WorldWideScience
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Space schemes of ecological zonation and morphology of the atolls lagoons and reef complex of an oceanic archipelago of the Caribbean: San Andres and Providence (Colombia)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oceanic atolls and reef-complexes of the Archipelago of San Andres and Providencia exhibit semi-enclosed to rather open lagoon basins, where various characteristic bottom habitats occur. Certain areas of the lagoon floor are covered by sediments, being in some settings vegetated by algae or sea grass, and other areas by coralline framework of different types according to the composition and dominance of coral species and to their morphology and level of reef development. This study seeks to determine the spatial distribution patterns of lagoon bottom habitats based on the analysis of gradients of most relevant physical factors. Patterns in the occurrence and abundance of most habitats became evident in relation with wave-energy level, water depth, and the occurrence of islands. Some morphological reef types are oriented in a preferential direction and show spatial arrangements of development that are presumably related to prevailing current speed and direction and wave exposure

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Marine macroalgae in the agronomy and potential use of floating sargassum for manure production in the San Andres and Providencia Archipelago, Colombia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An account is made on the use of marine macroalgae in agronomy and the potential that floating Sargassum arriving to san Andres and Providencia has for this activity. This Sargassum, which has been a nuisance for the tourist economy of the islands, promises to be an excellent resource for manure production

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Miocene and Pleistocene mollusks from San Andres Island (Caribbean Sea, Colombia) and Paleogeographic considerations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

San Andres Island is the largest emerged portion of the oceanic archipelago of San Andres and Providencia, southwestern Caribbean Sea; it originated as a coralline atoll during Miocene times. The central and highest part of the island consists of a calcareous crest, the San Andres Formation, formed by Neogene lagoonal and reefal deposits. This crest is surrounded by a calcareous platform of Pleistocene age (San Luis Formation) which emerges only along the island coast, whereas its most part is submerged and covered by a Recent reef complex. Fossil material of molluscs from these two formations was collected in various sites throughout the island and taxonomically identified. In the four sites sampled in the San Andres Formation, material belonging to 19 gastropod and 37 bivalve species was obtained, most of them relatively well represented in other geologic formations of the Caribbean region that are stratigraphically situated between the upper Miocene and the middle Pliocene. Some elements occurring in this formation, such as Ostrea haitiensis, Meretrix dariena and Siphocypraea henekeni, were widely distributed in the Caribbean Miocene Province. In the San Luis Formation, material belonging to 18 gastropod and 11 bivalve species was obtained, most of them also represented in the Recent molluscan fauna of the region. The estimated age of this formation is Sangamonian, hence corresponding to similar formations occurring in Grand Cayman, Jamaica, Hispaniola, the Netherld Cayman, Jamaica, Hispaniola, the Netherlands Antilles and other Caribbean islands, with which it also shows a great similarity in the composition of the molluscan fauna.

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Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

Started in 1997, Archipelago offers up a farrago of poetry, fiction, photo collages, and other such artistic endeavors once (sometimes twice) a year. It's a delight to learn about, and interested parties will appreciate looking over their most recent offerings. Of course, they won't want to stop at the latest material, as they can also delve into their online archive. To give curious parties a sense of Archipelago's contents, they have recently featured Frank McGuinness' piece "Andy Warhol Says A Mass", the poems of Katherine E. Young, and the transcript of a talk on Thomas Jefferson and intellectual property rights given by Jeffrey H. Matsuura. Visitors wishing to take a copy of Archipelago away from their computer screen can also click on a PDF version that is more than appropriate for printing out and taking to their favorite coffeehouse or literary salon.

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A correlation for miscible flood displacement efficiency in the San Andres with NMR relaxation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that a set of San Andres crystalline dolomite cores was examined for the relationship between pore attributes discernible from NMR relaxation and miscible flooding displacement efficiency. A strong correlation was observed between the inferred abundance of long relaxation time components and laboratory measured residual oil to a multicontact miscible displacement process. NMR relaxation time distribution proved to be a simple, noninvasive, nondestructive indicator of flow performance in the 12 San Andres dolomite samples examined. Spin-lattice relaxation measurements were conducted on clean, brine saturated core end pieces from plugs taken adjacent to those used for flow displacement studies. Sample data were deconvoluted into a distribution of relaxation times, which is ultimately related to surface-to-volume ratio distribution. The median relaxation time was determined to be the most sensitive statistics to convey flow performance. Residual oil saturation was adequately represented by a power law function of the median relaxation time

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Morphology and it structures of the coralline formations of San Bernardo's archipelago, Colombian Caribbean  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The archipelago of San Bernardo is an extensive reef complex of coralline origin located off the Caribbean coast of Colombia. In order to determine the distribution, morphological features, structure, and zonation patterns of the bottom environments of this area, employing aerial photography and observations in the field, thematic maps were produced and a series of data upon the structure of the sessile benthic biota was gathered. The complex comprises an area of more than 250 km2; of which more than 60% corresponds to bottoms with notable coral cover (> 60% of the bottom) extending to depths of nearly 30m. Three geomorphological units and seven main types of habitats or ecological units were recognized

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Origins of the Salado, Seven Rivers, and San Andres salt margins in Texas and New Mexico: Revision 1: Topical report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present boundaries of the San Andres, Seven Rivers, and Salado salts generally lie along the periphery of the Palo Duro and Tucumcari Basins. Various geologic mechanisms occurring singularly or in combination determined the positions of the salt margins. These mechanisms include nondeposition of salt and syndepositional and postdepositional dissolution. In New Mexico, San Andres units pinch out against the Pedernal and Sierra Grande Uplifts, indicating that nondeposition established the original salt margins there. Syndepositional dissolution of exposed Upper San Andres salts occurred in response to Guadalupian upwarp of the basin margins. Triassic erosion differentially removed Permian salt-bearing formations along the uplifts. Late Tertiary dissolution is indicated by fill of north-south trending collapse valleys. In Texas, Guadalupian upwarp along the Amarillo Uplift caused pinchout of Units 2 and 3 in the Lower San Andres and influenced the deposition of subsequent salt-bearing strata. The discontinuity of Upper San Andres evaporites across the Amarillo Uplift suggests syndepositional dissolution. Along the eastern and northeastern basin margin, dissolution may have accompanied Triassic erosion of locally uplifted Upper Permian strata. Tertiary dissolution is recognized beneath anomalously thick Ogallala Formation sections that overlie collasped Permian strata. 49 refs., 31 figs., 2 tabs

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Paleokarst system development in the San Andres Formation, Permian Basin, revealed by seismic characterization  

Science.gov (United States)

Paleokarst systems are one of the major factors resulting in carbonate reservoir heterogeneity and compartmentalization. Nevertheless, few effective workflows have been proposed to map the 3D distribution of such systems. We describe a detailed seismic characterization approach integrating core, well log and rock physics analysis, to reveal a complex subsurface paleokarst system in the San Andres Formation, Permian basin, West Texas. In the area of high volume production, the collapsed paleokarst system is characterized by irregularly developed crackle and fracture breccias, mosaic breccias and cave fillings in the Upper San Andres Formation, which are delineated using seismic acoustic impedance. Along the transition from platform to basin, the paleokarst system is marked by a linear collapse including sags and small vertical faults that are recognizable in seismic imaging. Production data indicates that tight paleokarst zones cause reservoir compartmentalization and influence fluid communication between wells. The complex paleokarst system development is explained using a carbonate platform hydrological model, an outcrop analogue similar to modern marine hydrological environments within carbonate islands. Our method of model development for complex subsurface paleokarst systems may be applicable to other paleoenvironments.

Dou, Qifeng; Sun, Yuefeng; Sullivan, Charlotte; Guo, Hao

2011-10-01

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MASSIVE QUANTITIES OF PELAGIC Sargassum ON THE SHORES OF SAN ANDRES ISLAND, SOUTHWESTERN CARIBBEAN / Cantidades masivas de Sargassum pelágicos en las costas de San Andrés Isla, Caribe suroccidental  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se reporta la llegada de una biomasa inusual de Sargassum flotante, compuesta por las especies S. fluitans y S. natans, a la costa nororiental de la isla de San Andrés. La época y el tamaño del evento nunca habían sido reportados anteriormente para la isla. [...] Abstract in english We report an unusual biomass of floating Sargassum, composed of the species S. fluitans and S. natans, that reached the northeastern coast of San Andres island in September 2014. The time and size of the event is unprecedented to the island. [...

Brigitte, GAVIO; M. Natalia, RINCÓN-DÍAZ; Adriana, SANTOS-MARTÍNEZ.

2015-01-01

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RESPUESTA DEL AMBIENTE MARINO A ALGUNOS EVENTOS METEOROLÓGICOS SINÓPTICOS MEDIDOS SOBRE LOS ARRECIFES DE SAN ANDRÉS Y DE LAS ISLAS DEL ROSARIO, CARIBE COLOMBIANO* / RESPONSE OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT TO SOME SYNOPTIC WEATHER EVENTS MEASURED ON THE REEFS OF SAN ANDRES ISLAND AND ROSARIO ISLANDS, COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Continuous measurements were taken of oceanographic and meteorological parameters for two stations of the Global Ocean Observing System of the Southwest Caribbean, framed in the INAP project. The response of the surface layer, to atmospheric events, allowed to differentiate the pass of two cold fron [...] ts by Johnny Cay station (San Andres Island) and the arrival of the "Veranillo" in the sensors of Tesoro Island (Islas del Rosario, Cartagena). The cold fronts produced a decrease in the atmospheric pressure, air temperature, caused radical changes in wind direction and speed followed by precipitation. This situation lowered the sea surface temperature, the surface layer pH and rose momentarily the sea level. The "Veranillo" came to Archipelago of Rosario generating a strong increase in wind speed and solar radiation. The response in the sea surface layer was evident through a significant increase in sea level.

Carolina, Gutiérrez-Moreno; Milena, Marrugo; Carlos Alberto, Andrade.

2012-06-01

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APPLICATION OF WATER-JET HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNOLOGY TO DRILL AND ACIDIZE HORIZONTAL DRAIN HOLES, TEDBIT (SAN ANDRES) FIELD, GAINES COUNTY, TEXAS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The San Andres Formation is one of the major hydrocarbon-producing units in the Permian Basin, with multiple reservoirs contained within the dolomitized subtidal portions of upward shoaling carbonate shelf cycles. The test well is located in Tedbit (San Andres) Field in northeastern Gaines County, Texas, in an area of scattered San Andres production associated with local structural highs. Selected on the basis of geological and historical data, the Oil and Gas Properties Wood No. 1 well is considered to be typical of a large number of San Andres stripper wells in the Permian Basin. Thus, successful completion of horizontal drain holes in this well would demonstrate a widely applicable enhanced recovery technology. Water-jet horizontal drilling is an emerging technology with the potential to provide significant economic benefits in marginal wells. Forecast benefits include lower recompletion costs and improved hydrocarbon recoveries. The technology utilizes water under high pressure, conveyed through small-diameter coiled tubing, to jet horizontal drain holes into producing formations. Testing of this technology was conducted with inconclusive results. Paraffin sludge and mechanical problems were encountered in the wellbore, initially preventing the water-jet tool from reaching the kick-off point. After correcting these problems and attempting to cut a casing window with the water-jet milling assembly, lateral jetting was attempted without success.

Michael W. Rose

2005-09-22

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An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For a part of the Foster and South Cowden (Grayburg-San Andres) oil fields, improvement in oil production has been accomplished, in part, by using ?pipeline fracturing? technology in the most recent completion to improve fluid flow rates, and filtration of waterflood injection water to preserve reservoir permeability. The 3D seismic survey acquired in conjunction with this DOE project has been used to calculate a 3D seismic inversion model, which has been analyzed to provide detailed maps of porosity within the productive upper 250 feet of the Grayburg Formation. Geologic data, particularly from logs and cores, have been combined with the geophysical interpretation and production history information to develop a model of the reservoir that defines estimations of remaining producible oil. The integrated result is greater than the sum of its parts, since no single data form adequately describes the reservoir. Each discipline relies upon computer software that runs on PC-type computers, allowing virtually any size company to affordably access the technology required to achieve similar results.

Richard Weinbrandt; Robert C. Trentham; William Robinson

1997-10-23

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Morphosedimentary characterization of sublittoral beds of San Andres beach (Malaga Bay) using side scan sonar  

OpenAIRE

The present work contributes to the characterization and mapping of sublittoral seabed located in the nearshore of the San Andrés Beach in Malaga. This zone extends between the outer dock of the Malaga harbor and the Guadalhorce river mouth. The study was done using the description of the acoustic reflection patterns obtained with Side Scan Sonar thechniques. These patterns have been identified with lithological changes, morphological features, dimension and orientation of bedfor...

Morales Gonza?lez, Juan Antonio; Delgado Rodri?guez, Irene; Lozano, Claudio; Noriega, J. I.; Florido, D.; Sabastro, M.

2008-01-01

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Recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito, Baja California, por el lobo fino de Guadalupe / The re-colonization of the Archipelago of San Benito, Baja California, by the Guadalupe fur seal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el estado actual de la recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito por el lobo fino de Guadalupe (Arctocephalus townsendi). El archipiélago tiene una gran importancia para esta especie, ya que puede consolidarse en un futuro como otro sitio de reproducción, [...] lo que implicaría un gran avance en su recuperación natural. El incremento y la estructura poblacional, el comportamiento alimenticio, la duración de los viajes de alimentación (que evidencian una fuente importante de alimento cercana) y la atención a las crías son factores que permiten analizar y estudiar el proceso de crecimiento de San Benito como una nueva colonia reproductiva. Esta expansión del territorio puede ser reflejo de la naturaleza gregaria de la especie y la fidelidad hacia los sitios reproductivos. La importancia de este trabajo radica en que es una descripción inicial de la recolonización de una especie que estuvo a punto de desaparecer. Puede esperarse que el número de individuos en el archipiélago continúe aumentando, ya que es poco probable que a corto plazo el espacio reproductivo y la disponibilidad de alimento limiten el nacimiento de crías y el crecimiento de la población. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to analize the re-colonization process of the San Benito Archipelago by the Guadalupe fur seal (Arctocephalus townsendi). The archipelago is of great importance for the species, since it can be consolidated in the future as a breeding colony, which would imply a great achiev [...] ement for the fur seal's natural recovery. Population growth, population structure, feeding behavior, foraging trips duration (which shows an important feeding area near), behavior and pup attendance, are characteristics that help analyze and study this process; where San Benito grows as a colony and, therefore, is established as a new breeding colony. Furthermore, this expansion of the breeding territory might reflect the gregarious nature of the species, and fidelity to breeding areas as well. The importance of this work is that it is an initial description of the recolonization of a species that almost disappears. It can be expected to continue increasing the number of individuals at the archipelago, since it is unlikely that in a short period of time, the breeding territory and the food availability limit the birth of offspring and the population growth.

Manuel, Esperón-Rodríguez; Juan Pablo, Gallo-Reynoso.

2012-03-01

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Spatial distribution of acoustic impedance in a Permian shelf-margin: Upper San Andres Formation, Last Chance Canyon, New Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Seismic reflection profiling is an important geophysical method for investigating the presence and architecture of hydrocarbon reservoirs in the subsurface. However, the seismic section is not the exact equivalent of a geological cross section. Understanding seismic reflections and the complex angular relationships often visible in seismic sections, e.g. reflection terminations, requires simulation of two-dimensional cross sections. We have measured P-wave velocity, porosity, density, and insoluble residue of 48 rock samples from outcrops of the Permian upper San Andres Formation, Last Chance Canyon, New Mexico in an effort to construct a realistic model of the spatial distribution of acoustic impedance. P-wave velocity, saturated, ranges from 3.4 to 6.6 km/s; bulk density ranges from 2.4 to 2.8 g/cc; porosity ranges from 1 to 23%; and insoluble residue (non-carbonate fractions most of which is clay minerals) varies between 0 and 93%. Cross plots show that most of the variation in compressional wave velocity is explained by changes in porosity and insoluble residue. Sample subsets span the spatial, downdip and vertical, distribution of several individual hemicycles and show gradients of impedance, porosity and insoluble residue. Within these carbonate hemicycles, acoustic impedance gradually decreases downdip as a function of increasing porosity and insoluble residue. As a consequence, differences in impedance between hemicycles are not constant and change laterally along their contact. These observations suggest a significantly more complex spatial impedance distribution in mixed carbonate-siliciclastic shelf-margins than traditional models where genetically important stratal boundaries are assigned constant impedance contrasts and diachronous facies boundaries are represented by gradual changes in impedance.

Kenter, J.A.M.; Stafleu, J. [Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sonnenfield, M.D. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

1995-08-01

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An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County Texas. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goals of work done this quarter were (1) to analyze the preliminary seismic inversion model for the Grayburg A, B, and C sequences and the upper San Andres formation; (2) modify the inversion model to improve its accuracy and to include the deeper Holt Formation; and (3) test various rock property quantities against the improved model and other seismic attributes using refined analysis boundaries. A satisfactory inversion model and porosity analysis remains to be accomplished, but much has been learned about the modeling and analysis processes. Qualitative comparison of sonic logs with the inversion model traces in profile view shows great similarity and success is being made toward good quantitative results. Progress on these goals is described. Additional studies were carried out on the following: Witcher No. 12 core and completion, water analyses, reservoir simulation, reservoir engineering, and water quality for injection.

Trentham, R.C.; Weinbrandt, R.; Robinson, W.

1997-05-28

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Petrographic report on samples from units 4 and 5 salt, lower San Andres formation, J. Friemel No. 1 well, Deaf Smith County, Palo Duro Basin, Texas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of mineralogic and petrographic analyses performed on samples of salt-bearing rock from a potential repository site in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas. The samples are from Permian Units 4 and 5 salt, Lower San Andres Formation, J. Friemel No. 1 well, Deaf Smith County, Texas. The mineralogic and petrographic data were obtained from polished thin sections cut parallel to the axis of the core for each sample. The polished thin sections were examined in order to determine the abundances of soluble (halite) and insoluble components (anhydrite, clay, carbonate, quartz, gypsum, etc.). The information reported here includes mineral associations (detrital, authigenic, cement, alteration, etc.), texture, grain size, and sedimentary fabrics. The report also includes representative photomicrographs with superimposed bar scales. Photomicrographs of polished thin sections have the up-core direction designated. X-ray diffraction was also used for identification of soluble and insoluble minerals. 7 refs., 2 tabs

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Analysis of the re-colonization of San Benito Archipelago by Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi) / Análisis de la recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito por el lobo fino de Guadalupe (Arctocephalus townsendi)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La explotación del lobo fino de Guadalupe (LFG) durante los siglos XVIII y XIX casi extinguió a la especie. El LFG se distribuye desde las islas Revillagigedo (México) hasta el golfo de Farallones (USA). En la actualidad las colonias reproductivas se encuentran en la isla de Guadalupe y en el archip [...] iélago de San Benito (ASB). El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el proceso de re-colonización y el estado actual del LFG en el ASB. También se informan los primeros nacimientos y la ocupación de la isla del Oeste del ASB. Con base en los censos de 1997 a 2007, la población creció con una tasa de incremento anual de 21,6%. Se estudió el tamaño de la población, la tendencia de crecimiento de la colonia, biología reproductiva y preferencias alimentarias. Se contaron 2,227 individuos en el ASB. Tres especies de calamar se encontraron como el principal componente de la dieta (Loligo opalescens, Onychoteuthis banksii y Dosidicus gigas). La territorialidad, los patrones de actividad y el comportamiento reproductivo, muestran una conducta similar entre los individuos de isla Guadalupe y ASB. Se calculó la tasa de crecimiento promedio de las crías del ASB y se comparó con la tasa de crecimiento de las crías de isla Guadalupe (ASB: 6.7 ± 1.4 kg y 68,9 ± 2.64 cm; isla Guadalupe 5.9 ± 0.5 kg, y 67.29 ± 4.3 cm). Se midió la duración de los viajes de alimentación de las hembras, indicando que la colonia de San Benito probablemente se encuentra cerca de una importante zona de alimentación. En cuanto a los patrones de asistencia materna, estos podrían indicar una estrategia de lactancia-viajes de alimentación diferente entre SBA e isla Guadalupe. Se puede esperar que la población de lobos finos en San Benito siga creciendo, ya que no hay limitantes en cuanto al espacio reproductivo y los recursos alimenticios disponibles en la zona. Abstract in english Exploitation of the Guadalupe fur seal (GFS) during the XVIII and XIX centuries almost extirpated the species. GFS were distributed from the Revillagigedo islands (Mexico) to the gulf of Farallones (USA). At present, reproductive colonies are found at Guadalupe Island and San Benito Archipelago (SBA [...] ). The aim of this work was to analyze the process of re-colonization and the current status of GFS at SBA. The first births and the occupation of the west island of the SBA are also reported. Census data from 1997 to 2007 indicated an annual growth rate for the population of 21.6%. The population size, growth tendency of the colony, reproductive biology, and food preferences were also studied. A total of 2,227 GFS were counted at SBA. Three squid species (Loligo opalescens, Onychoteuthis banksii, Dosidicus gigas) were found to be the main dietary components. Territoriality, activity patterns, and reproductive behavior were similar for the seals from Guadalupe Island and SBA. The mean growth rate for pups from SBA was calculated and compared to that of the pups at Guadalupe Island (SBA: 6.7 ± 1.4 kg, 68.9 ± 2.64 cm; Guadalupe Island: 5.9 ± 0.5 kg, 67.29 ± 4.3 cm). The length of food foraging trips by females was measured, suggesting that the SBA colony is probably near an important feeding area. Maternal care patterns could indicate different strategies of nursing-foraging trips between the SBA and Guadalupe Island. The population of fur seals at SBA is expected to increase as there are no limitations in terms of reproductive space or available food resources in the area.

Manuel, Esperón-Rodríguez; Juan Pablo, Gallo-Reynoso.

2012-03-01

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Descripción morfoagronómica de materiales de plátano (Musa AAB, ABB) y banano (Musa AAA) cultivados en San Andrés Isla / Morpho-agronomic Description of Plantain (Musa AAB, ABB) and Banana (Musa AAA) Materials Grown in San Andres Island  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Durante el primer semestre de 2005 se estudiaron los cultivares de plátano y banano en fincas y parcelas de 15 agricultores típicos participantes en programas conjuntos de la Secretaría de Agricultura y Pesca de San Andrés Isla y de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Caribe. A partir de descri [...] ptores de INIBAP, IPGRI y CIRAD y revisiones bibliográficas.se describen morfológicamente los materiales de Musa cultivados en la Isla, así como las prácticas de los productores isleños, Se identificaron cuatro clones del subgrupo plátano (Musa AAB): un Hartón (‘Horse’) y tres Dominico-Hartón (‘Tallo Negro’, ‘Tallo Blanco’ y ‘Cincuenta’) del subgrupo ABB se hallaron un material de Bluggoe (‘Boscó’) y un Felipita. El subgrupo banano AAA presentó dos materiales Gros Michel (denominados Común y Chino) y uno de banano (Rojo). El plátano tiene gran importancia para los agricultores de la Isla, siendo el Boscó el clon más aceptado entre consumidores por su adaptación a las condiciones edafológicas y climáticas. El banano es menos cultivado; ya que los suelos, el clima y las enfermedades como sigatoka negra, condicionaron el desarrollo de clones. El trabajo sugiere prácticas de fácil implementación que podrían aumentar la producción en los sistemas de huerto mixto tropical que predominan en la Isla. Abstract in english During the first semester, 2005 we studied the plantain and banana cultivars in small farms of 15 volunteer regular producers, who were participating in joint programs of the Agriculture and Fisheries Secretariat of San Andres Island and the Colombian National University Caribbean Headquarters. We d [...] escribed morphologically the Musa cultivars identified in the island, as well as agricultural practices of the island producers, using the INIBAP, IPGRI and CIRAD (1996) descriptors and bibliographical reviews. We identified four clones within the plantain sub-group Musa AAB: a Horn type and three French-Horn; and within the ABB sub-group a Bluggoe (dubbed “Boscó”) and a Felipita type. The banana sub-group AAA had two Gros Michel type, known as “Banano Común” and “Banano Chino”, as well as one of red banana (“Banano Rojo”). The plantain culture has paramount importance for San Andres farmers, and the clone named “Boscó” is the preferred one for its taste, and its adaptation to the edaphic and climatic conditions. Banana is less cultivated; the soil and the climate, as well as diseases (v.gr. the leaf spot disease or sigatoka) determined the growth of their clones. This work suggests a list of easy to implement agronomic practices that would enhance the production of the predominant producing systems of the island.

Oscar Javier, Parra Pachón; Daniel Gerardo, Cayón Salinas; Jaime, Polanía Vorenber.

2009-10-01

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Descripción morfoagronómica de materiales de plátano (Musa AAB, ABB y banano (Musa AAA cultivados en San Andrés Isla Morpho-agronomic Description of Plantain (Musa AAB, ABB and Banana (Musa AAA Materials Grown in San Andres Island  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Durante el primer semestre de 2005 se estudiaron los cultivares de plátano y banano en fincas y parcelas de 15 agricultores típicos participantes en programas conjuntos de la Secretaría de Agricultura y Pesca de San Andrés Isla y de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Caribe. A partir de descriptores de INIBAP, IPGRI y CIRAD y revisiones bibliográficas.se describen morfológicamente los materiales de Musa cultivados en la Isla, así como las prácticas de los productores isleños, Se identificaron cuatro clones del subgrupo plátano (Musa AAB: un Hartón (‘Horse’ y tres Dominico-Hartón (‘Tallo Negro’, ‘Tallo Blanco’ y ‘Cincuenta’ del subgrupo ABB se hallaron un material de Bluggoe (‘Boscó’ y un Felipita. El subgrupo banano AAA presentó dos materiales Gros Michel (denominados Común y Chino y uno de banano (Rojo. El plátano tiene gran importancia para los agricultores de la Isla, siendo el Boscó el clon más aceptado entre consumidores por su adaptación a las condiciones edafológicas y climáticas. El banano es menos cultivado; ya que los suelos, el clima y las enfermedades como sigatoka negra, condicionaron el desarrollo de clones. El trabajo sugiere prácticas de fácil implementación que podrían aumentar la producción en los sistemas de huerto mixto tropical que predominan en la Isla.During the first semester, 2005 we studied the plantain and banana cultivars in small farms of 15 volunteer regular producers, who were participating in joint programs of the Agriculture and Fisheries Secretariat of San Andres Island and the Colombian National University Caribbean Headquarters. We described morphologically the Musa cultivars identified in the island, as well as agricultural practices of the island producers, using the INIBAP, IPGRI and CIRAD (1996 descriptors and bibliographical reviews. We identified four clones within the plantain sub-group Musa AAB: a Horn type and three French-Horn; and within the ABB sub-group a Bluggoe (dubbed “Boscó” and a Felipita type. The banana sub-group AAA had two Gros Michel type, known as “Banano Común” and “Banano Chino”, as well as one of red banana (“Banano Rojo”. The plantain culture has paramount importance for San Andres farmers, and the clone named “Boscó” is the preferred one for its taste, and its adaptation to the edaphic and climatic conditions. Banana is less cultivated; the soil and the climate, as well as diseases (v.gr. the leaf spot disease or sigatoka determined the growth of their clones. This work suggests a list of easy to implement agronomic practices that would enhance the production of the predominant producing systems of the island.

Oscar Javier Parra Pachón

2009-10-01

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THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF BATH IN TWO COMMUNITIES TEMAZCAL OF THE MIXTECA REGION: SANTIAGO YOLOMECATL AND SAN ANDRES CHICAHUAXTLA  

OpenAIRE

The bathroom of temazcal is a knowledge of pre-Hispanic roots still practiced in rural and indigenous communities in our country. Studies on the temazcal have focused on its forms of construction and operation, however, the many therapeutic benefits temazcal bath attached to the human body, and women in particular, not have been sufficiently documented. In this case, two communities of the Oaxacan mixteca were studied: Santiago Yolomecatl and San Andrés Chicahuaxtla. In this study, a questio...

Alberto Valdés-Cobos; Anayelit Cruz-Galicia

2013-01-01

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ESPONJAS Y OTROS MICROHÁBITATS DE OFIUROS (OPHIUROIDEA: ECHINODERMATA) EN AMBIENTES ARRECIFALES DEL ARCHIPIÉLAGO DE SAN BERNARDO (CARIBE COLOMBIANO) / Sponges and other ophiuroid microhabitats (Ophiuroidea: Echinodermata) at reef environments of San Bernardo Archipelago (Colombian Caribbean).  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los ofiuroideos son habitantes conspicuos de microhábitats expuestos y crípticos en arrecifes coralinos. Esta investigación pretendió conocer la composición de la comunidad de ofiuroideos encontrada en microhábitats ofrecidos por esponjas y por otros componentes arrecifales de diferente naturaleza ( [...] biótica vs. abiótica) y posición sobre el sustrato (elevada vs. no elevada) en los arrecifes de la zona Montastraea spp. en el archipiélago de Islas de San Bernardo (Caribe colombiano). Evaluando la abundancia de organismos en relación con la disponibilidad los diferentes microhábitats, se determinaron esquemas de ocupación exclusiva o preferencial de algún componente vertical particular, como insumo inicial de la existencia de relaciones ecológicas benéficas. Se realizaron muestreos en tres estaciones, en cada una se censaron tres transectos de 20 m de longitud recorridos durante el día y uno durante la noche, cuantificando visualmente la presencia y abundancia de ofiuroideos y la oferta (área o volumen) de todos los microhábitats. Se encontró un total de 11 tipos de microhábitats, siendo las estructuras de crecimiento vertical (entre ellas las esponjas y octocorales), los componentes más frecuentes en la totalidad del área de estudio. La comunidad ofiuroidea estuvo compuesta por 22 morfotipos. Solo Ophiopsila sp. 1 (de hábitos excavadores) se restringió a un solo tipo de sustrato en particular, en tanto que varias de las restantes se restringieron al uso de estructuras o espacios proporcionados por éstas, según condiciones particulares ofrecidas (elevación, naturaleza, cripticidad) y no según su identidad. La ocupación de superficies inferiores de componentes no elevados, estuvo determinada por la necesidad de ocupar espacios crípticos. Esta necesidad estuvo vinculada con especies fotosensibles, vulnerables a la depredación y a su inherente búsqueda de protección. Los componentes elevados y entre ellos 13 especies de esponjas fueron ocupados de manera característica por el complejo Ophiothrix angulata - O. orstedii y por O. suensonii. Se discuten los atributos de las esponjas (con diferentes morfologías) que proporcionan distintas ventajas para cada una de las especies ofiuroideas encontradas allí. Se sugiere la existencia de una probable relación ecológica no obligada entre estas especies de ofiuroideos y algunas de las esponjas más frecuentemente ocupadas, cuya existencia y naturaleza deben ser sometidas a comprobación experimental. Abstract in english Ophiuroids are conspicuous dwellers of exposed and cryptic microhabitats available in coral reefs. This investigation pretended to discern ophiuroid community composition at microhabitats available in sponges and other reef components of different character (biotic vs. abiotic) or position over the [...] substrate (elevated vs. non-elevated), at shallow reefs within the Montastraea spp. zone at San Bernardo Archipelago (Colombian Caribbean). Evaluating the abundance of organisms related to availability of different microhabitats, schemes of exclusive or preferential occupation of a particular elevated component were determined. These schemes, are discussed as initial cues that suggest the existence of benefic ecological relations. Samplings were performed at three stations. Four 20 meter transects were surveyed on each station, three during daytime and one during night. Presence and abundance of ophiuroids and microhabitat availability (area or volume) were quantified visually. Eleven types of microhabitats were identified. Vertical microhabitats and specially sponges and octocorals, were the most common substrate components at the study area. The ophiuroid community was composed by 22 morphotypes. Only Ophiopsila sp. 1 (with excavating habits) was restricted to one particular kind of substrate. Many other species did not use restrictedly any particular type of microhabitat, but used exclusively structures of particular characteristics (elevation, chara

Sonia, Bejarano Chavarro; Sven, Zea; Juan Manuel, Díaz.

2004-12-01

23

Reproduction of Blackfin tuna Thunnus atlanticus (Perciformes: Scombridae) in Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, Equatorial Atlantic, Brazil / Reproducción del atún de aleta negra Thunnus atlanticus (Perciformes: Scombridae) en el Archipiélago San Pedro y San Pablo, Atlántico Ecuatorial, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish A pesar de la importancia de las capturas del atún de aleta negra Thunnus atlanticus en el noreste de Brasil y en las cercanías del Archipiélago San Pedro y San Pablo (ASPSP), hay una escasez de información sobre su reproducción, especialmente en las islas. La reproducción del atún de aleta negra en [...] este archipiélago se estudió de diciembre 2008 a julio 2010. Con este fin, se recolectaron 361 gónadas de hembras y machos, los machos fueron predominantemente más frecuentes en la muestra total, con una proporción sexual de 1?:2.2 ?. La longitud furcal todos los ejemplares muestreados varió entre 38 y 98 cm, y los machos fueron más abundantes en las clases de mayor longitud. Los valores medios mensuales del índice gonadal (IG) variaron de 6.6 (SD=4.1) a 58.4 (SD=34.7) y de 2.6 (SD=1.3) a 66.2 (SD=30.4) para hembras y machos, respectivamente. Los mayores valores de IG para ambos sexos fueron observados el inicio del primer semestre. Los análisis histológicos mostraron que la mayoría de los ovarios y testículos correspondieron a especímenes aptos para reproducirse. Sin embargo, hembras con ovarios maduros, con gran cantidad de oócitos hidratados y folículos post ovulatorios, se encontraron principalmente de diciembre a marzo, que se considera es la época de reproducción del atún de aleta negra alrededor del ASPSP. Abstract in english The reproduction of Blackfin tuna Thunnus atlanticus has been described for coastal regions, and for a long time, this species was considered to be a strictly continental spawner. Recently, this species was observed around a seamount habitat 500 nautical miles Northeast of Brazil, located between So [...] uth America and Africa. In this study we describe the reproductive biology of Blackfin tuna at Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (SPSPA). Male and female gonads were sampled from December 2008 to July 2010, and analyzed macro and microscopically. A total of 361 fish were sampled (247 males and 114 females). Males were more common than females, with a sex ratio of 2.2 ?:1?. The fork length (FL) of all sampled specimens ranged from 38 to 98cm, and larger length classes were more frequent in males. It was possible to distinguish six maturity phases for females: immature, developing, spawning capable, actively spawning, regressing and recovering. Five phases were identified for males: immature, developing, spawning capable, actively spawning and recovering. The gonad index (GI) mean monthly values ranged from 6.6 (SD=4.1) to 58.4 (SD=34.7) for females, and from 2.6 (SD=1.3) to 66.2 (SD=30.4) for males. For both sexes, the largest GI values were observed at the beginning of the first semester of the year. Size at first maturity was estimated at 48cm FL and 55cm FL for females and males respectively. Approximately 80% of the specimens were adults and considered to be in reproductive conditions. Histological analysis of the ovaries and testes showed that most of the specimens were sexually mature and were reproductively active during all months of the year. However, females with mature ovaries, with large amounts of hydrated oocytes and post-ovulatory follicles, were mainly found from December to March, thus these months may constitute the main spawning season in SPSPA. Batch fecundity varied between 272 025 and 1 140 584 oocytes for 56 and 68cm FL females respectively. Oocyte development and spawning patterns suggest a multiple spawning behavior. The results revealed that Blackfin tuna is using the SPSPA as a spawning ground, similar to other species commonly observed in the same area during the same reproductive season.

Natalia P.A., Bezerra; , Fernandes; Fernanda V., Albuquerque; Vanessa, Pedrosa; Fábio, Hazin; Paulo, Travassos.

1327-13-01

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An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. Annual report, August 1, 1996--July 31, 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this two-phase study is to demonstrate an integrated methodology for reservoir characterization of shallow shelf carbonate reservoir that is feasible, and cost effective for the independent operator. Furthermore, it will provide one of the first public demonstrations of the enhancement of reservoir characterization using high-resolution three dimensional (3D) seismic data. This particular project is evaluating the Grayburg and San Andres reservoirs in the Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. This 68 year old field was approaching its economic limit and the leases evaluated would have been abandoned in 10 years. A multidisciplinary approach to waterflood design and implementation, along with the addition of reserves by selective infill drilling and deepening, is being applied to this field. This approach in reservoir development will be applicable to a wide range of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs throughout the US. The first phase of the project included the design, acquisition, and interpretation of the 3D seismic survey, the collection and evaluation of geologic (core and log) data, and engineering (historical production, well test, injection) data from a variety of sources. From this work, a geologically based production history model was simulated. Based on the recommendations made at the end of Phase One, three new wells were drilled, one existing well was deepened, two wells were worked over, one TA`d well was re-entered, and one well was converted to injection. In addition, the quality of the injection water was greatly improved, a step necessary prior to increasing injection in the project area. The realignment of the waterflood and all additional well work await the completion of the seismic based history match and engineering simulation.

Trentham, R.C.; Weinbrandt, R.; Robinson, W.

1997-12-01

25

The social construction of bath in two communities temazcal of the mixteca region: Santiago Yolomecatl and San Andres Chicahuaxtla  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The bathroom of temazcal is a knowledge of pre-Hispanic roots still practiced in rural and indigenous communities in our country. Studies on the temazcal have focused on its forms of construction and operation, however, the many therapeutic benefits temazcal bath attached to the human body, and women in particular, not have been sufficiently documented. In this case, two communities of the Oaxacan mixteca were studied: Santiago Yolomecatl and San Andrés Chicahuaxtla. In this study, a questionnaire was applied to 20 per cent of families in each of the communities, a questionnaire to allopathic doctors and six stories of life at temazcaleras. The results indicate a coincidence between patients and doctors in the study populations on the medicinal uses of the temazcal bath: after childbirth and for muscle aches, however, interviewed temazcaleras indicate diseases that cures this bath are: angina, flu, rheumatism,scars, muscle aches after childbirth and cramping. For its part, doctors support the idea of preserving the temazcal bath because it is a healing means to treat diseases through steam and faster recovery of the body. The constructivist analysis of the responses gathered in questionnaires and life stories shows that the medicinal uses of the temazcal, before being recognised as such go through a process of evaluation, filtration and social construction. This process of acceptance, perception and recognition occurs through rules of knowledge, ideological connotations, rules and socialsymbols.

Alberto Valdés Cobos

2013-01-01

26

Etnomapa: Uso de los recursos naturales por los mayas itzaes de San José y San Andrés del Petén, Guatemala / Ethnomap: use of natural resources by the mayan itzaes of San Jose and San Andres, Peten, Guatemala  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El artículo analiza la riqueza e importancia del concepto de etnomapa, como herramienta de análisis cultural y espacial por medio de un mapa elaborado por pobladores mayas itzaes de dos asentamientos localizados en el Petén, Guatemala. El estudio se llevó a cabo entre octubre 2006 y septiembre de 20 [...] 07, se completó con la aplicación de encuestas mediante muestreo proporcional a unidades familiares itzaes de dos poblados del Petén central, San José (n = 40) y San Andrés (n = 22). A través de la interpretación de la información y mediante el enfoque de sistemas, se logró dilucidar los componentes agrícolas y los recursos naturales que practican y utilizan los mayas en ambas localidades. Los resultados hallados sugieren que los sistemas agrícolas y de utilización de los bosques tropicales húmedos practicados por los itzaes, representan una actividad económica importante, caracterizada por una amplia utilización de especies agrícolas y naturales. Estas actividades representan una base de recursos fundamental para los itzaes. Las características de estos sistemas son comparables a los encontrados en otros estudios en diferentes grupos mayas confirmando la diversidad de posibilidades de los modelos de adaptación y manejo de recursos de los itzaes. La creación del etnomapa valida del profundo conocimiento local, de la distribución territorial de los recursos naturales y antropogénicos. Se posibilita además el analizar los cambios que enfrentan los poblados itzaes, debido a las presiones socioeconómicas y tecnológicas que se desarrollan actualmente en la región del Petén central de Guatemala. Abstract in english This article analyses the richness and importance of the concept of the ethnomap, as a tool for cultural and spatial analyses, based on a map prepared by mayan Itzae inhabitants of two communities located in El Petén, Guatemala. The study took place between October 2006 and September 2007, and inclu [...] ded surveys carried out with a proportional sampling of Itzae family units in two settlements of the central Petén, San José (n = 40) and San Andrés (n = 22). A systems theory was applied in the analysis and interpretation of the data, resulting in the definition of the agricultural components and the natural resources that the Mayas use in the two communities. Findings suggest that the agricultural and tropical forest activities carried out by the Itzaes represent important economic activities, characterised by the use of a wide range of natural and agricultural species. These activities represent a fundamental resource base for the Itzae-maya population. The characteristics of these systems are comparable to those recorded by other studies on different Maya groups, confirming the diversity of possibilities for the adaptation and resource management models of the Itzaes. The ethnomap validates the profound local knowledge of the territorial distribution of anthropogenic and natural resources. It also makes it possible to analyse the changes facing the local Itzae populations, following the socioeconomic and technological pressures that are present in the central Petén region of Guatemala.

E, Lara Ponce; L, Caso-Barrera; M, Aliphat; B, Ramírez; A, Gil; G, García.

2012-08-01

27

Identidades ambientales, un caso comparativo entre el Trapecio amazónico y el Archipiélago de San Andrés: A Comparative Case Study of the Colombian Amazon region and the Archipelago of San Andrés / Environmental Identities / Identidades ambientais, um caso comparativo entre o Trapézio amazônico e o Arquipélago de San Andrés  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Resumo A partir da definição de identidade ambiental, o artigo compara os processos de transformação identitária que vêm ganhando lugar no Trapézio amazônico colombiano e no Arquipélago de San Andrés, por serem dois casos de redefinição histórica da etnicidade com referência ao meio geográfico, ao e [...] ncontro com a colombianidade, à agudização do discurso e às tensões que os capitais e os agentes institucionais ao redor do tradicional. Analisa-se o crescente turismo, a influência das agências de cooperação e seus efeitos no deslocamento do sagrado a uma "cultura teatral". Abstract in spanish Resumen A partir de la definición de identidad ambiental, el artículo compara los procesos de transformación identitaria que han tenido lugar en el Trapecio amazónico colombiano y en el Archipiélago de San Andrés, por cuanto son dos casos de redefinición histórica de la etnicidad con referencia al m [...] edio geográfico, al encuentro con la colombianidad, a la agudización del discurso y a las tensiones que los capitales y los agentes institucionales generan en torno a lo tradicional. Se analiza el creciente turismo, la influencia de las agencias de cooperación y sus efectos en el desplazamiento de lo sagrado hacia una "cultura teatral". Abstract in english Abstract The article compares the processes of identity transformation in the Colombian Amazon region and the Archipelago of San Andrés on the basis of the definition of environmental identity. These two cases illustrate the historical redefinition of ethnicity with respect to geographical environme [...] nt, the encounter with what it means to be Colombian, the intensification of discourse, and the tensions generated by the financial capital and the institutional agents around the traditions. The paper also discusses the growth of tourism, the influence of cooperation agencies, and their effects on the shift from the sacred toward a "theatrical culture".

Pablo, De La Cruz.

2014-01-01

28

First report of Anagyrus kamali Moursi and Gyranusoidea indica Shafee, Alam and Agarwal (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), parasitoids of the pink hibiscus mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on San Andres Island, Colombia / Primer reporte de Anagyrus kamali Moursi y Gyranusoidea indica Shafee, Alam y Agarwal (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), parasitoides de la cochinilla rosada del hibisco Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) en la isla de San Andres, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se reporta por primera vez la presencia de Anagyrus kamali Moursi y Gyranusoidea indica Shafee, Alam y Agarwal (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), parasitoides de la cochinilla rosada del hibisco (CRH), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) en la Isla de San Andrés, Colombia. Se provee [...] n notas breves para diferenciar las dos especies de parasitoides. Abstract in english Here we report for the first time the presence of Anagyrus kamali Moursi and Gyranusoidea indica Shafee, Alam and Agarwal (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), parasitoids of the pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on San Andres Island, Colombia. Brief no [...] tes are provided to allow differentiation of the two parasitoid species.

Evans, Gregory; Takumasa, Kondo; María Fernanda, Maya-Álvarez; Lilliana María, Hoyos-Carvajal; John Albeiro, Quiroz; Marcela, Silva-Gómez.

2012-12-01

29

Major Andre  

Science.gov (United States)

If most Revolutionary era people seem two-dimensional their lives simpler to understand than ours, it may be only that history, with the benefit of hindsight, clarifies. Examines a profile of Major John Andre, the British liaison officer in Benedict Arnold's plan to surrender West Point, as both hero and villain to show the complexity of early…

Henisch, B. A.; Henisch, H. K.

1976-01-01

30

DINOFLAGELADOS POTENCIALMENTE TÓXICOS ASOCIADOS A MATERIAL ORGÁNICO FLOTANTE (DRIFT) EN SAN ANDRÉS ISLA, RESERVA INTERNACIONAL DE LA BIOSFERA - SEAFLOWER / Potentially toxic Dinoflagellates associated to drift in San Andres Island, International Biosphere Reservation - Seaflower  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el propósito de evaluar la abundancia y la composición de dinoflagelados potencialmente tóxicos asociados al material orgánico flotante (drift) en la isla de San Andrés, se seleccionaron siete sitios de muestreo a lo largo de la margen Norte y Este, paralelos a la barrera arrecifal y a las princ [...] ipales praderas de fanerógamas marinas y macroalgas de la isla. Durante la época de mayor intensidad de vientos, se recolectaron muestras de drift; se identificaron los sustratos a especie y posteriormente se sumergieron en solución 1:1 agua de mar filtrada y solución de Transeau. Luego de agitar vigorosamente las muestras para remover los dinoflagelados, se tamizo la suspensión con una malla de 80 µm y el filtrado se observó al microscopio óptico. Se encontraron cinco sustratos, dos especies de pastos marinos y tres de macroalgas. Sobre los sustratos se identificaron doce especies de dinoflagelados, diez reportadas como tóxicas, causantes de diarrea, parálisis y ciguatera. La abundancia de dinoflagelados varió ampliamente con promedios máximos (±DE) de 15 354±15 749 células/g peso seco de sustrato. De las especies de dinoflagelados, cinco son nuevos registros para San Andrés. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en los valores de diversidad de dinoflagelados entre drift y praderas de pastos y macroalgas, no obstante, la abundancia fue mucho mayor en el drift. Los resultados indican que el drift es un importante sustrato para dinoflagelados y dada su naturaleza flotante, representa tal vez el vector más importante para la dispersión de estos agentes de toxicidad en la isla. Para mitigar el efecto de eventos tóxicos asociados a dinoflagelados en salud pública, pesca y turismo, es necesario diseñar un plan de manejo del material orgánico flotante, que permita mejorar el entendimiento de su composición y dinámica temporal, monitorear las toxinas asociadas e implementar mecanismos de recolección y tratamiento. Abstract in english To assess the composition and abundance of potentially toxic dinoflagellates associated to drift on San Andres island, we selected seven sampling sites along the northern and eastern side of the island. During the wind season, we collected drift samples, identified the main substrates to species, an [...] d submerged them in 1:1 filtered seawater and Transeau solution. After shaking to remove the dinoflagellates, we sieved through an 80 µm screen and analyzed the detached dinoflagellates under an optical microscope. We found five substrates, two seagrass species and three macroalgae. Associated to these substrates, we identified twelve dinoflagellates species, ten of which are reported as toxic and are known to produce diarrhea, paralysis and ciguatera, syndromes reported in San Andrés and other Caribbean places where their frequency is apparently increasing. The dinoflagellate abundance presented strong variation with maximum average values (±SD) of 15354±15749 cel. /g of substrate dry weight. Five of the dinoflagellates associated to drift are new records for the island. We did not found significant differences in diversity of benthic dinoflagellates between drift and seagrass and macroalgae beds; however, the abundance was much higher in drift. The results showed that drift is a very important substrate for potentially toxic dinoflagellates and, considering its buoyant nature, it may represent one of the main dispersion vectors for these species on the island. To mitigate the effect of intoxication events on public health, fisheries and tourism, it is necessary to design a floating organic material management plan, improve the understanding of drift composition and its temporal dynamics, as well as to monitor associated toxins and pursue collection and treatment mechanisms of the floating biomass.

JOSÉ ERNESTO, MANCERA-PINEDA; MARCIAL, MONTALVO-TALAIGUA; BRIGITTE, GAVIO.

2014-06-30

31

COMPOSICIÓN Y DENSIDAD DE CORALES JUVENILES EN DOS ARRECIFES PROFUNDOS DE SAN ANDRÉS ISLA, CARIBE COLOMBIANO / Composition and density of juvenile corals at two deep reefs in San Andres Island, Colombian Caribbean  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El reclutamiento de corales en un arrecife determina el mantenimiento, la renovación y la estructura futura de las comunidades coralinas. Con el objeto de conocer la composición, densidad y el valor de importancia de corales juveniles escleractínios ([...] estrearon dos localidades (Reggae Nest y El Faro) en la terraza profunda de sotavento, a 20 m de profundidad, en la isla de San Andrés. Así mismo, se cuantificó la frecuencia de mortalidad parcial, total, enfermedades y signos de depredación en los juveniles, en 47 cuadrantes de 1m², distribuidos a lo largo de una cuerda guía. Se registró un total de 397 juveniles coralinos pertenecientes a 16 especies. La densidad promedio y riqueza de juveniles no mostraron diferencias significativas entre Reggae Nest y El Faro. La densidad promedio de las localidades fue alta respecto a lo registrado en arrecifes colombianos y baja en relación a otros arrecifes del Caribe. Las especies con valores de importancia mayores, Agaricia agaricites, Scolymia sp. y Porites astreoides, aportaron el 54.9 % de todos los juveniles, lo que concuerda con lo hallado en otros arrecifes del Caribe. Los géneros de juveniles con mayor densidad, cobertura y frecuencia no concordaron con los adultos dominantes (ej. Montastraea, Colpophyllia, Diploria y Siderastrea); ya que M. annularis y Diploria sp. exhibieron los valores más bajos de importancia como juveniles. Las comunidades coralinas de Reggae Nest y El Faro, deterioradas en las últimas décadas, podría recuperarse naturalmente, teniendo en cuenta la siguiente evidencia: 1) alta densidad de corales juveniles respecto al Caribe colombiano; 2) alta riqueza de juveniles, representados en 16 de las 23 especies de corales adultos registrados para la isla; 3) alto porcentaje de especies comunes entre juveniles y adultos (mantenimiento de cada población); 4) bajos porcentajes de mortalidad parcial (0.7 %; 3 juveniles de 397) y de blanqueamiento encontrados en los juveniles (0.5 %; 2 juveniles de 397). Queda aún por comprobar, la sobrevivencia a largo plazo, si estos juveniles son de especies fugitivas o si la comunidad de constructores está siendo reemplazada. Abstract in english Coral reef recruitment is a fundamental process because it determines the maintenance, renovation and future reef structure. In order to determine the composition, density and importance value of scleractinian juvenile corals ([...] ampled (Reggae Nest and El Faro) at the deep leeward terrace site of San Andres Island. In adittion, in 47 quadrants of 1m² distributed throughout a guide line, frequency of partial mortality, total diseases and depredation signs in juvenile corals were quantified. A total of 397 juveniles of 16 species were registered. The average density and richness of juveniles were not significantly different between Reggae Nest and El Faro. The average density of both localities was high compared to other colombian reefs and lower compared to other reefs in the Caribbean. The species with higher importance value, Agaricia agaricites, Scolymia sp. and Porites astreoides, represented 54.9% of all juveniles, similar to other Caribbean reefs. The genera of juveniles with higher importance value were not the same as the dominant adults (ej. Montastraea, Colpophyllia, Diploria and Siderastrea); which showed the lowest importance value as juveniles (Montastraea annularis and Diploria sp.). The coral communities of Reggae Nest and El Faro, deteriorated in the last decades, could recover naturally, considering the following evidence: 1) high juvenile coral density compared to the Colombian Caribbean; 2) high richness of juveniles, 16 from the 23 coral adults species reported for the island; 3) high percentage of common species between juveniles and adults (maintenance of each population); 4) low partial mortality (0.7%; 3 of 397 juveniles) and bleaching found in juvenile corals (0.5%; 2 juveniles of 397). It is still to verify if these juveniles are fugitive species or if the co

Andrés M, Vidal; Claudia M, Villamil; Alberto, Acosta.

