luuletuste 'Unistus venna külaskäigust', 'Kolm päeva voodipuhkust', 'Veepiir' ja 'Ei sugutunnuseid ega muid iseärasusi', mis on samuti ekslikult sealsamas W. Stevensile omistatud, autor on tegelikult Carlos Stewal. Vt. Ehin, Andres. Veavabandus // Looming. 1995. Nr. 5. Lk. 718

  12. Radiation accident in San Salvador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the base of a radiation accident of tragic consequences which took place in 1989 in San Salvador the author formulates conclusions that are also important for the Polish users of instruments with isotopic sources. Only high qualifications, permanent training and proper exploitation of such instruments would ensure safety of the employees. (author)

  13. Genome-wide SNP analysis explains coral diversity and recovery in the Ryukyu Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, Chuya; Mungpakdee, Sutada; Arakaki, Nana; Satoh, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    Following a global coral bleaching event in 1998, Acropora corals surrounding most of Okinawa island (OI) were devastated, although they are now gradually recovering. In contrast, the Kerama Islands (KIs) only 30?km west of OI, have continuously hosted a great variety of healthy corals. Taking advantage of the decoded Acropora digitifera genome and using genome-wide SNP analyses, we clarified Acropora population structure in the southern Ryukyu Archipelago (sRA). Despite small genetic distances, we identified distinct clusters corresponding to specific island groups, suggesting infrequent long-distance dispersal within the sRA. Although the KIs were believed to supply coral larvae to OI, admixture analyses showed that such dispersal is much more limited than previously realized, indicating independent recovery of OI coral populations and the necessity of local conservation efforts for each region. We detected strong historical migration from the Yaeyama Islands (YIs) to OI, and suggest that the YIs are the original source of OI corals. In addition, migration edges to the KIs suggest that they are a historical sink population in the sRA, resulting in high diversity. This population genomics study provides the highest resolution data to date regarding coral population structure and history. PMID:26656261

  14. An integrated approach to characterize the basal aquifer of a volcanic island, Santa Cruz, Galapagos Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryet, A.; Minh Vu, T.; Adler, P. M.; Deffontaines, B.; d'Ozouville, N.; Violette, S.; Fortin, J.

    2011-12-01

    The main shield of Santa Cruz Island, at the center of the Galapagos Archipelago, is formed by series of thick fractured basaltic lava flows dissected by faults. The low-lying, extensive "basal" aquifer is the unique groundwater body currently identified on the island and is subjected to sea-water intrusion. Water abstracted from fault scarps in the coastal area and a 150 m deep borehole further inland is brackish and requires expensive desalination technique. Sea-water intrusion was mapped from electrical resistivity imaging with an airborne electromagnetic SkyTEM survey. At the regional and local scales, the fracturation network was described from satellite imagery and field measurements. A groundwater monitoring network was set up. The hydraulic properties of this heterogeneous geological environment was characterized by pumping tests and tidal signal propagation. In order to investigate recharge dynamics, a yearlong climatic monitoring was conducted in the humid highlands and compared to water level fluctuations in the deep borehole. Hydrodynamic properties were determined and recharge processes identified. Since cooling joints form a dense network of fractures, the aquifer is highly permeable. This facilitates sea-water intrusion and freshwater drainage to the ocean. Surprisingly, the highly conductive heterogeneities formed by fault scarps are not regional preferential groundwater flow paths. This is compatible with structural and geomorphological observations made at the ground surface where faults are seen to be discontinuous successions of "en echelon" tension fractures. A 2D numerical model will be used to determine the optimal location of a new borehole.

  15. Spatial distribution of oxygen-18 and deuterium in stream waters across the Japanese archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Katsuyama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition (?18O and ?2H of stream waters across Japan was clarified with a data set compiling sample data obtained from 1278 forest catchments during the summer of 2003. Both ?18O and ?2H values showed positive correlations with the mean annual air temperature and annual evapotranspiration, and negative correlations with latitude and elevation. Deuterium excess (d excess values in stream waters were higher on the Sea of Japan side, and lower on the Pacific Ocean side, of the Japanese archipelago. The d excess in precipitation was generally higher in winter and lower in summer in Japan. The Sea of Japan side experiences a great deal of snowfall, and seasonal changes in monthly precipitation are rather small. In contrast, the Pacific Ocean side experiences a large amount of rainfall during summer with low levels of precipitation during the winter. Therefore, the lower d excess in stream waters on the Pacific Ocean side reflects summer precipitation, and the higher values on the Sea of Japan side are affected by delayed recharge from snowmelt. The isoscapes of stream water connote not only spatially integrated but also temporally integrated isotope signals of precipitation, and provide a framework for addressing applied hydrological, ecological, or meteorological research questions at regional scales, such as the effects of climate change.

  16. Spatial distribution of oxygen-18 and deuterium in stream waters across the Japanese archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuyama, M.; Yoshioka, T.; Konohira, E.

    2015-03-01

    The spatial distribution of oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition (?18O and ?2H) of stream waters across Japan was clarified with a data set by compiling sample data obtained from 1278 forest catchments during the summer of 2003. Both ?18O and ?2H values showed positive correlations with the mean annual air temperature and annual evapotranspiration, and negative correlations with latitude and elevation. Deuterium excess (d-excess) values in stream waters were higher on the Sea of Japan side, and lower on the Pacific Ocean side, of the Japanese archipelago. The d-excess in precipitation was generally higher in winter and lower in summer in Japan. The Sea of Japan side experiences a great deal of snowfall, and seasonal changes in monthly precipitation are rather small. In contrast, the Pacific Ocean side experiences a large amount of rainfall during summer with low levels of precipitation during the winter. Therefore, the lower d-excess in stream waters on the Pacific Ocean side reflects summer precipitation, and the higher values on the Sea of Japan side are affected by delayed recharge from snowmelt. The isoscapes of stream water connote not only spatially integrated but also temporally integrated isotope signals of precipitation and provide a framework for addressing applied hydrological, ecological, or meteorological research questions at regional scales, such as the effects of climate change.

  17. Number of endemic and native plant species in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, E.; Hansen, Anders J.

    2002-01-01

    By simple and multiple regression analyses we investigate updated species numbers of endemic and native vascular plants and seed plants in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters. We find that the best models to describe species numbers are regression models with log-transformed species numbers as dependent and log-transformed modified area (i.e. area not covered with barren lava) as an independent variable. This holds both for total species number, for native species number, for endemic species number and for total number of seed plants as well as number of endemic seed plants. For the ratio between endemic and native species, modified area is also the major significant variable, but with a negative regression slope. Multiple regression models show that some isolation measures are significant contributors and may explain some of the residual variation, but their contribution to total explained variation is in general small. The results show that the species area relationships are different for native and endemic species. This is discussed in relation to classical island biogeographical models, and the concepts of radiative speciation. Udgivelsesdato: 2002

  18. Anisotropic internal thermal stress in sea ice from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Y.; Tremblay, L. B.

    2015-08-01

    Results from an ice stress buoy deployed near the center of a multi-year floe in the Viscount Melville Sound of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago between 10 October 2010 and 17 August 2011 are presented. The position record indicates the landlocked season was approximately 5 months, from 18 January to 22 June, when the sea ice was fast to Melville Island and Victoria Island. Thermal stresses (ranging from -84 to 66 kPa) dominate the internal stress record, with only a few dynamic stress events (˜50 kPa) recorded before the landlocked season. Intriguingly, the thermal stresses are isotropic before the landlocked ice onset and anisotropic during the landlocked season. Two possible causes to explain anisotropy in thermal stresses are considered: preferred c axis alignment of the ice crystal, and land confinement associated with the nearby coastline. The orientation of the principal stresses indicates that land confinement is responsible for the anisotropy. The stress record also clearly shows the presence of residual compressive stresses at the melt onset, suggesting a viscous creep relaxation time constant of several days. Finally, results show an interesting reversal in the sign of the correlation (from negative to positive) between surface air temperature and thermal stress after the onset of surface melt. We attribute this to the onset of water infiltration within sea ice after which colder night temperature leads to refreezing and compressive stresses. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that anisotropic thermal stresses have been reported in sea ice.

  19. AN ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN THE SCLERACTINIAN CORAL TISSUES OF KARIMUNJAWA ARCHIPELAGO, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Sabdono

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Karimunjawa archipelago, marine national park, has been considered to be a relatively pristine area that have more than 90 species of corals. This study was conducted to detect any concentrations heavy metal levels in the tissues of eight coral species. Based on life-forms, selected coral species are classified as massive (Porites lutea and Goniastrea retiformis, submassive (Galaxea fascicularis and Stylophora pistillata, foliaceous (Pavona decussata and Montipora foliosa and branching/ramosa (Acropora aspera and Pocillopora damicornis. The concentration of heavy metals in the coral tissues were assessed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS technique. The present experimental results demonstrated that metal in coral tissues were no significant difference between sites. Concentration levels of five heavy metals were found to be in the order of Pb>Zn>Cr>Cd>Cu. Relating heavy metal concentrations to life-form corals, there were no significant differences of all the metals (except Pb, the highest concentration of Pb were found in foliaceous type of corals. The high level of Pb in foliaceous coral life-form (Pavona decussata and Montipora foliosa, indicating that these coral species are usefull as potential candidates of biomonitoring material for this metal. However, the use of corals as biomonitors should be considered carefully in biological and local environmental factors.

  20. Immediate replacement of fishing with dairying by the earliest farmers of the Northeast Atlantic archipelagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramp, Lucy J E; Jones, Jennifer; Sheridan, Alison; Smyth, Jessica; Whelton, Helen; Mulville, Jacqui; Sharples, Niall; Evershed, Richard P

    2014-04-01

    The appearance of farming, from its inception in the Near East around 12 000 years ago, finally reached the northwestern extremes of Europe by the fourth millennium BC or shortly thereafter. Various models have been invoked to explain the Neolithization of northern Europe; however, resolving these different scenarios has proved problematic due to poor faunal preservation and the lack of specificity achievable for commonly applied proxies. Here, we present new multi-proxy evidence, which qualitatively and quantitatively maps subsistence change in the northeast Atlantic archipelagos from the Late Mesolithic into the Neolithic and beyond. A model involving significant retention of hunter-gatherer-fisher influences was tested against one of the dominant adoptions of farming using a novel suite of lipid biomarkers, including dihydroxy fatty acids, ?-(o-alkylphenyl)alkanoic acids and stable carbon isotope signatures of individual fatty acids preserved in cooking vessels. These new findings, together with archaeozoological and human skeletal collagen bulk stable carbon isotope proxies, unequivocally confirm rejection of marine resources by early farmers coinciding with the adoption of intensive dairy farming. This pattern of Neolithization contrasts markedly to that occurring contemporaneously in the Baltic, suggesting that geographically distinct ecological and cultural influences dictated the evolution of subsistence practices at this critical phase of European prehistory. PMID:24523264

  1. Molecular insights into the origins of the Shompen, a declining population of the Nicobar archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Rajni; Sitalaximi, T; Banerjee, Jheelam; Singh, Anamika; Sircar, P K; Kashyap, V K

    2006-01-01

    The Shompen, one of the most isolated and poorly understood contemporary hunter-gatherer populations, inhabit Great Nicobar Island, the southernmost island of the Nicobar archipelago. Morphological imprints in the Shompen were interpreted to favour a mixed Indo-Chinese, Malay, Negrito and Dravidian origin. Analyses of the mitochondrial, Y-chromosomal and autosomal gene pool of contemporary Shompen have revealed low diversity, illustrating a founder effect in the island population. Mitochondrial sequence analyses revealed the presence of two haplogroups of R lineage: B5a, and a newly defined clade, R12. Y-chromosomal analyses demonstrated the occurrence of a single lineage found predominantly in Austro-Asiatic speakers across Asia. With the different types of genetic markers analysed, the Shompen exhibit varying levels of genetic relatedness with the Nicobarese, and Austro-Asiatic speakers of mainland India and Southeast Asia. These genetic analyses provide evidence that the Shompen, an offshoot of the Nicobarese, are descendants of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers of Southeast Asian origin, deriving from at least two source populations. PMID:16453062

  2. Blood meal identification and feeding habits of uranotaenia species collected in the ryukyu archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Takako; Miyagi, Ichiro; Tamashiro, Mikako

    2014-09-01

    To know the blood meal in the stomach of Uranotaenia species, blood-fed mosquitoes were collected by 4 methods at different sites in the mountain forest of 3 islands, Amamioshima, Okinawajima, and Iriomotejima in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan from 2005 to 2012. One hundred twenty-four blood-fed Uranotaenia mosquitoes of 7 species (Ur. jacksoni, nivipleura, ohamai, yaeyamana, annandalei, lateralis, and macfarlanei) were collected. The collection rates are 0.26, 0.6, 0.31, and 0.66 by black light trap, black light blue with dry ice trap, frog call trap, and sweeping net, respectively. The blood meals of 107 females (86.3%) were successfully identified by a polymerase chain reaction-based method. All Uranotaenia species fed on cold-blooded animals, especially amphibians (99.1%), and notably on frogs. They would feed readily on available frogs in a given region having no close connection with the breeding (calling) season of each frog. They also fed on reptiles (0.9%), but not on warm-blooded animals. PMID:25843097

  3. Genetic diversity and population structure of an insular tree, Santalum austrocaledonicum in New Caledonian archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottin, L; Verhaegen, D; Tassin, J; Olivieri, I; Vaillant, A; Bouvet, J M

    2005-06-01

    We present a study of the genetic diversity and structure of a tropical tree in an insular system. Santalum austrocaledonicum is endemic to the archipelago of New Caledonia and is exploited for oil extraction from heartwood. A total of 431 individuals over 17 populations were analysed for eight polymorphic microsatellite loci. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 33 and the observed heterozygosity per population ranged from 0.01 in Mare to 0.74 in Ile des Pins. The genetic diversity was lowest in the most recent islands, the Loyautes, and highest in the oldest island, Grande Terre, as well as the nearby small Ile des Pins. Significant departures from panmixia were observed for some loci-population combinations (per population FIS = 0-0.03 on Grande-Terre and Ile des Pins, and 0-0.67 on Loyautes). A strong genetic differentiation among all islands was observed (FST = 0.22), and the amount of differentiation increased with geographic distance in Iles Loyaute and in Grande Terre. At both population and island levels, island age and isolation seem to be the main factors influencing the amount of genetic diversity. In particular, populations from recent islands had large average FIS that could not be entirely explained by null alleles or a Wahlund effect. This result suggests that, at least in some populations, selfing occurred extensively. Conclusively, our results indicate a strong influence of insularity on the genetic diversity and structure of Santalum austrocaledonicum. PMID:15910320

  4. Aesthetics and Empire: The Sense of Feminine Beauty in the Making of the US Imperial Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson, Lanny

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the “sense of beauty” in the United States imperial archipelago, composed of the island territories of Cuba, Hawai`i, Philippines, and Puerto Rico, all acquired in 1898. The theoretical connection among these two elements –aesthetics and empire– is provided by a revision of the concepts “economy of colonial desire” and “complex of visuality.” This paper analyzes the most advanced visual technology of the late nineteenth century: the mass- produced, printed photograph. In particular, it focuses upon the representations of feminine beauty as found the illustrated “new-possessions” books which described recent island acquisitions of the United States. The connections between aesthetics and the forms of governance in each territory will also be elucidated.Este artículo examina el “sentido de belleza” en el archipiélago imperial estadounidense, compuesto de los territorios isleños de Cuba, Hawai`i, Filipinas y Puerto Rico, todos adquiridos en 1898. La conexión teórica entre estos dos elementos –estética e imperio– se establece mediante una revisión de los conceptos de “economía de deseo colonial” y el “complejo de visualidad”. Este artículo analiza la tecnología visual más avanzada del siglo diecinueve tardío: la fotografía impresa. En particular, se enfoca en las representaciones de belleza femenina en los libros ilustrados de las “nuevas posesiones” los cuales describían las adquisiciones recientes de los Estados Unidos. También, se dilucidarán las conexiones entre estética y las formas de gobernanza en cada territorio.

  5. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air from Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece): Natural versus anthropogenic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the chemical composition of VOCs in air and gas discharges collected at Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece). The main goals are i) to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic VOC sources and ii) to evaluate their impact on local air quality. Up to 63 different VOCs were recognized and quantitatively determined in 6 fumaroles and 19 air samples collected in the Lakki caldera, where fumarolic emissions are located, and the outer ring of the island, including the Mandraki village and the main harbor. Air samples from the crater area show significant concentrations of alkanes, alkenes, cyclic, aromatics, and S- and O-bearing heterocycles directly deriving from the hydrothermal system, as well as secondary O-bearing compounds from oxidation of primary VOCs. At Mandraki village, C6H6/?(methylated aromatics) and ?(linear)/?(branched) alkanes ratios 2O–CO2–H2S rich and discharge a large variety of VOC species. •Benzene/toluene ratios identify anthropogenic and natural sources of VOCs in air. •Aldehydes in air are produced by oxidation of alkanes and alkenes. •Geogenic furans and hydrogenated halocarbons in air are recalcitrant. -- Anthropogenic and natural VOCs in air are distinguished on the basis of aromatic, O-substituted, S-substituted and halogenated compounds

  6. Megachile timberlakei Cockerell (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae): Yet another bee species from the Galápagos Archipelago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus; Carrión, A.; Castro-Urgal, R.; Chamorro, S.; Gonzalez, V. H.; Griswold, T. L.; Herrera, H. W.; McMullen,, C. K.; Olesen, Jens Mogens; Traveset, A.

    2012-01-01

    We here report the leaf-cutter bee Megachile (Eutricharaea) timberlakei Cockerell 1920 (Megachilidae) as a third bee species in the Gala´pagos. The species is currently known from the Hawaiian Islands and was collected during floral inventories on San Cristo´ bal. We provide floral records as well as a diagnosis and comparative comments that will assist bee researchers to easily recognize this species from other native and adventive Megachile Latreille to the Americas. We also discuss the possib...

  7. San Juan Uchucuanicu: évolution historique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available La communauté de San Juan est reconnue depuis 1939. Une première partie concerne l?organisation de la reducción de San Juan vers le milieu du XVIe siècle. Le poids fiscal s?exerce durement sur le village et la crise est générale dans toute la vallée du Chancay au XVIIe. siècle. La christianisation des habitants est définitive au milieu de ce même siècle. C?est vers la fin du XVIIe siècle et durant tout le XVIIIe que se multiplient les conflits entre San Juan et les villages voisins liés aux terrains de pâture et à la possession de l?eau. La deuxième partie du travail concerne les rapports de la communauté de San Juan avec le Pérou contemporain : contrainte fiscale toujours très lourde durant la fin de l?époque coloniale, exactions des militaires juste avant l?indépendance. La période républicaine voit toujours les conflits avec les villages voisins mais aussi la naissance de familles qui cherchent à retirer le maximum de la communauté. Les terres sont divisées et attribuées : la détérioration de l?organisation communale traditionnelle est manifeste. L4es conflits se multiplient entre petits propriétaires, mais aussi avec les haciendas voisines : c?est l?apparition d?une véritable lutte de classes. La situation actuelle est incertaine, le poids de l?économie marchande se développe avec l?exode des jeunes. Que sera la communauté San Juan à la fin de ce siècle? La comunidad de San Juan está reconocida desde 1939. La primera parte concierne a la organización de la 'reducción' de San Juan hacia mediados del siglo XVI. El peso fiscal se ejerce duramente sobre el pueblo y en el siglo XVII la crisis es general en todo el valle de Chancay. Hacia mediados del mismo siglo la cristianización de los habitantes es definitiva. Es hacia fines del siglo XVII y durante todo el siglo XVIII que se multiplican los conflictos entre San Juan y los pueblos vecinos, los que están relacionados con los terrenos de pastoreo y la posesión del agua. La segunda parte del trabajo concierne a las relaciones de la comunidad de San Juan con el Perú contemporáneo: obligaciones fiscales cada vez más pesadas hacia fines de la época colonial, exacciones de los militares justamente antes de la independencia. El período republicano ve siempre los conflictos entre los pueblos vecinos pero igualmente el nacimiento de familias que procuran sacar el máximo de la comunidad. Las tierras son divididas y atribuidas: el deterioro de la organización comunal tradicional se pone de manifiesto. Se multiplican los conflictos entre pequeños propietarios, pero también con las haciendas vecinas: es la aparición de una verdadera lucha de clases. La situación actual es incierta, el peso de la economía comercial se desarrolla con el éxodo de los jóvenes. ¿Que será de la comunidad de San Juan a fines de este siglo? San Juan community has been recognized since 1939. In the first part, we will show' the organization of San Juan's reducción at the middle of the XVI century. The fiscal burden on the village was hard and this crisis was general all over the valley of Chancay during the XVII century. Christianisation of the inhabitants was completed in the middle of this same century. It is only at the end of this century and along all the XVII that the conflicts between San Juan and the neighboring villages were multiplied, tied to pasture lands and water possession In the second part, we will show the relations of San Juan with the contemporary Peru: always very hard fiscal constraint at the end of the colonial time and military exactions till the independence. Along the republican period, the conflicts with the neighboring villages persisted but there were also arising families who were trying to take the maximum of the community. Lands were divided and attributed, deterioration of traditional communal organization was visible. Conflicts between small landlords and neighboring haciendas were multiplied A real class struggle appeared. The actual situation seems uncertain but the trading economy b

  8. Facies, Stratigraphic and Depositional Model of the Sediments in the Abrolhos Archipelago (Bahia, BRAZIL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, R. R.; Zambonato, E. E.

    2012-04-01

    Located in the Mucuri Basin on the continental shelf of southern Bahia state, northeast Brazil, about 70 km from the city of Caravelas,the Abrolhos archipelago is made up of five islands; Santa Barbara, Redonda, Siriba, Guarita and Sueste. The exhumed sediments in the Abrolhos archipelago are a rare record of the turbidite systems which fill the Brazilian Atlantic Basin, and are probably an unprecedented example of a plataform turbidite system (Dr. Mutti, personal communication). Despite the limited area, the outcrops display a wide facies variation produced by different depositional processes, and also allow for the observation of the layer geometries. Associated with such sedimentary rocks, the Abrolhos Volcanic Complex belongs stratigraphically to the Abrolhos Formation. These igneous rocks were dated by the Ar / Ar method, with ages ranging from 60 to 40 My, placing such Volcanic Complex between the Paleocene and Eocene. The sedimentary section is best exposed in the Santa Barbara and Redonda islands and altogether it is 70 m thick. The measured vertical sections show a good stratigraphic correlation between the rocks of the western portion of the first island and those of Redonda Island. However, there is no correlation between the eastern and western portions of Santa Barbara Island, since they are very likely interrupted by the igneous intrusion and possibly by faulting. The sedimentary stack consists of deposits with alternated regressive and transgressive episodes interpreted as high frequency sequences. The coarse facies, sandstones and conglomerates, with abrupt or erosive bases record regressive phases. On the other hand, finer sandstones and siltstones facies, which are partly bioturbated, correspond to phases of a little sediment supply. In the central and eastern portions of Santa Barbara Island, there is a trend of progradational stacking, while both in the western portion of Santa Barbara and in Redonda islands an agradational trend is observed. The predominance of layers with tabular geometry, characteristic of turbidite lobes, the presence of hummocky stratification, trace fossils typical of shallow water (Ophiomorphs and Thalassinoides), all associated with the occurrence of the carbonaceous material as well as plant fragments suggest a deltaic/ plataform depositional context. Textural features and sedimentary structures observed in the conglomerates and sandstones show the action of gravitational flows of high and low density. The fine interlaminated sandstones and siltstones later deformed as slumps or slides, and conglomerates with oriented clasts indicate, respectively, mass movements and action of debris flow. Conglomeratic lags levels record a bypass phenomenon. There are no biostratigraphic data in these studied outcrops. However, petrographic analyses revealed the presence of fragments of igneous rocks (basalts and diabases) in both sandstones and conglomerates, suggesting a relative contemporaneity between igneous activity and sediment deposition. Futhermore, petrographic analyses also found poor permo-porous conditions in the reservoirs due to the presence of fragments of volcanic rocks and the abundance of intraclasts / pseudomatrix.

  9. Fishery of the Green Jack Caranx caballus (Osteichytes: Carangidae) in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    James M., Mair; Roberto, Cipriani; Hector M., Guzman; David, Usan.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El jurel verde o “cojinúa”, Caranx caballus, se distribuye a lo largo de la costa del Pacífico Oriental. En el Archipiélago de Las Perlas, Panamá, la cojinúa fue pescada sin control para sostener mercados locales hasta el 2007, fecha en la que esta región fue declarada área marina protegida. En este [...] primer estudio para Panamá, se analizaron desde junio de 2005 a junio de 2006, 4 990 individuos en las descargas del Mercado Central de Mariscos provenientes de Las Perlas. La longitud media total de esta especie fue de 36.1±6.4cm y la longitud óptima, 38.9cm. Aproximadamente, 68% de los individuos muestreados poseen longitudes dentro de ±10% de la longitud óptima, pero sólo seis (15%) eran mega-reproductores. Los parámetros de la ecuación de von Bertalanffy describen la especie como de larga vida y de rápido crecimiento, mientras que las tasas de mortalidad indican que la cojinúa está bajo una alta presión de pesca. La longitud estándar a la que la mitad de la población es sexualmente madura es 38.8cm y el tamaño de maduración masiva, 33cm. Sólo entre el 10-13% de los individuos muestreados son inmaduros. La cojinúa se reproduce 2-3 veces al año, con picos en diciembre, abril y probablemente septiembre, y recluta a la población por lo menos dos veces al año. Los valores mínimos anuales del Índice ENSO/LNSO multivariado (MEI) son los mejores predictores de la CPUE de esta especie (R²=0.54). Nuestros resultados demuestran que la cojinúa en el Pacífico Panameño está sobreexplotada por lo que recomendamos elevar la talla mínima de captura para permitir que aumente la proporción de mega-reproductores en la población con el fin de garantizar la sostenibilidad del recurso. Abstract in english Green Jacks, Caranx caballus, are distributed along the Eastern Pacific coast. In Panama, C. caballus was heavily fished around Las Perlas Archipelago to sustain local markets until 2007, when the archipelago was declared a marine protected area. This first study in Panama, analyzed a sample of 4 99 [...] 0 individuals from Las Perlas, obtained monthly from June 2005 to June 2006, from landings at the central fish market. Average total length was 36.1±6.4cm and optimum length 38.9cm. Approximately 68% of fish lengths were within ±10% of the optimal length but only six (15%) were considered mega-spawners. The von Bertalanffy parameters describe a long-lived and fast growing species, while mortality rates revealed that C. caballus is under high fishing pressure. Standard length at which half of the population is mature was 38.8cm, and the size at which individuals matured massively, 33cm. Only 10-13% of the fish were immature. C. caballus reproduces two to three times per year, with peaks in December, April, and probably September, and recruits to the population at least twice per year. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) was best predicted by minimum annual values of the Multivariate ENSO/ LNSO Index (MEI) (R²=0.54). Results show that C. caballus in Pacific Panama is overfished. We recommend the raising of the minimum capture/landing size of this species in order to increase the proportion of megaspawners in the population and guarantee the sustainability of this resource.

  10. Temperature Versus Buoyant Mantle Heterogeneities, Evaluating the Origin of OIB Using the Galapagos Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saal, A. E.; Bourdon, B.; Kurz, M. D.; Hauri, E. H.; Blusztajn, J.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Hart, S. R.; Sims, K. W.

    2007-12-01

    The existence of hot mantle plumes has recently been questioned; instead tectonics and shallow low-melting heterogeneities, rather than excess temperatures, have been proposed to explain the upwelling of mantle beneath oceanic islands basalts (OIB) [1]. Geophysical, petrological and geochemical arguments have been used to suggest that enriched heterogeneities located shallow within the upper mantle are buoyant due to either melt retention or water lowering its solidus and consequently triggering early melting of the fertile blobs. Thus, the opponents of the hotspot model have suggested that shallow fertile and buoyant blobs could reproduce the effects of temperature, including isotope gradients, as the cause for the generation of OIB [1]. Uranium-series disequilibria measured in oceanic lavas may provide insight into the origin of OIB that is independent of previous arguments. Earlier works have shown that U-series isotopes in basalts are sensitive to variations in the upwelling rates of their mantle source, and those can be used to invoke upward movements that may be associated with mantle plumes [2-4]. Those work also demonstrated that there exist a significant relationship between the extent of U-series disequilibria and the buoyancy flux beneath OIB; where lower buoyancy fluxes are associated with lower rates of melting and hence higher (230Th/238U) values [2]. However, most of those works have assumed that the effects of source heterogeneity can be neglected relative to the effects of other key parameters. If the increase in melting rates is truly due to the presence of fertile blobs, then there should be a correlation between clear indices of enrichment such as radiogenic isotopes and extent of U-series disequilibrium in OIB. Furthermore, the fertility of the mantle heterogeneities may or may not be associated with the enrichment of water, which has an important effect on the melting rate and consequently in the U-series isotope of the basalts. To evaluate what factors (temperature versus mantle heterogeneity) are controlling the upwelling mantle beneath oceanic islands we used our data (including volatile and U-series isotopes) for lavas from across the Galapagos archipelago combined with previously published results from the adjacent Galapagos Spreading Ridge lavas [5]. These results suggest that the most important factor controlling the variation in mantle upwelling velocities beneath the Galapagos archipelago and adjacent ridge is the difference in mantle temperature. References 1. Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms (eds Foulger, G.R., Natland, J.H., Presnall, D.C. & Anderson, D.L.) (GSA Special Paper 388, Geological Society of America, Boulder, 2005). 2. Bourdon, B. et al. Nature 444, 713-717, 10.1038 (2006). 3. Bourdon, B. & Sims, K. W. W. in U-series Geochemistry (eds Bourdon, B., Lundstrom, C., Henderson, G. & Turner, S. P.) 215-253 (Mineralogical Society of America, 2003).

  11. Copepod distribution and production in a Mid-Atlantic Ridge archipelago

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    PEDRO A.M.C., MELO; MAURO DE, MELO JÚNIOR; SILVIO J. DE, MACÊDO; MOACYR, ARAUJO; SIGRID, NEUMANN-LEITÃO.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O arquipélago de São Pedro e São Paulo (ASPSP) está localizado próximo ao Equador, no oceano Atlântico. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar variações espaciais nos padrões de abundância da comunidade de Copepoda, e da biomassa e produção das três espécies de Calanoida mais abundantes no ASPSP. Amost [...] ras de plâncton foram coletadas com rede com 300 µm de abertura de malha, ao longo de quatro transectos (norte, leste, sul e oeste do ASPSP), com quatro estações cada. Todos os transectos exibiram uma tendência de redução da densidade dos Copepoda com o aumento da distância do ASPSP, provado estatisticamente para o Norte. A densidade variou de 3,33 a 182,18 ind.m?3, e diferenças também foram observadas entre o primeiro perímetro (primeira faixa de distância circular) e os demais. A biomassa total variou de 15,25 a 524,50 10?3 mg C m?3 e a produção de 1,19 a 22,04 mg C m?3d?1. A biomassa e produção de Undinula vulgaris (Dana, 1849), Acrocalanus longicornis Giesbrecht, 1888 e Calocalanus pavo (Dana, 1849) apresentaram diferenças entre alguns transectos. Uma tendência de declínio da biodiversidade e produção com o aumento da distância do arquipélago foi observada, sugerindo que pequenas feições como o ASPSP podem afetar a comunidade em áreas oceânicas oligotróficas tropicais. Abstract in english The Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (SPSPA) are located close to the Equator in the Atlantic Ocean. The aim of this study was to assess the spatial variations in the copepod community abundance, and the biomass and production patterns of the three most abundant calanoid species in the SPSPA. [...] Plankton samples were collected with a 300 µm mesh size net along four transects (north, east, south and west of the SPSPA), with four stations plotted in each transect. All transects exhibited a tendency toward a decrease in copepod density with increasing distance from the SPSPA, statistically proved in the North. Density varied from 3.33 to 182.18 ind.m?3, and differences were also found between the first perimeter (first circular distance band) and the others. The total biomass varied from 15.25 to 524.50 10?3 mg C m?3 and production from 1.19 to 22.04 10?3 mg C m?3d?1. The biomass and production of Undinula vulgaris (Dana, 1849), Acrocalanus longicornis Giesbrecht, 1888 and Calocalanus pavo (Dana, 1849) showed differences between some transects. A trend of declining biodiversity and production with increasing distance from archipelago was observed, suggesting that even small features like the SPSPA can affect the copepod community in tropical oligotrophic oceanic areas.

  12. Estimates of tidal mixing in the Indonesian archipelago from multidisciplinary INDOMIX in-situ data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch-Larrouy, Ariane; Atmadipoera, Agus; van Beek, Pieter; Madec, Gurvan; Aucan, Jérôme; Lyard, Florent; Grelet, Jacques; Souhaut, Marc

    2015-12-01

    The Indonesian Mixing program (INDOMIX) was designed to quantify the very strong mixing that transforms Pacific waters into isohaline Indonesian Waters in the Indonesian archipelago. The turbulent dissipation rates and associated mixing were estimated and analyzed using a multidisciplinary approach that combines physical and geochemical in-situ observations: (1) direct measurements of the dissipation using a microstructure profiler, (2) use of density-based fine-scale methods applied to CTD and XCTD data, and (3) study of the vertical distribution of natural radionuclides (radium isotopes and actinium-227). Data were collected at five contrasting stations within the Indonesian archipelago, found above energetic straits or in relatively quiescent large basins. Strong instabilities, inversions of the density profiles and a very strong water mass transformation were observed. A wide range of dissipation values were obtained (between [10-10, 10-4] W kg-1) with spots of higher dissipation in the ocean interior correlated with a strong internal tide signal. Both the fine-scale and micro-scale methods allow us to identify very strong energy dissipation levels above the straits, ranging between [10-7, 10-4] W kg-1, in contrast to lower values at stations further away from the generation sites. The dissipation for the station located in the center of the Halmahera Sea ([10-9, 10-8] W kg-1) is stronger than for the Banda station ([10-11, 10-10] W kg-1), which is even further away from the generation sites. The three approaches agree relatively well and provide vertical eddy diffusivities values ranging between 5×10-4 and 5×10-1 m2 s-1, except in the Banda Sea where values are similar to the ones found in the open ocean (10-6 m2 s-1). CTD and XCTD profilers (deployed between stations) give estimates of dissipation all along the transit. It is found that enhanced mixing occurs preferentially above rough topography, such as in the Ombai Strait, the Halmahera Sea's northern entrance, the Buru strait and Sumba strait. Finestructure parameters are very sensitive to depth and dissipation, which differs between stations. We recommend more systematic microstructure measurement in order to tune these parameters. Surface mixing, at the base of the mixed layer is found to be very strong with values between [10-4, 10-3 m2 s-1]. These results confirm the modeling studies that suggest the occurrence of intensified subsurface mixing which cools the sea surface temperatures and thus strongly affects the mean and variability of the tropical climate. We conclude, therefore, that climate models need to take into account this intensified ocean mixing to properly represent the mean state of the atmosphere and its climate variability.