2005-12-01

32

Reading the archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [First paragraph] A History of Literature in the Caribbean, Volume 3: Cross-Cultural Studies. JAMES A. ARNOLD (ed.. Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1997. xvii + 399 pp. (Cloth US$ 120.00 The Other America: Caribbean Literature in a New World Context. J. MICHAEL DASH. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1998. xii + 197 pp. (Cloth US$ 42.50, Paper US$ 18.50 In his most recent theoretical work, Traite du Tout-Monde, Edouard Glissant stresses the virtues of what he calls "archipelagic thinking." "The entire world is becoming an archipelago," he asserts (1997:194, and for this reason we need to distance ourselves from both insular and continental ways of thinking if we are to register the complexities of that global creolization process. The archipelago is situated between the solitary confines of the islands that constitute it and the expansive territory of the mainland toward which it points, relating the one to the other while retaining its own indeterminately distinct identity. For Glissant, actual archipelagos such as the Caribbean are exemplary sites for understanding the complex new relations that ambivalently and chaotically join together all the hitherto unconnected parts of the world. As a consequence of this, the need for understanding the Caribbean as an archipelago becomes ever more pressing: the Caribbean must be considered in its archipelagic totality, as a region that can only be adequately understood through comparative, cross-cultural analysis focusing less on its discrete parts than on the way these parts exist in relation with and to one another.

Chris Bongie

1999-01-01

33

Canary Island Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

This nearly vertical view of the Canary Archipelago (28.5N, 16.5W) shows five of the seven islands: Grand Canary, Tenerife, Gomera, Hierro and La Palma. The largest island in view is Tenerife. Island cloud wakes evident in this photo are the result of southerly winds giving rise to cloud banks on the lee side especially on Tenerife which has the highest volcanic peaks. Island water wakes and internal waves are also evident but not as apparent.

1989-01-01

34

Valoración económica del buceo como estrategia de uso sostenible de la biodiversidad marina, Archipielago de San Andres y Providencia, Caribe Colombiano.  

OpenAIRE

El buceo es un uso alternativo y no consuntivo de la biodiversidad marina que, debidamente practicado, tiene bajo impacto ambiental, estimula la conservación de los arrecifes y es una opción económica para habitantes de áreas arrecifales o con potencial para el buceo. El archipiélago de San Andrés, Providencia y Santa Catalina, declarado por UNESCO Reserva Mundial de la Biosfera Seafl ower, con 65.000 km2 de Áreas Marinas Protegidas y un extenso complejo arrecifal coralino, tiene condi...

James Cruz. Johannie L.; Márquez Calle Germán

2011-01-01

35

Evolución de la arquitectura fluvial en sucesiones del Plioceno-Pleistoceno del centro-este de Argentina (aloformación Punta San Andres)  

OpenAIRE

Los depósitos de la Aloformación Punta San Andrés (Plio-Pleistoceno), registran la evolución de diferentes estilos de sistemas fluviales. Durante la primera etapa de la misma evolución, se desarrollaron sistemas de carga mixta, con canales de baja sinuosidad y alta participación de depósitos de planicie de inundación. Durante la segunda etapa, se verificó el cambio hacia un sistema de canales de mayor sinuosidad, entrelazados, donde los depósitos de planicie de inundación no tuvier...

Elisa Beilinson

2012-01-01

36

Debüüt ? Debüüt ! / Andres Keil  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Linnateatri näitleja Indres Sammuli esimene lavastajatöö - 2. juunil esietendus Linnateatri lavaaugus Jaan Tätte "Kaev", kunstnik Iir Hermeliin. Mängivad Andres Raag, Allan Noormets ja Ursula Ratassepp

Keil, Andres, 1974-

2006-01-01

37

Andres Ehin Jaapanist Iirini  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Andres Ehin valiti Ülemaailmse Haiku Assotsiatsiooni auliikmeks ja kirjaniku inglisekeelset luulekogu "Moose Beetle Swallow" esitleti 2005. aasta Euroopa kultuuripealinnas Corkis Iirimaal. Järgneb: Looming 2006, nr. 2, lk. 311

2006-01-01

38

Pulverized Fault Zone Rocks along the San Andres Fault: Investigating the damage pattern by seismic field measurements, laboratory experiments and quantitative microstructure analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulverized Fault Zone Rocks have been investigated in various studies at the San Andreas Fault, California, describing their distribution and physical characteristics. These mainly crystalline plutonic or metamorphic rocks have been mechanically pulverized to the micron or finer scale. Most of their original fabric is preserved which shows that no significant shearing has taken place. Field observations describe an asymmetry of the rock damage across the fault and also a decrease in damage with increasing distance from the fault. Such damage patterns are thought to be caused by slip on a bimaterial interface during repeated earthquake ruptures. Different elastic properties across the fault result in strong dynamic stress reductions and a preferred rupture propagation direction. In such cases, the most intense damage occurs in the primary tensional quadrant of the seismic radiation field of the travelling rupture, explaining the common observation that the high damage is found only on one side of the fault. We performed shallow seismic velocity measurements and quantitative damage measurements across the active trace of the San Andreas Fault near the town of Little Rock over a range of scales, in order to quantify the damage pattern and attempt to correlate it with physical parameters such as the p-wave-velocity obtained from laboratory experiments.

Rempe, M.; Mitchell, T. M.; Renner, J.; Nippress, S.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Okaya, D. A.; Rockwell, T. K.; Allam, A. A.; Ozakin, Y.; Xu, S.

2010-12-01

39

Evolución de la arquitectura fluvial en sucesiones del Plioceno-Pleistoceno del centro-este de Argentina (aloformación Punta San Andres  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los depósitos de la Aloformación Punta San Andrés (Plio-Pleistoceno, registran la evolución de diferentes estilos de sistemas fluviales. Durante la primera etapa de la misma evolución, se desarrollaron sistemas de carga mixta, con canales de baja sinuosidad y alta participación de depósitos de planicie de inundación. Durante la segunda etapa, se verificó el cambio hacia un sistema de canales de mayor sinuosidad, entrelazados, donde los depósitos de planicie de inundación no tuvieron tanto protagonismo. Finalmente, la tercera etapa se caracterizó por el desarrollo de un sistema fluvial entrelazado clásico, sin preservación de depósitos de planicie de inundación. Durante la acumulación de la Aloformación Punta San Andrés, la glacioeustacia en asociación con el clima condicionó directamente el balance entre la tasa de generación de acomodación y el aporte sedimentario. Sin embargo, el análisis comparativo de los diversos índices e indicadores (arquitectura fluvial, paleosuelos, etc. ha mostrado una variabilidad para los sistemas bajo estudio la cual puede asignarse a diferentes jerarquías de procesos. De esta manera, se identificaron ciclos de agradación fluvial representados por una alternancia de alta frecuencia entre paleosuelos vérticos y cálcicos. En este caso las fluctuaciones en el nivel de base fueron las responsables de los cambios cíclicos en la tasa de generación de espacio de acomodación y de aporte sedimentario. La evolución de los sistemas depositacionales identificados puede asignarse a ciclos de mayor jerarquía, los cuales controlaron el diseño del drenaje mediante cambios en el espacio de acomodación y representan cambios en la tasa de generación de espacio de acomodación relacionados a cambios glacieustáticos de escala global.The deposits of the Punta San Andrés Alloformation (Plio-Pleistocene register the evolution of different styles of fluvial systems. During the first stage of this evolution, a mixed-load system was developed which included low-sinuosity channels and a high participation of floodplain deposits. During the second stage the system shifted towards a higher sinuosity, braided fluvial system where the floodplain deposits didn't have so much participation. Finally, the third stage was characterized by the development of a classic braided fluvial system, without any preservation of floodplain deposits. During the Punta San Andrés Alloformation accummulation, glaci-eustatic changes and climate exerted a fundamental control on the balance between generation of accommodation space rate and sedimentary supply. Nevertheless, comparative analysis of the diverse indicators (fluvial architecture, paleosols, etc. has shown a strong variability for the studied depositional systems that can be assigned to different process hierarchies. In this way, fluvial aggradational cycles are represented by high-frequency alternation between calcic and vertic paleosols. In this case, base level fluctuations were responsible for the cyclic accommodation rate - sediment supply change. The evolution of the identified depositional systems can be assigned to higher-order cycles, which controlled drainage design by changes in accommodation space and represents changes in the rate of generation of accommodation space linked to glaci-eustatic changes at a global scale.

Elisa Beilinson

2012-12-01

40

Evolución de la arquitectura fluvial en sucesiones del Plioceno-Pleistoceno del centro-este de Argentina (aloformación Punta San Andres)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los depósitos de la Aloformación Punta San Andrés (Plio-Pleistoceno), registran la evolución de diferentes estilos de sistemas fluviales. Durante la primera etapa de la misma evolución, se desarrollaron sistemas de carga mixta, con canales de baja sinuosidad y alta participación de depósitos de plan [...] icie de inundación. Durante la segunda etapa, se verificó el cambio hacia un sistema de canales de mayor sinuosidad, entrelazados, donde los depósitos de planicie de inundación no tuvieron tanto protagonismo. Finalmente, la tercera etapa se caracterizó por el desarrollo de un sistema fluvial entrelazado clásico, sin preservación de depósitos de planicie de inundación. Durante la acumulación de la Aloformación Punta San Andrés, la glacioeustacia en asociación con el clima condicionó directamente el balance entre la tasa de generación de acomodación y el aporte sedimentario. Sin embargo, el análisis comparativo de los diversos índices e indicadores (arquitectura fluvial, paleosuelos, etc.) ha mostrado una variabilidad para los sistemas bajo estudio la cual puede asignarse a diferentes jerarquías de procesos. De esta manera, se identificaron ciclos de agradación fluvial representados por una alternancia de alta frecuencia entre paleosuelos vérticos y cálcicos. En este caso las fluctuaciones en el nivel de base fueron las responsables de los cambios cíclicos en la tasa de generación de espacio de acomodación y de aporte sedimentario. La evolución de los sistemas depositacionales identificados puede asignarse a ciclos de mayor jerarquía, los cuales controlaron el diseño del drenaje mediante cambios en el espacio de acomodación y representan cambios en la tasa de generación de espacio de acomodación relacionados a cambios glacieustáticos de escala global. Abstract in english The deposits of the Punta San Andrés Alloformation (Plio-Pleistocene) register the evolution of different styles of fluvial systems. During the first stage of this evolution, a mixed-load system was developed which included low-sinuosity channels and a high participation of floodplain deposits. Duri [...] ng the second stage the system shifted towards a higher sinuosity, braided fluvial system where the floodplain deposits didn't have so much participation. Finally, the third stage was characterized by the development of a classic braided fluvial system, without any preservation of floodplain deposits. During the Punta San Andrés Alloformation accummulation, glaci-eustatic changes and climate exerted a fundamental control on the balance between generation of accommodation space rate and sedimentary supply. Nevertheless, comparative analysis of the diverse indicators (fluvial architecture, paleosols, etc.) has shown a strong variability for the studied depositional systems that can be assigned to different process hierarchies. In this way, fluvial aggradational cycles are represented by high-frequency alternation between calcic and vertic paleosols. In this case, base level fluctuations were responsible for the cyclic accommodation rate - sediment supply change. The evolution of the identified depositional systems can be assigned to higher-order cycles, which controlled drainage design by changes in accommodation space and represents changes in the rate of generation of accommodation space linked to glaci-eustatic changes at a global scale.

Elisa, Beilinson.

2012-12-01

41

Valoración económica del buceo como estrategia de uso sostenible de la biodiversidad marina, Archipielago de San Andres y Providencia, Caribe Colombiano.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El buceo es un uso alternativo y no consuntivo de la biodiversidad marina que, debidamente practicado, tiene bajo impacto ambiental, estimula la conservación de los arrecifes y es una opción económica para habitantes de áreas arrecifales o con potencial para el buceo. El archipiélago de San Andrés, Providencia y Santa Catalina, declarado por UNESCO Reserva Mundial de la Biosfera Seafl ower, con 65.000 km2 de Áreas Marinas Protegidas y un extenso complejo arrecifal coralino, tiene condiciones para convertirse en un sitio de buceo de nivel mundial. Sin embargo, es poco conocido. Esta investigación analiza el potencial económico del buceo en esta región y lo compara con el de sitios muy reconocidos como Bonaire y Gran Caimán. Mediante análisis de la disponibilidad a pagar de buzos visitantes, se intenta valorar el buceo y se caracteriza el tipo de buzos que vienen al archipiélago. Se encontró disposición a pagar cifras superiores a las que se paga actualmente en otras partes del Caribe. Con un potencial estimado en $241 millones de dólares de ingresos anuales, el buceo es una interesante alternativa de desarrollo económico sostenible para estas islas que, a pesar de recibir 360.000 turistas al año, aún presentan un 66.9% de pobreza y altos niveles de desempleo.

James Cruz. Johannie L.

2011-11-01

42

Graafikatriennaali peapreemia Andres Talile  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Tallinna XII graafikatriennaali preemiad: grand prix - Andres Tali; 3 võrdset preemiat - Janne Laine, Leonards Laganovskis, Peeter Laurits; diplomid - Lynne Allen, Lucrecia Urbano, Vladimir Tshaika, Zora Stanè, Endi Poskovic, Päivikki Kallio; EKM preemia - Tif Bitmap; Tallinna linna preemia - Ülle Marks ja Jüri Kass; eripreemiad: - J. Laine (Eesti Pank), Vive Tolli (Paletti Eesti AS), Martins Ratniksh, Juris Boiko, T. Bitmap (Balteco AS). Žürii koosseis

2001-01-01

43

La Biblioteca Max von Buch de la Universidad de San Andrés y sus investigadores: Segunda parte de Un estudio de las necesidades de información, hábitos y características de Investigadores en Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales / The Max von Buch library of the Universidad de San Andres and its researchers: Second part of A study of the information needs, habits and characteristics of Humanities and Social Science Researchers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Tal como fue mencionado en el artículo anterior el presente estudio fue elaborado con el propósito de entender e identificar las necesidades, el proceso de búsqueda de información, las características y los hábitos de los investigadores en Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad de San And [...] rés (UdeSA). En esta segunda parte del mismo se ha intentado identificar y evaluar su conducta en la Biblioteca Max von Buch de la Universidad a través del uso de los servicios que ésta les ofrece. Se ponen a consideración los resultados de una encuesta realizada, de la que se adjunta la segunda parte del formulario, con el fin de detectar sus necesidades de información. Abstract in english As mentioned in the previous article, the present study was conducted to understand and identify the characteristics, needs and habits of research from the Humanities and Social Sciences researchers at the Universidad de San Andres (UdeSA). This second part tries to identify and evaluate their perfo [...] rmance at the Max von Buch library of the University through the services that it provides them. The results of the survey are presented, together with the second part of the questionnaire, with the aim of identifying information needs.

Irene, Münster.

2003-12-01

44

Regional Oceanography of the Philippine Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Confined by the intricate configuration of the Philippine Archipelago, forced by the monsoonal climate and tides, responding to the remote forcing from the open Pacific and adjacent seas of Southeast Asia, the internal Philippine seas present a challenging environment to both observe and model. The Philippine Experiment (PhilEx observations reported here provide a view of the regional oceanography for specific periods. Interaction with the western Pacific occurs by way of the shallow San Bernardino and Surigao straits. More significant interaction occurs via Mindoro and Panay straits with the South China Sea, which is connected to the open Pacific through Luzon Strait. The Mindoro/Panay throughflow reaches into the Sulu Sea and adjacent Bohol and Sibuyan seas via the Verde Island Passage and the straits of Tablas and Dipolog. The deep, isolated basins are ventilated by flow over confining topographic sills, causing upward displacement of older residence water, made more buoyant by vertical mixing, which is then exported to surrounding seas to close the overturning circulation circuit.

Arnold L. Gordon

2011-03-01

45

Surface Ocean Circulation and Dynamics in the Philippine Archipelago Region  

Science.gov (United States)

The dynamics of the seasonal surface circulation in the Philippine Archipelago (117E-128E, 0N-14N) are investigated using a high-resolution Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) for the period of 2004 - March 2008. Three experiments are performed to estimate the relative importance of local, remote and tidal forcing. On annual mean, circulation in the Sulu Sea is dominated by the inflow from the South China Sea at the Mindoro and Balabac Straits, outflow into the Sulawesi Sea at the Sibutu Passage, and cyclonic circulation in the Sulu basin. A strong jet forms in the northeast Sulu Sea when currents from the Mindoro and Tablas Straits converge. Within the Archipelago, strong westward currents in the Bohol Sea carry the western Pacific (WP) Water from the Surigao Strait into the Sulu Sea via the Dipolog Strait. In the Sibuyan Sea, currents flow westward, which carry part of the WP water from the San Bernardino Strait into the Sulu Sea via the Tablas Strait. The surface circulations exhibit strong seasonal variations or reversals from winter to summer. The variations of volume transports above 40m at the Mindoro Strait, Balabac Strait and Sibutu Passage of the Sulu Sea and at the Verde Island Passage are dominated by remote forcing, although local forcing can be large sometimes. At the Tablas and Dipolog Straits, variations of transports result from both remote and local forcing. The cyclonic (anticyclonic) gyres during winter (summer) in the Sulu Sea and seasonally reversing currents in the Archipelago result mainly from local forcing. Nonlinear rectification of tides acts to reduce the mean transports at the Surigao, San Bernardino and Dipolog Straits, and it also affects the Sulu Sea circulation perhaps by tidal mixing and shifting the locations of jets and eddies.

Han, W.; Moore, A. M.; Levin, J.; Zhang, B.; Arango, H. G.; Curchitser, E.; di Lorenzo, E.; Gordon, A. L.; Lin, J.

2008-12-01

46

Konrad Mäe auhind Andres Toltsile  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

9. novembril antakse Kadrioru Kunstimuuseumis Andres Toltsile pidulikult üle Konrad Mäe nimeline maalikunsti aastapreemia (50000 krooni) "esteetilise suuna pikaajalise tulemusliku viljelemise eest maalikunstis", näituste "Näitus" ja "Asjad" eest

2009-01-01

47

Interview with Andre Beteille  

OpenAIRE

Andre Beteille speaks of his childhood and natural inclination to anthropology, his training, fieldwork in Dehli and the influence of his supervisor, M.N. Srinivas. His work on equality and inequality in human societies and publications on such, esp the caste system. He relflects on and analyses the work of Dumont, as well as Marxism, Hinduism and Islam. He cites those who have influenced him and his work, and closes with an overview of his current interests in Nationalism and tribal identi...

Beteille, Andre; Macfarlane, Alan; Jacobs, Julian

2004-01-01

48

A conjecture of Yves Andre  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we prove, assuming the Generalised Riemann Hypothesis, a conjecture of Yves Andre that that asserts that a curve in a Shimura variety containing an infinite set of special points is of Hodge type.

Yafaev, Andrei

2003-01-01

49

Island Movements: Thinking with the Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Whether in Homer or Plato, Shakespeare or Huxley, throughout history, thinking about islands has shaped how we think about human nature and our place in the world. However, to date archipelagos have received far less attention. This is problematic because we live, increasingly, in a world of island-island movements and not static forms. Not only in the more obvious cases of the Caribbean, Hawaii or the Philippines but, as Stratford et al (2011 say, many ‘continental forms’ like Canada and Australia are in fact archipelagos composed of thousands of island movements. To this list we can add more manufactured archipelagos: wind turbine arrays, industrial oil and military constellations. The key question therefore arises: what does it mean to think with the archipelago? This paper argues firstly that archipelagic thinking denaturalizes the conceptual basis of space and place, and therefore engages ‘the spatial turn’ presently sweeping the social sciences and humanities. Secondly, such thinking highlights the trope of what I call ‘metamorphosis’, of the adaptation and transformation of material, cultural and political practices through island movements. In both cases, I argue that thinking with the archipelago requires an important shift in how we frame analysis and engagement.

Jonathan Pugh

2013-05-01

50

Cossidae of the Socotra Archipelago (Yemen  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The taxonomy of the family Cossidae (Lepidoptera of the Socotra Archipelago is revised. Five species are recognized, including two new species (Mormogystia brandstetteri and Meharia hackeri, and dubious identifications and records are discussed. Adults and genitalia are illustrated and bionomic details, molecular evidence and a synonymic checklist of Socotra Cossidae genera is provided. A review of their distribution reveals that at least 80 percent of Socotro`s Cossidae species are unique to the archipelago which is renowned for its endemism.

Aidas Saldaitis

2011-08-01

51

Eesti keset Vilniust / Andres Kurg  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Eesti saatkond Vilniuses. Saatkonnahoone arhitektuurivõistluse võitsid ja hoone projekteerisid arhitektuuribüroo Kolm Pluss Üks arhitektid Markus Kaasik, Andres Ojari, Inga Raukas, Ilmar Valdur. Maja valmis 1998. a. veebruaris. Ehitas Merko Ehitus. Arhitektuurist, sisekujundusest. Võrdlus shveitslaste Herzogi ja de Meuroni ning Peter Zumthori loominguga.

Kurg, Andres, 1975-

1998-01-01

52

Water exchange of the Stockholm archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The Stockholm archipelago spans roughly a semicircular area with a radius of approximately 60 km, traditionally partitioned into three parts: the inner, the middle and the outer archipelago. The two innermost parts are characterized by a set of comparatively larger basins, interconnected by a limited number of straits. A discrete basin (DB-) model is obtained by partitioning the area into a set of presently 57 sub-basins according to 101 delimiting straits that may be silled or not. The resulting model configuration thus encompasses a set of hydraulically coupled 1-dimensional (1D) basins that are only resolved vertically with layers of arbitrary thickness. The advantage of this approach over employing a 3D-model of the entire area is the possibility for enhanced vertical resolution and improved strait exchange formulations, making it possible to distinguish between controlled/non-controlled and rotational/non-rotational regimes. For ecological time-scales of about one day, this approach outweighs the disadvantage of neglected horizontal gradients within the basins. In the inner archipelago the dominating exchange process is estuarine circulation, induced by a marked freshwater discharge and the vertical mixing. In the outer and middle archipelagos the density fluctuations due to Ekman pumping along the Baltic boundary interface produce another type of baroclinic process that clearly dominates. Measurements to adequately resolve these density variations do not exist. Missing forcing data are provided by linking the middle archipelago’s boundary straits to a 3D-model of the Baltic with a grid resolution of 0.5 nautical miles (n.m.). This fine resolution model (FR-domain) is in turn driven by the atmospheric forcing and the density variation at the rectangular boundary of the FR-domain which acceptably resolves both the interfacial straits and the outer archipelago's complex hypsography. Massive computing resources would be demanded if the FR-domain were extended to comprise the entire Baltic. The FR-domain is thus interfaced with an existing coarse resolution model of the entire Baltic (CR-domain) with a grid size of 5 n.m., the open boundary of which is located in the Kattegat. This 3-fold model setup is being run for ten years (starting 1990) to obtain sufficient data for a thorough validation versus S-&T-measurements, comparatively sparse in time and space.

Engqvist, A.; Andrejev, O.

2003-04-01

53

Andres Ehin tähistas sünnipäeva raamatuesitlusega / Maire Kõrver  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Andres Ehin esitles oma luulekogu "Põdrapõrnikapääsukene" ja selle ingliskeelset tõlget "Moose Beetle Swallow" oma sünnipäeval Iiri suursaadiku residentsis, kus oli kohal ka luulekogu tõlkija, Iiri luuletaja Patrick Cotter

Kõrver, Maire, 1961-

2006-01-01

54

Benthic foraminiferal assemblages in Tambelan Archipelago, Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coral reefs ecosystem is one of favorable sites as habitat of most of marine organismsincluding benthic foraminifera. Foraminiferal assemblages are regularly used as bio-indicators ofenvironmental feasibility for reefs. Hence, the objective of the present study was to recognize theforaminiferal assemblages in the Tambelan Archipelago as a baseline data for monitoring ofenvironmental changes and to plan conservation strategies. The survey was conducted on November2010 at 12 sampling sites around Tambelan Archipelago. A total of 5582 specimens of benthicforaminifera belonging to Order Astrorhizida, Textulariida, Miliolida, and Rotaliida were recorded. Most ofcollected species were recognized as symbiotic-bearing foraminifera; the most common of them whereAmphistegina sp. and Calcarina sp. that counted more than 1000 specimens.

Suhartati M. Natsir

2012-09-01

55

Vulkaner andre steder i Solsystemet  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Der er vulkaner mange andre steder end på Jorden. De indre fire jordlignende planeter har, ligesom mange af solsystemets måner og asteroider, vulkaner, der dog for de flestes vedkommende er udslukte for mange hundrede millioner år siden. Der er direkte observeret vulkanudbrud på Jorden og på Jupiters måne, Io, og man regner man med at Venus og formentlig også Mars stadig er vulkansk aktive. Ved at rette blikket ud i solsystemet har vi  mulighed for at studere vulkansk aktivitet under helt anderledes betingelser end her på Jorden. Hvad sker der f.eks., hvis tyngdekraften er svagere, eller planetens overflade måske er gloende varm? Vulkanerne andre steder i Solsystemet overgår på mange måder dem på Jorden. Venus er den planet i solsystemet, der har flest vulkaner, Mars har de største og højeste vulkaner, asteroiden Vesta har de ældste, og Jupiters måne Io har de mest aktive vulkaner i solsystemet. De koldeste vulkaner findes på nogle af månerne i det ydre solsystem. Her er det ikke smeltet sten men derimod ammoniakvand, der strømmer ned og størkner på vulkanernes sider.

Haack, Henning

2007-01-01

56

Tongue of the ocean, Bahamas Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

A portion of the tongue of the ocean (24.0N, 77.0W), and the Bahamas Bank, Bahamas Archipelago. The light blue region is the shalow sea bottom where the Bahama Bank is no more than 30 ft. deep. At the contact between light and dark blue, an underwater shear cliff drops over a mile in depth. The wavey lines of various shades of blue are caused by the differential coral growth relative to the warm/cool water transfer in and out of the tongue.

1982-01-01

57

Radon profiles in the Indonesian archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of near-bottom excess radon profiles was measured in the Indonesian archipelago during the Snellius-II Expedition. The results show considerable variations in structure, 222Rn concentrations and integrated excess 222Rn inventory in the water column. Near-bottom vertical eddy diffusion coefficients vary from 46.4 to 63.6 cm 2·s -1 in the basins; they are in general much higher on slopes and sills. The standing crop (the integrated amount of excess 222Rn) ranges from 0.9 to 49.6 dpm·cm -2. 226Radium supported 222Rn concentrations range from 9 to 3888·10 -2 dpm·kg -1 Compared to mid-ocean basins the vertical mixing processes of near-bottom water masses in the Indonesian archipelago is fast, especially in the water layer from 50 to 200 m above the bottom, with diffusion coefficients in the order of 10 times higher than in the Pacific Ocean. With the exception of two stations standing crop values were comparable with those found in the Pacific Ocean but higher than those from the Atlantic Ocean. 210Pb analyses show high sedimentation rates, up to 75 cm·10 -3·a -1. This does not agree with related standing crops. One explanation can be that erosion plays an important role on the sills and slopes.

Berger, G. W.; Van Bennekom, A. J.; Kloosterhuis, H. J.

58

Nukuteater loeb Riski raha / Andres Laasik  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

25. aprillil allkirjastatud lepingu järgi toetasid eesti ettevõtted eesotsas Tallinna Kaubamajaga Nukuteatrit 2 miljoni krooniga, millest kolmandik läheb muusikali "Riski" (libretist ja lavastaja Andres Dvinjaninov, helilooja Elmar Liitma) tootmisse

Laasik, Andres, 1960-

2001-01-01

59

Kraft ja Lipstok pürivad presidendiks / Andres Reimer  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Eesti Panga presidendiks kandideerivad senine president Vahur Kraft ja Riigikogu rahanduskomisjoni esimees Andres Lipstok, Mart Opmanni kandidaadiks ei esitatud. Eesti Panga nõukogu liige Liina Tõnisson peab kõrgeks V. Krafti võimalusi. Reformierakond ja ERL kaalusid panga presidendi valimise edasilükkamist

Reimer, Andres

2005-01-01

60

Pühajärve veekeskus = Pühajärve Spa / Andres Alver  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Projekteerija: Alver Trummal Arhitektid. Autorid Andres Alver, Indrek Rünkla, Ulla Mets, Tarmo Laht, sisekujundaja Helle Neemre, konstruktor Väino Taidur. Projekt 2002, valmis 2003. I ja II korruse plaan, lõige, 2 välis- ja 5 sisevaadet

Alver, Andres, 1953-

2004-01-01

61

Andre on alati tantsida tahtnud / Anu Mõttus  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Koolitantsu maakonnavoorud on peetud. Igast maakonnast pääsevad piirkonnavooru kuni pooled tantsud. Umbes sama edasipääsuprotsent on ka Andre Laine tantsudel, kelle koolitantsu vaimustus algas Kanepi Gümnaasiumi õpilasena ja kes praeguseks on selle gümnaasiumi tantsupedagoog

Mõttus, Anu

2009-01-01

62

Igale inimesele oma inspektor? / Andre Nõmm  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Finantsinspektsiooni finantsjärelevalve divisjoni juhataja Andre Nõmm on seisukohal, et finantsinspektsiooni ülesanne ei ole valvata iga kodaniku finantsriski maandamist, vaid vastutust peab kandma iga inimene ise. Ometi on riigi eesmärk tõsta oma kodanike teadlikkust laenuturul valitsevatest ohtudest

Nõmm, Andre

2007-01-01

63

Andres Bergmann võib pääseda vabadusse / Tarmo Michelson  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Ekspankur Andres Bergmann, kes sai riisumise, kelmuse võltsimise ja ametiseisundi kuritarvitamise eest 3 aasta ja 6 kuu pikkuse vanglakaristuse, võib paari kuu pärast vabaneda vangistusest tingimisi enne tähtaja lõppemist

Michelson, Tarmo, 1975-

2005-01-01

64

Generalized Andr\\'{e}-Quillen Cohomology  

OpenAIRE

We explain how the approach of Andre and Quillen to defining cohomology and homology as suitable derived functors extends to generalized (co)homology theories, and how this identification may be used to study the relationship between them. As a side benefit, we clarify exactly what assumptions on an (algebraic) category are needed in order for the approach of Beck and Andre-Quillen to work. We also show how the description may be applied to construct universal coef...

Blanc, David

2008-01-01

65

Andre-Quillen homology of commutative algebras  

OpenAIRE

These notes are an introduction to basic properties of Andre-Quillen homology for commutative algebras. They are an expanded version of my lectures at the summer school: Interactions between homotopy theory and algebra, University of Chicago, 26th July - 6th August, 2004. The aim is to give fairly complete proofs of characterizations of smooth homomorphisms and of locally complete intersection homomorphisms in terms of vanishing of Andre-Quillen homology. The choice of the m...

Iyengar, Srikanth

2006-01-01

66

Bergman polynomials on an Archipelago: Estimates, Zeros and Shape Reconstruction  

CERN Document Server

Growth estimates of complex orthogonal polynomials with respect to the area measure supported by a disjoint union of planar Jordan domains (called, in short, an archipelago) are obtained by a combination of methods of potential theory and rational approximation theory. The study of the asymptotic behavior of the roots of these polynomials reveals a surprisingly rich geometry, which reflects three characteristics: the relative position of an island in the archipelago, the analytic continuation picture of the Schwarz function of every individual boundary and the singular points of the exterior Green function. By way of explicit example, fine asymptotics are obtained for the lemniscate archipelago $|z^m-1|archipelago, knowing only finitely many of its power moments. This work naturally complem...

Gustafsson, Bjorn; Saff, Ed; Stylianopoulos, Nikos

2008-01-01

67

STUDY OF DENSITY AND COVERING SEAGRASS AT SPERMONDE ARCHIPELAGO  

OpenAIRE

Study of density and covering seagrass at Spermonde Archipelago was carried out during May 2012 until November 2012. The study included density and percentage cover. Namely 7 species of seagrasses Enhalus acoroides, Cymodocea rotundata, Syringodium isoetifolium, Thalassia hemprichii, Halodule uninervis, Halophila ovalis and H. minorwere collected at Spermonde Archipelago. Enhalus acoroides was recorded as the most dominant species and Syringodium isoetifolium was the limit species at Bone Ba...

Abdul Haris; Benny Audi Jaya Gosari1

2013-01-01

68

The cave?adapted arthropod fauna from Madeira archipelago  

OpenAIRE

This work provides an overview of the hypogean fauna from the Madeira archipelago, presenting a list of obligated cave-dwelling species. A total of 6 troglobiont species in 5 orders have been described to date. The cave fauna in Madeira can be considered poor when compared with either the local epigean fauna or the cave fauna of other Macaronesian archipelagos. Curious is the occurrence of one wood-louse cave species (Trichoniscus bassoti), which apparently is the only troglobite ...

Serrano, Artur R. M.; Borges, Paulo A. V.

2010-01-01

69

Hydrogeology of the Azores volcanic archipelago (Portugal)  

Science.gov (United States)

The archipelago of the Azores is made of nine islands of volcanic origin located in the North Atlantic Ocean, with an area of 2333 km2 and approximately 237500 inhabitants, which are 98% dependant from groundwater sources for their water consumption. Therefore, groundwater is a resource that plays a vital role as drinking water source and as ecosystem support matrix. Nevertheless, besides the environmental, social and economical value of groundwater, this resource is subject to an increase pressure and in several islands water quality deterioration is shown by monitoring data. This pressure is also shown by the 42.7% increase expected for domestic use until the year 2020 at the Azores, with higher groundwater abstraction. The Azores climate can be considered as marine temperate, which is reflected by the low thermal amplitude and high precipitation. A well-established difference between a dry season and a colder and wet season occurs, as from October to March about 75% of the annual precipitation is registered. The average annual precipitation at the Azores is 1930 mm, exceeding by far the average annual actual evapotranspiration, which is 581 mm. Recharge rates range from 8.5% to 62.1%, and the highest values are observed at Pico, Terceira, Faial, São Miguel and Graciosa islands, especially in areas where the terrain is covered by recent basaltic lava flows and the soil cover is sparse. Groundwater resources estimates point to a total volume of about 1600x106 m3/yr. Values above the recharge median, equal to 101.3x106 m3/yr. were estimated for the São Miguel, São Jorge, Terceira and Flores islands. Despite differences in the islands growth, as a result of successive volcanic eruptions of various types, groundwater occurrence can be described in function of two main aquifers systems: (1) the basal aquifer system, which corresponds to fresh-water lenses floating on underlying salt water, and (2) perched-water bodies, which are usually drained by springs spread in the volcanic edifices slopes. The basal aquifer system is in the coastal area, presenting generally a very low hydraulic gradient. Hydrogeological surveys that have been made in the Azores archipelago points out to more than 1000 springs and wells spread all over the archipelago (950 springs and 83 drilled wells). Spring distribution is heterogeneous, with densities varying between 0.01 springs/km2 at Pico island and 0.72 springs/km2 estimated at Santa Maria. Specific capacity ranges from 1.4x10-2 to 266.7 L/sm, with a median value of 32.3 L/sm. Transmissivity also present a large range, with values ranging between 1.65x10-5 and 4.03x10-1 m2/s, and a median of 3.66x10-2 m2/s. The heterogeneous distribution shown by these values expresses the influence of the hydrogeological characteristics of volcanic terrain, resulting from syngenetic characteristics and secondary processes, like weathering. The highest values are observed in wells drilled in recent basaltic lava flows, which generally are thin and fractured, with frequent clincker levels interbedded, and the lowest data was estimated in the older volcanic formations of Santa Maria island. Groundwater on perched-water bodies, excluding the numerous mineral waters that are spread in several islands of the archipelago, present usually a low mineralization, shown by the electrical conductivity values (36-725 S/cm; median=158.0 S/cm). The average temperature is equal to 15°C. Waters have an average temperature of 15°C and are mainly slightly acid to slightly alkaline, with a pH range from 4.7 to 8.6, but showing a median value of 7.2. The main water types are Na-Cl to Na-HCO3 waters, with numerous samples lying in the intermediate compositional fields that characterize Na-Cl-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-Cl waters. The groundwater composition in the basal aquifer system is usually from the Na-Cl type and presents a higher mineralization, resulting in a median value for electrical conductivity equal to 1044 S/cm, expressing the influence of sea salts mixture.

Cruz, J.; Coutinho, R.; Antunes, P.; Freire, P.

2009-04-01

70

Andres Tarand : peaminister 08.11.1994-17.04.1995 / Andres Tarand ; interv. Jaak K. Roosaare  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Akadeemias Nord erikursuse raames esinenud ekspeaminister Andres Tarandi poolt käsitletud põhiteemad: peaministriks saamise asjaolud, probleemid peaministriks olemise ajal, õnnestumised ja ebaõnnestumised, hinnang tolleaegsele valitsusele ja pressile, hinnang riigi senisele arengule

Tarand, Andres, 1940-

2007-01-01

71

Sarvedega poisid Janno Roos ja Andres Labi / Janno Roos, Andres Labi ; intervjueerinud Tanel Veenre  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Ruumilabor OÜ sisearhitektid Janno Roos ja Andres Labi riidenagide seeriast "Ulukid", mille eest nad pälvisid Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2008. a. esemepreemia, Ruumilabori õnnestumistest ja parematest töödest, eesti disaini tulevikust, lemmikutest disainerite seas jm.

Roos, Janno, 1976-

2009-01-01

72

Eesti fond rahastab Vene infotehnoloogiat / Andres Reimer  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Martinson Trigon Venture Partners (MTVP) loob uue tarkvarainvesteeringute fondi, mis viib endise NSVL-i alale kuni 780 miljonit krooni, fond võtab sihiks kümmekond uut ettevõtet. MTVP esimese fondi investeeringutest. Fondide juhi Andres Susi selgitusi. Lisa: Martinson Trigon Venture Partners osalusega firmad; Vt. samas: Moskvas pole raha ja geeniused kohtunud

Reimer, Andres

2006-01-01

73

Eesti luule jookseb joonistatud pildis / Andres Laasik  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Animafilmikassett "Must lagi" seitsme eesti luuletaja luuletuse põhjal tehtud animafilmidega : Mati Küti - Ilmar Laabani "Substantia stellaris", Heiki Ernitsa - Arvi Siia "Tuled öös", Kaspar Jancise - Ago Künnapi "Viimane sigaret", Priit Tenderi - Andres Ehini "Taimne direktor", Janno Põldma - Heiti Talviku "Sügiseleegia", Priit Pärna - Jüri Üdi "Kuul kuklas", Ülo Pikkovi - Aleksander Suumani "Läänemerelinik" : Eesti Joonisfilm 2007

Laasik, Andres, 1960-

2007-01-01

74

Globaliseerumine : oht või võimalus? / Andres Arrak  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Globaliseerumise ja võrgustumise muutumine võimaluseks või ohuks sõltub konkreetse riigi majanduse ja tööturu kohanemisvõimest. Globaalsete finantsvoogude kirjeldus, kapitali ja Eestisse tulevate rahavoogude analüüs ning hinnang Eesti tööturu paindlikkusele ja ettevõtjate innovatiivsusele. Graafikud: Otse- ja portfelliinvesteeringute ning laenude sissevool Eestisse 1992-2006; Diagramm: Eesti tööjõuturg sammub Ameerika jälgedes. Vt. samas: Andres Saarniit. Raha ei ole kuhugi kadunud

Arrak, Andres

2007-01-01

75

New geological data of New Siberian Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The area of New Siberian Archipelago (NSA) encompasses different tectonic blocks is a clue for reconstruction of geological structure and geodynamic evolution of East Arctic. According to palaeomagnetic study two parts of the archipelago - Bennett and Anjou Islands formed a single continental block at least from the Early Palaeozoic. Isotope dating of De Long Islands igneous and sedimentary rocks suggests Neoproterozoic (Baikalian) age of its basement. The De Long platform sedimentary cover may be subdivided into two complexes: (1) intermediate of PZ-J variously deformed and metamorphosed rocks and (2) K-KZ of weakly lithified sediments. The former complex comprises the Cambrian riftogenic volcanic-clastic member which overlain by Cambrian-Ordovician turbiditic sequence, deposited on a continental margin. This Lower Palaeozoic complex is unconformably overlain by Early Cretaceous (K-Ar age of c.120 Ma) basalts with HALIP petrochemical affinities. In Anjou Islands the intermediate sedimentary complex encompasses the lower Ordovician -Lower Carboniferous sequence of shallow-marine limestone and subordinate dolomite, mudstone and sandstone that bear fossils characteristic of the Siberian biogeographic province. The upper Mid Carboniferous - Jurassic part is dominated by shallow-marine clastic sediments, mainly clays. The K-KZ complex rests upon the lower one with angular unconformity and consists mainly of coal-bearing clastic sediments with rhyolite lavas and tuffs in the bottom (117-110 Ma by K-Ar) while the complexe's upper part contains intraplate alkalic basalt and Neogene-Quaternary limburgite. The De-Long-Anjou block's features of geology and evolution resemble those of Wrangel Island located some 1000 km eastward. The Laptev Sea shelf outcrops in intrashelf rises (Belkovsky and Stolbovoy Islands) where its geology and structure may be observed directly. On Belkovsky Island non-dislocated Oligocene-Miocene sedimentary cover of littoral-marine coal-bearing unconformably overlies folded basement. The latter encompasses two sedimentary units: the Middle Devonian shallow-marine carbonate and Late-Devonian-Permian olistostrome - flysch deposited in transitional environment from carbonate platform to passive margin. Dating of detrital zircons suggests the Siberian Platform and Taimyr-Severnaya Zemlya areas as the most possible provenance. The magmatic activity on Belkovsky Island resulted in formation of Early Triassic gabbro-dolerite similar to the Siberian Platform traps. Proximity of Belkovsky Island to the north of Verkhoyansk foldbelt allows continuation of the latter into the Laptev Sea shelf. The geology of Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Island is discrepant from the rest of the NSA. In the south of Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Island the ophiolite crops complex out: it is composed of tectonic melange of serpentinized peridotite, bandedf gabbro, pillow-basalt, and pelagic sediments (black shales and cherts). All the rocks underwent epidot - amphibolite, glaucophane and greenschist facies metamorphism. The ophiolite is intruded by various in composition igneous massifs - from gabbro-diorite to leuco-granite, which occurred at 110-120 Ma. The Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Island structure is thought to be a westerly continuation of the South Anui suture of Chukchi.

Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Evgeniy

2014-05-01

76

The influence of the geological setting on the morphogenetic evolution of the Tremiti Archipelago (Apulia, Southeastern Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Tremiti Archipelago (Southern Adriatic Sea, also called Insulae Diomedae from the name of the Greek hero who first landed there, is an area of high landscape and historical value. It is severely affected by significant geomorphologic processes dominated by mass movements along the coast that constitute the most important and unpredictable natural hazard for the population and cultural heritage. Coastal erosion is favoured by the peculiar geological and structural setting, seismic activity, weathering, development of karst processes, and wave action. The present paper reports on descriptive and qualitative evaluation of the factors controlling landslides and coastline changes based on medium-term in situ observation, detailed surface surveys at selected locations since 1995, and historic and bibliographic data. The Tremiti Archipelago is part of an active seismic area characterised by a shear zone separating two segments of the Adriatic microplate that have shown different behaviour and roll back rates in the subduction underneath the Apennines since middle Pleistocene. Although coastal morphology can be basically considered to be the result of wave action, the continual action of subaerial processes contributes effectively to the mechanism of shoreline degradation. Weathering mainly affects the marly calcisiltites and calcilutites of the Cretaccio Fm. and the friable and low cemented calcarenites and biomicrites of the San Nicola Fm. The cliffs are characterised by different types of failure such as lateral spreads, secondary topples, rock falls and slides. At the Isle of San Nicola, landslides are controlled by the contrast in competence, shear strength and stiffness between the Pliocene re-crystallised dolomitic calcarenites and calcisiltites and the Miocene marly calcilutites and calcisiltites. At the Isles of San Domino and Caprara rock falls are attributed to the undercutting of waves at the base of the cliffs.

G. F. Andriani

2005-01-01

77

Eestlane juhib Ukrainas EBRD investeeringuid / Andre Küüsvek ; interv. Henrik Ilves  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Seni Euroopa Rekonstruktsiooni- ja Arengupanga (EBRD) Kasahstani osakonda juhtinud Andre Küüsvek valiti juhtima EBRD investeeringuid Ukrainas. Tänavu on plaanis investeerida Ukrainas 1,5 mld. dollarit

Küüsvek, Andre

2008-01-01

78

The flow of radionuclides through the Canadian archipelago  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transport of contaminants to the Canadian Arctic by air and in water and their concentration through the marine food web has lead to enhanced levels of contaminants in several foods of Canadian northern inhabitants. Artificial radionuclides in the marine water can be used to determine water circulation and to trace contaminant transport through the Canadian Archipelago

79

Konkurss kuulutab puidu-usku / Andres Kurg  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Võistlusest "Eesti parim puitehitis 2005". Võidutööks tunnistati Naba lasteaed Pirital (arhitektid Vahur Sova, Lauri Saar, sisearhitekt Mari Tosmin). Ära märgiti AS Palmako tootmishoone Kavastus, Tartumaal (arhitekt Ott Ojamaa) ja elamugrupp Lucca külas (arhitekt Oliver Alver). Parima voodrilaua kasutuse eripreemia sai golfiklubi Jõelähtmel (arhitekt Andres Siim, sisearhitekt Juta Lember). Vineerikasutuse eripreemia Kuressaare linnavalitsuse hoone rekonstrueeritud fassaadile (arhitektid Toomas Paaver, Terje Truumaa). Liimpuidukasutuse preemia autovarjualune Õie tänava majade ees Nõmmel (arhitekt Indrek Allmann)

Kurg, Andres, 1975-

2005-01-01

80

Bilkørsel med alkohol og andre stoffer  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Selv om forekomsten af alkohol hos bilister i trafikken i Danmark er halveret siden 80’erne, er alkohol i trafikken stadig et stort problem. Forskningsresultater afdækker, at ikke blot er alkohol hyppigt forekommende i trafikken, men risikoen for færdselsuheld med alvorlige skader er også væsentligt forhøjet, hvis alkoholpromillen er over lovens grænse, eller alkoholen er blandet med andre stoffer. Den højeste risiko for personskadeuheld med alvorlige skader findes hos bilister, der kører med alkoholpromiller på 1,2 og derover.

Bernhoft, Inger Marie

2013-01-01

81

PT Symmetric Aubry-Andre Model  

OpenAIRE

PT symmetric Aubry-Andre model describes an array of N coupled optical waveguides with position dependent gain and loss. We show that the reality of the spectrum depends sensitively on the degree of disorder for small number of lattice sites. We obtain the Hofstadter Butterfly spectrum and discuss the existence of the phase transition from extended to localized states. We show that rapidly changing periodical gain/loss materials almost conserves the total intensity.

Yuce, C.

2014-01-01

82

PT symmetric Aubry-Andre model  

Science.gov (United States)

PT symmetric Aubry-Andre model describes an array of N coupled optical waveguides with position-dependent gain and loss. We show that the reality of the spectrum depends sensitively on the degree of quasi-periodicity for small number of lattice sites. We obtain the Hofstadter butterfly spectrum and discuss the existence of the phase transition from extended to localized states. We show that rapidly changing periodical gain/loss materials almost conserve the total intensity.

Yuce, C.

2014-06-01

83

Hydrogeology framework of the Azores archipelago (Portugal)  

Science.gov (United States)

The archipelago of the Azores is made of nine islands located in the North Atlantic Ocean, spread along a 600 km-long NW-SE strip, approximately 1600 km from Portugal mainland. All the islands are of volcanic origin and only in Santa Maria, the eastern most island of the Azores, are there sedimentary units interbedded in the volcanic succession of basic nature. Groundwater resources in the Azores are essential both as drinking water source and for ecosystem support. The Azores climate can be considered as marine temperate, with an average annual precipitation at the Azores equal to 1930 mm, exceeding by far the average annual actual evapotranspiration (581 mm). From October to March about 75% of the annual precipitation is registered, which also influences recharge distribution along the year. Recharge rates range from 8.5% to 62.1%, with the highest values been observed at Pico, Terceira, Faial, São Miguel and Graciosa islands, especially in areas where the terrain is covered by recent basaltic lava flows and the soil cover is thin, and the groundwater resources estimates point to a total volume of about 1600x106 m3/yr. Despite differences in the volcanic successions observed in the several islands, resulting from volcanic eruptions of various types, groundwater occurrence can be generally described in terms of two main aquifers systems: (1) the basal aquifer system, which corresponds to fresh-water lenses floating on underlying salt water, and (2) perched-water bodies, which are usually drained by springs spread in the volcanic edifices slopes. Specific well capacity ranges between 1.40x10-2 L/sm and 266.67 L/sm, with a median of 32.29 L/sm (Cruz 2001a, 2004). The values exhibit marked variability among the wells from the different islands. The highest specific capacity is observed on Pico and Graciosa, with wells drilled in recent basaltic lava flows, which generally are thin and fractured with frequently interbedded clincker levels. Transmissivity values also present a large range, with values between 1.65x10-5 and 4.03x10-1 m2/s, and a median of 3.66x10-2 m2/s. Groundwater on perched-water bodies present usually a low mineralization, shown by the electrical conductivity values (36-725 ?S/cm; median=158.0 ?S/cm), and an average temperature of 15 C. Waters are mainly slightly acid to slightly alkaline, with a pH range from 4.7 to 8.6, with a median value of 7.2. The main water types are Na-Cl to Na-HCO3 waters, with numerous samples lying in the intermediate compositional fields that characterize Na-Cl-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-Cl waters. Groundwater composition in the basal aquifer system is usually from the Na-Cl type, presenting a higher mineralization (median value for electrical conductivity equal to 1044 ?S/cm), as a result of the mixture with a seawater component. The more than 100 mineral water discharges observed in the Azores present a large range of chemical characteristics, been Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl the dominant water types, despite a few samples of the Na-SO4 type. Discharge temperature ranges between 15 C and 99.5 C (median=35 C), conductivity between 139 and 43100 ?S/cm (median=906 ?S/cm), and pH between 2.2 and 7.82 (median=5.78), reflecting the several mechanism that influence water composition.

Cruz, J. V.; Coutinho, R. M.

2011-12-01

84

Andre-Quillen homology and complete intersection dimensions  

OpenAIRE

We study the relation between the vanishing of Andre-Quillen homology and complete intersection dimensions. As an application, we solve a problem of Avramov and Iyengar related to Quillen's conjecture. We also extend some of the existing results in the literature and give a characterization of algebra retracts of finite Andre-Quillen dimension with respect to complete intersection dimensions.

Nasseh, Saeed; Sharif, Tirdad

2013-01-01

85

Narcotráfico, violencia y crisis social en el Caribe insular colombiano: El caso de la isla de San Andrés en el contexto del Gran Caribe / Drug Traffiking, Violence and the Social Crisis in Colombian Caribbean Islands: The Case of San Andrés Island in the Context of the Great Caribbean  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente artículo tiene por objetivo presentar un diagnóstico preliminar de la magnitud del tráfico de drogas, sus dinámicas, modalidades, y las condiciones sociales y económicas que favorecen el desarrollo de este negocio ilegal en la isla de San Andrés (Colombia). El análisis se desarrolla, no [...] obstante, en el marco de la condición histórica y natural de "zona de tránsito" de drogas, armas y otros recursos ilegales, que se le atribuye a la región del Gran Caribe, entendida como un continuo geográfico, histórico y cultural en el que se observan patrones comunes en materia de amenazas a la seguridad, la geopolítica de las relaciones con Estados Unidos y los efectos sociales y económicos derivados del flagelo del narcotráfico. En este sentido, el caso de la isla de San Andrés (Colombia) se examina más como parte de la dinámica insular gran caribeña que como parte de las tendencias propias del negocio en la Colombia continental, lo que permite, sin embargo, establecer las conexiones entre ambos espacios regionales -el insular y el continental- y, a la vez, evaluar el impacto regional del fenómeno a partir de las conexiones ilegales que desde el archipiélago se establecen con algunos países vecinos del Gran Caribe. Finalmente, se sostiene la hipótesis de que el fenómeno del narcotráfico se instala en la isla como resultado de factores geohistóricos, culturales y socioeconómicos que en conjunto han determinado la participación activa de distintos sectores de la sociedad en este negocio ilegal. Abstract in english The objective of thispaper is to present a preliminary diagnosis of the magnitude, dynamics, and modalities of drug trafficking, together with the social and economic conditions that support the development of this illegal activity in the island of San Andres (Colombia). Analysis is conducted within [...] a framework that identifies this trafficking zone as a natural and historic corridor for trade in weapons, drugs, and other illicit materials typically attributed to the Great Caribbean where patterns of security threats, geopolitical relations with the United States, and social and economic impacts of the narcotrafficking epidemic are commonly observed. The article presents San Andres Island (Colombia) as a case that adheres more to the insular dynamics of the Great Caribbean region rather than one that mimics the tendencies of continental Colombia. This perspective permits the establishment of connections between both regional spaces -insular and continental-, and simultaneously evaluates the phenomenon´s regional impact by exploring the illegal connections formed in the archipelago with neighboring Caribbean countries. Finally, the hypothesis is sustained that the trafficking phenomenon on the island is a result of historical, cultural and socio­economic factors that explain the active participation of certain sectors of the island´s society in these illegal activities.

Silvia, Mantilla.

2011-06-01

86

Pelagic microplastics around an archipelago of the Equatorial Atlantic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plastic marine debris is presently widely recognised as an important environmental pollutant. Such debris is reported in every habitat of the oceans, from urban tourist beaches to remote islands and from the ocean surface to submarine canyons, and is found buried and deposited on sandy and cobble beaches. Plastic marine debris varies from micrometres to several metres in length and is potentially ingested by animals of every level of the marine food web. Here, we show that synthetic polymers are present in subsurface plankton samples around Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. To explain the distribution of microplastics around the Archipelago, we proposed a generalised linear model (GLM) that suggests the existence of an outward gradient of mean plastic-particle densities. Plastic items can be autochthonous or transported over large oceanic distances. One probable source is the small but persistent fishing fleet using the area. PMID:23953893

Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Costa, Monica F; Barletta, Mário; Cysneiros, Francisco José A

2013-10-15

87

Andre-Quillen homology of algebra retracts  

OpenAIRE

Given a homomorphism of commutative noetherian rings $\\phi: R \\to S$, Daniel Quillen conjectured in 1970 that if the Andre-Quillen homology functors $D_n(S|R,-)$ vanish for all $n \\gg 0$, then they vanish for all $n \\ge 3$. We prove the conjecture under the additional hypothesis that there exists a homomorphism of rings $\\psi: S \\to R$ such that $\\phi\\circ\\psi=\\id_S$. More precisely, in this case we show that $\\psi$ is complete intersection at $\\phi^{-1}(\\fn)$ for every prim...

Avramov, L. L.; Iyengar, S.

2002-01-01

88

Complex geophysical wake flows. Madeira Archipelago case study  

Science.gov (United States)

Idealized studies of island wakes often use a cylinder-like island to generate the wake, whereas most realistic studies use a close representation of the oceanic bathymetry immersed in a complex representation of the "ambient" geophysical flows. Here, a system of multiple islands was placed into numerical and experimental channels, in order to focus on the complexity of the archipelago wake, including (a) the influence of small neighboring islands and (b) the role of the island-shelf. The numerical geostrophic and stratified channel was built using a three-dimensional primitive equation model, considering a realistic representation of the Madeira archipelago bathymetry, with prescribed initial and boundary conditions. Results from the simulations show that the neighboring islands alter the near-field wake. Small eddies generated by the neighboring islands lead to destabilization of the shear layers of the larger island. Laboratory experiments carried out in the Coriolis rotating tank corroborated this near-field disruptive mechanism. The neighboring island perturbation effect was present whatever the direction of the incoming flow, but under different regimes. North-south wakes produced geostrophic eddies (? R d), whereas west-east wakes produced (exclusively) ageostrophic submesoscale eddies (< < R d) which traveled offshore with wave-like motion. The archipelago shelf contributed to the asymmetric vertical migration of oceanic vorticity. Cyclonic vorticity dominated the surface dynamics, whereas anticyclonic circulation prevailed at the bottom part of the linearly stratified upper layer. This study identifies several likely wake scenarios induced by the Madeira archipelago, and may serve as guide for future multiscale numerical studies and in situ campaigns.

Caldeira, Rui Miguel A.; Sangrà, Pablo

2012-05-01

89

Predicting Coral Recruitment in Palau’s Complex Reef Archipelago  

OpenAIRE

Reproduction and recruitment are key processes that replenish marine populations. Here we use the Palau archipelago, in the western Pacific Ocean, as a case study to examine scales of connectivity and to determine whether an oceanographic model, incorporating the complex reef architecture, is a useful predictor of coral recruitment. We tested the hypothesis that the reefs with the highest retention also had the highest densities of juvenile coral density from 80 field sites. Field comparisons...

Golbuu, Yimnang; Wolanski, Eric; Idechong, Jacques Wasai; Victor, Steven; Isechal, Adelle Lukes; Oldiais, Noelle Wenty; Idip, David; Richmond, Robert H.; Woesik, Robert

2012-01-01

90

San Marino.  

Science.gov (United States)

San Marino, an independent republic located in north central Italy, in 1983 had a population of 22,206 growing at an annual rate of .9%. The literacy rate is 97% and the infant mortality rate is 9.6/1000. The terrain is mountainous and the climate is moderate. According to local tradition, San Marino was founded by a Christian stonecutter in the 4th century A.D. as a refuge against religious persecution. Its recorded history began in the 9th century, and it has survived assaults on its independence by the papacy, the Malatesta lords of Rimini, Cesare Borgia, Napoleon, and Mussolini. An 1862 treaty with the newly formed Kingdom of Italy has been periodically renewed and amended. The present government is an alliance between the socialists and communists. San Marino has had its own statutes and governmental institutions since the 11th century. Legislative authority at present is vested in a 60-member unicameral parliament. Executive authority is exercised by the 11-member Congress of State, the members of which head the various administrative departments of the goverment. The posts are divided among the parties which form the coalition government. Judicial authority is partly exercised by Italian magistrates in civil and criminal cases. San Marino's policies are tied to Italy's and political organizations and labor unions active in Italy are also active in San Marino. Since World War II, there has been intense rivalry between 2 political coalitions, the Popular Alliance composed of the Christian Democratic Party and the Independent Social Democratic Party, and the Liberty Committee, coalition of the Communist Party and the Socialist Party. San Marino's gross domestic product was $137 million and its per capita income was $6290 in 1980. The principal economic activities are farming and livestock raising, along with some light manufacturing. Foreign transactions are dominated by tourism. The government derives most of its revenue from the sale of postage stamps to collectors around the world and from payment of an annual budget subsidy by the Italian government. Despite its close ties with Italy, San Marino has maintained its distinctive status for centuries. PMID:12178101

1985-02-01

91

Samarbejdets natur hos mennesket og andre aber  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Omfattende grader af dele-adfærd og samarbejde hos mennesker finder sted overalt på jorden, men det er ikke et menneskeligt særtræk at være generøs og dele. Mange dyrearter deler med artsfæller, skønt måden, der deles på varierer mellem dyrearter. Igennem de sidste 20 år er der foretaget omfattende forskning omkring delings-adfærd hos andre aber end mennesket og forsøgene har givet os indsigt i flere forskellige ting omkring den menneskelige samarbejdsnatur i forhold til andre dyrs. Delingsadfærden hos mennesket antager former, der på nogle punkter er langt mere sammenlignelige med fjernere beslægtede aber end med menneskeaberne. Visse dyrearter viser sig desuden at klare sig mærkbart bedre end menneskeaberne i samarbejdsforsøg, hvor menneskelige signaler skal forstås. Især hunde udmærker sig ved dette og lader til at gå til opgaven med omtrent lige så få gnidninger som småbørn. Dette kan forklares ved, at der implicit i evnen til menneskeligt samarbejde ligger en motivation for at indgå i opgaveløsende relationer og en basal tillidsfuldhed omkring flokmedlemmer, som ikke er en selvfølgelighed for alle flokdyr, men som mennesket har fremavlet hos den tamme hund.

Byrnit, Jill

2015-01-01

92

Film Diegost - kriitikavaba kummardus / Andres Must  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

PÖFFi filme - Argentiina mängufilm legendaarse jalgpalluri Diego Maradona jumaldamisest "Teel Maradona juurde" ("El camino de San Diego") : stsenarist ja režissöör Carlos Sorin. Artikkel on peamiselt Maradonast, vähesel määral filmist

Must, Andres

2007-01-01

93

Om den juridiske metode – og andre viden-skabelige metoder  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Denne artikel handler om, hvilke spørgsmål og problemer juraen og andre human- og samfundsvidenskabelige discipliner beskæftiger sig med. Den handler også om, hvilke forskellige metoder, jurister og andre human- og samfundsvidenskabelige forskere gør brug af. I artiklen beskriver jeg desuden, hvordan de forskellige videnskabelige discipliner historiske har udviklet sig, ligesom jeg beskriver, hvordan undervisningen på forskellige samfunds-videnskabelige uddannelser er tilrettelagt for at ruste de studerende til en fremtidige karriere inden for de, også temmeligt forskellige, hverv, som de færdige kandidater typisk bliver ansat i efter endt uddannelse. Det er mit håb, at denne artikels beskrivelse af forskellene mellem juraen og andre human- og samfundsvidenskaber kan bidrage til, at jurastuderende får en bedre forståelse for juraens særlige beskaffenhed – herunder forstår, hvordan juraen skiller sig ud fra andre samfundsvidenskaber.

Rattleff, Pernille

2015-01-01

94

Andres Noormets : filmilik fantaasiateater lohe ja armastusega / Dea Martinjonis  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

"Meremaa võlur. Päeva kaldad", näidend Ursula K Le Guini "Meremaa võluri" teemadel, kirjutanud Andreas W ja lavastanud Andres Noormets, kunstnik Silver Vahtre, valguskunstnik Airi Eras, helikujundaja ja videograafik Andreas W. Esietendus Ugalas 29. aprillil

Martinjonis, Dea

1999-01-01

95

Andres Tarand tõi omale kohvris Ameerikast puu / Kai Ilustrumm  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Ilmunud ka: Linnaleht : Tartu ; Linnaleht : Pärnu B2-B3. Männiistikute istutamine VELUX katuseakende töötajate eestvõtmisel Ohtu turbaraba lähedal. Külastati Andres ja Mari Tarandi Vihterpalus Keibul asuvat maakodu ning liigirikast metsa

Ilustrumm, Kai

2003-01-01

96

Peaosa nii teatrilaval kui ka kinolinal / Andres Laasik  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Natalja Murina-Puustusmaast, kes mängib peaosa Vene Teatri uuslavastuses "Besame mucho", mille Afolf Käis on lavastanud Eduardo de Filippo näidendi "Silinder" järgi, ja Andres Puustusmaa filmis "Rotilõks", mille võtted algavad peagi

Laasik, Andres, 1960-

2010-01-01

97

Andres Herkeli metamorfoosid : Leontjev, Lenin ja Herkel isekeskis / Kalle Käsper  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Arvustus: Herkel, Andres. Ajalugu on rikas. Tln. : Virgela, 1997. (Gramma III). Vastukaja : Vahtre, Lauri. Segavad mõnusat mõtisklemist : Lenin ja Herkel, Käsper ja Hitler // Eesti Päevaleht (1998) 14. veebr., lk. 9

Käsper, Kalle, 1952-

1998-01-01

98

Mis on looming.org? : elektrooniline heli / Andres Lõo  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Võrguajakirjast www.looming.org, kuhu kogutakse infot põhiliselt kahe jaotuse põhjal: muusika ja helieksperimentalism ning kaasaegne kunst, kunsti ja meediaga seonduv. Idee autorid: Hanno Soans ja Andres Lõo. Ilmunud on looming.orgi esimene muusikakogumik "Lilled algebrale"

Lõo, Andres

2004-01-01

99

Põlvas tuli esitusele Andre Laine 29 tantsu / Mati Määrits  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Põlva Kultuuri- ja Huvikeskuses sai näha Põlvamaa Koolitantsu maakondlikku eelvooru. 52st tantsust 29 tantsu autor on Andre Laine. Kommenteerib ka Tartu Ülikooli Viljandi Kultuuriakadeemia lavakunstide osakonna tantsukunsti õppejõud Kai Valtna

Määrits, Mati, 1958-

2008-01-01

100

Haapsalu Gümnaasiumi võimla = Haapsalu Gymnasium Gym / Andres Alver  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Projekteerija: Alver Trummal Arhitektid OÜ. Arhitektid Andres Alver, Sven Koppel, Tarmo Laht, Ulla Mets. Projekt 1998-1999, hoone valmis 2001. 11 ill.: asendi- ja korruse plaan, pikilõige, välis- ja sisevaated

Alver, Andres, 1953-

2001-01-01

101

Eesti Energia esindused = Eesti Energia branches / Andres Labi, Janno Roos  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Eesti Energia klienditeeninduse kontorite sisekujundusest. Autorid: Janno Roos, Andres Labi ja Liisa Põime (Ruumilabor). Visuaalne identiteet: Tank.Teenuste disain: Urmas Pastarus. ESLi aastapreemiate žürii esimehe Kaido Kivi ning žürii liikme Raivo Puusepa arvamused

Labi, Andres, 1977-

2013-01-01

102

Kommest Auto ostmisest huvitub ka Hillar Teder / Andres Eilart  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Kommest Auto ostmise vastu tunnevad huvi suurärimees Andres Sarri, Rootsis Peugeot' sõidukeid müüv Taani päritolu K. W. Bruun Import ja multimiljonär Hillar Teder, kellele kuulub Audisid müüv Reval Auto

Eilart, Andres

2008-01-01

103

Vinovnõm sebja ne stshitaju / Andres Bergmann ; interv. Vassili Bõvalõi  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Tartu vanglas karistust kandev endine ERA panga omanik, üks Eesti Erastamisagentuuri loojatest Andres Bergmann oma päritolust, haridusteest, äritegevusest, ERA panga loomisest, olukorrast Eesti panganduses ning vanglasse sattumise põhjustest, hinnangutest erastamisprotsessidele

Bergmann, Andres, 1959-2010

2005-01-01

104

Space Place LIve! with Andre Dress  

Science.gov (United States)

This episode of the Space Place Live animated talk show features an interview with Andre Dress, the Deputy Project Manager for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) program. During the course of the interview, viewers are introduced to the GOES program and its role in studying the sun, solar flares, weather and our atmosphere. The term geostationary is also explained. Cartoon characters present their own brief talk show from the Space Place Clubhouse. The show presents space program scientists and engineers as role models for kids and encourages them to pursue their dreams. Guests present a short science or technology concept, and also talk about their job, their hobbies, and how they became interested in a career in science or engineering.

105

Europan 7 Eestis : Lasnamäe. Pärnu / Tiit Trummal, Andres Kurg  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Võistluse "Äärelinna võimalus, linnalik intensiivsus ja elamise mitmekesisus" Eesti-Rootsi ühisžüriis Eestist Urmas Muru, Tiit Trummal, Andres Kurg. Tallinna Lasnamäe (14 tööd) ja Pärnu (47 tööd) võistlusalast, võitnud tööde arhitektide loetelu ja võitnud töödest. Lasnamäe: I preemia - autor hispaanlane Andres Fernandes Atela, kaasautorid prantslased Mathieu Andrieu ja Iman Morshedi. Pärnu: I preemia - autorid rumeenlane Oana-Maria Bogdan, ameeriklane Susan Kelly Shannon, argentiinlane Laura Vescina, hispaanlased Juny Llach ja Parra Colacios

Trummal, Tiit, 1954-

2004-01-01

106

The Flora of Ze?evo (Hvar Archipelago, Croatia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The islet of Ze?evo belongs to Hvar Archipelago and it is situated two kilometres north-east of Vrboska on the island of Hvar (Croatia. The area of islet is protected as a Significant landscape. During vegetation periods from 2006 to 2010 a total of 216 vascular plant taxa were recorded. From those, 12 taxa were recorded for Hvar Archipelago for the first time. The taxa were classified within 65 families and 161 genera. The most abundant families are legumes (Fabaceae 13%, daisies (Asteraceae s.l. 9.2%, grasses (Poaceae 8.3% and mints (Lamiaceae 5.1%. According to the analysis of life forms the largest portion of therophytes (45.4% and hemicryptophytes (21.3% were found. Phytogeographical analysis reveals predominance of the Mediterranean fl oral element (63.4%, followed by widespread plants (12.5% and Euro-Asian floral element (9.7%. Five endemics and five endangered species were recorded, among them three are vulnerable (VU: Ophrys bertolonii Moretti, O. sphegodes Mill., Salsola kali L. and two are endangered (EN: Glaucium flavum Crantz and Carex extensa Gooden. Three rare plant species of Croatian flora: Ophrys liburnica Devillers et Devillers-Tersch, Scaligeria cretica (Mill. Boiss. and Narcissus serotinus L. were found.

Mario Skelin

2014-09-01

107

The Idea of the Archipelago: Contemplating Island Relations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Creative, innovative, and timely research on islands and island futures is warranted and pressing, not least because island(ers are poorly served by established tropes of them as subordinate to continents or mainlands. Opportunities exist to provide a more thoroughgoing account of island life and island relations, and the seven papers in this special issue address that task. In works that consider islands in the Timor Sea, the Caribbean, the Pacific, Atlantic and Southern Oceans, and that span several different disciplinary frames—archival-historical, critical theoretical, literary, cultural, geopolitical, sociological and artistic—these papers evidence both the diversity of approach to thinking with the archipelago, and numerous points in common. Among the latter is an understanding that island relations are built on connection, assemblage, mobility, and multiplicity, and a commitment to critically examine the ways in which these entanglements affect and give effect to island life. The models of island relationality brought to light by this collective focus on the archipelago reveal new and diverse connections of island peoples with their physical and cultural environments, and with the world beyond; create spaces for growing resilience, association and engagement; and invite further study.

Elaine Stratford

2013-05-01

108

Mapping Human Genetic Diversity on the Japanese Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Japanese people are one of the most important populations for studying the origin and diversification of East Asian populations. As an island population, the Japanese's path of migration is a long-standing controversy. Archeological evidence suggests that there were at least two waves of migration to the Japanese archipelago in prehistory: the Paleolithic and Neolithic Jomonese as well as the Aeneolithic Yayoiese. However, the contributions of these Jomonese and Yayoiese to the contemporary Japanese population remain unclear. In this article, we provide evidence from human genetics as a new approach to addressing this topic. At the beginning, we introduce the history of human migration to the Japanese archipelago, as well as materials and methods human geneticists use. Subsequently, we tested three distinct population expansion models using evidences from recent human genetic studies on the Japanese, East Asian, and Serbian populations. Finally, we conclude that the contemporary main island Japanese are the result of population admixture of Jomonese, Yayoiese, and Han Chinese, which consists with the Admixture model.

Qi-Liang Ding

2011-11-01

109

Eesti Energia juhid : oma tuumajaam tuleks teha / Raine Pajo, Andres Tropp ; interv. Viljar Rääsk  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Eesti Energia juhatuse liige, elektri ja soojuse tootmise valdkonna juht Raine Pajo ja tuumaenergeetika osakonna juhataja Andres Tropp arutlevad Eestisse oma tuumajaama rajamise vajalikkuse üle. Lisa: Raine Pajo; Andres Tropp

Pajo, Raine, 1976-

2008-01-01

110

Baseline assessment of the reef fish assemblage from Cagarras Archipelago, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil  

OpenAIRE

The extensive Brazilian coast comprises diverse reef fish communities. Here, we report a pioneer study on the reef fish community composition of the Cagarras Archipelago. This rocky reef system consists of a small group of coastal islands 5 km south off Ipanema Beach, Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. A relatively diverse and disturbed fish community (99 species from 39 families) was found in this archipelago. Two different visual census techniques were utilized and a large difference was observed...

Rangel, Carlos A.; Chaves, Lai?s C. T.; Cassiano Monteiro-Neto

2007-01-01

111

Phenotypic differentiation and genetic diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from vineyards of the Azores Archipelago  

OpenAIRE

This work aims to evaluate diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from vineyards of the Azores Archipelago and to estimate the degree of phenotypic and genetic differentiation among geographically isolated islands. During two consecutive years, 163 grape musts were obtained from grape samples collected in eight islands of the Archipelago, that belonged to traditional (Arinto, Verdelho and Terrantez) and hybrid grape varieties. The sampling plan included vineyards in appellations of ...

Neves, J. Drumonde; Lima, Maria Teresa; Schuller, Dorit

2012-01-01

112

Introduced guppies being the first record of freshwater fish on the Cape Verdean archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Cape Verdean islands form a distinct aquatic freshwater ecoregion characterised by mainly temporal water bodies with an adapted invertebrate community. Freshwater fish were not yet recorded from the archipelago. During a non-exhaustive screen of freshwater bodies on five islands of the archipelago, the first presence of freshwater fish was recorded in an artificial reservoir. Using barcoding sequences, the species was identified to be introduced guppies (Poecilia reticulata, a highly invasive species.

Kay Lucek

2013-03-01

113

Introduced guppies being the first record of freshwater fish on the Cape Verdean archipelago  

OpenAIRE

The Cape Verdean islands form a distinct aquatic freshwater ecoregion characterised by mainly temporal water bodies with an adapted invertebrate community. Freshwater fish were not yet recorded from the archipelago. During a non-exhaustive screen of freshwater bodies on five islands of the archipelago, the first presence of freshwater fish was recorded in an artificial reservoir. Using barcoding sequences, the species was identified to be introduced guppies (Poecilia reticulata), ...

Kay Lucek; Mélissa Lemoine

2013-01-01

114

Microbial Inoculantes Effects on Growth Promotion of Mangrove and Citrullus vulgaris San Andrés Isla, Colombia Efecto de los inoculantes microbianos sobre la promoción de crecimiento de plantulas de mangle y plantas de Citrullus vulgaris San Andrés Isla, Colombia  

OpenAIRE

In order to test the effect of two microbial inoculants (obtained from red and black mangrove roots) on the growth and stability of mangrove and watermelon plants, four treatments were carried out in San Andres Island, Colombia. The treatments consisted in the application of the inoculants in: A. germinans propagules collected in a mangrove area, and then individually planted in gavels with sun-pasteurized soil (in order to decrease the microbial load), A. germinans and R. mangle plants colle...

Galindo Tania; Holguín Gina; Polanía Jaime; Vanegas Javier; Sánchez Jimena; Moreno Nubia

2006-01-01

115

Structural Analysis of the Louisiade Archipelago, Southeastern Papua New Guinea  

Science.gov (United States)

The Louisiade Archipelago lies on the southern rifted margin of the Woodlark Basin in SE Papua New Guinea. Field work in the Calvados Chain and on Sudest and Rossel Islands was undertaken to investigate possible correlations with high and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks exposed in the D’Entrecasteaux Islands exhumed ahead of the westward-propagating seafloor spreading rift tip. Data from the Louisiade Archipelago are critical for evaluating the transition from subduction to rifting in the region and thus for testing models for the exhumation of high-ultrahigh-pressure rocks in southeastern Papua New Guinea. The Calvados Schist, most commonly represented by fine-grained phyllite recording recrystallization at lower greenschist-facies, is the predominant rock type in the Louisiade Archipelago. Protoliths include siltstone, shale, sandstone, pebbly sandstone, and minor conglomerate. Minor metamorphosed mafic intrusives are also present. Primary bedding is apparent locally and up to three, but more typically two, generations of foliations are discernable. S1 foliations locally correspond to compositional banding and closely parallel S0. S1-S3 foliations principally dip shallowly-moderately to the NE. Regionally, poles to foliation define a girdle about subhorizontally ESE plunging folds. S2 foliations, commonly the dominant fabric, were observed to be axial planar at several localities. Quartz veins are prevalent and locally concordant with S1 foliations and folded during S2 foliation development. S1-S2 foliations are locally cross-cut by quartz veins/tension gashes of which a subset fits with WNW-ESE extension. Both mineral and intersection lineations plunge shallowly ESE, parallel to fold hinges. The initial analysis suggests subsequent foliation development during progressive deformation. Meta-mafic lithologies were observed on Sudest and Rossel Islands. On Rossel Island, serpentinized ultramafic rocks structurally above and in fault contact with the Calvados Schist may constitute a klippe of the Papuan Ultramafic Belt. Low angle faults with both top-to-the-NE and top-to-the-SW kinematic indicators were observed at the base of the ultramafic unit on western Rossel Island, possibly reflecting that the fault was reactivated (e.g., thrust fault reactivated as a normal fault). Gabbro and unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks intruded by mafic dikes observed on western Rossel Island may also constitute upper plate lithologies. Calcite veins crosscutting mafic and ultramafic lithologies in the upper plate generally fit with NE-SW extension. Preliminary analyses of fault-slip data reveal the presence of a population of faults that crosscut both the ultramafic rocks and Calvados Schist (inferred upper and lower plates). The faults are dominated by NE-striking sinistral faults associated with N-S compression and E-W extension. Fault slip analyses from the low angle normal faults at the base of the ultramafic unit are consistent with subvertical WSW compression and subhorizontal ENE extension. The results of this work will be evaluated in the context of the active tectonic framework and the along-strike record of evolution of the Woodlark Rift.

Webb, L. E.; Baldwin, S.; Fitzgerald, P. G.; Castellani, L.; Zirakparvar, N. A.

2009-12-01

116

Nuclear and mitochondrial sequences confirm complex colonization patterns and clear species boundaries for flightless weevils in the Galápagos archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nuclear sequence data were collected from endemic Galápagos species and an introduced close relative, and contrasted with mitochondrial DNA sequences, continuing investigation into the colonization history and modes of diversification in the weevil genus Galapaganus. The current combined phylogeny together with previously published penalized likelihood age estimates builds a complex picture of the archipelago's colonization history. The present reconstruction relies on submerged platforms to explain the early divergence of the young southern Isabela endemics or the Española or San Cristobal populations. Diversity is later built through inter-island divergence starting on older islands and continuing on two simultaneous tracks towards younger islands. The amount of diversity generated through intra-island processes is skewed towards older islands, suggesting that island age significantly influences diversity. Phylogenetic concordance between nuclear and mitochondrial datasets and well-supported monophyletic species in mitochondrial derived topologies appear to reject the possibility of inter-species hybridization. These clear species boundaries might be related to the tight host associations of adult weevils in discrete ecological zones. If shared hosts facilitate hybridization, then host- or habitat-promoted divergences could prevent it, even in the case of species that share islands, since the altitudinal partitioning of habitats minimizes range overlap. PMID:18765362

Sequeira, A S; Sijapati, M; Lanteri, A A; Roque Albelo, L

2008-10-27

117

Tallinna Lennujaama kauba- ja tolliterminaal. Lennujaama 2, Tallinn / Andres Põime  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Kaubateeninduskeskuse puhul on tegemist suure, plaanimõõtudes 36x102 meetrise metallkonstruktsioonis, sandwich tüüpi paneelidega kaetud laohoonega, kus ühelt poolt tuuakse tollitav kaup lennukitelt sisse ja teiselt poolt viiakse tollitud kaup välja. Peatöövõtja : Normanni Linnagrupi AS. Ehitaja : Merko. Peaprojekteerija : K-Projekt. Arhitektuurne lahendus : Stuudio 3. Arhitekt Andres Põime ; töögrupp Vivian Oruvee, Tiiu Raudsepp, Reet Põime. Projekt 1997-98, valmis 1998.

Põime, Andres

1998-01-01

118

Baltoscandal on lõppenud, uued mõtted on saadud / Andres Keil  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Eesti teater oli Baltoscandalil koondatud olematu teatri mõiste alla. Andres Noormetsa "Reunioon", Mart Kangro ja Ansambel U "Mäng", Marco Laimre "Vangistus", Asko Künnapi "Säälpool jõge", Anders Härmi "Cooking and Shitting", Sven Kuntu "Miks Eesti mehed ei tantsi?", Linnar Priimäe "Inimese lõhn"

Keil, Andres, 1974-

2006-01-01

119

Väikesed kiirlaevad tulevad Soome lahele tagasi / Andres Reimer  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Väikesed kiirlaevafirmad on lahkunud Tallinna-Helsingi liinilt, samas on Nordic Jetline'il endiselt 2009. a. kaibroneering Tallinna sadamas. LindaLine toob Eestisse uue katamaraani. Tallinki juhatuse liige Andres Hunt ja Viking Line'i Eesti juht Inno Borodenko kiirlaevaliinide lahkumise põhjustest. Diagramm, graafik. Kommenteerib Sari Hujanen

Reimer, Andres

2008-01-01

120

"Octagon Magic": Andre Norton and Revitalizing the Girls' Book.  

Science.gov (United States)

Argues that Andre Norton's "Octagon Magic" is neither a conventional girls' book, nor a witch tale, nor a time fantasy but rather a unique coming-of-age story best understood within the context of theorists such as Carol Gilligan, Mary Belenk, and Jean Baker Miller. (TB)

Dressel, Janice Hartwick; Molson, Francis J.

1996-01-01

121

Alien mink predation induces prolonged declines in archipelago amphibians.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amphibians are undergoing enigmatic global declines variously attributed to a complex web of anthropogenic forces. Alien predators pose a fundamental threat to biodiversity generally that is predicted to be most acute in island ecosystems. While amphibian eggs and tadpoles are vulnerable to aquatic predators, the effect of predators on adult, reproducing frogs, which most influence amphibian population processes, is unknown. Here, we report on the responses of amphibian populations in the outer Finnish Archipelago to a long-term, large-scale removal of American mink (Mustela vison Schreb.), an invasive predator linked to recent biodiversity loss across Europe. Removal increased both the densities and distribution of common frogs (Rana temporaria L.) but not those of common toads (Bufo bufo L.), which appear to escape mink predation because of their unpalatable skin. Importantly, the largest benefits of mink removal to frog recovery were slow to appear as frogs apparently have a delayed maturation in these harsh environments, which means we must be cautious about reliance upon short-term results. PMID:16720400

Ahola, Markus; Nordström, Mikael; Banks, Peter B; Laanetu, Nikolai; Korpimäki, Erkki

2006-05-22

122

Historical ecology of the Raja Ampat Archipelago, Papua Province, Indonesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work presents a review of the status of marine resources of the Raja Ampat Archipelago, Papua Province, Indonesia, based on narratives of early European expeditions in various museums and libraries in Europe, Canada, and local archives in Papua. More than 500 pertinent documents on the study area were identified and located in various European museums and at the University of British Columbia library. About half of these were scanned (25,000 pages), which yielded the equivalent of 900 pages of text (or 4% of the total number of pages scanned) with observations on abundance and impact of the human population on the marine ecosystem within 2 degrees North and 2 degrees South between 127 degrees and 132 degrees East. In general, these observations, which spanned the period from 1810 to the present, suggest a decrease in the perceived occurrences of turtles, fish, and invertebrates; perceived abundance of turtles, fish, and algae; percieved subsistence exploitation of marine resources; and an increase in perceived commercial exploitation of marine resources. We conclude with a discussion of the problems and potential of contents analysis, and its use in the historical reconstruction of broad biodiversity trends. PMID:18411836

Palomares, Maria Lourdes D; Heymans, Johanna J; Pauly, Daniel

2007-01-01

123

Characterisation of a basin mire in the Azores archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Azores archipelago in the North Atlantic is an extremely important area for biodiversity because it is rich in rare species and habitats, and almost undisturbed. The Lagoa do Madruga is a small basin mire located at 956 m a.s.l. on Santa Bárbara Mountain, Terceira Island. It is an extremely good example of a peatland type that was first discovered in 1998, and has not previously been described in the international literature. This paper provides baseline information on its flora, vegetation communities, structure and hydrology. Thirty-one plant species including eight Sphagnum species and nine endemic vascular plants have been recorded, and four plant communities are distinguished. The maximum peat depth is three metres. The mire receives flowing water from its margins and from a small stream entering at its eastern end, in addition to intercepted precipitation and fog. The accumulated water forms pools and soakways which feed other wetlands downstream. The conservation status of the mire is good, but it is subject to increasing pressure from garbage generated during maintenance operations at a nearby antenna array.

E. Dias

2007-10-01

124

Promotional archipelagoes of change. Spatial analysis of Dinosauro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the last decades, the post industrial Latin American cities have become important economic centers in the world. Their integration into the world economy helped those cities become in the favorite places for the linking functions and activities to the world nets of commerce, productions culture, etc. These urban centers which are expanding gradually into segmented developing areas have caused an apparent space duality between the private and public activities as it can be seen though the differential access to goods and services by the society. At present, there has been an increase in cultural activities which form change promoting archipelagoes subject to several dimensions of analysis. The inequity in the distribution of economic and educational resources causes unequal ways of access to consumption of these areas of cultural production, and of goods and services, what gives place to situations of social exclusion and inclusion. To understand this fact related to money behavior, we have selected an area situated in the northwest of Cordoba capital city, in Argentina, which is a shopping mall called Dinosaurio Group. In this essay we present an exploration into the conflicts caused to the cities through the expansion of the segmented urban centers, promoters of change, and its relationship with the public and private space.

125

A conservation strategy in San Andres Island: school projects and values in environmental education  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the scope of showing and preserving an island endangered species, the Swanka turtle, a campaign and an environmental education program were conducted. The campaign consisted in showing the species to the community, its characteristics and its threats, through mass media and visits to different local schools. The environmental education program was carried out through a Scholar Environmental Project, which consisted on the conformation of an environmental group, where cognitive, attitudinal and participative aspects were worked together. Using a constrictive methodology the children developed some knowledge about the species and Its habitats. The scope was that they modified attitudes and behaviors towards situations that contribute to environmental damage; the reinforcement of values was the central point during all the activities. The knowledge gained by the pupils and the observed changes on their attitudes and participation show the positive results that arise when the action of environmental education focuses on the people and not the resources that are to be preserved

126

Geochemistry of Isla Santa Cruz, Galapagos Archipelago, Ecuador  

Science.gov (United States)

The geochemistry of Galapagos volcanoes extends to more depleted signatures than most hotspots, and do not appear to follow a classical tholeiitic to alkalic evolutionary sequence (i.e., Hawaiian Islands). Thus far, no such predictable sequence has been identified for Galapagos volcanoes. Isla Santa Cruz is one of the oldest volcanoes in the archipelago. Bow (1979) identified 3 volcanic stages: the Platform Series, the Shield Series, and the Shield-Modifying stage. The Platform Series defines a liquid line of descent that differs from the one shared by the Shield and Shield-Modifying units, which are genetically related to each other. Within the Shield and Shield-Modifying lavas, K2O/TiO2 ratios reveal three distinct compositional sub-groups: 1) a MORB-like, low-K suite (0.25). These 3 sub-groups are geographically distributed across the island; the low-K suite is only in the north, whereas the alkaline suite constitutes the center highlands and the tholeiitic suite is on the eastern and northern flanks. Variations in La/Sm and Sm/Yb indicate that the magmas supplying the Shield and Shield-Modifying units were generated over a wide range of melting conditions: the alkaline suite melts were generated at the greatest depths and from the smallest melt fraction of the three suites, whereas the low-K suite originates from shallower, greater extents of melting; the tholeiitic lavas were generated at depths intermediate between the other 2 sub-groups. None of the lavas from Santa Cruz resemble material erupted at Fernandina volcano, the presumed center of the plume; radiogenic isotope ratios from previous research indicate that all Santa Cruz lavas are significantly more depleted than western Galapagos lavas. The ~1.2 Ma Platform Series is the most enriched of the Santa Cruz units. The Shield and Shield-Modifying lavas are all shifted towards more depleted signatures, approaching those of MORB, in terms of isotopic and incompatible trace element ratios and were erupted approximately 0.5 Ma. We consider several working hypotheses to explain these observations. First, lavas collected on Santa Cruz may be a late rejuvenescent phase, dominated by melting of the depleted upper mantle. Santa Cruz, however, is located too close to the plume center to have been generated via either of the prevailing rejuvenescence volcanism models (Bianco et al., 2005; Ribe & Christensen, 1999). An alternative hypothesis to explain the depleted signatures at Santa Cruz is that the lithosphere underlying the island is shallower than it is beneath the western archipelago, lengthening melt columns to shallower depths and allowing greater melt amounts of depleted upper mantle. Finally, it is possible that when Santa Cruz was forming ~3 million years ago, the plume center was located closer to the GSC, resulting in dilution of plume material by ridge-related magmas. In our presentation, we assess these models in light of new major and trace element data from fieldwork on Santa Cruz.

Wilson, E. L.; Schwartz, D. M.; Van Kirk, R.; Harpp, K.

2012-12-01

127

Littoral Decapods of Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Decapod community inhabiting the rocky littoral of eight bays from Socorro island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, was studied during March 1992. Samples were collected from one-square meter plots placed following transects drawn perpendicularly to the shoreline along the intertidal zone. Species richness and abundance were determined in each bay, as well as the similarity between bays using Morisita’s index. Organisms collected belong to six families, 20 genera and 26 species of the Brachyura and Anomura infraorders. Xanthidae was the family with the highest number of species, and the highest species richness was recorded at the V. Lozano bay. Pachygrapsus transversus, Xanthodius cooksoni and Calcinus explorator were the most abundant species in nearly all localities. Dendrogram obtained define two groups of bays at a similarity level above 0.67, given the similarity in the crab’s species richness and their abundance between bays in the island.Se estudió la comunidad de cangrejos del litoral rocoso de ocho bahías de la Isla Socorro, Archipiélago Revillagigedo en marzo de 1992. Las muestras fueron colectadas en cuadrantes de un m² a lo largo de transectos perpendiculares a la costa en la zona intermareal. Se determinó la riqueza específica, la abundancia por especie para cada bahía, así como la similitud entre bahías mediante el índice de Morisita. Los organismos colectados pertenecen a seis familias, 20 géneros y 26 especies de los infraordenes Brachyura y Anomura. La familia con el mayor número de especies fue Xanthidae y la mayor riqueza específica se registró en la bahía V. Lozano. Pachygrapsus transversus, Xanthodius cooksoni y Calcinus explorator fueron las más abundantes en casi todas las localidades. En el dendrograma se definen dos agrupaciones con nivel de similitud superior a 0.67, dada la semejanza en la riqueza específica de cangrejos y las abundancias entre las bahías.

Silvia Mille-Pagaza

2003-03-01

128

Lapsevanemad protestivad KG-s 1. klassi võtmise katsete alusel / Andres Sepp  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Kuressaare Gümnaasiumist välja jäänud 7-aastase poisi vanemad Meeli ja Andres Lauk kutsuvad oma protestiga ühinema kõiki teisi lapsevanemaid, kes peavad õigustamatuks laste kooli võtmist katsete alusel

Sepp, Andres, 1976-

2004-01-01

129

Räämashall Vana kalmistu on õhtune õuduste paik / Helga Koger, Ardalion Keskküla, Andres Põder  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Pärnu Vana kalmistu ajaloost, muinsuskaiselisest väärtusest ning rekonstrueerimisest haljastusarhitekt Piret Müüripeali projekti järgi; Pärnu endise peaarhitekti Maie Kaisi, praost Andres Põderi ja preester Ardalion Keskküla kommentaarid

Koger, Helga, 1945-

2000-01-01

130

Film, ruum ja narratiiv : "Mis juhtus Andres Lapeteusega?" ning "Viini postmark" / Eva Näripea  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Analüüsitakse narratiivi aegruumi loomise viise juhtumi analüüsi vormis, vaadeldes kaht eesti mängufilmi : G. Kromanovi "Mis juhtus Andres Lapeteusega?" (Tallinnfilm, 1966) ja Veljo Käsperi "Viini postmark" (Tallinnfilm, 1967)

Näripea, Eva, 1980-

2011-01-01

131

Film, ruum ja narratiiv : "Mis juhtus Andres Lapeteusega?" ning "Viini postmark" / Eva Näripea  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Analüüsitakse narratiivi aegruumi loomise viise juhtumi analüüsi vormis, vaadeldes kaht eesti mängufilmi : G. Kromanovi "Mis juhtus Andres Lapeteusega?" (Tallinnfilm, 1966) ja Veljo Käsperi "Viini postmark" (Tallinnfilm, 1967)

Näripea, Eva

2006-01-01

132

Kildu ei unusta oma head koolidirektorit / Aimur Joandi, Andres Marand, Enn Siimer  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Tänavu 29. veebruaril oleks saanud 100-aastaseks Kildu kooli kauaaegne direktor ja muusikaõpetaja Herman Avent. Omaaegset koolijuhti meenutavad ka vilistlane Andres Marand ja praegune direktor Enn Siimer

Joandi, Aimur, 1948-2014

2009-01-01

133

Eestis saab professoriks igaüks / Andres Keevallik, Mart Susi ; küsitles Ede Schank  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Intervjuu Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli rektori Andres Keevalliku ja Concordia Rahvusvahelise rektori Mart Susiga : Eesti kõrgharidusmaastikust, kõrghariduspoliitikast, riigitellimusest kõrgkoolidele, eraülikoolide kohast Eesti kõrghariduses

Keevallik, Andres, 1943-

2001-01-01

134

Läänemere strateegia arvestab kodanike ettepanekutega / Jose Palma Andres ; interv. Erkki Bahovski  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Euroopa Komisjoni regionaalpoliitika peadirektoraadi direktor Jose Palma Andres vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad avalikku debatti Läänemere strateegia üle ning Venemaa partnerlust Läänemere strateegias. Lisa: [Läänemere strateegia

Palma Andres, Jose

2008-01-01

135

Estudo fitoquímico, alelopático e antimicrobiano de Acacia longifolia Andr. (Willd.).  

OpenAIRE

Resumo: Acacia longifolia (Andr.) Willd. é uma espécie nativa da Austrália, encontrada na região Sul do Brasil, utilizada como ornamento e fixadora de dunas de areia. Por meio de CLAE semipreparativa realizada com a fração Acetato de Etila obtida a partir de um extrato etanólico das flores foi isolada uma substância pura. A análise espectroscópica (UV, 1H e 13C RMN) seguida de hidrólise e CCD comparativa da porção osídica com açucares conhecidos permitiu a identificação desta...

Peitz, Cristina; Kerber, Vitor Alberto; Miguel, Obdu?lio Gomes

2003-01-01

136

Tidsserie afkodning af RMDS data - og andre værktøjer/biblioteker  

OpenAIRE

Projektet omhandler udviklingen af et bibliotek (eller API) – der kan benyttes af andre udviklere som derved kan: • Afkode Reuters TS1 data • Afkode TS1 kæder • Afkode exchange regler samt indhente informationssider. Biblioteket skal testes og dokumenteres i Javadoc, derudover – da produktet benytter sig af Reuters Foundation API – skal det være thread-safe. Derudover skal der udvikles et GUI baseret testværktøj, som kan hjælpe udviklere med at se på a...

Madsen, Stefan Holm

2008-01-01

137

On the Andre-Oort conjecture for Hilbert modular surfaces  

OpenAIRE

We prove, assuming the generalized Riemann hypothesis, the Andre-Oort conjecture for Hilbert modular surfaces. More precisely, let K be a real quadratic field and let S be the coarse moduli space of complex abelian surfaces with multiplications by the ring of integers of K. Let C be an irreducible closed curve in S, and suppose that C contains infinitely many complex multiplication points. Then we prove, assuming GRH, that C is of Hodge type, meaning, in this case, that it p...

Edixhoven, Bas

1999-01-01

138

Composition of volatile oil, isolated from Duchesnea Indica (Andr. Focke  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The herbage of mock strawberry, Duchesnea indica (Andr. Focke, Rosaceae, on hydro distillation yields an aromatic pale yellow oil (0.1%. GC-MS analysis revealed that the herb essential oil contained carvacryl acetate (30.5%, valencene (7.6%, nona-hexacontanoic acid (7.2%, aristalone (5.3%, dehydro-aromadendrene (4.6%, eicosane (4.1%, and 2-hexa-decan-ol (4.1%, as major components.

Umesh B

2006-01-01

139

Mangrove forest composition and structure in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem that provides many services, but in Panama, as in other countries, they are under threat due to a variety of human activities. Nowadays, large areas of mangroves continue to be lost without been described and lack of management strategies. This study focused on the mangrove structure in the two largest islands, Isla del Rey and Isla San Jose, of Las Perlas Archipelago (LPA, Pacific Panama. Assessment of Landsat satellite imagery revealed loss of mangroves in the LPA of 965ha in the period 1974-1986, and 248ha in the period 1986-2000. The majority of the loss (>77% from the two study islands was due to timber extraction and agricultural development. In May 2006, permanent plots following the CARICOMP protocol were established at two sites on Isla del Rey (R1 and R2 and one site on Isla San Jose (SJ where standardized metrics such as species, height and diameter at breast height of adult trees and seedlings were recorded. Forest structure differed at the three sites, although R1 and R2 were most similar. At R1, Laguncularia racemosa was the important species and R2 was dominated by Pelliciera rhizophorae. Examination of the forest structure and classified imagery indicated that these sites are spatially dynamic and appear to be rejuvenating. The forest structure would indicate that the sites have been growth-limited previously by human activities and possibly by other factors. SJ was dominated by Rhizophora mangle and appears to have a mature forest with large adult trees and few seedlings. It does not appear to have shown the same extent of spatial regrowth as the other two sites between 1986 and 2000 and is relatively static. The establishment of permanent plots and monitoring will be useful as part of the management plan, as the LPA shows a variety of mangrove structures and could be subject to further coastal development. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3: 857-869. Epub 2010 September 01.Los bosques de manglar son ecosistemas importantes que proveen muchos servicios, pero éstos están bajo la amenaza de una variedad de actividades humanas y grandes áreas de manglar continúan perdiéndose en Panamá. Este estudio está enfocado en la estructura de manglar de las dos islas más grandes del Archipiélago de Las Perlas en el Pacifico Panameño (LPA, la Isla del Rey y la Isla San José. La evaluación de las imágenes del satélite Landsat revela la pérdida de manglares en LPA de 965ha en el periodo entre 1974-1986, y de 286ha en el periodo 1986-2000. La mayor parte de la pérdida (>77% en las dos islas estudiadas fue debida a la extracción de madera y al desarrollo agrícola. En mayo de 2006, se establecieron parcelas permanentes siguiendo el protocolo de CARICOMP en dos sitios en la isla del Rey (R1 y R2 y un sitio en la Isla San José (SJ donde especies, altura y diámetro a la altura de la copa de árboles adultos y jóvenes fueron registradas. La estructura del bosque difirió en los tres sitios, sin embargo R1 y R2 fueron los más similares. En R1, Laguncularia racemosa fue la especie más dominante y Pelliceria rhizophora en R2. El análisis de la estructura del bosque y de imágenes clasificadas indicó que estos sitios son espacialmente dinámicos y parecen estar regenerándose. La estructura del bosque indica que el crecimiento en los sitios ha estado limitado por las actividades humanas y posiblemente por otros factores. SJ fue dominado por Rhizophora mangle y parece tener un bosque maduro con árboles adultos grandes y pocos jóvenes. Éste sitio no parece mostrar la misma extensión de rebrote espacial de los otros dos sitios entre 1986-2000 y es relativamente estático. El establecimiento de parcelas permanentes y el monitoreo serán útiles en la implementación del plan de manejo, ya que los manglares del LPA tienen una variedad estructural y podrían estar sujetos a un mayor desarrollo costero.

Tom McGowan

2010-09-01

140

Mangrove forest composition and structure in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los bosques de manglar son ecosistemas importantes que proveen muchos servicios, pero éstos están bajo la amenaza de una variedad de actividades humanas y grandes áreas de manglar continúan perdiéndose en Panamá. Este estudio está enfocado en la estructura de manglar de las dos islas más grandes del [...] Archipiélago de Las Perlas en el Pacifico Panameño (LPA), la Isla del Rey y la Isla San José. La evaluación de las imágenes del satélite Landsat revela la pérdida de manglares en LPA de 965ha en el periodo entre 1974-1986, y de 286ha en el periodo 1986-2000. La mayor parte de la pérdida (>77%) en las dos islas estudiadas fue debida a la extracción de madera y al desarrollo agrícola. En mayo de 2006, se establecieron parcelas permanentes siguiendo el protocolo de CARICOMP en dos sitios en la isla del Rey (R1 y R2) y un sitio en la Isla San José (SJ) donde especies, altura y diámetro a la altura de la copa de árboles adultos y jóvenes fueron registradas. La estructura del bosque difirió en los tres sitios, sin embargo R1 y R2 fueron los más similares. En R1, Laguncularia racemosa fue la especie más dominante y Pelliceria rhizophora en R2. El análisis de la estructura del bosque y de imágenes clasificadas indicó que estos sitios son espacialmente dinámicos y parecen estar regenerándose. La estructura del bosque indica que el crecimiento en los sitios ha estado limitado por las actividades humanas y posiblemente por otros factores. SJ fue dominado por Rhizophora mangle y parece tener un bosque maduro con árboles adultos grandes y pocos jóvenes. Éste sitio no parece mostrar la misma extensión de rebrote espacial de los otros dos sitios entre 1986-2000 y es relativamente estático. El establecimiento de parcelas permanentes y el monitoreo serán útiles en la implementación del plan de manejo, ya que los manglares del LPA tienen una variedad estructural y podrían estar sujetos a un mayor desarrollo costero. Abstract in english Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem that provides many services, but in Panama, as in other countries, they are under threat due to a variety of human activities. Nowadays, large areas of mangroves continue to be lost without been described and lack of management strategies. This study focused [...] on the mangrove structure in the two largest islands, Isla del Rey and Isla San Jose, of Las Perlas Archipelago (LPA), Pacific Panama. Assessment of Landsat satellite imagery revealed loss of mangroves in the LPA of 965ha in the period 1974-1986, and 248ha in the period 1986-2000. The majority of the loss (>77%) from the two study islands was due to timber extraction and agricultural development. In May 2006, permanent plots following the CARICOMP protocol were established at two sites on Isla del Rey (R1 and R2) and one site on Isla San Jose (SJ) where standardized metrics such as species, height and diameter at breast height of adult trees and seedlings were recorded. Forest structure differed at the three sites, although R1 and R2 were most similar. At R1, Laguncularia racemosa was the important species and R2 was dominated by Pelliciera rhizophorae. Examination of the forest structure and classified imagery indicated that these sites are spatially dynamic and appear to be rejuvenating. The forest structure would indicate that the sites have been growth-limited previously by human activities and possibly by other factors. SJ was dominated by Rhizophora mangle and appears to have a mature forest with large adult trees and few seedlings. It does not appear to have shown the same extent of spatial regrowth as the other two sites between 1986 and 2000 and is relatively static. The establishment of permanent plots and monitoring will be useful as part of the management plan, as the LPA shows a variety of mangrove structures and could be subject to further coastal development. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3): 857-869. Epub 2010 September 01.

Tom, McGowan; Sarah L, Cunningham; Héctor M, Guzmán; James M, Mair; José M, Guevara; Tanja, Betts.

2010-09-01

141

Megachile timberlakei Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): Yet another adventive bee species to the Galapagos Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The Galapagos Archipelago has been thought to be extremely depauperate in bees, with only one species known, Xylocopa darwini. Recently a second species, Anthidium vigintiduopunctatum, was detected. Here we document a third species, Megachile timberlakei. We provide floral records as well as a dia...

142

Anthidium vigintiduopunctatum Friese (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): The elusive "dwarf bee" of the Galapagos Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The endemic large carpenter bee, Xylocopa darwini Cockerell, was the only known bee pollinator to the Galapagos Archipelago but as early as 1964 locals also spoke of the "dwarf bee of Floreana". We report the presence of the wool carder bee, Anthidium vigintiduopunctatum Friese, on the island of Fl...