  13. Multiyear ice replenishment in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: 1997-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Stephen E. L.; Derksen, Chris; Pizzolato, Larissa; Brady, Michael

    2015-03-01

    In the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA), multiyear ice (MYI) replenishment from first-year ice aging (CAAMYI-Oct-1) and Arctic Ocean MYI exchange (CAAMYI-exchange) contribute to the CAA's relatively heavy sea ice conditions at the end of the summer melt season. We estimate these components using RADARSAT and the Canadian Ice Service Digital Archive and explore processes responsible for interannual variability from 1997 to 2013. CAAMYI-Oct-1 (52 ± 36 × 103 km2) provides a larger contribution than CAAMYI-exchange (13 ± 11 × 103 km2). CAAMYI-Oct-1 represents ˜10% of the amount that occurs in the Arctic Ocean. CAAMYI-exchange represents ˜50% of Nares Strait MYI export to Baffin Bay and ˜12% of Fram Strait MYI export to the Greenland Sea. CAAMYI-Oct-1 exhibits dependence on warmer (cooler) summers that increase (decrease) melt evident from strong relationships to surface air temperature (SAT), albedo and total absorbed solar radiation (Qtotal). CAAMYI-exchange is influenced by summer sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies over the Beaufort Sea and Canadian Basin which shifts the primary source of CAAMYI-exchange between less obstructed M'Clure Strait (low SLP anomalies) and the more obstructed Queen Elizabeth Islands (high SLP anomalies). Over the 17-record, appreciable replenishment occurred for most years from 1997 to 2004, reduced replenishment from 2005 to 2012, and large replenishment in 2013. The reduced replenishment period was associated with positive SAT, negative albedo, and positive Qtotal anomalies that facilitated more melt and less CAAMYI-Oct-1, together with high SLP anomalies that facilitated less CAAMYI-exchange. Large replenishment in 2013 was primarily from CAAMYI-Oct-1 attributed to strongly negative SAT and Qtotal anomalies and strongly positive albedo that impeded melt.

  14. Genetic variation in the invasive avian parasite, Philornis downsi (Diptera, Muscidae on the Galápagos archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnellan Steve

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the dispersal and genetic structure of invasive insects across islands is important for designing management plans that are appropriate at spatial and temporal scales. For invasive parasites, population dynamics are largely determined by the distribution and density of their host species. The introduced parasitic fly, Philornis downsi, parasitises nestlings of endemic birds on all major islands of the Galápagos archipelago. The fly's high mortality and fitness impacts are of conservation concern for vulnerable and declining species of Darwin's finches. Using microsatellite data in Bayesian clustering and landscape genetic analyses, we examine gene flow and dispersal in P. downsi between three islands and across habitats (highlands, lowlands and examine for the presence of population bottlenecks. We also examine variation at the mitochondrial gene CO1 across islands to establish if cryptic species were present. Results Both the mitochondrial and microsatellite data were consistent with there being a single species across islands. We found low genetic differentiation between islands and strong evidence for inter-island gene flow, or shared recent ancestry among individuals. Landscape genetic analysis identified two genetic clusters: one encompassing Santa Cruz and Isabela, and one on Floreana Island. There was no evidence of genetic differentiation between habitats and molecular variance was mainly attributable to within individuals. The combined P. downsi population was found to have undergone a population bottleneck. Conclusion Philornis downsi populations have high connectivity within and between islands, with low levels of genetic differentiation between Floreana and the other two islands examined. The genetic bottleneck found across islands suggests there was a small founding population or few introduction events of P. downsi. The high dispersal capacity and wide habitat use of P. downsi highlights the significant threat that this parasite poses to the Galápagos avifauna. Our findings are relevant for assessing the viability of methods to control P. downsi on Galápagos, such as the sterile insect technique.

  15. Patterns of coral disease across the Hawaiian Archipelago: Relating disease to environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeby, G.S.; Williams, G.J.; Franklin, E.C.; Kenyon, J.; Cox, E.F.; Coles, S.; Work, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing a negative association, but no significant explanatory power was offered for PorTLS. ?? 2011 Aeby et al.

  16. Effects of boating activities on aquatic vegetation in the Stockholm archipelago, Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, B. K.; Sandström, A.; Isæus, M.; Schreiber, H.; Karås, P.

    2004-10-01

    The aquatic vegetation in 44 similar shallow and sheltered inlets exposed to different kinds of disturbances by boating was studied in a rocky archipelago in the Baltic Sea. The results indicate that both recreational boating activities and traffic by medium sized ferryboats may cause significant changes in community composition and have significant negative effects on species richness and the development of the macrophytic vegetation at greater depth. Changes in inlet morphology by dredging and increases in resuspension and turbidity by wave-action from boats were most probably the major factors contributing to the demonstrated differences in the vegetation between inlets. In inlets used as harbours for private boats (marinas) or adjacent to ferryboat routes, vegetation cover and species richness declined significantly more with depth than in reference inlets not exposed to disturbance by boating activities. In marinas, turbidity was significantly higher than in reference inlets. Accordingly, a canonical correspondence analysis showed that the abundance of species sensitive to poor light conditions, such as Chara spp. and Ruppia spp. were negatively correlated with marinas while Myriophyllum spicatum and Ceratophyllum demersum that are common in nutrient rich turbid habitats were positively correlated with marinas. Mechanical disturbance by propellers may also have contributed to the results, disfavouring Potamogeton pectinatus compared to similar caulescent species in marinas. Chara tomentosa and Najas marina that are exposure sensitive mud thriving species were negatively correlated with inlets adjacent to ferryboat routes, while the macroalga Fucus vesiculosus that is dependent on clean substrate for successful recruitment was positively correlated with inlets adjacent to ferryboat routes. It is important to explore further the effects of boating activities in these habitat types, since the studied inlets sustain a high diversity of both plants and invertebrates and provide highly significant recruitment areas for coastal fish in the Baltic Sea.

  17. Diagenetic history of lower Pliocene rhodoliths of the Azores Archipelago (NE Atlantic): Application of cathodoluminescence techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, A C; Meireles, R P; Barbin, V; Neto, A I; Melo, C; Ávila, S P

    2016-01-01

    The diagenetic history of calcareous fossils is required for their application as palaeoenvironmental indicators. In this study, cathodoluminescence-microscopy (CL microscopy) and back scatter electron image-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (BSE-EDS microscopy) were applied to Pliocene rhodoliths from the Azores Archipelago (NE Atlantic) in order to gain additional insight regarding the trace element content distribution throughout the algae thalli, and to ascertain palaeoenvironmental interpretations. Two types of luminescence were obtained: (1) high and (2) low luminescence. Rhodoliths with high luminescence are related with high concentrations of Mn(2+) in seawater and low luminescence rhodoliths are related with low concentrations of Mn(2+) in seawater. When the rhodoliths were deposited at about 4.0-4.5Ma, the shoreline configuration of Santa Maria Island was much different than today. The influence of volcanic activity due to the extrusion of lavas and associated products and/or the presence of active shallow-water hydrothermal vents, was reflected in the sea water chemistry, with penecontemporaneous palaeoshores of the island featuring a high sea water concentration of Mn(2+), which mirrored on the rhodolith Mn(2+) high concentration. By contrast, rhodoliths located about 2.8 and 2.9km from the shore, in areas with low seawater Mn(2+) concentration, had low luminescence, reflecting the low Mn(2+) concentration in seawater. Rhodoliths chemical data and the geological history of the island proved to be congruent with the palaeogeographical reconstruction of Santa Maria Island at the time of the formation of the rhodoliths. PMID:26520255

  18. Arctic environments and global change: Evidence in deep permafrost temperatures, Canadian arctic archipelago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In considering the role of the polar regions in future global change, one may look toward these regions for evidence of past environmental change. Deep ground temperatures provide one window on past surface temperatures, which may be interpreted in terms not only of past climate but also of past environmental conditions. Across the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, there is no consistent curvature in deep ground temperature profiles that can be modeled in terms of warming of the past century. This contrasts with the result reported by Lachenbruch et al. [1986] for the Prudhoe Bay area of Alaska and may be a consequence of the much larger region and wider well spacing considered in the Canadian case. Any curvature present varies from well to well and may be interpreted in terms of surface temperature changes of the order of 1-3 K on the scale of decades to centuries. However, there is some evidence that these surface temperature histories may arise from long-term changes in paleoenvironmental factors as well as climate. For instance, the paleoclimate derived from oxygen isotope data at the Agassiz Ice Cap has been compared with the geothermal signature at a well some 180 km to the west. For the Little Ice Age (LIA), the Agassiz paleoclimate explains only half the measured variation in ground temperatures at the geothermal site; the remaining variation may be due to other environmental effects, such as an increase in snow cover following the LIA. This is consistent with extrapolated surface temperatures 7 K higher than other Arctic sites and the unusually deep snow cover observed today

  19. Stress response of two coral species in the Kavaratti atoll of the Lakshadweep Archipelago, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harithsa, Shashank; Raghukumar, Chandralata; Dalal, S. G.

    2005-11-01

    Frequent occurrences of coral bleaching and the ensuing damage to coral reefs have generated interest in documenting stress responses that precede bleaching. The objective of this study was to assess and compare physiological changes in healthy, semi-bleached and totally bleached colonies of two coral species, Porites lutea and Acropora formosa, during a natural bleaching event in the Lakshadweep Archipelago in the Arabian Sea to determine the traits that will be useful in the diagnosis of coral health. In April 2002, three “health conditions” were observed as “appearing healthy,” “semi-bleached” and “bleached” specimens for two dominant and co-occurring coral species in these islands. Changes in the pigment composition, zooxanthellae density (ZD), mitotic index (MI) of zooxanthellae, RNA/DNA ratios and protein profile in the two coral species showing different levels of bleaching in the field were compared to address the hypothesis of no difference in health condition between species and bleaching status. The loss in chlorophyll (chl) a, chl c and ZD in the transitional stage of semi-bleaching in the branched coral A. formosa was 80, 75 and 80%, respectively. The losses were much less in the massive coral P. lutea, being 20, 50 and 25%, respectively. The decrease in zooxanthellar density and chl a was accompanied by an increased MI of zooxanthellae and RNA/DNA ratios in both the species. There was an increase in accumulation of lipofuscin granules in partially bleached P. lutea tissue, which is an indication of cellular senescence. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that colonies of P. lutea ranked in different health conditions differed significantly in chl a, chl c, ZD, RNA/DNA ratios, and protein concentrations, whereas in A. formosa chl a, chl c, chl a/ c, phaeopigments and MI contributed to the variance between health conditions.

  20. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti populations from Senegal and Cape Verde Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dia Ibrahima

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two concomitant dengue 3 (DEN-3 epidemics occurred in Cape Verde Archipelago and Senegal between September and October 2009. Aedes aegypti was identified as the vector of these epidemics as several DEN-3 virus strains were isolated from this species in both countries. The susceptibility to pyrethroids, organochlorine, organophosphates and carbamate was investigated in two field strains of Aedes aegypti from both countries using WHO diagnostic bioassay kits in order to monitor their the current status of insecticide susceptibility. Findings The two tested strains were highly resistant to DDT. The Cape Verde strain was found to be susceptible to all others tested insecticides except for propoxur 0.1%, which needs further investigation. The Dakar strain was susceptible to fenitrothion 1% and permethrin 0.75%, but displayed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and propoxur. Conclusions As base-line results, our observations stress a careful management of insecticide use for the control of Ae. aegypti. Indeed, they indicate that DDT is no longer efficient for the control of Ae. aegypti populations in Cape Verde and Dakar and further suggest a thorough follow-up of propoxur susceptibility status in both sites and that of deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in Ae. aegypti populations in Dakar. Thus, regular monitoring of susceptibility is greatly needed as well as the knowing if this observed resistance/susceptibility is focal or not and for observed resistance, the use of biochemical methods is needed with detailed comparison of resistance levels over a large geographic area. Keywords Aedes aegypti, Insecticides, Susceptibility, Cape Verde, Senegal

  1. Cuartel San Carlos. Yacimiento veterano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Flores

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El Cuartel San Carlos es un monumento histórico nacional (1986 de finales del siglo XVIII (1785-1790, caracterizado por sufrir diversas adversidades en su construcción y soportar los terremotos de 1812 y 1900. En el año 2006, el organismo encargado de su custodia, el Instituto de Patrimonio Cultural del Ministerio de Cultura, ejecutó tres etapas de exploración arqueológica, que abarcaron las áreas Traspatio, Patio Central y las Naves Este y Oeste de la edificación. Este trabajo reseña el análisis de la documentación arqueológica obtenida en el sitio, a partir de la realización de dicho proyecto, denominado EACUSAC (Estudio Arqueológico del Cuartel San Carlos, que representa además, la tercera campaña realizada en el sitio. La importancia de este yacimiento histórico, radica en su participación en los acontecimientos que propiciaron conflictos de poder durante el surgimiento de la República y en los sucesos políticos del siglo XX. De igual manera, se encontró en el sitio una amplia muestra de materiales arqueológicos que reseñan un estilo de vida cotidiana militar, así como las dinámicas sociales internas ocurridas en el San Carlos, como lugar estratégico para la defensa de los diferentes regímenes que atravesó el país, desde la época del imperialismo español hasta nuestros días.

  2. Sintered materials studied by SANS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The small angle scattering of compacted and sintered single phase materials with open or closed porosity can be described by the two phase model. During sintering, the decrease of pore volume is accompanied with decreasing internal surface measured by SANS [1]. Such investigation can be extended to the field of technically relevant multiphase materials as well, e.g. doped tunsten, SiN ceramics and WC-Co composite made from nano-crystalline powder. The deformation of remaining porosity after sintering can be monitored by 2D anisotropy of SANS distribution as the sintered body is processed through several steps of thermomechanical treatment. The elongation of pores or stable bubbles, e.g. K gas filled bubbles in doped W [2], follows the macroscopic deformation of the body. Heat treatment, however, causes spheroidization with vanishing SANS anisotropy. Our investigation using the isointensity contour map method allows establishing a new description of mechanisms of thermomechanical processing. (author) [1] O. Blaschko, R. Glas, G. Krexner and P. Weinzierl, Physical Review Letters 68 970-973 (1992); [2] O. Horacsek, M. Menyhard and J. Labar, High Temperature Materials and Processes 14 207-213 (1995)

  3. Prediction and verification of possible reef-fish spawning aggregation sites in Los Roques Archipelago National Park, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomhower, J; Romero, M; Posada, J; Kobara, S; Heyman, W

    2010-09-01

    This study attempts to predict and verify possible spawning aggregation sites and times in the Los Roques Archipelago National Park, Venezuela, based on physical reef characteristics and the knowledge of experienced local fishermen. Three possible aggregation sites were selected for monitoring based on satellite images, low-cost bathymetric mapping and interviews with experienced local fishermen. Abundances and sizes of 18 species that are known to form reproductive aggregations were monitored at these sites using underwater visual census for 7 days after each full moon from February to August, 2007. While spawning events were not observed, possible indirect evidence of spawning aggregations was found for Lutjanus analis at Cayo Sal and Boca de Sebastopol, Lutjanus apodus at Cayo Sal, Lutjanus cyanopterus at Cayo Sal and Piedra La Guasa and Epinephelus guttatus at Bajo California and Cayo de Agua. Additionally, indirect evidence was identified for the past existence of a spawning aggregation of Epinephelus striatus in the northern part of the archipelago, which may have been eliminated by overfishing c.15 years ago. Bathymetric mapping showed that the shelf edge at sites monitored in this study was shallower than at spawning aggregation sites in other parts of the Caribbean, and that sites were not proximal to deep water. While this study does not prove the existence or locations of spawning aggregations of reef fishes in the archipelago, it does add insight to a growing understanding of generalities in the relationship between seafloor characteristics and the locations of transient reef-fish spawning aggregations in the Caribbean. PMID:20840614

  4. Surface water quality estimation using remote sensing in the Gulf of Finland and the Finnish Archipelago Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yuanzhi

    2005-07-01

    This thesis deals with surface water quality estimation using remote sensing in the Gulf of Finland and the Archipelago Sea. Satellite remote sensing of water and empirical algorithms for surface water quality variables in coastal waters in the Gulf of Finland and the Archipelago Sea are explained and results from the studies in the area are presented. Concurrent in situ surface water measurements, AISA data, Landsat TM data, ERS-2 SAR data, AVHRR and MODIS data were obtained for selected locations in the Gulf of Finland and the Archipelago Sea in August 1997 and from April to May 2000, respectively. The AISA, TM, SAR, AVHRR and MODIS data from locations of water samples were extracted and digital data were examined. Significant correlations were observed between digital data and surface water quality variables. Semi-empirical, simple and multivariate regression analyses, and neural network algorithms were developed and applied in the study area. Application of neural networks appears to yield a superior performance in modelling radiative transfer functions describing the relation between satellite observations and surface water characteristics. The results show that the estimated accuracy for major characteristics of surface waters using the neural network method is much better than retrieval by using regression analysis. Since radar observations of water are strongly affected by surface geometry but not by water quality, radar data should be useful to eliminate the effects of surface roughness from the results when combined with optical observations. However, our results suggest that microwave data improve estimation of water quality very little or not at all. The technique, however, should be examined with new data sets obtained under various weather and water quality conditions in order to estimate its feasibility for estimating surface water quality parameters in the Finnish coastal waters. (orig.)

  5. Changing Use Patterns, Changing Feedback Links: Implications for Reorganization of Coastal Fisheries Management in the Stockholm Archipelago, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Åqvist Almlöv

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Property rights are important institutions for regulating the use of valuable natural resources from coastal ecosystems. In this case study, we identify and analyze property rights and user patterns related to small-scale coastal fisheries in the Stockholm Archipelago, Sweden. User patterns and user groups have changed significantly over the last century, as commercial fishing has been increasingly replaced by recreational activities. Interviews with local resource users and owners of water properties in two different areas, Möja and Ornö parishes within the Stockholm Archipelago, revealed a very diverse pattern of property and user rights, with a large number of water and fishing rights owners. Recreational fisheries, including both sport and household fishing, seem to predominate in both areas, but ownership differs. In Möja, most waters are collectively owned, whereas in Ornö, individual ownership predominates. Very few examples of local influence on fisheries management were found in either area, although the social structure for joint management does exist in Möja. Instead, larger-scale institutions at the regional, national, or international level regulate fisheries, often not addressing local conditions and fish populations. The ongoing shift in resource use has created a heterogeneous user group, and the limitations of centralized management authorities in dealing with the diversity in the coastal ecosystem have created mismatches within the social–ecological system. Combined with a large-scale decline in coastal fish stocks, these mismatches challenge the existing local property rights arrangements as well as the more centralized regulatory management structure. A key issue for fisheries management is how to develop and stimulate appropriate distribution of management functions at different geographical scales and organizational levels. The complexity and diversity in archipelago fisheries call for multilevel arrangements and cross-scale coordination, and initiatives have been taken by both central governmental authorities and local user groups to collaborate concerning habitat restoration and protection of important spawning grounds.

  6. Sharp bounds on the radius of relativistic charged spheres: Guilfoyle's stars saturate the Buchdahl-Andr\\'easson bound

    CERN Document Server

    Lemos, José P S

    2015-01-01

    Buchdahl, by imposing a few physical assumptions on the matter, i.e., its density is a nonincreasing function of the radius and the fluid is a perfect fluid, and on the configuration, such as the exterior is the Schwarzschild solution, found that the radius $r_0$ to mass $m$ ratio of a star would obey the Buchdahl bound $r_0/m\\geq9/4$. He noted that the bound was saturated by the Schwarzschild interior solution, the solution with $\\rho_{\\rm m}(r)= {\\rm constant}$, where $\\rho_{\\rm m}(r)$ is the energy density of the matter at $r$, when the central central pressure blows to infinity. Generalizations of this bound have been studied. One generalization was given by Andr\\'easson by including electrically charged matter and imposing that $p+2p_T \\leq\\rho_{\\rm m}$, where $p$ is the radial pressure and $p_T$ the tangential pressure. His bound is given by $r_0/m\\geq9/\\left(1+\\sqrt{1+3\\,q^2/r_0^2}\\right)^{2}$, the Buchdahl-Andr\\'easson bound, with $q$ being the star's total electric charge. Following Andr\\'easson's pr...

  7. Pheromone chirality of asian palm weevils,Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.) andR. vulneratus (Panz.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, A L; Hallett, R H; Gries, R; Gries, G; Cameron Oehlschlager, A; Borden, J H

    1996-02-01

    Production of 4-methyl-5-nonanol, and 4-methyl-5-nonanone by two sympatric Asian palm weevils,Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.) andR. vulneratus (Panz.) suggested that enantiospecificity of either compound could impart species specificity of pheromone communication. Weevil-produced, racemic 4-methyl-5-nonanol and 4-methyl-5-nonanone and their stereoselectively synthesized optical isomers were subjected to gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS) on a chiral Cyclodex-B column. Only theS,S stereoisomer of 4-methyl-5-nonanol was EAD active and was produced by bothR. ferrugineus andR. vulneratus. Production and EAD activity of (S)-4-methyl-5-nonanone exceeded that of its antipode in both weevils. In field experiments in Java. (4S, 5S)-4-methyl-5-nonanol and the stereoisomeric mixture were equally attractive. The 4R,5R stereoisomer was inactive. The corresponding ketone enantiomers neither enhanced nor reduced attraction to (4S,5S)-4-methyl-5-nonanol. Lack of apparent differences betweenR. ferrugineus andR. vulneratus pheromones suggests that synonomy of both weevils should be considered unless other pre- or postzygotic reproductive isolating mechanisms are disclosed in future studies. PMID:24227415

  8. First Harvestman Record for the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile, with Morphological Notes on Acropsopilio chilensis (Opiliones: Caddidae: Acroposopilioninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-González, Abel; Ramírez, Martín J; Soto, Eduardo M; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Acropsopilio chilensis Silvestri, 1904 (Eupnoi: Caddidae: Acropsopilioninae), is recorded for Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile. This is the first harvestman species recorded for the Juan Fernández Archipelago and also the first extra-continental record for this species. During the comparison with continental co-specific specimens, some previously unknown, remarkable morphological characteristics were discovered, among them: the absence of ovipositor seminal receptacles and tracheal system, small and probably imperforate spiracles and the presence of a subdistal spiny structure, maybe a stylus, in the major branch of the penis.  PMID:25284403

  9. 77 FR 34988 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Diego State University, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ...dissertation for the University of California, Riverside...collection at San Diego State University appears to have been...back dirt by an unknown student and brought back to San Diego State University. The remains are...

  10. 75 FR 27432 - Security Zone; Golden Guardian 2010 Regional Exercise; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ...reduce burden. Protection of Children We have analyzed this rule...Order 13045, Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks...may disproportionately affect children. Indian Tribal Governments...Golden Guardian 2010 Regional Exercise; San Francisco Bay, San...

  11. Multisensor and multitemporal data from Landsat images to detect damage to coral reefs, small islands in the Spermonde archipelago, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurdin, Nurjannah; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Agus; Akbar AS, M.; Djalil, Abdul Rasyid; Amri, Khairul

    2015-06-01

    Coral reefs are important because of their high biodiversity and their key role in the tropical marine biosphere. Furthermore, coral reefs are very valuable as a socioeconomic resource as they make important contributions to the gross domestic product of many countries. Thus, it is very important to monitor dynamic spatial distributions of coral reefs and related habitats dominated by coral rubble, dead coral, and bleached corals. Despite these natural and socio-economic advantages, many factors are threatening coral reefs. The study site was selected in Spermonde archipelago, South Sulawesi, Indonesia because this area is included in the Coral Triangle, recognized as the epicenter of coral diversity and a priority for conservation. Images of Landsat MSS, Landsat TM, Landsat ETM, Landsat ETM+, and Landsat 8 data were used to examine changes in the coral reefs of Suranti Island in the Spermonde Archipelago during forty one years from 1972 to 2013. The image processing includes gap fills, atmospheric corrections, geometric corrections, image composites, water column corrections, unsupervised classifications, and reclassifications. Fill Gap processing was done on Landsat ETM+ SLC-off. Subsequently, a multi-component change detection procedure was applied to define changes. Shallow water bottom types classification was divided into live coral, rubble and sand habitats, dead coral with algae, rubble, and sand. Preliminary results showed significant changes during the period 1972-2013 as well as changes in coral reefs, likely explained partly by destructive fishing practices.

  12. Extent of mangrove nursery habitats determines the geographic distribution of a coral reef fish in a South-Pacific archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillon, Christelle; Wantiez, Laurent; Kulbicki, Michel; Labonne, Maylis; Vigliola, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of species' geographic distribution has fundamental implications for the management of biodiversity. For coral reef fishes, mangroves have long been recognized as important nursery habitats sustaining biodiversity in the Western Atlantic but there is still debate about their role in the Indo-Pacific. Here, we combined LA-ICP-MS otolith microchemistry, underwater visual censuses (UVC) and mangrove cartography to estimate the importance of mangroves for the Indo-Pacific coral reef fish Lutjanus fulviflamma in the archipelago of New Caledonia. Otolith elemental compositions allowed high discrimination of mangroves and reefs with 83.8% and 98.7% correct classification, respectively. Reefs were characterized by higher concentrations of Rb and Sr and mangroves by higher concentrations of Ba, Cr, Mn and Sn. All adult L. fulviflamma collected on reefs presented a mangrove signature during their juvenile stage with 85% inhabiting mangrove for their entire juvenile life (about 1 year). The analysis of 2942 UVC revealed that the species was absent from isolated islands of the New Caledonian archipelago where mangroves were absent. Furthermore, strong positive correlations existed between the abundance of L. fulviflamma and the area of mangrove (r?=?0.84 for occurrence, 0.93 for density and 0.89 for biomass). These results indicate that mangrove forest is an obligatory juvenile habitat for L. fulviflamma in New Caledonia and emphasize the potential importance of mangroves for Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes. PMID:25140697

  13. A spatio-temporal model for the invasion of New Zealand archipelago by the Pacific rat Rattus exulans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New Zealand is at the southern limits of the human-extended geographic range of the Pacific rat Rattus exulans. On the two main islands, radiocarbon dates on rat bones from natural sites show that rat populations were established more than 1000 years before permanent human settlement, presumably during transient visits by Polynesian voyagers. Both main islands were colonised after these first contacts, but offshore and outlying islands were not reached by rats until after Polynesian settlement about 700 years BP. Chatham Island was not colonised by Pacific rats until about 650 years BP. I present a model that relates the time of first appearance of rats in the fossil record and the exploitation of native fauna to the pattern of spread of the rat through the archipelago. I hypothesise that the stepwise spread of the rat through the archipelago is mirrored by the pattern of reduction and extinction of indigenous fauna vulnerable to rat predation. The 1000 year delay between the arrival of rats and permanent human settlement suggests that the New Zealand biota was already stressed by an introduced predator before humans added habitat destruction and over-hunting. (author). 65 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  14. Phylogeny of the island archipelago frog genus Sanguirana: Another endemic Philippine radiation that diversified 'Out-of-Palawan'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M; Su, Yong-Chao; Barger, Brenna; Siler, Cameron D; Sanguila, Marites B; Diesmos, Arvin C; Blackburn, David C

    2016-01-01

    Recent higher-level frog phylogenetic analyses have included a few members of the endemic Philippine frog genus Sanguirana. Although the monophyly of the group has never been disputed, the recent phylogenetically-supported inclusion of the Palawan Wood Frog (Sanguirana sanguinea) in this clade was highly unexpected. In addition, species boundaries and relationships remain unclear and new species continue to be discovered. We estimate the phylogeny for this endemic Philippine genus using two mitochondrial gene regions and six nuclear loci and complete sampling for all known species. We use a time-calibrated Bayesian estimate of phylogeny and model-testing approach to biogeographic inference to infer ancestral areas and probable means of diversification. These analyses identify Sanguirana as an additional clade for which the 'Out-of-Palawan' biogeographic scenario is unambiguously preferred. This study lends additional support to recent work suggesting that a substantial portion of Philippine vertebrate megadiversity originated via colonization of the archipelago from the Palawan microcontinent, with subsequent invasion of oceanic islands (e.g., range expansion over Huxley's Modification of Wallace's Line), numerous instances of overwater dispersal, and geographic radiation across the archipelago. PMID:26477738

  15. Long-term changes of species richness in a breeding bird community of a small Mediterranean archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Abraín, A.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the pattern of species richness changes in a bird–breeding bird community on a small western Mediterranean archipelago (Columbretes Islands over a 40–year period (1964–2003. The aim of this study was to qualitatively account for the relative roles of local and regional factors in shaping the community. As expected, we found that regional factors (at the metapopulation spatial scale increased diversity whereas local factors (i.e. ecological probably prevented further increases in diversity. We found that the archipelago gained four new species (two seabirds and two falconids during the study period, whereas no extinctions were recorded. The community seems partially or completely closed to some groups of species (e.g. small–sized birds such as passerines and storm–petrels, probably owing to predatory exclusion by Eleonora falcons (Falco eleonorae. As newly arrived species have breeding calendars that do not fully overlap with those of resident species, competition for space in a rather saturated area is prevented. Preservation of rare species which increase gamma (regional diversity rather than alpha diversity with common species should be the main local conservation goal.

  16. Suboxic dolomite formation linked to the sedimentary Mn cycle, Archipelago Los Roques, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrash, D.; Lalonde, S.; Gonzalez, G.; Gingras, M.; Konhauser, K.

    2013-12-01

    The preferential formation of Ca-rich dolomite precursors in modern peritidal environments has been associated with the degradation of buried microbial mats, with complexation of Ca and Mg cations by extracellular polysaccharides, and alkalinity generation, mostly through bacterial sulfate reduction. However, it remains unclear why Ca-dolomite would not occur in suboxic sediments where bacterial Mn(IV) and/or Fe(III) reduction are important sources of alkalinity, and the role, if any, of Fe- and Mn-recycling in its diagenetic stabilization to more stoichiometric dolomite is unknown. In a shoaling-upward parasequence in the Archipelago Los Roques, Venezuela, an abundance of Ca-dolomite coincides with a relative decrease in bulk-sediment iron concentrations. These sediments were analyzed with multiple analytical tools, including EPMA, ICP-MS, synchrotron-based XRF, XRD, and spatially resolved XANES. Results demonstrate that the distribution of spheroidal aggregates of nanometer-scale Ca-rich dolomite rhombohedra is linked with interstitial elemental sulfur and manganese accumulations, with Mn occurring in several oxidation states (Fig. 1). Based on our observations at this novel dolomite-forming site, we suggest that in peritidal settings the burial of metal-reactive microbial mats act as a barrier capable of concentrating dissolved reactive species that promote greater sediment residence times in suboxic (manganic) zones, where the recycling of Mn not only plays an important role in the remineralization of organic matter, but also sustains elevated alkalinity and dissolved pore water sulfide concentrations. The last two effects have been previously suggested to promote Mg dehydration, the major kinetic barrier to dolomite nucleation. Figure 1. Normalized Mn K-edge merged spectra of a 5 x 5 ?m analytical area bearing dolomite cements. A: The K-edge exhibits two main features at about 6554 and 6558 eV. B: Intermediate Mn (III) is identified by the positive slope of the first derivative of the XANES spectra in the interval 6547.9-6549.0 eV. C: A least-squares fitting of the spectra was performed to quantify the Mn species present. The spectra can be fitted with four model compounds, Mn2O3 (52.5 × 5.2%), MnCO3 (22.2 × 1.3%), gamma-MnOOH (15.0 × 5.0%), and Mn3O4 (10.3 × 7.7%), suggesting that these phases coexist in the dolomite-bearing microcrystalline cements.

  17. Islas Marias Archipelago, Mexico. A Missing Piece to Reconstruct the Paleoposition of Baja California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, P. E.; Pompa, V.; Hernandez, T.; Weber, B.; Solis, G.; Villanueva, D.; Perez-Venzor, J.

    2011-12-01

    Paleopositions for southern Baja California peninsula have yielded controversial models over the past 30 years. Mainly based on paleomagnetic data many hypotheses place Baja at lower paleolatitudes in front of southern Mexico or Central America with subsequent northward translations. Other models suggest minor, if any, northward displacements with respect to continental Mexico combined with clockwise rotations. Lithological, geochemical, and geochronological similarities for southern Baja California and Puerto Vallarta (western Mexico Pacific margin) igneous rocks seem to confirm the latter model. To further prove this model we have mapped and collected rocks from Maria Madre, the largest island of the Islas Marias archipelago, located in the mouth of the Gulf of California. In an area of only 145 square kilometers, metamorphic basements rocks (ortho and migmatitic gneisses), highly deformed metasediments, granitoids, acid to intermediate volcanic sequences, and a cover with gently folded marine sediments are exposed. The basement complex with gneisses and metasediments, including garnet-bearing paragneiss and calc silicates, as well as the granodioritic-tonalitic intrusives display an extraordinary accordance with similar units observed in the Los Cabos Block (LCB) of Baja California Sur. Furthermore, U-Pb zircon ages of 162 and 170 Ma for the basement gneisses and of 80 Ma for the granitoids have been reported also from the LCB. Additionally, upper Cretaceous intrusive ages are well known from the Puerto Vallarta batholith in Jalisco and Nayarit, mainland Mexico. Geochemical and isotopic data as well as Nd model ages confirm a magmatic consanguinity of LCB, Islas Marias, and Puerto Vallarta granitoids. The volcanic units of Maria Madre Island include ignimbrites and effusive dacitic-rhyolithic rocks, which can be correlated to the Sierra Madre Occidental province and the Comundú Formation of Baja California. Age determinations are under work to confirm this hypothesis. Finally, the sedimentary cover record several subsidence and uplift events, possibly related to the opening of the Gulf of California. Micropaleontological investigations on Neogene deposits give evidence for an above sea level position of the islands since the late Pleistocene. In summary, our new lithological, geochemical, and geochronological investigations on the Isla María Madre rock suite confirm a common magmatic arc parenthood of these units with respect to mainland Mexico at latitudes of Puerto Vallarta and with the LCB of Baja California Sur. Large paleolatitudal displacements of Baja can be discarded from these results.