143

Dissemination of antibiotic resistant Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli from wild birds of Azores Archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antibiotic-resistant is profoundly important to human and animal health, but the environmental reservoirs of resistance determinants are poorly understood, in particular in wild environments in remote Archipelagos. Moreover, the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in wild bird populations is rather unknown. In the present study, we used the Azores Islands as a model study for antimicrobial resistance in a remote Archipelago, and examined the antibiotic resistance profile in enterococci and Escherichia coli recovered from faecal samples of wild birds collected in this Archipelago. A total of 138 enterococci and 115 E. coli isolates were analyzed for resistance to antimicrobial agents. Of the enterococcal isolates, Enterococcus faecalis was the most prevalent detected species (59 isolates), followed by Enterococcus faecium (40 isolates), Enterococcus durans (27 isolates) and Enterococcus hirae (12 isolates). The enterococci strains showed high percentages of resistance to tetracycline (32.6%), to ciprofloxacin (19.6%) and to erythromycin (11.6%). Lower level of resistance (Azores Archipelago and the possible implications involved in transferring these resistances either to other animals or to humans. PMID:24047647

Santos, Tiago; Silva, Nuno; Igrejas, Gilberto; Rodrigues, Pedro; Micael, Joana; Rodrigues, Tiago; Resendes, Roberto; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Marinho, Catarina; Gonçalves, David; Cunha, Regina; Poeta, Patrícia

2013-12-01

144

Ecological footprint of road traffic on Cres-Lošinj Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cres-Lošinj Archipelago is the largest insular traffic unit in Northern Adriatic. The archipelago consists of two large islands, Cres and Lošinj, and 27 smaller islands located among Kvarner, Kvarneri?, Rijeka Bay and open sea. From the point of view of traffic, this area gravitates mostly toward Rijeka traffic node. Traffic development of the islands was determined in the second half of the 20th century with the development of ferry traffic and road traffic on the islands. Today, the Archipelago is characterized by prominent seasonal variations of road traffic intensity due to dominant role of tourism in space valorisation. This research included partial determination of Ecological Footprint of road traffic on the islands on the basis of CO2 emission and capacity of insular surfaces to absorb CO2.The author also created a model for calculating road mileage on the islands and indirectly calculated CO2 emission. The results indicated significant seasonal variations of CO2 emission on the islands, which are closely related to tourist valorisation of space and the number of non-residential vehicles on the islands. The paper also provides the ratio between residential and non-residential vehicles on the island, which influence the emission in accordance with their energy efficiency. The research showed that the capacity of CO2 absorption on Cres-Lošinj Archipelago is approximately 40 times greater than CO2 emission from road traffic during one year.

Hrvoje Grofelnik

2010-12-01

145

Water exchange of the Stockholm archipelago—a cascade framework modelling approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The Stockholm archipelago spans roughly a semicircular area with a radius of approximately 60 km, traditionally partitioned into three parts: the inner, the middle and the outer archipelago. This subdivision coincides with differing water exchange regimes. The inner and middle archipelagos are characterised by comparatively larger basins which are interconnected by a limited number of straits. This configuration is well suited for a discrete basin (DB-) model approach by partitioning the area into a set of sub-basins that are only resolved vertically. The advantage of this approach over 3D-models is the possibility for enhanced vertical resolution and improved strait exchange formulation, outweighing the disadvantage of neglected horizontal gradients within the basins. In the inner archipelago the dominating exchange process is estuarine circulation, induced by the marked freshwater discharge and the vertical mixing. In the outer and middle archipelagos the density fluctuations due to Ekman pumping along the Baltic boundary interface produce another type of baroclinic process that clearly dominates. Measurements to adequately resolve these density variations do not exist. Missing forcing data are provided by linking the middle archipelago's boundary straits to a 3D-model of the Baltic with a grid resolution of 0.5 nautical miles (n.m.). This fine resolution model (FR-domain) is in turn driven by the atmospheric forcing and the density variation at the rectangular boundary of the FR-domain which acceptably resolves both the interfacial straits and the outer archipelago's complex hypsography. Massive computing resources would be demanded if the FR-domain were extended to comprise the entire Baltic. The FR-domain is thus interfaced with an existing coarse resolution model of the entire Baltic (CR-domain) with a grid size of 5 n.m., the open boundary of which is located in the Kattegat. This 3-fold model set-up has been run for one whole year (1992) with a one-year spin-up time to make up for the lack of initial data. The model concept is at this stage to be regarded as a framework for further development in anticipation of improved formulations, particularly for the strait exchange formulation. Therefore only primary validation experiments and a few sensitivity analyses have been performed.

Engqvist, Anders; Andrejev, Oleg

2003-06-01

146

Circulation in the Philippine Archipelago Simulated by 1/12° and 1/25° Global HYCOM and EAS NCOM  

OpenAIRE

Three ocean models, 1/25° global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), 1/12° global HYCOM, and EAS NCOM nested in global NCOM, were used to provide a global context for simulation of the circulation within the Philippine Archipelago as part of the Philippines Experiment (PhilEx). The Philippine Archipelago provides two significant secondary routes for both the Indonesian throughflow and the western boundary current of the Pacific northern tropical gyre. The deeper route enters the archipel...

Hurlburt, Harley E.; Joseph Metzger, E.; Janet Sprintall; Riedlinger, Shelley N.; Arnone, Robert A.; Toshiaki Shinoda; Xiaobiao Xu

2011-01-01

147

Surface water quality estimation using remote sensing in the Gulf of Finland and the Finnish Archipelago Sea  

OpenAIRE

This thesis deals with surface water quality estimation using remote sensing in the Gulf of Finland and the Archipelago Sea. Satellite remote sensing of water and empirical algorithms for surface water quality variables in coastal waters in the Gulf of Finland and the Archipelago Sea are explained and results from the studies in the area are presented. Concurrent in situ surface water measurements, AISA data, Landsat TM data, ERS-2 SAR data, AVHRR and MODIS data were obtained for selected...

Zhang, Yuanzhi

2005-01-01

148

Spatial Econometric Model for Economics Development in Archipelago of Riau, as a Defense System Development in Republic of Indonesia  

OpenAIRE

Province of Archipelago of Riau is a region in Indonesia which is adjacent to Singapore and Malaysia. This province has a great potential conditions diversity and natural resources. Planning on public prosperity improvement is necessary in order to increase loyalty and nationalism to Republic of Indonesia. The aim of this research is to build a spatial econometric model of economic growth in Province of Archipelago of Riau. One of the results shows that in recent 4 years Batam always gives th...

Susanti Linuwih; Setiawan Setiawan; Dwiatmono A. W Dwiatmono A. W; Wiryadi Wiryadi

2010-01-01

149

Diseño de una minicadena productiva para apicultura orgánica en San Andrés Islas a través de un itinerario de ruta como herramienta de gestión e integración / A roadmap itinerary as an integrative management tool in the design of a mini productive chain for organic beekeeping on San Andrés Island  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En Colombia, la apicultura es una actividad económica en consolidación, que representa un potencial de riqueza por los múltiples beneficios que se pueden obtener a través de la explotación artesanal o industrial. En el sector agropecuario es una de las 37 cadenas productivas registradas ante el Mini [...] sterio de Agricultura y Desarrollo Rural; es objeto de priorización en procesos de investigación, desarrollo e innovación (I+D+i), en aras de incrementar su productividad y competitividad, involucrando la sostenibilidad de la población rural y el componente industrial. El Archipiélago de San Andrés, Providencia y Santa Catalina es objeto de iniciativas de desarrollo rural, impulso empresarial y fortalecimiento, pues ante la coyuntura socioeconómica por la disminución del territorio marítimo, busca diversificar las actividades económicas de la población raizal. Con la metodología de alianzas productivas y los itinerarios de ruta como herramienta de gestión e integración se diseñó, desde el enfoque tecnológico, la estructura de la minicadena productiva de eslabones y segmentos; las directrices fueron los procesos productivos de tipo orgánico, selección de tecnologías, proveedores y mecanismos de certificación al producto y capacitación al recurso humano requerido, mediante un proceso analítico jerárquico utilizando el software Expert Choice. Se estructuraron lineamientos desde la base de política pública y sectorial, consignada en la agenda única nacional de I+D+i de la cadena y lineamientos establecidos (plan de desarrollo del departamento, plan de ciencia y tecnología, CONPES y plan de ordenamiento territorial). La minicadena y el paquete tecnológico de apicultura orgánica son un insumo de competitividad para el archipiélago. Abstract in english In Colombia, beekeeping is an economic activity under consolidation, which represents a potential wealth for the many benefits that can be obtained through craft or industrial exploitation. It is one of the 37 productive agricultural-chains formed and registered through the Ministry of Agriculture a [...] nd Rural Development, and is subject to research, development and innovation (R+D+i) priority processes to increase productivity and competitiveness, involving both the sustainability of the rural population and the industrial component. The Archipelago of San Andres, Providencia and Santa Catalina is the subject of rural development initiatives, business and strategic planning because of the socioeconomic situation due to the reduction in maritime territory, seeks to diversify the economic activities of the native population. Within the framework of the productive chains and the strategy of the roadmaps itineraries as a management and integration tool, the mini productive chain was design, contemplating organic production process and rules, selection of technologies, suppliers and product certification mechanisms to the human resource and training required, through an analytic hierarchy process using Expert Choice software. Finally, a work plan was defined as the sole national research agenda R+D+i (Research + Development + innovation) for the national productive chain and the guidelines established in the department's development plan, the science and technology plan, the CONPES and the Territorial Order Plan.

Diego Hernando, Flórez Martínez; Sídney, Ward Argota.

2013-12-01

150

A comparison of asphaltene model compounds and asphaltenes. The island vs. archipelago models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As heavier crude oil reserves with higher asphaltene content are being more and more exploited, better understanding of asphaltenes becomes a necessity. Two models are proposed for the structure of asphaltenes, a topic of intense debate. The island model presents a large aromatic core with alkyl chains branching out. The archipelago model features multiple aromatic cores that are linked by alkyl chains, with possible alkyl chains branching out also. Several model compounds of the two structural models were studied using a variety of mass spectrometry (MS) methods: laser-induced acoustic desorption combined with electron ionization (LIAD/EI) MS, electrospray ionization (ESI) MS, and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) MS. The observed fragmentation pathways were then compared to those of asphaltenes. Ions from island vs. archipelago model compounds showed distinct fragmentation characteristics, which will help in elucidating the complex molecular structure of asphaltenes.

Borton, David J.; Pinkston, David S.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka [Purdue University (United States)], email: dborton@purdue.edu; Gray, Murray; Tan, Xiaoli [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada); Azyat, Khalid; Tykwinski, Rik [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta (Canada)

2010-07-01

151

Archipelagos and Political Engineering: The Impact of Non-Contiguity on Devolution in Small States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Political architecture differences have only seldom been explained in the political science literature by reference to physical factors like size and geography. Correcting this neglect while focusing on microstates and especially on archipelago geographies, this article aims at uncovering the impact of geographical non-contiguity on political institution-building. Three separate devices for power devolution - federalism, bicameralism and assembly quotas - perform as dependent variables, and the guiding hypothesis is, for each device, that the device is implemented among archipelagos to a higher extent than among contiguous entities. Although there are marked differences between devices, the findings in general support the belief that territorial non-contiguity is more likely to foster power devolution. The findings also survive controls that investigate the impact of contesting factors.

Dag Anckar

2007-11-01

152

About peculiarities of hydrocarbons deposits location in the productive series of the Baku archipelago area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text : In Azerbaijan domestic and foreign companies hold wide-scaled prospecting operations in the central and southern parts of the Baku Archipelago and also in the Kobystan. There are hydrocarbons deposits determined in the northern of the Baku Archipelago. Deposits location by phase condition of hydrocarbons mainly follows the general regularity determined on many oil and gas bearing areas, pass of oil deposits to oil-gas and gas-condensate ones in the direction of increase of layers occurrence depth. There is also a considerable influence of a tectonic factor on the area location of deposits observed, expressing in difference of deposits height on different tectonic blocks and also there is an influence of a lithological factor. Results of works conducted on drilling and wells testing are still not enough for judging about lack of oil and gas content.

153

An estimation for atmospheric sulfur emission and deposition over the Japanese archipelago  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nationwide networks for monitoring acid deposition were established in Japan in the 1980s. Estimates of atmospheric sulfur emission and deposition over the archipelago are given. The region was divided into fifteen climatic regions, and annual and seasonal sulphur fluxes were estimated. The basic data for the analysis include man-made and natural emission, wet and dry deposition, data that have been accumulated by CRIEPI over the last 10 years. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Aki, S.; Fujita, S.; Ichikawa, Y. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (Japan)

1998-12-31

154

Predicting Ecosystem Response from Pollution in Baltic Archipelago areas using Mass-balance Modelling  

OpenAIRE

Baltic archipelago areas have high nature values despite being polluted from various antrophogenic activities within the Baltic Sea catchment area and from long-range transport of airborne substances. The discovery of environmental problems in the Baltic Sea in the 1960s led to countermeasures that gradually gave results in reducing the toxic pollution, e.g. from PCBs. Today, much of the environmental management is focused on reducing the effects of eutrophication. There is a demand from soci...

Karlsson, Olof Magnus

2011-01-01

155

Floristic species list of the archipelago of Jardines de la Reina, Cuba  

OpenAIRE

The floristic inventories contribute directly to knowledge of plant resources of a region. In order to inventory the vascular plant species in the Jardines de la Reina archipelago, field visits were organized and literature review. The study area was represented by 113 infrageneric taxa, 97 genera and 40 families, the keys Anclitas, Grande, Caguamas, Algodón Grande and Caballones possess the higher taxonomic richest. Endemism was low (4,5%) and alien plant species represent the 8%. The flora...

Acevedo, Carlos J.

2013-01-01

156

Petrology and geochemistry of Lipari Island (Aeolian archipelago): constraints on magma genesis and evolution  

OpenAIRE

A full set of geochemical and Sr, Nd and Pb isotope data both on bulk-rock and mineral samples is provided for volcanic rocks representative of the whole stratigraphic succession of Lipari Island in the Aeolian archipelago. These data, together with petrographic observations and melt/fluid inclusion investigations from the literature, give outlines on the petrogenesis and evolution of magmas through the magmatic and eruptive history of Lipari. This is the result of nine successive Eruptive Ep...

Forni, Francesca

2011-01-01

157

Social, Economical and Technical Evaluation of a reverse osmosis drinking water plant in the Stockholm Archipelago  

OpenAIRE

The drinking water plant in this case study is a combined groundwater and reverse osmosisplant in the Stockholm archipelago. The reverse osmosis purification step was added to theplant in 1995. This technique is relatively new in Sweden and there are possibilities for it tobecome a good complement to conventional drinking water treatment. The plant has used thistechnique for over 10 years with good results. It is therefore of great interest to evaluate anddocument it for the possibility to im...

Lindkvist, Jonas

2007-01-01

158

Reef-dwelling Holothuroidea (Echinodermata) of the Spermonde Archipelago (South-West Sulawesi, Indonesia)  

OpenAIRE

During a survey at the Spermonde Archipelago (22.viii-5.x.1994) 56 holothurian species were collected; ten are new to the fauna of Indonesia and one is new to science: Stichopus quadrifasciatus spec. nov. Most of the species are described, figured and discussed. As far as possible, all literature records from 1970 onwards are listed and a distribution map is given for each species.

Massin, C.

1999-01-01

159

Models of oceanic island biogeography: changing perspectives on biodiversity dynamics in archipelagoes  

OpenAIRE

Models of biogeographic processes can both enhance and inhibit our ability to ask questions that guide our understanding of patterns and processes. The two ‘traditional’ models of island biogeography, the Equilibrium Model and the Vicariance Model, raise important and insightful questions about relevant processes, but both fail to raise many crucial questions. An example involving the non-volant mammals of the Philippine archipelago shows that both models highlight some, but not all, r...

Heaney, Lawrence R.; Balete, Danilo S.; Rickart, Eric A.

2013-01-01

160

Nutrient uptake by leaves and roots of the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii in the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia  

OpenAIRE

The kinetics of ammonium and phosphate uptake by leaves and roots of the tropical seagrass Thalassia hemprichii were investigated in laboratory experiments. Uptake in leaves of plants from 3 different locations, covering the range from coastal to oceanic conditions in the region of investigation (Spermonde Archipelago, South Sulawesi, Indonesia), was compared. The leaves from all plant samples showed a clear capacity for both ammonium and phosphate uptake. This uptake could be described by Mi...

Stapel, J.; Aarts, T. L.; Duynhoven, B. H. M.; Degroot, J. D.; Den Hoogen, P. H. W.; Hemminga, M. A.

1996-01-01

161

Molecular ecology and evolution of anemonefishes (Amphiprion spp) in the Indo-Malay Archipelago  

OpenAIRE

In this thesis, genetic differentiation processes on different levels were studied in the anemonefish genus Amphiprion. The studied species inhabit the Indo-Malay Archipelago, located between the Pacific and Indian Ocean comprising the world's richest marine shallow water biodiversity. Differentiation processes on species and intra-specific levels were revealed by phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, based on mitochondrial DNA sequences and microsatellites. Phylogenetic analysis unco...

Timm, Janne

2008-01-01

162

Long-term changes of seagrass beds in the Glenan Archipelago (South Brittany)  

OpenAIRE

Aerial photographs and in situ data of the Glenan archipelago permit the establishment of a cartography of its Zostera marina seagrass beds. Due to the exceptionally clear water, it was possible to distinguish submerged structures, such as rocks, sand dunes, maerl beds and seagrass meadows on the photographs. The distribution of Zostera meadows was incorporated into a geographical information database through scanning, and then compared with historical data. Ten aerial photographic surveys, m...

Glemarec, M.; Lefaou, Y.; Cuq, F.

1997-01-01

163

SEISMIC ANISOTROPY AND ATTENUATION IN OCEANIC DOMAIN: APPLICATION TO HOTSPOTS IN FRENCH POLYNESIA AND GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO  

OpenAIRE

Melt phase influence on seismic properties in partially molten systems, here at magmatic chambers of mid-oceanic-ridge and at hotspots, is poorly constrained. This study brings new seismological observations of seismic anisotropy beneath French Polynesia and Galápagos archipelago. Measurements of shear-wave splitting and P waves polarization beneath French Polynesia show the involvement of two contributions: asthenospheric and lithospheric. The presence of melt in the upper mantle beneath th...

Fontaine, Fabrice

2005-01-01

164

Characterization of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR in overall Indonesian archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

Indonesia has largest mangrove forest in the world, total area around 3.5 million ha or 17% - 23% from mangrove forest in the world. Mangrove forest provides products and services, such as carbon balance of the coastal zone. Mapping and monitoring biomass of mangrove is very important but field survey of mangrove biomass and productivity in overall Indonesia is very difficult. Global-scale mosaics with HH and HV backscatter of Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) which is 50-m spatial resolution has been generated. This image available for identification and monitoring mangrove forest. The Objective of this research to investigate characterization of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR in overall Indonesian archipelago. Methodology consists of collecting ALOS-PALSAR image for overall Indonesian archipelago, preprocessing and mosaicking, collecting region of interest of mangrove forest, plotting, ground survey, characterization and classification. The result of this research has showed characterization of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR. Indonesian mangrove forest types has HH value around -10 dB until -7 dB and HV value around -17 dB until -13 dB. Higher of HH and HV backscatters value indicated higher of level biomass. Based on scatter plot of HH and HV, Indonesian mangrove forest can be classified in three level biomass. Generally level biomass of mangrove forest in Indonesia archipelago is moderate.

Darmawan, S.; Takeuchi, W.; Vetrita, Y.; Winarso, G.; Wikantika, K.; Sari, D. K.

2014-06-01

165

[Distribution characteristics of benthic algae in intertidal zone of Ma' an Archipelago of Zhejiang Province].  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the survey of benthic algae in the intertidal zone of Ma' an Archipelago from March to July 2007, the algal species composition, distribution, and temperature feature were studied. The dominant algal species in the study area were preliminarily analyzed by using similarity indices (S(c)) and index of relative importance (IRI(c)). A total of 31 species sampled in sublittoral area were identified, among which, 7 species of 5 genera belonged to Chlorophyta, 8 species of 5 genera belonged to Phaeophyta, and 16 species of 14 genera belonged to Rhodophyta. Topical and selective distribution species influenced by wave and tide were identified in the intertidal zone. Ulva pertusa and Sargassum thunbergii were found in all survey area. Rhodophyta was the dominant species, with the occurring frequency being up to 61.1%, and Chlorophyta showed quite uniformed horizontal distribution. In addition, 81% of sampled species were from low-tide zone, and some were extended from mid-tide zone to low-tide zone. The composition comparability between mid-tide and low-tide species was 0.47, and the convergence effect in mid-tide and low-tide zone was higher than that in high-tide and mid-tide zone. The sublittoral area of Ma' an Archipelago showed obvious vertical zoning character, with temperate species being absolute abundant, and the warm-water species dominant. The marine floral texture of Ma' an Archipelago belongs to warm temperate-subtropical transitional marine flora. PMID:19123370

Zhang, Shou-Yu; Liang, Jun; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Kai

2008-10-01

166

Mis juhtus Andres Lapeteusega? : error'ist kõrgklassi homo soveticus'e näitel / Liisa Kaljula  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Autor analüüsib 2014. a. Tallinna Semiosalongi loengute sarja põhiteema - error'i mõiste avamiseks ühe inimliigi kujunemislugu - Eesti filmiklassikast tuntud tegelaskuju Andres Lapeteuse tõusu ning langust homo soveticus'ena

Kaljula, Liisa, 1982-

2014-01-01

167

Andres Herkel : Venemaa esindaja ENPA presidendiks ei sobi / Haldi Ellam, Ravil Khair Al-Din  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Vene ajalehe Kommersant väitel on Eesti parlamendi süüdistused ENPA presidendi Rene van der Lindeni vastu seotud Mihhail Margelovi võimaliku valimisega uueks presidendiks. Kristiina Ojuland ja Andres Herkel lükkavad väite tagasi

Ellam, Haldi

2007-01-01

168

Kuidas on teie kandis koolivõrku korrastatud? / Vahur Salom, Andres Visnapuu, Rene Treial...[jt.  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Küsimusele vastasid Türi abivallavanem Vahur Salom, Otepää vallavanem Andres Visnapuu, Vihula vallavanem Rene Treial, Väike-Maarja gümnaasiumi ja õppekeskuse direktor Raili Sirgmets, Mõniste kooli direktori asendaja Kristo Hainsoo

2011-01-01

169

Samoje doverennoje litso gossudarstva / Andres Lipstok ; interv. Areg Arutjunjan, interv. Aleksandr Ikonnikov  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Eesti Panga president Eesti Panga majandusprognoosist lähitulevikuks, võimalikust majanduskriisist, USA kinnisvarakriisi mõjust Eestile, Eesti krooni võimalikust devalveerimisest, Eesti Panga rahapoliitikast, kommertspankades hoitavate hoiuste tagamisest, oma tööst, lemmikautomargist, toidueelistustest, lemmikharrastustest ning edukusest. Lisa: Andres Lipstok

Lipstok, Andres, 1957-

2007-01-01

170

Proceedings of the 3. Summer School Jorge Andre Swieca in Nuclear Physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book contents the lectures and seminars presented during the Jorge Andre Swieca III Summer School-Nuclear Physics 1987 which happened in February 1987 in Itaipava - Rio de Janeiro - Brazil. (A.C.A.S.)

171

The Andre-Oort conjecture for the moduli space of Abelian Surfaces  

OpenAIRE

We provide an unconditional proof of the Andr\\'e-Oort conjecture for the coarse moduli space $\\mathcal{A}_{2,1}$ of principally polarized Abelian surfaces, following the strategy outlined by Pila-Zannier.

Pila, J.; Tsimerman, J.

2011-01-01

172

Tõnu Anton kahtlustab linnaisasid omakasu jahtimises / Tõnu Anton, Andres Kõiv, Ando Hagel ; interv. Ulis Guth  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Võru linnavolikogu opositsiooni kuuluv keskerakondlane Tõnu Anton kritiseerib sotsiaalabitalituse ruumide remondirahade kasutamist ja kahtlustab linnavalitsust riigihangete käigus raha kõrvaldamises. Linnapea Ando Hagel ja abilinnapea Andres Kõiv lükkavad süüdistused tagasi

Anton, Tõnu, 1942-

2004-01-01

173

Kunagine käsitsi padrunite valmistaja E-Arsenal sõjatöösturite areenil / Andres Reimer  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Sõjatehasest E-Arsenal saab viie aasta jooksul tuhande töötajaga kõrgtehnoloogiakontsern, rahvusvahelisele turule hakatakse tootma militaartarkvara, isikukaitsevahendeid, roboteid. Kommenteerivad Ingvar Pärnamäe, Priit Alamäe, Andres Taklaja, Tõnu Vaher. Lisa: Arsenali sõjatehas. Diagramm: Tulevikuväljavaatega kahjumifirma

Reimer, Andres

2008-01-01

174

Tallinna idee / Andres Alver, Ott Alver, Marten Kaevats ; intervjueerinud Margit Mutso ; kommenteerinud Douglas Gordon  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

17. veebruaril esitleti raamatut "Tallinna idee", mis on koostatud Eesti Kunstiakadeemia 4. kursuse arhitektuuritudengite kursuseprojektide põhjal. Tallinna teemal vestlevad tudengid Ott Alver ja Marten Kaevats ning nende juhendaja professor Andres Alver

Alver, Andres, 1953-

2011-01-01

175

Koerajuhi amet lisab tavatööle vürtsi / Rainer Lang, Andres Vesselov, Rainis Oper ; interv. Tanel Saarmann  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Koerajuhid piirivalve-seersant Rainer Lang Saatsest, piirivalve-veebel Rainis Oper Värskast ning Saatse kordoni ülem piirivalve-kapten Andres Vesselov räägivad koerajuhiks saamisest ning teenistuskoerte koolitamisest. Lisa: Kagu PVP teenistuskoerad; Osalemine võistlustel 2008

Lang, Rainer

2008-01-01

176

SUTD-i koorik = SUTD Gridshell / Andres Sevtšuk, Raul Kalvo  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Singapuri Tehnoloogia ja Disaini Ülikooli (SUTD) raamatukogu paviljon. Eskiis valmis esimese aasta üliõpilastele korraldatud töötoas. Algse ideega töötas edasi City Form Lab (arhitektid Andres Sevtšuk, Raul Kalvo). Paviljon pandi kokku ligi saja üliõpilase osalusel. Valmis: mai 2013

Sevtšuk, Andres, 1981-

2013-01-01

177

Keil ja kaks neidu laval vaimselt alasti / Andres Keil, Elina Pähklimägi ; interv. Eva Kübar  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Tartu Uue Teatri uuslavastusest "Elud" räägivad lavastaja ja osatäitja Andres Keil ja naisosatäitjad Elina Pähklimägi ning Jekaterina Novosjolova. Lavastus põhineb kolme osatäitja enda eludel ning prostituutide intervjuudel raamatus "Vaikijate hääled 2". Planeeritud esietendus veebruaris 2009

Keil, Andres, 1974-

2008-01-01

178

Et relevant flyvevåben i et afbalanceret forsvar – kun muligt med andre flytyper : Debatindlæg  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Indlægget peger på at Danmark har mere end den ene mulighed for at sammensætte Flyvevåbnet end den ensidige debat som tilhængerne af Joint Strike Fighter peger på. Også med andre og billigere flytyper kan Flyvevåbnet løse meget relevante fremtidige opgaver.

Jensen, Lars H. Ehrensvärd

2009-01-01

179

"Riigikogu hoone 90" = "Estonian parliament building 90" / Janno Roos, Andres Labi  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2012. aasta näituse kujunduse preemia pälvinud näitusest (Lossiplats 1A). Kujunduse autorid Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor). Kuraator Mait Väljas. Graafiline disain: Identity. Sisearhitekti ja ESLi aastapreemiate žürii liikme Mari Kurismaa ning arhitektuuriajaloolase Leele Välja arvamused

Roos, Janno, 1976-

2013-01-01

180

Ületades piire = Crossing the Bordes / Anders Härm, Tarmo Maiste ; interv. Andres Kurg, Triin Ojari  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Intervjuu Veneetsia 7. arhitektuuribiennaali Eesti ekspositsiooni "Simulacrum City" autorite Anders Härmi ja Tarmo Maistega. Eesti väljapanekust (arhitektuurifotod - Arne Maasik; filmi, stsenaarium ja kontseptsioon - Andres Maimik, Jaak Kilmi, muusika - Taavi Laatsit), biennaalist. 13 ill

Härm, Anders, 1977-

2000-01-01

181

History of San Marco  

Science.gov (United States)

A brief history is reported of the first San Marco project, a joint program of the United States and Italy. The Project was a three phase effort to investigate upper air density and associated ionosphere phenomena. The initial phase included the design and development of the spacecraft, the experiments, the launch complex, and a series of suborbital flights, from Wallops Island. The second phase, consisting of designing, fabricating, and testing a spacecraft for the first orbital mission, culminated in an orbital launch also from Wallops Island. The third phase consisted of further refining the experiments and spacecraft instrumentation and of establishing a full-bore scout complex in Kenya. The launch of San Marco B, in April 1967, from this complex into an equatorial orbit, concluded the initial San Marco effort.

Caporale, A. J.

1968-01-01

182

San Diego Zoo  

Science.gov (United States)

The Zoological Society of San Diego brings to the web the San Diego Zoo, the San Diego Wild Animal Park, and the Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species. Each unit of the zoo has a main page, from which the user can meet the animals and find out about the humans who watch over them. The photographs of new arrivals at the zoo should be a big draw, and there is informative text underlying the visuals. The "Guest Book" is a game in which users attempt to match animals with their "signatures": the tracks they leave. Use the table of contents to find your way to the animals you're most interested in.

1998-01-01

183

1906 San Francisco Earthquake Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of visualizations of the tsunami generated by the 1906 earthquake. Included are maps of the San Andreas fault offshore, in San Francisco Bay, diagrams of the magnitude of the slip under the San Francisco Bay, and animations of wave height following the earthqake. Two separate animations are featured as QuickTime movies; one is centered on the Golden Gate Bridge, the other shows the whole San Francisco Bay.

Usgs, Tsunami A.

184

SANS studies of polymers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Before small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), chain conformation studies were limited to light and small angle x-ray scattering techniques, usually in dilute solution. SANS from blends of normal and labeled molecules could give direct information on chain conformation in bulk polymers. Water-soluble polymers may be examined in H2O/D2O mixtures using contrast variation methods to provide further information on polymer structure. This paper reviews some of the information provided by this technique using examples of experiments performed at the National Center for Small-Angle Scattering Research (NCSASR)

185

Toward a Theory of Island Pedogeography: Testing the driving forces for pedological assemblages in archipelagos of different origins  

Science.gov (United States)

The Theory of Island Biogeography has been based on biodiversity studies and used as a powerful predictive tool. Currently pedogeography does not have a similar theoretical construct. Although island biodiversity and biological assemblages have been topics of widespread interest in biogeography, ecology and conservation biology, soil scientists have conducted few studies of pedodiversity and pedological assemblages in archipelagos. Several studies have demonstrated that pedodiversity and biodiversity patterns have striking similarities in very disparate environments and at different scales, thus it is possible to test for a similar construct of island pedogeography. We analyze similarities and differences in the pedosphere for three archipelagos with different origins: (i) oceanic-intra-plate chains islands (Hawaiian Islands), (ii) oceanic-intra-plate cluster islands (Canary Islands), (iii) non-marine land-bridge islands with volcanism associated with plate boundary conditions (Aegean Islands) and (iv) as a comparison, islands in a nonplate boundary setting (the British Isles). In the Canary Islands, we also compiled selected biological, physiographical, geological and climatic data for further analysis of pedodiversity, climatic diversity, geodiversity and biodiversity. Our pedogeographic analysis of the three archipelagos indicates archipelagos of varying origins contain different soil assemblages with plate tectonics as the main driving force. The similarities between pedodiversity and biodiversity are more remarkable than the differences. We tested the hypothesis that soil taxa distributions on island chains can be modelled as a power function similar to the species-area relationship (SAR) proposed by McArthur and Wilson for archipelagos. The SAR functional relationship has been widely corroborated in other biodiversity studies. The same patterns were obtained for pedodiversity and biodiversity in the British Isles, and after that in the Aegean Archipelago. In this study we show similar results in the Canary Islands. Furthermore, in the Canary Archipelago, a strong relationship exists between pedodiversity, biodiversity, climate diversity, habitat heterogeneity and relief. For the Hawaii Archipelago, we did not obtain a statistically significant relationship because soil inventories are not published for the smallest islands and islets. However, Hawaii does have a chronosequence from the older to the younger land units. Overall, the dynamics of the underlying plate tectonic hot spots seems to be the major driving force affecting the various diversity types. Based on these results, we suggest a theoretical proposal of "Island pedogeography" consistent and similar to the Theory of Island Biogeography, in view that the latter one also predicts the pedodiversity of soil assemblages in archipelagos. This study illustrates several possibilities for further research in soil geography.

Ibáñez, Juan-José; Effland, William R.

2011-12-01

186

Remembering San Diego  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After 6 years of existence the ITER EDA project in San Diego, USA, was terminated by desition of the US Congress. This article describes how nice it was for everybody as long as it lasted and how sad it is now

187

SAN PEDRO GEODATA BROWSER  

Science.gov (United States)

The San Pedro Data Browser was developed by the Landscape Ecology Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Las Vegas, NV). The goal of the Landscape Sciences Program is to improve decision-making relative to natural and human resource management through the development...

188

SAN PEDRO WATERSHED DATABASE  

Science.gov (United States)

The San Pedro River Geo-Data Browser was jointly developed by the Landscape Ecology Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (Tucson, AZ). Since 1995, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EP A) and U...

189

San Jose, Costa Rica  

Science.gov (United States)

San Jose, capital city of Costa Rica, fills the valley between two steep mountain ranges. In this image made from data collected by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite, visible, shortwave, and near-infrared wavelengths of light that the sensor observed have been combined to produce a false-color version of the scene in which vegetation is red, urban areas are silvery gray, water is dark blue, and clouds are white. The image was captured on February 8, 2007. San Jose is in the center of the image. The Rio Torres winds through downtown San Jose. Cartago, the much smaller colonial capital, sits in the lower right corner, while the city of Alajuela appears across the river, northwest of San Jose. The cities' manmade surfaces contrast sharply with the lushly vegetated landscape surrounding the city. Greenhouses are common in the region, and their glass roofs may be the brilliant white spots around the outer edges the cities. The long, straight runway of the Tobias Bolanos International Airport is visible as a dark line southeast of Alajuela. The landscape around the two cities shown here is rugged. Steep mountain peaks cast dark shadows across their leeward slopes. Patches of dark red vegetation on the mountains north of San Jose may be rainforest. Coffee plantations also cover the slopes of the mountains around the city. February is the dry season in Costa Rica. During the rainy season, from about April to November, clouds usually block the satellite's view of this tropical location. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of Asaf Ullah and Tim Gubbels, SERVIR project.

2007-01-01

190

Alkohol, andre rusmidler og vold i epidemiologisk perspektiv  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGDen medisinske interessen for vold og voldsskader har økt kraftig i løpet av de siste to tiårene. Det epidemiologiskeperspektivet på vold har blitt forsterket og et mer etiologisk og preventivt syn på volden er mere merkbarinnenfor sosialmedisinsk forskning. Alkoholen er en etiologisk faktor som har vist seg å være forbundet med voldi de aller fleste samfunn. I denne artikkelen beskrives de viktigste epidemiologiske metodene og funnene i studietav alkoholens sammenheng med vold. Denne sammenhengen har vist seg ikke å være direkte, men er avhengig aven rekke andre faktorer, og noen forskjellige typer av kausal avhengighet beskrives i artikkelen. Den epidemiologiskeforskningen om andre rusmidlers sammenheng med vold er betydelig mindre omfattende enn den er foralkohol. Det er også åpenbart at andre rusmidler ikke er like sterkt sammenknyttet med vold som alkoholen.Pernanen K. Alcohol, other drugs, and violence in an epidemiological perspective.Nor J Epidemiol ENGLISH SUMMARYThe public health approach to violence has become increasingly accepted during the last couple of decades. Thishas led to more epidemiological research into violence, and a stronger medical interest in the etiology and preventionof violence. However, epidemiological research on the prevalence of violence in different societies is stillmainly criminological in nature, being based on information about violence that has come to the attention of thepolice or processed in the courts. The study of the relationship between alcohol use and violent behaviour is alsopredominantly based on police and court materials, although an increasing number of emergency room andhospitalization studies have examined the role of alcohol in injuries caused by violence.There are two basic methodological approaches in the study of the relationship between alcohol use andviolence. The alcohol-involvement studies estimate the extent to which drinking by the offender or the victim waspresent in episodes of violence. Time trend studies and so-called natural experiments measure how rates of violentcrime covary with levels of alcohol consumption in a population. Generally, these studies indicate that alcohol useis a potent factor in determining the prevalence of violent behaviour in a society. However, there is no evidenceshowing that a significant part of alcohol-related violence is directly caused by the presence of alcohol in theorganism. Four types of conditional factors affecting the risk of violent behaviour after drinking are discussed: (1the nature of the alcohol factor, (2 characteristics of the individual drinker, (3 the socio-cultural context in whichdrinking occurs, and (4 situational factors.The epidemiological evidence for a relationship between violence and the use of other drugs is much morescattered. It is complicated by the fact that most drug users use more than one type of drug. When an illegalpsychoactive drug is implicated in violent behaviour, it is often also accompanied by alcohol use. Clinical andexperimental evidence shows that the risk of aggression and physical violence depends, in addition to the type ofdrug, on the amounts used, the method of application, the phase of acute intoxication, and the long-term pattern ofuse. However, the violence associated with the use of illegal drugs is perhaps most closely determined by thecharacteristics of an illegal economy. Rival criminal organizations manufacture, distribute and sell these drugs,and they use violence and threats as a means of regulating this economy. In addition, many drug users resort toviolent crime in an effort to secure the funds needed for their addiction.1996; 6 (1: 29-36.

Kai Pernanen

2009-10-01

191

Genetic Structure of the Endangered Plant Neolitsea sericea (Lauraceae) from the Zhoushan Archipelago Using RAPD Markers  

Science.gov (United States)

• Background and Aims The Zhoushan archipelago is the largest archipelago in China. It separated from the mainland about 9000 years ago due to rising sea levels and climate change. Because of the long-term influences of human activities, the original forest vegetation on the large islands has been badly damaged and its plant diversity reduced. • Methods Levels and patterns of genetic diversity in 114 individuals from six natural populations and four cultivated populations of the insular endangered plant Neolitsea sericea (Lauraceae) on the Zhoushan archipelago were assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. • Key Results A total of 99 discernible loci were obtained for all populations using ten primers, 50·5 % of which were polymorphic [percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) = 50·5 %]. Despite being a woody, long-lived, perennial, outcrossing and insect-pollinated plant, N. sericea exhibited low levels of genetic variation. The cultivated populations (PPB = 18·9 %, HE = 0·060, S = 0·092) were genetically less diverse than the natural populations (PPB = 23·1 %, HE = 0·082, S = 0·123). Based on analysis of molecular variance, a high degree of among-population differentiation was revealed for both natural (0·387) and cultivated populations (0·598). • Conclusions Removal of plants from the wild for horticulture purposes has eroded the level of genetic variation of N. sericea. Low levels of genetic diversity and a high degree of population differentiation indicate that management strategies should include conservation of natural habitats occupied by all six wild populations, and sampling of germplasm resources from multiple seed sources. PMID:15546928

WANG, ZHONG-SHENG; AN, SHU-QING; LIU, HONG; LENG, XIN; ZHENG, JIAN-WEI; LIU, YU-HONG

2004-01-01

192

Microbiological and mycological beach sand quality in a volcanic environment: Madeira archipelago, Portugal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Madeira forms a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago, whose economy is largely dependent on tourism. There, one can encounter different types of sand beach: natural basaltic, natural calcareous and artificial calcareous. Microbiological and mycological quality of the sand was analyzed in two different years. Bacterial indicators were detected in higher number in 2010 (36.7% of the samples) than in 2011 (9.1%). Mycological indicators were detected in a similar percentage of samples in 2010 (68.3%) and 2011 (75%), even though the total number of colonies detected in 2010 was much higher (827 in 41 samples) than in 2011 (427 in 66 samples). Enterococci and potentially pathogenic and allergenic fungi (particularly Penicillium sp.) were the most common indicators detected in both years. Candida sp. yeast was also commonly detected in the samples. The analysis of the 3rd quartile and maximum numbers of all indicators in samples showed that artificial beaches tend to be more contaminated than the natural ones. However, a significant difference between the variables was lacking. More monitoring data (number of bathers, sea birds, radiation intensity variation, and a greater number of samples) should be collected in order to confirm if these differences are significant. In general, the sand quality in the archipelago's beaches was good. As the sand may be a vector of diseases, an international common set of indicators and values and a compatible methodologies for assessing sand contamination, should be defined, in order to provide the bather's with an indication of beach sand quality, rather than only the water. - Highlights: • Microbial indicators were studied in the beach sands of Madeira archipelago. • Differences between years may be attributed to extreme weather. • Sand of artificial beaches has higher levels of microbial contamination. • Microbial analysis of the sand showed that the beaches have mainly good quality.

Pereira, Elisabete; Figueira, Celso; Aguiar, Nuno; Vasconcelos, Rita [Universidade da Madeira, Caminho da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal (Portugal); Vasconcelos, Sílvia [Laboratório Regional de Veterinária e Segurança Alimentar, Caminho das Quebradas de Baixo n° 79, 9000-254 Funchal (Portugal); Calado, Graça [Laboratório de Saúde Pública, IASaúde, Rua das Pretas n° 1, 9004-515 Funchal (Portugal); Brandão, João [Instituto Nacional de Saúde Dr. Ricardo Jorge, Avenida Padre Cruz, 1649-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Prada, Susana, E-mail: susana@uma.pt [Universidade da Madeira, Caminho da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal (Portugal); Centro de Vulcanologia e Avaliação de Riscos Geológicos, Universidade dos Açores, Rua da Mãe de Deus, Edifício do Complexo Científico, 3° Andar — Ala Sul, 9500-321 Ponta Delgada (Portugal)

2013-09-01

193

Microbiological and mycological beach sand quality in a volcanic environment: Madeira archipelago, Portugal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Madeira forms a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago, whose economy is largely dependent on tourism. There, one can encounter different types of sand beach: natural basaltic, natural calcareous and artificial calcareous. Microbiological and mycological quality of the sand was analyzed in two different years. Bacterial indicators were detected in higher number in 2010 (36.7% of the samples) than in 2011 (9.1%). Mycological indicators were detected in a similar percentage of samples in 2010 (68.3%) and 2011 (75%), even though the total number of colonies detected in 2010 was much higher (827 in 41 samples) than in 2011 (427 in 66 samples). Enterococci and potentially pathogenic and allergenic fungi (particularly Penicillium sp.) were the most common indicators detected in both years. Candida sp. yeast was also commonly detected in the samples. The analysis of the 3rd quartile and maximum numbers of all indicators in samples showed that artificial beaches tend to be more contaminated than the natural ones. However, a significant difference between the variables was lacking. More monitoring data (number of bathers, sea birds, radiation intensity variation, and a greater number of samples) should be collected in order to confirm if these differences are significant. In general, the sand quality in the archipelago's beaches was good. As the sand may be a vector of diseases, an international common set of indicators and values and a compatible methodologies for assessing sand contamination, should be defined, in order to provide the bather's with an indication of beach sand quality, rather than only the water. - Highlights: • Microbial indicators were studied in the beach sands of Madeira archipelago. • Differences between years may be attributed to extreme weather. • Sand of artificial beaches has higher levels of microbial contamination. • Microbial analysis of the sand showed that the beaches have mainly good quality

194

Notch-dependent expression of the archipelago ubiquitin ligase subunit in the Drosophila eye  

OpenAIRE

archipelago (ago)/Fbw7 encodes a conserved protein that functions as the substrate-receptor component of a polyubiquitin ligase that suppresses tissue growth in flies and tumorigenesis in vertebrates. Ago/Fbw7 targets multiple proteins for degradation, including the G1-S regulator Cyclin E and the oncoprotein dMyc/c-Myc. Despite prominent roles in growth control, little is known about the signals that regulate Ago/Fbw7 abundance in developing tissues. Here we use the Drosophila eye as a model...

Nicholson, Sarah C.; Nicolay, Brandon N.; Frolov, Maxim V.; Moberg, Kenneth H.

2011-01-01

195

Mobility concepts using excess power from proposed renewable energy supply system on Graciosa Island, Azores Archipelago  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of excess energy from the planned renewable electricity generation system of Graciosa Island, Azores Archipelago, has been examined focussing on its use as energy source for mobility concepts. Battery-electric vehicles with different load management and vehicle-to-grid schemes as well as renewable power methane fuelled vehicles have been considered against a baseline scenario featuring conventional diesel vehicles. The simulation results include related costs and carbon dioxide emissions as well as the size of energy storage and amount of backup fuels needed. Both alternative vehicle types can benefit from using excess energy and may significantly reduce the need for imported fossil fuels.

Arnhold, O.; Hlusiak, M.; Moehrke, F.; Breyer, C. [Reiner Lemoine Institut gGmbH, Berlin (Germany)

2011-07-01

196

Competing Notions of Diversity in Archipelago Tourism: Transport Logistics, Official Rhetoric and Inter-Island Rivalry in the Azores  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contending and competing geographies are often implicitly involved in archipelagic spaces. Various small island states and territories with multi-island geographies have flourishing tourism industries that presuppose an archipelagic experience: visitors are encouraged to explore and sample different island constituents of the territory. This strategy taps into different tourism niche markets, improves local value added, and shares tourism revenue beyond key nodes and urban centers. The organization of such an important economic activity however often reflects a ‘one-size-fits-all’, tightly coordinated, frequently contrived process that does not necessarily speak to the cultural and biogeographical forms of diversity that reside in the archipelago. This paper offers the notion of archipelago as a new way of rethinking problems and challenges encountered in island tourism, and then assesses the implications of this conceptualization on the representation of ‘the archipelago’ in the Azores, Portugal, and reviews what this approach means and implies for sustainable tourism policy.

Eduardo Costa Duarte Ferreira

2013-05-01

197

Seismicity pattern changes before the M = 4.8 Aeolian Archipelago (Italy) earthquake of August 16, 2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the seismicity patterns associated with an M = 4.8 earthquake recorded in the Aeolian Archipelago on 16, August, 2010, by means of the region-time-length (RTL) algorithm. This earthquake triggered landslides at Lipari; a rock fall on the flanks of the Vulcano, Lipari, and Salina islands, and some damages to the village of Lipari. The RTL algorithm is widely used for investigating precursory seismicity changes before large and moderate earthquakes. We examined both the spatial and temporal characteristics of seismicity changes in the Aeolian Archipelago region before the M = 4.8 earthquake. The results obtained reveal 6-7 months of seismic quiescence which started about 15 months before the earthquake. The spatial distribution shows an extensive area characterized by seismic quiescence that suggests a relationship between quiescence and the Aeolian Archipelago regional tectonics. PMID:24511288

Gambino, Salvatore; Laudani, Antonino; Mangiagli, Salvatore

2014-01-01

198

Higher homotopy operations and Andr\\'{e}-Quillen cohomology  

CERN Document Server

There are two main approaches to the problem of realizing a $\\Pi$-algebra (a graded group $\\Lambda$ equipped with an action of the primary homotopy operations) as the homotopy groups of a space $X$. Both involve trying to realize an algebraic free simplicial resolution $G_\\bullet$ of $\\Lambda$ by a simplicial space $W_\\bullet$ and proceed by induction on the simplicial dimension. The first provides a sequence of Andr\\'{e}-Quillen cohomology classes in $H_{AQ}^{n+2}(\\Lambda;\\Omega^{n}\\Lambda)$ for $n \\geq 1$ as obstructions to the existence of successive Postnikov sections for $W_\\bullet$ by work of Dwyer, Kan and Stover. The second gives a sequence of geometrically defined higher homotopy operations as the obstructions by earlier work of Blanc; these were identified with the obstruction theory of Dwyer, Kan and Smith in earlier work of the current authors. There are also (algebraic and geometric) obstructions for distinguishing between different realizations of $\\Lambda$. In this paper we 1) provide an explic...

Blanc, David; Turner, James M

2011-01-01

199

Heidegger y el cristianismo de San Pablo y San Agustín  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este texto intenta mostrar el sentido de la interpretación de San Pablo y San Agustín que Heidegger lleva a cabo en sus primeros cursos de Friburgo. En concreto, se pretende apuntar al motivo por el que el joven Heidegger recupera aspectos del cristianismo para su proyecto filosófico y cuáles son los elementos concretos que las Epístolas de San Pablo y las Confesiones de San Agustín le aportan. De esta forma, se apreciará, entre otras cosas, la importancia concedida por Heidegger a la acentuación del mundo propio (Selbstwelt y de la temporalidad que es característica de la experiencia cristiana del vivir

Francisco de Lara

2007-01-01

200

Present situation and future prospects of electricity generation in Aegean Archipelago islands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Aegean Archipelago is a remote Hellenic area, including several hundreds of scattered islands of various sizes. In these islands more than 600,000 people are living mainly in small remote communities. The main economical activities of the islanders are apart from tourism, seafaring, fishery, agriculture and stock farming. One of the major problems of the area is the insufficient infrastructure, strongly related with the absence of an integrated and cost-effective electrification plan. In this context, the present work is concentrated on analyzing the present situation and demonstrating the future prospects of electricity generation in the Aegean Archipelago islands. For this purpose, one should first investigate the time evolution of the corresponding electricity generation parameters (i.e. annual electricity consumption, peak power demand, capacity factor, specific fuel consumption) for the last 30 years. Subsequently, the corresponding diesel and heavy-oil consumption along with the electricity production cost for every specific autonomous power station of the area are investigated. Special attention is paid in order to estimate the contribution of renewable energy sources (RES) in the energy balance of each island. Finally, an attempt is made to describe in brief the most realistic electricity production solutions available, including the operation of hybrid RES-based power plants in collaboration with appropriate energy storage facilities. Additionally, the idy storage facilities. Additionally, the idea of connecting the islands of the area with the mainland and interconnecting them is also taken into consideration

201

Bucket structure in carbonate accumulations of the Maldive, Chagos and Laccadive archipelagos  

Science.gov (United States)

Peritidal platforms rimmed by reefs, and raised reefs rimming deep lagoons, are characteristic morphologies of the tropical carbonate factory; their geometry contrasts sharply with the seaward-sloping shelves of siliciclastic margins. The structure has been compared to a bucket—stiff reef rims holding a pile of loose sediment. Remote-sensing data from the Maldive, Chagos and Laccadive archipelagos of the Indian Ocean show that ring reefs with bucket structure are the dominant depositional pattern from patch reefs of tens of meters to archipelagos of hundreds of kilometers in diameter, that is, over more than 4 orders of magnitude in linear size. Over 2.5 orders of magnitude, the bucket structures qualify as statistical fractals, exhibiting self-similar patterns and size distributions following power laws. However, most regional or genetic subsets of the data follow lognormal distributions and small subsets of lagoon reefs exhibit exponential distributions. Seismic data and boreholes in the Maldives indicate that the bucket has been a dominant depositional motif since the Oligocene. Ecological and hydrodynamic studies on modern reefs suggest that the bucket structure is a form of biotic self-organization: the edge position in a reef is favored over the center position because bottom shear is higher and the diffusive boundary layer between reef and water thinner. Thus, the reef edge has easier access to nutrients and is less likely to be buried by sediment. The bucket structure reflects these conditions. Karst processes have accentuated the surface relief of the buckets, particularly in the late Quaternary.

Schlager, Wolfgang; Purkis, Samuel J.