  18. Preliminary results of teleseismic double-difference relocation of earthquakes around Indonesian archipelago region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: andridn104@gmail.com; Widiyantoro, Sri [Global Geophysical Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Shiddiqi, Hasbi Ash [Earth Sciences Graduate Program, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Ramdhan, Mohamad; Wandono,; Sutiyono,; Handayani, Titi; Nugroho, Hendro [Agency for Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics (BMKG), Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Indonesian archipelago region is located in active tectonic setting and high seismicity zone. During the last decade, Indonesian was experienced with destructive major earthquakes causing damage and victims. The information of precise earthquake location parameters are very important in partular for earthquake early warning to the society and for advance seismic studies. In this study, we attempted to improve hypocenter location compiled by BMKG for time periods of April, 2009 up to June, 2014 for about 22,000 earthquake events around Indonesian region. For the firts time, we applied teleseismic double-difference relocation algorithm (teletomoDD) to improve hypocenter region in Indonesia region combining regional and teleseismic stations. Hypocenter relocation was performed utilizing local, regional, and teleseismic P-wave arrival time data. Our relocation result show that travel-time RMS errors were greatly reduced compared to the BMKG catalog. Seismicity at shallower depth (less than 50?km) shows significantly improvement especially in depth, and refined shallow geological structures, e.g. trench and major strike slip faults. Clustered seismicity is also detected beneath volcanic region, and probably related volcano activities and also major faults nearby. In the Sunda arc region, seismicity at shallower depth centered at two major distributions parallel to the trench strike direction, i.e. around fore-arc and in mainland that related to major fault, e.g. the Sumatran fault, and volcanic fronts. Below Central Java region, relocated hypocenter result showed double seismic zone pattern. A seismic gap is detected around the Sunda-Banda transition zone where transition between oceanic subduction to continental crust collision of Australian plate occurs. In Eastern Indonesia region, shallow earthquakes are observed related to major strike slip faults, e.g. Sorong and Palu-Koro fault, volcanism, and shallow part of subduction and collision zones. We also compare our result in the Sunda Arc region with slab1.0 model and our relocated seismicity shows good agreement with the previous slab geometry. Horizontal position shift of relocated events are mostly perpendicular to the trench directions.

  19. Paleomagnetism of Jurassic-Cretaceous basalts from the Franz Josef Land Archipelago: tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abashev, Victor; Mikhaltsov, Nikolay; Vernikovsky, Valery

    2015-04-01

    New paleomagnetic data were obtained from a total of 158 oriented samples collected from the Jurassic magmatic complexes exposed on the Franz Joseph Land Archipelago (FJL). The field work was conducted during 2011 field season. Present study was focused on the tholeiitic basaltic lava flows that crop out on the Hooker Island. The samples were subjected to a detailed step-wise thermal demagnetization in temperatures up to 600 deg C or alternating field demagnetization with maximum filed up to 140 mT. Natural remanent magnetization (NRM) was measured with a 2G cryogenic magnetometer or a JR-6A spin-magnetometer housed in a magnetically shielded room at the Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences. The main NRM carriers in the FJL samples are titanomagnetites with varying Ti-content. Magnetic remanence was unblocked in temperatures of 350-400 deg C. Some samples are characterized by unblocking temperatures of 560 deg C. The new paleomagnetic data were combined with those previously obtained from the early Cretaceous volcanics exposed on the FJL. A new mean paleomagnetic direction for the Jurassic rocks was calculated as D=78.3 deg, I=74.7 deg, a95=3.1 deg, k=194.3, N=13. A corresponding paleomagnetic pole is now located at Plat=62.1 deg; Plon=136.5 deg, A95=5.5 deg, K=63.6. New results suggest that the JFL occupied a significantly different position from that of the present day. However, in early Cretaceous the JFL was already located close to its present day position. We propose a rifting event between the North Barentz terrane (FJL and possibly Svalbard) and the counterpart of European tectonic domain. The rifting occurred during Early-Middle Jurassic. This event was accompanied by a significant shift of the FJL to the north-east for approximately 500 km. New results are in good agreement with a hypothesis that the FJL was passing over the Icelandic-Siberian hot spot during the Jurassic-Cretaceous time. Paleolatitudes for the Hooker Island correspond to its present latitude and the paleolatitude of the Siberian trapps. The reported results are preliminary and cannot lead to any ultimate interpretation. Further investigations are needed. This and future studies are supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant 13-05-00177 and Russian Science Foundation grant 14-37-00030.

  20. Island mass effect in the Juan Fernández Archipelago (33°S), Southeastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Isabel; Sangrà, Pablo; Hormazabal, Samuel; Correa-Ramirez, Marco

    2014-02-01

    Spatial and temporal variability of the island mass effect (IME; defined as local increases of phytoplankton associated with the presence of islands) at the Juan Fernández Archipelago (JFA) is analyzed using chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) satellite data, altimetry, sea surface temperature, wind, geostrophic currents and net heat flux over a ten year period (2002-2012). The the JFA islands (Robinson Crusoe-Santa Clara (RC-SC) and Alejandro Selkirk (AS)) present wakes with significant Chl-a increases, mainly during spring time. These wakes can reach Chl-a values of one order of magnitude higher (~1 mg m-3) than the surrounding oligotrophic waters (<0.1 mg m-3). The wakes are similar to von Kármán vortex streets which have been used to explain the impact of IME on Chl-a increases in numerical models. The wakes are formed from a high productivity area in the lee of the island, extending to the oceanic region as high Chl-a patches associated with submesoscale eddies that are detached from the islands and connected by less-productive zones. This pattern coincides with previous models that predict the effects of island-generated flow perturbations on biological production variability. The IME is a recurrent feature of islands that has even been observed in decadal average fields. In such average fields, the Chl-a values in RC-SC and AS islands can exceed values found in a Control Zone (a zone without islands) by ~50% and 30%, respectively. Seasonal and interannual variability reveals that, as a consequence of the IME, the winter Chl-a maximum associated with the development of winter convection and mesoscale eddies that propagate from the continental zone, promote that the Chl-a maximum extends towards spring. The IME has an impact on the island on both a local as well as a more regional scale that affects an area of ~40,000 km2 (1°Latitude×4°Longitude) centered on the islands. The transport of high productivity patches associated with submesoscale eddies may be responsible for IME propagation at a regional scale. Around the islands, the presence of a weak oceanic incident flow and strong and recurrent wind-wakes, suggest that the generation of Chl-a wakes result from a combined effect between both forcings.

  1. Circulation, heat exchange and vertical structure of the Hornsund - the Svalbard Archipelago fiord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakacki, Jaromir; Przyborska, Anna; Kosecki, Szymon; Sundfjord, Arild

    2015-04-01

    The Hornsund fjord is located in the southwestern part of Spitsbergen- the biggest island of the Svalbard Archipelago. The fjord is influenced by two major currents in this area. The first one is the current carrying the cold and less saline waters around the southern Spitsbergen tip, often called the Sørkapp Current or the South Cape Current. The second is the well-known West Spitsbergen Current (WSC), carrying salty and warm Atlantic Waters through Fram Strait into the Arctic Ocean. From a biological point of view, Hornsund can be treated as a young unstable system or cold system, which suggests that it is under an influence of the South Cape Current. Because of limited measurements in this area, the hydrodynamic model MIKE3D has been implemented for this fjord to diagnose which current has the main influence on Hornsund. The fjord domain was extended into the shelf area. At the lateral boundary of the extended domain, data from the ROMS simulation of the Svalbard area made by the Norwegian Institute of Marine Research (IMR) with resolution of 800 m have been used. Atmospheric data from European Centre for Medium Weather Forecast (ECMWF) were employed as well as from the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS, 1 and 0.5 degrees) reanalysis that uses metrological data from Polish Polar Station located in Hornsund. Based on 5 years of simulation (2005-2010) seasonal and annual general circulation in the fjord has been described. Estimation of the heat transport between fjord and ocean, and between fjord and atmosphere will permit to establish the heat budget and help to evaluate the influence of the South Cape Current and WSC on the fjord ecosystem development. An influence of the fresh water fluxes and vertical structure of water masses and their transformations will be also discussed. This work was partially performed in the frame of the projects GAME (DEC-2012/04/A/NZ8/00661) and AWAKE2 (Pol-Nor/198675/17/2013)

  2. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. 165.1185...

  3. 78 FR 39588 - Special Local Regulations; Revision of 2013 America's Cup Regulated Area, San Francisco Bay; San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ...2013 America's Cup Regulated Area, San Francisco Bay; San Francisco, CA AGENCY...1) The following area is the Primary Regulated Area for the 2013 America's Cup...All waters of San Francisco Bay bounded by a line...

  4. Characterization of the grafting copolymer EPDM-SAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims the characterization of the grafting copolymer EPDM-SAN. This copolymer presents a fraction of free SAN chains, which was extracted by solubilization in chloroform followed of precipitation of the grafting copolymer EPDM-g-SAN in acetone. The EPDM-SAN and EPDM-g-SAN were characterized by 13C NMR, DSC, TGA and SEM. EPDM-SAN contain 23 wt% of free SAN and 77 wt% of EPDM-g-SAN. Both materials are heterogeneous and the thermal and thermo-oxidative degradation are independent of the composition. (author)

  5. Generalisering og validering af model for afdrift af pesticider til læhegn og andre marknære biotoper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruus, Marianne; LØfstrØm, Per

    2014-01-01

    I det netop afsluttede projekt ”Generalisering og validering af model for sprøjtemiddelafdrift til læhegn og andre marknære biotoper” har vi målt, hvor meget af det sprøjtemiddel, landmanden sprøjter ud, der ender i markens læhegn. Målingerne er anvendt til at videreudvikle og validere en model, der kan forudsige afdriften af de fleste sprøjtemidler under forskellige betingelser. Modellen kan tage hensyn til de givne egenskaber for pesticidet og til dysens dråbestørrelser, hvordan vejret er og om der er en sprøjtefri zone mellem traktoren og naturen uden for marken. Desuden kan modellen differentiere mellem forskellige højder i læhegn. Som forventet var afdriften til læhegn mindre ved brug af en luftinjektions-dyse end ved sprøjtning med fladsprede-dyse i den samme mark. Forskellen i afdrift mellem de to typer af dyser viser, at der er potentiale for, via valg af sprøjteudstyr, at reducere mængden af pesticider, der lander i læhegnene og dermed reducerer blomstring og frugtsætning. Samtidig viser såvel målinger som modelberegninger, at der ikke er den store effekt af sprøjtefrie bufferzoner på afdriften til læhegn, specielt ikke i den øverste del af læhegnene, hvor frugterne ofte er mest talrige.

  6. San Diego's High School Dropout Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James C.

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights San Diego's dropout problem and how much it's costing the city and the state. Most San Diegans do not realize the enormous impact high school dropouts on their city. The California Dropout Research Project, located at the University of California at Santa Barbara, has estimated the lifetime cost of one class or cohort of…

  7. Minería, conflicto y mediadores locales: Minera San Xavier en Cerro de San Pedro, México / Mining, conflict and local brokers: Minera San Xavier in Cerro de San Pedro / Mineira, conflito e mediadores locais: Minera San Xavier em Cerro de San Pedro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hernán Horacio, Schiaffini.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho indaga nas instâncias de mediação que intervêm em processos econômicos de grande escala e sua posta em prática local. Baseando-nos no conflito no Cerro de San Pedro (San Luis Potosí, México) entre a empresa Minera San Xavier e a Frente Amplio Opositor (FAO) aplicamos o método etnográfi [...] co pra descrever as estruturas de mediação política locais e analisar suas práticas e racionalidade. Tenta-se demonstrar assim a importância dos fatores políticos locais nas vinculações entre estado, empresa e população. Abstract in spanish Este trabajo indaga en las instancias de mediación que intervienen en la articulación de procesos económicos de gran escala y su puesta en práctica local. Basándonos en el conflicto que se produjo en el Municipio de Cerro de San Pedro (San Luis Potosí, México) entre la empresa Minera San Xavier y el [...] Frente Amplio Opositor (FAO) a la misma, aplicamos el método etnográfico con el objetivo de describir las estructuras locales de mediación política y analizar sus prácticas y racionalidad. Intentamos demostrar así la importancia de los factores políticos locales en las vinculaciones entre estado, empresa y población. Abstract in english This paper investigates in instances of mediation involved in large-scale economic processes and local implementation. Analyzing the conflict in Cerro de San Pedro (San Luis Potosí, México) among San Xavier mining company and the Frente Amplio Opositor (FAO), it applies an ethnographic approach to d [...] escribe the local structures of political mediation and its practices and rationality. The work shows the relevance of local factors in the relationships between State, company and people.

  8. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2001-06-16

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  9. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Beebe

    2003-05-05

    The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the seventh annual reporting period (8/3/00-8/2/01) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the interwell seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted and the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction were conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and six wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

  10. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO2) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  11. Strukturelle studier af biomolekylære komplekser og syntetiske polymer systemer ved anvendelse af små-vinkel spredning, SANS og SAXS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kell

    Det er velkendt at krystallers velbeskrevne periodiske struktur giver anledning til interferens når Røntgen stråler sendes igennem materialet. Denne såkaldte ”Bragg spredning” blev teoretisk forklaret af William Lawrence Bragg og William Henry Bragg for 100 år siden, i 1913, på basis af observationer hvor de fandt at Røntgen stråler danner karakteristiske mønstre når de sendes gennem en krystal. Men Røntgen-bølgerne interfererer naturligvis også når de sendes gennem materialer som ikke er krystallinske, det kan være væsker, suspensioner eller amorfe systemer. Det mønster, som Røntgen-strålen danner, vil dog ikke have karakter af intense Bragg refleksioner, som kendes fra krystaller, men snarere have karakter af diffus spredning. Ligesom analyser af Bragg refleksionerne kan give detaljeret indsigt i krystallernes opbygning af molekyler og molekylernes indre struktur, kan detaljeret analyse af den diffuse spredning give indsigt i materialets atomare struktur. Røntgen stråling er den relevante type elektromagnetiske stråling, da bølgelængden på ca 1Å svarer til typiske atomare afstande. En anden type stråling med bølgelængde af samme størrelsesorden er neutron stråling. Men medens Røntgen strålingen i det væsentlige afhænger af hvordan elektronerne fordeles i materialet, er neutron-spredningen givet ved fordelingen af forskellige atom- kerner. Specielt gælder det at spredningen af neutroner fra brint-kernen generelt er meget forskellig fra spredningen fra andre atomer. Neutron spredning giver derfor ofte et billede af fordelingen af brint. Røntgen og neutron spredning er således komplementære teknikker som ’ser’ forskellige karakterer af den molekylære struktur. Den diffuse spredning måles i røntgen eller neutron diffraktometre. Der er specielt stor interesse for at studere strukturer på nano-skala niveau. Det kan være strukturen af proteiner og andre biomolekyler, strukturen af selv-organiserede systemer som den biologiske lipid-membran, mikro-emulsioner eller termoplastiske materialer. Med bølgelængder af størrelsesordenen Ångstrøm vil den diffuse spredning fra sådanne nano-skala strukturer komme meget tæt ved selve strålen. Der skal derfor måles ved meget små vinkler. Metoden til sådanne studier kaldes naturligt små-vinkel spredning (Small-Angle Scattering), hvoraf der finde de to primære metoder, SANS og SAXS med anvendelse af henholdsvis Neutron- og Røntgen-stråling (X-ray). I foredraget vil teknikkerne blive præsenteret og der vil blive vist eksempler på nuværende om kommende faciliteter. Der vil endvidere blive vist eksempler på hvordan kombination af SAXS og SANS kan benyttes til af give detaljeret strukturel indsigt i biomolekylære komplekser. Vi vil også vise hvordan teknikken kan bruges til at forstå og designe avancerede komplekse ordnede strukturer på nanometer længdeskala og hvordan mikro-reologien i komplekse væsker er et resultat af strukturelle ændringer

  12. Consequences of climatic change, sea level rise and society evolution on the Kerkennah archipelago coast and sabkha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucile, Etienne; Gérard, Beltrando; Abdelkarim, Daoud

    2015-04-01

    Interaction between human activities, climate evolution and sea level can be summarised in a system where every element impacts the others. In the Kerkennah archipelago (Tunisia), recent observations have shown that the climate has become more arid, that the sea level is rising and that the society is modernizing at least since 1970. In our work we tried to understand the relations between the elements of the socio-ecosystem of Kerkennah to identify potential causes of the coastline movements and sabkhas extension (low and salty areas). Using photointerpretation (topographic map, Spot 5 image, aerial photographs) and remote sensing (2 landsat TM5 images), we detected and evaluated the movements of the coastline and of the sabkhas limits. Field data have also been added and all information has been used together in a GIS showing a significant retreat of the coastline (maximum of 41.2±6m in 47years) and an increase in the surface of sabkhas (+18%) between 1963 and 2010. The same dataset has been reanalysed at a much finer spatial scale to correlate observed changes to human pressure. This showed that coast erosion rates are more important where the coastline is partially artificialized or just after the end of a dam or a rockfill. Advances to the sea observed on some portions of the coast are always linked to human infrastructures. We conclude that the climatic change and the sea level rise increased the physical vulnerability of the archipelago and that the human installations near the coast amplify this vulnerability. Similarly, the extension of sabkha surfaces is global and most likely due to a natural perturbation of the seasonal cycle in the sabkhas by the sea level rise and by the stronger aridity in summer. However, discrepancies exist between individual areas and can be explained by the presence of active fault and/or by the evolution of agricultural practices. Indeed, frequent periods of drought and the political will for development of the Kerkennah islands in the 1990 led to a modernisation of agriculture through the installation of irrigated and drained areas in which farmers use brackish water. These events were accompanied by a progressive abandonment of the traditional practices (around the palm grove) and the development of illegal irrigation outside of the drained areas. The risk of soil salinization therefore seems to be more important today than during the 1950. Altogether, this study shows a significant increase in the vulnerability of the Kerkennah archipelago in response to both climate and social changes and stands as an example of climate/human interactions and of their measurable impacts.

  13. Are There Spatial or Temporal Patterns to Holocene Explosive Eruptions in the Aleutian Archipelago? A Work in Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C.; Nicolaysen, K. P.; McConville, K.; Hatfield, V.; West, D.

    2013-12-01

    By examining the existing geological and archeological record of radiocarbon dated Aleutian tephras of the last 12,000 years, this study sought to determine whether there were spatial or temporal patterns of explosive eruptive activity. The Holocene tephra record has important implications because two episodes of migration and colonization by humans of distinct cultures established the Unangan/Aleut peoples of the Aleutian Islands concurrently with the volcanic activity. From Aniakchak Volcano on the Alaska Peninsula to the Andreanof Islands (158 to 178° W longitude), 55 distinct tephras represent significant explosive eruptions of the last 12,000 years. Initial results suggest that the Andreanof and Fox Island regions of the archipelago have had frequent explosive eruptions whereas the Islands of Four Mountains, Rat, and Near Island regions have apparently had little or no eruptive activity. However, one clear result of the investigation is that sampling bias strongly influences the apparent spatial patterns. For example field reconnaissance in the Islands of Four Mountains documents two Holocene calderas and a minimum of 20 undated tephras in addition to the large ignimbrites. Only the lack of significant explosive activity in the Near Islands seems a valid spatial result as archeological excavations and geologic reports failed to document Holocene tephras there. An intriguing preliminary temporal pattern is the apparent absence of large explosive eruptions across the archipelago from ca. 4,800 to 6,000 yBP. To test the validity of apparent patterns, a statistical treatment of the compiled data grappled with the sampling bias by considering three confounding variables: larger island size allows more opportunity for geologic preservation of tephras; larger magnitude eruption promotes tephra preservation by creating thicker and more widespread deposits; the comprehensiveness of the tephra sampling of each volcano and island varies widely because of logistical and financial limitations. This initial statistical investigation proposes variables to mitigate the effects of sampling bias and makes recommendations for sampling strategies to enable statistically valid examination of research questions. Further, though caldera-forming eruptions occurred throughout the Holocene - and several remain undated - four of six dated eruptions occurred throughout the archipelago between 8,000-9,100 yBP, a period coinciding with some of the earliest human occupation (Early Anangula Phase) of the eastern Aleutians.

  14. RheoSANS: simultaneous SANS and rheology measurements on the Quokka SANS instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The highly penetrative and non-ionising nature of neutrons make the SANS measurement particularly suited to examine toe response of soft materials to an external stimulus. In this case we consider the response of a complex fluid. an aqueous solution of a block co-polymer. to shear flow in a couette cell consisting of two concentric quartz cylinders with a variable gap between The couette shear cell is connected to a commercial Paar Physica MCR 500 rheometer. Depending on the ability to maintain laminar flow, rheometric tests may be performed at shear rates from 0.1 to 2000s-1 and at temperatures from -5 to 80cC. The jacket responsible for thermal control of the sample allows access of neutron beam in directions radial and tangential to the now direction. In the tangential direction the need to use a highly collimated beam to illuminate the gap provides a serious limitation to neutron flux at the sample. A trap may be used to prevent the evaporation of solvents. SANS data from the detector may be acquired in either of two modes. Acquisitions may be triggered by voltage output from rheometer (e.g shear rate), or using the detector in list mode where detector counts are post-binned to provide the optimal signal to noise for example in kinetic studies. A further possibility of the latter mode rs the study of shear induced structural changes in a steady perturbed slate such as an oscillatory smear.

  15. Mantle metasomatism vs host magma interaction at Sal Island (Cape Verde Archipelago)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadiman, Costanza; Coltorti, Massimo; Beccaluva, Luigi; Siena, Franca

    2010-05-01

    The Cape Verde Islands lie in the Atlantic Ocean off West Africa, in a clearly oceanic setting. Xenoliths from Miocene (16Ma) neck in the northern part of Sal Island bear extensive evidence of metasomatic reactions, characterized by secondary parageneses (ol+sp+cpx+glass+K-feld) around primary orthopyroxene, clinopyroxenes and spinel. These textures are commonly observed in many xenolith populations worldwide, independently of the nature of the carrying alkaline magma (i.e. basalts, lamproitic or kimberlitic melt). The interpretation as a product of metasomatism has been recently put under discussion by Shaw et al. (2006) and Shaw & Dingwell (2008) who consider that most of these textures are imposed on the xenoliths during magma transport and/or residence in a magma chamber. This contribution aims at emphasizing the criteria which allow to discriminate between the metasomatic and host magma infiltration processes, reinforcing the concept and validity of metasomatism within the mantle. To pursue this, various petrographic and geochemical criteria from a selected well-studied suite of mantle xenoliths that clearly testify for an interaction of the peridotites with silicate melts at depth (metasomatised samples) or during the transport to the surface (host basalt infiltration samples) will be presented. Few pristine samples (two lherzolites and one harburgite) devoid of any textural evidences for basaltic infiltration or metasomatic processes were also used for comparison. The metasomatised samples are constituted by three lherzolites and one harzburgite whose metasomatic textures include glassy pools, patches or veins with secondary parageneses made up of ol, cpx, sp and K-feld or spongy rims and sieved crystals of pyroxenes and spinels. The infiltrated samples are represented by one lherzolite and one harzburgite cut by glassy veinlets filled with euhedral to subeuhedral ol + plag + magnetites crystallites. In the metasomatic samples the secondary olivines at similar mg# [Mg/(Mg + Fe) • 100 = 86.7 - 91.5).] tend to have higher Ca and lower Ni contents with respect to the primary unmetasomatised grains. Feldspar are characterized by very high K2O content (up to 10.50 wt%, Bonadiman et al., 2005) very peculiar for mantle environment even for continental settings. Glasses are rather homogeneous in composition and characterized by relatively high SiO2 (55.73-67.13 wt %), Al2O3 (14.33-21.4 wt %) and alkali contents (Na2O 2.49-7.14 wt %; K2O 5.50-8.78 wt %). Their compositions are similar to those of most mantle xenolith glasses worldwide, apart from the exceptionally high K2O contents, which have never been found in oceanic settings before and have rarely been matched even in continental xenoliths. In the infiltrated samples secondary olivine are distinctively enriched in FeO relative to those primary and secondary of the peridotite assemblage. NiO -Fo composition of these crystallites are compatible with those calculated for olivine in equilibrium with a progressively fractionated melt. Feldspars are Ca-rich plagioclase (An 75)). Glasses of the infiltrated samples are systematically richer in FeO (and MgO), TiO2 and depleted in K2O with respect those of metasomatised samples. Hf and Nd isotopic analyses on separated cpxs from pristine and metasomatized samples are distinctly higher of those recorded both southern and northern lavas of Cape Verde Archipelago (Martins et al., 2010) [Xenoliths: 176Hf/177Hf 0.283038- 0.2831012; 143Nd/144Nd 0.512837 to 0.512955. Lavas: 176Hf/177Hf=0.28284-0.28297; 43Nd/144Nd=0.51261-0.51287]. References: Bonadiman et al. (2005), J. Petrol. 46, 2465-2493 Martins et al. (2010), Mineralogy & Petrology, OnlineFirst. Shaw & Dingwell (2008). Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 155, 199-214 Shaw et al. (2006). Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 151,681-697.

  16. Kas hirmul külma sõja ees on alust? / George Soros, Martti Ahtisaari, Toomas Hendrik Ilves...[jt.] ; interv. Andres Kasekamp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    6. novembril 2008 Tallinnas toimunud XIII Avatud Ühiskonna Foorumil alapealkirjaga "Euroopa Liit ja Venemaa: mida toob tulevik?" arutlesid president Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Euroopa Välissuhete Nõukogu aseesimees Martti Ahtisaari, Euroopa Välissuhete Nõukogu liige, Avatud Ühiskonna Instituudi nõukogu esimees George Soros, Euroopa Välissuhete Nõukogu liige, politoloogiaprofessor Aleksander Smolar ja Rahvusvahelise Kaitseuuringute Keskuse juhataja Kadri Liik suhete üle Venemaaga. Vestlust juhtis Andres Kasekamp. President T. H. Ilves rääkis paradigma muutusest Euroopa Liidu ja Venemaa suhetes pärast Venemaa agressiooni Gruusia vastu, ühiselt jagatud väärtustel põhineva julgeolekuorganisatsiooni tähtsusest, autoritaarse ja demokraatliku kapitalismi vastuolust

  17. Vabariigi aastapäev San Franciscos / Heino Valvur ; foto: Heino Valvur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valvur, Heino

    2006-01-01

    veebruarikuu möödus San Franciscos Eesti Vabariigi 88. aastapäeva pühitsedes: traditsiooniliselt tähistas aastapäeva San Francisco Seenioride Klubi koosviibimisega, E.E.L.K. San Francisco koguduses peeti jumalateenistus ja koosviibimine, kus noored esitasid rahvalaule, San Francisco Eesti Selts tähistas aastapäeva 25. veebruaril aktuse ja koosviibimisega

  18. Moving Towards SAN Storage: An Enterprise Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rabi prasad padhy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – One of the major components of any enterprise IT infrastructure is data storage. There has been continuous effort to explore new storage technologies to improve performance with respect to input/output operations, data availability, consolidation of storage assets and data protection and archiving. Storage has moved from the traditional Direct Attached Storage (DAS to Network Attached Storage (NAS and now to Storage Area Networks (SAN. Traditional storage subsystems like Server Attached Storage (SAS and Network Attached Storage (NAS use disks directly attached to servers over a Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI bus. However, these have limited capabilities keeping in view the rapidly expanding storage needs. The SAN technology holds great promises to be used for enterprises where issues like data availability, serviceability, consolidation of storage and reliability are major concerns. It can provide high speed data transfer with many other storage services, backboned with a high speed Fibre Channel (FC. Storage-area networks are also more popular and efficient way of building large storage systems both in an enterprise environment and for multi-domain storage service providers. SAN design and implementation requires careful analysis before SAN can be used as an enterprise storage solution. In this paper we provide an overview of SAN technology from the view point of building large storage systems in an enterprise environment. We also discuss on return on investment (ROI which can justify the adoption of SAN in an enterprise. Further, it compares two specific technologies, namely, FC SAN and IP SAN. In the sequel different design considerations are made to recommend suitable SAN implementations in order to meet the requirements of any enterprise.

  19. SANS study of asphaltene aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The colloidal properties of asphaltenes affects their solubility, reactivity and transport properties. We have been investigating the molecular basis for the aggregation of asphaltenes in toluene through the use of Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS), in which the hydrogen nucleus provides the strongest scatterer, and the contrast may be varied by deuterium replacement. The measured intensity curves can be fitted with a elongated particle. Both radius of gyration and molecular weight are significantly decreased upon increasing temperature, indicating a disaggregation rather than a conformational change mechanism. Thus, the ''true'' molecular weight of asphaltenes is much less than that measured at room temperature, and appears to be ?6000. The internal structure is probably complex enough so that a simple description in terms of colloidal or micellar structures is not granted

  20. A new species of insular Rock Gecko (Genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887) from the Bidong Archipelago, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, L Lee; Jr, Perry L Wood; Ahmad, Amirrudin B; Sumarli, Alexandra S-I; Vazquez, Jessika J; Ismail, Lukman H B; Nance, Ronald; Mohd-Amin, Muhammad Afif B; Othman, Mohamad N A B; Rizaijessika, Syed A; Kuss, Maria; Murdoch, Matthew; Cobos, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    A new insular species Cnemaspis bidongensis sp. nov. (Squamata: Gekkonidae), is described from Pulau Bidong, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia and bears a unique suite of morphological and color pattern characters that differentiate it from all other congeners. Cnemaspis bidongensis sp. nov. is the sister species to C. kendallii (Gray) and represents the fifth insular endemic species of Cnemaspis on archipelagos along the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. This species survived massive deforestation of the small island of Bidong (260 ha) from the mid 1970s to the early 1990s when the island served as a Vietnamese refugee camp and harbored as many as 40,000 people at one time. We hypothesize that this species' generalized lifestyle contributed to its survival, allowing it to seek refuge in rocky microhabitats. PMID:24869832

  1. Potential metabolic strategies of widely distributed holobionts in the oceanic archipelago of St Peter and St Paul (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua, Cintia P J; Gregoracci, Gustavo B; Santos, Eidy O; Soares, Ana Carolina; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; Thompson, Fabiano

    2015-06-01

    Sponges are one of the most complex symbiotic communities and while the taxonomic composition of associated microbes has been determined, the biggest challenge now is to uncover their functional role in symbiosis. We investigated the microbiota of two widely distributed sponge species, regarding both their taxonomic composition and their functional roles. Samples of Didiscus oxeata and Scopalina ruetzleri were collected in the oceanic archipelago of St Peter and St Paul and analysed through metagenomics. Sequences generated by 454 pyrosequencing and Ion Torrent were taxonomically and functionally annotated on the MG-RAST server using the GenBank and SEED databases, respectively. Both communities exhibit equivalence in core functions, interestingly played by the most abundant taxa in each community. Conversely, the microbial communities differ in composition, taxonomic diversity and potential metabolic strategies. Functional annotation indirectly suggests differences in preferential pathways of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur metabolisms, which may indicate different metabolic strategies. PMID:25873456

  2. Map of glacial limits and possible refugia in the southern Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, during the late Wisconsin glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Paul E.; Ager, Thomas A.; Baichtal, James F.; VanSistine, D. Paco

    2003-01-01

    During the late Wisconsin glaciation (circa 26,000-13,000 carbon-14 yr BP) the Cordilleran glacier complex formed vast ice fields and large glaciers along the crest of the Coast Mountains. As these glaciers flowed west to the Pacific Ocean, they were joined by local glaciers originating on the higher reaches of the Alexander Archipelago (Mann and Hamiltion, 1995). This extensive volume of ice was channeled into deep troughs (present-day fiords) that formed major outlet glaciers, such as the glaciers that occupied Chatham Strait and Dixon Entrance. In several places along the coast, deep glacially scoured submarine troughs indicate that glaciers reached to the edge of the continental shelf. For instance, the glacier that extended into the Dixon Entrance trough is known to have extended to the edge of the continental shelf. Its retreat began sometime after 16,000-15,000 carbon-14 yr BP (Barrie and Conway, 1999).

  3. Development and Characterization of EST-SSR Markers for the Solidago virgaurea Complex (Asteraceae in the Japanese Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Sakaguchi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: We developed simple sequence repeat (SSR markers from expressed sequence tags (ESTs for the Solidago virgaurea complex, an ecologically and morphologically diverse species complex in the Japanese archipelago, to elucidate population genetic structure and examine taxonomic boundaries. Methods and Results: Utilizing the RNA sequencing data obtained by next-generation sequencing techniques, 15 polymorphic EST-SSR markers with three to 14 alleles were developed, most of which were transferable to different Solidago species native to Eurasia and North America. Conclusions: The EST-SSR markers developed in this study may be useful for elucidating the population structure and taxonomic delimitation of the species complex, as well as for investigating the population genetics and reproductive ecology of Solidago species.

  4. Characterization of the Corrosive Action of Mineral Waters from Thermal Sources: A Case Study at Azores Archipelago, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Cristina Vasconcelos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Waters from natural sources of the São Miguel Island in the Azores archipelago have been investigated regarding their corrosive action on metallic materials. The corrosive and encrusting characteristics of the waters have been established in terms of relevant chemical parameters (namely pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS, and concentrations of bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, chloride, and sulfate ions and their temperature by using Langelier, Ryznar, Puckorius and Larson–Skold indexes. The validity of this methodology has been tested by measuring the corrosion rates of various metals exposed to various waters using electrochemical methods. The materials of industrial interest under investigation were carbon and galvanized steel, zinc, 304 and 316L grade stainless steels, brass, and Cr–Ni alloys. The greater aggressiveness of these waters was found for the less noble materials, and they experienced high corrosion rates.