2013-11-01

202

Use of finite mixture distribution models in the analysis of wind energy in the Canarian Archipelago  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The statistical characteristics of hourly mean wind speed data recorded at 16 weather stations located in the Canarian Archipelago are analyzed in this paper. As a result of this analysis we see that the typical two parameter Weibull wind speed distribution (W-pdf) does not accurately represent all wind regimes observed in that region. However, a Singly Truncated from below Normal Weibull mixture distribution (TNW-pdf) and a two component mixture Weibull distribution (WW-pdf) developed here do provide very good fits for both unimodal and bimodal wind speed frequency distributions observed in that region and offer less relative errors in determining the annual mean wind power density. The parameters of the distributions are estimated using the least squares method, which is resolved in this paper using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The suitability of the distributions is judged from the probability plot correlation coefficient plot R 2, adjusted for degrees of freedom. Based on the results obtained, we conclude that the two mixture distributions proposed here provide very flexible models for wind speed studies and can be applied in a widespread manner to represent the wind regimes in the Canarian archipelago and in other regions with similar characteristics. The TNW-pdf takes into account the frequency of null winds, whereas the WW-pdf and W-pdf do not. It can, therefore, better represent wind regimes with high percentages of null wind speeds. However, percentages of null wind speeds. However, calculation of the TNW-pdf is markedly slower

203

Mesozooplankton distribution in the Spermonde Archipelago (Indonesia, Sulawesi) with special reference to the Calanoida (Copepoda)  

Science.gov (United States)

In September 2005 the mesozooplankton distribution, taxonomic composition and community structure were studied on four cross-shelf and one coastal transects in the Spermonde Archipelago off Makassar (SW Sulawesi). A total of 47 higher taxonomic groups and 89 calanoid copepod species were identified. Copepods outnumbered the other mesozooplankton taxa with 29 to 69%, increasing in importance towards the offshore stations. Appendicularians ranked second (16-24%) followed at the offshore stations by chaetognaths (4.5%) and, at shelf and coastal stations by echinoderm pluteus larvae (11-15%). Within the calanoids, species of the family Paracalanidae, especially Paracalanus cf. parvus, were dominant at all stations. Other abundant families were Temoridae (6.5-17%), Acartiidae (7.2%) and Pontellidae (6.2%) at shelf and coastal stations while Clausocalanidae (8.7%) and Calanidae (6.7) were more abundant at offshore stations. To investigate the mesozooplankton distribution the 25 stations were grouped into 3 geographical zones based on their topographical and hydrographical differences (coastal, shelf and offshore zone). Some higher zooplankton taxa and about half of the calanoid species occurred only in one or two categories. In general the abundant taxa were spread throughout the Archipelago. To investigate their distribution the abundance data were subjected to a multivariate discriminant function analysis (MDFA). The results revealed that the composition of the mesozooplankton community changed from the coastal zone with a high abundance of meroplankton and neritic copepod species to an offshore community with a higher abundance of holoplanktonic organisms and oceanic copepod species.

Cornils, Astrid; Schulz, Jan; Schmitt, Petra; Lanuru, Mahatma; Richter, Claudio; Schnack-Schiel, Sigrid B.

2010-12-01

204

A multiproxy reconstruction of NAO evolution in the Azores archipelago since 1350 AD  

Science.gov (United States)

The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the main atmospheric circulation pattern affecting climate variability in the Northern Hemisphere, having a major impact on both marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Instrumental records of the NAO are relatively short, and therefore paleoenvironmental multiproxy approaches become fundamental to better understand its behaviour for longer scale periods. The NAO is often defined as a large-scale meridional oscillation dipole of air pressure between the Azores High and the Iceland Low. Some of the NAO definitions include the use of sea level pressure from Ponta Delgada station in Azores, and thus any NAO reconstruction would gain in robustness if it includes paleoenvironmental information from this archipelago located at the southern end of the meridional dipole that characterizes the NAO pattern. However, to the best of our knowledge, very few historical and long-term reconstructions have been conducted in the Azores Islands. We present a ca. 600-year-long multiproxy reconstruction of the NAO evolution based on facies analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning, elemental and isotope geochemistry on bulk organic matter and the preliminary study of diatom and chironomid content from the sedimentary record of Lake Empadadas (37° 49' N - 25° 44' W, Azores Archipelago, Portugal). The precipitation regime in Azores Archipelago (i.e. intra and inter-annual variability) is clearly influenced by the NAO index, thus periods with dominant positive NAO index values (NAO+) are usually characterized by low winter precipitation in the Azores. Conversely, negative NAO phases (NAO-) induce high winter precipitation in the archipelago. These patterns suggest that past (winter) precipitation changes on the Azores may be partially used as a proxy for NAO changes, and thus a proxy for more large-scale changes in the North Atlantic region. According to this multiproxy characterization of the Lake Empadadas sediments four main climatic (and NAO) stages since 600 cal years BP have been established. The first stage (1350-1460 AD) correspond to dark-brown to black mud facies with high values in lake productivity and moderately shallow waters, which however represent the deepest condition during the studied interval. Mineralogical composition and high organic matter content also suggest a humid climate with abundant precipitations that might be related to a predominantly NAO- phase. The second stage, spanning between 1460 and 1800 AD, is represented by a similar facies presented by the previous phase. This stage is however characterized by a transitional period from a wet to more arid climate, probably related to a change in NAO conditions (from NAO- to NAO+), with lower values of lake productivity and lake level than the previous stage. From 1800 AD until 1930 AD (third stage) banded brown to pale-brown silty and muddy facies were deposited. During this stage the lowest lake water table and productivity in the whole sequence were reached suggesting a predominantly NAO+ phase in concordance with instrumental NAO records. However, heavy rainfall catastrophic events are recorded in the sequence as very coarse (gravely) alluvial intervals that may be related with intense NAO- negative winters or alternatively to autumn Tropical Storms that can reach the archipelago. Finally, the uppermost interval of the sequence is composed by brown to ochre massive mud. A lake level rise and a progressive increase in the productivity suggest a relatively humid fourth stage from AD 1930 until present, a period characterized with more NAO- values.

Hernández, Armand; Doolittle, Sara; Bao, Roberto; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Rubio-Inglés, Maria J.; Sánchez-López, Guiomar; Vázquez-Loureiro, David; Gonçalves, Vitor; Raposeiro, Pedro M.; Marques, Helena S.; Sáez, Alberto; Giralt, Santiago

2014-05-01

205

A Model for the crust across the San Andres fault system in Mexico-USA border region; Un modelo de la estructura de la corteza para el sistema de fallas de San Andres en la zona fronteriza Mexico- EEUU  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report the recording and interpretation of an unreversed seismic profile between Blythe, Arizona and Ensenada, Baja California, using an explosive source in a drilled hole near Blythe (from project Delta Force). The data consist of digital seismograms from 14 three-component stations in a line between Mexicali and Ensenada (every 10 km) and 15 stations from the Southern California Network. The profile goes through three distinct regions: a) the Chocolate Mountains in Southern California; b) the Salton Trough in both Californias, and c) the Peninsular Ranges in Baja California, and is almost perpendicular to the general trend of the Salton Trough central axis. Vertical component seismograms at distances of 40-260 km are interpreted. The record section shows several secondary phases which are correlated and interpreted in a forward modelling scheme for time arrivals and relative amplitudes. No significant S-wave arrivals are identified. A preliminary interpretation produces a crustal depth of 22 km beneath the Chocolate Mountains and a crustal structure of P-wave velocities comprised by layers of 5.3, 5.5 and 6.2. km/s, with thicknesses of 4, 8 and 10 km, respectively. Results for the crustal structure of the Mexicali-Imperial Valley are consistent with the extensive refraction measurements made in the past; in addition, the presence of an upper mantle intrusion beneath the Valley is well resolved. Data are insufficient for determining crustal thickness in the Peninsular Ranges region. [Espanol] Se presentan los datos y la interpretacion de un perfil sismico de refraccion entre Blythe, Arizona y Ensenada, Baja California. Se utilizo como fuente una explosion subterranea realizada en un pozo cerca de Blythe como parte del proyecto Delta Force. Para obtener los datos se instalaron entre Mexicali y Ensenada 14 estaciones digitales portatiles con sismometros de tres componentes, cada 10 km, esta informacion se complemento con datos de 15 estaciones de la Red del Sur de California. El perfil atraviesa tres distintas regiones: a) Las Montanas Chocolate en el Sur de California; b) La Cuenca Salton en ambas Californias, y c) Las Sierras en Baja California, y es casi perpendicular al eje central de la Cuenca Salton. Se interpretan los sismogramas de la componente vertical para un intervalo de distancias de 40 a 260 km. Los ensamblajes muestran varias fases secundarias que fueron correlacionadas e interpretadas, se modelaron sus tiempos de recorrido y amplitudes relativas por medio de trazado de rayos asintoticos. No se identificaron llegadas claras de ondas S. Nuestra interpretacion preliminar muestra una corteza de 22 km de profundidad bajo las Montanas Chocolate con una estructura de velocidades para onda P definida por tres capas de 5.3, 5.5 y 6.2. km/s, con grosores de 4, 8 y 10 km respectivamente. Los resultados para la estructura de la corteza en el Valle Mexicali-Imperial son consistentes con los amplios estudios previamente realizados en la zona; sin embargo, se detecto la presencia de una intrusion del manto superior bajo el Valle a una profundidad de 17 km y que el Valle Mexicali-Imperial actua como una zona de generacion de ondas multiples de gran amplitud. Los datos son insuficientes para determinar con precision la estructura cortical en la region de las Sierras Peninsulares.

Nunez-Cornu, F. [Centro Universitario de la Costa, Campus Puerto Vallarta y Departamento de Geografia de la Universidad de Guadalajara, Puerto Vallarta (Mexico); Montana, C. [DGS University of Texas at el Paso, El Paso TX (United States); Frez, J.; Munguia, L.; Nava, A.; Gonzalez, J.; Mendoza, L.; Aragon, M.; Sanchez-Mora, C.; Morandi, M.; Madrid, J. [Grupo de Perfiles Sismicos del CICESE, Ensenada (Mexico)

1996-01-01

206

Spatial Econometric Model for Economics Development in Archipelago of Riau, as a Defense System Development in Republic of Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Province of Archipelago of Riau is a region in Indonesia which is adjacent to Singapore and Malaysia. This province has a great potential conditions diversity and natural resources. Planning on public prosperity improvement is necessary in order to increase loyalty and nationalism to Republic of Indonesia. The aim of this research is to build a spatial econometric model of economic growth in Province of Archipelago of Riau. One of the results shows that in recent 4 years Batam always gives the largest contribution to GRDP in Province of Archipelago of Riau. This can be understood that the contribution is more than 72.0% not only based on GRDP at current prices, but also based on GRDP at constant prices. Economic growth rate in regions in Province of Archipelago of Riau is higher than national economic growth rate. The model fits well because the coefficient of determination R2 is more than 85%. There are only 3 worse models, i.e. based on building construction in Batam (with R2= 59.6%, in Tanjungpinang (with R2=74.0%, and based on transportation and communication in Tanjungpinang (with R2=37.1%.

Susanti Linuwih

2010-08-01

207

Aspects of the biology of the leaf-scale gulper shark Centrophorus squamosus (Bonnaterre, 1788 off Madeira archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 206 Centrophorus squamosus (Bonnaterre, 1788 with a total length ranging from 89 to 146 cm were captured at an average depth of 1200 metres. Of the 61 females sampled, 34% were gravid, showing an absolute individual fecundity of two to ten embryos (pups. The results clearly indicated that this deepwater shark spawns in the Portuguesewaters off Madeira archipelago.

Ricardo B. Severino

2009-01-01

208

First records of Ostreopsis heptagona, O. cf. siamensis and O. cf. ovata – in the Azores archipelago, Portugal  

OpenAIRE

During summer 2008, surveys were carried out around São Miguel island in the Azores archipelago (36–39ºN, 25–31ºW). [...]. Species of Ostreopsis were morphologically characterized with an Olympus BX50 equipped with epifluorescence, following Penna et al. [...].

Silva, A.; Brotas, Vanda; Orive, E.; Neto, Ana I.

2010-01-01

209

Nuclear and mitochondrial sequences confirm complex colonization patterns and clear species boundaries for flightless weevils in the Galápagos archipelago  

OpenAIRE

Nuclear sequence data were collected from endemic Galápagos species and an introduced close relative, and contrasted with mitochondrial DNA sequences, continuing investigation into the colonization history and modes of diversification in the weevil genus Galapaganus. The current combined phylogeny together with previously published penalized likelihood age estimates builds a complex picture of the archipelago's colonization history. The present reconstruction relies on submerged platforms to...

Sequeira, A. S.; Sijapati, M.; Lanteri, A. A.; Roque Albelo, L.

2008-01-01

210

San Pascual (2009) Año XLVI, n. 351  

OpenAIRE

Editorial. 60 años de nuestra revista San Pascual. D. Casimiro López, Obispo de la diócesis. Espais de llum a vila-real. Golpes de San Pascual. Siguiendo los caminos de San Pascual capítulo XVII. Entrevista Sor María Dolores Pérez Torres Abadesa del monasterio de San Pascual. Manos sacerdotales. Vida en el santuario. Eucaristía y vida. Rincón poético. Peregrinación nacional al sepulcro de San Pascual en 1899 (IV). L'ofrena de flors de les penyes. Milagros de San Pascual (XIII). La S...

Pe?rez, Mari?a Dolores

2009-01-01

211

An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas, Class II  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the project were to: (1) Thoroughly understand the 60-year history of the field. (2) Develop a reservoir description using geology and 3D seismic. (3) Isolate the upper Grayburg in wells producing from multiple intervals to stop cross flow. (4) Re-align and optimize the upper Grayburg waterflood. (5) Determine well condition, identify re-frac candidates, evaluate the effectiveness of well work and obtain bottom hole pressure data for simulation utilizing pressure transient testing field wide. (6) Quantitatively integrate all the data to guide the field operations, including identification of new well locations utilizing reservoir simulation.

Trentham, Robert C.; Weinbrandt, Richard; Robinson, William C.; Widner, Kevin

2001-05-03

212

Detailed geochemical survey data release for the San Andres-Oscura Mountains special study area, New Mexico  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work reported here includes field data and the results of analyses for uranium and additional elements for each sample. This special study is a follow-up to the uranium reconnaissance previously conducted by Los Alamos in the surrounding Tularosa NTMS quadrangle as part of the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR). The HSSR program is part of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE), which is designed to provide an improved estimate of the available information for industry use in the development and production of uranium resources. Each rock sample collected for this special study was crushed and the minus 100-mesh fraction was put into a prewashed 25-ml polyethylene vial and a clean 4-ml rabbit before undergoing analysis. The possibility exists of sample contamination with crusher alloys, especially in the rhyolite samples. The samples were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, europium, gold, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, potassium, rubidium, samarium, scandium, selenium, silver, sodium, strontium, tantalum, terbium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, ytterbium, zinc, and zirconium. Descriptions of field and analytical methods can be found in Appendix II-A. Sample locations are pl in Appendix II-A. Sample locations are plotted on Plate I. All samples were analyzed for uranium by delayed neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in samples were determined by neutron-activation analysis, x-ray fluorescence, and arc-source emission spectrography. Analytical results for samples are reported as parts per million

213

Noble gas tracers of mantle processes beneath the Galápagos archipelago (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent measurements in dredged glassy basalts from the western and northern submarine edges of the Galápagos archipelago (R/V Revelle/Drift04 and R/V Melville/MV1007 expeditions, respectively) allow a new examination of the spatial distribution of the noble gas isotopic compositions. The large dynamic range in helium isotopic compositions (6.5 to 30 times atmosphere (Ra)) coupled with the spatial distribution of recent submarine and subaerial volcanism provides a unique picture of mantle dynamics. The highest 3He/4He in the Galápagos are found in basalts from Fernandina volcano at the western edge of the archipelago, which also has the most unradiogenic neon isotopic compositions, suggesting that Fernandina lies above the hotspot center. The high helium isotopic signal drops off asymmetrically to the north and south of Fernandina, with higher 3He/4He ratios found to the South, ranging from 10 to 20 Ra near Cerro Azul, Sierra Negra, and Floreana. To the north of Fernandina, 3He/4He ratios decrease rapidly, reaching values close to MORB at Volcan Ecuador (9.8 to 11.4 Ra), Volcan Wolf (8.1 to 9.2 Ra), and Roca Redonda (7.6 to 9.5 Ra). Preliminary data suggests that He, Ne, and Ar isotopes are correlated in basalts from the western edge of the Galápagos. Using neon isotope data to correct 40Ar/36Ar for atmospheric influence shows that 3He/4He is negatively correlated with (extrapolated) 40Ar/36Ar, and strongly suggests that the noble gas variations relate to mantle source, which has important implications for deep earth noble gas budgets. New data from seamounts in the area between the Galápagos Spreading Center (GSC) and the main archipelago reveal relatively small hotspot helium contributions. The region between the GSC and Isla Pinta is characterized by 3He/4He close to MORB (7.3 to 7.7 Ra). The only evidence of hotspot helium contributions is observed at the southernmost end of the Wolf Darwin Lineament (9.3 Ra) and at the shoal between Genovesa and Marchena (9.5 Ra), which are separated by low values near Isla Pinta (6.5 to 6.9 Ra). This remarkable spatial variability in 3He/4He relates to heterogeneities within the upwelling hotspot, coupled with mantle melting at various depths, as the upwelling material advects to the northeast. The most striking result is the lack of (large) helium anomalies near the GSC, in contrast with other non-volatile geochemical indicators of hotspot influence, indicating that helium is extremely incompatible and is efficiently removed during the initial stages of hotspot upwelling.

Kurz, M. D.; Harpp, K. S.; Geist, D.; Fornari, D. J.; Curtice, J.; Lott, D. E.; Jenkins, W. J.

2010-12-01

214

San Fernando Valley History  

Science.gov (United States)

A historical tour through the world of San Fernando Valley is always a good idea, and the folks at the California State University-Northridge have made this possible via their amazing archive of digitized materials. The project is based at their Oviatt Library, and it contains historically significant documents, manuscripts, photographs and related graphic materials from public and private collections in the San Fernando Valley. The project started in 2000, and today visitors can browse the collection at their leisure. First-time visitors can look over the "Topics" here, which include "Animals", "Economics", "Industries", and six other areas. The "Communities" area features a fun map with all of the communities of the area on it. Clicking on one of the icons will take users to archived items associated with each place. Also, visitors shouldn't miss the "Transportation" tab as they can view classic images of the old Pacific Electric Railway as well as images of early bus terminals and more contemporary shots of Amtrak in action.

215

Crustal deformation study in the Canary Archipelago by the analysis of GPS observations  

Science.gov (United States)

The Canary Archipelago is an active volcanic region located in the African plate, at 100 Km of the northwest coast of Africa. The Complutense University of Madrid, Institute of Astronomy and Geodesy (CSIC-UCM) and University of Jaén, established a GPS Network in this region and carried out six observations campaigns from 2002 to 2009. The focus of thiswork is processing and analyzing these observations to study the geodynamic behavior of the stations of this network. The data have been computed with the Bernese GPS Software Version 5.0 obtaining individual solutions of coordinates for each session and campaign, the coordinate velocities of the stations and the time series of baselines formed between them. Results show consistency of station velocities compared to behaviour of areas permanent stations and baselines stability. No deformations could be detected.

Martín, Adriana; Sevilla, Miguel; Zurutuza, Joaquín

2014-06-01

216

Population dynamics of intertidal oribatid mites (Acari: Cryptostigmata) from the subtropical archipelago of Bermuda.  

Science.gov (United States)

The population dynamics of the three intertidal oribatid species, Alismobates inexpectatus, Fortuynia atlantica and Carinozetes bermudensis, have been studied on the archipelago of Bermuda over the course of a year. All three species are univoltine, showing a clear seasonal demographic pattern, with reproduction from spring to late autumn and a complete standstill of egg production in winter. A seasonal shift in sex ratio could also be observed in all three species and is supposed to be based on sex-dependent mortality. The subtropical climate of Bermuda allows longer reproductive periods than shown in other intertidal or edaphic temperate species and temperature is supposed to be the main factor influencing the demography of these intertidal dwelling mites. Although all three Bermudian species exhibit the same basic seasonal demographic pattern, there are slight temporal shifts in population dynamics, presumably caused by local microclimatic differences among the populations. Larviparity, shown in other littoral oribatid mites, is clearly absent in the present species. PMID:23515699

Pfingstl, Tobias

2013-10-01

217

Local Culture as a Resource in Regional Development in the Southwest-Finland Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In cultural and regional politics in the European Union, and in practice for instance in the Southwest-Finland Archipelago, local culture and cultural heritage are considered resources. Global boundlessness, heterogeneity and change are basic qualities of culture. However, in regional development, culture is seen and used as a number of different local cultures with their own essential cultural heritage. The culture of local everyday life is opposite to, and in tension with, the construct of cultures used in regional development. Accordingly, culture should primarily be safeguarded as a heterogenic, dynamic and interactive process of everyday life. This process is the most important resource of local culture. In addition, culture should be safeguarded as value-based cultural constructions, such as brands or common identities of certain cultures, with for instance cultural heritage as a part of it. In the latter case, a common, transparent definition of these brands, identities and cultural heritages with their different values, is needed.

Katriina Siivonen

2009-12-01

218

[Intestinal parasite infections in rural students of Chiloé archipelago, X Region, Chile].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to contribute to the knowledge of intestinal parasite infection a survey was performed in 462 primary school children from eight rural localities sited in two islands of the Chiloe archipelago. Stool samples and perianal scotch tape scrapings for intestinal protozoa and helminths were microscopically examined. The prevalence rates of the main species found were: Ascaris lumbricoides 43.3%, Trichuris trichiura 26.8%, Enterobius vernicularis 20.1%, Entamoeba histolytica 5.6%, Giardia intestinalis 20.6% and Blastocystis hominis 63.2%. Poverty, deficiencies in hygienic practices and poor basic environmental sanitation are the contributing factors in the maintenance of the high prevalence of the intestinal parasitic infections found. A health education program, improvement of basic sanitary conditions and eventual treatment of infected people may contribute to control this undesirable situation. PMID:8110371

Mejías, G

1993-01-01

219

Geothermal availability in Indonesia, volcanic archipelagoes. Kazan renkan no gunto Indonesia no chinetsu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper introduces activities of major volcanic mountains in Indonesia and the current status of its geothermal development. Vigorous volcanic activities in the Indonesian archipelagoes are exemplified by eruptions of Mt. Tambora in Sumbawa Island, Krakatau volcano, Mt. Merapi, Papandayan volcano in Java Island. Estimated geothermal reserve reaches 895 MW according to explorations in candidate geothermal sites at Kamojang, Darajat, Dieng, Salak, etc. in Java Island. The Kamojang geothermal site has a large number of geysers, boiling mud pots, and sulfur hot springs. Pertamina, a national organization, has built the Rancabam Kamojang geothermal power plant, which is operating with a power output of 140 MW. The paper describes briefly geothermal developments being carried out at the Dieng area in Java Island, and other areas in Slawesi Island, Bali Island, Flores Island, and Sumatra Island. 17 figs.

1993-02-01

220

Models of oceanic island biogeography: changing perspectives on biodiversity dynamics in archipelagoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Models of biogeographic processes can both enhance and inhibit our ability to ask questions that guide our understanding of patterns and processes. The two ‘traditional’ models of island biogeography, the Equilibrium Model and the Vicariance Model, raise important and insightful questions about relevant processes, but both fail to raise many crucial questions. An example involving the non-volant mammals of the Philippine archipelago shows that both models highlight some, but not all, relevant patterns and processes. The more recently proposed General Dynamic Model successfully combines many of the positive aspects of the two traditional models, but leaves some important questions unasked. We pose a number of questions here that may help guide further development of models of island biogeography.

Lawrence R Heaney

2013-12-01

221

Pearl oysters Pinctada margaritifera grazing on natural plankton in Ahe atoll lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia).  

Science.gov (United States)

In atoll lagoons of French Polynesia, growth and reproduction of pearl oysters are mainly driven by plankton concentration. However, the actual diet of black-lip pearl oysters Pinctada margaritifera in these lagoons is poorly known. To fill this gap, we used the flow through chamber method to measure clearance rates of P. margaritifera in Ahe atoll lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia). We found: (i) that pearl oysters cleared plankton at a rate that was positively related to plankton biovolume, (ii) that nanoflagellates were the main source of carbon for the pearl oysters, and (iii) that the quantity and origin of carbon filtrated by pearl oysters was highly dependent on the concentration and composition of plankton. These results provide essential elements for the comprehension of growth and reproduction variability of pearl oysters in atoll lagoons of French Polynesia. PMID:22560742

Fournier, Jonathan; Dupuy, Christine; Bouvy, Marc; Couraudon-Réale, Marine; Charpy, Loïc; Pouvreau, Stephane; Le Moullac, Gilles; Le Pennec, Marcel; Cochard, Jean-Claude

2012-01-01

222

Changes in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Observations from Spaceborne and Airborne Laser Altimeters  

Science.gov (United States)

Developing a complete picture of the physical processes governing changes in any part of the cryosphere often requires multiple types of measurements. Increasingly, satellite remote sensing provides critical observations in the polar regions that are difficult, or impossible, to obtain via ground-based or airborne efforts. Nonetheless, these latter data sets, collected through logistically complex, and often dangerous, field campaigns yield a level of detail that is currently unachievable from space-based platforms. Since 2003, the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) has produced elevation profiles along reference ground tracks throughout the Arctic during month-long campaigns, 2-3 times per year. We derive estimates of elevation change rates in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, using a repeat-track analysis method, in which ICESat elevations from multiple campaigns are binned along the targeted ground tracks. Aircraft surveys of this region have also been conducted with the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) in 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2006. We compute elevation change rates from these data along repeatedly surveyed tracks, and compare the results to those obtained from ICESat. We also compare contemporaneous ICESat and ATM elevation profiles where they cross, and characterize the observed differences in terms of topographic slope and roughness. We discuss the current state of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, as inferred from these analyses, with an emphasis on changes that are occurring at higher versus lower latitudes. Furthermore, we compare the conclusions that can be drawn from the ICESat and ATM data sets independently, and discuss their relative strengths and weaknesses.

Webb, C. E.; Catania, G. A.; Sonntag, J. G.; Krabill, W. B.

2009-12-01

223

Baseline assessment of the reef fish assemblage from Cagarras Archipelago, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A extensa costa brasileira abriga uma grande diversidade de peixes recifais. Este trabalho é um estudo pioneiro no que diz respeito à composição de espécies de peixes recifais do Arquipélago das Cagarras. Este sistema recifal é formado por um grupo de ilhas costeiras, distantes 5 km ao sul da Praia [...] de Ipanema no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Uma comunidade relativamente diversa e impactada, com 99 espécies pertencentes a 39 famílias de peixes recifais, foi encontrada. A utilização de duas técnicas de censo visual mostrou uma grande diferença nos dados obtidos, quando comparados a outras regiões recifais brasileiras. São discutidos dados da estrutura trófica e a distribuição biogeográfica da ictiofauna da região. A ausência de algumas espécies, principalmente grandes predadores, sugere que a região está sofrendo grande impacto ambiental, e torna urgente a criação de uma área de proteção marinha pelas autoridades Brasileiras. Os resultados obtidos poderão servir como base para futuros estudos ambientais nas Cagarras. Abstract in english The extensive Brazilian coast comprises diverse reef fish communities. Here, we report a pioneer study on the reef fish community composition of the Cagarras Archipelago. This rocky reef system consists of a small group of coastal islands 5 km south off Ipanema Beach, Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. A [...] relatively diverse and disturbed fish community (99 species from 39 families) was found in this archipelago. Two different visual census techniques were utilized and a large difference was observed in the number of species compared to other Brazilian reef sites. Trophic structure and biogeographical affinities are discussed. The absence of some reef fish species, mainly top predators, suggests severe environmental impact in this area and exhorts the Brazilian authorities to create a marine protected area. Results obtained in this study will serve to future environmental studies in Cagarras.

Carlos A., Rangel; Laís C. T., Chaves; Cassiano, Monteiro-Neto.

2007-03-01

224

Baseline assessment of the reef fish assemblage from Cagarras Archipelago, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The extensive Brazilian coast comprises diverse reef fish communities. Here, we report a pioneer study on the reef fish community composition of the Cagarras Archipelago. This rocky reef system consists of a small group of coastal islands 5 km south off Ipanema Beach, Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. A relatively diverse and disturbed fish community (99 species from 39 families was found in this archipelago. Two different visual census techniques were utilized and a large difference was observed in the number of species compared to other Brazilian reef sites. Trophic structure and biogeographical affinities are discussed. The absence of some reef fish species, mainly top predators, suggests severe environmental impact in this area and exhorts the Brazilian authorities to create a marine protected area. Results obtained in this study will serve to future environmental studies in Cagarras.A extensa costa brasileira abriga uma grande diversidade de peixes recifais. Este trabalho é um estudo pioneiro no que diz respeito à composição de espécies de peixes recifais do Arquipélago das Cagarras. Este sistema recifal é formado por um grupo de ilhas costeiras, distantes 5 km ao sul da Praia de Ipanema no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Uma comunidade relativamente diversa e impactada, com 99 espécies pertencentes a 39 famílias de peixes recifais, foi encontrada. A utilização de duas técnicas de censo visual mostrou uma grande diferença nos dados obtidos, quando comparados a outras regiões recifais brasileiras. São discutidos dados da estrutura trófica e a distribuição biogeográfica da ictiofauna da região. A ausência de algumas espécies, principalmente grandes predadores, sugere que a região está sofrendo grande impacto ambiental, e torna urgente a criação de uma área de proteção marinha pelas autoridades Brasileiras. Os resultados obtidos poderão servir como base para futuros estudos ambientais nas Cagarras.

Carlos A. Rangel

2007-03-01

225

Unexpectedly high radioactivity burdens in ice-rafted sediments from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unexpectedly high specific activities of (137)Cs (1800-2000 Bq kg(-1) dry weight) have been detected in fine-grained sediments entrained in multi-year sea ice floes grounded in Resolute Bay near the center of the Northwest Passage through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. These results are remarkable because: (1) the specific activities are about two orders of magnitude higher than average specific activities detected in previous studies of sea ice rafted sediments from the Arctic Ocean, (2) two independent observations of these unexpectedly high specific activities were made several years apart, (3) the sampling site is on the opposite side of the Arctic basin from potential radioactive sources such as disposal and weapons testing sites of the former Soviet Union and nuclear fuel reprocessing sites in western Europe, and (4) the closest compositional match to known geologic source regions is Banks Island, on the western edge of the Arctic Archipelago, although a smaller number of grains from one of the two samples were mineralogically matched to sediments in the Laptev Sea. Consequently, the sediments are probably not from a single distinct source and were likely mixed during sea ice transport. Coupled with previous observations of higher radionuclide specific activities in some sea ice rafted sediments relative to bottom sediments, these new observations indicate that comparatively high as well as variable radioactive contaminant burdens in ice rafted sediments must be common and geographically independent of proximity to known contaminant sources. The mechanisms that would facilitate these unexpected high radionuclide burdens in sea ice are not known and require additional study, as well as investigations of the implications for the transport and fate of contaminants in Arctic sea ice. PMID:16197983

Cota, Glenn F; Cooper, Lee W; Darby, Dennis A; Larsen, I L

2006-07-31

226

Short-Period Rayleigh Wave Dispersion Measurements across the Cape Verde Archipelago using Ambient Noise  

Science.gov (United States)

The Cape Verde archipelago consists of 10 islands and several islets located on the southwest flank of the Cape Verde Rise, 500 to 800 km west of Senegal, off the African coast. This is an elevated region of ocean floor approximately 1200 km wide and encompassing an area greater than 3 x 105 km2. The islands form a horseshoe-shaped chain with a general age progression from east to west. Under the umbrella of the CV-PLUME and COBO projects, a temporary pool of 39 BB seismometers has been continuously recording between November 2007 and September 2008. This deployment provided a dense coverage of the archipelago with an unprecedented resolution. Ambient noise tomography has proved to be an efficient tool to construct high resolution maps of lithospheric shallower structures. Firstly, they allow measurements at periods shorter than 20 sec, which are hard to obtain from earthquake surface waves. Secondly, being independent of the epicentre-station geometry, they are suitable on regions of low seismicity. Cross-correlation of about 10 months of ambient seismic noise recorded at the CV-PLUME temporary network allowed us to measure short-period Rayleigh waves on all interstation paths. These cross-correlograms enabled us to compute short-period surface-wave group-velocity measurements on interstation paths. We used these measurements to construct maps of Rayleigh-wave group-velocity lateral variations at different periods. The most striking feature on the obtained record-sections is the presence of a secondary Rayleigh wave train in both causal and anti-causal parts of the cross-correlograms obtained for the paths crossing the western edge of the “horseshoe”. This study was supported by projects “CV-PLUME: An investigation on the geometry and deep signature of the Cape Verde mantle plume” (PTDC/CTE-GIN/64330/2006) and “COBO: Cape Verdes Origin from Broadband Observations”, GDSS, GFZ-Potsdam.

Silveira, M. M.; Matias, L. M.; Nunes, J.; Teves-Costa, P.

2010-12-01

227

Vabade kunstide lõputööd / Andres Tali ; intervjueerinud R[eet] V[arblane] ; kommenteerinud Andreas Trossek  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

EKA vabade kunstide teaduskonna dekaan Andres Tali lõpetajate tasemest. 15 magistrikraadi kaitsnud üliõpilase tööd olid enamikus väljas festivali "Tase'11" raames magistritööde näitusel Rotermanni kvartalis 22.05.-5.06.2011. Bakalaureusetaseme lõpetamisest portfoolioga. Andreas Trossek Kristi Kongi, Eva Labotkini, Laura Tootsi, Reimo Võsa-Tangsoo ja Stella Salumaa magistritöödest

Tali, Andres, 1956-

2011-01-01

228

Maramaa elust poksi ja graffitini / Andres Lepik, Ott Aardam ; interv. Gert Kiiler  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Ugala teater alustas 89. hooaega. Esimese poole plaanitud esietendused : Toomas Suumani "Linnapea" Heiki Raudla raamatu "August Maramaa aeg" järgi, lavastaja Andres Lepik. Ott Aardami noortetükist "Poks", lavastaja autor. Gerald Sibleyras' "Grafiti", lavastaja Taago Tubin. Silvia Soro jõulunäidend "Inetu pardipoja" ainetel, lavastaja Oleg Titov

Lepik, Andres

2008-01-01

229

Ossinovski: Alexelast võib EOS-i ostuga saada Eesti suurim naftatransiidifirma / Oleg Ossinovski ; interv. Andres Reimer  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Kütusefirma Alexela kavatseb osta Severstaltransile kuuluva naftaterminali EOS. Alexela osanik vastab küsimustele, miks Severstaltrans tahab terminali müüa, miks tema arvates õnnestub Alexelal äri paremini kui Severstaltransil, mis kavatsused on raudteetranspordifirmaga Spacecom, kuidas elab kriisi üle Eesti Raudtee. Kommenteerivad Urmas Glase ja Andres Reimer

Ossinovski, Oleg, 1966-

2007-01-01

230

Pärnu Keskraamatukogu hoone / Markus Kaasik, Andres Ojari, Ilmar Valdur...[jt.  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

1., 2., 3. korruse ja asendiplaan, joonis, 4 värv. välisvaadet; fotod: Tiit Veermäe; projekteerija: Kolm Pluss Üks arhitektid; autorid: Markus Kaasik, Andres Ojari, Ilmar Valdur, Kalle Komissarov (võistlus 1999-2002), Mihkel Tüür (võistlus 1999), kaasa töötasid: Risto Parve, Pirko Võmma, Merje Müürisepp, Indrek Tiigi, Kaisa Lillemets; konstruktor: Pike; arhitektuurikonkurss: 1999., 1. preemia

2009-01-01

231

Kas toiduainete hind on õiglane? Ei, isegi odav! / Andres Sooniste, Juhan Särgava, Kristjan Kongo, Kati Kusmin ; intervjueerinud Sulev Oll  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Vestlusringis toiduainete hindade üle arutamas on Tarbijakaitse ameti peadirektor Andres Sooniste, Põllumeeste Keskliidu president Juhan Särgava, Fazer Eesti ASi juhatuse esimees Kristjan Kongo ja ETK juhatuse esimees Kati Kusmin

2010-01-01

232

77 FR 59648 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University, NAGPRA Program, San Francisco, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

...construction at the Marin County Civic Center. San Francisco State University...CA-MRN-365 in Marin County, CA, by San Francisco State University...CA-MRN-402 in Marin County, CA, by San Francisco State...

2012-09-28

233

Trophic resources of the bivalve, Venus verrucosa, in the Chausey archipelago (Normandy, France) determined by stable isotopes and fatty acids  

OpenAIRE

In the Chausey archipelago, growth of the burrowing bivalve Venus verrucosa (Mollusca: Veneridae) has been shown to be highly variable between closely located sites (<1 km). To explain this small-scale spatial variability, we tested the trophic hypothesis using both fatty acid markers, and carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes (delta C-13 and delta N-15). Environmental parameters, including substrate, were also analysed to discriminate their effects on potential trophic differences. Results of ...

Perez, Ve?ronique; Olivier, Fre?de?ric; Tremblay, Rejean; Neumeier, Urs; The?bault, Julien; Chauvaud, Laurent; Me?ziane, Tarik

2013-01-01

234

Changing Use Patterns, Changing Feedback Links: Implications for Reorganization of Coastal Fisheries Management in the Stockholm Archipelago, Sweden  

OpenAIRE

Property rights are important institutions for regulating the use of valuable natural resources from coastal ecosystems. In this case study, we identify and analyze property rights and user patterns related to small-scale coastal fisheries in the Stockholm Archipelago, Sweden. User patterns and user groups have changed significantly over the last century, as commercial fishing has been increasingly replaced by recreational activities. Interviews with local resource users and owners of water p...

Maria Åqvist Almlöv; Monica Hammer

2006-01-01

235

Recent accentuation of the vulnerability linked to coastline mobility and soil salinization in the Kerkennah archipelago (Tunisia)  

OpenAIRE

The Kerkennah archipelago, located in the Gabes Gulf in Tunisia is composed of 10 little islands with a very low landforms a soft and fragile lithology. The lowest areas are occupied by sabkha, which are sterile and salty. The climate evolution, the relative sea level rise and the important evolution in the local production mode and lifestyle caused changes in the land use. In this context, we tried to understand the evolution of vulnerability linked to the coastline mobility and to the soil ...

Etienne, Lucile

2014-01-01

236

DNA barcoding reveals 24 distinct lineages as cryptic bird species candidates in and around the Japanese Archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA barcoding using a partial region (648 bp) of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene is a powerful tool for species identification and has revealed many cryptic species in various animal taxa. In birds, cryptic species are likely to occur in insular regions like the Japanese Archipelago due to the prevention of gene flow by sea barriers. Using COI sequences of 234 of the 251 Japanese-breeding bird species, we established a DNA barcoding library for species identification and estimated the number of cryptic species candidates. A total of 226 species (96.6%) had unique COI sequences with large genetic divergence among the closest species based on neighbour-joining clusters, genetic distance criterion and diagnostic substitutions. Eleven cryptic species candidates were detected, with distinct intraspecific deep genetic divergences, nine lineages of which were geographically separated by islands and straits within the Japanese Archipelago. To identify Japan-specific cryptic species from trans-Paleartic birds, we investigated the genetic structure of 142 shared species over an extended region covering Japan and Eurasia; 19 of these species formed two or more clades with high bootstrap values. Excluding six duplicated species from the total of 11 species within the Japanese Archipelago and 19 trans-Paleartic species, we identified 24 species that were cryptic species candidates within and surrounding the Japanese Archipelago. Repeated sea level changes during the glacial and interglacial periods may be responsible for the deep genetic divergences of Japanese birds in this insular region, which has led to inconsistencies in traditional taxonomies based on morphology. PMID:24835119

Saitoh, Takema; Sugita, Norimasa; Someya, Sayaka; Iwami, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Sayaka; Kamigaichi, Hiromi; Higuchi, Aki; Asai, Shigeki; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Nishiumi, Isao

2015-01-01

237

Genetic affinities between the Yami tribe people of Orchid Island and the Philippine Islanders of the Batanes archipelago  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Yami and Ivatan islanders are Austronesian speakers from Orchid Island and the Batanes archipelago that are located between Taiwan and the Philippines. The paternal genealogies of the Yami tribe from 1962 monograph of Wei and Liu were compared with our dataset of non-recombining Y (NRY) chromosomes from the corresponding families. Then mitochondrial DNA polymorphism was also analyzed to determine the matrilineal relationships between Yami, Ivatan, and othe...

Lee Chien-Liang; Chen Zong-Sian; Yen Ju-Chen; Trejaut Jean A; Loo Jun-Hun; Lin Marie

2011-01-01

238

Population structure, habitat use and conservation of short-finned pilot whales Globicephala macrorhynchus in the Archipelago of Madeira  

OpenAIRE

This thesis provides information on the grouping structure, survival, abundance, dive characteristics and habitat preferences of short-finned pilot whales occurring in the oceanic archipelago of Madeira (Portugal, NE Atlantic), based on data collected between 2001-2011, and contributes for its conservation. Photo-identification methods and genetic analyses demonstrated that there is a large degree of variability in site fidelity, including resident, regular visitor and transien...

Alves, Filipe Marco Andrade

2014-01-01

239

Listening to a Sense of Place: Acoustic Ethnography with Billy Proctor in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia  

OpenAIRE

The thesis explores soundwalking, memory and aural history through participatory exploration. My ethnographic work involves extensive documentation of a private museum in Echo Bay, a remote fishing and logging community in the Broughton Archipelago, BC. This museum houses artifacts, many of which have acoustic components. The proprietor and elder, Billy Proctor, has many stories to tell about his collection and how it reflects the history and ecology of the area. My work aims to show how appr...

Schine, Jennifer

2013-01-01

240

Long-term change of species richness in a breeding bird community of a small Mediterranean archipelago  

OpenAIRE

We analyzed the pattern of species richness changes in a bird-breeding bird community on a small western Mediterranean archipelago (Columbretes Islands) over a 40-year period (1964-2003). The aim of this study was to qualitatively account for the relative roles of local and regional factors in shaping the community. As expected, we found that regional factors (at the metapopulation spatial scale) increased diversity whereas local factors (i.e. ecological) probably prevented further increases ...

Marti?nez-abrai?n, Alejandro; Oro, Daniel; Belenguer, Roque; Ferri?s, Vicente; Velasco, R.

2005-01-01

241

Long–term changes of species richness in a breeding bird community of a small Mediterranean archipelago  

OpenAIRE

We analyzed the pattern of species richness changes in a bird–breeding bird community on a small western Mediterranean archipelago (Columbretes Islands) over a 40–year period (1964–2003). The aim of this study was to qualitatively account for the relative roles of local and regional factors in shaping the community. As expected, we found that regional factors (at the metapopulation spatial scale) increased diversity whereas local factors (i.e. ecological) probably prevented further incr...

Velasco, R.; Ferri?s, V.; Belenguer, R.; Oro, D.; Marti?nez–abrai?n, A.

2005-01-01

242

The Geochemistry of Pinta, Marchena, and Genovesa Islands and the Surrounding Seafloor in the Galápagos Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The central Galápagos Archipelago differs from many other ocean island chains in that it is underlain by a 500 x 200 km platform. An appendage of the platform extends ~50 km NW toward the GSC and includes Pinta, Marchena, and Genovesa Islands, despite the easterly motion of the Nazca Plate. The flanks of these islands were surveyed by EM122 and MR1 sidescan sonar and dredged at 7 locations during the 2010 R/V Melville MV1007 cruise. The volcanoes that make up the islands are close enough that they nearly coalesce. They have elongate bathymetric footprints, with a submarine ridge that extends ~30 km north of Pinta toward the 90°50’W GSC transform fault, between Marchena and Genovesa, and ~45 km to the NE of Genovesa. A strikingly flat-topped shoal, which may be a drowned island, extends ~30 km SE from Marchena. An intriguing aspect of this platform appendage is that most of the isotopic and trace element compositional range of the region is observed. Pinta has the lowest ?Nd value in the Galápagos, lower than the plume component sampled at Fernandina, and lavas from N Pinta Ridge exhibit levels of enrichment similar to Pinta’s lavas. Genovesa volcano, only 150 km to the east, is constituted of lavas that are mostly indistinguishable from MORB and exhibit the most depleted signatures in the archipelago. Marchena, the southern shoal, and submarine lavas from ridges that extend toward Pinta, are built of lavas that have trace element compositions that are mixtures of Pinta and Genovesa compositions. Lavas become progressively depleted from W to E across the appendage. New 3He/4He values range from 6.5 to 9.5 Ra, with the highest value between Genovesa and Marchena. Despite plume-like trace element and Nd isotopic signatures at Pinta, 3He/4He values are lower than typical MORB (6.5-6.7 Ra). One hypothesis is that the mostly degassed plume mixes with greater amounts of upper mantle as it flows east, yielding the observed compositional gradient. Alternatively, a heterogeneous plume with distinct enriched and depleted components moving to the GSC will encounter the lithospheric discontinuity related to the fracture zone that extends toward Pinta from the transform, with younger lithosphere to the east. Mantle material rising beneath Pinta will experience limited melting owing to the thicker lithospheric cap, causing enriched plume components with low 3He/4He to dominate compositions. East of the discontinuity the plume will melt more extensively, producing progressively depleted signatures toward Genovesa. Prior to reaching the northern appendage of the Galápagos Archipelago, the plume undergoes an initial melting phase at the wet solidus near the plume center, losing its volatile components. The degassed material then migrates NE, where increasingly shallow lithosphere causes it to undergo a second decompression melting phase, yielding lavas with plume signatures in the more refractory elements but lacking the characteristic high 3He/4He plume signal.

Schlitzer, W.; Harpp, K. S.; Kurz, M. D.; Geist, D.; Mittelstaedt, E. L.; Fornari, D. J.; R/v Melville Mv1007 Flamingo Cruise Scientific Party

2010-12-01

243

Integrating paleoecology and genetics of bird populations in two sky island archipelagos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic tests of paleoecological hypotheses have been rare, partly because recent genetic divergence is difficult to detect and time. According to fossil plant data, continuous woodland in the southwestern USA and northern Mexico became fragmented during the last 10,000 years, as warming caused cool-adapted species to retreat to high elevations. Most genetic studies of resulting 'sky islands' have either failed to detect recent divergence or have found discordant evidence for ancient divergence. We test this paleoecological hypothesis for the region with intraspecific mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite data from sky-island populations of a sedentary bird, the Mexican jay (Aphelocoma ultramarina. We predicted that populations on different sky islands would share common, ancestral alleles that existed during the last glaciation, but that populations on each sky island, owing to their isolation, would contain unique variants of postglacial origin. We also predicted that divergence times estimated from corrected genetic distance and a coalescence model would post-date the last glacial maximum. Results Our results provide multiple independent lines of support for postglacial divergence, with the predicted pattern of shared and unique mitochondrial DNA haplotypes appearing in two independent sky-island archipelagos, and most estimates of divergence time based on corrected genetic distance post-dating the last glacial maximum. Likewise, an isolation model based on multilocus gene coalescence indicated postglacial divergence of five pairs of sky islands. In contrast to their similar recent histories, the two archipelagos had dissimilar historical patterns in that sky islands in Arizona showed evidence for older divergence, suggesting different responses to the last glaciation. Conclusion This study is one of the first to provide explicit support from genetic data for a postglacial divergence scenario predicted by one of the best paleoecological records in the world. Our results demonstrate that sky islands act as generators of genetic diversity at both recent and historical timescales and underscore the importance of thorough sampling and the use of loci with fast mutation rates to studies that test hypotheses concerning recent genetic divergence.

Bowen Bonnie S

2008-06-01

244

San Bernardino County Museum  

Science.gov (United States)

The San Bernardino County Museum is a regional museum with exhibits and collections in cultural and natural history. Special exhibits, the Exploration Station live animal discovery center, extensive research collections, and public programs for adults, families, students, and children are all part of the museum experience. The Museum is surrounded by citrus groves, and orange blossoms perfume the air. The Zimmerman Citrus Kiosk explores citrus agricultural history in Southern California. Death Valley Alive! is a new traveling exhibit, available for rent, where visitors can explore the natural history and culture of the Death Valley region from its geologic beginnings 1.3 billion years ago. Online exhibits include The Importance of Museum Collections, The Barstow Fossil Beds, Motherlode of the Miocene, The Etiwanda Fan, and for kids, Mimicry, a study in camouflage and adaptation. Teacher Resources include professional development and workshops, and Trading Places, where 21 hours of time spent volunteering in the Museum earns a free program for your class. Sample opportunities include writing activities for study kits, developing post-visit activities, creating a museum gallery guide, translating student materials into Spanish, or developing an independent idea. There are programs for youth, Scouts, and adults, as well as various publications available in anthropology, archeology, biology, geology and history.

245

Space Place Live: Episode with Andre Dress of the GOES project  

Science.gov (United States)

In this episode of Space Pace Live, the kids interview a cartoon version of the GOES satellite Deputy Project scientists, Andre Dress. Andre works at NASAâs Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. He talked with Kate and Kyro about the new GOES-O (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites) weather satellite as it was being prepared for launch. NASA Space Place Web site for kids presents the Space Place (cartoon) kids hosting their own talk show âliveâ from the Space Place Clubhouse. Their guests are NASA scientists and engineers. The goal of âSpace Place Live!â is to introduce kids to the human, down-to-Earth side of real scientists and engineers working in the space program. Each guest is presented as a passionate and accomplished role model for every child interested in science or engineering.

2009-05-11

246

Number of endemic and native plant species in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

By simple and multiple regression analyses we investigate updated species numbers of endemic and native vascular plants and seed plants in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters. We find that the best models to describe species numbers are regression models with log-transformed species numbers as dependent and log-transformed modified area (i.e. area not covered with barren lava) as an independent variable. This holds both for total species number, for native species number, for endemic species number and for total number of seed plants as well as number of endemic seed plants. For the ratio between endemic and native species, modified area is also the major significant variable, but with a negative regression slope. Multiple regression models show that some isolation measures are significant contributors and may explain some of the residual variation, but their contribution to total explained variation is in general small. The results show that the species area relationships are different for native and endemic species. This is discussed in relation to classical island biogeographical models, and the concepts of radiative speciation. Udgivelsesdato: 2002

Willerslev, E.; Hansen, Anders J.

2002-01-01

247

Morphological and genetic diversity of briareum (anthozoa: octocorallia) from the ryukyu archipelago, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary problem hindering the study of octocorals is the disordered situation regarding their taxonomy, chiefly caused by insufficient knowledge of valid morphological taxonomic characters. Briareum is an octocoral genus found in the Atlantic and Pacific in shallow tropical and subtropical waters, and occurs in both encrusting and branching colony forms. Their simple morphology and morphological plasticity have hindered taxonomic understanding of this genus. In this study three morphologically distinct types (= type-1, -2, and -3) of Briareum from the Ryukyu Archipelago and their genetic diversity were examined. Colony, anthostele morphology, and sclerite length were examined for each type. Four molecular markers (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, mitochondrial mismatch repair gene, nuclear 18S ribosomal DNA, internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2)) were used to evaluate molecular phylogenetic status of these variations. Although one morphological type ("deep" small colonies, = type-3) showed small differences in nuclear ITS2 sequences compared to the other two types, the remaining types had identical sequences for all molecular markers examined. The results suggest extremely low genetic diversity despite highly variable morphology of Briareum species in Okinawa. Nevertheless, considering the distribution patterns and discontinuous morphology of type-3 compared to the other two morphotypes, genetic isolation of type-3 is plausible. In Briareum, small variances in nuclear ITS2 sequences of type-3 may have much more importance than in molecular phylogenies of other octocorals. Further phylogenetic investigations and comparison with Briareum specimens from other regions are necessary to conclusively taxonomically identify the three types. PMID:25284389

Miyazaki, Yu; Reimer, James Davis

2014-10-01

248

An integrated approach to characterize the basal aquifer of a volcanic island, Santa Cruz, Galapagos Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The main shield of Santa Cruz Island, at the center of the Galapagos Archipelago, is formed by series of thick fractured basaltic lava flows dissected by faults. The low-lying, extensive "basal" aquifer is the unique groundwater body currently identified on the island and is subjected to sea-water intrusion. Water abstracted from fault scarps in the coastal area and a 150 m deep borehole further inland is brackish and requires expensive desalination technique. Sea-water intrusion was mapped from electrical resistivity imaging with an airborne electromagnetic SkyTEM survey. At the regional and local scales, the fracturation network was described from satellite imagery and field measurements. A groundwater monitoring network was set up. The hydraulic properties of this heterogeneous geological environment was characterized by pumping tests and tidal signal propagation. In order to investigate recharge dynamics, a yearlong climatic monitoring was conducted in the humid highlands and compared to water level fluctuations in the deep borehole. Hydrodynamic properties were determined and recharge processes identified. Since cooling joints form a dense network of fractures, the aquifer is highly permeable. This facilitates sea-water intrusion and freshwater drainage to the ocean. Surprisingly, the highly conductive heterogeneities formed by fault scarps are not regional preferential groundwater flow paths. This is compatible with structural and geomorphological observations made at the ground surface where faults are seen to be discontinuous successions of "en echelon" tension fractures. A 2D numerical model will be used to determine the optimal location of a new borehole.

Pryet, A.; Minh Vu, T.; Adler, P. M.; Deffontaines, B.; d'Ozouville, N.; Violette, S.; Fortin, J.

2011-12-01

249

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air from Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece): Natural versus anthropogenic sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study presents the chemical composition of VOCs in air and gas discharges collected at Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece). The main goals are i) to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic VOC sources and ii) to evaluate their impact on local air quality. Up to 63 different VOCs were recognized and quantitatively determined in 6 fumaroles and 19 air samples collected in the Lakki caldera, where fumarolic emissions are located, and the outer ring of the island, including the Mandraki village and the main harbor. Air samples from the crater area show significant concentrations of alkanes, alkenes, cyclic, aromatics, and S- and O-bearing heterocycles directly deriving from the hydrothermal system, as well as secondary O-bearing compounds from oxidation of primary VOCs. At Mandraki village, C6H6/?(methylated aromatics) and ?(linear)/?(branched) alkanes ratios 2O–CO2–H2S rich and discharge a large variety of VOC species. •Benzene/toluene ratios identify anthropogenic and natural sources of VOCs in air. •Aldehydes in air are produced by oxidation of alkanes and alkenes. •Geogenic furans and hydrogenated halocarbons in air are recalcitrant. -- Anthropogenic and natural VOCs in air are distinguished on the basis of aromatic, O-substituted, S-substituted and halogenated compounds

250

Natural trace element enrichment in fishes from a volcanic and tectonically active region (Azores archipelago)  

Science.gov (United States)

Seamounts, in general, are thought to support high biodiversity and special biological communities. They have been targeted by commercial fishing for demersal and pelagic fish species due to the occurrence of large aggregations in mid- and deep-water. Specimens of Phycis phycis, Helicolenus dactylopterus, Pontinus kuhlii, Beryx splendens, Beryx decadactylus, Etmopterus pusillus, Mora moro, Pagellus bogaraveo, Deania profundorum, Scomber colias and Trachurus picturatus were collected at the Condor seamount and on the slopes of Faial and Pico islands of Azores archipelago. Concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb were determined in muscle and liver of each individual. Values of the 11 trace elements in the two tissues of the benthopelagic and benthic specimens, from the two surveyed areas, presented a significant inter-specific variation. In general, levels were lower in muscle than in liver, and negative relations between weight and Co, Mn, Zn, As, Cd and Pb concentrations in muscle and liver of three species were found. Pagellus bogaraveo, S. colias and T. picturatus presented enhanced elemental concentrations in liver, particularly of Cd. The extremely high storage of this potentially toxic element suggests a response to high uptake of Cd and the existence of an additional natural source of Cd to the environment.

Raimundo, Joana; Vale, Carlos; Caetano, Miguel; Giacomello, Eva; Anes, Bárbara; Menezes, Gui M.

2013-12-01

251

Spatial distribution of oxygen-18 and deuterium in stream waters across the Japanese archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The spatial distribution of oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition (?18O and ?2H) of stream waters across Japan was clarified with a data set compiling sample data obtained from 1278 forest catchments during the summer of 2003. Both ?18O and ?2H values showed positive correlations with the mean annual air temperature and annual evapotranspiration, and negative correlations with latitude and elevation. Deuterium excess (d excess) values in stream waters were higher on the Sea of Japan side, and lower on the Pacific Ocean side, of the Japanese archipelago. The d excess in precipitation was generally higher in winter and lower in summer in Japan. The Sea of Japan side experiences a great deal of snowfall, and seasonal changes in monthly precipitation are rather small. In contrast, the Pacific Ocean side experiences a large amount of rainfall during summer with low levels of precipitation during the winter. Therefore, the lower d excess in stream waters on the Pacific Ocean side reflects summer precipitation, and the higher values on the Sea of Japan side are affected by delayed recharge from snowmelt. The isoscapes of stream water connote not only spatially integrated but also temporally integrated isotope signals of precipitation, and provide a framework for addressing applied hydrological, ecological, or meteorological research questions at regional scales, such as the effects of climate change.

Katsuyama, M.; Yoshioka, T.; Konohira, E.

2014-09-01

252

Spatial distribution of oxygen-18 and deuterium in stream waters across the Japanese archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The spatial distribution of oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition (?18O and ?2H of stream waters across Japan was clarified with a data set compiling sample data obtained from 1278 forest catchments during the summer of 2003. Both ?18O and ?2H values showed positive correlations with the mean annual air temperature and annual evapotranspiration, and negative correlations with latitude and elevation. Deuterium excess (d excess values in stream waters were higher on the Sea of Japan side, and lower on the Pacific Ocean side, of the Japanese archipelago. The d excess in precipitation was generally higher in winter and lower in summer in Japan. The Sea of Japan side experiences a great deal of snowfall, and seasonal changes in monthly precipitation are rather small. In contrast, the Pacific Ocean side experiences a large amount of rainfall during summer with low levels of precipitation during the winter. Therefore, the lower d excess in stream waters on the Pacific Ocean side reflects summer precipitation, and the higher values on the Sea of Japan side are affected by delayed recharge from snowmelt. The isoscapes of stream water connote not only spatially integrated but also temporally integrated isotope signals of precipitation, and provide a framework for addressing applied hydrological, ecological, or meteorological research questions at regional scales, such as the effects of climate change.

M. Katsuyama

2014-09-01

253

Patch-Based Generative Shape Model and MDL Model Selection for Statistical Analysis of Archipelagos  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We propose a statistical generative shape model for archipelago-like structures. These kind of structures occur, for instance, in medical images, where our intention is to model the appearance and shapes of calcifications in x-ray radio graphs. The generative model is constructed by (1) learning a patch-based dictionary for possible shapes, (2) building up a time-homogeneous Markov model to model the neighbourhood correlations between the patches, and (3) automatic selection of the model complexity by the minimum description length principle. The generative shape model is proposed as a probability distribution of a binary image where the model is intended to facilitate sequential simulation. Our results show that a relatively simple model is able to generate structures visually similar to calcifications. Furthermore, we used the shape model as a shape prior in the statistical segmentation of calcifications, where the area overlap with the ground truth shapes improved significantly compared to the case where the prior was not used.

Ganz, Melanie; Nielsen, Mads

2010-01-01

254

The origins of ambient biological sound from coral reef ecosystems in the Line Islands archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although ambient biological underwater sound was first characterized more than 60 years ago, attributing specific components of ambient sound to their creators remains a challenge. Noise produced by snapping shrimp typically dominates the ambient spectra near tropical coasts, but significant unexplained spectral variation exists. Here, evidence is presented indicating that a discernible contribution to the ambient sound field over coral reef ecosystems in the Line Islands archipelago originates from the interaction of hard-shelled benthic macro-organisms with the coral substrate. Recordings show a broad spectral peak centered between 14.30 and 14.63?kHz, incoherently added to a noise floor typically associated with relatively "white" snapping shrimp sounds. A 4.6 to 6.2?dB increase of pressure spectral density level in the 11 to 17?kHz band occurs simultaneously with an increase in benthic invertebrate activity at night, quantified through time-lapse underwater photography. Spectral-level-filtered recordings of hermit crabs Clibanarius diugeti in quiet aquarium conditions reveal that transient sounds produced by the interaction between the crustaceans' carapace, shell, and coral substrate are spectrally consistent with Line Islands recordings. Coral reef ecosystems are highly interconnected and subtle yet important ecological changes may be detected quantitatively through passive monitoring that utilizes the acoustic byproducts of biological activity. PMID:25234977

Freeman, Simon E; Rohwer, Forest L; D'Spain, Gerald L; Friedlander, Alan M; Gregg, Allison K; Sandin, Stuart A; Buckingham, Michael J

2014-04-01

255

Aesthetics and Empire: The Sense of Feminine Beauty in the Making of the US Imperial Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article examines the “sense of beauty” in the United States imperial archipelago, composed of the island territories of Cuba, Hawai`i, Philippines, and Puerto Rico, all acquired in 1898. The theoretical connection among these two elements –aesthetics and empire– is provided by a revision of the concepts “economy of colonial desire” and “complex of visuality.” This paper analyzes the most advanced visual technology of the late nineteenth century: the mass- produced, printed photograph. In particular, it focuses upon the representations of feminine beauty as found the illustrated “new-possessions” books which described recent island acquisitions of the United States. The connections between aesthetics and the forms of governance in each territory will also be elucidated.Este artículo examina el “sentido de belleza” en el archipiélago imperial estadounidense, compuesto de los territorios isleños de Cuba, Hawai`i, Filipinas y Puerto Rico, todos adquiridos en 1898. La conexión teórica entre estos dos elementos –estética e imperio– se establece mediante una revisión de los conceptos de “economía de deseo colonial” y el “complejo de visualidad”. Este artículo analiza la tecnología visual más avanzada del siglo diecinueve tardío: la fotografía impresa. En particular, se enfoca en las representaciones de belleza femenina en los libros ilustrados de las “nuevas posesiones” los cuales describían las adquisiciones recientes de los Estados Unidos. También, se dilucidarán las conexiones entre estética y las formas de gobernanza en cada territorio.

Thompson, Lanny

2013-12-01

256

Summer mesozooplankton community of Moller Bay (Novaya Zemlya Archipelago, Barents Sea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Novaya Zemlya Archipelago is the eastern boundary of the Barents Sea. Theplankton of this region have been less intensively studied than thoseof other Arctic areas. This study of the mesozooplankton assemblage of Moller Bay was conducted in August2010. The total mesozooplankton abundance and biomass ranged from 962to 2980 individuals m-3 (mean ± SD: 2263 ± 921 indiv.m-3 and from 12.3 to 456.6 mg dry mass m-3 (mean ± SD:192 ± 170 DM m-3 respectively. Copepods and appendicularians werethe most numerous groups with Oithona similis, Pseudocalanusspp.,Acartiaspp., Calanus glacialis and Oikopleura vanhoeffennibeing the most abundant and frequent. Mesozooplankton abundance tendedto decrease with depth, whereas an inverse pattern was observed for the totalbiomass. Total mesozooplankton biomass was negatively correlated with watertemperature and positively correlated with salinity and chlorophyll aconcentration. Comparison with previous data showed significant interannualvariations in the total zooplankton stock in this region that may be due todifferences in sampling seasons, climatic conditions and the distribution ofpotential food sources (phytoplankton and seabird colonies.

A. G. Dvoretsky

2013-02-01

257

Uncoupled viral and bacterial distributions in coral reef waters of Tuamotu Archipelago (French Polynesia).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the distribution of virioplankton and bacterioplankton in two coral reef systems (Ahe and Takaroa atolls) in the Tuamotu Archipelago, in comparison with the surrounding oligotrophic ocean. Mean concentrations of 4.8×10(5) and 6.2×10(5) cells ml(-1) for bacteria and 8.1×10(6) and 4.3×10(6) VLP(virus-like particle) ml(-1) were recorded in Ahe and Takaroa lagoons, respectively. Chlorophyll-a concentrations and dissolved organic matter were higher in Ahe whereas (3)H thymidine incorporation rates were higher in Takaroa. First data on lytic and lysogenic strategies of phages in coral reef environments were discussed in this paper. The fraction of visibly infected cells by viruses was negligible regardless of the lagoon station (mean=0.15%). However, the fraction of lysogenic cells ranged between 2.5% and 88.9%. Our results suggest that the distribution patterns of virioplankton are apparently not coupled to the spatial dynamics of the bacterioplankton communities. PMID:22284701

Bouvy, Marc; Combe, Marine; Bettarel, Yvan; Dupuy, Christine; Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Charpy, Loic

2012-01-01

258

Environmental factors affecting large-bodied coral reef fish assemblages in the Mariana Archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large-bodied reef fishes represent an economically and ecologically important segment of the coral reef fish assemblage. Many of these individuals supply the bulk of the reproductive output for their population and have a disproportionate effect on their environment (e.g. as apex predators or bioeroding herbivores). Large-bodied reef fishes also tend to be at greatest risk of overfishing, and their loss can result in a myriad of either cascading (direct) or indirect trophic and other effects. While many studies have investigated habitat characteristics affecting populations of small-bodied reef fishes, few have explored the relationship between large-bodied species and their environment. Here, we describe the distribution of the large-bodied reef fishes in the Mariana Archipelago with an emphasis on the environmental factors associated with their distribution. Of the factors considered in this study, a negative association with human population density showed the highest relative influence on the distribution of large-bodied reef fishes; however, depth, water temperature, and distance to deep water also were important. These findings provide new information on the ecology of large-bodied reef fishes can inform discussions concerning essential fish habitat and ecosystem-based management for these species and highlight important knowledge gaps worthy of additional research. PMID:22384014

Richards, Benjamin L; Williams, Ivor D; Vetter, Oliver J; Williams, Gareth J

2012-01-01

259

[Changes in fish communities of coral reefs at Sabana-Camagüey Archipelago, Cuba].  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparison of fish community structure in the Sabana-Camagüey Archipelago (1988-1989 and 2000) using visual census surveys (eight belt transects 2x50 m in each site) suggests a notable decrease on species richness, and a two thirds reduction in fish density and biomass on coral reefs. This decrease in fish populations may be related to the alarming decrease of scleractinian coral cover, and an enormous proliferation of algae, which currently covers 70-80% of the hard substrate, impeding the recovery of corals and other benthic organisms. High coral mortalities occurred between the study periods, which correlate with the high temperatures caused by the ENSO events of 1995, 1997 and 1998. These events caused massive bleaching of corals and subsequent algae overgrowth. Evidence of nutrient enrichment from the inner lagoons and overfishing are also present. Collectively, these effects have provoked a marked degradation of reef habitats. These changes appear to have affected the availability of refuges and food for fishes, and may be constraining individual growth potential and population size. PMID:19069764

Claro, Rodolfo; Cantelar, Karel; Amargós, Fabián Pina; García-Arteaga, Juan P

2007-06-01

260

Historical change of mercury pollution in remote Yongle archipelago, South China Sea.  

Science.gov (United States)

We collected three ornithogenic coral sand sedimentary profiles from Jinyin Island, Jinqing Island and Guangjin Island of Yongle archipelago, South China Sea and reconstructed the deposition flux of anthropogenic Hg over the past 700 years in the study area. On the whole, the anthropogenic Hg flux is relatively low; it remained at a low level before the Industrial Revolution with a small peak at about 1450-1550 AD, which may record the enhanced metallurgy activity in Ming Dynasty of China. During the 20th century, the deposition flux of anthropogenic Hg increased rapidly, but two troughs occurred during the periods around 1940s and 1970s, corresponding to the economic depression caused by World War II, Civil War in China (1945-1949), and the Culture Revolution (1966-1976) in China. Since the 1970s the deposition flux of anthropogenic Hg has been persistently increasing, apparently the result of fast economic development in East and Southeast Asia countries around South China Sea. PMID:22284978

Liu, Xiaodong; Xu, Liqiang; Chen, Qianqian; Sun, Liguang; Wang, Yuhong; Yan, Hong; Liu, Yi; Luo, Yuhan; Huang, Jing

2012-04-01

261

Composition of volatile oil, isolated from Duchesnea Indica (Andr.) Focke  

OpenAIRE

The herbage of mock strawberry, Duchesnea indica (Andr.) Focke, Rosaceae, on hydro distillation yields an aromatic pale yellow oil (0.1%). GC-MS analysis revealed that the herb essential oil contained carvacryl acetate (30.5%), valencene (7.6%), nona-hexacontanoic acid (7.2%), aristalone (5.3%), dehydro-aromadendrene (4.6%), eicosane (4.1%), and 2-hexa-decan-ol (4.1%), as major components.

Umesh B; Thoppil J

2006-01-01

262

Insolvens- og rekonstruktionsbeskatning : en håndbog for advokater, revisorer og andre virksomhedsrådgivere  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Insolvens- og rekonstruktionsbeskatning er en håndbog for advokater, revisorer og andre virksomhedsrådgivere, som er involveret i rekonstruktion/omstrukturering af nødlidende virksomheder. I dette arbejde er det vigtigt, at skattemæssige overvejelser og konsekvenser vurderes i hele forløbet. Bogen giver et overblik over relevante problemstillinger i forbindelse med en rekonstruktion eller en insolvensbehandling, samt skattemæssige faldgruber ved rekonstruktion/omstrukturering af nødlidende virksomheder. Bogen behandler også de væsentligste momsretlige og skattestrafferetlige aspekter af rekonstruktion/omstrukturering.

Albrechten, Tobias Stenkær; RØnfeldt, Thomas

2012-01-01

263

Å lede andre:en studie av jobben som bas i byggebransjen  

OpenAIRE

Sammendrag av hovedoppgave Lars Martin Torget Tittel: Å lede andre ? en studie av jobben som bas i byggebransjen Denne oppgaven handler om basen i byggebransjen, med fokus på hva som kjennetegner jobben og hvilke utfordringer som knytter seg til den. Hensikten er å kartlegge hva det vil si å være bas, med utgangspunkt i basenes egne erfaringer og oppfatninger. Oppgaven er empirisk orientert, og baserer seg i hovedsak på et datamateriale fremskaffet gjennom kvalitative forskningsint...

Torget, Lars Martin

2004-01-01

264

76 FR 10945 - San Luis Trust Bank, FSB, San Luis Obispo, CA; Notice of Appointment of Receiver  

Science.gov (United States)

...TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision San Luis Trust Bank, FSB, San Luis Obispo...the Office of Thrift Supervision has duly appointed...for San Luis Trust Bank, FSB, San Luis Obispo...the Office of Thrift Supervision. Sandra E....

2011-02-28

265

77 FR 46115 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Diego Museum of Man, San Diego, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

...ADDRESSES: Philip Hoog, San Diego Museum of Man, 1350 El Prado, Balboa Park, San Diego, CA 92101, telephone (619) 239-2001...should contact Philip Hoog, San Diego Museum of Man, 1350 El Prado, Balboa Park, San Diego, CA 92101, telephone (619)...

2012-08-02

266

San Pascual (2009) Año XLVI, n. 350  

OpenAIRE

Editorial. Restauración del patrimonio artístico del santuario basílica de San Pascual. Traducción de la bula de la erección de la cofradía de la inmaculada Concepción. Fundación de la custodia de San Pascual Baylón. Entrevista D. Pascual Sanz Ibañez, presidente de la junta central de semana santa de vila-real. Milagros de San Pascual XII. Vida en el santuario. Rincón poético. Peregrinación nacional al sepulcro de San Pascual en 1899 (III). Dos piezas pertenecientes al cardenal E...

Pe?rez, Mari?a Dolores

2009-01-01

267

Structure of microemulsions by SANS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to determine the structure of microemulsions in the system hydrocarbon-water-sodium di-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT). SANS spectra taken in a deuterated solvent showed a perfect Guinier fit with a radius of gyration of 15A regardless of the amount of AOT from 0.1 to 5% present. By varying the proportions of deuterated and undeuterated solvent to vary the contrast between the micelles and the solvent, it is concluded that the micelles are basically monodispersed spherical aggregations of 22 AOT molecules

268

Fishery of the Green Jack Caranx caballus (Osteichytes: Carangidae) in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish El jurel verde o “cojinúa”, Caranx caballus, se distribuye a lo largo de la costa del Pacífico Oriental. En el Archipiélago de Las Perlas, Panamá, la cojinúa fue pescada sin control para sostener mercados locales hasta el 2007, fecha en la que esta región fue declarada área marina protegida. En este [...] primer estudio para Panamá, se analizaron desde junio de 2005 a junio de 2006, 4 990 individuos en las descargas del Mercado Central de Mariscos provenientes de Las Perlas. La longitud media total de esta especie fue de 36.1±6.4cm y la longitud óptima, 38.9cm. Aproximadamente, 68% de los individuos muestreados poseen longitudes dentro de ±10% de la longitud óptima, pero sólo seis (15%) eran mega-reproductores. Los parámetros de la ecuación de von Bertalanffy describen la especie como de larga vida y de rápido crecimiento, mientras que las tasas de mortalidad indican que la cojinúa está bajo una alta presión de pesca. La longitud estándar a la que la mitad de la población es sexualmente madura es 38.8cm y el tamaño de maduración masiva, 33cm. Sólo entre el 10-13% de los individuos muestreados son inmaduros. La cojinúa se reproduce 2-3 veces al año, con picos en diciembre, abril y probablemente septiembre, y recluta a la población por lo menos dos veces al año. Los valores mínimos anuales del Índice ENSO/LNSO multivariado (MEI) son los mejores predictores de la CPUE de esta especie (R²=0.54). Nuestros resultados demuestran que la cojinúa en el Pacífico Panameño está sobreexplotada por lo que recomendamos elevar la talla mínima de captura para permitir que aumente la proporción de mega-reproductores en la población con el fin de garantizar la sostenibilidad del recurso. Abstract in english Green Jacks, Caranx caballus, are distributed along the Eastern Pacific coast. In Panama, C. caballus was heavily fished around Las Perlas Archipelago to sustain local markets until 2007, when the archipelago was declared a marine protected area. This first study in Panama, analyzed a sample of 4 99 [...] 0 individuals from Las Perlas, obtained monthly from June 2005 to June 2006, from landings at the central fish market. Average total length was 36.1±6.4cm and optimum length 38.9cm. Approximately 68% of fish lengths were within ±10% of the optimal length but only six (15%) were considered mega-spawners. The von Bertalanffy parameters describe a long-lived and fast growing species, while mortality rates revealed that C. caballus is under high fishing pressure. Standard length at which half of the population is mature was 38.8cm, and the size at which individuals matured massively, 33cm. Only 10-13% of the fish were immature. C. caballus reproduces two to three times per year, with peaks in December, April, and probably September, and recruits to the population at least twice per year. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) was best predicted by minimum annual values of the Multivariate ENSO/ LNSO Index (MEI) (R²=0.54). Results show that C. caballus in Pacific Panama is overfished. We recommend the raising of the minimum capture/landing size of this species in order to increase the proportion of megaspawners in the population and guarantee the sustainability of this resource.

James M., Mair; Roberto, Cipriani; Hector M., Guzman; David, Usan.

1271-12-01

269

Copepod distribution and production in a Mid-Atlantic Ridge archipelago  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O arquipélago de São Pedro e São Paulo (ASPSP) está localizado próximo ao Equador, no oceano Atlântico. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar variações espaciais nos padrões de abundância da comunidade de Copepoda, e da biomassa e produção das três espécies de Calanoida mais abundantes no ASPSP. Amost [...] ras de plâncton foram coletadas com rede com 300 µm de abertura de malha, ao longo de quatro transectos (norte, leste, sul e oeste do ASPSP), com quatro estações cada. Todos os transectos exibiram uma tendência de redução da densidade dos Copepoda com o aumento da distância do ASPSP, provado estatisticamente para o Norte. A densidade variou de 3,33 a 182,18 ind.m?3, e diferenças também foram observadas entre o primeiro perímetro (primeira faixa de distância circular) e os demais. A biomassa total variou de 15,25 a 524,50 10?3 mg C m?3 e a produção de 1,19 a 22,04 mg C m?3d?1. A biomassa e produção de Undinula vulgaris (Dana, 1849), Acrocalanus longicornis Giesbrecht, 1888 e Calocalanus pavo (Dana, 1849) apresentaram diferenças entre alguns transectos. Uma tendência de declínio da biodiversidade e produção com o aumento da distância do arquipélago foi observada, sugerindo que pequenas feições como o ASPSP podem afetar a comunidade em áreas oceânicas oligotróficas tropicais. Abstract in english The Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (SPSPA) are located close to the Equator in the Atlantic Ocean. The aim of this study was to assess the spatial variations in the copepod community abundance, and the biomass and production patterns of the three most abundant calanoid species in the SPSPA. [...] Plankton samples were collected with a 300 µm mesh size net along four transects (north, east, south and west of the SPSPA), with four stations plotted in each transect. All transects exhibited a tendency toward a decrease in copepod density with increasing distance from the SPSPA, statistically proved in the North. Density varied from 3.33 to 182.18 ind.m?3, and differences were also found between the first perimeter (first circular distance band) and the others. The total biomass varied from 15.25 to 524.50 10?3 mg C m?3 and production from 1.19 to 22.04 10?3 mg C m?3d?1. The biomass and production of Undinula vulgaris (Dana, 1849), Acrocalanus longicornis Giesbrecht, 1888 and Calocalanus pavo (Dana, 1849) showed differences between some transects. A trend of declining biodiversity and production with increasing distance from archipelago was observed, suggesting that even small features like the SPSPA can affect the copepod community in tropical oligotrophic oceanic areas.

PEDRO A.M.C., MELO; MAURO DE, MELO JÚNIOR; SILVIO J. DE, MACÊDO; MOACYR, ARAUJO; SIGRID, NEUMANN-LEITÃO.

1719-17-01

270

Copepod distribution and production in a Mid-Atlantic Ridge archipelago  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O arquipélago de São Pedro e São Paulo (ASPSP) está localizado próximo ao Equador, no oceano Atlântico. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar variações espaciais nos padrões de abundância da comunidade de Copepoda, e da biomassa e produção das três espécies de Calanoida mais abundantes no ASPSP. Amost [...] ras de plâncton foram coletadas com rede com 300 µm de abertura de malha, ao longo de quatro transectos (norte, leste, sul e oeste do ASPSP), com quatro estações cada. Todos os transectos exibiram uma tendência de redução da densidade dos Copepoda com o aumento da distância do ASPSP, provado estatisticamente para o Norte. A densidade variou de 3,33 a 182,18 ind.m?3, e diferenças também foram observadas entre o primeiro perímetro (primeira faixa de distância circular) e os demais. A biomassa total variou de 15,25 a 524,50 10?3 mg C m?3 e a produção de 1,19 a 22,04 mg C m?3d?1. A biomassa e produção de Undinula vulgaris (Dana, 1849), Acrocalanus longicornis Giesbrecht, 1888 e Calocalanus pavo (Dana, 1849) apresentaram diferenças entre alguns transectos. Uma tendência de declínio da biodiversidade e produção com o aumento da distância do arquipélago foi observada, sugerindo que pequenas feições como o ASPSP podem afetar a comunidade em áreas oceânicas oligotróficas tropicais. Abstract in english The Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (SPSPA) are located close to the Equator in the Atlantic Ocean. The aim of this study was to assess the spatial variations in the copepod community abundance, and the biomass and production patterns of the three most abundant calanoid species in the SPSPA. [...] Plankton samples were collected with a 300 µm mesh size net along four transects (north, east, south and west of the SPSPA), with four stations plotted in each transect. All transects exhibited a tendency toward a decrease in copepod density with increasing distance from the SPSPA, statistically proved in the North. Density varied from 3.33 to 182.18 ind.m?3, and differences were also found between the first perimeter (first circular distance band) and the others. The total biomass varied from 15.25 to 524.50 10?3 mg C m?3 and production from 1.19 to 22.04 10?3 mg C m?3d?1. The biomass and production of Undinula vulgaris (Dana, 1849), Acrocalanus longicornis Giesbrecht, 1888 and Calocalanus pavo (Dana, 1849) showed differences between some transects. A trend of declining biodiversity and production with increasing distance from archipelago was observed, suggesting that even small features like the SPSPA can affect the copepod community in tropical oligotrophic oceanic areas.

PEDRO A.M.C., MELO; MAURO DE, MELO JÚNIOR; SILVIO J. DE, MACÊDO; MOACYR, ARAUJO; SIGRID, NEUMANN-LEITÃO.

271

Mineral water discharges at the Azores archipelago (Portugal): hydrogeological setting, chemical composition and mapping  

Science.gov (United States)

The geological setting of the Azores archipelago, located in the North Atlantic ocean, about 1500 km form Portugal mainland and made of 9 islands of volcanic origin, enhances the multiplicity of surface hydrothermal manifestations. Therefore, a field survey made possible to identify 101 mineral water discharges in the Azores, mainly of CO2-rich cold waters and thermal waters, spread along São Miguel (75%), Terceira (6%), Graciosa (7%), Pico (2%), Faial (3%), São Jorge (5%) and Flores ( 2%) islands, as well as fumarolic grounds. Furnas and Fogo central volcanoes, two of the three composite active volcanoes that dominates the geology of São Miguel, the largest island of the archipelago, represent respectively about 41% and 24% of the discharges from the Azores. Discharges are mainly from fissured aquifers, made of basaltic or trachitic lava flows. Instead, discharges from porous aquifers, made of pyroclastic deposits, mainly of pumice type, are less common, and are more frequent at São Miguel island. The studied discharges correspond mainly to springs (75), and also to boiling pools (10), at fumarolic grounds, 14 drilled wells and 2 large-diameter wells. The boiling pools are only observable at São Miguel island, while drilled wells were made at São Miguel, Terceira and Graciosa. Groundwater at Azores occurs in two major aquifers systems: (1) the basal aquifer system, which corresponds to fresh-water lenses floating on underlying salt water, and (2) in perched-water bodies. The basal aquifer system is in the coastal area, presenting generally a very low hydraulic gradient. From the 14 drilled wells only two are in perched-water bodies. Considering mineral springs, the majority discharge from perched-water bodies (77%), while all the boiling pools also discharge in altitude, also from perched -water bodies. During the field survey an extensive campaign of sample collection was made in all islands, in order to characterize the chemical composition of these waters, which presents a large range of water types and mineralization magnitude. Several groups of waters are defined: (1) Na-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-Cl type waters, to which almost all the thermal and CO2-rich waters belong, (2) Na-Cl type waters, to which discharges from the basal aquifer system belong and (3) acid-SO4 type waters, to which some of the boiling waters of São Miguel island belong. A few samples show intermediate facies between these main water types. The pH range between 2.2 and 7.82, discharge temperature between 15°C and 99.5°C (median=35°C), and conductivity varies between 139 and 43100 S/cm (median=906 S/cm). The main hydrogeochemical processes are the CO2-dominated volatile absorption, water-rock interaction and mixture with hydrothermal fluids. Sulfate dominated composition is explained by the influence of steam heating, and the Na-Cl water type result from mixture with sea salts. For the purpose of mapping mineral water discharges at the Azores a geochemical atlas was made using ESRI ArcGis 9.1 software. Data was divided in classes according to quartile values and spatial analysis was made through thematic mapping, for several features, as hydrogeological setting, water types and variables as discharge temperature, pH, conductivity, free CO2 and major elements content. In the present contribution several examples of the hydrogeological maps are shown.

Freire, P.; Cruz, J.; Coutinho, R.; Costa, A.; Antunes, P.

2009-04-01

272

Facies, Stratigraphic and Depositional Model of the Sediments in the Abrolhos Archipelago (Bahia, BRAZIL)  

Science.gov (United States)

Located in the Mucuri Basin on the continental shelf of southern Bahia state, northeast Brazil, about 70 km from the city of Caravelas,the Abrolhos archipelago is made up of five islands; Santa Barbara, Redonda, Siriba, Guarita and Sueste. The exhumed sediments in the Abrolhos archipelago are a rare record of the turbidite systems which fill the Brazilian Atlantic Basin, and are probably an unprecedented example of a plataform turbidite system (Dr. Mutti, personal communication). Despite the limited area, the outcrops display a wide facies variation produced by different depositional processes, and also allow for the observation of the layer geometries. Associated with such sedimentary rocks, the Abrolhos Volcanic Complex belongs stratigraphically to the Abrolhos Formation. These igneous rocks were dated by the Ar / Ar method, with ages ranging from 60 to 40 My, placing such Volcanic Complex between the Paleocene and Eocene. The sedimentary section is best exposed in the Santa Barbara and Redonda islands and altogether it is 70 m thick. The measured vertical sections show a good stratigraphic correlation between the rocks of the western portion of the first island and those of Redonda Island. However, there is no correlation between the eastern and western portions of Santa Barbara Island, since they are very likely interrupted by the igneous intrusion and possibly by faulting. The sedimentary stack consists of deposits with alternated regressive and transgressive episodes interpreted as high frequency sequences. The coarse facies, sandstones and conglomerates, with abrupt or erosive bases record regressive phases. On the other hand, finer sandstones and siltstones facies, which are partly bioturbated, correspond to phases of a little sediment supply. In the central and eastern portions of Santa Barbara Island, there is a trend of progradational stacking, while both in the western portion of Santa Barbara and in Redonda islands an agradational trend is observed. The predominance of layers with tabular geometry, characteristic of turbidite lobes, the presence of hummocky stratification, trace fossils typical of shallow water (Ophiomorphs and Thalassinoides), all associated with the occurrence of the carbonaceous material as well as plant fragments suggest a deltaic/ plataform depositional context. Textural features and sedimentary structures observed in the conglomerates and sandstones show the action of gravitational flows of high and low density. The fine interlaminated sandstones and siltstones later deformed as slumps or slides, and conglomerates with oriented clasts indicate, respectively, mass movements and action of debris flow. Conglomeratic lags levels record a bypass phenomenon. There are no biostratigraphic data in these studied outcrops. However, petrographic analyses revealed the presence of fragments of igneous rocks (basalts and diabases) in both sandstones and conglomerates, suggesting a relative contemporaneity between igneous activity and sediment deposition. Futhermore, petrographic analyses also found poor permo-porous conditions in the reservoirs due to the presence of fragments of volcanic rocks and the abundance of intraclasts / pseudomatrix.

Matte, R. R.; Zambonato, E. E.

2012-04-01

273

Recent changes in the multi-year ice area budget of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) is intricate collection of islands and channels located on the North American continental shelf. The deep-water route of the North West Passage crosses through the CAA near 75°N connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The major challenge to safe navigation of the North West Passage is the presence of multi-year sea ice (MYI). In recent years, MYI conditions within the CAA during September have begun to decrease considerably with 2011 and 2012 being the lightest MYI years on record since 1968. Recent light MYI years within the CAA are associated with recent openings of the North West Passage (i.e. 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011 and 2012). MYI within the CAA is either imported from the Arctic Ocean or grown in situ and therefore in order to understand the processes contributing to these recent reductions in September MYI within the CAA we derived the first estimates of the MYI area budget of the CAA using RADARSAT-1 and RADARSAT-2 imagery from 1997-2012. Overall, there has been a reduced amount of Arctic Ocean MYI inflow into the CAA during the summer months since 2007. The latter process can be attributed to more frequent high sea level pressure anomalies over the Beaufort Sea and Canadian Basin. The amount of MYI grown in situ within the CAA has also reduced because of longer melt seasons reducing the survivability of seasonal ice over. MYI outflow to Baffin Bay from the CAA has been relatively consistent over the period. Interestingly, the recent reduced amount of MYI within the CAA, particularly noticeable since 2007, was found to be quantitatively linked with a step change increase in observed Arctic marine shipping activity following the dramatic summer sea ice reductions that began in 2007.

Howell, Stephen; Pizzolato, Larissa; Derksen, Chris; Brady, Michael

2014-05-01

274

Predicting the occurrence of rocky reefs in a heterogeneous archipelago area with limited data  

Science.gov (United States)

The lack of spatial distribution data on marine habitats often presents an obstacle to their protection. The Annex I of the Habitats Directive (European Council Directive 92/43/EEC) lists habitats that are important in biodiversity protection and should be maintained (or restored) to a favourable conservation status. The habitats listed should be protected within an ecological network of protected areas, the Natura 2000 network. However, in the past the establishment of the marine Natura 2000 network has been largely based on insufficient knowledge on the distribution of the habitats. Annex I habitat type reefs are defined as formations of hard compact biogenic or geogenic substrata, which arise from the seafloor in the sublittoral and littoral zone. As obtaining marine data is time-consuming and costly, the bathymetric and substratum data needed for their identification on a larger scale are often scarce. Furthermore, the use of data may be limited due to e.g. national security reasons. This study identifies reefs in a complex archipelago area in the northern Baltic Sea using the best, although limited, data currently available. In the area reefs are elevated rocky outcrops and the associated algal communities and blue mussel beds are vital in maintaining biodiversity in the relatively species poor Baltic Sea. In addition to identifying the physical reef structures, an estimate of their ecological value is obtained by modelling the distribution of four key species occurring on reefs. The results are encouraging, as 55 out of 68 of the potential reefs ground-truthed were confirmed to be reefs. Furthermore the number of predicted species occurring on the reefs, correlated significantly with the number of species observed. The presented maps serve as a valuable background for more detailed mapping of the species diversity occurring on reefs as well as for monitoring their ecological status. Map-based information on important habitats is essential in conservation and marine spatial planning to minimize human impact on marine ecosystems.

Rinne, Henna; Kaskela, Anu; Downie, Anna-Leena; Tolvanen, Harri; von Numers, Mikael; Mattila, Johanna

2014-02-01

275

Notch-dependent expression of the archipelago ubiquitin ligase subunit in the Drosophila eye.  

Science.gov (United States)

archipelago (ago)/Fbw7 encodes a conserved protein that functions as the substrate-receptor component of a polyubiquitin ligase that suppresses tissue growth in flies and tumorigenesis in vertebrates. Ago/Fbw7 targets multiple proteins for degradation, including the G1-S regulator Cyclin E and the oncoprotein dMyc/c-Myc. Despite prominent roles in growth control, little is known about the signals that regulate Ago/Fbw7 abundance in developing tissues. Here we use the Drosophila eye as a model to identify developmental signals that regulate ago expression. We find that expression of ago mRNA and protein is induced by passage of the morphogenetic furrow (MF) and identify the hedgehog (hh) and Notch (N) pathways as elements of this inductive mechanism. Cells mutant for N pathway components, or hh-defective cells that express reduced levels of the Notch ligand Delta, fail to upregulate ago transcription in the region of the MF; reciprocally, ectopic N activation in eye discs induces expression of ago mRNA. A fragment of the ago promoter that contains consensus binding sites for the N pathway transcription factor Su(H) is bound by Su(H) and confers N-inducibility in cultured cells. The failure to upregulate ago in N pathway mutant cells correlates with accumulation of the SCF-Ago target Cyclin E in the area of the MF, and this is rescued by re-expression of ago. These data suggest a model in which N acts through ago to restrict levels of the pro-mitotic factor Cyclin E. This N-Ago-Cyclin E link represents a significant new cell cycle regulatory mechanism in the developing eye. PMID:21148181

Nicholson, Sarah C; Nicolay, Brandon N; Frolov, Maxim V; Moberg, Kenneth H

2011-01-01

276

Diversity and distribution of arthropods in native forests of the Azores archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since 1999, our knowledge of arthropods in native forests of the Azores has improved greatly. Under the BALA project (Biodiversity of Arthropods of Laurisilva of the Azores, an extensive standardised sampling protocol was employed in most of the native forest cover of the Archipelago. Additionally, in 2003 and 2004, more intensive sampling was carried out in several fragments, resulting in nearly a doubling of the number of samples collected. A total of 6,770 samples from 100 sites distributed amongst 18 fragments of seven islands have been collected, resulting in almost 140,000 specimens having been caught. Overall, 452 arthropod species belonging to Araneae, Opilionida, Pseudoscorpionida, Myriapoda and Insecta (excluding Diptera and Hymenoptera were recorded. Altogether, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Araneae and Lepidoptera comprised the major proportion of the total diversity (84% and total abundance (78% found. Endemic species comprised almost half of the individuals sampled. Most of the taxonomic, colonization, and trophic groups analysed showed a significantly left unimodal distribution of species occurrences, with almost all islands, fragments or sites having exclusive species. Araneae was the only group to show a strong bimodal distribution. Only a third of the species was common to both the canopy and soil, the remaining being equally exclusive to each stratum. Canopy and soil strata showed a strongly distinct species composition, the composition being more similar within the same stratum regardless of the location, than within samples from both strata at the same location. Possible reasons for these findings are explored. The procedures applied in the sampling protocol are also discussed.

Borges, P.A.V.

2008-01-01

277

Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti populations from Senegal and Cape Verde Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Two concomitant dengue 3 (DEN-3 epidemics occurred in Cape Verde Archipelago and Senegal between September and October 2009. Aedes aegypti was identified as the vector of these epidemics as several DEN-3 virus strains were isolated from this species in both countries. The susceptibility to pyrethroids, organochlorine, organophosphates and carbamate was investigated in two field strains of Aedes aegypti from both countries using WHO diagnostic bioassay kits in order to monitor their the current status of insecticide susceptibility. Findings The two tested strains were highly resistant to DDT. The Cape Verde strain was found to be susceptible to all others tested insecticides except for propoxur 0.1%, which needs further investigation. The Dakar strain was susceptible to fenitrothion 1% and permethrin 0.75%, but displayed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and propoxur. Conclusions As base-line results, our observations stress a careful management of insecticide use for the control of Ae. aegypti. Indeed, they indicate that DDT is no longer efficient for the control of Ae. aegypti populations in Cape Verde and Dakar and further suggest a thorough follow-up of propoxur susceptibility status in both sites and that of deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in Ae. aegypti populations in Dakar. Thus, regular monitoring of susceptibility is greatly needed as well as the knowing if this observed resistance/susceptibility is focal or not and for observed resistance, the use of biochemical methods is needed with detailed comparison of resistance levels over a large geographic area. Keywords Aedes aegypti, Insecticides, Susceptibility, Cape Verde, Senegal

Dia Ibrahima

2012-10-01

278

Arctic environments and global change: Evidence in deep permafrost temperatures, Canadian arctic archipelago  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In considering the role of the polar regions in future global change, one may look toward these regions for evidence of past environmental change. Deep ground temperatures provide one window on past surface temperatures, which may be interpreted in terms not only of past climate but also of past environmental conditions. Across the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, there is no consistent curvature in deep ground temperature profiles that can be modeled in terms of warming of the past century. This contrasts with the result reported by Lachenbruch et al. [1986] for the Prudhoe Bay area of Alaska and may be a consequence of the much larger region and wider well spacing considered in the Canadian case. Any curvature present varies from well to well and may be interpreted in terms of surface temperature changes of the order of 1-3 K on the scale of decades to centuries. However, there is some evidence that these surface temperature histories may arise from long-term changes in paleoenvironmental factors as well as climate. For instance, the paleoclimate derived from oxygen isotope data at the Agassiz Ice Cap has been compared with the geothermal signature at a well some 180 km to the west. For the Little Ice Age (LIA), the Agassiz paleoclimate explains only half the measured variation in ground temperatures at the geothermal site; the remaining variation may be due to other environmental effects, such as an increase in snow cover following the LIA. This is consistent with extrwing the LIA. This is consistent with extrapolated surface temperatures 7 K higher than other Arctic sites and the unusually deep snow cover observed today

279

Prediction and verification of possible reef-fish spawning aggregation sites in Los Roques Archipelago National Park, Venezuela.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study attempts to predict and verify possible spawning aggregation sites and times in the Los Roques Archipelago National Park, Venezuela, based on physical reef characteristics and the knowledge of experienced local fishermen. Three possible aggregation sites were selected for monitoring based on satellite images, low-cost bathymetric mapping and interviews with experienced local fishermen. Abundances and sizes of 18 species that are known to form reproductive aggregations were monitored at these sites using underwater visual census for 7 days after each full moon from February to August, 2007. While spawning events were not observed, possible indirect evidence of spawning aggregations was found for Lutjanus analis at Cayo Sal and Boca de Sebastopol, Lutjanus apodus at Cayo Sal, Lutjanus cyanopterus at Cayo Sal and Piedra La Guasa and Epinephelus guttatus at Bajo California and Cayo de Agua. Additionally, indirect evidence was identified for the past existence of a spawning aggregation of Epinephelus striatus in the northern part of the archipelago, which may have been eliminated by overfishing c.15 years ago. Bathymetric mapping showed that the shelf edge at sites monitored in this study was shallower than at spawning aggregation sites in other parts of the Caribbean, and that sites were not proximal to deep water. While this study does not prove the existence or locations of spawning aggregations of reef fishes in the archipelago, it does add insight to a growing understanding of generalities in the relationship between seafloor characteristics and the locations of transient reef-fish spawning aggregations in the Caribbean. PMID:20840614

Boomhower, J; Romero, M; Posada, J; Kobara, S; Heyman, W

2010-09-01

280

Radiation accident in San Salvador  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the base of a radiation accident of tragic consequences which took place in 1989 in San Salvador the author formulates conclusions that are also important for the Polish users of instruments with isotopic sources. Only high qualifications, permanent training and proper exploitation of such instruments would ensure safety of the employees. (author)

281

San Antonio Zoological Gardens & Aquarium  

Science.gov (United States)

Special services for teachers and students include programs for classes and summer camps. A variety of land and aquatic animals are on display; website contains a section on animal training; adopt-an-animal program offered. Free screensaver. Admission fees apply. Located in San Antonio, Texas.

282

Discovering the lichen diversity of a remote tropical island: working list of species collected on Reunion (Mascarene archipelago, Indian Ocean)  

OpenAIRE

463 lichen taxa are reported from the island of Reunion (Mascarene archipelago) in the Indian Ocean. This report is based on extensive collections recently made by the authors or hosted in B and LG. A total of c. 600 species is estimated for the number of lichenized fungi present on the island; although this is a low figure for a varied tropi- cal area, this is plausible due to its small size and remoteness. The significance of the lichen diversity of the island lays in its endemics, which ne...

Se?rusiaux, Emmanue?l; Den Boom, Pieter P. G.; Brand, Maarten; Ertz, Damien; Kalb, Klaus; Magain, Nicolas; Masson, Didier; Schiefelbein, Ulf; Sipman, Harrie J. M.

2011-01-01

283

On three endemic species of the linyphiid spider genus Canariphantes Wunderlich, 1992 (Araneae, Linyphiidae) from the Azores archipelago.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe Canariphantes junipericola n. sp. and C. relictus n. sp., new single-island endemic linyphiid spiders from the islands of Flores and Santa Maria (Azorean archipelago, Macaronesia), respectively. The female of the first species was incorrectly assigned to Canariphantes acoreensis (Wunderlich, 1992), a species occurring in four islands in the Central Group of Azores (Faial, Pico, São Jorge and Terceira). The latter species is transferred to Canariphantes, its male redescribed and the female genitalia described for the first time. We discuss the systematic affinities of these new species and comment on their conservation status.  PMID:25082047

Crespo, Luís Carlos; Bosmans, Robert; Cardoso, Pedro; Borges, Paulo A V

2014-01-01

284

Interpretation of the P-T-XCO2 environment during metamorphism of carbonates, central Utö, Stockholm archipelago.  

OpenAIRE

This thesis attempts to interpret the metamorphic condition and fluid composition experienced by metacarbonates on Utö, located in the south-eastern parts of the Stockholm archipelago. Utö is a part of the Svecofennian domain, and the area Bergslagen, that has hosted several mines over the last millennia. The bedrock in this area has been dated by the U-Pb technique to 1.90-1.87 Ga, placing it in the Paleoproterozoic era (Allen et al. 1996, Lundström et al. 1998). The rocks, of the studied...

Lundin, Linne?a

2013-01-01

285

Megachile timberlakei Cockerell (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae): Yet another bee species from the Galápagos Archipelago  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We here report the leaf-cutter bee Megachile (Eutricharaea) timberlakei Cockerell 1920 (Megachilidae) as a third bee species in the Gala´pagos. The species is currently known from the Hawaiian Islands and was collected during floral inventories on San Cristo´ bal. We provide floral records as well as a diagnosis and comparative comments that will assist bee researchers to easily recognize this species from other native and adventive Megachile Latreille to the Americas. We also discuss the possible routes to the Gala´pagos.

Rasmussen, Claus; Carrión, A.

2012-01-01

286

San Juan Uchucuanicu: évolution historique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La communauté de San Juan est reconnue depuis 1939. Une première partie concerne l?organisation de la reducción de San Juan vers le milieu du XVIe siècle. Le poids fiscal s?exerce durement sur le village et la crise est générale dans toute la vallée du Chancay au XVIIe. siècle. La christianisation des habitants est définitive au milieu de ce même siècle. C?est vers la fin du XVIIe siècle et durant tout le XVIIIe que se multiplient les conflits entre San Juan et les villages voisins liés aux terrains de pâture et à la possession de l?eau. La deuxième partie du travail concerne les rapports de la communauté de San Juan avec le Pérou contemporain : contrainte fiscale toujours très lourde durant la fin de l?époque coloniale, exactions des militaires juste avant l?indépendance. La période républicaine voit toujours les conflits avec les villages voisins mais aussi la naissance de familles qui cherchent à retirer le maximum de la communauté. Les terres sont divisées et attribuées : la détérioration de l?organisation communale traditionnelle est manifeste. L4es conflits se multiplient entre petits propriétaires, mais aussi avec les haciendas voisines : c?est l?apparition d?une véritable lutte de classes. La situation actuelle est incertaine, le poids de l?économie marchande se développe avec l?exode des jeunes. Que sera la communauté San Juan à la fin de ce siècle? La comunidad de San Juan está reconocida desde 1939. La primera parte concierne a la organización de la 'reducción' de San Juan hacia mediados del siglo XVI. El peso fiscal se ejerce duramente sobre el pueblo y en el siglo XVII la crisis es general en todo el valle de Chancay. Hacia mediados del mismo siglo la cristianización de los habitantes es definitiva. Es hacia fines del siglo XVII y durante todo el siglo XVIII que se multiplican los conflictos entre San Juan y los pueblos vecinos, los que están relacionados con los terrenos de pastoreo y la posesión del agua. La segunda parte del trabajo concierne a las relaciones de la comunidad de San Juan con el Perú contemporáneo: obligaciones fiscales cada vez más pesadas hacia fines de la época colonial, exacciones de los militares justamente antes de la independencia. El período republicano ve siempre los conflictos entre los pueblos vecinos pero igualmente el nacimiento de familias que procuran sacar el máximo de la comunidad. Las tierras son divididas y atribuidas: el deterioro de la organización comunal tradicional se pone de manifiesto. Se multiplican los conflictos entre pequeños propietarios, pero también con las haciendas vecinas: es la aparición de una verdadera lucha de clases. La situación actual es incierta, el peso de la economía comercial se desarrolla con el éxodo de los jóvenes. ¿Que será de la comunidad de San Juan a fines de este siglo? San Juan community has been recognized since 1939. In the first part, we will show' the organization of San Juan's reducción at the middle of the XVI century. The fiscal burden on the village was hard and this crisis was general all over the valley of Chancay during the XVII century. Christianisation of the inhabitants was completed in the middle of this same century. It is only at the end of this century and along all the XVII that the conflicts between San Juan and the neighboring villages were multiplied, tied to pasture lands and water possession In the second part, we will show the relations of San Juan with the contemporary Peru: always very hard fiscal constraint at the end of the colonial time and military exactions till the independence. Along the republican period, the conflicts with the neighboring villages persisted but there were also arising families who were trying to take the maximum of the community. Lands were divided and attributed, deterioration of traditional communal organization was visible. Conflicts between small landlords and neighboring haciendas were multiplied A real class struggle appeared. The actual situation seems uncertain but the trading economy b

1975-01-01

287

Suboxic dolomite formation linked to the sedimentary Mn cycle, Archipelago Los Roques, Venezuela  

Science.gov (United States)

The preferential formation of Ca-rich dolomite precursors in modern peritidal environments has been associated with the degradation of buried microbial mats, with complexation of Ca and Mg cations by extracellular polysaccharides, and alkalinity generation, mostly through bacterial sulfate reduction. However, it remains unclear why Ca-dolomite would not occur in suboxic sediments where bacterial Mn(IV) and/or Fe(III) reduction are important sources of alkalinity, and the role, if any, of Fe- and Mn-recycling in its diagenetic stabilization to more stoichiometric dolomite is unknown. In a shoaling-upward parasequence in the Archipelago Los Roques, Venezuela, an abundance of Ca-dolomite coincides with a relative decrease in bulk-sediment iron concentrations. These sediments were analyzed with multiple analytical tools, including EPMA, ICP-MS, synchrotron-based XRF, XRD, and spatially resolved XANES. Results demonstrate that the distribution of spheroidal aggregates of nanometer-scale Ca-rich dolomite rhombohedra is linked with interstitial elemental sulfur and manganese accumulations, with Mn occurring in several oxidation states (Fig. 1). Based on our observations at this novel dolomite-forming site, we suggest that in peritidal settings the burial of metal-reactive microbial mats act as a barrier capable of concentrating dissolved reactive species that promote greater sediment residence times in suboxic (manganic) zones, where the recycling of Mn not only plays an important role in the remineralization of organic matter, but also sustains elevated alkalinity and dissolved pore water sulfide concentrations. The last two effects have been previously suggested to promote Mg dehydration, the major kinetic barrier to dolomite nucleation. Figure 1. Normalized Mn K-edge merged spectra of a 5 x 5 ?m analytical area bearing dolomite cements. A: The K-edge exhibits two main features at about 6554 and 6558 eV. B: Intermediate Mn (III) is identified by the positive slope of the first derivative of the XANES spectra in the interval 6547.9-6549.0 eV. C: A least-squares fitting of the spectra was performed to quantify the Mn species present. The spectra can be fitted with four model compounds, Mn2O3 (52.5 × 5.2%), MnCO3 (22.2 × 1.3%), gamma-MnOOH (15.0 × 5.0%), and Mn3O4 (10.3 × 7.7%), suggesting that these phases coexist in the dolomite-bearing microcrystalline cements.