  5. SANS studies of micellar and magnetic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has proved to be an excellent technique for the study of complex fluids. This article introduces SANS from the viewpoint of such studies. The use of SANS to determine the structures of concentrated micellar fluids is then discussed within the framework of current one-component macrofluid (OCM) models, and experimental examples are taken from several contemporary studies. Finally, the discussion is extended to magnetic fluids (ferrofluids) in which the neutron magnetic interaction plays an important experimental role. 25 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  6. Amélioration des expérimentations sur réseaux sans fil

    OpenAIRE

    Dujovne, Diego Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Depuis la création de la norme 802.11, en 1999, les réseaux locaux sans fil, qui était exceptionnelle à l'époque, sont devenus un phénomène incontournable après la l'évolution des appareils mobiles. Au même rythme, la recherche sur les réseaux sans-fil a rapidement évolué suivant des modèles adaptés du paradigme des réseaux filaires, qui a conduit un écart significatif entre la simulation et les résultats expérimentaux. En conséquence, afin de valider les protocoles sans fil ou des algorithme...

  7. Population structure and accompanying biota of the snail Turbo (Callopoma) funiculosus (Gastropoda: Turbinidae), on Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oscar E, Holguin Quiñones; Jesús E, Michel-Morfín.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El caracol porcelana, Turbo funiculosus, es un recurso pesquero potencial que casi no ha sido estudiado ni se ha utilizado comercialmente. En marzo de 1992, se realizó un muestreo de T. funiculosus en Bahía Binners y Bahía Blanca, isla Socorro, archipiélago Revillagigedo, empleando cuadrantes de 25 [...] m2. Se encontraron variaciones en la longitud total entre 3.0 y 85 mm, el peso proporcional entre 3.0 y 228 g, y la densidad entre 6.21 y 9.87 ind/m2. Los organismos de mayor tamaño (más de 50 mm) contienen 30.6 % de partes suaves. Las poblaciones del caracol porcelana siguen siendo inexplotadas en el archipiélago Revillagedo y podrían ser un recurso potencial de la industria pesquera bajo un adecuado plan de manejo. Abstract in english The porcelain snail, Turbo funiculosus, is a potential fishery resource that almost has not been studied or used commercially. In March of 1992, we sampled T. funiculosus in Bahía Binners and Bahía Blanca, Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, using 25 m² quadrants. We found that total length v [...] aries between 3.0 and 85 mm, proportional weight between 3.0 and 228 g, and density between 6.21 and 9.87 ind/m². The largest organisms (over 50 mm) contain 30.6 % of soft parts. Porcelain snail populations remain unexploited on Revillagedo Archipelago and could be a potential resource under an adequate management strategy. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4): 1079-1084. Epub 2006 Dec. 15.

  8. Spatial variability in the structure of intertidal crab and gastropod assemblages within the Seychelles Archipelago (Indian Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smale, Dan A.; Barnes, David K. A.; Barnes, Richard S. K.; Smith, David J.; Suggett, David J.

    2012-04-01

    Tropical nearshore ecosystems represent global hotspots of marine biodiversity and endemism but are often poorly understood and impacted by human activities. The Seychelles Archipelago (Western Indian Ocean) sustains a wealth of marine life, much of which is threatened by rapid development associated with tourism and climate change. Six marine parks exist within the Archipelago, but their biodiversity value and ecological health are poorly known, especially with regards to non-fish and coral species. Here we investigate spatial patterns of littoral biodiversity on 6 islands, 5 of which were granitic and within marine parks, including the first surveys of Curieuse and Ile Cocos. Our surveys formed a nested sampling design, to facilitate an examination of variability in species richness, faunal abundance, taxonomic distinctness and assemblage composition at multiple spatial scales, from islands (> 100 s km) to quadrats (metres). We identified (mostly to species) and enumerated two target taxa, brachyuran decapod crustaceans and gastropod molluscs, and recorded over 8300 individuals belonging to over 150 species. Crabs and gastropods exhibited different patterns of spatial variability, as crab assemblages were generally more distinct between islands, while gastropod assemblages were markedly variable at the smallest spatial scales of 'patch' and 'quadrat'. Intertidal biodiversity was greatest on Curieuse Island and least at Desroches, the latter was being the only coral atoll we surveyed and thereby differing in its geological and ecological context. We discuss likely drivers of these biodiversity patterns and highlight urgently-needed research directions. Our assessment of the status of poorly-known invertebrate assemblages across the Seychelles will complement more extensive surveys of coral and fish assemblages and, in doing so, provide a useful baseline for monitoring the effects of key stressors in the region, such as coastal development and climate change.

  9. A diverse assemblage of reef corals thriving in a dynamic intertidal reef setting (Bonaparte Archipelago, Kimberley, Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Zoe T; Garcia, Rodrigo A; Wallace, Carden C; Rosser, Natalie L; Muir, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    The susceptibility of reef-building corals to climatic anomalies is well documented and a cause of great concern for the future of coral reefs. Reef corals are normally considered to tolerate only a narrow range of climatic conditions with only a small number of species considered heat-tolerant. Occasionally however, corals can be seen thriving in unusually harsh reef settings and these are cause for some optimism about the future of coral reefs. Here we document for the first time a diverse assemblage of 225 species of hard corals occurring in the intertidal zone of the Bonaparte Archipelago, north western Australia. We compare the environmental conditions at our study site (tidal regime, SST and level of turbidity) with those experienced at four other more typical tropical reef locations with similar levels of diversity. Physical extremes in the Bonaparte Archipelago include tidal oscillations of up to 8 m, long subaerial exposure times (>3.5 hrs), prolonged exposure to high SST and fluctuating turbidity levels. We conclude the timing of low tide in the coolest parts of the day ameliorates the severity of subaerial exposure, and the combination of strong currents and a naturally high sediment regime helps to offset light and heat stress. The low level of anthropogenic impact and proximity to the Indo-west Pacific centre of diversity are likely to further promote resistance and resilience in this community. This assemblage provides an indication of what corals may have existed in other nearshore locations in the past prior to widespread coastal development, eutrophication, coral predator and disease outbreaks and coral bleaching events. Our results call for a re-evaluation of what conditions are optimal for coral survival, and the Bonaparte intertidal community presents an ideal model system for exploring how species resilience is conferred in the absence of confounding factors such as pollution. PMID:25714443

  10. A five million year record of compositional variations in mantle sources to magmatism on Santiago, southern Cape Verde archipelago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Abigail K.; Holm, Paul Martin

    2010-01-01

    High-precision Pb isotope data and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope data are presented together with major and trace element data for samples spanning the 4.6 Ma history of volcanism at Santiago, in the southern Cape Verde islands. Pb isotope data confirm the positive ¿8/4 signature of the southern islands indicating that the north-south compositional heterogeneity in the Cape Verde archipelago has persisted for at least 4.6 Ma. The Santiago volcanics show distinct compositional differences between the old, intermediate and young volcanics, and suggest greater involvement of an enriched mantle (EM1)-like source over time. Isotopic variations in the Santiago volcanics indicate convergence towards a homogeneous EM1-like end-member and distinct temporal variations in the FOZO-like end-member. Santiago and Santo Antão (a northern island, Holm et al. 2006), show a simultaneous decrease in 208Pb/204Pb of the high 206Pb/204Pb FOZO-like source with time. Such systematic archipelago-wide variations in the FOZO-like component suggest that this component is more likely to be present as a coherent package of recycled ocean crust rather than as multiple small heterogeneities dispersed in the upwelling mantle. The temporal variations in 208Pb/204Pb reflect minor lateral variations in Th/U of this recycled ocean crust package entering the melting zone beneath the islands. The location of the EM1-like component is more equivocal. A shallow lithospheric location is possible, but this would require a coincidence between spatial compositional variations in the lithosphere (EM1 is spatially restricted to the southern islands) and flow lines in the upwelling mantle revealed by seismic anisotropy. Therefore, we favour a deeper asthenospheric mantle source for the EM1-like source

  11. 33 CFR 165.1187 - Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay, California. 165.1187 Section 165.1187 ...Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay, California. (a)...

  12. Avaliação da atividade antibacteriana e triagem fitoquímica das folhas de Acacia longifolia (Andr.) Willd. (Leguminosae) / Evaluation of the antibacterial activity and phytochemical screening of the leaves of Acacia longifolia (Andr.) Willd., Leguminosae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Peitz; M.M., Cúnico; O.G., Miguel; M.D., Miguel; V.A., Kerber.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antibacteriana de extratos das folhas de Acacia longifolia (Andr.) Willd., através do método da difusão em gel. Os extratos foram incorporados em discos de papel, e foi verificado o efeito sobre o crescimento de bactérias patogênicas ao homem: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) [...] , Escherichia coli (ATCC 11129) e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027). Verificou-se que o extrato etanólico bruto, a fração acetato de etila e a fração etanólica remanescente inibiram o crescimento de S. aureus, mas não o de E. coli; somente o extrato etanólico bruto inibiu, em menor grau o crescimento de P. aeruginosa. A triagem fitoquímica indicou a presença de taninos, leucoantocianidinas, flavonóides e triterpenos/esteróides nas folhas de A. longifolia. Abstract in english The antibacterial activity of the extracts of Acacia longifolia (Andr.) Willd. leaves was evaluated by the gel diffusion method. The extracts were incorporated in paper discs and it was verified the effect on the human pathogenic bacteria growth. The tested bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC [...] 6538), Escherichia coli (ATCC 11129) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027). The crude ethanolic extract, the ethyl acetate and the remained ethanolic fractions showed growth inhibition of S. aureus, only the crude ethanilic extract showed, in lower extension, growth inhibition of P. aeruginosa and no growth inhibition at all of E. coli. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of tannins, leucoanthocianidins, flavonoids and triterpene/steroids.

  13. Sediment conditions in the San Antonio River Basin downstream from San Antonio, Texas, 2000-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Banta, J. Ryan; Crow, Cassi L.; Opsahl, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment plays an important role in the ecological health of rivers and estuaries and consequently is an important issue for water-resource managers. To better understand sediment characteristics in the San Antonio River Basin, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio River Authority, completed a two-part study in the San Antonio River Basin downstream from San Antonio, Texas, to (1) collect and analyze sediment data to characterize sediment conditions and (2) develop and calibrate a watershed model to simulate hydrologic conditions and suspended-sediment loads during 2000–12.

  14. San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge contaminant study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1982 for the protection and management of endangered desert fishes which are indigenous to the Rio...

  15. Backscatter B [7125]--Offshore San Gregorio, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3306 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map (see sheet 3, SIM 3306) of the Offshore of San Gregorio map area, California. Backscatter data...

  16. Bathymetry--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore of San Francisco, California (raster data file is included in...

  17. Habitat--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  18. Habitat--Offshore of San Gregorio, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3306 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor (see sheet 7, SIM 3306) of the Offshore of San Gregorio map area, California. The vector...

  19. Contours--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file...

  20. Kogukond on partner kohaliku elu korraldamisel : Veebruari lõpus esitlesid Linnalabor ja külaliikumine Kodukant uuringut "Eesti kogukondade hetkeseis" / Andrus Saliste, Triin Lääne, Andres Laisk ... [jt.] ; intervjueerinud Madle Lippus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Uuringuga püüti välja selgitada geograafilisi kogukondi - nende toimimist, ülesehitust ja tegutsemise takistusi. Uuringu esitlusele järgnenud arutelul said sõna Andrus Saliste Muraste külaseltsist, Triin Lääne Tartumaa arendusseltsist (sealne Leaderi tegevusrühm), Saue vallavanem Andres Laisk ja Marten Lauri siseministeeriumist. Vestlust vedasid uuringu korraldajad Peeter Vihma ja Madle Lippus

  1. Evaluation of a Voluntary Tutoring Program in Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics for First-Year Undergraduates at Universidad Andres Bello, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Verónica A.; Acuña, Fabiola C.; Quiero, Felipe J.; López, Margarita; Zahn, Carmen I.

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the preliminary results of a tutoring program that provides personalized academic assistance to first-year undergraduates enrolled in introductory chemistry, physics and mathematics courses at Universidad Andres Bello (UNAB), in Concepción, Chile. Intervened courses have historically large enrolments, diverse student population…

  2. municipios Maracaibo y San Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa E. Ortiz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de las Organizaciones No Gubernamentales estuvo dirigido a caracterizar la diversidad de grupos y asociaciones que bajo el termino genérico de ONG?s existen en los municipios Maracaibo y San Francisco, los más poblados y relevantes en la vida política, económica, social y cultural del estado Zulia-Venezuela. Se planteó una investigación exploratoria y descriptiva. El resultado permitió reconocer a Existe un crecimiento sostenido de las ONG en estos municipios: b los sectores con mayor concentración son el de salud; educación; deporte y recreación; arte y cultura. c Las instituciones que promueven más organizaciones son la iglesia y el Estado, lo que supone es este último caso una reducción de las funciones que le corresponden, además de la minimización de costos y conflictos laborales. d Ambivalencia en la orientación de su funcionamiento: Algunas ONG?s implementan prácticas próximas a la mercantilización de los servicios con lo cual legitiman estrategias del modelo económico neoliberal mientras otras contribuyen a fortalecer la democratización de los servicios públicos. Se concluye que el crecimiento y características de las ONGs en estos municipios estuvo vinculado en los noventa y comienzos de la década de 2000 por la aplicación de las políticas públicas neoliberales.

  3. 78 FR 19103 - Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano Escort; Bahia de San Juan; San Juan, PR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR...Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian...the Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian...Department of Homeland Security Delegation No...Department of Homeland Security Delegation No...Zone, Spanish Navy School Ship San...

  4. 75 FR 15611 - Safety Zone; United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ...RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa, San Diego Bay...San Diego Bay in support of the United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa. This temporary...Spectaculars is sponsoring the United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa, which will...

  5. Particularidades del escurrimiento de la cuenca cubana San Juan / Runoff particularities of Cuban basin San Juan

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Katia Luisa, Rosario Rodríguez; Viera, Petrova Nicolaevna; Alberto, Cuéllar Valenzuela; Dailene, Acosta Freyre; Armando, Hernández Valdés; Haydée, Llanusa Ruiz.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La cuenca San Juan, dividida en las subcuencas San Juan, San Agustín y Cañas, difiere totalmente de otras cuencas de la provincia. Los altos valores de los módulos del escurrimiento medio de los ríos y sus distribuciones dentro del año e hiperanual confirman esta particularidad, la cual fue comproba [...] da con las investigaciones complementarias realizadas durante el periodo seco del 2011. El análisis del comportamiento del escurrimiento de la subcuenca San Agustín-Cañas, incluyendo el funcionamiento del trasvase MatanzasMayabeque, conllevó a los decisores a desarrollar un programa de gestión integrada de los recursos hídricos de esta cuenca. Abstract in english The San Juan basin, divided into sub-basins San Juan, San Agustín and Cañas, is completely different from other basins in the province. The high modular values of average river runoff, its within-year distribution and its overyear distribution confirm this peculiarity, which was checked with additio [...] nal research conducted during the dry period of 2011. The behavior of the subbasin runoff of San Agustín-Cañas, including the operation of the water diversion canal MatanzasMayabeque, led the decision makers to develop an integrated water resources management program for this basin.

  6. New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic) with an updated regional checklist for the family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Ávila, Sérgio P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setia alexandrae sp. n., Setia ermelindoi sp. n., Setia netoae sp. n., and Manzonia martinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined. PMID:25685020

  7. Monitoring Temporal Abundance and Spatial Distribution of Aedes polynesiensis Using BG-Sentinel Traps in Neighboring Habitats on Raiatea, Society Archipelago, French Polynesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mercer, David R.; BOSSIN, HERVE; SANG, MICHEL CHEONG; O’Connor, Linda; Dobson, Stephen. L.

    2012-01-01

    Adult numbers and sizes of mosquitoes were monitored for 2 yr in neighboring habitats on the western coast of Raiatea (Society Archipelago) in anticipation of testing new vector control technologies. Aedes polynesiensis Marks females comprised the overwhelming majority (?99%) of the three species of mosquitoes captured in Biogent Sentinel traps placed at fixed sites on three small satellite islands (motus) of the western lagoon and on the shoreline of Raiatea. Aedes polynesiensis males, Aedes...

  8. Site suitability analysis for Bay scallop aquaculture and implications for sustainable fisheries management in the Ha Long Bay archipelago, northern Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Thi Khanh; Marincioni Fausto; Nguyen Tien Canh; Pham Thuoc; Marconi Michele

    2013-01-01

    Mollusc culture if properly managed, may help decrease capture fisheries over-exploitation in Vietnam, and possibly become an alternative income for local fishermen. The definition and characterization of zones suitable for aquaculture is pivotal for its success and sustainable development, and this study aims at determining the suitability of Argopecten irradians (Bay scallop) culture in the Ha Long Bay Archipelago. Temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a, total suspended solid and bathymetry, ...

  9. Variability of the mc1r Gene in Melanic and Non-Melanic Podarcis lilfordi and Podarcis pityusensis from the Balearic Archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Buades, Joana M.; Rodríguez, Virginia; Terrasa, Bàrbara; Pérez-Mellado, Valentin; Brown, Richard P; Castro, Jose A.; Picornell, Antònia; Ramon, M M

    2013-01-01

    The association between polymorphism at the mc1r locus and colour variation was studied in two wall lizard species (Podarcis lilfordi and P. pityusensis) from the Balearic archipelago. Podarcis lilfordi comprises several deep mitochondrial lineages, the oldest of which originated in the Pliocene, while much shallower mitochondrial lineages are found in P. pityusensis. Here, we examined whether specific substitutions were associated with the melanic colouration found in islet populations of th...

  10. Evidence of stable genetic structure across a remote island archipelago through self-recruitment in a widely dispersed coral reef fish

    OpenAIRE

    Priest, Mark A; Halford, Andrew R; McIlwain, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    We used microsatellite markers to assess the population genetic structure of the scribbled rabbitfish Siganus spinus in the western Pacific. This species is a culturally important food fish in the Mariana Archipelago and subject to high fishing pressure. Our primary hypothesis was to test whether the individuals resident in the southern Mariana Island chain were genetically distinct and hence should be managed as discrete stocks. In addition to spatial sampling of adults, newly-settled indivi...

  11. First record of Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Comoros Archipelago with description of Sergentomyia (Vattieromyia) pessoni n. sp. and S. (rondanomyia) goodmani comorensis n. ssp.

    OpenAIRE

    Randrianambinintsoa, F.J.; Depaquit, J.; Brengues, C; Dhondt, C.; Yahaya, I; Ouledi, A.; Léger, N.; Robert, V

    2012-01-01

    No Phlebotomine sandflies had ever been reported in the Comoros Archipelago, including the three islands of the Republic of the Union of Comoros (Grande Comore, Mohéli and Anjouan) and the French oversea department of Mayotte. During three field surveys carried out in 2003, 2007 and 2011, we provided the first record of Phlebotomine sandflies in this area. A total of 85 specimens belonging to three species were caught: a new species S. (Vattieromyia) pessoni n. sp. (two females from Grande Co...

  12. Extensive sampling of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Northwest Passage (Canadian Arctic Archipelago) reveals population differentiation across multiple spatial and temporal scales

    OpenAIRE

    Campagna, Leonardo; Van Coeverden de Groot, Peter J; Saunders, Brenda L; Atkinson, Stephen N; Weber, Diana S; Dyck, Markus G; Boag, Peter T.; Lougheed, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    As global warming accelerates the melting of Arctic sea ice, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) must adapt to a rapidly changing landscape. This process will necessarily alter the species distribution together with population dynamics and structure. Detailed knowledge of these changes is crucial to delineating conservation priorities. Here, we sampled 361 polar bears from across the center of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago spanning the Gulf of Boothia (GB) and M'Clintock Channel (MC). We use DNA ...

  13. RETOMANDO LOS LÍMITES Y LAS LIMITACIONES DEL "ARCHIPIÉLAGO VERTICAL" / REVISITING THE LIMITS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE "VERTICAL ARCHIPELAGO "

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Agustín, Llagostera.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo retoma la problemática de los límites y las limitaciones del "Archipiélago Vertical" planteada hace tres décadas por John V. Murra y a la que todavía no se le ha podido dar una respuesta satisfactoria. Con esto no pretendemos resolver el desafío legado por Murra, sino dar una dif [...] erente lectura a la información arqueológica existente y con ello formular una hipótesis que pueda orientar el debate y la búsqueda de respuestas bajo un panorama de mayor amplitud. Nuestro enfoque se centra en el segmento de la vertiente occidental andina correspondiente al norte del actual territorio chileno, planteando que en esta franja el modelo de verticalidad archipielágica, tal como definido por Murra, se consolidó solamente en el Período Intermedio Tardío. Con anterioridad (período Medio), la necesidad de complementariedad vertical habría sido resuelta a través del macrosistema orquestado por Tiwanaku, entidad que perfeccionó el "sistema de interacción reticular" (Llagostera 2006), de data anterior, por lo que no necesariamente tuvo que recurrir a colonias. En el Intermedio Tardío se conjugaron acontecimientos sociopolíticos y eventos medioambientales que motivaron una reestructuración sin precedentes en las tierras altoandinas y en los Valles Occidentales. En estos últimos, las poblaciones vallunas que habían alcanzado su apogeo sociocultural se habrían reestructurado bajo mecanismos que podrían asimilarse a los sistemas de "dualidad". En tanto, las poblaciones del altiplano, que estaban siendo flageladas por una intensa sequía, habrían iniciado un clima de agresión y de violencia hacia las poblaciones de las cabeceras de los valles occidentales para apoderarse de la producción hortícola y de sus tierras. Finalmente, los reductos de estas poblaciones precordilleranas (que originalmente hacían parte de la dualidad valluna) habrían caído en poder de las poblaciones altiplánicas, convirtiéndose en colonias ("islas") de estas últimas, consolidando la estructura de "archipiélago vertical", con cabecera en el altiplano. De esta manera se habría dado forma a los archipiélagos étnicos Caranga, Quillaca y Lipes, que serían los más meridionales del mundo andino. Abstract in english The present work returns to the problem of the limits and limitations of the 'vertical archipelago', raised three decades ago by John V. Murra, and which still remains without a satisfactory solution. Rather than resolve the challenge left by Murra, / here offer a different approach to the archaeolo [...] gical information, which leads me to formulate a hypothesis that may guide the debate and search for answers within a wider context. Concentrating on the Western slopes of the Andes in the North of Chile, I propose that the model of the vertical archipelago, as defined by Murra, was consolidated only in the Late Intermediate Period. During the Middle Horizon, the need for vertical complementarity could have been resolved through the macro-system organized by Tiwanaku, a civilization that perfected the older "system of reticulated interaction " (Llagostera 2006), and did not depend on colonies for access to distant resources. But in the Late Intermediate Period, sociopolitical and environmental events combined to bring about a new form of organization in the Andean highlands and in the Western Valleys of the Pacific. In the latter, populations that had reached their sociocultural upper limit would have been restructured under mechanisms assimilable to those of 'duality'. Meanwhile the highland populations, afflicted by an intense drought, would have unleashed violent attacks against those living in the head-waters of the Western Valleys to get hold of their agricultural lands. Finally, the remnants of these pre-Andean populations (originally part of the valley dual organization) would have fallen into the hands of the altiplanic populations, becoming colonies ('islands') which consolidated a 'vertical archipelago structure' whose nuclei lay on the Altiplano. In this way were forme

  14. Estimate the potential production of electricity: a case study of the sanitary landfill of Santo Andre, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Estimativa do potencial de producao de eletricidade: estudo de caso do aterro sanitario de Santo Andre, Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Elissando Rocha da; Moreira, Joao M. L.; Candiani, Giovano [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (IFSP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The recovery of the biogas generated from sanitary landfills, associated to its energetic use has been widely discussed. Thus, this paper aims to estimate the potential production of electric energy from sanitary landfill Santo Andre-SP. The biogas production was estimated using the rate of deposition of solid wastes in the landfill, using some mathematical models with parameters suggested by two models: LanGEM-USEPA (conventional landfill) and Word Bank. These results indicate that the potential of biogas production will be approximately 11 x 10{sup 6} Kg of methane/year in 2017 and production of electric energy in that year will be approximately 32,000 MWh, considering an of 75% over collection of biogas. (author)

  15. POACEAE EN EL ARCHIPIELAGO DE JUAN FERNANDEZ (ROBINSON CRUSOE) / POACEAE IN THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ARCHIPELAGO (ROBINSON CRUSOE)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos M, Baeza; Clodomiro, Marticorena; Tod, Stuessy; Eduardo, Ruiz; María, Negritto.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El archipiélago de Juan Fernández (Robinson Crusoe) está ubicado a 670 km al oeste de Valparaíso, en el Océano Pacífico. Está formado por tres islas, todas de origen volcánico: Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe) Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk) y Santa Clara. Los inventarios más completos de la flora de e [...] ste archipiélago fueron realizados por Johow a fines del s. XIX y por Skottsberg, a mediados del siglo pasado. El estudio más reciente es el de Danton & Perrier. La flora documentada es de 423 especies de plantas vasculares, 55 Pteridophyta, 289 Dicotyledoneae y 79 Monocotyledoneae. Del número total de especies, 31,2% son endémicas, 18,7% nativas y 50,1% adventicias. La familia Poaceae comprende el 11% de la flora total de las islas y presenta 53 especies incluidas en 32 géneros, de las cuales el 9,4% son endémicas, 9,4% nativas y 81,2% introducidas. En este trabajo se entrega una clave dicotómica para los géneros, se describen y se señala, para cada una de las especies, información relacionada con la iconografía, distribución, ecología, estados de conservación y material examinado. Se comentan estos resultados con los descritos por Danton & Perrier (2006). Abstract in english The archipelago of Juan Fernández (Robinson Crusoe) is located to 670 km west of Valparaíso, in the Pacific Ocean. It is formed by 3 islands, all of volcanic origin: Masatierra (Robinson Crusoe), Masafuera (Alexander Selkirk) and Santa Clara. Johow and Skottsberg have made the most complete inventor [...] ies of the flora of this archipelago. The most recent study is the one of Danton & Perrier. The documented flora include 423 species of vascular plants, 55 Pteridophyta, 289 Dicotyledoneae and 79 Monocotyledoneae. Of the total number of species, 31.2% are endemic, 18.7% native and 50.1% introduced. The Poaceae family represents 11% of the total flora of the islands and displays 53 species included in 32 genera, of which 9,4% are endemic, 9,4% native and 81,2% alien. In this work a key for the genera and a description of the species are given. Information in relationship to the iconography, distribution, ecology, conservation and examined material is presented. These results are compared and discussed with the ones of Danton & Perrier (2006)

  16. POACEAE EN EL ARCHIPIELAGO DE JUAN FERNANDEZ (ROBINSON CRUSOE POACEAE IN THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ARCHIPELAGO (ROBINSON CRUSOE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Baeza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El archipiélago de Juan Fernández (Robinson Crusoe está ubicado a 670 km al oeste de Valparaíso, en el Océano Pacífico. Está formado por tres islas, todas de origen volcánico: Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk y Santa Clara. Los inventarios más completos de la flora de este archipiélago fueron realizados por Johow a fines del s. XIX y por Skottsberg, a mediados del siglo pasado. El estudio más reciente es el de Danton & Perrier. La flora documentada es de 423 especies de plantas vasculares, 55 Pteridophyta, 289 Dicotyledoneae y 79 Monocotyledoneae. Del número total de especies, 31,2% son endémicas, 18,7% nativas y 50,1% adventicias. La familia Poaceae comprende el 11% de la flora total de las islas y presenta 53 especies incluidas en 32 géneros, de las cuales el 9,4% son endémicas, 9,4% nativas y 81,2% introducidas. En este trabajo se entrega una clave dicotómica para los géneros, se describen y se señala, para cada una de las especies, información relacionada con la iconografía, distribución, ecología, estados de conservación y material examinado. Se comentan estos resultados con los descritos por Danton & Perrier (2006.The archipelago of Juan Fernández (Robinson Crusoe is located to 670 km west of Valparaíso, in the Pacific Ocean. It is formed by 3 islands, all of volcanic origin: Masatierra (Robinson Crusoe, Masafuera (Alexander Selkirk and Santa Clara. Johow and Skottsberg have made the most complete inventories of the flora of this archipelago. The most recent study is the one of Danton & Perrier. The documented flora include 423 species of vascular plants, 55 Pteridophyta, 289 Dicotyledoneae and 79 Monocotyledoneae. Of the total number of species, 31.2% are endemic, 18.7% native and 50.1% introduced. The Poaceae family represents 11% of the total flora of the islands and displays 53 species included in 32 genera, of which 9,4% are endemic, 9,4% native and 81,2% alien. In this work a key for the genera and a description of the species are given. Information in relationship to the iconography, distribution, ecology, conservation and examined material is presented. These results are compared and discussed with the ones of Danton & Perrier (2006

  17. Une République islamique sans mosquée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Adelkhah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Qui dit mosquée en Iran dit d’abord un ensemble de moyens ou de facilités laissés au quotidien à la disposition des passants ou des usagers. Ensuite des rituels religieux accomplis, de façon régulière, en présence des autorités ayant le privilège ou le monopole de délivrer un certain savoir islamique. Dans le premier sens la mosquée est un point d’eau, un toit, un accueil où nul(le ne se sentirait exclu(e ou ne se verrait refoulé(e. Dans le second sens elle relève des choix du croyant qui peut préférer un lieu par rapport à un autre, en fonction de critères aussi bien intellectuels que religieux ou encore de type communautaire, professionnel, voire générationnel. C’est sans doute la concomitance même de ces deux formes d’utilité, matérielle et spirituelle, qui font que les mosquées ont résisté, d’une part, au monopole, de l’autre, à l’isolement. Autrement dit, si les mosquées ont servi de cadre à la centralisation de l’Etat, elles ont également été des instances de résistance à la prétention monopolistique de ce dernier. Le présent travail tente une analyse des dynamiques concomitantes, spirituelles et matérielles, qui se renforcent et se complètent, à partir de la nouvelle organisation des mosquées et des nouvelles pratiques qui se déroulent en leur sein ou dans leur proximité. De fait il convient mieux, depuis une vingtaine d’années, de parler de complexes religieux plutôt que de simples lieux de prière.

  18. House mouse colonization patterns on the sub-Antarctic Kerguelen Archipelago suggest singular primary invasions and resilience against re-invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scavetta Rick J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Starting from Western Europe, the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus has spread across the globe in historic times. However, most oceanic islands were colonized by mice only within the past 300 years. This makes them an excellent model for studying the evolutionary processes during early stages of new colonization. We have focused here on the Kerguelen Archipelago, located within the sub-Antarctic area and compare the patterns with samples from other Southern Ocean islands. Results We have typed 18 autosomal and six Y-chromosomal microsatellite loci and obtained mitochondrial D-loop sequences for a total of 534 samples, mainly from the Kerguelen Archipelago, but also from the Falkland Islands, Marion Island, Amsterdam Island, Antipodes Island, Macquarie Island, Auckland Islands and one sample from South Georgia. We find that most of the mice on the Kerguelen Archipelago have the same mitochondrial haplotype and all share the same major Y-chromosomal haplotype. Two small islands (Cochons Island and Cimetière Island within the archipelago show a different mitochondrial haplotype, are genetically distinct for autosomal loci, but share the major Y-chromosomal haplotype. In the mitochondrial D-loop sequences, we find several single step mutational derivatives of one of the major mitochondrial haplotypes, suggesting an unusually high mutation rate, or the occurrence of selective sweeps in mitochondria. Conclusions Although there was heavy ship traffic for over a hundred years to the Kerguelen Archipelago, it appears that the mice that have arrived first have colonized the main island (Grande Terre and most of the associated small islands. The second invasion that we see in our data has occurred on islands that are detached from Grande Terre and were likely to have had no resident mice prior to their arrival. The genetic data suggest that the mice of both primary invasions originated from related source populations. Our data suggest that an area colonized by mice is refractory to further introgression, possibly due to fast adaptations of the resident mice to local conditions.

  19. How Two Sides of the Atlantic Contributed to Understanding of the Global Oceans: Charles Yentsch and Andre Morel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, James G.

    2013-01-01

    In a few short days in September of this year, the ocean color/ocean optics community lost two of the founding members of its Hall of FameCharles Yentsch and Andre Morel. Yentsch passed away at the age of 85 on September 19, and Morel passed away on September 23 at the age of 79. It might sound clich to say that someone was instrumental to the advance of science in a particular field, but in the case of Yentsch and Morel and ocean color instrumentation, such an assessment would likely be accurate. Each mans career complimented that of the other Yentsch was one of the first to make measurements of the light field of the ocean from altitude and to advocate an instrument in space that could observe the spectrum of ocean radiance Morels theoretical underpinnings established a firm foundation for the measurements such an instrument could make, allowing their successful interpretation.

  20. Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry (GC-MS analysis of alkaloids isolated from Epipremnum aureum (Linden and Andre Bunting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Meshram

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the use of GC coupled to MS have allowed a chemically guided isolation of uncommon and bioactive alkaloids. The present study was aimed to focus on the extraction and screening of alkaloids from Epipremnum aureum (Linden and Andre Bunting. It has been observed that the plant is very rich in alkaloids and the modified method employed for the extraction of alkaloid is efficient and selective, where the interference of other secondary metabolites is negligible. The identification of each compound was made through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of twenty six structurally different alkaloids were identified for the first time from this plant. E. aureum is highly rich in alkaloids and twenty six different alkaloids were characterized. The present study may help in the field of natural products’ chemistry and pharmaceuticals as well as drug discovery science and technology.

  1. New IP SAN Era in Cluster Mirroring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Rajendra Purohit

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Storage replication is one of the back bones for network environments. While many forms of Network Attached Storage (NAS, Storage Area Networks (SAN and other forms of network storage exist, there is a need for a reliable storage replication technique between distant sites (> 1 Km. Such technology allows setting new standards and removes demerits of network failover and failback systems for virtual servers; specifically, the growing storage need for effective disaster recovery (DR planning. The purpose of this manuscript is to identify growing technologies such as IP-SAN that allow with remote storage cluster replication for virtual servers. This study (Cluster Replication provides an analysis of improving the uptime and availability of SAN. For higher levels of availability, mirrored images maintained in Active/Active Cluster mirroring can provide a system with No Single Points of Failure, which is designed to improve the overall uptime of the storage system for organizations with 7x24x365 requirements.

  2. Species Observations (poly) - San Diego County [ds648

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Created in 2009, the SanBIOS database serves as a single repository of species observations collected by various departments within the County of San Diego's Land...

  3. Coastal Cactus Wren, San Diego Co. - 2009 [ds702

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The San Diego Multiple Species Conservation program (MSCP) was developed for the conservation of plants and animals in the southeast portion of San Diego County....

  4. Coastal Cactus Wren, San Diego Co. - 2011 [ds708

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The San Diego Multiple Species Conservation program (MSCP) was developed for the conservation of plants and animals in the southeast portion of San Diego County....

  5. The alien terrestrial invertebrate fauna of the High Arctic archipelago of Svalbard: potential implications for the native flora and fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Coulson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Experience from the Antarctic indicates that the establishment of alien species may have significant negative effects on native flora and fauna in polar regions and is considered to be amongst the greatest threats to biodiversity. But, there have been few similar studies from the Arctic. Although the terrestrial invertebrate inventory of the Svalbard Archipelago is amongst the most complete for any region of the Arctic, no consideration has yet been made of alien terrestrial invertebrate species, their invasiveness tendencies, threat to the native biology or their route of entry. Such baseline information is critical for appropriate management strategies. Fifteen alien invertebrate species have established in the Svalbard environment, many of which have been introduced via imported soils. Biosecurity legislation now prohibits such activities. None of the recorded established aliens yet show invasive tendencies but some may have locally negative effects. Ten species are considered to be vagrants and a further seven are classified as observations. Vagrants and the observations are not believed to be able to establish in the current tundra environment. The high connectivity of Svalbard has facilitated natural dispersal processes and may explain why few alien species are recorded compared to isolated islands in the maritime Antarctic. The vagrant species observed are conspicuous Lepidoptera, implying that less evident vagrant species are also arriving regularly. Projected climate change may enable vagrant species to establish, with results that are difficult to foresee.

  6. First record of black band disease in the Hawaiian archipelago: response, outbreak, status, virulence, and a method of treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeby, Greta S.; Work, Thierry M.; Runyon, Christina M.; Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Ushijima, Blake; Videau, Patrick; Beurmann, Silvia; Callahan, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    A high number of coral colonies, Montipora spp., with progressive tissue loss were reported from the north shore of Kaua‘i by a member of the Eyes of the Reef volunteer reporting network. The disease has a distinct lesion (semi-circular pattern of tissue loss with an adjacent dark band) that was first observed in Hanalei Bay, Kaua‘i in 2004. The disease, initially termedMontipora banded tissue loss, appeared grossly similar to black band disease (BBD), which affects corals worldwide. Following the initial report, a rapid response was initiated as outlined in Hawai‘i’s rapid response contingency plan to determine outbreak status and investigate the disease. Our study identified the three dominant bacterial constituents indicative of BBD (filamentous cyanobacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria) in coral disease lesions from Kaua‘i, which provided the first evidence of BBD in the Hawaiian archipelago. A rapid survey at the alleged outbreak site found disease to affect 6-7% of the montiporids, which is higher than a prior prevalence of less than 1% measured on Kaua‘i in 2004, indicative of an epizootic. Tagged colonies with BBD had an average rate of tissue loss of 5.7 cm2/day over a two-month period. Treatment of diseased colonies with a double band of marine epoxy, mixed with chlorine powder, effectively reduced colony mortality. Within two months, treated colonies lost an average of 30% less tissue compared to untreated controls.

  7. Distinguishing between natural and aquaculture-derived sediment concentrations of heavy metals in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, T.F. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, DFO-UBC Centre for Aquaculture and Environmental Research, 4160 Marine Drive, West Vancouver BC, V7V 1N6 (Canada)], E-mail: sutherlandt@pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca; Petersen, S.A.; Levings, C.D. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, DFO-UBC Centre for Aquaculture and Environmental Research, 4160 Marine Drive, West Vancouver BC, V7V 1N6 (Canada); Martin, A.J. [Lorax Environmental Services Ltd., 2289 Burrard St. Vancouver BC, V6J 3H9 (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    Marine sediment samples were collected in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia, to assess the use of a geochemical normalization technique in the identification of a chemical tracer of aquaculture waste material. Zinc and copper were suggested as tracers of feed pellets, while copper was considered an indicator of anti-foulant agents used on netpen systems. The sediment samples were analyzed for carbon, nitrogen, organic matter, water, trace-element, and free sulfide concentrations, and sediment grain-size distribution. Sediment texture analysis revealed a wide range of substrate types from sand to silty loam categories. Strong relationships between sediment texture, sediment porosity, and organic content were observed across both near-field and far-field stations. Excess zinc and copper sediment concentrations, identified using a lithium-normalization technique, were restricted to near-field sampling stations (0 and 30 m from netpen systems). The relationships between these metal tracers and organic content and sulfur concentrations were explored to account for variations in sediment concentrations of zinc and copper.

  8. Using ecological function to develop recovery criteria for depleted species: sea otters and kelp forests in the Aleutian archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Bodkin, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Recovery criteria for depleted species or populations normally are based on demographic measures, the goal being to maintain enough individuals over a sufficiently large area to assure a socially tolerable risk of future extinction. Such demographically based recovery criteria may be insufficient to restore the functional roles of strongly interacting species. We explored the idea of developing a recovery criterion for sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in the Aleutian archipelago on the basis of their keystone role in kelp forest ecosystems. We surveyed sea otters and rocky reef habitats at 34 island-time combinations. The system nearly always existed in either a kelp-dominated or deforested phase state, which was predictable from sea otter density. We used a resampling analysis of these data to show that the phase state at any particular island can be determined at 95% probability of correct classification with information from as few as six sites. When sea otter population status (and thus the phase state of the kelp forest) was allowed to vary randomly among islands, just 15 islands had to be sampled to estimate the true proportion that were kelp dominated (within 10%) with 90% confidence. We conclude that kelp forest phase state is a more appropriate, sensitive, and cost-effective measure of sea otter recovery than the more traditional demographically based metrics, and we suggest that similar approaches have broad potential utility in establishing recovery criteria for depleted populations of other functionally important species.

  9. A model for quantifying oceanic transport and mesoscale variability in the Coral Triangle of the Indonesian/Philippines Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castruccio, Frederic S.; Curchitser, Enrique N.; Kleypas, Joan A.

    2013-11-01

    The Indonesian Throughflow region (ITF) continues to pose significant research challenges with respect to its role in the global ocean circulation, the climate system, and the ecosystem sustainability in this region of maximum marine biodiversity. Complex geography and circulation features imply difficulties in both observational and numerical studies. In this work, results are presented from a newly developed high-resolution model for the Coral Triangle (CT) of the Indonesian/Philippines Archipelago specifically designed to address regional physical and ecological questions. Here, the model is used to quantify the transport through the various passages, sea surface temperature and mesoscale variability in the CT. Beyond extensive skill assessment exhibiting the model ability to represent many conspicuous features of the ITF, the high-resolution simulation is used to describe the mesoscale and submesoscale circulation through the application of Finite Size Lyapunov Exponents (FSLEs). The distribution of FSLEs is used to quantify the spatiotemporal variability in the regional mixing characteristics. The modeled seasonal and interannual variability of mixing suggests a link to large-scale climate signals such as ENSO and the Asian-Australian monsoon system.

  10. Distinguishing between natural and aquaculture-derived sediment concentrations of heavy metals in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine sediment samples were collected in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia, to assess the use of a geochemical normalization technique in the identification of a chemical tracer of aquaculture waste material. Zinc and copper were suggested as tracers of feed pellets, while copper was considered an indicator of anti-foulant agents used on netpen systems. The sediment samples were analyzed for carbon, nitrogen, organic matter, water, trace-element, and free sulfide concentrations, and sediment grain-size distribution. Sediment texture analysis revealed a wide range of substrate types from sand to silty loam categories. Strong relationships between sediment texture, sediment porosity, and organic content were observed across both near-field and far-field stations. Excess zinc and copper sediment concentrations, identified using a lithium-normalization technique, were restricted to near-field sampling stations (0 and 30 m from netpen systems). The relationships between these metal tracers and organic content and sulfur concentrations were explored to account for variations in sediment concentrations of zinc and copper

  11. Relationship of cyanobacterial and algal assemblages with vegetation in the high Arctic tundra (West Spitsbergen, Svalbard Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study of cyanobacteria and green algae assemblages occurring in various tundra types determined on the basis of mosses and vascular plants and habitat conditions. The research was carried out during summer in the years 2009-2013 on the north sea-coast of Hornsund fjord (West Spitsbergen, Svalbard Archipelago. 58 sites were studied in various tundra types differing in composition of vascular plants, mosses and in trophy and humidity. 141 cyanobacteria and green algae were noted in the research area in total. Cyanobacteria and green algae flora is a significant element of many tundra types and sometimes even dominate there. Despite its importance, it has not been hitherto taken into account in the description and classification of tundra. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the legitimacy of using phycoflora in supplementing the descriptions of hitherto described tundra and distinguishing new tundra types. Numeric hierarchical-accumulative classification (MVSP 3.1 software methods were used to analyze the cyanobacterial and algal assemblages and their co-relations with particular tundra types. The analysis determined dominant and distinctive species in the communities in concordance with ecologically diverse types of tundra. The results show the importance of these organisms in the composition of the vegetation of tundra types and their role in the ecosystems of this part of the Arctic.

  12. How Tourist Destinations Could Be Stereotyped and Misplaced by Structural Forces? - A Case of Penghu Archipelago, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Han-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourist destination image is important for strategic marketing and tourist choice. While many studies focus on images and their influencing factors, images are wrongly considered only for sale, compromising local authenticity and local life. With a critical review of development plans and the results of a questionnaire survey, this paper argues that images often stereotype and misplace tourist destination, in particularly for images brought about by structural forces. Islands are lands surrounded by ocean and often taken as full of marine and coastal resources and sceneries. In Penghu archipelago, marine environment is important for local livelihood and tourist destination. However, with the case of Erkan, we realize that, along with the evidence from interviews and surveys, most Erkan tourists do not come for its marine or natural resources. Erkan, as a fishing village, was turned into a tourism destination for tis vernacular architecture and folklore products irrelevant to its marine environment. With structural endeavours and official makeover of places, places are stereotyped and often become out of place.

  13. Population structure within an alpine archipelago: strong signature of past climate change in the New Zealand rock wren (Xenicus gilviventris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, K A; Robertson, B C

    2015-09-01

    Naturally subdivided populations such as those occupying high-altitude habitat patches of the 'alpine archipelago' can provide significant insight into past biogeographical change and serve as useful models for predicting future responses to anthropogenic climate change. Among New Zealand's alpine taxa, phylogenetic studies support two major radiations: the first correlating with geological forces (Pliocene uplift) and the second with climatic processes (Pleistocene glaciations). The rock wren (Xenicus gilviventris) is a threatened alpine passerine belonging to the endemic New Zealand wren family (Acanthisittidae). Rock wren constitute a widespread, naturally fragmented population, occurring in patches of suitable habitat over c. 900 m in altitude throughout the length of the South Island, New Zealand. We investigated the relative role of historical geological versus climatic processes in shaping the genetic structure of rock wren (N = 134) throughout their range. Using microsatellites combined with nuclear and mtDNA sequence data, we identify a deep north-south divergence in rock wren (3.7 ± 0.5% at cytochrome b) consistent with the glacial refugia hypothesis whereby populations were restricted in isolated refugia during the Pleistocene c. 2 Ma. This is the first study of an alpine vertebrate to test and provide strong evidence for the glacial refugia hypothesis as an explanation for the low endemicity central zone known as the biotic 'gap' in the South Island of New Zealand. PMID:26342535

  14. Influence of a flood event on salinity and nutrients in the Changshan Archipelago area (Northern Yellow Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangtao; Zhao, Zengxia; Liu, Changhua; Liu, Qun; Ren, Jianming

    2012-09-01

    River discharge can deliver nutrients to the coastal zone and change the hydrologic properties of the water column. Soon after a flash flood from the Yalu River (Northeast China) in August 2010, we investigated the salinity and nutrient concentrations, as well as other environmental conditions in the Changshan Archipelago area, located approximately 100 km west of the river mouth in the northern Yellow Sea. Diluted water was mainly observed in the upper layers shallower than 15 m, with surface salinity between 18.13 and 30.44 in the eastern study area and between 28.16 and 29.72 in the western area. Surface salinity showed a significant negative correlation with concentrations of dissolved nutrients ( P oxygen (DO), particulate materials or pH. The average concentrations of nitrite, nitrate, and silicic acid decreased from the surface layer to bottom layer and were significantly higher in the east area than in the west area ( P levels were significantly elevated comparing to phosphate in the eastern area. Such changes can potentially induce phosphate limit to phytoplankton growth.

  15. Ancient Stone Tidal Weirs in Penghu Archipelago: Distribution, Category, Structure and Function, a Google Earth and GIS Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, L.; Wang, X. Y.; Liu, J.; Guo, H. D.

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to give a comprehensive archaeological investigation for Penghu's stone tidal weirs (STWs) based on both Google Earth and GIS. Firstly, this study uses GoogleEarth Pro tools to clip a GeoEye-1 image (acquisition date: 22/07/2013) and a WorldView-2 image (acquisition date: 25/01/2014) for Chipei Island and Husi Island, respectively, and save them at a "premium resolution" of 4800 dpi. More, using 15 m panchromatic orthorectified Landsat images as a base, two clips were geo-referenced in ENVI 5.1 with minimal root mean square error. Furthermore, the STWs were manual extracted from the two GoogleEarth images in ArcGIS 10.1. Category and size statistics are presented; construction structure and weir function are discussed. Lastly, by using GIS analyses, STWs characteristics of intertidal flats across Penghu archipelago have been mapped and related to key geographical environmental variables. From spring to summer of 2015 our research team conducted investigations into Penghu's STWs based on different seasons and time periods of GoogleEarth historic images. Our results showed that, distributed amongst Penghu's coastline, there are 503 STWs. Compared with the official survey results (around 592 STWs), the counts are similar but the GoogleEarth-based method is more time-saving and efficient.

  16. Effect of lipid extraction on analyses of stable carbon and stable nitrogen isotopes in coastal organisms of the Aleutian archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, M.A.; Miles, A.K.; Anthony, R.G.; Deng, X.; Hung, S.S.O.

    2007-01-01

    We tested whether extracting lipids reduced confounding variation in ??13C and ??15N values by analyzing paired lipid-extracted (LE) and non-lipid-extracted (NLE) samples of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus (L., 1766)) whole eggs, muscle tissue from nine seabird and one terrestrial bird species, muscle tissue from four marine fish species, and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L., 1758) collected from the Aleutian archipelago, Alaska. Lipid extraction significantly increased ??13C by an average of 2.0??? in whole eggs, 0.8??? in avian muscle, 0.2??? in fish muscle, and 0.6??? in blue mussels. Lower ??13C values in NLE samples covaried positively with lipid content across all sample types. Lower ??13C values in NLE samples were not correlated with lipid content within bald eagle eggs and blue mussels, but covaried positively with percent lipid in avian and fish muscles. Neither lipid extraction nor percent lipid significantly changed ??15N values for any sample type. Lower ??13C values in most NLE avian and fish muscle tissues should not confound interpretation of pelagic versus nearshore sources of primary production, but lipid extraction may be necessary when highly precise estimates of ??13C are needed. Lipid extraction may not be necessary when only ??15N is of interest. ?? 2007 NRC.

  17. Spectral response of the coral rubble, living corals, and dead corals: study case on the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurdin, Nurjannah; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Yamano, Hiroya; Arafat, Gulam; Rani, Chair; Akbar AS, M.

    2012-10-01

    Coral reefs play important ecological services such as providing foods, biodiversity, nutrient recycling etc. for human society. On the other hand, they are threatened by human impacts such as illegal fishing and environmental changes such as rises of sea water temperature and sea level due to global warming. Thus, it is very important to monitor dynamic spatial distributions of coral reefs and related habitats such as coral rubble, dead coral, bleached corals, seagrass, etc. Hyperspectral data, in particular, offer high potential for characterizing and mapping coral reefs because of their capability to identify individual reef components based on their detailed spectral response. We studied the optical properties by measuring in situ spectra of living corals, dead coral and coral rubble covered with algae. Study site was selected in Spermonde archipelago, South Sulawesi, Indonesia because this area is included in the highest diversity of corals in the world named as Coral Triangle, which is recognized as the global centre of marine biodiversity and a global priority for conservation. Correlation analysis and cluster analysis support that there are distinct differences in reflectance spectra among categories. Common spectral characteristic of living corals, dead corals and coral rubble covered with algae was a reflectance minimum at 674 nm. Healthy corals, dead coral covered with algae and coral rubble covered with algae showed high similarity of spectral reflectance. It is estimated that this is due to photsynthetic pigments.

  18. Genetic variability and efficiency of DNA microsatellite markers for paternity testing in horse breeds from the Brazilian Marajó archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sávio P. Reis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 15 microsatellite DNA loci used in comparative tests by the International Society for Animal Genetics were applied to the evaluation of genetic diversity and management, and the efficiency of paternity testing in Marajoara horses and Puruca ponies from the Marajó Archipelago. Based on the genotyping of 93 animals, mean allelic diversity was estimated as 9.14 and 7.00 for the Marajoara and Puruca breeds, respectively. While these values are similar to those recorded in most European breeds, mean levels of heterozygosity were much lower (Marajoara 49%, Puruca 40%, probably as a result of high levels of inbreeding in the Marajó populations. The mean informative polymorphic content of this 15-marker system was over 50% in both breeds, and was slightly higher in the Marajoara horses. The discriminative power and exclusion probabilities derived from this system were over 99% for both populations, emphasizing the efficacy of these markers for paternity testing and genetic management in the two breeds.

  19. Isolation by environment in White-breasted Nuthatches (Sitta carolinensis) of the Madrean Archipelago sky islands: a landscape genomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthey, Joseph D; Moyle, Robert G

    2015-07-01

    Understanding landscape processes driving patterns of population genetic differentiation and diversity has been a long-standing focus of ecology and evolutionary biology. Gene flow may be reduced by historical, ecological or geographic factors, resulting in patterns of isolation by distance (IBD) or isolation by environment (IBE). Although IBE has been found in many natural systems, most studies investigating patterns of IBD and IBE in nature have used anonymous neutral genetic markers, precluding inference of selection mechanisms or identification of genes potentially under selection. Using landscape genomics, the simultaneous study of genomic and ecological landscapes, we investigated the processes driving population genetic patterns of White-breasted Nuthatches (Sitta carolinensis) in sky islands (montane forest habitat islands) of the Madrean Archipelago. Using more than 4000 single nucleotide polymorphisms and multiple tests to investigate the relationship between genetic differentiation and geographic or ecological distance, we identified IBE, and a lack of IBD, among sky island populations of S. carolinensis. Using three tests to identify selection, we found 79 loci putatively under selection; of these, seven matched CDS regions in the Zebra Finch. The loci under selection were highly associated with climate extremes (maximum temperature of warmest month and minimum precipitation of driest month). These results provide evidence for IBE - disentangled from IBD - in sky island vertebrates and identify potential adaptive genetic variation. PMID:26037653

  20. Radium 228 distribution and mixing in San Nicolas and San Pedro Basins, southern California borderland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment profiles of 228Ra and 232Th and water column profiles of 228Ra are presented for San Nicolas and San Pedro Basins, located in the Southern California Borderland. These data are used to estimate fluxes of 228Ra from the sediments, the vertical eddy diffusivity (Kz) in the water column, and the upwelling velocity (wz). The fluxes of 228Ra from sediments, estimated by integrating the downcore deficiency of 228Ra with respect to its parent nuclide 232Th, are 335 ± 115 atoms/m2s for San Nicolas Basin and 166 ± 50 atom/m2s for San Pedro Basin. San Nicolas Basin sediments have an excess of 228Ra in the upper 4 cm, but irrigation and diffusion create a 228Ra deficiency from 4 to 30 cm. San Pedro Basin sediments are anoxic and laminated, have a 228Ra deficiency above 6-12 cm depth, and have no surface excess of 228Ra. Basin waters appear to be well-mixed horizontally below sill depth and in steady-state with respect to 228Ra. Concentrations of 228Ra increase from sill depth to the bottom, ranging from approximately 1.0 dpm/100 kg to 2.4 dpm/100 kg in San Nicolas Basin and from 1.6 dpm/100 kg to 3.1 dpm/100 kg in San Pedro Basin. Estimates of Kz and wz at several horizons in these basins are made by evaluating two steady state mass balance equations, one for 228Ra and one for heat. Upper limits for Kz are 23 cm2/s at 1,700 m in San Nicolas and 2.8 cm2/s at 850 m in San Pedro Basin. The best estimate for Kz and wz for the deeper part of the basins are: Kz = 5-17 cm2/s and wz = 50-150 m/y in San Nicolas Basin, and Kz = 1-3 cm2/s and wz = 20-50 m/y in San Pedro Basin

  1. Site testing at San Pedro Mártir

    OpenAIRE

    J. Echeverr\\u00EDa

    2003-01-01

    En este art culo revisamos el trabajo realizado para medir la turbulencia atmosf erica al nivel del suelo en el Observatorio Astron omico Nacional en San Pedro M artir. Arguimos, basados en resultados m as modernos obtenidos a lo largo de m as de una d ecada, que la mediana de la calidad de imagen es de 0.55 segundos de arco a una altura de 15m. Este an alisis comprueba que San Pedro M artir es uno de los mejores sitios del mundo en cuanto a calidad de imagen y probablemente el ...

  2. 76 FR 22809 - Safety Zone; Bay Ferry II Maritime Security Exercise; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ...reduce burden. Protection of Children We have analyzed this rule...Order 13045, Protection of Children From Environmental Health Risks...may disproportionately affect children. Indian Tribal Governments...Ferry II Maritime Security Exercise; San Francisco Bay, San...

  3. 27 CFR 9.157 - San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false San Francisco Bay. 9.157 Section 9.157 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.157 San Francisco Bay. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “San Francisco Bay.” (b) Approved Maps . The...

  4. Examination of spotted sand bass (Paralabrax maculatofasciatus) pollutant bioaccumulation in San Diego Bay, San Diego, California

    OpenAIRE

    Chad L. Loflen

    2013-01-01

    The spotted sand bass (Paralabrax maculatofasciatus) is an important recreational sport and subsistence food fish within San Diego Bay, a large industrialized harbor in San Diego, California. Despite this importance, few studies examining the species life history relative to pollutant tissue concentrations and the consumptive fishery exist. This study utilized data from three independent spotted sand bass studies from 1989 to 2002 to investigate PCB, DDT, and mercury tissue concentrations rel...

  5. San Jose, California: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of San Jose, CA, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  6. San Antonio, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of San Antonio, TX, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  7. Geografia linguistica e etimologia : "sens" e "sans" en occitan

    OpenAIRE

    Sauzet, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Une forme fréquente de la préposition qui signifie "sans" en occitan moderne est sans [san(z)], [s?n ( z ) ] aux côtés d'autres formes que telles que sens, sens , sens, shetz ... Les formes avec [a] ( ou [?] devant une nasale) ne représentent pas le résultat attendu en occitan du latin SINE latine (plus -s " adverbial") . " Sans " a donc été considéré comme emprunté au français (où SINE + S donne régulièrement sans). Il existe toutefois un certain nombre de difficultés avec cette hypothèse. T...

  8. High prevalence of obligate coral-dwelling decapods on dead corals in the Chagos Archipelago, central Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Catherine E. I.; Bonsall, Michael B.; Koldewey, Heather; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Speight, Martin; Rogers, Alex D.

    2015-09-01

    Small and cryptic organisms that live within the interstices of reef habitats contribute greatly to coral reef biodiversity, but are poorly studied. Many species of cryptofauna have seemingly obligate associations with live coral and are therefore considered to be very vulnerable to coral mortality. Here we report the unanticipated prevalence of obligate coral-dwelling decapod crustaceans on dead colonies of branching corals in the Chagos Archipelago (British Indian Ocean Territory) in the central Indian Ocean. A total of 205 obligate coral-dwelling decapods, including Trapezia crabs, were recorded from 43 (out of 54) dead coral colonies of Acropora and Pocillopora collected across five different atolls. Trapezia individuals found on dead corals were mainly juveniles, and the few adults were almost exclusively male. Among the shrimps (Pontoniinae), however, it was predominantly adult females found on dead corals. Obligate coral-dwelling species that typically occur only on live Pocillopora hosts (e.g., Trapezia spp.) were recorded on dead Acropora. These findings suggests that these obligate coral-dwelling decapods are not simply persisting on coral hosts that have died, but may be explicitly recruiting to or moving to dead coral hosts at certain stages in their life cycle. Variation in the abundance of live coral among sites had no affect on the presence or abundance of obligate coral-dwelling decapods on dead corals. This study shows that habitat associations of obligate coral-dwelling organisms, and their reliance on different habitat types, are complex and further work is required to establish their vulnerability to widespread habitat degradation on coral reefs.

  9. A modern analog for carbonate source-to-sink sedimentary systems: the Glorieuses archipelago and adjacent basin (SW Indian Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorry, S.; Jouet, G.; Prat, S.; Courgeon, S.; Le Roy, P.; Camoin, G.; Caline, B.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents the geomorphological and sedimentological analysis of a modern carbonate source-to-sink system located north of Madagascar (SW Indian Ocean). The sedimentary system is composed of an isolated carbonate platform sited on top of a seamount rising steeply from the seabed located at 3000 m water depth. The slope of the seamount is incised by canyons, and meandering channels occur above lobbed sedimentary bodies at the foot of the slope. The dataset consists of dredges, sediment piston cores, swath bathymetry and seismic (sparker and 2D high-resolution) lines collected from inner platform (less than 5 m deep) to the adjacent deep sedimentary basin. Particle size analysis and composition of carbonate grains are used to characterize the distribution and heterogeneity of sands accumulated on the archipelago. Main results show that composition of carbonate sediments is dominated by segments of Halimeda, large benthic foraminifera, coral debris, molluscs, echinoderms, bryozoans and sponges. According to the shape and the position of sandwaves and intertidal sandbars developed in the back-barrier reef, the present organization of these well-sorted fine-sand accumulations appears to be strongly influenced by flood tidal currents. Seismic lines acquired from semi-enclosed to open lagoon demonstrate that most of the sediment is exported and accumulated along the leeward margin of the platform, which is connected to a canyon network incising the outer slope. Following the concept of highstand shedding of carbonate platforms (Schlager et al., 1994), excess sediment is exported by plumes and gravity flows to the adjacent deep sea where it feeds a carbonate deep-sea fan. Combined observations from platform to basin allow to explain how the Glorieuses carbonate source to sink system has evolved under the influence of climate and of relative sea-level changes since the last interglacial.

  10. Maintaining a way of life for São Miguel Island (the Azores archipelago, Portugal): an assessment of coastal processes and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K; Phillips, M R; Borges, P; Thomas, T; August, P; Calado, H; Veloso-Gomes, F

    2014-05-15

    Traditional hard engineering structures and recently emerging soft engineering alternatives have been employed to protect vulnerable coastlines. Despite negative publicity, they have ensured community survival where socio-economic benefits outweigh adverse impacts. This is especially true for Small Islands (SI) where increasing sea levels and storm intensities threaten already limited land availability. This paper presents coastal vulnerability in São Miguel Island (the Azores SI archipelago) and considers SI issues with regard to coastal land loss. Regional wave statistics using 1998 to 2011 wind record showed: periods ranging from 7 to 13s (circa 83%); wave heights between 1 and 3m (circa 60%); and increasing trends in westerly (p=0.473), easterly (p=0.632) and southeasterly (p=0.932) waves. Sea level analyses between 1978 and 2007 indicated a statistically significant rising trend (2.5 ± 0.4 mm yr(-1); p=0.000), while between 1996 and 2007 it was 3.3 ± 1.5 mm yr(-1) (p=0.025), agreeing with other global sea level studies. Based on 2001 and 2008 population data and using zonal statistics, circa 60% of the Island's population was found to reside within 1 km of the sea and the percentage of total population was linearly correlated with distance from the shoreline (r(2)=99%). Three case studies show hard coastal engineering solutions preserved Azorean coastal lifestyle and had little or no observed negative impacts on their environs. Although hard engineering is likely to remain a valuable and feasible coastal protection option, an inventory of São Miguel's population distribution, surf breaks, bathymetry and coastal erosion rates showed the potential of using multifunctional artificial reefs as a soft engineering solution. These offshore submerged breakwaters offer coastal protection while providing additional benefits such as surfing amenity and beach widening. Consequently, findings of this work can inform other SI communities. PMID:24594743

  11. Factors affecting plant species richness and endemism on land-bridge islands - An example from the East Aegean archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitsa, Maria; Trigas, Panayiotis; Iatrou, Gregoris; Sfenthourakis, Spyros

    2010-07-01

    The native flora and a number of environmental factors were recorded for twenty islands in the eastern Aegean archipelago (Greece) in order to study the patterns of native and endemic plant species diversity as well as the effects of environmental factors in shaping these patterns at different levels of endemism. Stepwise regressions were used to test the effects of these factors on species richness of native and especially of endemic plants, at local scales. The performance of the Choros model was also compared with the separate effects of area and habitat diversity using simple linear regressions. The residuals from the species-area functions of native and endemic species were used as indices of relative island richness. Out of the 2238 species and subspecies recorded in total, 302 taxa (13.4%) are endemics (either single island endemics or endemic at a broader scale, namely Aegean, Greek-Aegean, or Anatolian-Aegean). All native, all endemic and Aegean endemic species similarities among islands were assessed and the three matrices were compared with the matrices of among-island geographical distances and island similarities based on components of habitat diversity using Mantel test. Among the factors tested, habitat diversity, of which elevation is another dimension, is the main factor affecting floral richness on east Aegean islands. The patterns exhibited by local endemics, though, are of a more idiosyncratic nature since this factor is the major predictor of species richness of most of the endemics levels (including single island endemics) except the Aegean endemics which are better predicted by elevation. The Choros model does not provide a better prediction of richness than habitat diversity alone. There is a positive correlation between native species similarities and geographical distances among islands, but no correlation between environmental and floral similarities.

  12. Definition of a methodology for the management of geological heritage. An application to the Azores archipelago (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Eva; Nunes, João; Brilha, José; Calado, Helena

    2013-04-01

    The conservation of the geological heritage requires the support of appropriate policies, which should be the result of the integration of nature conservation, environmental and land-use planning, and environmental education perspectives. There are several papers about inventory methodologies for geological heritage and its scientific, educational and tourism uses (e.g. Cendrero, 2000, Lago et al., 2000; Brilha, 2005; Carcavilla et al., 2007). However, management methodologies for geological heritage are still poorly developed. They should be included in environmental and land-use planning and nature conservation policies, in order to support a holistic approach to natural heritage. This gap is explained by the fact that geoconservation is a new geoscience still needed of more basic scientific research, like any other geoscience (Henriques et al., 2011). It is necessary to establish protocols and mechanisms for the conservation and management of geological heritage. This is a complex type of management because it needs to address not only the fragile natural features to preserve but also legal, economic, cultural, educational and recreational aspects. In addition, a management methodology should ensure the geosites conservation, the local development and the dissemination of the geological heritage (Carcavilla et al., 2007). This work is part of a PhD project aiming to contribute to fill this gap that exists in the geoconservation domain, specifically in terms of establishing an appropriate methodology for the management of geological heritage, taking into account the natural diversity of geosites and the variety of natural and anthropic threats. The proposed methodology will be applied to the geological heritage of the Azores archipelago, which management acquires particular importance and urgency after the decision of the Regional Government to create the Azores Geopark and its application to the European and Global Geoparks Networks. Acknowledgment This work is part of a PhD research project funded by the Regional Fund for Science and Technology of the Azores Regional Government (PhD scholarship M3.1.2/F/033/201).