Petrash, D.; Lalonde, S.; Gonzalez, G.; Gingras, M.; Konhauser, K.

2013-12-01

288

Spatio-temporal variation in the diet of Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea in the Azores archipelago, northeast Atlantic  

Science.gov (United States)

The diet of Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea in the Azores was studied in four islands of the archipelago over four breeding seasons, using stomach flushings from 959 birds. Fish were identified from flesh, otoliths and vertebrae and cephalopods from flesh and lower beaks. The frequency of occurrence of prey taxa, and the numerical frequency of fish and cephalopods, showed marked variations both spatially, across the breeding cycle and between years. Overall, cephalopods from 37 species representing 17 families and fish from 33 species representing 18 families were identified, representing over 70 prey species and trebling what was previously known. Histioteuthidae, Ommastrephidae and Cranchiidae were the only cephalopod families present every year and represented two thirds of the cephalopods' consumption by number. Blue jack mackerel Trachurus picturatus was the most abundant prey species present in 1998 and 2002 but was absent in 1999 and 2000, representing on average 57.2% of prey by number in the years it occurred. Apart from blue jack mackerel, most fish species were present in very low numbers with the exception of Cubiceps gracilis, Scomberesox saurus and Maurolicus muellerii. Diaphus adenomus, was recorded for the first time for the Azores archipelago.

Neves, Verónica; Nolf, Dirk; Clarke, Malcolm

2012-12-01

289

San Diego Zoo: Panda Page  

Science.gov (United States)

This site is provided by the San Diego Zoo. Visitors may view real time footage of pandas at the zoo with Panda Cam, have their questions answered at the Panda Facts page, or read up on each panda with Panda Profiles. And of course, no one should miss the features devoted to panda Hua Mei, who seems to have spent nearly every minute of her life in front of a camera since her birth at the San Diego Zoo in 1999. Visitors can watch video clips of Hua Mei from her birth onward, or view a slide show that chronicles her progress from a tiny unrecognizable lump to a "curious and precocious cub." The Web site has been recently updated to include a short piece about Hua Mei's third birthday, celebrated in August 2002.

2002-01-01

290

San Diego Zoo: Kid Territory  

Science.gov (United States)

This San Diego Zoo website is absolutely packed with fun and informative stuff for kids, and features not only the residents of the zoo, but also the people who work there. Read All About It offers a look at how the San Diego Zoo began, why we give scientific names to animals, why animal enrichment is important, and much more. Science in Action offers simple experiments to do at home or in the classroom, like exploring what life would be like without an opposable thumb (with tape, not via amputation). The website also provides interesting essays on zoo-related careers, as well as cool multimedia games, animal-themed recipes, and loads of other great features.

291

Cuartel San Carlos. Yacimiento veterano  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El Cuartel San Carlos es un monumento histórico nacional (1986 de finales del siglo XVIII (1785-1790, caracterizado por sufrir diversas adversidades en su construcción y soportar los terremotos de 1812 y 1900. En el año 2006, el organismo encargado de su custodia, el Instituto de Patrimonio Cultural del Ministerio de Cultura, ejecutó tres etapas de exploración arqueológica, que abarcaron las áreas Traspatio, Patio Central y las Naves Este y Oeste de la edificación. Este trabajo reseña el análisis de la documentación arqueológica obtenida en el sitio, a partir de la realización de dicho proyecto, denominado EACUSAC (Estudio Arqueológico del Cuartel San Carlos, que representa además, la tercera campaña realizada en el sitio. La importancia de este yacimiento histórico, radica en su participación en los acontecimientos que propiciaron conflictos de poder durante el surgimiento de la República y en los sucesos políticos del siglo XX. De igual manera, se encontró en el sitio una amplia muestra de materiales arqueológicos que reseñan un estilo de vida cotidiana militar, así como las dinámicas sociales internas ocurridas en el San Carlos, como lugar estratégico para la defensa de los diferentes regímenes que atravesó el país, desde la época del imperialismo español hasta nuestros días.

Mariana Flores

2007-01-01

292

Sintered materials studied by SANS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. The small angle scattering of compacted and sintered single phase materials with open or closed porosity can be described by the two phase model. During sintering, the decrease of pore volume is accompanied with decreasing internal surface measured by SANS [1]. Such investigation can be extended to the field of technically relevant multiphase materials as well, e.g. doped tunsten, SiN ceramics and WC-Co composite made from nano-crystalline powder. The deformation of remaining porosity after sintering can be monitored by 2D anisotropy of SANS distribution as the sintered body is processed through several steps of thermomechanical treatment. The elongation of pores or stable bubbles, e.g. K gas filled bubbles in doped W [2], follows the macroscopic deformation of the body. Heat treatment, however, causes spheroidization with vanishing SANS anisotropy. Our investigation using the isointensity contour map method allows establishing a new description of mechanisms of thermomechanical processing. (author) [1] O. Blaschko, R. Glas, G. Krexner and P. Weinzierl, Physical Review Letters 68 970-973 (1992); [2] O. Horacsek, M. Menyhard and J. Labar, High Temperature Materials and Processes 14 207-213 (1995)

293

Scalable, chromatography-free synthesis of alkyl-tethered pyrene-based materials. Application to first-generation "archipelago model" asphaltene compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we report a highly efficient, scalable approach to the total synthesis of conformationally unrestricted, electronically isolated arrays of alkyl-tethered polycyclic aromatic chromophores. This new class of modular molecules consists of polycyclic aromatic "islands" comprising significant structural fragments present in unrefined heavy petroleum, tethered together by short saturated alkyl chains, as represented in the "archipelago model" of asphaltene structure. The most highly branched archipelago compounds reported here share an architecture with first-generation dendrimeric constructs, making the convergent, chromatography-free synthesis described herein particularly attractive for further extensions in scope and applications to materials chemistry. The syntheses are efficient, selective, and readily adaptable to a multigram scale, requiring only inexpensive, "earth-abundant" transition-metal catalysts for cross-coupling reactions and extraction and fractional crystallization for purification. This approach avoids typical limitations in cost, scale, and operational practicality. All of the archipelago compounds and synthetic intermediates have been fully characterized spectroscopically and analytically. The solid-state structure of one archipelago model compound has been determined by X-ray crystallography. PMID:25569143

Diner, Colin; Scott, David E; Tykwinski, Rik R; Gray, Murray R; Stryker, Jeffrey M

2015-02-01

294

77 FR 50459 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest...SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet...Supervisor's Office of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and...

2012-08-21

295

76 FR 27304 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest...SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet...Supervisor's Office of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and...

2011-05-11

296

78 FR 48646 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest...SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet...Supervisor's Office of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and...

2013-08-09

297

75 FR 78675 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest...SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet...Supervisor's Office of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and...

2010-12-16

298

75 FR 65609 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest...SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet...Supervior's Office of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and...

2010-10-26

299

76 FR 9540 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest...SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet...Supervisor's Office of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and...

2011-02-18

300

76 FR 30903 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest...SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet...Supervisor's Office of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and...

2011-05-27

301

76 FR 2331 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest...SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet...Supervisor's Office of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and...

2011-01-13

302

75 FR 51749 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest...SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet...Supervisor's Office of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and...

2010-08-23

303

Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Lake Azul (Azores archipelago, Portugal) and its implications for the NAO signal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Azores archipelago lies in the southern area of the dipole that defines the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). During the negative phase of the NAO, the Azores high pressure is displaced southwards allowing the storms to cross the islands increasing the precipitation in this area and also in southern Europe. This fact makes them excellent key places to perform accurate high-resolution climate reconstructions. Lake Azul (37o 52' 21"N - 37o52'21"W) is a monomictic lake infilling the volcanic complex of Sete Cidades which is located in São Miguel island. This monomictic and eutrophic lake was formed around 22000 cal. years B.P. by consecutive collapses of the underneath volcanic caldera. The last eruption of the Sete Cidades crater complex was radiocarbon-dated at 500-650 cal years B.P. At present, macrophytes are restricted to the lake shore and consist mainly of Potamogeton spp., Myriophyllum alterniflorum, Ceratophyllum demersum, Nymphaea alba, and, Chara fragilis. Moreover, this crater complex has steep borders mainly covered by exotic plant species, such Cryptomeria japonica, Pittosporum undulatum and Hedychium gardnerianum. Antropogenic changes in the catchment have occurred in the last centuries including deforestation, permanent pastures (around 31%), production forest (57%) and the human settlements. In September 2011, fourteen sediment cores, up to 2.5 m long, were collected using a gravity corer from a UWITEC raft. A multiproxy characterization of these cores was carried out including smear slides, X-Ray Fluorescence, X-Ray diffraction, magnetic properties, diatom content, and bulk organic matter (d13C, d15N, TN, TOC). The chronological model was obtained by plant remains and pollen concentrates radiocarbon-dating. From base to top, three lithological units have been established from the retrieved cores: volcaniclastic rocks (lapilli), light grey laminated mud, and poor laminated light brown mud with frequent dark layers rich in plant debris. The radiocarbon date at the base of this fine mixture manifests the record for the last ca 650 cal. years B.P., which corresponds to the last recorded eruption. The dark brown layers are dominated by organic matter (low XRF signal and almost no diatoms) whereas light brown facies are mainly made up of terrigenous particles (high XRF signal and high content of benthic diatoms) and vascular plant macroremains. Bulk organic matter analyses have revealed that algae constitute the main compound of the organic fraction. However, the organic matter in the dark layers is composed by C3 plants, coherent with the clastic nature of this facies deposited during flood events. Increase of precipitation, ruled by the negative phase of the NAO, together with the steep borders of the Sete Cidades crater prompts a substantial increase in the erosion of the catchment and hence an enhancement of runoff that reaches Azul Lake and the occurrence of the flood events. Therefore, identifying, characterizing and counting the dark layers would allow to reconstruct the intensity and periodicity of the negative phase of the NAO climate mode.

Jesús Rubio, Maria; Sanchez, Guiomar; Saez, Alberto; Vázquez-Loureiro, David; Bao, Roberto; José Pueyo, Juan; Gómez-Paccard, Miriam; Gonçalves, Vitor; Raposeiro, Pedro M.; Francus, Pierre; Hernández, Armand; Margalef, Olga; Buchaca, Teresa; Pla, Sergi; Barreiro-Lostres, Fernando; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Giralt, Santiago

2013-04-01

304

The study of bacterioplankton dynamics in the Berlengas Archipelago (West coast of Portugal by applying the HJ-biplot method  

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Full Text Available The relationship between bacterioplankton and environmental forcing in the Berlengas Archipelago (Western Coast of Portugal were studied between February 2006 and February 2007 in two sampling stations: Berlenga and Canal, using an HJ-biplot. The HJ-biplot showed a simultaneous display of the three main metabolic groups of bacteria involved in carbon cycling (aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, sulphate-reducing bacteria and nitrate-reducing bacteria and environmental parameters, in low dimensions. Our results indicated thatbacterial dynamics are mainly affected by temporal gradients (seasonal gradients with a clear winter versus summer opposition, and less by the spatial structure (Berlenga and Canal. The yearly variation in the abundance of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were positively correlated with those in chlorophyll a concentration, whereas ammonium concentration and temperature decreased with increasing phosphates and nitrites concentration. The relationship between aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, chlorophyll a and ammonium reveals that phytoplankton is an important source of organic substrates for bacteria.

Susana Mendes

2009-01-01

305

Development and Characterization of EST-SSR Markers for the Solidago virgaurea Complex (Asteraceae in the Japanese Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Premise of the study: We developed simple sequence repeat (SSR markers from expressed sequence tags (ESTs for the Solidago virgaurea complex, an ecologically and morphologically diverse species complex in the Japanese archipelago, to elucidate population genetic structure and examine taxonomic boundaries. Methods and Results: Utilizing the RNA sequencing data obtained by next-generation sequencing techniques, 15 polymorphic EST-SSR markers with three to 14 alleles were developed, most of which were transferable to different Solidago species native to Eurasia and North America. Conclusions: The EST-SSR markers developed in this study may be useful for elucidating the population structure and taxonomic delimitation of the species complex, as well as for investigating the population genetics and reproductive ecology of Solidago species.

Shota Sakaguchi

2014-07-01

306

Karyological study of Amphisbaena ridleyi (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae), an endemic species of the Archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, Pernambuco, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The karyotype of Amphisbaena ridleyi, an endemic species of the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, in State of Pernambuco, Brazil, is described after conventional staining, Ag-NOR impregnation and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a telomeric probe. The diploid number is 46, with nine [...] pairs of macrochromosomes (three metacentrics, four subtelocentrics and two acrocentrics) and 14 pairs of microchromosomes. The Ag-NOR is located in the telomeric region of the long arm of metacentric chromosome 2 and FISH revealed signals only in the telomeric region of all chromosomes. Further cytogenetic data on other amphisbaenians as well as a robust phylogenetic hypothesis of this clade is needed in order to understand the evolutionary changes on amphisbaenian karyotypes.

Marcia Maria, Laguna; Renata Cecília, Amaro; Tamí, Mott; Yatiyo, Yonenaga-Yassuda; Miguel Trefaut, Rodrigues.

307

Effects of migrations on the nestedness structure of bird assemblages in cays of the Jardines de la Reina archipelago, Cuba  

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Full Text Available The nested subset hypothesis states that species in fragmented, less species–rich biotas are non–random subsets of those inhabiting richer sites. The effect of migration on these models has not been yet fully addressed. We compared the phenological stages of the community during the spring and fall migrations. Presence–absence data of bird species occurring at 43 cays of the Jardines de la Reina archipelago was compiled and two incidence matrices were built for fall and spring periods. The degree of nestedness was estimated based on the overlap and decreasing fill, and its significance was assessed by means of 1,000 replicates of four null models. Bird assemblages showed a higher number of species during fall (67 than they did in spring (51. They also showed a significant and stable pattern of nestedness, although this was slightly higher in spring. Seasonal fluctuations caused by migratory movements thus barely affected the nested structure of bird assemblages.

García–Quintas, A.

2014-12-01

308

A new species of insular Rock Gecko (Genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887) from the Bidong Archipelago, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new insular species Cnemaspis bidongensis sp. nov. (Squamata: Gekkonidae), is described from Pulau Bidong, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia and bears a unique suite of morphological and color pattern characters that differentiate it from all other congeners. Cnemaspis bidongensis sp. nov. is the sister species to C. kendallii (Gray) and represents the fifth insular endemic species of Cnemaspis on archipelagos along the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. This species survived massive deforestation of the small island of Bidong (260 ha) from the mid 1970s to the early 1990s when the island served as a Vietnamese refugee camp and harbored as many as 40,000 people at one time. We hypothesize that this species' generalized lifestyle contributed to its survival, allowing it to seek refuge in rocky microhabitats. PMID:24869832

Grismer, L Lee; Jr, Perry L Wood; Ahmad, Amirrudin B; Sumarli, Alexandra S-I; Vazquez, Jessika J; Ismail, Lukman H B; Nance, Ronald; Mohd-Amin, Muhammad Afif B; Othman, Mohamad N A B; Rizaijessika, Syed A; Kuss, Maria; Murdoch, Matthew; Cobos, Anthony

2014-01-01

309

RETOMANDO LOS LÍMITES Y LAS LIMITACIONES DEL "ARCHIPIÉLAGO VERTICAL" REVISITING THE LIMITS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE "VERTICAL ARCHIPELAGO "  

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Full Text Available El presente trabajo retoma la problemática de los límites y las limitaciones del "Archipiélago Vertical" planteada hace tres décadas por John V. Murra y a la que todavía no se le ha podido dar una respuesta satisfactoria. Con esto no pretendemos resolver el desafío legado por Murra, sino dar una diferente lectura a la información arqueológica existente y con ello formular una hipótesis que pueda orientar el debate y la búsqueda de respuestas bajo un panorama de mayor amplitud. Nuestro enfoque se centra en el segmento de la vertiente occidental andina correspondiente al norte del actual territorio chileno, planteando que en esta franja el modelo de verticalidad archipielágica, tal como definido por Murra, se consolidó solamente en el Período Intermedio Tardío. Con anterioridad (período Medio, la necesidad de complementariedad vertical habría sido resuelta a través del macrosistema orquestado por Tiwanaku, entidad que perfeccionó el "sistema de interacción reticular" (Llagostera 2006, de data anterior, por lo que no necesariamente tuvo que recurrir a colonias. En el Intermedio Tardío se conjugaron acontecimientos sociopolíticos y eventos medioambientales que motivaron una reestructuración sin precedentes en las tierras altoandinas y en los Valles Occidentales. En estos últimos, las poblaciones vallunas que habían alcanzado su apogeo sociocultural se habrían reestructurado bajo mecanismos que podrían asimilarse a los sistemas de "dualidad". En tanto, las poblaciones del altiplano, que estaban siendo flageladas por una intensa sequía, habrían iniciado un clima de agresión y de violencia hacia las poblaciones de las cabeceras de los valles occidentales para apoderarse de la producción hortícola y de sus tierras. Finalmente, los reductos de estas poblaciones precordilleranas (que originalmente hacían parte de la dualidad valluna habrían caído en poder de las poblaciones altiplánicas, convirtiéndose en colonias ("islas" de estas últimas, consolidando la estructura de "archipiélago vertical", con cabecera en el altiplano. De esta manera se habría dado forma a los archipiélagos étnicos Caranga, Quillaca y Lipes, que serían los más meridionales del mundo andino.The present work returns to the problem of the limits and limitations of the 'vertical archipelago', raised three decades ago by John V. Murra, and which still remains without a satisfactory solution. Rather than resolve the challenge left by Murra, / here offer a different approach to the archaeological information, which leads me to formulate a hypothesis that may guide the debate and search for answers within a wider context. Concentrating on the Western slopes of the Andes in the North of Chile, I propose that the model of the vertical archipelago, as defined by Murra, was consolidated only in the Late Intermediate Period. During the Middle Horizon, the need for vertical complementarity could have been resolved through the macro-system organized by Tiwanaku, a civilization that perfected the older "system of reticulated interaction " (Llagostera 2006, and did not depend on colonies for access to distant resources. But in the Late Intermediate Period, sociopolitical and environmental events combined to bring about a new form of organization in the Andean highlands and in the Western Valleys of the Pacific. In the latter, populations that had reached their sociocultural upper limit would have been restructured under mechanisms assimilable to those of 'duality'. Meanwhile the highland populations, afflicted by an intense drought, would have unleashed violent attacks against those living in the head-waters of the Western Valleys to get hold of their agricultural lands. Finally, the remnants of these pre-Andean populations (originally part of the valley dual organization would have fallen into the hands of the altiplanic populations, becoming colonies ('islands' which consolidated a 'vertical archipelago structure' whose nuclei lay on the Altiplano. In this way were formed the southernmost archipelagoes of the An

Agustín Llagostera

2010-06-01

310

Analysis Of Conservation Experience Of Heritage Objects In Lithuania (The Curonian Spit And Norway (The Vega Archipelago  

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Full Text Available The Curonian Spit (Lithuania and Vega Archipelago (Norway are objects on the UNESCO World Heritage List because of their special kind of landscapes that have been formed not without human intervention. Landscapes created by nature itself or with human help are exceptional works which, as determined by the legal acts in regulation of these processes, have to be referred to as objects of cultural heritage. The cultural heritage must be protected, exhibited and viewed as objects of science and cognition. Lithuania and Norway have different conditions formed for identification, conservation and protection of these works, but both countries have recognized that protection of cultural heritage, passing it on for future generations is the duty of the state. Prospects of heritage management and development, and exchange of experience should be the top priorities for action in Lithuania.

Nijol? Piekien?

2014-05-01

311

A five million year record of compositional variations in mantle sources to magmatism on Santiago, southern Cape Verde archipelago  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

High-precision Pb isotope data and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope data are presented together with major and trace element data for samples spanning the 4.6 Ma history of volcanism at Santiago, in the southern Cape Verde islands. Pb isotope data confirm the positive ¿8/4 signature of the southern islands indicating that the north-south compositional heterogeneity in the Cape Verde archipelago has persisted for at least 4.6 Ma. The Santiago volcanics show distinct compositional differences between the old, intermediate and young volcanics, and suggest greater involvement of an enriched mantle (EM1)-like source over time. Isotopic variations in the Santiago volcanics indicate convergence towards a homogeneous EM1-like end-member and distinct temporal variations in the FOZO-like end-member. Santiago and Santo Antão (a northern island, Holm et al. 2006), show a simultaneous decrease in 208Pb/204Pb of the high 206Pb/204Pb FOZO-like source with time. Such systematic archipelago-wide variations in the FOZO-like component suggest that this component is more likely to be present as a coherent package of recycled ocean crust rather than as multiple small heterogeneities dispersed in the upwelling mantle. The temporal variations in 208Pb/204Pb reflect minor lateral variations in Th/U of this recycled ocean crust package entering the melting zone beneath the islands. The location of the EM1-like component is more equivocal. A shallow lithospheric location is possible, but this would require a coincidence between spatial compositional variations in the lithosphere (EM1 is spatially restricted to the southern islands) and flow lines in the upwelling mantle revealed by seismic anisotropy. Therefore, we favour a deeper asthenospheric mantle source for the EM1-like source

Barker, Abigail K.; Holm, Paul Martin

2010-01-01

312

Seasonal spatial pattern and community structure of zooplankton in waters off the Baleares archipelago (Central Western Mediterranean)  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the zooplankton community in two different areas of the Baleares Archipelago, Western Mediterranean, using data obtained in autumn (December 2009) and summer (July 2010). Micrometazooplankton and mesozooplankton samples were collected in the 0-200 m layer above the shelf (200 m) and the slope (900 m) of each area by a 53 ?m and a 200 ?m mesh size net respectively. The zooplankton biomass (expressed as dry weight) was higher in autumn than in summer (9.30 and 6.95 mg m- 3, respectively) with an important contribution of micrometazooplankters (29% and 41% of total biomass respectively). The latter fraction overwhelmed in the entire metazooplankton abundance, suggesting a non-negligible role as potential food for fish in the epipelagic waters of the Baleares archipelago. The abundance of micrometazooplankton was two-fold higher in December (3581 ind. m- 3) than in July (1585 ind. m- 3), represented mainly by small copepods and nauplii. Likewise, the mesozooplankton community showed smaller difference between months (554 and 390 ind. m- 3, in December and July). Micrometazooplankton abundance was higher in the northern area than in the southern area during autumn, probably linked to the presence of a front, while the opposite was found in summer. In both periods and areas copepods dominated, and within the highly diverse community ten species and their juveniles accounted for 70% of the community. In both areas, Clausocalanus (C. pergens + paululus and C. arcuicornis), Paracalanus parvus, Oncaea media, Oithona plumifera and Acartia clausi were abundant in autumn, whereas Centropages typicus, Temora stylifera and Mecynocera clausi were mainly present in summer. ANOSIM analysis revealed significant differences in the mesozooplankton community composition between months while differences between areas were detected only in summer.

Fernández de Puelles, M. L.; Macias, V.; Vicente, L.; Molinero, J. C.

2014-10-01

313

Sea-ice crossings by caribou in the south-central Canadian Arctic Archipelago and their ecological importance  

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Full Text Available The islands of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago lie immediately north of mainland North America in the Arctic Ocean. They are surrounded by ice for most of each year. Caribou (Rangifer tarandus cross the sea ice in seasonal migrations among the islands and between the mainland and Arctic Islands. We compiled observations of 1272 discrete caribou crossings on the sea ice of northeastern Franklin Strait, Bellot Strait, Peel Sound and Baring Channel in the south-central Canadian Arctic Archipelago during four May—June search periods from 1977 to 1980. We clustered the 850 caribou trails found on the sea ice of northeastern Franklin Strait and on outer Peel Sound as 73 sea-ice crossing sites. We investigated whether caribou at the origin of a sea-ice crossing site could see land on the opposite side at the potential terminus. We measured the straight-line distance from where the caribou first came onto the ice (origin to the first possible landfall (potential terminus. Potential termini were geodetically visible to caribou from elevated terrain near 96% of the origins of the 73 sea-ice crossing sites and still visible at sea-level at the origins on 68%. Caribou are able to take advantage of seasonal use of all of the islands and the peninsula by making sea-ice crossings, thereby helping to increase the magnitudes and durations of population highs and reduce their lows. Knowledge of these alternative pat¬terns of use made possible by sea-ice crossings is necessary to fully understand the population dynamics of these caribou and the importance of possible future changes in ice cover.

Frank L. Miller

2005-05-01

314

Phylogeography and adaptation genetics of stickleback from the Haida Gwaii archipelago revealed using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping.  

Science.gov (United States)

Threespine stickleback populations are model systems for studying adaptive evolution and the underlying genetics. In lakes on the Haida Gwaii archipelago (off western Canada), stickleback have undergone a remarkable local radiation and show phenotypic diversity matching that seen throughout the species distribution. To provide a historical context for this radiation, we surveyed genetic variation at >1000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci in stickleback from over 100 populations. SNPs included markers evenly distributed throughout genome and candidate SNPs tagging adaptive genomic regions. Based on evenly distributed SNPs, the phylogeographic pattern differs substantially from the disjunct pattern previously observed between two highly divergent mtDNA lineages. The SNP tree instead shows extensive within watershed population clustering and different watersheds separated by short branches deep in the tree. These data are consistent with separate colonizations of most watersheds, despite underlying genetic connections between some independent drainages. This supports previous suppositions that morphological diversity observed between watersheds has been shaped independently, with populations exhibiting complete loss of lateral plates and giant size each occurring in several distinct clades. Throughout the archipelago, we see repeated selection of SNPs tagging candidate freshwater adaptive variants at several genomic regions differentiated between marine-freshwater populations on a global scale (e.g. EDA, Na/K ATPase). In estuarine sites, both marine and freshwater allelic variants were commonly detected. We also found typically marine alleles present in a few freshwater lakes, especially those with completely plated morphology. These results provide a general model for postglacial colonization of freshwater habitat by sticklebacks and illustrate the tremendous potential of genome-wide SNP data sets hold for resolving patterns and processes underlying recent adaptive divergences. PMID:23452150

Deagle, Bruce E; Jones, Felicity C; Absher, Devin M; Kingsley, David M; Reimchen, Thomas E

2013-04-01

315

Phylogeography of the brackish water clam Corbicula japonica around the Japanese archipelago inferred from mitochondrial COII gene sequences.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the phylogeography of the Asian brackish water clam, Corbicula japonica, to clarify its demographic history using partial mitochondrial COII gene sequences (990 bp) from 283 individuals collected from around the Japanese archipelago and adjacent areas. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the presence of two major groups within our samples: monophyletic Group I comprising Lineages A-E of C. japonica and paraphyletic Group II consisting of Corbicula sp. Lineages A-C were distributed in Japan and Sakhalin Island, and Lineages D, E, and Corbicula sp. were distributed in the Korean Peninsula. Nested clade analysis (NCA) revealed that Lineage A-the dominant lineage in Japan-consisted of Pacific and Japan Sea lineages, the latter comprising southern and northern Japan Sea groups. Genetic diversity indices of the southern group were higher than those of the northern group, suggesting historical range expansion in the Sea of Japan from southwest to northeast. Geographical distribution of these genetic groups appears to have been influenced by major ocean currents around the Japanese archipelago. Dominant haplotypes in the star-shaped haplotype network of Lineage A were distributed throughout the entire distribution range of each genetic group, implying rapid range expansion of this species. The results of mismatch distribution analysis and molecular clock estimation suggest that expansion of lineage A occurred during the late Middle or Late Pleistocene. In contrast, restricted or past gene flow suggested by NCA and the many unique haplotypes (110/123; 89.4%) present in Lineage A suggest that gene flow among extant populations is rather limited. PMID:24601779

Yamada, Mitsuya; Ishibashi, Ryo; Toyoda, Kei; Kawamura, Kouichi; Komaru, Akira

2014-03-01

316

News from San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 4 to 8 December 2012 in San Antonio held the 35th annual meeting SABCS - San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium. Like every year, and now were present thousands of oncologists from around the world to hear the latest results of clinical studies, the new findings of experimental oncology and translational research. (author)

317

San Pascual (1994) Año XXXII n. 302  

OpenAIRE

Editorial. Los golpes de San Pascual. Oidos sordos. Opinión- La repercusión de los golpes. Comentario- Los opusculos de San Pascual. La familia- Hogar cristiano- La familia en el catecismo- XX Congreso Internacional de la Familia- Conclusiones del XX Congreso- Escuela de valores- Vida en el santuario. A l'ombra del claustre.

Pe?rez, Mari?a Dolores

1994-01-01

318

San Diego's High School Dropout Crisis  

Science.gov (United States)

This article highlights San Diego's dropout problem and how much it's costing the city and the state. Most San Diegans do not realize the enormous impact high school dropouts on their city. The California Dropout Research Project, located at the University of California at Santa Barbara, has estimated the lifetime cost of one class or cohort of…

Wilson, James C.

2012-01-01

319

San Pascual (1995) Año XXXIII n. 307  

OpenAIRE

Editorial. Obras- las obras del templo. Beatificación- Beato José Pascual. In memoriam- El Dr. Pont y Gol, un obispo para la historia. Opinión de madrid a San Pascual. San Francisco de Asis- Cronología- Francisco de Asis o el evangelio sin glosa- Cantico de las criaturas. Vida en el santuario- peregrinación de Biar (alicante)- Las hijas del rosario. A l'ombra del claustre.

Pe?rez, Mari?a Dolores

1995-01-01

320

Minería, conflicto y mediadores locales: Minera San Xavier en Cerro de San Pedro, México Mineira, conflito e mediadores locais: Minera San Xavier em Cerro de San Pedro Mining, conflict and local brokers: Minera San Xavier in Cerro de San Pedro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabajo indaga en las instancias de mediación que intervienen en la articulación de procesos económicos de gran escala y su puesta en práctica local. Basándonos en el conflicto que se produjo en el Municipio de Cerro de San Pedro (San Luis Potosí, México entre la empresa Minera San Xavier y el Frente Amplio Opositor (FAO a la misma, aplicamos el método etnográfico con el objetivo de describir las estructuras locales de mediación política y analizar sus prácticas y racionalidad. Intentamos demostrar así la importancia de los factores políticos locales en las vinculaciones entre estado, empresa y población.Este trabalho indaga nas instâncias de mediação que intervêm em processos econômicos de grande escala e sua posta em prática local. Baseando-nos no conflito no Cerro de San Pedro (San Luis Potosí, México entre a empresa Minera San Xavier e a Frente Amplio Opositor (FAO aplicamos o método etnográfico pra descrever as estruturas de mediação política locais e analisar suas práticas e racionalidade. Tenta-se demonstrar assim a importância dos fatores políticos locais nas vinculações entre estado, empresa e população.This paper investigates in instances of mediation involved in large-scale economic processes and local implementation. Analyzing the conflict in Cerro de San Pedro (San Luis Potosí, México among San Xavier mining company and the Frente Amplio Opositor (FAO, it applies an ethnographic approach to describe the local structures of political mediation and its practices and rationality. The work shows the relevance of local factors in the relationships between State, company and people.

Hernán Horacio Schiaffini

2011-12-01

321

1 küsimus noorele juhile : Kui raha ja aeg ei piira, siis mida tahaksite elus juurde õppida? / Jekaterina Eilart, Andres Urb, Mariana Kolesnik... [jt.  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Küsimusele vastavad Hamburg ja Partnerid töötaja Jekaterina Eilart, Sampo Life Eesti varahaldur Andres Urb, Marati peadisainer Mariana Kolesnik, katusefirma Evari juht Rain Kala, endine tudengiorganisatsiooni AIESEC Eesti president Lauri Lahi ning internetiturundaja Marjam Vaher

2010-01-01

322

XII Avatud Ühiskonna Foorumi arutlusring "Euroopa hiilgus ja viletsus - Euroopa Liit 50. Kuidas edasi?" / Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Mark Leonard, Ivan Krastev ; intervjueerinud Andres Kasekamp  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Pärnus diskuteerisid 10. oktoobril 2007 Euroopa tuleviku teemadel president Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Euroopa Välissuhete Nõukogu tegevjuht Mark Leonard ja Sofias paikneva Liberaalstrateegiate Keskuse juht Ivan Krastev. Vestluse moderaator oli Eesti Välispoliitika Instituudi direktor, Avatud Eesti Fondi nõukogu esimees Andres Kasekamp

Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

2008-01-01

323

San Diego Natural History Museum  

Science.gov (United States)

The San Diego Natural History Museum traces its roots to a group of amateur naturalists, who formed the San Diego Society of Natural History in 1874. Today the Museum strives to help visitors interpret the natural world through research, education and exhibits. Active research in scientific field work and systematics has been ongoing since the Societies inception, and current fields of interest include Entomology, Botany, Geology, Mineralogy, Paleontology, and Birds and Mammals. The Museum offers an online specimen database, as well as information on publications, collections care and conservation, symposia and workshops and bi-national expeditions. There are a number of changing exhibits at the facility, and one can bring nature into your classroom, art studio, and home by becoming a member of the Museum's Loan Program. The program has over 1100 specimens that represent biologic and geologic diversity throughout the world. The Museums program Proyecto Bio-regional de Educación Ambiental, or PROBEA, designs innovative environmental education curricula to train educators, and engage teachers, students and others in projects to benefit their local environment.

324

Resonant extended states in driven quasiperiodic lattices: Aubry-Andre localization by design  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider a quasiperiodic Aubry-Andre (AA) model and add a weak time-space-periodic perturbation. The undriven AA model is chosen to be well in the localized regime. The driving term controls the effective number of propagation channels. For a spatial resonance which reduces the reciprocal space dynamics to an effective one-dimensional two-leg ladder, the ac perturbation resonantly couples certain groups of localized eigenstates of the undriven AA model and turns them into extended ones. Slight detuning of the spatial and temporal frequencies off resonance returns these states into localized ones. We analyze the details of the resonant extended eigenstates using Floquet representations. In particular, we find that their size grows linearly with the system size. Initial wave packets overlap with resonant extended eigenstates and lead to ballistic spreading.

Morales-Molina, L.; Doerner, E.; Danieli, C.; Flach, S.

2014-10-01

325

Vabariigi aastapäev San Franciscos / Heino Valvur ; foto: Heino Valvur  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

veebruarikuu möödus San Franciscos Eesti Vabariigi 88. aastapäeva pühitsedes: traditsiooniliselt tähistas aastapäeva San Francisco Seenioride Klubi koosviibimisega, E.E.L.K. San Francisco koguduses peeti jumalateenistus ja koosviibimine, kus noored esitasid rahvalaule, San Francisco Eesti Selts tähistas aastapäeva 25. veebruaril aktuse ja koosviibimisega

Valvur, Heino

2006-01-01

326

Moving Towards SAN Storage: An Enterprise Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract – One of the major components of any enterprise IT infrastructure is data storage. There has been continuous effort to explore new storage technologies to improve performance with respect to input/output operations, data availability, consolidation of storage assets and data protection and archiving. Storage has moved from the traditional Direct Attached Storage (DAS to Network Attached Storage (NAS and now to Storage Area Networks (SAN. Traditional storage subsystems like Server Attached Storage (SAS and Network Attached Storage (NAS use disks directly attached to servers over a Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI bus. However, these have limited capabilities keeping in view the rapidly expanding storage needs. The SAN technology holds great promises to be used for enterprises where issues like data availability, serviceability, consolidation of storage and reliability are major concerns. It can provide high speed data transfer with many other storage services, backboned with a high speed Fibre Channel (FC. Storage-area networks are also more popular and efficient way of building large storage systems both in an enterprise environment and for multi-domain storage service providers. SAN design and implementation requires careful analysis before SAN can be used as an enterprise storage solution. In this paper we provide an overview of SAN technology from the view point of building large storage systems in an enterprise environment. We also discuss on return on investment (ROI which can justify the adoption of SAN in an enterprise. Further, it compares two specific technologies, namely, FC SAN and IP SAN. In the sequel different design considerations are made to recommend suitable SAN implementations in order to meet the requirements of any enterprise.

rabi prasad padhy

2012-08-01

327

San Francisco Aerial Photographs 1938  

Science.gov (United States)

Have you ever wanted to fly over San Francisco in the year 1938? Well, now you can in a manner of speaking. Recently, the David Rumsey Historical Map Collection website digitized 164 large format, black and white, vertical aerial photographs taken by Harrison Ryker, a pioneer in aerial photography. The photos are quite remarkable, and visitors can zoom in to see such details as the paint striping on a basketball court. Visitors can peer out over the Ferry Terminal Building, the long-gone Mission Bay Roundhouse, and Hunters Point. The site also contains a detailed biographical sketch of Harrison Ryker, complete with a few of the advertisements for his own products, like the M-11 Stereoscope. Finally, visitors can also save specific images for future references.

328

Population genetic structure of Scombrops boops (Percoid, Scombropidae) around the Japanese archipelago inferred from the cytochrome b gene sequence in mitochondrial DNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

The gnomefish (Scombrops boops) is a member of the percoid family Scombropidae, which includes a single genus and three to four species worldwide. Since little is known about the ecology of this species, here, sequencing analysis of the cytochrome b gene (1141 bp) in mitochondrial DNA detected 101 haplotypes from 186 individuals of S. boops collected from waters at seven localities around the Japanese archipelago. A single haplotype (Sb2) was the most abundant in the combined populations of S. boops from various localities. Genetic population structure analyses revealed no significant differences among these populations (Fst = - 0.0313-0.0195; ?st = - 0.0505-0.0615) with high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity. This suggests that S. boops around the Japanese archipelago constitutes a single population, and indicates that the genetic structure of this population may be influenced by larval and egg dispersal in association with warm currents. PMID:22651233

Noguchi, Shunsuke; Itoi, Shiro; Takai, Noriyuki; Noda, Tsutomu; Myojin, Toshihiko; Yoshihara, Kiyoshi; Sugita, Haruo

2012-06-01

329

Morphological and karyotypic differentiation in Caranx lugubris (Perciformes: Carangidae) in the St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago, mid-Atlantic Ridge  

Science.gov (United States)

Isolated oceanic islands constitute interesting model systems for the study of colonization processes, as several climatic and oceanographic phenomena have played an important role in the history of the marine ichthyofauna. The present study describes the presence of two morphotypes of Caranx lugubris, in the St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago located in the mid-Atlantic. Morphotypes were compared in regard to their morphological and cytogenetic patterns, using C-banding, Ag-NORs, staining with CMA3/DAPI fluorochromes and chromosome mapping by dual-color FISH analysis with 5S rDNA and 18S rDNA probes. We found differences in chromosome patterns and marked divergence in body patterns which suggest that different populations of the Atlantic or other provinces can be found in the Archipelago of St. Peter and St. Paul.

Jacobina, Uedson Pereira; Martinez, Pablo Ariel; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Garcia, José; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Molina, Wagner Franco

2014-03-01

330

The Influence of Egyptian Reformists and its Impact on the Development of the Literature of Quranic Exegesis Manuscripts in the Malay Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The trend of writing Quranic exegesis manuscripts in the Malay Archipelago during the first part of the 20th century was very much influenced by the Islamic reformation in Egypt initiated by Syaykh Muhammad `Abduh, which was then expanded by his disciples such as Sayyid Muhammad Rasyid Rida and Syaykh Mustafa al-Maraghi. Several reformation activities carried out by them had inspired local scholars; most of them were graduates of Al-Azhar University, to reform, specifically in the field of Quranic exegesis studies in that part of the world. Therefore, this paper aims to discuss the extent of the influence of Egyptian reformists on the development of Quranic exegesis manuscripts in the Malay Archipelago; particularly in Malaysia and Indonesia.

M Abdullah

2012-01-01

331

SANS studies of micellar and magnetic fluids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has proved to be an excellent technique for the study of complex fluids. This article introduces SANS from the viewpoint of such studies. The use of SANS to determine the structures of concentrated micellar fluids is then discussed within the framework of current one-component macrofluid (OCM) models, and experimental examples are taken from several contemporary studies. Finally, the discussion is extended to magnetic fluids (ferrofluids) in which the neutron magnetic interaction plays an important experimental role. 25 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

332

Site suitability analysis for Bay scallop aquaculture and implications for sustainable fisheries management in the Ha Long Bay archipelago, northern Vietnam  

OpenAIRE

Mollusc culture if properly managed, may help decrease capture fisheries over-exploitation in Vietnam, and possibly become an alternative income for local fishermen. The definition and characterization of zones suitable for aquaculture is pivotal for its success and sustainable development, and this study aims at determining the suitability of Argopecten irradians (Bay scallop) culture in the Ha Long Bay Archipelago. Temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a, total suspended solid and bathymetry, ...

Pham Thi Khanh; Marincioni Fausto; Nguyen Tien Canh; Pham Thuoc; Marconi Michele

2013-01-01

333

Climatic cycles inferred from the aminostratigraphy and aminochronology of Quaternary dunes and palaeosols from the eastern islands of the Canary Archipelago  

OpenAIRE

Aminochronological and aminostratigraphical methods have been used to study the Quaternary a e o l i a n deposits f r om the islands located east of the Canary Archipelago (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote islands and La Graciosa , Montana Clara and Alegranza islets). T h e extent of racemisation/ epimerisation of four amino acids ( isoleucine , aspartic acid , phenylalanine and glutamic acid) was measured in land snail shells of the genus Theba. The age calculation algorithms of these...

Torres Pe?rez-hidalgo, Trinidad Jose?

2006-01-01

334

Spatial distribution patterns of terrestrial bird assemblages on islands of the Sabana–Camagüey Archipelago, Cuba: evaluating nestedness and co–occurrence patterns  

OpenAIRE

Using distribution data of 131 terrestrial bird species on 17 islands of the Archipelago Sabana–Camagüey, Cuba, we tested for non–randomness in presence–absence matrices with respect to co–occurrence and nestedness. We conducted separate analyses for the whole assemblage and sub–matrices according to trophic levels and residence status (breeding and migratory). We also explored the influence of weighting factors such as island area and isolation. The C–occurrence analyses were su...

Mancina, C. A.; Rodri?guez Batista, D.; Ruiz Rojas, E.

2013-01-01

335

Spatial variation of hermatypic coral assemblages in Cayos Cochinos Archipelago, Honduras Variación espacial de los ensamblajes de corales hermatípicos en el archipiélago Cayos Cochinos, Honduras  

OpenAIRE

Spatial variations of hermatypic coral assemblages were evaluated at five sites in Cayos Cochinos Archipelago, Honduras, in February 2008. Richness and coverage of corals and other benthic morpho-functional groups were estimated using 56 videotransects. Topographic complexity and depth were also measured by transect. Twenty-two coral taxa were recorded for Cayos Cochinos. Total species richness was similar (16 and 17 taxa) at all sites, whereas species richness by transect was different among...

Rodri?guez-zaragoza, Fabia?n A.; Pe?rez-de Silva, Carlos V.; Ruiz-za?rate, Miguel A.; Cupul-magan?a, Ami?lcar L.; Marco Ortiz; Alicia Medina-Hernández; Pablo Rico; Priego-arenas, Mari?a R.; Álvaro Hernández-Flores

2012-01-01

336

Rac1 Recruitment to the Archipelago Structure of the Focal Adhesion through the Fluid Membrane as Revealed by Single-Molecule Analysis  

OpenAIRE

The focal adhesion (FA) is an integrin-based structure built in/on the plasma membrane (PM), linking the extracellular matrix to the actin stress-fibers, working as cell migration scaffolds. Previously, we proposed the archipelago architecture of the FA, in which FA largely consists of fluid membrane, dotted with small islands accumulating FA proteins: membrane molecules enter the inter-island channels in the FA zone rather freely, and the integrins in the FA-protein islands rapidly exchanges...

Shibata, Akihiro C. E.; Chen, Limin H.; Nagai, Rie; Ishidate, Fumiyoshi; Chadda, Rahul; Miwa, Yoshihiro; Naruse, Keiji; Shirai, Yuki M.; Fujiwara, Takahiro K.; Kusumi, Akihiro

2013-01-01

337

Geological history and oceanography of the Indo-Malay Archipelago shape the genetic population structure in the false clown anemonefish (Amphiprion ocellaris).  

Science.gov (United States)

Like many fishes on coral reefs, the false clown anemonefish, Amphiprion ocellaris, has a life history with two different phases: adults are strongly site attached, whereas larvae are planktonic. Therefore, the larvae have the potential to disperse, but the degree of dispersal potential depends primarily on the period of the larval stage, which is only 8-12 days in A. ocellaris. In this study, we investigated the genetic population structure and gene flow in A. ocellaris across the Indo-Malay Archipelago by analysing a fragment of the mitochondrial control region. Population genetic analysis, using AMOVA, revealed a significant and high overall phi(ST)-value of 0.241 (P < 0.001), clearly showing limited gene flow. Haplotype network analysis detected eight distinct clades corresponding mainly to different geographical areas, which were most probably separated during sea level low stands in the Pleistocene. The distribution of the clades among the different populations indicated slow partial re-mixing mainly in the central region of the archipelago. Major surface currents seem to facilitate larval dispersal, indicated by higher connectivity along major surface currents in the region (e.g. Indonesian Throughflow). Four main groups were found by the hierarchical AMOVA within the archipelago. These different genetic lineages should be managed and protected as separate ornamental fishery stocks and resource contributing to the genetic diversity of the area. Regarding the high diversity and the differentiation among areas within the Indo-Malay Archipelago of A. ocellaris populations, the centre-of-origin theory is supported to be the main mechanism by which the high biodiversity evolved in this area. PMID:19238702

Timm, Janne; Kochzius, Marc

2008-09-01

338

Long-term landscape evolution of the Basal Complexes of Fuerteventura and La Gomera Islands, Canary Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The Canarias archipelago consists from seven volcanic islands located at the northwestern African margin. Among them only Fuerteventura and La Gomera islands show distinctive wide exposures of the basal complex (BC) that is characteristic with complex geological history. The basal complex was exposed on the western part of Fuerteventura and northwestern sector of La Gomera because of giant landslide(s) which have removed most of the shield stage volcanic rocks (Ancochea et al., 1996; 2006; Stillman, 1999). Generally, landslides are a common feature in the earlier constructive stages of the entire archipelago and many other volcanic islands (McGuire, 1996). Integration of low temperature thermochronological data, and time-Temperature (t-T) numerical modelling have proven to be a powerful tool for reconstructing the thermal and tectonic history, defining and quantifying long-term landscape evolution in variety of geological settings. Therefore, zircon and apatite fission-track techniques and t-T paths modelling were applied to 36 samples representing the main rock units of the BC on both islands. Fuerteventura BC has experienced two very rapid cooling/exhumation events. While, La Gomera BC shows one long-lived very fast cooling/exhumation event. Interestingly, these very rapid cooling/exhumation events are synchronous with these major landslides. There are many reasons for the major landslides on such a volcanic island (see e.g. McGuire, 1996)., But, the most sufficient triggers for these huge mass wasting/landslides events on Fuerteventura and La Gomera are recommended to be the continuous igneous intrusions and dikes which have the potential to decrease the edifice stability, igneous extrusions which add new materials at the surface leading to over-steeping and overloading (McGuire, 1996), and major climatic changes of the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum (Herold et al., 2011). References Ancochea, E., Brändle, J.L., Cubas, C.R.,Hernán, F.,Huertas, M.J., 1996. Volcanic complexes in the eastern ridge of the Canary Islands: the Miocene activity of the Island of Fuerteventura. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 70, 183-204. Ancochea, E., Hernán, F., Huertas, M.J., Brändle, J.L., Herrera, R., 2006. A new chronostratigraphical and evolutionary model for La Gomera: implications for the overall evolution of the Canarian Archipelago. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 157, 271-293. Herold, N., Huber, M., Greenwood, D.R., Müller, R.D., Seton, M., 2011. Early to Middle Miocene monsoon climate in Australia. Geology 39, 3-6. McGuire, W.J., 1996. Volcano instability: a review of contemporary themes. In: McGuire, W.J., Jones, A.P., Neuberg, J. (Eds.), Volcano Instability on the Earth and Terrestrial Planets. Geological Society of London, Special Publication 110, 1-23. Stillman, C.J., 1999. Giant Miocene landslides and the evolution of Fuerteventura, Canary Islands. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 94, 89-104.

Mansour, Sherif; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Albinger, Marie; Stoeckli, Daniel F.