  13. Populations of exopolysaccharide-producing cyanobacteria and diatoms in the mucilaginous benthic aggregates of the Tyrrhenian Sea (Tuscan Archipelago).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Philippis, Roberto; Faraloni, Cecilia; Sili, Claudio; Vincenzini, Massimo

    2005-12-15

    The microalgal community of benthic mucilages sampled in various sites of the Tuscan Archipelago during the period May 1999-July 2002, was always dominated by diatoms. Synedra, Licmophora and Navicula were the most frequently found genera, their presence having been observed within all the period under study; other ten genera of diatoms were found in the benthic mucilages, but their presence was dependent on the month and the year of observation. As concerns the cyanobacterial community, the filamentous genera Leptolyngbya, Lyngbya and Rivularia were the most frequently found, independently on the period and the year of samplings, while other genera, namely Oscillatoria, Symploca, Aphanocapsa and Gloeocapsa, were less frequently observed. During the period under study, the highest number of different genera of diatoms and cyanobacteria in the mucilaginous aggregates was observed during summer periods, particularly in June and July. The microscopic observation of the samples demonstrated that only diatoms belonging to the genera Navicula, Amphora, Cylindrotheca and Pseudo-nitzschia possessed outermost polysaccharidic investments, the cells of the other genera being devoid of sheaths or capsules. On the other side, all the observed cyanobacteria, with the exception of Oscillatoria strains, were characterized by the presence of outermost polysaccharidic investments, most frequently in the form of sheaths. However, when the microalgal and cyanobacterial isolates were cultured under laboratory conditions, the release of polysaccharidic material into the culture medium was observed only in a few cases and always in very small amounts. The observations done on the natural samples and the results obtained with the cultures of the microalgae and cyanobacteria isolated from the benthic aggregates suggest that only diatoms have given some contribution to the formation of the polysaccharidic material constituting the matrix of the mucilages, whereas the role of cyanobacteria in the benthic aggregates seems to be related to their capability to create biofilms on solid surfaces, constituting the first step in the colonization of the benthic surfaces by the microbial community. PMID:16271382

  14. Complex Social Structure of an Endangered Population of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Aeolian Archipelago (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Monica F; Boitani, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated social structure and association patterns for a small population of Mediterranean bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, inhabiting the Aeolian Archipelago (southern Italy). Specifically we evaluate the role of sex and age composition, residency patterns and interaction with trammel nets on this social organization. Association data for 23 regularly sighted individuals were obtained from summer photoidentification surveys collected from 2005-2012. Using a combined cluster and social network analysis approach, we found associations between dolphins were hierarchically structured, where two mixed-sex social units were subdivided into smaller temporarily dynamic groups. We found non-random and long-term preferred associations in the population; however, the degree of social cohesion, residence pattern and interaction with trammel nets differed considerably between the two social units. Six of eight females occurred in the more resident social unit-1; in addition, social unit-1 individuals had significantly stronger associations, higher preferred associates, lived in larger groups and occurred less frequently with trammel nets. Nine of eleven males were clustered in social unit-2 and five of these males, interacting with trammel nets, formed small groups and preferred associations. We propose that female and male groups associate in the study area during the breeding season and that some males choose to interact with reproductive females forming a distinct but interrelated social unit. Other males may be associating in a larger fission-fusion network, which consists of dolphins that appear to temporarily join the network from the coastal population. We cannot exclude that some males specialized in trammel net foraging, suggesting that this foraging technique may favor a solitary lifestyle. Large group sizes and high degree of social cohesion for females could be an indication of greater protection and more efficiency in detecting, deterring or repelling anthropogenic pressures. Most likely dolphins' social organization depends on a combination of socio-ecological, demographic and anthropogenic factors. PMID:25494331

  15. Composition and Predictive Functional Analysis of Bacterial Communities in Seawater, Sediment and Sponges in the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Daniel F R; de Voogd, Nicole J; Polónia, Ana R M; Freitas, Rossana; Gomes, Newton C M

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we used a 16S rRNA gene barcoded pyrosequencing approach to sample bacterial communities from six biotopes, namely, seawater, sediment and four sponge species (Stylissa carteri, Stylissa massa, Xestospongia testudinaria and Hyrtios erectus) inhabiting coral reefs of the Spermonde Archipelago, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Samples were collected along a pronounced onshore to offshore environmental gradient. Our goals were to (1) compare higher taxon abundance among biotopes, (2) test to what extent variation in bacterial composition can be explained by the biotope versus environment, (3) identify dominant (>300 sequences) bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and their closest known relatives and (4) assign putative functions to the sponge bacterial communities using a recently developed predictive metagenomic approach. We observed marked differences in bacterial composition and the relative abundance of the most abundant phyla, classes and orders among sponge species, seawater and sediment. Although all biotopes housed compositionally distinct bacterial communities, there were three prominent clusters. These included (1) both Stylissa species and seawater, (2) X. testudinaria and H. erectus and (3) sediment. Bacterial communities sampled from the same biotope, but different environments (based on proximity to the coast) were much more similar than bacterial communities from different biotopes in the same environment. The biotope thus appears to be a much more important structuring force than the surrounding environment. There were concomitant differences in the predicted counts of KEGG orthologs (KOs) suggesting that bacterial communities housed in different sponge species, sediment and seawater perform distinct functions. In particular, the bacterial communities of both Stylissa species were predicted to be enriched for KOs related to chemotaxis, nitrification and denitrification whereas bacterial communities in X. testudinaria and H. erectus were predicted to be enriched for KOs related to the toxin-antitoxin (TA) system, nutrient starvation and heavy metal export. PMID:26072397

  16. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in the Canadian Archipelago. 2. Air-water gas exchange of alpha- and gamma-HCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantunen, Liisa M; Helm, Paul A; Kylin, Henrik; Bidleman, Terry F

    2008-01-15

    Air and water were sampled in the Canadian Archipelago during summer on the Tundra Northwest 1999 (TNW-99) expedition and air was sampled at Resolute Bay (RB), Nunavut, to determine the gas exchange of alpha- and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and the enantiomers of alpha-HCH. Air concentrations of sigmaHCH during TNW-99 and at RB were similar, averaging 55 and 53 pg m(-3), respectively. The net gas exchange direction was volatilization for alpha-HCH and near equilibrium or deposition for gamma-HCH, whereas actual fluxes depended on the fraction of open water. Enantiomer fractions, EF = (+)/[(+) + (-)] of alpha-HCH in air sampled from shipboard were significantly correlated to those in surface water for events with >90% open water, but were closer to racemic and not correlated to EFs in water for events with 0-50% open water. Levels of alpha-HCH in air at RB averaged 37 +/- 9 pg m(-3) from June to early July, and EFs were close to racemic (0.496 +/- 0.004). In mid-July the ice pack broke up around RB. From this point through August, air concentrations increased significantly to 53 +/- 5 pg m(-3), and the mean EF decreased significantly to 0.483 +/- 0.009. Air concentrations of gamma-HCH at RB did not differ significantly before (8.0 +/- 3.7 pg m(-3)) and after (6.6 +/- 0.76 pg m(-3)) ice breakup. Results show that alpha-HCH enantiomers are sensitive tracers for following the impact of ice cover loss on gas exchange in the Arctic. PMID:18284148

  17. Evaluation of seafood toxicity in the Australes archipelago (French Polynesia) using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowiez, Ralph; Darius, Hélène Taiana; Cruchet, Philippe; Rossi, Fanny; Caillaud, Amandine; Laurent, Dominique; Chinain, Mireille

    2013-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), a disease caused by consuming fish that have accumulated ciguatoxins (CTXs) in their tissue, is regarded as the most prevalent form of intoxication in French Polynesia. Recently, the Australes, one of the least affected archipelago until the early 1980s, has shown a dramatic increase in its incidence rates in 2009 with unusual CFP cases. In the present work, potential health hazards associated with the proliferation of various marine phytoplankton species and the consumption of fish and marine invertebrates highly popular among local population were assessed in three Australes islands: Raivavae, Rurutu and Rapa. Extracts from the marine dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus, Ostreospis and mat-forming cyanobacteria as well as fish, giant clams and sea urchin samples were examined for the presence of CTXs and palytoxin (PLTX) by using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a). Cytotoxic responses observed with both standards (Pacific CTX-3C and PLTX) and targeted marine products indicate that CBA-N2a is a robust screening tool, with high sensitivity and good repeatability and reproducibility. In Rurutu and Raivavae islands, our main findings concern the presence of CTX-like compounds in giant clams and sea urchins, suggesting a second bio-accumulation route for CFP toxins in the ciguatera food chain. In Rapa, the potential CFP risk from Gambierdiscus bloom and fish was confirmed for the first time, with levels of CTXs found above the consumer advisory level of 0.01 ng Pacific CTX-1B g(-1) of flesh in three fish samples. However, despite the presence of trace level of PLTX in Ostreopsis natural assemblages of Rapa, no sign of PLTX accumulation is yet observed in tested fish samples. Because this multi-toxinic context is likely to emerge in most French Polynesian islands, CBA-N2a shows great potential for future applications in the algal- and toxin-based field monitoring programmes currently on hand locally. PMID:23286347

  18. Fishes associated with spinner dolphins at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, tropical Western Atlantic: an update and overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sazima

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An update is presented for fish species associated with spinner dolphins at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, tropical Western Atlantic, providing a general view of their diversity. The associates are mostly reef-dwelling fishes that feed on the dolphin wastes. Twelve species are habitual or occasional plankton-eaters and two species are herbivores that occasionally forage on floating pieces of algae. One species is a strict carnivore, one species is a hitchhiker that forages on a variety of foods including parasites and dead tissue from the dolphins, and one species is a carnivore that joins the dolphin groups to forage on schools of small fishes or squids. We predict that the list of fish associated with spinner dolphins will expand mostly with addition of habitual or occasional plankton-eaters.Uma atualização é apresentada sobre as espécies de peixes associados a golfinhos-rotadores no Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, Atlântico Ocidental, fornecendo uma visão geral sobre sua diversidade. Os peixes associados são principalmente habitantes recifais que se alimentam de dejetos dos golfinhos. Doze espécies são planctófagas habituais ou ocasionais e duas são herbívoras que se alimentam ocasionalmente de algas à deriva. Uma espécie é carnívora estrita, uma vive fixada aos golfinhos e seu alimento é variado, incluindo parasitos e tecido morto dos golfinhos, e uma é carnívora que se junta aos grupos de golfinhos durante a caça a peixes e lulas. Prevemos que a lista de peixes associados a golfinhos-rotadores seja expandida principalmente com adição de planctófagos habituais ou ocasionais.

  19. Fishes associated with spinner dolphins at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, tropical Western Atlantic: an update and overview

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivan, Sazima; Cristina, Sazima; José Martins da, Silva-Jr.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma atualização é apresentada sobre as espécies de peixes associados a golfinhos-rotadores no Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, Atlântico Ocidental, fornecendo uma visão geral sobre sua diversidade. Os peixes associados são principalmente habitantes recifais que se alimentam de dejetos dos golfinh [...] os. Doze espécies são planctófagas habituais ou ocasionais e duas são herbívoras que se alimentam ocasionalmente de algas à deriva. Uma espécie é carnívora estrita, uma vive fixada aos golfinhos e seu alimento é variado, incluindo parasitos e tecido morto dos golfinhos, e uma é carnívora que se junta aos grupos de golfinhos durante a caça a peixes e lulas. Prevemos que a lista de peixes associados a golfinhos-rotadores seja expandida principalmente com adição de planctófagos habituais ou ocasionais. Abstract in english An update is presented for fish species associated with spinner dolphins at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, tropical Western Atlantic, providing a general view of their diversity. The associates are mostly reef-dwelling fishes that feed on the dolphin wastes. Twelve species are habitual or occasion [...] al plankton-eaters and two species are herbivores that occasionally forage on floating pieces of algae. One species is a strict carnivore, one species is a hitchhiker that forages on a variety of foods including parasites and dead tissue from the dolphins, and one species is a carnivore that joins the dolphin groups to forage on schools of small fishes or squids. We predict that the list of fish associated with spinner dolphins will expand mostly with addition of habitual or occasional plankton-eaters.

  20. Carex and Uncinia (Cyperaceae, Cariceae) from the Juan Fernández archipelago, Chile / Carex y Uncinia (Cyperaceae, Cariceae) del Archipiélago Juan Fernández, Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gerald A., Wheeler.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available En el Archipiélago Juan Fernández se encuentran diez miembros de la tribu Cariceae (Cyperaceae): cuatro especies de Carex y seis de Uncinia. Ocho de las especies se hallan en la Isla Alejandro Selkirk (= Masafuera; 50 km2), y cuatro en la Isla Robinson Crusoe (= Masatierra; 48 km2). Se describen cua [...] tro nuevos taxones endémicos para el Archipiélago: Carex fernandezensis, C. stuessyi, Uncinia aspericaulis, y U. macloviformis. Sólo dos especies endémicas, Carex berteroniana y Uncinia douglasii, son frecuentes en ambas islas. Otro endemismo, Uncinia costata, es conocido sólo en la localidad de colección del tipo en Alejandro Selkirk. Las tres especies restantes, Uncinia phleoides, U. tenuis, y Carex phalaroides, se encuentran también en el continente Sudamericano, y se cita aquí por primera vez C. phalaroides para el archipiélago. Se lectotipifican los nombres Uncinia costata y U. tenuis f. firmula, y se describe una nueva sección de Carex, sect. Pellucidae, para ubicar a C. stuessyi y taxones afines. Abstract in english Ten members of the tribe Cariceae (Cyperaceae) occur on the Juan Fernández Archipelago: four species of Carex and six of Uncinia. Eight of the ten species occur on Alejandro Selkirk Island (= Masafuera; 50 km2) while four are known from Robinson Crusoe Island (= Masatierra; 48 km2). Carex fernandeze [...] nsis, C. stuessyi, Uncinia aspericaulis, and U. macloviformis are newly described from the archipelago and all are endemic to the islands. Only two species, Carex berteroniana and Uncinia douglasii, both endemics, are of frequent occurrence and each occurs on both islands. Another endemic, Uncinia costata, is known only from the type locality on Alejandro Selkirk. The three remaining species, Uncinia phleoides, U. tenuis, and Carex phalaroides, the last here reported for the first time from the archipelago, also occur on the South American mainland. Lectotypes are chosen for the names Uncinia costata and U. tenuis f. firmula. Additionally, a new section of Carex, sect. Pellucidae, is circumscribed in this paper for the sectional placement of C. stuessyi and cognate species.

  1. Reefs and islands of the Chagos Archipelago, Indian Ocean: why it is the world’s largest no-take marine protected area

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, CRC; Ateweberhan, M.; Bowen, BW; Carr, P; Chen, CA; Clubbe, C; Craig, MT; EBINGHAUS, R.; Eble, J; FITZSIMMONS, N.; Gaither, MR; Gan, C-H; Gollock, M; Guzman, N.; Graham, NAJ

    2012-01-01

    The Chagos Archipelago was designated a no-take marine protected area (MPA) in 2010; it covers 550 000km2, with more than 60 000km2 shallow limestone platform and reefs. This has doubled the global cover of such MPAs. It contains 25-50% of the Indian Ocean reef area remaining in excellent condition, as well as the world's largest contiguous undamaged reef area. It has suffered from warming episodes, but after the most severe mortality event of 1998, coral cover was restored after 10years. Cor...

  2. Alpha and gamma spectrometry applied to the study of U and Th series radioactive disequilibrium in the phosphates from Abrolhos Archipelago (Brazil offshore)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of uranium and thorium measurements made in aluminium and iron phosphates that occur in the Abrolhos Archipelago (offshore Brazil) by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The U concentrations were also indirectly determined from the gamma-ray activity of 234 Th, 214 Pb and 214 Bi, while those of Th were obtained from the 228 Ca, 212 Pb, 212 Bi and 208 T1 gamma-ray emitters. In both cases it was assumed that 238 U and 232 Th series are in radioactive secular equilibrium. The comparison between the results obtained by neutron activation and gamma-ray spectrometry show radioactive secular equilibrium in the analysed samples. (author)

  3. Evaluation of the safe disposal of radioactive waste and spent fuel in the vicinity of Bashmachnaya Bay on the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of disposing of the radioactive waste and spent fuel accumulated in north-west Russia, in the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago, is discussed in this paper. An analysis of risk factors associated with the construction of a pilot facility is given. The investigations carried out are considered to be insufficient in the context of guaranteeing long-term isolation of radioactive waste and spent fuel in permafrost carbonate rocks within Bashmachnaya Bay. Recommendations are proposed concerning the scientific approach to solving this radioactive waste management problem. 5 refs

  4. 76 FR 48946 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ...Operaciones S.A., Bogota, Colombia; c/o Turismo Hansa S.A., San Andres, Colombia...Desarrollo Social, Cali, Colombia; c/o Turismo Hansa S.A., San Andres, Colombia...S.C.S., Cali, Colombia; c/o Turismo Hansa S.A., San Andres,...

  5. SANS-1 Experimental reports of 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instrument SANS-1 at the Geesthacht neutron facility GeNF was used for scattering experiments in 2000 at 196 of 200 days of reactor and cold source operation. The utilisation was shared between the in-house R and D program and user groups from different universities and research centers. These measurements were performed and analysed either by guest scientists or GKSS staff. The focus of the work in 2000 at the experiment SANS-1 was the structural investigation of hydrogen containing substances such as biological macromolecules (ribosomes, protein-RNA-complexes, protein solutions, glycolipids and membranes), molecules which are important in the fields of environmental research (refractoric organic substances) and technical chemistry (surfactants, micelles). (orig.)

  6. San Cristobal Galapagos wind power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolan, J. [Sgurr Energy, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The San Cristobal Galapagos wind power project was described. With its unique endemic flora and fauna, the Galapagos Islands were declared a world heritage site and marine reserve. The San Cristobal wind project was initiated in 1999 to reduce the environmental impacts of energy use on the island, and has been operational since 2007. Three 800 kW wind turbines have been installed in order to reduce 52 per cent of the island's diesel generation. The project's high penetration wind-diesel hybrid system included 300 kW diesel generators, a 13.2 kV utility distribution system, and six 300 kW wind turbines. The project is located outside of Galapagos Petrel flight paths and nesting areas. Turbines from a factory in Spain were used. The wind turbine foundation was constructed from concrete sand and stone mined on the island. Photographs of the installation process were included. tabs., figs.

  7. San Rafael mining and fabrication complex today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Mendoza province, 35 km West San Rafael city, is located a CNEA installation for uranium ore extraction and concentration: the San Rafael Mining and Fabrication Complex. By the middle of the nineties, as a consequence of the very low prices of uranium concentrate in the international market and of the high internal production costs, uranium extraction was stopped. To day, the international price of the concentrate had a very important increase and the Government has decided the completion of the Atucha II Nuclear Power Station construction. Moreover, studies have been started for new nuclear power plants. In such circumstances the reactivation of the Complex will make sure the uranium supply for our nuclear power stations, contributing to the improvement of the energy generation mix in our country. (author)

  8. Examination of spotted sand bass (Paralabrax maculatofasciatus pollutant bioaccumulation in San Diego Bay, San Diego, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad L. Loflen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The spotted sand bass (Paralabrax maculatofasciatus is an important recreational sport and subsistence food fish within San Diego Bay, a large industrialized harbor in San Diego, California. Despite this importance, few studies examining the species life history relative to pollutant tissue concentrations and the consumptive fishery exist. This study utilized data from three independent spotted sand bass studies from 1989 to 2002 to investigate PCB, DDT, and mercury tissue concentrations relative to spotted sand bass age and growth in San Diego Bay, with subsequent comparisons to published pollutant advisory levels and fishery regulations for recreational and subsistence consumption of the species. Subsequent analysis focused on examining temporal and spatial differences for different regions of San Diego Bay. Study results for growth confirmed previous work, finding the species to exhibit highly asymptotic growth, making tissue pollutant concentrations at initial take size difficult if not impossible to predict. This was corroborated by independent tissue concentration results for mercury, which found no relationship between fish size and pollutant bioaccumulation observed. However, a positive though highly variable relationship was observed between fish size and PCB tissue concentration. Despite these findings, a significant proportion of fish exhibited pollutant levels above recommended state recreational angler consumption advisory levels for PCBs and mercury, especially for fish above the minimum take size, making the necessity of at-size predictions less critical. Lastly, no difference in tissue concentration was found temporally or spatially within San Diego Bay.

  9. Semi Symmetric Method Of SAN Storage Virtualization

    OpenAIRE

    Jagli, Mrs. Dhanamma; Solanki, Ramesh; Temkar, Mrs. Rohini; Veshapogu, Laxmi

    2013-01-01

    Virtualization is one of the biggest buzzwords of the technology industry right at this moment. The fast growth in storage capacity and processing power in enterprise installations coupled with the need for high availability, requires Storage Area Network (SAN) architecture to provide seamless addition of storage and performance elements without downtime. The usual goal of virtualization is to centralize administrative tasks while improving scalability and work loads. This p...

  10. San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge Well 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Easterly, C.E.; Ketelle, R.H.; Quarles, H.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), at the request of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, evaluated the water production capacity of an artesian well in the San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona. Water from the well initially flows into a pond containing three federally threatened or endangered fish species, and water from this pond feeds an adjacent pond/wetland containing an endangered plant species.

  11. Moving Towards SAN Storage: An Enterprise Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    rabi prasad padhy

    2012-01-01

    Abstract – One of the major components of any enterprise IT infrastructure is data storage. There has been continuous effort to explore new storage technologies to improve performance with respect to input/output operations, data availability, consolidation of storage assets and data protection and archiving. Storage has moved from the traditional Direct Attached Storage (DAS) to Network Attached Storage (NAS) and now to Storage Area Networks (SAN). Traditional storage subsystems like Server ...

  12. Site testing at san Pedro Mártir

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Tapia; David Hiriart; Michael Richer; Irene Cruz-Gonz\\u00E1lez

    2007-01-01

    El Observatorio Astronómico Nacional esta localizado en la Sierra San Pedro Mártir, en la península de Baja California, México, a una elevación de 2800 m sobre el nivel del mar. Sus coordenadas son 31_0204000 N y 115_2800000 W. Aquí se presentan los resultados resumidos de mas de tres décadas de recabar información sobre la caracterización astronómica del sitio. Se cubren los siguientes aspectos: estabilidad atmosférica, calidad de imagen, opacidad atmosférica en el visible, infra...

  13. A fatal irradiator accident in San Salvador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is given of a radiation accident involving personnel at an industrial irradiation facility for sterilising pre-packaged medical products in San Salvador. The medical treatment of the personnel is briefly described. The past accident review highlighted the fact that the accident is a classic example of what can happen, even to a plant with initially good safety features, when it is operated without the benefits of a supporting radiological protection infrastructure or any regulatory control. (U.K.)

  14. Second San Juan photoelectric astrolabe catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, W. T.; Lizhi, Lu.; Perdomo, R.; Podesta, R. C.; Zezhi, Wang; Actis, E. L.; Fanmiao, Zeng; Zhifang, Zeng; Alonso, E.; Pacheco, A. M.; Bustos, G.

    1999-04-01

    According to the cooperation between Beijing, San Juan and La Plata Astronomical Observatories, the photoelectric astrolabe Mark II(PAII) of the Beijing Astronomical Observatory was moved and installed at the San Juan Observatory, Argentina in January, 1992 for observations of the catalogue of stars in the southern hemisphere. The first observing period was from Feb. 23, 1992 to Mar. 31, 1997. Using the data observed in San Juan with the instrument during this period, residuals for 11002 stars are reduced from about 405700 observations of stars over 1532 days. The mean precision of the residuals is +/-0.043''. The Second Catalogue of Stars (CPASJ2) has been compiled from double transits at both the eastern and western passages. There are 5241 stars in this catalogue, including 1225 FK5/FK4Supp stars, 794 FK5Ext stars, 1084 SRS stars, 937 CAMC4 stars, 310 GC stars and 891 IMF stars. The mean precisions are +/-3.2ms and +/-0.057'' in right ascension and declination, respectively. The magnitudes of stars are from 2.0 to 11.5. The declinations are from -3(deg) to -60(deg) . The mean epoch is 1994.9. Finally, systematic corrections of(CPASJ2-FK5) are given. The catalogue is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  15. The Leo Archipelago: A System of Earth-Rings for Communications, Mass-Transport to Space, Solar Power, and Control of Global Warming

    CERN Document Server

    Meulenberg, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A multi-purpose low-earth-orbit system of rings circling the earth - the "LEO ARCHIPELAGO" - is proposed as a means of solving or bypassing many major problems hindering man's quest to get into space. A fiber-optic ring about the earth would be an initial testing and developmental stage for the ring systems, while providing cash-flow through a LEO-based, high-band-width, world-wide communication system. A Low-Earth-Orbit-based space-elevator system, "Sling-on-a-Ring," is proposed as the crucial developmental stage of the LEO Archipelago. Being a LEO-based heavy-mass lifter, rather than earth- or GEO-based, it is much less massive and therefore less costly than other proposed space-elevators. With the advent of lower-cost, higher-mass transport to orbit, the options for further space development (e.g., communications, space solar power, radiation dampers, sun shades, and permanent LEO habitation) are greatly expanded. This paper provides an update of the Sling-on-a-Ring concept in terms of new materials, poten...

  16. Palaeo-islands as refugia and sources of genetic diversity within volcanic archipelagos: the case of the widespread endemic Canarina canariensis (Campanulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairal, M; Sanmartín, I; Aldasoro, J J; Culshaw, V; Manolopoulou, I; Alarcón, M

    2015-08-01

    Geographical isolation by oceanic barriers and climatic stability has been postulated as some of the main factors driving diversification within volcanic archipelagos. However, few studies have focused on the effect that catastrophic volcanic events have had on patterns of within-island differentiation in geological time. This study employed data from the chloroplast (cpDNA haplotypes) and the nuclear (AFLPs) genomes to examine the patterns of genetic variation in Canarina canariensis, an iconic plant species associated with the endemic laurel forest of the Canary Islands. We found a strong geographical population structure, with a first divergence around 0.8 Ma that has Tenerife as its central axis and divides Canarian populations into eastern and western clades. Genetic diversity was greatest in the geologically stable 'palaeo-islands' of Anaga, Teno and Roque del Conde; these areas were also inferred as the ancestral location of migrant alleles towards other disturbed areas within Tenerife or the nearby islands using a Bayesian approach to phylogeographical clustering. Oceanic barriers, in contrast, appear to have played a lesser role in structuring genetic variation, with intra-island levels of genetic diversity larger than those between-islands. We argue that volcanic eruptions and landslides after the merging of the palaeo-islands 3.5 Ma played key roles in generating genetic boundaries within Tenerife, with the palaeo-islands acting as refugia against extinction, and as cradles and sources of genetic diversity to other areas within the archipelago. PMID:26096229

  17. Spatial distribution patterns of terrestrial bird assemblages on islands of the Sabana–Camagüey Archipelago, Cuba: evaluating nestedness and co–occurrence patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancina, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Using distribution data of 131 terrestrial bird species on 17 islands of the Archipelago Sabana–Camagüey, Cuba, we tested for non–randomness in presence–absence matrices with respect to co–occurrence and nestedness. We conducted separate analyses for the whole assemblage and sub–matrices according to trophic levels and residence status (breeding and migratory. We also explored the influence of weighting factors such as island area and isolation. The C–occurrence analyses were susceptible to the species subsets and the weighting factors. Unweighted analyses revealed a significant negative co–occurrence pattern for the entire assemblage and for most sub–matrices. The area weighted analyses always indicated strong non–random structure. However, an analysis with intra–guild species pairs showed that most pairs were randomly assembled; very few pairs had a significant segregated pattern. Bird assemblages followed a nested subset structure across islands. Nestedness was strongly correlated with area and unrelated with island isolation. Overall, this study suggests that terrestrial bird assemblages were shaped by extinction processes mediated through area effects rather than interspecific trophic guild competition. Data suggest that conservation of largest islands will guarantee high terrestrial bird richness on the archipelago.

  18. Fatty acid profile of plasma, muscle and adipose tissues in Chilota lambs grazing on two different low quality pasture types in Chiloé Archipelago (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Maria A; Dannenberger, Dirk; Rivero, Jordana; Pulido, Ruben; Nuernberg, Karin

    2014-11-01

    There is no information about the effect of different pasture types on tissue fatty acid profiles of a native rustic lamb breed of the Chiloe Archipelago, the Chilota. Eight Chilota lambs were grazed on a 'Calafatal' pasture (CP), a typical secondary succession of Chiloé Archipelago (Chile) and eight Chilota lambs were located to graze on naturalized pasture (NP) of Chiloé. Botanical, chemical and lipid composition of the two types of pastures and of different lamb tissues (muscle, subcutaneous - and tail adipose tissues) and plasma were performed. Both pasture types induced high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and CLAcis-9,trans-11 proportions in Chilota meat. Thus, in muscle, Chilota lambs grazing CP showed higher sum PUFA, sum n-6 PUFA proportion and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio compared with Chilota lambs grazing NP. In tail fats of Chilota lambs grazing CP significantly higher proportions of 18:3n-3, sum saturated fatty acids, sum PUFA, n-3 and n-6 PUFA were detected compared with Chilota lambs grazing NP. Feeding of different pasture types (CP?vs.?NP) caused significant differences in fatty acid composition of muscle and the two fat depots in Chilota lambs, but also point to tissue-specific responses of de novo synthesized fatty acid deposition in the tissues. PMID:24964067

  19. Development of 40m SANS and Its Utilization Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been a very powerful tool to study nanoscale (1-100 nm) bulk structures in various materials such as polymer, self assembled materials, nano-porous materials, nano-magnetic materials, metal and ceramics. Understanding the importance of the SANS instrument, the 8m SANS instrument was installed at the CN beam port of HANARO in 2001. However, without having a cold neutron source, the beam intensity is fairly low and the Q-range is rather limited due to short instrument length. In July 1, 2003, therefore, the HANARO cold neutron research facility project was launched and a state of the art 40m SANS instrument was selected as top-priority instrument. The development of the 40m SANS instrument was completed as a joint project between Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology and the HANARO in 2010. Here, we report the specification of a state of art 40m SANS instrument at HANARO

  20. Systematic revision of Platanthera in the Azorean archipelago: not one but three species, including arguably Europe's rarest orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Richard M; Rudall, Paula J; Moura, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims. The Macaronesian islands represent an excellent crucible for exploring speciation. This dominantly phenotypic study complements a separate genotypic study, together designed to identify and circumscribe Platanthera species (butterfly-orchids) on the Azores, and to determine their geographic origin(s) and underlying speciation mechanism(s). Methods. 216 individuals of Platanthera from 30 Azorean localities spanning all nine Azorean islands were measured for 38 morphological characters, supported by light and scanning electron microscopy of selected flowers. They are compared through detailed multivariate and univariate analyses with four widespread continental European relatives in the P. bifolia-chlorantha aggregate, represented by 154 plants from 25 populations, and with the highly misleading original taxonomic descriptions. Physiographic and ecological data were also recorded for each study population. Key Results. Despite limited genetic divergence, detailed phenotypic survey reveals not one or two but three discrete endemic species of Platanthera that are readily distinguished using several characters, most floral: P. pollostantha (newly named, formerly P. micrantha) occupies the widest range of habitats and altitudes and occurs on all nine islands; P. micrantha (formerly P. azorica) occurs on eight islands but is restricted to small, scattered populations in laurisilva scrub; the true P. azorica appears confined to a single volcanigenic ridge on the central island of São Jorge. Conclusions. Although hybridity seems low, the excess of phenotypic over genotypic divergence suggests comparatively recent speciation. The most probable of several credible scenarios is that Azorean Platantheras represent a single migration to the archipelago of airborne seed from ancestral population(s) located in southwest Europe rather than North America, originating from within the P. bifolia-chlorantha aggregate. We hypothesise that an initial anagenetic speciation event, aided by the founder effect, was followed by the independent origins of at least one of the two rarer endemic species from within the first-formed endemic species, via a cladogenetic speciation process that involved radical shifts in floral development, considerable phenotypic convergence, and increased mycorrhizal specificity. The recent amalgamation by IUCN of Azorean Platantheras into a single putative species on their Red List urgently requires overruling, as (a) P. azorica is arguably Europe's rarest bona fide orchid species and (b) the almost equally rare P. micrantha is one of the best indicators of semi-natural laurisilva habitats remaining on the Azores. Both species are threatened by habitat destruction and invasive alien plants. These orchids constitute a model system that illustrates the general advantages of circumscribing species by prioritising field-based over herbarium-based morphological approaches. PMID:24392284

  1. Cause-specific temporal and spatial trends in green sea turtle strandings in the Hawaiian Archipelago (1982-2003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloupka, M.; Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.; Murakawa, S.K.K.; Morris, R.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated cause-specific temporal and spatial trends in sea turtle strandings in the Hawaiian Archipelago. Five species of sea turtle were recorded in 3,861 strandings over a 22-year period (1982-2003). Green turtles comprised 97% of these strandings with size and gender composition reflecting the demographic structure of the resident green turtle population and relative green turtle abundance in Hawaiian waters. The cause of strandings was determined by necropsy based on a complete gross external and internal examination. Totally 75% of the 3,732 green turtle strandings were from Oahu where strandings occur year-round. The most common known cause of the green turtle strandings was the tumour-forming disease, fibropapillomatosis (28%) followed by hook-and-line fishing gear-induced trauma (7%), gillnet fishing gear-induced trauma (5%), boat strike (2.5%), and shark attack (2.7%). Miscellaneous causes comprised 5.4% of strandings whereas 49% of green turtle strandings could not be attributed to any known cause. Green turtle strandings attributable to boat strike were more likely from Kauai and Oahu while fibropapilloma strandings were more likely from Oahu and Maui. Hook-and-line gear strandings were more likely from Oahu due to higher per capita inshore fishing effort. The specific mortality rate (conditional probability) for fibropapillomatosis was 88%, 69% for gillnet gear and 52% for hook-and-line gear. The probability of a dead green turtle stranding increased from 1982 but levelled off by the mid-1990s. The declining mortality risk was because the prevalence and severity of fibropapillomatosis has decreased recently and so has the mortality risk attributable to gillnet gear. Despite exposure to disease and inshore fishing gears, the Hawaiian green turtle stock continues to recover following protection since the late 1970s. Nevertheless, measures to reduce incidental capture of sea turtles in coastal Hawaiian fisheries would be prudent, especially since strandings attributable to hook-and-line fishing gear have increased steadily since 1982. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Systematic revision of Platanthera in the Azorean archipelago: not one but three species, including arguably Europe’s rarest orchid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Bateman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. The Macaronesian islands represent an excellent crucible for exploring speciation. This dominantly phenotypic study complements a separate genotypic study, together designed to identify and circumscribe Platanthera species (butterfly-orchids on the Azores, and to determine their geographic origin(s and underlying speciation mechanism(s. Methods. 216 individuals of Platanthera from 30 Azorean localities spanning all nine Azorean islands were measured for 38 morphological characters, supported by light and scanning electron microscopy of selected flowers. They are compared through detailed multivariate and univariate analyses with four widespread continental European relatives in the P. bifolia-chlorantha aggregate, represented by 154 plants from 25 populations, and with the highly misleading original taxonomic descriptions. Physiographic and ecological data were also recorded for each study population. Key Results. Despite limited genetic divergence, detailed phenotypic survey reveals not one or two but three discrete endemic species of Platanthera that are readily distinguished using several characters, most floral: P. pollostantha (newly named, formerly P. micrantha occupies the widest range of habitats and altitudes and occurs on all nine islands; P. micrantha (formerly P. azorica occurs on eight islands but is restricted to small, scattered populations in laurisilva scrub; the true P. azorica appears confined to a single volcanigenic ridge on the central island of São Jorge. Conclusions. Although hybridity seems low, the excess of phenotypic over genotypic divergence suggests comparatively recent speciation. The most probable of several credible scenarios is that Azorean Platantheras represent a single migration to the archipelago of airborne seed from ancestral population(s located in southwest Europe rather than North America, originating from within the P. bifolia-chlorantha aggregate. We hypothesise that an initial anagenetic speciation event, aided by the founder effect, was followed by the independent origins of at least one of the two rarer endemic species from within the first-formed endemic species, via a cladogenetic speciation process that involved radical shifts in floral development, considerable phenotypic convergence, and increased mycorrhizal specificity. The recent amalgamation by IUCN of Azorean Platantheras into a single putative species on their Red List urgently requires overruling, as (a P. azorica is arguably Europe’s rarest bona fide orchid species and (b the almost equally rare P. micrantha is one of the best indicators of semi-natural laurisilva habitats remaining on the Azores. Both species are threatened by habitat destruction and invasive alien plants. These orchids constitute a model system that illustrates the general advantages of circumscribing species by prioritising field-based over herbarium-based morphological approaches.

  3. Area, elevation and mass changes of the two southernmost ice caps of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago between 1952 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasodoro, C.; Berthier, E.; Royer, A.; Zdanowicz, C.; Langlois, A.

    2015-08-01

    Grinnell and Terra Nivea Ice Caps are located on the southern Baffin Island, Nunavut, in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. These relatively small ice caps have received little attention compared to the much larger ice masses further north. Their evolution can, however, give valuable information about the impact of the recent Arctic warming at lower latitudes (i.e. ~ 62.5° N). In this paper, we measure or estimate historical and recent changes of area, elevation and mass of both ice caps using in situ, airborne and spaceborne data sets, including imagery from the Pléiades satellites. The area of Terra Nivea Ice Cap has decreased by 34 % since the late 1950s, while that of Grinnell Ice Cap has decreased by 20 % since 1952. For both ice caps, the areal reduction accelerated at the beginning of the 21st century. The estimated glacier-wide mass balance was -0.37 ± 0.21 m a-1 water equivalent (w.e.) over Grinnell Ice Cap for the 1952-2014 period, and -0.47 ± 0.16 m a-1 w.e. over Terra Nivea Ice Cap for the 1958/59-2014 period. Terra Nivea Ice Cap has experienced an accelerated rate of mass loss of -1.77 ± 0.36 m a-1 w.e. between 2007 and 2014. This rate is 5.9 times as negative when compared to the 1958/59-2007 period (-0.30 ± 0.19 m a-1 w.e.) and 2 times as negative when compared to the mass balance of other glaciers in the southern parts of Baffin Island over the 2003-2009 period. A similar acceleration in mass loss is suspected for the Grinnell Ice Cap, given the calculated elevation changes and the proximity to Terra Nivea Ice Cap. The recent increase in mass loss rates for these two ice caps is linked to a strong near-surface regional warming and a lengthening of the melt season into the autumn that may be indirectly strengthened by a later freezing of sea ice in the Hudson Strait sector. On a methodological level, our study illustrates the strong potential of Pléiades satellite data to unlock the under-exploited archive of old aerial photographs.

  4. Subtidal reef fish and macrobenthic community structure at the temperate Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile / Estructura comunitaria del macrobentos y peces costeros submareales del archipiélago Juan Fernández, Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alejandro, Pérez-Matus; Fabián, Ramirez; Tyler D, Eddy; Russell, Cole.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El archipiélago Juan Fernández (33°37'S, 78°51'W), es un grupo de islas situadas a 650 km al oeste de Chile continental, con alto grado de endemismo en su biota marina. A pesar de numerosas expediciones científicas a estas islas que han identificado este alto endemismo, pocos estudios han tratado de [...] identificar los patrones de estructura de la comunidad en hábitats submareales. Mediante censos visuales, se registraron los peces y su asociación con el hábitat en cinco sitios de estudio, en dos de las tres islas del archipiélago. Dado el aislamiento del archipiélago nos preguntamos: ¿Cuál es la composición de la fauna de peces de arrecife en estas aisladas islas? ¿Qué hábitats dominan los ambientes submareales? ¿Qué influye en la abundancia de peces de arrecife? Los análisis realizados sugieren que la comunidad de peces en el archipiélago está dominada por especies endémicas. La ictiofauna se compone de una mezcla de taxa de origen subtropical y templado, con una mayor similitud a las especies del Pacífico occidental que a las del Pacífico suroriental. Se identificaron diferentes ensambles de peces en sitios expuestos y protegidos. Las macroalgas pardas y rojas limitaron la abundancia de algunos peces de arrecife. Cuatro categorías tróficas de peces de arrecife, estuvieron presentes en el archipiélago, siendo los invertívoros los consumidores dominantes. Hasta donde se sabe, este es el primer intento en identificar los patrones de la estructura comunitaria en ambientes submareales en el archipiélago de Juan Fernández. Abstract in english The Juan Fernández Archipelago (33°37'S, 78°51'W), an isolated group of islands 650 km west of continental Chile, has a high degree of endemism in its marine biota. Despite numerous scientific expeditions to these islands that have identified this high endemism, few studies have attempted to identif [...] y patterns of community structure in subtidal habitats. Using visual census, we surveyed fish and habitat associations at five sites located at two of the three islands of the archipelago. Given the isolation of the archipelago we asked: What is the composition of the reef fish fauna at these isolated islands? What habitats dominate subtidal environments? What influences the abundances of reef fishes? Our analysis confirms that fish communities at the archipielago are dominated by endemic species. The ichthyofauna is comprised of a mixture of subtropical and temperate taxa, with greater similarity to western than eastern South Pacific fauna. We identified different fish assemblages at wave-exposed and wave-sheltered sites. Brown and red macroalgae were correlated with the abundances of some reef fishes. Four broad trophic categories of reef fishes were present at the archipelago, with invertebrate consumers dominating abundance. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to quantify patterns of community structure in subtidal environments at the Juan Fernández Archipelago.

  5. In Brief: Quake shakes San Francisco Bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-11-01

    A magnitude 5.6 earthquake that shook the San Francisco, Calif., Bay area at 0304:54 UTC on 30 October was the largest temblor in that region since the deadly magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake along the San Andreas Fault on 17 October 1989. The recent moderate quake was along the Calaveras Fault 15 kilometers northeast of San Jose, Calif., and was at a depth of 9.2 kilometers, according to the U.S. Geological Survey.

  6. Active tectonic control on alluvial and fluvial deposits of San Juan river, San Juan, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Ruzycki, L.; Paredes, J.

    1996-01-01

    La construction et les corrélations de profils longitudinaux d'érosion-dépôt ont été effectuées pour les 7 principaux niveaux et les 3 principaux niveaux intermédiaires de la rivière San Juan au niveau de la Précordillère, entre les km 127 et 35 de la route n° 20 qui relie la ville de San Juan à la province de Calingasta. Les résultats montrent (1) que les niveaux principaux constituent une réponse complexe à des évènements climatiques et tectoniques d'échelle régionale, intervenus au cours d...

  7. San Diego Littoral Cell CRSMP Receiver Sites 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — A total of 27 possible placement sites (some with multiple placement footprints) are incorporated into this San Diego Coastal Regional Sediment Management Plan to...

  8. San Francisco Littoral Cell CRSMP Sensitive Habitat 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Ecological regions of interest as identified in the San Francisco Coastal Region Sediment Management Plan.NPS identifies several special management areas within the...

  9. EFECTO DE INOCULANTES MICROBIANOS SOBRE LA PROMOCIÓN DE CRECIMIENTO DE PLÁNTULAS DE MANGLE Y PLANTAS DE Citrullus vulgaris SAN ANDRÉS ISLA, COLOMBIA Microbial Inoculantes Effects on Growth Promotion of Mangrove and Citrullus vulgaris San Andrés Isla, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANIA GALINDO

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de probar la efectividad de dos inoculantes microbianos (aislados a partir de raicillas de mangle rojo y negro en el crecimiento y establecimiento de plántulas de mangle y de patilla, se realizaron cuatro pruebas en campo en San Andrés Isla, Colombia. Se aplicaron dichos inoculantes en: propágulos de Avicennia germinans colectados en un área de manglar y sembrados en macetas sobre sustrato solarizado (con el fin de disminuir la carga microbiana, plántulas de A. germinans y Rhizophora mangle colectadas en cercanía de árboles semilleros, plántulas de A. germinans y R. mangle sembradas y mantenidas en vivero y en semillas de patilla (Citrullus vulgaris sembradas en un cultivo libre de fertilizantes químicos. Las variables tomadas como indicativo de crecimiento y desarrollo vegetal fueron: número de nodos, número de hojas y longitud del tallo. Los inoculantes (microorganismos solubilizadores de fosfatos -MSF- y bacterias fijadoras de nitrógeno -BFN- se aplicaron en el material vegetal mencionado, efectuando mediciones durante tres meses. Los resultados muestran un efecto positivo de estimulación de crecimiento medido en longitud del tallo en las plantas tratadas con los inoculantes, específicamente en patilla y propágulos de A. germinans mantenidos en vivero.In order to test the effect of two microbial inoculants (obtained from red and black mangrove roots on the growth and stability of mangrove and watermelon plants, four treatments were carried out in San Andres Island, Colombia. The treatments consisted in the application of the inoculants in: A. germinans propagules collected in a mangrove area, and then individually planted in gavels with sun-pasteurized soil (in order to decrease the microbial load, A. germinans and R. mangle plants collected in the proximity of nursery trees, A. germinans and R. mangle planted and maintained in nursery, and in Citrullus vulgaris seeds planted in a traditional cultivar without chemical fertilizers. The growth and vegetative development variables were: number of nodes, number of leaves and steam length. The inoculants (phosphate solubilizing microorganisms -PSM- and nitrogen fixing bacteria -NFB- were applied in the mentioned vegetable material, doing measures during three months. The results show a positive effect on growth measured by steam length in plants treated specifically with the inoculants in C. vulgaris and A. germinans seedlings maintained in nursery.

  10. Microbial Inoculantes Effects on Growth Promotion of Mangrove and Citrullus vulgaris San Andrés Isla, Colombia Efecto de los inoculantes microbianos sobre la promoción de crecimiento de plantulas de mangle y plantas de Citrullus vulgaris San Andrés Isla, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galindo Tania

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to test the effect of two microbial inoculants (obtained from red and black mangrove roots on the growth and stability of mangrove and watermelon plants, four treatments were carried out in San Andres Island, Colombia. The treatments consisted in the application of the inoculants in: A. germinans propagules collected in a mangrove area, and then individually planted in gavels with sun-pasteurized soil (in order to decrease the microbial load, A. germinans and R. mangle plants collected in the proximity of nursery trees, A. germinans and R. mangle planted and maintained in nursery, and in Citrullus vulgaris seeds planted in a traditional cultivar without chemical fertilizers. The growth and vegetative development variables were: number of nodes, number of leaves and steam length. The inoculants (phosphate solubilizing microorganisms -PSM- and nitrogen fixing bacteria -NFB- were applied in the mentioned vegetable material, doing measures during three months. The results show a positive effect on growth measured by steam length in plants treated specifically with the inoculants in C. vulgaris and A. germinans seedlings maintained in nursery.Con el fin de probar la efectividad de dos inoculantes microbianos (aislados a partir de raicillas de mangle rojo y negro en el crecimiento y establecimiento de plántulas de mangle y de patilla, se realizaron cuatro pruebas en campo en San Andrés Isla, Colombia. Se aplicaron dichos inoculantes en: propágulos de Avicennia germinans colectados en un área de manglar y sembrados en macetas sobre sustrato solarizado (con el fin de disminuir la carga microbiana, plántulas de A. germinans y Rhizophora mangle colectadas en cercanía de árboles semilleros, plántulas de A. germinans y R. mangle sembradas y mantenidas en vivero y en semillas de patilla (Citrullus vulgaris sembradas en un cultivo libre de fertilizantes químicos. Las variables tomadas como indicativo de crecimiento y desarrollo vegetal fueron: número de nodos, número de hojas y longitud del tallo. Los inoculantes (microorganismos solubilizadores de fosfatos -MSF- y bacterias fijadoras de nitrógeno -BFN- se aplicaron en el material vegetal mencionado, efectuando mediciones durante tres meses. Los resultados muestran un efecto positivo de estimulación de crecimiento medido en longitud del tallo en las plantas tratadas con los inoculantes, específicamente en patilla y propágulos de A. germinans mantenidos en vivero.

  11. EFECTO DE INOCULANTES MICROBIANOS SOBRE LA PROMOCIÓN DE CRECIMIENTO DE PLÁNTULAS DE MANGLE Y PLANTAS DE Citrullus vulgaris SAN ANDRÉS ISLA, COLOMBIA / Microbial Inoculantes Effects on Growth Promotion of Mangrove and Citrullus vulgaris San Andrés Isla, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    TANIA, GALINDO; JAIME, POLANÍA; JIMENA, SÁNCHEZ; NUBIA, MORENO; VANEGAS, JAVIER; GINA, HOLGUÍN.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de probar la efectividad de dos inoculantes microbianos (aislados a partir de raicillas de mangle rojo y negro) en el crecimiento y establecimiento de plántulas de mangle y de patilla, se realizaron cuatro pruebas en campo en San Andrés Isla, Colombia. Se aplicaron dichos inoculantes en: [...] propágulos de Avicennia germinans colectados en un área de manglar y sembrados en macetas sobre sustrato solarizado (con el fin de disminuir la carga microbiana), plántulas de A. germinans y Rhizophora mangle colectadas en cercanía de árboles semilleros, plántulas de A. germinans y R. mangle sembradas y mantenidas en vivero y en semillas de patilla (Citrullus vulgaris) sembradas en un cultivo libre de fertilizantes químicos. Las variables tomadas como indicativo de crecimiento y desarrollo vegetal fueron: número de nodos, número de hojas y longitud del tallo. Los inoculantes (microorganismos solubilizadores de fosfatos -MSF- y bacterias fijadoras de nitrógeno -BFN-) se aplicaron en el material vegetal mencionado, efectuando mediciones durante tres meses. Los resultados muestran un efecto positivo de estimulación de crecimiento medido en longitud del tallo en las plantas tratadas con los inoculantes, específicamente en patilla y propágulos de A. germinans mantenidos en vivero. Abstract in english In order to test the effect of two microbial inoculants (obtained from red and black mangrove roots) on the growth and stability of mangrove and watermelon plants, four treatments were carried out in San Andres Island, Colombia. The treatments consisted in the application of the inoculants in: A. ge [...] rminans propagules collected in a mangrove area, and then individually planted in gavels with sun-pasteurized soil (in order to decrease the microbial load), A. germinans and R. mangle plants collected in the proximity of nursery trees, A. germinans and R. mangle planted and maintained in nursery, and in Citrullus vulgaris seeds planted in a traditional cultivar without chemical fertilizers. The growth and vegetative development variables were: number of nodes, number of leaves and steam length. The inoculants (phosphate solubilizing microorganisms -PSM- and nitrogen fixing bacteria -NFB-) were applied in the mentioned vegetable material, doing measures during three months. The results show a positive effect on growth measured by steam length in plants treated specifically with the inoculants in C. vulgaris and A. germinans seedlings maintained in nursery.

  12. Characterization of the neutron detector upgrade to the GP-SANS and Bio-SANS instruments at HFIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past year, new 1 m×1 m neutron detectors have been installed at both the General Purpose SANS (GP-SANS) and the Bio-SANS instruments at HFIR, each intended as an upgrade to provide improved high rate capability. This paper presents the results of characterization studies performed in the detector test laboratory, including position resolution, linearity and background, as well as a preliminary look at high count rate performance.

  13. Characterization of the Neutron Detector Upgrade to the GP-SANS and BIO-SANS Instruments at HFIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Kevin D [ORNL; Bailey, Katherine M [ORNL; Beal, Justin D [ORNL; Diawara, Yacouba [ORNL; Funk, Loren L [ORNL; Hicks, J Steve [ORNL; Jones, Amy Black [ORNL; Littrell, Ken [ORNL; Summers, Randy [ORNL; Urban, Volker S [ORNL; Vandergriff, David H [ORNL; Johnson, Nathan [GE Energy Services; Bradley, Brandon [GE Energy Services

    2012-01-01

    Over the past year, new 1 m x 1 m neutron detectors have been installed at both the General Purpose SANS (GP-SANS) and the Bio-SANS instruments at HFIR, each intended as an upgrade to provide improved high rate capability. This paper presents the results of characterization studies performed in the detector test laboratory, including position resolution, linearity and background, as well as a preliminary look at high count rate performance.

  14. Characterization of the neutron detector upgrade to the GP-SANS and Bio-SANS instruments at HFIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Kevin D., E-mail: berrykd@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Bailey, Katherine M.; Beal, Justin; Diawara, Yacouba; Funk, Loren; Steve Hicks, J.; Jones, A.B.; Littrell, Kenneth C.; Pingali, S.V.; Summers, P.R.; Urban, Volker S.; Vandergriff, David H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Johnson, Nathan H.; Bradley, Brandon J. [GE Reuter-Stokes, Inc., Twinsburg, OH 44087 (United States)

    2012-11-21

    Over the past year, new 1 m Multiplication-Sign 1 m neutron detectors have been installed at both the General Purpose SANS (GP-SANS) and the Bio-SANS instruments at HFIR, each intended as an upgrade to provide improved high rate capability. This paper presents the results of characterization studies performed in the detector test laboratory, including position resolution, linearity and background, as well as a preliminary look at high count rate performance.

  15. 76 FR 54800 - International Business Machines (IBM), Software Group Business Unit, Quality Assurance Group, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ...Quality Assurance Group, San Jose, California; Notice of Negative Determination...Optim Data Studio Tools QA, San Jose, California (subject firm). The Department's...Optim Data Studio Tools QA, San Jose, California was totally or partially...

  16. 75 FR 71106 - San Jose Water Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ...No. 13799-000] San Jose Water Company; Notice...2010. d. Applicant: San Jose Water Company. e. Name...in Santa Clara County, California. g. Filed Pursuant to...Contact: Thomas Gee, San Jose Water Company, 1265...

  17. 40 CFR 81.164 - San Diego Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...false San Diego Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.164 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.164 San Diego Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The San Diego...

  18. 75 FR 57496 - Notice of Public Meeting, Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ...Service Notice of Public Meeting, Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument...SUMMARY: In accordance with the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument...Forest Service (Forest Service) Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National...

  19. 76 FR 53695 - Notice of Public Meeting, Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ...Service Notice of Public Meeting, Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument...SUMMARY: In accordance with the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument...Forest Service (Forest Service) Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National...

  20. 75 FR 65985 - Safety Zone: Epic Roasthouse Private Party Firework Display, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ...yards off Epic Roasthouse Restaurant, San Francisco, CA during...yards off Epic Roasthouse Restaurant, San Francisco, CA. The...entities'' comprises small businesses, not-for-profit organizations...yards off Epic Roasthouse Restaurant, San Francisco, CA....

  1. 40 CFR 81.21 - San Francisco Bay Area Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false San Francisco Bay Area Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.21 San Francisco Bay Area Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The San Francisco Bay Area Intrastate Air Quality Control...

  2. 33 CFR 334.860 - San Diego Bay, Calif., Naval Amphibious Base; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... false San Diego Bay, Calif., Naval...Base; restricted area. 334.860 Section...860 San Diego Bay, Calif., Naval...Base; restricted area. (a) The Area...in Middle San Diego Bay in an area extending...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...false San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area. 165.1152 ...1152 San Pedro Bay, California—Regulated navigation area. (a) Applicability...1) The San Pedro Bay Regulated Navigation Area (RNA)...

  4. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334...Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of San Pedro Bay on the east side of...

  5. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Narrative Report 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex comprises of three refuges including the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, the San Pablo Bay...

  6. 75 FR 28509 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...v. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, No....

  7. 76 FR 45212 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...approve San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...

  8. 76 FR 26609 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...v. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (No....

  9. 75 FR 35504 - San Rafael Cattle Company; Habitat Conservation Plan; Santa Cruz County, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ...20124-1112-0000-F2] San Rafael Cattle Company; Habitat Conservation Plan...SUMMARY: San Rafael Cattle Company (Applicant) has applied to the...under the authority of the San Rafael Cattle Company. We invite public comment...

  10. 75 FR 3996 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ...Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD or...Planning, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District; letter...

  11. 75 FR 2079 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ...Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD) portion... 3. B. San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District Comments...

  12. Low levels of 134Cs and 137Cs in bottom sediments along the Japanese Archipelago side of the Sea of Japan after the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined radiocesium concentrations in bottom sediment samples collected along the Japanese Archipelago side of the Sea of Japan before/after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Low levels of 134Cs were detected in an area located near estuaries. This was considered to be due to the riverine discharge rather than direct radioactive depositions to sea surface. (author)

  13. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Build San Antonio Green, San Antonio, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-06-01

    PNNL, FSEC, and CalcsPlus provided technical assistance to Build San Antonio Green on three deep energy retrofits. For this gut rehab they replaced the old roof with a steeper roof and replaced drywall while adding insulation, new HVAC, sealed ducts, transfer grilles, outside air run-time ventilation, new lighting and water heater.

  14. Arquitectura de remeseros en San Pedro de Atacama / Architecture of ranchers in San Pedro de Atacama

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flora, Vilches; Lorena, Sanhueza; Cristina, Garrido.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El cuerpo de material arquitectónico asociado al tiempo de las remesas de ganado en San Pedro de Atacama no parece formar parte del discurso patrimonial local. Sin embargo, su propia invisibilidad y memoria demostrarían que forma parte importante de la identidad atacameña. [...

  15. 75 FR 28194 - Safety Zone; San Clemente 3 NM Safety Zone, San Clemente Island, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Zone; San Clemente Island, CA in the Federal Register (74 FR 39584). We received one comment on the...) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)/Overseas EIS (OEIS) (Record of Decision, January 30, 2009) (74 FR 5650... critical naval training. Safety Zone `F' As stated above, commenters argued that section ``F'' of...

  16. 75 FR 77756 - Safety Zone; San Diego Parade of Lights Fireworks, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ...zone unless authorized by the Captain of the Port, or his designated...Purpose Fireworks and Stage FX America INC are sponsoring the San...zone unless authorized by the Captain of the Port, or his designated...to act on the behalf of the Captain of the Port. (d)...

  17. 78 FR 38584 - Safety Zone; San Diego Symphony Summer POPS Fireworks 2013 Season, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ...zone unless authorized by the Captain of the Port, or his designated...1221 et seq.). Fireworks America is sponsoring the San Diego...zone unless authorized by the Captain of the Port, or his designated...to act on the behalf of the Captain of the Port. (d)...

  18. 78 FR 57482 - Safety Zone; America's Cup Aerobatic Box, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ...Table of Acronyms ACRM America's Cup Race Management COTP Captain of the Port DHS Department...associated with the ``America's Cup World Series...period as announced by America's Cup Race Management...September 23, 2013. The Captain of the Port San...

  19. Inversion climatology at San Jose, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, T.; Bornstein, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Month-to-month variations in the early morning surface-based and near-noon elevated inversions at San Jose, Calif., were determined from slow rise radiosondes launched during a four-year period. A high frequency of shallow, radiative, surface-based inversions were found in winter during the early morning hours, while during the same period in summer, a low frequency of deeper based inversions arose from a combination of radiative and subsidence processes. The frequency of elevated inversions in the hours near noon was lowest during fall and spring, while inversion bases were highest and thicknesses least during these periods.

  20. Amplification sans bruit d'images optiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigan, S.; Delaubert, V.; Lopez, L.; Treps, N.; Maitre, A.; Fabre, C.

    2004-11-01

    Nous utilisons un Oscillateur Paramétrique Optique (OPO) pompé sous le seuil dans le but d'amplifier une image multimode transverse sans dégradation du rapport signal à bruit. Le dispositif expérimental met en œuvre un OPO de type II triplement résonant et semi-confocal pour le faisceau amplifié. L'existence d'effets quantiques lors de l'amplification multimode dans un tel dispositif a été montrée expérimentalement. Plus généralement, ceci nous a amené à étudier les propriétés quantiques transverses des faisceaux lumineux amplifiés. Une telle étude peut trouver des applications non seulement en imagerie, mais également dans le traitement quantique de l'information.

  1. Characterization of nanoporous superalloy by SANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, Pavel; Mukherji, Debashis; Näth, Oliver; Gilles, Ralph; Rösler, Joachim

    2006-11-01

    The self-assembly of the ??-precipitates in superalloy during thermo-mechanical exposure can be used to produce a nanoporous material by a selective phase dissolution. Nanoporous superalloy (CMSX4) samples, containing narrow channel-like pores, were investigated by high-resolution small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) in order to observe a time dependence of the pore depth during etching. The mean distance of pores and their depths were determined. A saturation of the pore depth with etching time was observed.

  2. Characterization of nanoporous superalloy by SANS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The self-assembly of the ?'-precipitates in superalloy during thermo-mechanical exposure can be used to produce a nanoporous material by a selective phase dissolution. Nanoporous superalloy (CMSX4) samples, containing narrow channel-like pores, were investigated by high-resolution small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) in order to observe a time dependence of the pore depth during etching. The mean distance of pores and their depths were determined. A saturation of the pore depth with etching time was observed

  3. Characterization of nanoporous superalloy by SANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strunz, Pavel [Nuclear Physics Institute, CZ-25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Research Centre Rez, CZ-25068 Rez (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: strunz@ujf.cas.cz; Mukherji, Debashis [Institute of Applied Physics, ETH Zuerich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); IfW, TU Braunschweig, D-38106 Braunschweig, Langer Kamp 8 (Germany); Naeth, Oliver [IfW, TU Braunschweig, D-38106 Braunschweig, Langer Kamp 8 (Germany); Gilles, Ralph [TU Muenchen, ZWE FRM-II, Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Roesler, Joachim [IfW, TU Braunschweig, D-38106 Braunschweig, Langer Kamp 8 (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    The self-assembly of the {gamma}'-precipitates in superalloy during thermo-mechanical exposure can be used to produce a nanoporous material by a selective phase dissolution. Nanoporous superalloy (CMSX4) samples, containing narrow channel-like pores, were investigated by high-resolution small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) in order to observe a time dependence of the pore depth during etching. The mean distance of pores and their depths were determined. A saturation of the pore depth with etching time was observed.

  4. Optimisation dans des réseaux backhaul sans fil

    OpenAIRE

    Nepomuceno, Napoleao

    2010-01-01

    Les avancées technologiques poussent l'industrie des télécommunications à fournir la capacité et la qualité nécessaire pour satisfaire la demande croissante de services sans fil à haut débit. De plus, avec les progrès des technologies d'accès, le goulot d'étranglement des réseaux cellulaires se déplace progressivement de l'interface radio vers le backhaul -- la partie de l'infrastructure du réseau qui fournit l'interconnexion entre les réseaux d'accès et de coeur. Aussi, la possibilité de dép...

  5. Early Maya writing at San Bartolo, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturno, William A; Stuart, David; Beltrán, Boris

    2006-03-01

    The ruins of San Bartolo, Guatemala, contain a sample of Maya hieroglyphic writing dating to the Late Preclassic period (400 B.C. to 200 A.D.). The writing appears on preserved painted walls and plaster fragments buried within the pyramidal structure known as "Las Pinturas," which was constructed in discrete phases over several centuries. Samples of carbonized wood that are closely associated with the writing have calibrated radiocarbon dates of 200 to 300 B.C. This early Maya writing implies that a developed Maya writing system was in use centuries earlier than previously thought, approximating a time when we see the earliest scripts elsewhere in Mesoamerica. PMID:16400112

  6. Study of silica sorbents by SANS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silica gels under study are materials intended for use as the packing sorbents in liquid chromatography (LC), namely in gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The quality of silica for LC should meet strict physical and chemical parameters. Especially in GPC is very important to know pore size and pore shape because they control the whole process of chromatographic separation. Pore size and thickness of pore wall can be measured by various methods. SANS technique is a nondestructive method providing an average information about a large number of scattering object in our case about objects (pore or wall) in silica and their shape. (author)

  7. A population genetic assessment of coral recovery on highly disturbed reefs of the Keppel Island archipelago in the southern Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oppen, Madeleine J H; Lukoschek, Vimoksalehi; Berkelmans, Ray; Peplow, Lesa M; Jones, Alison M

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs surrounding the islands lying close to the coast are unique to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) in that they are frequently exposed to disturbance events including floods caused by cyclonic rainfall, strong winds and occasional periods of prolonged above-average temperatures during summer. In one such group of islands in the southern GBR, the Keppel Island archipelago, climate-driven disturbances frequently result in major coral mortality. Whilst these island reefs have clearly survived such dramatic disturbances in the past, the consequences of extreme mortality events may include the loss of genetic diversity, and hence adaptive potential, and a reduction in fitness due to inbreeding, especially if new recruitment from external sources is limited. Here we examined the level of isolation of the Keppel Island group as well as patterns of gene flow within the Keppel Islands using 10 microsatellite markers in nine populations of the coral, Acropora millepora. Bayesian cluster analysis and assignment tests indicated gene flow is restricted, but not absent, between the outer and inner Keppel Island groups, and that extensive gene flow exists within each of these island groups. Comparison of the Keppel Island data with results from a previous GBR-wide study that included a single Keppel Island population, confirmed that A. millepora in the Keppel Islands is genetically distinct from populations elsewhere on the GBR, with exception of the nearby inshore High Peak Reef just north of the Keppel Islands. We compared patterns of genetic diversity in the Keppel Island populations with those from other GBR populations and found them to be slightly, but significantly lower, consistent with the archipelago being geographically isolated, but there was no evidence for recent bottlenecks or deviation from mutation-drift equilibrium. A high incidence of private alleles in the Keppel Islands, particularly in the outer islands, supports their relative isolation and contributes to the conservation value of the archipelago. The lack of evidence for genetic erosion, in combination with our observation that the North Keppel Island population samples collected in 2002 and 2008, respectively, exhibited a pairwise genetic distance of zero, supports previous published work indicating that, following bleaching, Acropora corals in the Keppel Islands predominantly recover from regrowth of small amounts of remaining live tissue in apparently dead coral colonies. This is likely supplemented by recruitment of larvae from genetically similar, less disturbed populations at nearby reefs, particularly following extreme flood events. PMID:26244109

  8. 33 CFR 117.193 - San Leandro Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Leandro Bay. 117.193 Section 117.193 Navigation... California § 117.193 San Leandro Bay. The drawspans of the California...0 and mile 0.1, between Alameda and Bay Farm Island, must open on...

  9. COSMOS (County of San Mateo Online System). A Searcher's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mateo County Superintendent of Schools, Redwood City, CA. Educational Resources Center.

    Operating procedures are explained for COSMOS (County of San Mateo Online System), a computerized information retrieval system designed for the San Mateo Educational Resources Center (SMERC), which provides interactive access to both ERIC and a local file of fugitive documents. COSMOS hardware and modem compatibility requirements are reviewed,…

  10. The San Diego Panasonic Partnership: A Case Study in Restructuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzman, Michael; Tewel, Kenneth J.

    1992-01-01

    The Panasonic Foundation provides resources for restructuring school districts. The article examines its partnership with the San Diego City School District, highlighting four schools that demonstrate promising practices and guiding principles. It describes recent partnership work on systemic issues, noting the next steps to be taken in San Diego.…

  11. Intrathermocline eddies at the Juan Fernández Archipelago, southeastern Pacific / Remolinos intratermoclina en el Archipiélago Juan Fernández, Océano Pacífico suroriental

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isabel, Andrade; Samuel, Hormazábal; Vincent, Combes.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los resultados de un modelo oceánico regional (ROMS), combinado con información de clorofila-? (Clo-?) y altimetría satelital, además de información proveniente de cruceros oceanográficos, para identificar la interacción entre los remolinos intratermoclina (ITEs) y el Archipiélago Juan [...] Fernández (AJF), y discutir su potencial impacto sobre las concentraciones de Clo-? superficial. El AJF se encuentra ubicado frente a la costa central de Chile (33°S), y está conformado por las islas Robinson Crusoe, Santa Clara y Alejandro Selkirk. Los resultados indican que los remolinos anticiclónicos superficiales y subsuperficiales que interactúan con el AJF se forman principalmente en la zona de transición costera entre 33° y 39°S. Los ITEs se presentan en la región del AJF con una frecuencia semianual, principalmente durante el período de otoño austral, y poseen una débil expresión superficial respecto de los remolinos superficiales adyacentes, un lento desplazamiento (1,16-1,4 km d-1) con dirección noroeste y una estructura coherente por períodos ? 1 año. Durante la interacción de los ITEs con las islas RC-SC y el monte submarino adyacente, se observó una leve (prominente) deflexión del límite superior (inferior) de la termoclina. La escala horizontal (~70-100 km) fue mayor que el radio interno de deformación de Rossby y la escala vertical promedio fue de ~400 m. La interacción entre el ITE de débil expresión superficial identificada con altimetría satelital durante el período de otoño y el AJF perduró durante nueve semanas alcanzando el período invierno. Aproximadamente un mes después del comienzo de la interacción entre el ITE y las islas, se observaron incrementos de Clo-? superficial asociados al remolino con valores hasta tres veces mayores, respecto de las aguas oceánicas adyacentes. Abstract in english Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) results, combined with chlorophyll-? (Chl-?) and satellite altimetry information as well as information from oceanographic cruises were analyzed to identify interactions between intrathermocline eddies (ITEs) and the Juan Fernández Archipelago (JFA), and discuss [...] their potential impact on surface Chl-? concentrations. The JFA is located off the coast of central Chile (33°S), and is composed of three main islands: Robinson Crusoe (RC), Alejandro Selkirk (AS) and Santa Clara (SC). Results indicate that the surface and subsurface anticyclonic eddies that interact with the JFA are formed primarily within the coastal transition zone between 33° and 39°S. ITEs are present within the JFA region with a semiannual frequency, mainly during the austral autumn, and have a weak surface expression in relation to the adjacent surface eddies, with a slow displacement (1.16 to 1.4 km d-1) in a northwest direction and a coherent structure for periods of ? 1 year. During the ITEs' interaction with RC-SC islands and an adjacent seamount, a slight (prominent) thermocline deflection of the upper limit (lower) was observed. The horizontal extent (~70-100 km) was greater than the internal Rossby deformation radius and the average vertical extent was ~400 m. The interaction between the weak surface expression of ITEs, identified with satellite altimetry, and the JFA persisted during autumn for nine weeks until reaching the winter period. Approximately one month after the beginning of the interaction between ITEs and the islands, increases in surface Chl-? associated with the eddy were observed, with values up to three times higher than adjacent oceanic waters.

  12. Polarimetric C-/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar Observations of Melting Sea Ice in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, J. A.; Beckers, J. F.; Brossier, E.; Haas, C.

    2013-12-01

    Operational ice information services rely heavily on space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data for the production of ice charts to meet their mandate of providing timely and accurate sea ice information to support safe and efficient marine operations. During the summer melt period, the usefulness of SAR data for sea ice monitoring is limited by the presence of wet snow and melt ponds on the ice surface, which can mask the signature of the underlying ice. This is a critical concern for ice services whose clients (e.g. commercial shipping, cruise tourism, resource exploration and extraction) are most active at this time of year when sea ice is at its minimum extent, concentration and thickness. As a result, there is a need to further quantify the loss of ice information in SAR data during the melt season and to identify what information can still be retrieved about ice surface conditions and melt pond evolution at this time of year. To date the majority of studies have been limited to analysis of single-polarization C-band SAR data. This study will investigate the potential complimentary and unique sea ice information that polarimetric C- and X-band SAR data can provide to supplement the information available from traditional single co-polarized C-band SAR data. A time-series of polarimetric C- and X-band SAR data was acquired over Jones Sound in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, in the vicinity of the Grise Fiord, Nunavut. Five RADARSAT-2 Wide Fine Quad-pol images and 11 TerraSAR-X StripMap dual-pol (HH/VV) images were acquired. The time-series begins at the onset of melt in early June and extends through advanced melt conditions in late July. Over this period several ponding and drainage events and two snowfall events occurred. Field observations of sea ice properties were collected using an Ice Mass Balance (IMB) buoy, hourly photos from a time-lapse camera deployed on a coastal cliff, and manual in situ measurements of snow thickness and melt pond depth. Where available, clear-sky data from optical sensors (MODIS, Landsat-8, and WorldView) are also used to provide supplementary information on melt pond coverage and evolution. Meteorological data are available from an Environment Canada weather station in Grise Fiord. In this presentation we will discuss the sea ice information provided by each polarization and frequency and evaluate the impact of melt pond evolution on SAR backscatter. Results to date indicate that C- and X-band provide predominantly redundant information, and cross-polarized backscatter (only acquired at C-band) is often very low and near the system noise floor. Early in the melt season a thick wet snow pack is present and both frequencies provide very little ice information. This is attributed to the strong attenuation of the microwave signal by the wet snow. At this time the underlying ice is effectively obscured. During heavily ponded periods backscatter is highly variable, attributed to changing winds and thus variable melt pond surface roughness. In the final week of observations the fast ice in the region is breaking up and open water is present in some images. In these images C-band appears to provide greater contrast between the melting ice and open water than X-band. Analysis of polarimetric parameters is ongoing.

  13. San Joaquin-Tulare Conjunctive Use Model: Detailed model description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    1992-03-01

    The San Joaquin - Tulare Conjunctive Use Model (SANTUCM) was originally developed for the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program to evaluate possible scenarios for long-term management of drainage and drainage - related problems in the western San Joaquin Valley of California. A unique aspect of this model is its coupling of a surface water delivery and reservoir operations model with a regional groundwater model. The model also performs salinity balances along the tributaries and along the main stem of the San Joaquin River to allow assessment of compliance with State Water Resources Control Board water quality objectives for the San Joaquin River. This document is a detailed description of the various subroutines, variables and parameters used in the model.

  14. Water chemistry of San Marcos area, Guatemala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, Luigi [Universita di Genova, Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Genova (Italy); Cioni, Roberto; Guidi, Massimo [CNR, Ist. di Geocronologia e Geochimica Isotopica, Pisa (Italy)

    1998-06-01

    Two well-equilibrated Na-Cl geothermal liquids are recognisable in the San Marcos area. Both have the same Cl concentration (540 mg/kg) and the same isotopic composition ({delta}D of -66.5 per mille and {delta}{sup 18}O of -9 per mille) under reservoir conditions, but they come from two distinct aquifers with different temperatures , i.e. 240degC below La Cimarrona and 185degC below La Castalia. The numerous thermal Na-Cl to Na-Cl-HCO{sub 3} springs located in the San Marcos areas originate through dilution and boiling of these two geothermal liquids and different degrees of re-equilibration at lower temperatures. Silica and K contents are useful in discriminating between dilution, boiling and re-equilibration phenomena. Thermal Na-HCO{sub 3} waters, generated through conductive heat transfer or input of geothermal vapor or gases from below, delineate the extent of the geothermal reservoir(s) at depth. (Author)

  15. Puente Coronado - San Diego (EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1971-12-01

    Full Text Available This 3,5 km long bridge, joining the cities of San Diego and Coronado is one of the longest in the world of this type, and one of the three most important straight line bridges in the United States. Its supporting structure consists of reinforced concrete columns resting on footings or piles, according to whether they are under the sea water or on dry land. The superstructure is partly of metal plates and partly of box girders. The surfacing of the deck consists of asphalt epoxy concrete, of 5 cm depth. Special paint was applied to the bridge, including layers of vinyl, iron oxide and blue vinyl on a zinc base.Este puente, de unos 3 km y medio, que une las ciudades de San Diego y Coronado es uno de los de mayor longitud del mundo, de este tipo, y uno de los tres principales ortótropos de los Estados Unidos de América. Su infraestructura está constituida por pilas de hormigón armado apoyadas sobre pilotes o sobre zapatas, según estén en el mar o en tierra firme. La superestructura está formada, en parte, por chapas metálicas y, en parte, por vigas cajón. El acabado del tablero metálico se realizó a base de hormigón asfáltico de epoxi con un espesor de 5 cm. La pintura es especial y se compone de capas de vinilo, de óxido de hierro y de vinilo azul sobre una capa de cinc.

  16. The radiological accident in San Salvador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 5 February 1989, a radiological accident occurred at an industrial irradiation facility near San Salvador, the capital of the Republic of El Salvador. Prepackaged medical products are sterilized at the facility by irradiation by means of an intensely radioactive cobalt-60 source in a movable source rack. The accident happened when this source rack became stuck in the irradiation position. The operator bypassed the irradiator's already degraded safety systems and entered the radiation room with two other workers to free the source rack manually. The three workers were exposed to high radiation doses and developed the acute radiation syndrome. Their initial hospital treatment in San Salvador and subsequent more specialized treatment in Mexico City were effective in countering the acute effects. However, the legs and feet of two of the three men were so seriously injured that amputation was required. The worker who had been most exposed died six and a half months after the accident, his death being attributed to residual lung damage due to irradiation, exacerbated by injury sustained during treatment. The report details the events leading up to the accident, the circumstances of the accident itself and the response to it. From the facts established, lessons are derived for operators and suppliers of irradiators, national authorities, medical staff and international organizations. Detailed information on dosimetric and medical aspects of the accident for the specialist reader is presented in the appendices and annexes. 20 figs, 9 tabs, 24 photographs

  17. Monitoring the impact of the Gordon C. Leitch oil spill on the breeding bird populations of the Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve, (QC) Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a monitoring study of the impact of a 1999 oil spill on the breeding bird population in the Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Quebec, are discussed. The common eider, the black guillemot and the bald eagle were the three species studied by observing and comparing the status of these bird populations on islands located inside and outside of the contaminated area. Data from before and after the oil spill were compared. Results show that an estimated 211 to 777 breeding birds have died as a result of the oil spill, however, the overall impact on the reproductive potential of the breeding bird population was insignificant. Various protective measures to mitigate the effects of future oil spills are proposed. 38 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  18. 75 FR 8804 - Safety Zone; NASSCO Launching of USNS Charles Drew, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; NASSCO Launching of USNS Charles Drew, San... the NASSCO Ship Launching for the United States Naval Ship (USNS) Charles Drew. The safety zone is... waters of the San Diego Bay to contribute to the safety of the USNS Charles Drew and surrounding...

  19. 75 FR 17329 - Safety Zone; Big Bay Fourth of July Fireworks, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a... support of the Big Bay July Fourth Show to Benefit the San Diego Armed Services YMCA. This temporary... Federal Register. Background and Purpose The San Diego Armed Services YMCA is sponsoring the Big Bay...

  20. 75 FR 8804 - Safety Zone; NASSCO Launching of USNS Charles Drew, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ...Safety Zone; NASSCO Launching of USNS Charles Drew, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA...the United States Naval Ship (USNS) Charles Drew. The safety zone is necessary to...to contribute to the safety of the USNS Charles Drew and surrounding vessels as this...

  1. Infralittoral mapping around an oceanic archipelago using MERIS FR satellite imagery and deep kelp observations: A new tool for assessing MPA coverage targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Patrícia; Atchoi, Elizabeth; Berecibar, Estibaliz; Tempera, Fernando

    2015-06-01

    This work presents the first climatologic maps of diffuse attenuation of down-welling solar radiation (KdPAR and Kd490 coefficients) for the Azores derived from full resolution (FR) MERIS satellite imagery. Associating this information with a new mesoscale bathymetry compilation permits estimating the percentage of surface light reaching the seabed. A video annotation dataset derived from a deep kelp survey conducted on the Formigas Bank is subsequently used to estimate the light levels experienced by these bionomically-crucial frondose algae. Empirical light-based thresholds for the lower infralittoral boundary in the Azores are derived from the deepest kelp occurrences. This information is eventually used to map the geographical extent of this major marine biological zone in the archipelago, yielding an area estimate of 894.7 km2. The average depth of the infralittoral limit in the Azores is established at 69 m. It is determined that the present Azores marine protected area (MPA) network already covers 28.9% of the region's infralittoral grounds. However, island-specific values highlight that MPA percentage coverage varies between islands with values ranging from a marginal coverage of 7.3% (on Terceira Island) to 100% coverage around the island of Corvo and the Formigas Bank. These results suggest that conservation managers may make use of the current spatially-based protection framework of the archipelago to, on the whole and for this specific major habitat, surpass the goals suggested by international conventions and conservation fora for MPA coverage. However, an analysis of the statutory MPA regulations further reveals that measures in place are insufficient to provide a no-take and no-disturbance protection of infralittoral biotopes. In order to achieve the recommended strict protection of the currently protected infralittoral zones, conservation measures ought to be enhanced.

  2. Habitat and water quality variables as predictors of community composition in an Indonesian coral reef: a multi-taxon study in the Spermonde Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polónia, Ana Rita Moura; Cleary, Daniel Francis Richard; de Voogd, Nicole Joy; Renema, Willem; Hoeksema, Bert W; Martins, Ana; Gomes, Newton Carlos Marcial

    2015-12-15

    Assemblages of corals, sponges, foraminifera, sediment bacteria and sediment archaea were assessed at two depths in the Spermonde Archipelago. Our goal was to assess to what extent variation in composition could be explained by habitat and water quality variables. The habitat variables consisted of depth, substrate type and scleractinian coral cover while water quality variables were derived from ocean color satellite imagery, including the colored dissolved organic matter index (CDOM), chlorophyll-a (Chlor-a) and remote sensing reflectance at 645nm (Rrs_645). Together, habitat and water quality variables explained from 31% (sediment bacteria) to 80% (forams) of the variation in composition. The variation in composition of corals, sponges, forams and sediment archaea was primarily related to habitat variables, while the variation in composition of sediment bacteria was primarily related to water quality variables. Habitat and water quality variables explained similar amounts of variation in the composition of corals and sediment bacteria. CDOM (sponges, sediment bacteria and sediment archaea), Chlor-a (corals and forams) and Rrs_645 (sponges and forams) proved significant predictors of variation in composition for the studied taxa. In addition to water quality variables, all taxa responded to a range of habitat variables including depth and the percentage cover of various benthic life forms including coral cover variables, rubble and sand. Sand cover was the most important habitat variable for corals, sponges, sediment bacteria and sediment archaea. Coral life forms including the cover of branching and tabular corals were important habitat variables for sponges and forams. These results show marked differences in how various taxa respond to variation in habitat and water quality in the Spermonde Archipelago. Moreover, our results indicate that variables estimated from ocean color satellite imagery proved to be better predictors of variation in marine community composition than commonly-used proxies such as the distance offshore or distance to the nearest river. PMID:26282748

  3. Perfil local y agroindustria palmera: explorando el caso de San Alberto y San Martín (Cesar) / Profil local et agro-industrie de la palmiculture: exploration du cas de San Alberto et San Martín (Cesar) / Local Profile and Palm Tree Agro-Industry: Exploring the case of San Albert o and San Martin (Cesar)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mónica, Hurtado; Giovanni Andrés, Hernández-Salazar.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo establece el perfil municipal de dos localidades en Colombia tradicionalmente palmeras: San Alberto y San Martín (Cesar). En particular, se estudian indicadores socioeconómicos, finanzas públicas y dinámica del conflicto armado en ambos municipios durante los últimos diez años. Se enco [...] ntró que San Alberto, con mayor actividad palmera que San Martín, tiene menores niveles de pobreza y mejores finanzas públicas. Sin embargo, en relación a educación y salud, ambos municipios presentan estándares precarios. En cuanto a seguridad y conflicto armado, se estableció que el número de secuestros y homicidios se redujeron en ambas localidades, pero la población civil sigue siendo víctima de desplazamiento forzado. Abstract in english This article establishes the municipal profile of two places in Colombia which are traditionally known for their palm tree production: San Alberto and San Martin (Cesar). Socioeconomic indicators, public finance, and armed conflict dynamics during the last ten years in both places are studied in par [...] ticular. It was found out that San Alberto, with greater palm tree activity than San Martin, has lower poverty levels and better public finance. Nevertheless, both municipalities show fragile standards in relation to education and health. As for safety and armed conflict, it was determined that the number of kidnappings and murders decreased in both places, but civilians are still victims of forced displacement.

  4. Microbial biogeography of San Francisco Bay sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. A.; Francis, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The largest estuary on the west coast of North America, San Francisco Bay is an ecosystem of enormous biodiversity, and also enormous human impact. The benthos has experienced dredging, occupation by invasive species, and over a century of sediment input as a result of hydraulic mining. Although the Bay's great cultural and ecological importance has inspired numerous surveys of the benthic macrofauna, to date there has been almost no investigation of the microbial communities on the Bay floor. An understanding of those microbial communities would contribute significantly to our understanding of both the biogeochemical processes (which are driven by the microbiota) and the physical processes (which contribute to microbial distributions) in the Bay. Here, we present the first broad survey of bacterial and archaeal taxa in the sediments of the San Francisco Bay. We conducted 16S rRNA community sequencing of bacteria and archaea in sediment samples taken bimonthly for one year, from five sites spanning the salinity gradient between Suisun and Central Bay, in order to capture the effect of both spatial and temporal environmental variation on microbial diversity. From the same samples we also conducted deep sequencing of a nitrogen-cycling functional gene, nirS, allowing an assessment of evolutionary diversity at a much finer taxonomic scale within an important and widespread functional group of bacteria. We paired these sequencing projects with extensive geochemical metadata as well as information about macrofaunal distribution. Our data reveal a diversity of distinct biogeographical patterns among different taxa: clades ubiquitous across sites; clades that respond to measurable environmental drivers; and clades that show geographical site-specificity. These community datasets allow us to test the hypothesis that salinity is a major driver of both overall microbial community structure and community structure of the denitrifying bacteria specifically; and to assess whether patterns of diversity observed at the broadest of taxonomic scales also apply to patterns observed within a single extremely diverse gene (nirS). In sum, this project provides a first look at the forces driving the migration and selection of microbial communities in San Francisco Bay.

  5. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert A. Liske

    2006-07-31

    This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron, and organics. Pilot study results indicate that produced water from the San Ardo oilfield can be treated to meet project water quality goals. Approximately 600 mg/l of caustic and 100 mg/l magnesium dosing were required to meet the hardness and silica goals in the warm softening unit. Approximately 30% of the ammonia was removed in the cooling tower; additional ammonia could be removed by ion exchange or other methods if necessary. A brackish water reverse osmosis membrane was effective in removing total dissolved solids and organics at all pH levels evaluated; however, the boron treatment objective was only achieved at a pH of 10.5 and above.

  6. Cianobacterias del embalse San Roque (Córdoba, Argentina) / Cyanobacteria of the San Roque reservoir (Córdoba, Argentina)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Inés Claudia, Daga; Marcelo Javier, Pierotto.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es una contribución al conocimiento de las cianobacterias presentes en el embalse San Roque y forma parte de un estudio integral de la flora algal del mencionado embalse. Se citan 24 taxa correspondientes a los Ordenes Chroococcales (11), Nostocales (8) y Oscillatoriales (5). Synechocys [...] tis aquatilis, Gloeocapsa rupestris, Gomphosphaeria aponina, Chamaesiphon incrustans f. incrustans, Scytonema crispum, Tolypothrix distorta, Gloeotrichia pisum, Calothrix fusca, Trichodesmium lacustre, Geitlerinema splendidum, Lyngbya aestuarii y Borzia trilocularis son nuevas citas para la zona de estudio. Abstract in english This work is a contribution to the knowledge of the Cyanobacteria present in the San Roque reservoir and forms a part of an integral study of its algal flora. Twenty-four taxa are described and ilustrated: 11 Chroococcales, 8 Nostocales, and 5 Oscillatoriales. Synechocystis aquatilis, Gloeocapsa rup [...] estris, Gomphosphaeria aponina, Chamaesiphon incrustans f. incrustans, Scytonema crispum, Tolypothrix distorta, Gloeotrichia pisum, Calothrix fusca, Trichodesmium lacustre, Geitlerinema splendidum, Lyngbya aestuarii and Borzia trilocularis.

  7. El Paleoalto Cretáceo de San Juan de Ríoseco El Paleoalto Cretáceo de San Juan de Ríoseco

    OpenAIRE

    Galvis Jaime; Espriella Ricardo de la

    1990-01-01

    Al Occidente de Cundinamarca, hay un gran Sinclinal de dirección Norte-Sur cuya estratigrafía es completamente diferente a la del centro y Oriente de dicho departamento. El Cretáceo de dicha estructura, presenta características similares a las de la Formación Yaví descrita en el Sur del Tolima y el Hulla.  En san Juan de Ríoseco parece presentarse un Paleoalto, con sedimentación continental, ilimitado por grandes fallas de rumbo al Este y oeste de la estructura mencionada. In the Western part...

  8. San Andreas Fault in the Carrizo Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The 1,200-kilometer (800-mile)San Andreas is the longest fault in California and one of the longest in North America. This perspective view of a portion of the fault was generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), which flew on NASA's Space Shuttle last February, and an enhanced, true-color Landsat satellite image. The view shown looks southeast along the San Andreas where it cuts along the base of the mountains in the Temblor Range near Bakersfield. The fault is the distinctively linear feature to the right of the mountains. To the left of the range is a portion of the agriculturally rich San Joaquin Valley. In the background is the snow-capped peak of Mt. Pinos at an elevation of 2,692 meters (8,831 feet). The complex topography in the area is some of the most spectacular along the course of the fault. To the right of the fault is the famous Carrizo Plain. Dry conditions on the plain have helped preserve the surface trace of the fault, which is scrutinized by both amateur and professional geologists. In 1857, one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded in the United States occurred just north of the Carrizo Plain. With an estimated magnitude of 8.0, the quake severely shook buildings in Los Angeles, caused significant surface rupture along a 350-kilometer (220-mile) segment of the fault, and was felt as far away as Las Vegas, Nev. This portion of the San Andreas is an important area of study for seismologists. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times.The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200 feet) long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.Distance to Horizon: 73 kilometers (45.3 miles) Location: 35.42 deg. North lat., 119.5 deg. West lon. View: Toward the Southeast Date Acquired: February 16, 2000 SRTM, December 14, 1984 Landsat Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  9. San Carlos Apache Tribe - Energy Organizational Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, James; Albert, Steve

    2012-04-01

    The San Carlos Apache Tribe (SCAT) was awarded $164,000 in late-2011 by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Tribal Energy Program's "First Steps Toward Developing Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency on Tribal Lands" Grant Program. This grant funded: ? The analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of tribal energy organization (this Energy Organization Analysis, hereinafter referred to as "EOA"). ? Start-up staffing and other costs associated with the Phase 1 SCAT energy organization. ? An intern program. ? Staff training. ? Tribal outreach and workshops regarding the new organization and SCAT energy programs and projects, including two annual tribal energy summits (2011 and 2012). This report documents the analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of a tribal energy organization.

  10. Slegs eenmaal gedoop - Sans Jamais Le Réitérer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Potgieter

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Baptized but once - Sans Jamais Le Réitérer In principle re-baptism is rejected by almost all churches and theologians. However, since some regard infant baptism as invalid, they encourage those who have not been baptized in faith and obedience to have it administered by immersion. On the contrary, it is argued that, no matter what circumstances prevailed, any baptism administered with water in the ‘Name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit’ by a church official with the power to baptize is indeed valid and should never be repeated. Neither do baptism of confirmation or ‘double baptism’ offer a solution. At the root of the problem a difference of approach towards the covenant of grace is maintained. Churches maintaining the infant baptism tradition should, however, critically view the praxis of their doctrine and consider whether church members are perhaps too readily allowed to present their children for baptism.

  11. Depósitos descheelita asociados a lamprófiros/biotititas departamento San Martín, San Luis / Scheelite oredeposit associated with lamprophyres and biotitite in San Martín District, SanLuis province

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Teresita, Montenegro; Ricardo O., Etcheverry; Pablo R., Leal; Milka K., De Brodtkorb.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En el noreste de la sierra deSan Luis se encuentran numerosos yacimientos de wolframio. En el departamentoSan Martín hay tres grupos mineros: Los Avestruces, La Aspereza y CerritoBlanco. La geología del área está constituida por rocas del ComplejoMetamórfico Conlara, compuesto por esquistos cuarzo-m [...] icáceos de rumboaproximado N300º y por granitoides y pegmatitas. Además, hay lamprófiroscalcoalcalinos sobresaturados que conforman cuerpos subverticales de rumboNO-SE a O-E. Hacia la salbanda se incrementa la cantidad de biotita hasta un80-90% constituyendo una roca denominada biotitita que sería producto deprocesos metasomáticos y posterior cataclasis del lamprófiro. La biotititaresulta enriquecida en potasio, rubidio y wolframio, entre otros elementos. Lamineralización scheelítica, en ganga de cuarzo y biotita y/o turmalina, sedispone en vetas lenticulares que se alojan frecuentemente en el contacto entrelamprófiro/biotitita y roca de caja. La scheelita se dispone en ojos en losplanos de esquistosidad de la biotitita y diseminada en el cuarzo. Lamineralización de las venas ha tenido lugar a partir de fluidos de composicióncompleja XH2O: 0,87/0,82 - XCO2: 0,11/0,16 - XNaCl:0,015/0,013 - (CH4) y la scheelita precipitó por un proceso dedesmezcla por debajo de 320°C y 2,3 kb según el estudio de las inclusionesfluidas. La deformación de la fase achaliana y la intrusión del batolito LasChacras-Piedras Coloradas (Devónico a Carbonífero) son los eventos quepromovieron la removilización de fluidos de los sedimentos del basamento, sucanalización en fracturas, y el metasomatismo y la mineralización. Abstract in english Towards thenortheast of the Sierra de San Luis several wolfram ore deposits occur. In SanMartín district they are divided into three groups: Los Avestruces, LaEsperanza and Cerrito Blanco. The geology of this area is formed of the Conlarametamorphic complex composed of schists (with a strike of 300º [...] north),granitoids and pegmatites. In the same area subsaturated chalco-alkalinelamprophyres also appear as subvertical bodies with NW-NE strikes. Toward theboundaries of these rocks, the amount of biotite rises gradually from 80 to 90%developing a biotitite rock due to metasomatic processes and the superimposeddeformation. This biotitite is rich in K, Rb and W among other elements. Thescheelite mineralization (with quartz, biotite and tourmaline as non oreminerals) occurs in veins that are usually hosted between the lamprophyres andthe wall rocks. Scheelite also appears between the schist planes of thebiotitite rocks as well as disseminated crystals in quartz aggregates. Thismineralization took place from fluids with XH2O: 0.87/0.82 - XCO2:0.11/0.16 - XNaCl: 0.015/0.013 - (CH4) meanwhile the scheelite,according to the fluid inclusions studies, precipitated from unmixing processesbelow 320°C and 2.3 kb. Achaliana orogeny and the intrusion of LasChacras-Piedras Coloradas batholiths (Devonian-Carboniferous) were theresponsible for the slight rise of the fluids from the basement, the generationof fault structures through which they rose, the metasomatism and themineralization.

  12. San Agustín a través de sus representaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Cecilia Beltrán

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available San Agustín, Patrimonio Histórico y Cultural de la Humanidad, ubicado en las estribaciones del Macizo Colombiano, al sur del departamento del Huila, atesora en sus tierras uno de los más importantes vestigios arqueológicos del país. Tanto en el Parque Arqueológico como en lugares aledaños al municipio se pueden apreciar las diversas obras esculpidas por esta cultura de la cual aún no se precisan muchos aspectos. Lo que se sabe de ella ha sido producto de las investigaciones hechas desde 1756. Hasta estos parajes ha llegado un buen número de arqueólogos quienes con su aporte ayudaron a estructurar los conocimientos que hoy se tienen de esta cultura y sus representaciones, que giran en torno al culto por los muertos pero que aun así dejan entrever parte de las vivencias de sus pobladores.

  13. San Onofre - the evolution of outage management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the addition of units 2 and 3 to San Onofre nuclear station in 1983 and 1984, it became evident that a separate group was needed to manage outages. Despite early establishment of a division to handle outages, it was a difficult journey to make the changes to achieve short outages. Early organizational emphasis was on developing an error-free operating environment and work culture. This is difficult for a relatively large organization at a three-unit site. The work processes and decision styles were designed to be very deliberate with many checks and balances. The organization leadership and accountability were focused in the traditional operations, maintenance, and engineering divisions. Later, our organization emphasis shifted to achieving engineering excellence. With a sound foundation of operating and engineering excellence, our organizational focus has turned to achieving quality outages. This means accomplishing the right work in a shorter duration and having the units run until the next refueling

  14. Phoenix Landing Ellipse Over San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This map compares the size of the area where NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is expected to land, called the landing ellipse (red), to the size of the San Francisco Bay Area. Phoenix has a 99.9 percent probability of landing within the area denoted by its landing ellipse, a region in the northern plains of Mars centered at approximately 68 degrees north latitude, 233 degrees east longitude. The ellipse is about 70 kilometers (44 miles) long. Phoenix is most likely to land near the center of the ellipse, and least likely to land at its very edges. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Site prospection at San Pedro Mártir

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J, Bohigas; J. M., Núñez; P. F., Guillén; F, Lazo; D, Hiriart; T, Calvario; O, Escoboza; A, Córdova; J, Valdez; E, Sohn.

    Full Text Available Realizamos mediciones climatológicas y de seeing, en 5 sitios dentro del área reservada para uso astronómico en el Parque Nacional Sierra de San Pedro Mártir (SPM), durante al menos 15 noches en cada uno de ellos. Las variables climáticas se midieron con una estación meteorológica Davis y un anemóme [...] tro ultrasónico Metek. El seeing fue medido con un RoboDIMM fabricado por NOAO. Las mediciones climatológicas y de seeing fueron comparadas con las obtenidas simultáneamente con la instrumentación del Thirty Meter Telescope Project en el Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (OAN) en SPM. Las diferencias de seeing son pequeñas en la mayor parte de los casos. Recomendamos que se realice una campaña de larga duración en Llano Alto 1, ya que es un sitio de fácil acceso y el seeing parece ser ligeramente mejor. Abstract in english Seeing and weather observations were conducted at 5 sites within the boundaries of the area reserved for astronomy at the Sierra de San Pedro Mártir National Park (SPM), for at least 15 nights at each one of these. Weather variables were measured using a Davis Weather Station and a Metek Ultrasonic [...] Anemometer. Seeing information was collected with a NOAO RoboDIMM unit. Seeing and weather results were compared to those being delivered at the same time by the instrumentation of the Thirty Meter Telescope Project at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (OAN) at SPM. Seeing differences are small in most cases. We recommend a long term campaign at the easily accessible site Llano Alto 1, where we found that seeing may be slightly better.

  16. Near-shore distribution of phyllosomas of the two only lobster species (Decapoda: Achelata) present in Robinson Crusoe Island and endemic to the Juan Fernández archipelago Distribución costera de filosomas de las dos únicas especies de langostas (Decapoda: Achelata) presentes en la Isla Robinson Crusoe y endémicas del archipiélago de Juan Fernández

    OpenAIRE

    ÁLVARO T. PALMA; ISMAEL CÁCERES-MONTENEGRO; Bennett, Richard S; SPARTACO MAGNOLFI; Luis A Henríquez; JORGE F GUERRA; KAREN MANRÍQUEZ; R. EDUARDO PALMA

    2011-01-01

    Two lobster species coexist in the southeast Pacific Juan Fernández archipelago, Jasus frontalis (Milne-Edwards, 1837) and Acantharctus delfini (Bouvier, 1909). Like most lobster species they undergo a prolonged larval period, which is particularly long for J. frontalis (> 16 months). Though typical of Palinurids, this long larval duration is usually not thought to be conducive to local recruitment. While it is known that settlement is confined to the three islands of the archipelago (Robinso...

  17. SANS spectra of the fractal supernucleosomal chromatin structure models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The eukaryotic genome consists of chromatin-a nucleoprotein complex with hierarchical architecture based on nucleosomes, the organization of higher-order chromatin structures still remains unknown. Available experimental data, including SANS spectra we had obtained for whole nuclei, suggested fractal nature of chromatin. Previously we had built random-walk supernucleosomal models (up to 106 nucleosomes) to interpret our SANS spectra. Here we report a new method to build fractal supernucleosomal structure of a given fractal dimension or two different dimensions. Agreement between calculated and experimental SANS spectra was significantly improved, especially for model with two fractal dimensions—3 and 2.

  18. Fitting the datum of SANS with Pxy program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis introduces the basic theory of Small-Angle neutron scattering, enumerates several approximate law. It simply describes the components of Small-Angle neutron spectrometer (SANS) and the parameters of SANS of Budapest Neutron Center (BNC) in Hungary. During the period of studying at Budapest Neutron Center in Hungary, the experiments of wavelength calibration was carried out with SIBE and the SANS experiments of sample Micelles. The experiments are briefly introduced. Pxy program is used to fit these datum, and the results of wavelength and sizes of sample Micelles are presented. (authors)

  19. New record of sheep frog (Hypopachus variolosus) in the Tres Marías Islands archipelago, Nayarit, Mexico / Nuevo registro de la rana ovejera (Hypopachus variolosus) en el archipiélago de las islas Marías, Nayarit, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. Antonio, de la Torre; Leonardo J., López-Damián; Horacio V., Bárcenas; Edith, Nájera-Solís; Rodrigo A., Medellín.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Durante una reciente vista a la isla María Madre del archipiélago de las islas Marías se encontraron 2 ejemplares de Hypopachus variolosus. Este nuevo registro de la rana ovejera en las islas Marías representa el primero de esta especie para una isla. Consideramos que es necesario obtener más inform [...] ación de esta especie en el archipiélago ya que su estado de conservación en esta localidad es incierto. Abstract in english During a recent visit to María Madre Island, in the Tres Marías Island archipelago, 2 specimens of Hypopachus variolosus were found. This new record of the sheep frog from Tres Marías Island archipelago represents the first island record for this species. Due to the uncertainty about its conservatio [...] n status in this locality, we consider necessary to improve the information about this species in the island.

  20. Rare Plants - City of San Diego [ds455

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Biological Monitoring Plan (BMP; Ogden 1996) for the Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) was developed in 1996 and is a component of the City of San...

  1. Earthquake Damage in San Francisco, CA, April 18, 1906

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1906 San Francisco earthquake was the largest event (magnitude 8.3) to occur in the conterminous United States in the 20th Century. Recent estimates indicate...

  2. Hunting plan for San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This migratory waterfowl hunting plan for Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge allows waterfowl hunting on certain areas of the Refuge. Aerial...

  3. NPP Tropical Forest: San Eusebio, Venezuela, 1970-1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Biomass, litterfall,a nd nutrient content of above- and below-ground vegetation and soil for a tropical montane forest at San Eusebio, Venezuela.

  4. Folds--Offshore of San Francisco Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file is...

  5. Narrative Report : San Francisco Bay NWR Complex : Fiscal Year 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report details the conditions and management of San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in 1974. The report begins with a general...

  6. Vegetation Mapping - Tecolote Canyon, San Diego Co. [ds656

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vegetation mapping has been conducted at various City of San Diego Park and Recreation Open Space lands in support of natural resource management objectives and the...

  7. Backscatter D [7125]--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  8. Microstructure of magnetite doped elastomers investigated by SAXS and SANS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some recent results on the SAXS and SANS investigations of the magnetic elastomers are presented. Samples were obtained by polymerizing dimethylsiloxane with Fe3O4 ferrofluid in a magnetic field and without magnetic field and characterized by XRD, SANS and SAXS. The SAXS maximum at large angles, obtained from magnetic elastomers, was fitted by using a Pseudo-Voigt function. It was found that the Fe3O4 particles lead to a change of the local structure of the elastomer, meaning the decrease of the quasi-crystalline phase and of the microstrains induced in the matrix. The average particle size obtained from SANS measurements agrees well with the average particle size determined by XRD and SAXS analysis. The splitting of the SANS intensity owing to an additional scattering in zero field reflects the existence of magnetic correlations inside the Q region of 0.005 -1

  9. Faults--Offshore of San Francisco Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file is...

  10. San Diego, California 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second San Diego, California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid...

  11. Marine Seismic Reflection Profiles Data of San Francisco Bay Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Dataset consists of two-dimensional marine seismic reflection profile data from the San Francisco Bay area. These data were acquired in 1993, with the vessel David...

  12. Seafloor character--Offshore of San Gregorio, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3306 presents data for the seafloor-character map (see sheet 5, SIM 3306) of the Offshore of San Gregorio map area, California. The raster data...

  13. San Francisco Department of Public Health Flu Shot Locations 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — List of San Francisco Department of Public Health clinics offering flu vaccinations throughout the city in fall 2013.This dataset complies with the emerging Data...

  14. Baseline Surveys - Tecolote Canyon, San Diego Co. [ds655

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Various resource projects have been conducted in the City of San Diego's Open Space Parks as part of the implementation of the City's Multiple Species Conservation...

  15. San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission : Annual Report 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Congress passed, and the President signed into law, legislation establishing the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge. When the purchase of property for...

  16. Faults--Offshore of San Gregorio Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3306 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3306) of the Offshore of San Gregorio map area,...

  17. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund is a competitive grant program that is helping implement TMDLs to improve water quality, protect wetlands, and...

  18. Brechas intraclásticas (tsunamitas?) en el tope de la Formación San Juan (Darriwiliano), Precordillera de San Juan, Argentina: microfacies y Conodontes / Intraclastic breccias (tsunamites) on the top of San Juan Formation (Darriwillian), San Juan Precordillera, Argentina: microfacies and conodonts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana, Mestre.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen por primera vez niveles de brechas intraclásticas en el último metro de la Formación San Juan, Precordillera Central (San Juan-Argentina). Las características microfaciales, relaciones litofaciales y las variaciones en las poblaciones de conodontes asociadas a las mismas permiten interp [...] retarlas como depósitos producidos por eventos erosivos de gran magnitud que habrían sido generados por tsunamis o tormentas fuera de serie que afectaron la rampa carbonática durante el Darriwiliano medio. Abstract in english This paper describes for the first time intraclastic breccias beds in the last meter of the San Juan Formation, Central Precordillera (San Juan, Argentina). The microfacial features, lithofacial relations and variations in conodont population linked with the conglomerate allow us to defineinterpreti [...] ng that these deposits were produced by a great eroding event, possibly generated by a tsunami or storms out of series which has affected the carbonate ramp during the Middle Darriwilian.

  19. Bathymetry Hillshade--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore of San Francisco, California (raster data file is included in...

  20. San Francisco-Pacifica Coast Landslide Susceptibility 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The San Francisco-Pacifica Coast grid map was extracted from the California Geological Survey Map Sheet 58 that covers the entire state of California and originally...