2014-05-01

339

RETOMANDO LOS LÍMITES Y LAS LIMITACIONES DEL "ARCHIPIÉLAGO VERTICAL" / REVISITING THE LIMITS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE "VERTICAL ARCHIPELAGO "  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente trabajo retoma la problemática de los límites y las limitaciones del "Archipiélago Vertical" planteada hace tres décadas por John V. Murra y a la que todavía no se le ha podido dar una respuesta satisfactoria. Con esto no pretendemos resolver el desafío legado por Murra, sino dar una dif [...] erente lectura a la información arqueológica existente y con ello formular una hipótesis que pueda orientar el debate y la búsqueda de respuestas bajo un panorama de mayor amplitud. Nuestro enfoque se centra en el segmento de la vertiente occidental andina correspondiente al norte del actual territorio chileno, planteando que en esta franja el modelo de verticalidad archipielágica, tal como definido por Murra, se consolidó solamente en el Período Intermedio Tardío. Con anterioridad (período Medio), la necesidad de complementariedad vertical habría sido resuelta a través del macrosistema orquestado por Tiwanaku, entidad que perfeccionó el "sistema de interacción reticular" (Llagostera 2006), de data anterior, por lo que no necesariamente tuvo que recurrir a colonias. En el Intermedio Tardío se conjugaron acontecimientos sociopolíticos y eventos medioambientales que motivaron una reestructuración sin precedentes en las tierras altoandinas y en los Valles Occidentales. En estos últimos, las poblaciones vallunas que habían alcanzado su apogeo sociocultural se habrían reestructurado bajo mecanismos que podrían asimilarse a los sistemas de "dualidad". En tanto, las poblaciones del altiplano, que estaban siendo flageladas por una intensa sequía, habrían iniciado un clima de agresión y de violencia hacia las poblaciones de las cabeceras de los valles occidentales para apoderarse de la producción hortícola y de sus tierras. Finalmente, los reductos de estas poblaciones precordilleranas (que originalmente hacían parte de la dualidad valluna) habrían caído en poder de las poblaciones altiplánicas, convirtiéndose en colonias ("islas") de estas últimas, consolidando la estructura de "archipiélago vertical", con cabecera en el altiplano. De esta manera se habría dado forma a los archipiélagos étnicos Caranga, Quillaca y Lipes, que serían los más meridionales del mundo andino. Abstract in english The present work returns to the problem of the limits and limitations of the 'vertical archipelago', raised three decades ago by John V. Murra, and which still remains without a satisfactory solution. Rather than resolve the challenge left by Murra, / here offer a different approach to the archaeolo [...] gical information, which leads me to formulate a hypothesis that may guide the debate and search for answers within a wider context. Concentrating on the Western slopes of the Andes in the North of Chile, I propose that the model of the vertical archipelago, as defined by Murra, was consolidated only in the Late Intermediate Period. During the Middle Horizon, the need for vertical complementarity could have been resolved through the macro-system organized by Tiwanaku, a civilization that perfected the older "system of reticulated interaction " (Llagostera 2006), and did not depend on colonies for access to distant resources. But in the Late Intermediate Period, sociopolitical and environmental events combined to bring about a new form of organization in the Andean highlands and in the Western Valleys of the Pacific. In the latter, populations that had reached their sociocultural upper limit would have been restructured under mechanisms assimilable to those of 'duality'. Meanwhile the highland populations, afflicted by an intense drought, would have unleashed violent attacks against those living in the head-waters of the Western Valleys to get hold of their agricultural lands. Finally, the remnants of these pre-Andean populations (originally part of the valley dual organization) would have fallen into the hands of the altiplanic populations, becoming colonies ('islands') which consolidated a 'vertical archipelago structure' whos

Agustín, Llagostera.

2010-06-01

340

33 CFR 110.224 - San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin...  

Science.gov (United States)

... In San Francisco Bay east of the city of San Francisco a circular area having...27.5? W. A 667-yard-wide forbidden anchorage zone surrounds this anchorage...27?27? W. A 667-yard-wide forbidden anchorage zone surrounds this anchorage...tangents joining the semicircles. A forbidden anchorage zone extends 667 yards out...thence to the shore at the Benicia City......

2010-07-01

341

The history of human populations in the Japanese Archipelago inferred from genome-wide SNP data with a special reference to the Ainu and the Ryukyuan populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Japanese Archipelago stretches over 4000?km from north to south, and is the homeland of the three human populations; the Ainu, the Mainland Japanese and the Ryukyuan. The archeological evidence of human residence on this Archipelago goes back to >30?000 years, and various migration routes and root populations have been proposed. Here, we determined close to one million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the Ainu and the Ryukyuan, and compared these with existing data sets. This is the first report of these genome-wide SNP data. Major findings are: (1) Recent admixture with the Mainland Japanese was observed for more than one third of the Ainu individuals from principal component analysis and frappe analyses; (2) The Ainu population seems to have experienced admixture with another population, and a combination of two types of admixtures is the unique characteristics of this population; (3) The Ainu and the Ryukyuan are tightly clustered with 100% bootstrap probability followed by the Mainland Japanese in the phylogenetic trees of East Eurasian populations. These results clearly support the dual structure model on the Japanese Archipelago populations, though the origins of the Jomon and the Yayoi people still remain to be solved. PMID:23135232

Jinam, Timothy; Nishida, Nao; Hirai, Momoki; Kawamura, Shoji; Oota, Hiroki; Umetsu, Kazuo; Kimura, Ryosuke; Ohashi, Jun; Tajima, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Toshimichi; Tanabe, Hideyuki; Mano, Shuhei; Suto, Yumiko; Kaname, Tadashi; Naritomi, Kenji; Yanagi, Kumiko; Niikawa, Norio; Omoto, Keiichi; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Saitou, Naruya

2012-12-01

342

POACEAE EN EL ARCHIPIELAGO DE JUAN FERNANDEZ (ROBINSON CRUSOE POACEAE IN THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ARCHIPELAGO (ROBINSON CRUSOE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El archipiélago de Juan Fernández (Robinson Crusoe está ubicado a 670 km al oeste de Valparaíso, en el Océano Pacífico. Está formado por tres islas, todas de origen volcánico: Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk y Santa Clara. Los inventarios más completos de la flora de este archipiélago fueron realizados por Johow a fines del s. XIX y por Skottsberg, a mediados del siglo pasado. El estudio más reciente es el de Danton & Perrier. La flora documentada es de 423 especies de plantas vasculares, 55 Pteridophyta, 289 Dicotyledoneae y 79 Monocotyledoneae. Del número total de especies, 31,2% son endémicas, 18,7% nativas y 50,1% adventicias. La familia Poaceae comprende el 11% de la flora total de las islas y presenta 53 especies incluidas en 32 géneros, de las cuales el 9,4% son endémicas, 9,4% nativas y 81,2% introducidas. En este trabajo se entrega una clave dicotómica para los géneros, se describen y se señala, para cada una de las especies, información relacionada con la iconografía, distribución, ecología, estados de conservación y material examinado. Se comentan estos resultados con los descritos por Danton & Perrier (2006.The archipelago of Juan Fernández (Robinson Crusoe is located to 670 km west of Valparaíso, in the Pacific Ocean. It is formed by 3 islands, all of volcanic origin: Masatierra (Robinson Crusoe, Masafuera (Alexander Selkirk and Santa Clara. Johow and Skottsberg have made the most complete inventories of the flora of this archipelago. The most recent study is the one of Danton & Perrier. The documented flora include 423 species of vascular plants, 55 Pteridophyta, 289 Dicotyledoneae and 79 Monocotyledoneae. Of the total number of species, 31.2% are endemic, 18.7% native and 50.1% introduced. The Poaceae family represents 11% of the total flora of the islands and displays 53 species included in 32 genera, of which 9,4% are endemic, 9,4% native and 81,2% alien. In this work a key for the genera and a description of the species are given. Information in relationship to the iconography, distribution, ecology, conservation and examined material is presented. These results are compared and discussed with the ones of Danton & Perrier (2006

Carlos M Baeza

2007-12-01

343

POACEAE EN EL ARCHIPIELAGO DE JUAN FERNANDEZ (ROBINSON CRUSOE) / POACEAE IN THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ARCHIPELAGO (ROBINSON CRUSOE)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El archipiélago de Juan Fernández (Robinson Crusoe) está ubicado a 670 km al oeste de Valparaíso, en el Océano Pacífico. Está formado por tres islas, todas de origen volcánico: Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe) Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk) y Santa Clara. Los inventarios más completos de la flora de e [...] ste archipiélago fueron realizados por Johow a fines del s. XIX y por Skottsberg, a mediados del siglo pasado. El estudio más reciente es el de Danton & Perrier. La flora documentada es de 423 especies de plantas vasculares, 55 Pteridophyta, 289 Dicotyledoneae y 79 Monocotyledoneae. Del número total de especies, 31,2% son endémicas, 18,7% nativas y 50,1% adventicias. La familia Poaceae comprende el 11% de la flora total de las islas y presenta 53 especies incluidas en 32 géneros, de las cuales el 9,4% son endémicas, 9,4% nativas y 81,2% introducidas. En este trabajo se entrega una clave dicotómica para los géneros, se describen y se señala, para cada una de las especies, información relacionada con la iconografía, distribución, ecología, estados de conservación y material examinado. Se comentan estos resultados con los descritos por Danton & Perrier (2006). Abstract in english The archipelago of Juan Fernández (Robinson Crusoe) is located to 670 km west of Valparaíso, in the Pacific Ocean. It is formed by 3 islands, all of volcanic origin: Masatierra (Robinson Crusoe), Masafuera (Alexander Selkirk) and Santa Clara. Johow and Skottsberg have made the most complete inventor [...] ies of the flora of this archipelago. The most recent study is the one of Danton & Perrier. The documented flora include 423 species of vascular plants, 55 Pteridophyta, 289 Dicotyledoneae and 79 Monocotyledoneae. Of the total number of species, 31.2% are endemic, 18.7% native and 50.1% introduced. The Poaceae family represents 11% of the total flora of the islands and displays 53 species included in 32 genera, of which 9,4% are endemic, 9,4% native and 81,2% alien. In this work a key for the genera and a description of the species are given. Information in relationship to the iconography, distribution, ecology, conservation and examined material is presented. These results are compared and discussed with the ones of Danton & Perrier (2006)

Carlos M, Baeza; Clodomiro, Marticorena; Tod, Stuessy; Eduardo, Ruiz; María, Negritto.

2007-12-01

344

Malaria incidence and prevalence on Pemba Island before the onset of the successful control intervention on the Zanzibar Archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria incidence has been reported to decrease substantially in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, including the Zanzibar Archipelago in East Africa. A cohort study with an intensive follow-up on Pemba Island just before the onset of the highly successful malaria control intervention was conducted. The reported estimates of parasite prevalence and incidence can serve as a robust baseline to evaluate the effect size of the successful interventions and the potential contribution of quality controls and other factors associated with research studies in the decreased estimate of transmission. Methods In a rural clinic, two successive cohorts of 537 children total aged 2-23 months were followed for six months each with an intensive visitation schedule of bi-weekly follow-up. Robust estimates of incidence and prevalence according to four different malaria definitions were obtained. Results Malaria incidence and prevalence placed Pemba Island in a hyperendemic rather than holoendemic setting for the years 2003-2005. Overall parasite prevalence was estimated to be 39% - with monthly estimates varying between 30% and 50%. Incidence of malaria varied between 2.3 and 3.8 malaria episodes per year based on a diagnosis of fever and various microscopy-based parasite thresholds and between 4.8 and 5.7 based on a diagnosis of fever and 100 parasites/microliter analogous to detection by rapid diagnostic tests. Both parasite densities and malaria incidence increased with age and rainy season. Malaria incidence also varied substantially between the individual villages within the study area. Conclusions Pemba Island was previously considered holo-endemic for Malaria. The data suggest that the transmission situation on Pemba Island was significantly lower in 2003-2005 suggesting a hyper-endemic or meso-endemic transmission environment. The figures were obtained just before the onset of the highly successful malaria control intervention by impregnated bed nets and IRS on the Zanzibar Archipelago and provide robust estimates of the malaria transmission situation prior to the control programme. Together with other published data, the results suggest that malaria transmission had started to decrease before the onset of the control programme. The local heterogeneity in malaria incidence highlights the importance of a micro-epidemiological approach in the context of malaria control and elimination.

Othman Mashavu K

2010-01-01

345

Localization in one dimensional lattices with non-nearest-neighbor hopping: Generalized Anderson and Aubry-Andr\\'e models  

CERN Document Server

We study the quantum localization phenomena of noninteracting particles in one-dimensional lattices based on tight-binding models with various forms of hopping terms beyond the nearest neighbor, which are generalizations of the famous Aubry-Andr\\'e and noninteracting Anderson model. For the case with deterministic disordered potential induced by a secondary incommensurate lattice (i.e. the Aubry-Andr\\'e model), we identify a class of self dual models, for which the boundary between localized and extended eigenstates are determined analytically by employing a generalized Aubry-Andr\\'e transformation. We also numerically investigate the localization properties of non-dual models with next-nearest-neighbor hopping, Gaussian, and power-law decay hopping terms. We find that even for these non-dual models, the numerically obtained mobility edges can be well approximated by the analytically obtained condition for localization transition in the self dual models, as long as the decay of the hopping rate with respect t...

Biddle, J; Wang, B; Sarma, S Das

2010-01-01

346

SAFOD Penetrates the San Andreas Fault  

OpenAIRE

SAFOD, the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (Fig. 1), completed an important milestone in July 2005 by drilling through the San Andreas Fault at seismogenic depth. SAFOD is one of three major components of EarthScope, a U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) initiative being conducted in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The International Continental Scientific DrillingProgram (ICDP) provides engineering and technical support for the project as well as online access ...

Zoback, M. D.

2006-01-01

347

SANS observations on weakly flocculated dispersions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Structural changes occurring in colloidal dispersions of poly-(methyl metacrylate) (PMMA) particles, sterically stabilized with poly-(12-hydroxystearic acid) (PHSA), while varying the solvent quality, temperature and shear rate, are investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). For a moderately concentrated dispersion in a marginal solvent the transition on cooling from the effective stability to a weak attraction is monitored, The degree of attraction is determined in the framework of the sticky spheres model (SSM), SANS and rheological results are correlated.

Mischenko, N.; Ourieva, G.

1997-01-01

348

Cacao use and the San Lorenzo Olmec  

OpenAIRE

Mesoamerican peoples had a long history of cacao use—spanning more than 34 centuries—as confirmed by previous identification of cacao residues on archaeological pottery from Paso de la Amada on the Pacific Coast and the Olmec site of El Manatí on the Gulf Coast. Until now, comparable evidence from San Lorenzo, the premier Olmec capital, was lacking. The present study of theobromine residues confirms the continuous presence and use of cacao products at San Lorenzo between 1800 and 1000 BC...

Powis, Terry G.; Cyphers, Ann; Gaikwad, Nilesh W.; Grivetti, Louis; Cheong, Kong

2011-01-01

349

Reunión del comité Pro San Antonio  

OpenAIRE

Reunión del Comité Pro San Antonio se realizó en la sede de "San Antonio puesto de cabeza", con el objetivo de revitalizar el sector. la reunión precedida por María Cecilia Araya de la Cámara de Comercio de Cali, y el arquitecto Jose Luis Giraldo. El Archivo del Patrimonio Fotográfico y Fílmico del Valle del Cauca es responsabilidad de la Biblioteca Departamental del Valle Jorge Garcés Borrero, por convenio de cooperación suscrito con la Secretaria del Cultura Departamental, con el ...

Marulanda, Jorge

1989-01-01

350

Strukturelle studier af biomolekylære komplekser og syntetiske polymer systemer ved anvendelse af små-vinkel spredning, SANS og SAXS  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Det er velkendt at krystallers velbeskrevne periodiske struktur giver anledning til interferens når Røntgen stråler sendes igennem materialet. Denne såkaldte ”Bragg spredning” blev teoretisk forklaret af William Lawrence Bragg og William Henry Bragg for 100 år siden, i 1913, på basis af observationer hvor de fandt at Røntgen stråler danner karakteristiske mønstre når de sendes gennem en krystal. Men Røntgen-bølgerne interfererer naturligvis også når de sendes gennem materialer som ikke er krystallinske, det kan være væsker, suspensioner eller amorfe systemer. Det mønster, som Røntgen-strålen danner, vil dog ikke have karakter af intense Bragg refleksioner, som kendes fra krystaller, men snarere have karakter af diffus spredning. Ligesom analyser af Bragg refleksionerne kan give detaljeret indsigt i krystallernes opbygning af molekyler og molekylernes indre struktur, kan detaljeret analyse af den diffuse spredning give indsigt i materialets atomare struktur. Røntgen stråling er den relevante type elektromagnetiske stråling, da bølgelængden på ca 1Å svarer til typiske atomare afstande. En anden type stråling med bølgelængde af samme størrelsesorden er neutron stråling. Men medens Røntgen strålingen i det væsentlige afhænger af hvordan elektronerne fordeles i materialet, er neutron-spredningen givet ved fordelingen af forskellige atom- kerner. Specielt gælder det at spredningen af neutroner fra brint-kernen generelt er meget forskellig fra spredningen fra andre atomer. Neutron spredning giver derfor ofte et billede af fordelingen af brint. Røntgen og neutron spredning er således komplementære teknikker som ’ser’ forskellige karakterer af den molekylære struktur. Den diffuse spredning måles i røntgen eller neutron diffraktometre. Der er specielt stor interesse for at studere strukturer på nano-skala niveau. Det kan være strukturen af proteiner og andre biomolekyler, strukturen af selv-organiserede systemer som den biologiske lipid-membran, mikro-emulsioner eller termoplastiske materialer. Med bølgelængder af størrelsesordenen Ångstrøm vil den diffuse spredning fra sådanne nano-skala strukturer komme meget tæt ved selve strålen. Der skal derfor måles ved meget små vinkler. Metoden til sådanne studier kaldes naturligt små-vinkel spredning (Small-Angle Scattering), hvoraf der finde de to primære metoder, SANS og SAXS med anvendelse af henholdsvis Neutron- og Røntgen-stråling (X-ray). I foredraget vil teknikkerne blive præsenteret og der vil blive vist eksempler på nuværende om kommende faciliteter. Der vil endvidere blive vist eksempler på hvordan kombination af SAXS og SANS kan benyttes til af give detaljeret strukturel indsigt i biomolekylære komplekser. Vi vil også vise hvordan teknikken kan bruges til at forstå og designe avancerede komplekse ordnede strukturer på nanometer længdeskala og hvordan mikro-reologien i komplekse væsker er et resultat af strukturelle ændringer

Mortensen, Kell

351

APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the seventh annual reporting period (8/3/00-8/2/01) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the interwell seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted and the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction were conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and six wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

Tom Beebe

2003-05-05

352

APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

2001-06-16

353

How Tourist Destinations Could Be Stereotyped and Misplaced by Structural Forces? - A Case of Penghu Archipelago, Taiwan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tourist destination image is important for strategic marketing and tourist choice. While many studies focus on images and their influencing factors, images are wrongly considered only for sale, compromising local authenticity and local life. With a critical review of development plans and the results of a questionnaire survey, this paper argues that images often stereotype and misplace tourist destination, in particularly for images brought about by structural forces. Islands are lands surrounded by ocean and often taken as full of marine and coastal resources and sceneries. In Penghu archipelago, marine environment is important for local livelihood and tourist destination. However, with the case of Erkan, we realize that, along with the evidence from interviews and surveys, most Erkan tourists do not come for its marine or natural resources. Erkan, as a fishing village, was turned into a tourism destination for tis vernacular architecture and folklore products irrelevant to its marine environment. With structural endeavours and official makeover of places, places are stereotyped and often become out of place.

Tu Han-Chun

2014-01-01

354

Geospatial dynamic of seagrass in outer zone, Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia using Landsat data from 1972-2013  

Science.gov (United States)

Spermonde islands located in the Makassar Strait, South-West side of the peninsula of Sulawesi Island. Kondongbali island as one of eight small island in outer zone Spermonde Archipelago is study site of this research. Images of Landsat MSS, Landsat TM, Landsat ETM, Landsat ETM+, and Landsat 8 data were used to examine changes on seagrass on the small islands for forty one year from 1972 to 2013. The image fusion technique were done to combain relevant information for two images into single image to produce the high spatial resolution and fill gap processing was done on Landsat ETM+ SLC-off. Subsequently, a multi-component change detection procedure was applied to these indices to define changes. Seagrass cover classification devided into seagrass percent cover 0-24.9%, 25-59,9%, <60%), and sand. The percentage of seagrass change based on the image classification in outer zone islands from 1972 to 2013 has decrease. Eventhough, seagrass coverage as observed in Kondongbali Island is not so serious compared to other ecosystems (coral reef).. This research will be contributed to baseline information on spasial dynamic of coastal benthic communities in tropical area.

Nurdin, Nurjannah; Amri, Khairul; Djalil, Abd. Rasyid; Jaya, Ilham; Aris, Agus; Akbar AS, Muhammad

2014-11-01

355

Silicic acid enrichment of subantarctic surface water from continental inputs along the Patagonian archipelago interior sea (41-56°S)  

Science.gov (United States)

We estimated Si?, the surplus or deficit of orthosilicic acid (DSi) relative to nitrate available for diatom growth, in the Chilean Patagonian Archipelago Interior Sea (PAIS). Si? and salinity were negatively correlated in the PAIS because of the mixing of high nitrate, low DSi subantarctic surface water and high DSi, low nitrate continental freshwater runoff. Both the slope and the intercept of this relationship decreased from northern to southern Patagonia, which was likely a consequence of reduced DSi inputs from several overlapping hydrological, biological and geological drivers along this gradient. In general, lower freshwater DSi concentrations were expected below 46°S, and a lower total DSi load was expected from reduced runoff below 51°S. The north-south decreasing DSi concentration trend may be linked to dilutions from a higher proportion of runoff in latitudes with higher precipitation rates (45-53°S), the transition to more resistant granitic rocks and glacial melt-water from the Northern and Southern Patagonia Ice Fields (46-51°S) and a reduced density of volcanoes active during the Holocene (48-56°S). The intensification of a southward DSi deficit may be a forcing factor involved in the reported southward reductions in plankton biomass and a more frequent occurrence of non-diatom blooms in southern PAIS.

Torres, Rodrigo; Silva, Nelson; Reid, Brian; Frangopulos, Máximo

2014-12-01

356

Late Wisconsinan glaciation and postglacial relative sea-level change on western Banks Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The study revises the maximum extent of the northwest Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) in the western Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) during the last glaciation and documents subsequent ice sheet retreat and glacioisostatic adjustments across western Banks Island. New geomorphological mapping and maximum-limiting radiocarbon ages indicate that the northwest LIS inundated western Banks Island after ~ 31 14C ka BP and reached a terminal ice margin west of the present coastline. The onset of deglaciation and the age of the marine limit (22-40 m asl) are unresolved. Ice sheet retreat across western Banks Island was characterized by the withdrawal of a thin, cold-based ice margin that reached the central interior of the island by ~ 14 cal ka BP. The elevation of the marine limit is greater than previously recognized and consistent with greater glacioisostatic crustal unloading by a more expansive LIS. These results complement emerging bathymetric observations from the Arctic Ocean, which indicate glacial erosion during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to depths of up to 450 m.

Lakeman, Thomas R.; England, John H.

2013-07-01

357

Bathymetric segregation of sea urchins on reefs of the Canarian Archipelago: Role of flow-induced forces  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined whether adults of three species of sea urchins species ( Diadema antillarum, Arbacia lixula, and Paracentrotus lividus) exhibit a consistent depth-dependent partitioning pattern on rocky reefs of the Canarian Archipelago (eastern Atlantic). Hydrodynamic experiments were carried out to quantify the resistance to flow-induced dislodgement in these three species. We tested the model that different morphology can result in habitat partitioning among these sea urchins. Abundances of D. antillarum increased with depth. In contrast, A. lixula and P. lividus showed the opposite zonation pattern, coexisting in high abundances in the shallowest depths (7 m). Both A. lixula and P. lividus had greater adhesion-surface to body-height ratios than D. antillarum. Similarly, A. lixula and P. lividus showed a greater ability to resist flow-induced dislodgement compared with D. antillarum. The mean "velocity of dislodgement" was ˜300% and 50% greater for A. lixula and P. lividus, respectively, relative to D. antillarum, for any particular size. As a result, A. lixula and P. lividus are better fitted to life in high-flow environments than D. antillarum. We conclude that the risk of dislodgement by water motion likely play a relevant role in the vertical distribution patterns of these sea urchins in the eastern Atlantic.

Tuya, F.; Cisneros-Aguirre, J.; Ortega-Borges, L.; Haroun, R. J.

2007-07-01

358

Macrofauna associated with the brown algae Dictyota spp. (Phaeophyceae, Dictyotaceae) in the Sebastião Gomes Reef and Abrolhos Archipelago, Bahia, Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

The taxonomic richness and distributional patterns of the macrofauna associated with the algae genus Dictyota from the Abrolhos Bank (Eastern Brazilian coast) are analyzed. Macrofauna comprised a total of 9586 specimens; a complete faunal list of the most abundant taxa (Crustacea, Polychaeta and Mollusca, accounting for 95.6%) resulted in 64 families and 120 species. Forty six species are registered for the first time for the Abrolhos Bank, of which 3 are also new for the Brazilian coast. The most abundant families were Ampithoidae amphipods (with Ampithoe ramondi as the main faunal component), Janiridae isopods, Rissoellidae gastropods and Syllidae polychaetes. Comparisons were made between summer and winter periods and among sites from Sebastião Gomes Reef, near the coast, and from Siriba Island, in the Abrolhos Archipelago, away from the mainland. Algae size was lower in the summer, when faunal density was higher, suggesting a possible effect of grazing. Macrofaunal communities were significantly different among sites and periods. Coastal and external communities were markedly different and winter had the greatest effects on the fauna. Environmental conditions related to sediment type and origin and turbidity appear to be a good scenario for our macrofauna distribution results.

Cunha, Tauana Junqueira; Güth, Arthur Ziggiatti; Bromberg, Sandra; Sumida, Paulo Yukio Gomes

2013-11-01

359

The mystery of Bunge Land (New Siberian Archipelago): implications for its formation based on palaeoenvironmental records, geomorphology, and remote sensing  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiproxy datasets (geocryology, geochronology, sedimentology, palaeo-ecology) from permafrost exposures were used together with land surface information based on satellite imagery and thematic maps in order to reconstruct the Lateglacial to Holocene landscape and environmental dynamics of Bunge Land (Zemlya Bunge). This area of little relief, situated in the New Siberian Archipelago, connects the geomorphologically well-structured islands of Kotel'ny and Fadeevsky. A buried thermokarst landscape was found in the northwest region of the Bunge Land low terrace sand plain, whereas the Bunge Land high terrace seems to be an exposed residue of a similar late Quaternary thermokarst landscape. That is confirmed especially by radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometry and optically stimulated luminescence age determinations, and by pollen analyses. Palaeogeographically, the late Pleistocene periglacial landscape and sedimentation of Bunge Land was closely connected to Kotel'ny and Fadeevsky; only later on seismotectonical block movements resulted in reshaping parts of Bunge Land. The Bunge Land low terrace area first subsided and the original landscape there was destroyed by marine inundation, followed by marine sedimentation. Subsequent block heave of the low terrace region exposed a vast sheet of marine sands which is continuously surficially reworked by aeolian processes, while the original alluvial plain landscape in the high terrace area was preserved and started degrading only by early Holocene thermokarst development. The studied exposures contain one of the northernmost (74.88°N) environmental records for the late Pleistocene-Holocene transition in the Eurasian Arctic.

Schirrmeister, Lutz; Grosse, Guido; Kunitsky, Viktor V.; Fuchs, Margret C.; Krbetschek, Matthias; Andreev, Andrei A.; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Babyi, Olga; Siegert, Christine; Meyer, Hanno; Derevyagin, Alexander Y.; Wetterich, Sebastian

2010-12-01

360

Genetic variability and efficiency of DNA microsatellite markers for paternity testing in horse breeds from the Brazilian Marajó archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, 15 microsatellite DNA loci used in comparative tests by the International Society for Animal Genetics were applied to the evaluation of genetic diversity and management, and the efficiency of paternity testing in Marajoara horses and Puruca ponies from the Marajó Archipelago. Based on the genotyping of 93 animals, mean allelic diversity was estimated as 9.14 and 7.00 for the Marajoara and Puruca breeds, respectively. While these values are similar to those recorded in most European breeds, mean levels of heterozygosity were much lower (Marajoara 49%, Puruca 40%, probably as a result of high levels of inbreeding in the Marajó populations. The mean informative polymorphic content of this 15-marker system was over 50% in both breeds, and was slightly higher in the Marajoara horses. The discriminative power and exclusion probabilities derived from this system were over 99% for both populations, emphasizing the efficacy of these markers for paternity testing and genetic management in the two breeds.

Sávio P. Reis

2008-01-01

361

Modelling SANS and SAXS data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Small angle scattering data while on an absolute scale and relatively accurate over large ranges of observables (0.003-1 ; 0.1-1) is often relatively featureless. I will address some of the problems this causes, and some of the ways of minimising these, by reference to our recent SANS results. For the benefit of newer chums this will involve discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of data from ISIS (LOQ), Argonne (SAND) and the I.L.L. (D22), and the consequences these have for modelling. The use of simple portable or remote access systems for modelling will be discussed - in particular the IGOR based NIST system of Dr. S. Kline and the VAX based FISH system of Dr. R. Heenan, ISIS. I will illustrate that a wide variety of physically appealing and complete models are now available. If you have reason to believe in a particular microstructure, this belief can now be either falsified, or the microstructure quantified, by fitting to the entire set of scattering patterns over the entire Q-range. For example, only in cases of drastic ignorance need we use only Guinier and Porod analyses, although these may provide useful initial guidance in the modelling. We now rarely need to use oversimplified logically incomplete models - such as spherical micelles with neglect of intermicellar correlation- now that we possess fast desktop/experimental computers

362

San Onofre Unit 1 decommissioning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear plant decommissioning presents several challenges in radiation protection. The plant demolition must consider radiation protection for workers, protection of the public, and careful material management. Decommissioning of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) Unit 1 presented some additional challenges. Including complete removal of above ground structures this can be accomplished safely and efficiently. None of the low-level radioactive waste is unique to decommissioning although transportation of large components can be a significant challenge. Proven techniques are available to handle Greater than Class C waste (highly activated reactor internals) and spent fuel. A considerable challenge is the disposing of the very large volume of potentially clean material. There is a high cost to survey and decontaminate materials. Moreover, in the US today there are no standards for the clearance of potentially contaminated volumetric materials. Careful planning is necessary to determine the most cost-effective means for waste management, whether it includes decontamination and surveys or simple disposal. Lastly, existing ALARA programs with some minor modifications provide sufficient worker and public protection from radiation.

Goldin, Eric M. [CHP, Southern California Edison, P. O. Box 128, San Clemente, CA 92674-0128 (United States)

2004-07-01

363

Particularidades del escurrimiento de la cuenca cubana San Juan / Runoff particularities of Cuban basin San Juan  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La cuenca San Juan, dividida en las subcuencas San Juan, San Agustín y Cañas, difiere totalmente de otras cuencas de la provincia. Los altos valores de los módulos del escurrimiento medio de los ríos y sus distribuciones dentro del año e hiperanual confirman esta particularidad, la cual fue comproba [...] da con las investigaciones complementarias realizadas durante el periodo seco del 2011. El análisis del comportamiento del escurrimiento de la subcuenca San Agustín-Cañas, incluyendo el funcionamiento del trasvase MatanzasMayabeque, conllevó a los decisores a desarrollar un programa de gestión integrada de los recursos hídricos de esta cuenca. Abstract in english The San Juan basin, divided into sub-basins San Juan, San Agustín and Cañas, is completely different from other basins in the province. The high modular values of average river runoff, its within-year distribution and its overyear distribution confirm this peculiarity, which was checked with additio [...] nal research conducted during the dry period of 2011. The behavior of the subbasin runoff of San Agustín-Cañas, including the operation of the water diversion canal MatanzasMayabeque, led the decision makers to develop an integrated water resources management program for this basin.

Katia Luisa, Rosario Rodríguez; Viera, Petrova Nicolaevna; Alberto, Cuéllar Valenzuela; Dailene, Acosta Freyre; Armando, Hernández Valdés; Haydée, Llanusa Ruiz.

2013-12-01

364

Compact High Resolution SANS using very cold neutrons (VCN-SANS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SANS (Small Angle Neutron Scattering) is a popular method for elucidation of nano-scale structures. However science continually challenges SANS for higher performance, prompting exploration of ever-more exotic and expensive technologies. We propose a compact high resolution SANS, using very cold neutrons, magnetic focusing lens and a wide-angle spherical detector. This system will compete with modern 40 m pinhole SANS in one tenth of the length, matching minimum Q, Q-resolution and dynamic range. It will also probe dynamics using the MIEZE method. Our prototype lens (a rotating permanent-magnet sextupole), focuses a pulsed neutron beam over 3-5 nm wavelength and has measured SANS from micelles and polymer blends. (authors)

365

Properties of diphenolase from Vanilla planifolia (Andr.) shoot primordia cultured in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Properties of diphenolase (PPO, EC1.10.3.1) from vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andr.) shoot primordia culture were investigated. Two pH optima of the enzyme extraction at pH 6 and 8 were found. Nevertheless, the enzymes shared the same optimum pH of activity-between pH 3 and 4. Sodium dodecyl sulfate slightly improved diphenolase extraction but caused a 3-fold increase in its specific activity. The extracts of pH 6 and 8.0 revealed three isozyme bands after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-two of them were similar in both extracts and two distinct. The enzyme showed high thermal stability-no loss was observed after 120 min at 50 degrees C. Diethyldithiocarbamic acid, ethylenediaminetetracetic acid disodium salt, ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether) N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, L-ascorbic acid, dithiothreitol, glutathione (reduced), and beta-mercaptoethanol were found to be potent inhibitors of the diphenolase studied. The enzyme showed also monophenolase activity. Km and Vmax were calculated with monophenols [p-coumaric acid, 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid] and with diphenols (caffeic acid, hydrocaffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, 4-methylcatechol, protocatechuic aldehyde and acid, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine). The highest Vmax was found with 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol and the greatest affinity to protocatechuic acid, respectively-the most abundant monophenol and one of the least abundant o-diphenols in the studied Vanilla tissue. PMID:11453787

Debowska, R; Podstolski, A

2001-07-01

366

Generalisering og validering af model for afdrift af pesticider til læhegn og andre marknære biotoper  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

I det netop afsluttede projekt ”Generalisering og validering af model for sprøjtemiddelafdrift til læhegn og andre marknære biotoper” har vi målt, hvor meget af det sprøjtemiddel, landmanden sprøjter ud, der ender i markens læhegn. Målingerne er anvendt til at videreudvikle og validere en model, der kan forudsige afdriften af de fleste sprøjtemidler under forskellige betingelser. Modellen kan tage hensyn til de givne egenskaber for pesticidet og til dysens dråbestørrelser, hvordan vejret er og om der er en sprøjtefri zone mellem traktoren og naturen uden for marken. Desuden kan modellen differentiere mellem forskellige højder i læhegn. Som forventet var afdriften til læhegn mindre ved brug af en luftinjektions-dyse end ved sprøjtning med fladsprede-dyse i den samme mark. Forskellen i afdrift mellem de to typer af dyser viser, at der er potentiale for, via valg af sprøjteudstyr, at reducere mængden af pesticider, der lander i læhegnene og dermed reducerer blomstring og frugtsætning. Samtidig viser såvel målinger som modelberegninger, at der ikke er den store effekt af sprøjtefrie bufferzoner på afdriften til læhegn, specielt ikke i den øverste del af læhegnene, hvor frugterne ofte er mest talrige.

Bruus, Marianne; LØfstrØm, Per

2014-01-01

367

40 CFR 81.21 - San Francisco Bay Area Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Control Regions § 81.21 San Francisco Bay Area Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The San Francisco Bay Area Intrastate Air...County, Contra Costa County, Marin County, Napa County; San Francisco County, San Mateo...

2010-07-01

368

Biological and physical processes influencing sea ice, under-ice algae, and dimethylsulfoniopropionate during spring in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

study presents temporal variations in concentrations of chlorophyll a (Chl a), particulate and dissolved dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSPp and DMSPd) in the sea ice and underlying water column in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago during the spring of 2010 and 2011. During both years, bottom ice Chl a, DMSPp and DMSPd concentrations were high (up to 1328 µg L-1, 15,082 nmol L-1, and 6110 nmol L-1, respectively) in May and decreased thereafter. The release of bottom ice algae and DMSPp in the water column was gradual in 2010 and rapid (8 days) in 2011. Bottom brine drainage during the presnowmelt period in 2010 and a rapid loss of the snow cover in 2011 coinciding with rain events explain most of the difference between the 2 years. During both years, less than 13% of the DMSPd lost from the ice was detected in the water column, suggesting a rapid microbial consumption. An under-ice diatom bloom developed in both years. In 2010, the bloom was dominated by centric diatoms while in 2011 pennates dominated, likely reflecting seeding by ice algae following the faster snowmelt progression induced by rainfall events in 2011. Both under-ice blooms were associated with high DMSPp concentrations (up to 185 nmol L-1), but pennate diatoms showed DMSPp/Chl a ratios twice higher than centrics. These results highlight the key role of snowmelt and precipitation on the temporal pattern of ice-DMSP release to the water column and on the timing, taxonomic composition, and DMSP content of phytoplankton under-ice blooms in the Arctic.

Galindo, V.; Levasseur, M.; Mundy, C. J.; Gosselin, M.; Tremblay, J.-É.; Scarratt, M.; Gratton, Y.; Papakiriakou, T.; Poulin, M.; Lizotte, M.

2014-06-01

369

Major and trace element records at Viracao lagoon sediments, Fernado de Noronha archipelago, Brazil, dated by 210Pb  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fernando de Noronha is an isolated group of 21 volcanic islands located in the South Equatorial Atlantic, approximately 545 km from Recife, PE, Brazil. This archipelago is a protected and isolated habitat with restrict access. Vira o Lagoon, at 20 meters above the sea level, is a pristine small lake located in the main island. Two sediment cores (27 and 41 cm-long) were extracted in order to determine the chemical and mineralogical composition of the sediments, and also the sedimentation rates. The sediments are made up of smectite, hematite and Ti oxides. The sedimentation rate was determined for the 27 cm-long core using the 210Pb dating method. The results allow distinguishing three periods with mean sedimentation rates of 1 cm y-1 (2001-1994), 0.57 cm y-1 (1994 -1980) and 0.18 cm y-1 (1979-1934). The mean sedimentation rate for the whole period is 0.4 cm.y-1. As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and some REE were determined by NAA and major elements by XRF. Their concentrations are similar to those reported for NASC, except for Fe, Ti, REE, Cr and Zn, which are enriched. There are increasing concentrations of Al, Ca, Fe, Mn, P, Cr, Se and REE, and decreasing concentrations of Br and Rb with depth. These data suggest that there is a geochemical response to the changes of the sedimentation rates. Therefore, they can provide an additional proxy to reconstruct environmental changes. (author)

370

Evaluation of seafood toxicity in the Australes archipelago (French Polynesia) using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), a disease caused by consuming fish that have accumulated ciguatoxins (CTXs) in their tissue, is regarded as the most prevalent form of intoxication in French Polynesia. Recently, the Australes, one of the least affected archipelago until the early 1980s, has shown a dramatic increase in its incidence rates in 2009 with unusual CFP cases. In the present work, potential health hazards associated with the proliferation of various marine phytoplankton species and the consumption of fish and marine invertebrates highly popular among local population were assessed in three Australes islands: Raivavae, Rurutu and Rapa. Extracts from the marine dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus, Ostreospis and mat-forming cyanobacteria as well as fish, giant clams and sea urchin samples were examined for the presence of CTXs and palytoxin (PLTX) by using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a). Cytotoxic responses observed with both standards (Pacific CTX-3C and PLTX) and targeted marine products indicate that CBA-N2a is a robust screening tool, with high sensitivity and good repeatability and reproducibility. In Rurutu and Raivavae islands, our main findings concern the presence of CTX-like compounds in giant clams and sea urchins, suggesting a second bio-accumulation route for CFP toxins in the ciguatera food chain. In Rapa, the potential CFP risk from Gambierdiscus bloom and fish was confirmed for the first time, with levels of CTXs found above the consumer advisory level of 0.01 ng Pacific CTX-1B g(-1) of flesh in three fish samples. However, despite the presence of trace level of PLTX in Ostreopsis natural assemblages of Rapa, no sign of PLTX accumulation is yet observed in tested fish samples. Because this multi-toxinic context is likely to emerge in most French Polynesian islands, CBA-N2a shows great potential for future applications in the algal- and toxin-based field monitoring programmes currently on hand locally. PMID:23286347

Pawlowiez, Ralph; Darius, Hélène Taiana; Cruchet, Philippe; Rossi, Fanny; Caillaud, Amandine; Laurent, Dominique; Chinain, Mireille

2013-01-01

371

The Admixture Structure and Genetic Variation of the Archipelago of Cape Verde and Its Implications for Admixture Mapping Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently admixed populations offer unique opportunities for studying human history and for elucidating the genetic basis of complex traits that differ in prevalence between human populations. Historical records, classical protein markers, and preliminary genetic data indicate that the Cape Verde islands in West Africa are highly admixed and primarily descended from European males and African females. However, little is known about the variation in admixture levels, admixture dynamics and genetic diversity across the islands, or about the potential of Cape Verde for admixture mapping studies. We have performed a detailed analysis of phenotypic and genetic variation in Cape Verde based on objective skin color measurements, socio-economic status (SES) evaluations and data for 50 autosomal, 34 X-chromosome, and 21 non-recombinant Y-chromosome (NRY) markers in 845 individuals from six islands of the archipelago. We find extensive genetic admixture between European and African ancestral populations (mean West African ancestry?=?0.57, sd?=?0.08), with individual African ancestry proportions varying considerably among the islands. African ancestry proportions calculated with X and Y-chromosome markers confirm that the pattern of admixture has been sex-biased. The high-resolution NRY-STRs reveal additional patterns of variation among the islands that are most consistent with differentiation after admixture. The differences in the autosomal admixture proportions are clearly evident in the skin color distribution across the islands (Pearson r?=?0.54, P-value<2e–16). Despite this strong correlation, there are significant interactions between SES and skin color that are independent of the relationship between skin color and genetic ancestry. The observed distributions of admixture, genetic variation and skin color and the relationship of skin color with SES relate to historical and social events taking place during the settlement history of Cape Verde, and have implications for the design of association studies using this population. PMID:23226471

Beleza, Sandra; Campos, Joana; Lopes, Jailson; Araújo, Isabel Inês; Hoppfer Almada, Ana; e Silva, António Correia; Parra, Esteban J.; Rocha, Jorge

2012-01-01

372

Fishes associated with spinner dolphins at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, tropical Western Atlantic: an update and overview  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Uma atualização é apresentada sobre as espécies de peixes associados a golfinhos-rotadores no Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, Atlântico Ocidental, fornecendo uma visão geral sobre sua diversidade. Os peixes associados são principalmente habitantes recifais que se alimentam de dejetos dos golfinh [...] os. Doze espécies são planctófagas habituais ou ocasionais e duas são herbívoras que se alimentam ocasionalmente de algas à deriva. Uma espécie é carnívora estrita, uma vive fixada aos golfinhos e seu alimento é variado, incluindo parasitos e tecido morto dos golfinhos, e uma é carnívora que se junta aos grupos de golfinhos durante a caça a peixes e lulas. Prevemos que a lista de peixes associados a golfinhos-rotadores seja expandida principalmente com adição de planctófagos habituais ou ocasionais. Abstract in english An update is presented for fish species associated with spinner dolphins at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, tropical Western Atlantic, providing a general view of their diversity. The associates are mostly reef-dwelling fishes that feed on the dolphin wastes. Twelve species are habitual or occasion [...] al plankton-eaters and two species are herbivores that occasionally forage on floating pieces of algae. One species is a strict carnivore, one species is a hitchhiker that forages on a variety of foods including parasites and dead tissue from the dolphins, and one species is a carnivore that joins the dolphin groups to forage on schools of small fishes or squids. We predict that the list of fish associated with spinner dolphins will expand mostly with addition of habitual or occasional plankton-eaters.

Ivan, Sazima; Cristina, Sazima; José Martins da, Silva-Jr.

2006-12-01

373

Fishes associated with spinner dolphins at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, tropical Western Atlantic: an update and overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An update is presented for fish species associated with spinner dolphins at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, tropical Western Atlantic, providing a general view of their diversity. The associates are mostly reef-dwelling fishes that feed on the dolphin wastes. Twelve species are habitual or occasional plankton-eaters and two species are herbivores that occasionally forage on floating pieces of algae. One species is a strict carnivore, one species is a hitchhiker that forages on a variety of foods including parasites and dead tissue from the dolphins, and one species is a carnivore that joins the dolphin groups to forage on schools of small fishes or squids. We predict that the list of fish associated with spinner dolphins will expand mostly with addition of habitual or occasional plankton-eaters.Uma atualização é apresentada sobre as espécies de peixes associados a golfinhos-rotadores no Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, Atlântico Ocidental, fornecendo uma visão geral sobre sua diversidade. Os peixes associados são principalmente habitantes recifais que se alimentam de dejetos dos golfinhos. Doze espécies são planctófagas habituais ou ocasionais e duas são herbívoras que se alimentam ocasionalmente de algas à deriva. Uma espécie é carnívora estrita, uma vive fixada aos golfinhos e seu alimento é variado, incluindo parasitos e tecido morto dos golfinhos, e uma é carnívora que se junta aos grupos de golfinhos durante a caça a peixes e lulas. Prevemos que a lista de peixes associados a golfinhos-rotadores seja expandida principalmente com adição de planctófagos habituais ou ocasionais.

Ivan Sazima

2006-12-01

374

Nutritional status and metabolism of the coral Stylophora subseriata along a eutrophication gradient in Spermonde Archipelago (Indonesia)  

Science.gov (United States)

Coral responses to degrading water quality are highly variable between species and depend on their trophic plasticity, acclimatization potential, and stress resistance. To assess the nutritional status and metabolism of the common scleractinian coral, Stylophora subseriata, in situ experiments were carried along a eutrophication gradient in Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia. Coral fragments were incubated in light and dark chambers to measure photosynthesis, respiration, and calcification in a number of shallow reefs along the gradient. Chlorophyll a (chl a), protein content, maximum quantum yield ( F v/ F m), and effective quantum yield (? PS II) were measured on the zooxanthellae, in addition to host tissue protein content and biomass. Photosynthetic rates were 2.5-fold higher near-shore than mid-shelf due to higher areal zooxanthellae and chl a concentrations and a higher photochemical efficiency (? PS II). A 2- and 3-fold increase in areal host tissue protein and biomass was found, indicating a higher nutritional supply in coastal waters. Dark respiration, however, showed no corresponding changes. There was a weak correlation between calcification and photosynthesis (Pearson r = 0.386) and a lack of metabolic stress, as indicated by constant respiration and F v/ F m and the "clean" and healthy appearance of the colonies in spite of high turbidity in near-shore waters. The latter suggests that part of the energetic gains through increased auto- and heterotrophy were spent on metabolic expenditures, e.g., mucus production. While coastal pollution is always deleterious to the reef ecosystem as a whole, our results show that the effect on corals may not always be negative. Thus, S. subseriata may be one of the few examples of corals actually profiting from land-based sources of pollution.

Sawall, Y.; Teichberg, M. C.; Seemann, J.; Litaay, M.; Jompa, J.; Richter, C.

2011-09-01

375

Magnetostratigraphy of the Late Cretaceous to Eocene Sverdrup Basin: Implications for heterochroneity, deformation, and rotations in the Canadian Arctic archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

The temporal and spatial patterns of sedimentation in the Sverdrup Basin provide clues to how deformation in the Canadian Arctic accommodated Late Cretaceous-Eocene relative motion between Greenland and North America. Although the sediments contain a rich assemblage of mammal and megafloral fossils, dating of the sequence has been controversial. Some work suggests a dramatic faunal and floral heterochroneity with species appearing in the Arctic 2-18 m.y. prior to their appearance at lower latitudes. To obtain a chronostratigraphic framework for these sediments, a 2.6-km section of the Eureka Sound Group and Kanguk Formation on western Axel Heiberg Island was sampled for magnetostratigraphy. After removal of a pervasive modern field overprint with thermal and alternating field demagnetization, a characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) is isolated. Despite high directional dispersion, the ChRMs form 11 distinct polarity intervals which can be correlated to chrons 34 to 24r. This correlation indicates that some of these sediments are ˜10 m.y. younger than thought previously, reducing the need for large-scale heterochroneity. Sedimentation rates derived from the magnetostratigraphy suggest that an increase in basin subsidence is recorded near the middle of the section sampled. A similar pattern has been reported from the Eureka Sound Group exposed on Ellesmere Island. We interpret this increased sedimentation as a response to crustal flexure caused by lithospheric loading during the middle Paleocene (C26r). The loading may be related to a blind thrust system to the west of Axel Heiberg Island that marks compression between North America and Greenland driven by rapid seafloor spreading in the Labrador Sea. The new data, together with prior results, indicate that most of the Cretaceous Canadian Arctic archipelago has undergone a counterclockwise vertical axis rotation. The new data are more consistent with this rotation being related to events during chron 26r, rather than marking block rotations associated with the terminal Eocene phases of Eurekan deformation.

Tarduno, John A.; Cottrell, Rory D.; Wilkison, Sarah L.

1997-01-01

376

Populations of exopolysaccharide-producing cyanobacteria and diatoms in the mucilaginous benthic aggregates of the Tyrrhenian Sea (Tuscan Archipelago).  

Science.gov (United States)

The microalgal community of benthic mucilages sampled in various sites of the Tuscan Archipelago during the period May 1999-July 2002, was always dominated by diatoms. Synedra, Licmophora and Navicula were the most frequently found genera, their presence having been observed within all the period under study; other ten genera of diatoms were found in the benthic mucilages, but their presence was dependent on the month and the year of observation. As concerns the cyanobacterial community, the filamentous genera Leptolyngbya, Lyngbya and Rivularia were the most frequently found, independently on the period and the year of samplings, while other genera, namely Oscillatoria, Symploca, Aphanocapsa and Gloeocapsa, were less frequently observed. During the period under study, the highest number of different genera of diatoms and cyanobacteria in the mucilaginous aggregates was observed during summer periods, particularly in June and July. The microscopic observation of the samples demonstrated that only diatoms belonging to the genera Navicula, Amphora, Cylindrotheca and Pseudo-nitzschia possessed outermost polysaccharidic investments, the cells of the other genera being devoid of sheaths or capsules. On the other side, all the observed cyanobacteria, with the exception of Oscillatoria strains, were characterized by the presence of outermost polysaccharidic investments, most frequently in the form of sheaths. However, when the microalgal and cyanobacterial isolates were cultured under laboratory conditions, the release of polysaccharidic material into the culture medium was observed only in a few cases and always in very small amounts. The observations done on the natural samples and the results obtained with the cultures of the microalgae and cyanobacteria isolated from the benthic aggregates suggest that only diatoms have given some contribution to the formation of the polysaccharidic material constituting the matrix of the mucilages, whereas the role of cyanobacteria in the benthic aggregates seems to be related to their capability to create biofilms on solid surfaces, constituting the first step in the colonization of the benthic surfaces by the microbial community. PMID:16271382

De Philippis, Roberto; Faraloni, Cecilia; Sili, Claudio; Vincenzini, Massimo

2005-12-15

377

Maintaining a way of life for São Miguel Island (the Azores archipelago, Portugal): an assessment of coastal processes and protection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional hard engineering structures and recently emerging soft engineering alternatives have been employed to protect vulnerable coastlines. Despite negative publicity, they have ensured community survival where socio-economic benefits outweigh adverse impacts. This is especially true for Small Islands (SI) where increasing sea levels and storm intensities threaten already limited land availability. This paper presents coastal vulnerability in São Miguel Island (the Azores SI archipelago) and considers SI issues with regard to coastal land loss. Regional wave statistics using 1998 to 2011 wind record showed: periods ranging from 7 to 13s (circa 83%); wave heights between 1 and 3m (circa 60%); and increasing trends in westerly (p=0.473), easterly (p=0.632) and southeasterly (p=0.932) waves. Sea level analyses between 1978 and 2007 indicated a statistically significant rising trend (2.5 ± 0.4 mm yr(-1); p=0.000), while between 1996 and 2007 it was 3.3 ± 1.5 mm yr(-1) (p=0.025), agreeing with other global sea level studies. Based on 2001 and 2008 population data and using zonal statistics, circa 60% of the Island's population was found to reside within 1 km of the sea and the percentage of total population was linearly correlated with distance from the shoreline (r(2)=99%). Three case studies show hard coastal engineering solutions preserved Azorean coastal lifestyle and had little or no observed negative impacts on their environs. Although hard engineering is likely to remain a valuable and feasible coastal protection option, an inventory of São Miguel's population distribution, surf breaks, bathymetry and coastal erosion rates showed the potential of using multifunctional artificial reefs as a soft engineering solution. These offshore submerged breakwaters offer coastal protection while providing additional benefits such as surfing amenity and beach widening. Consequently, findings of this work can inform other SI communities. PMID:24594743

Ng, K; Phillips, M R; Borges, P; Thomas, T; August, P; Calado, H; Veloso-Gomes, F

2014-05-15

378

Genetic affinities between the Yami tribe people of Orchid Island and the Philippine Islanders of the Batanes archipelago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Yami and Ivatan islanders are Austronesian speakers from Orchid Island and the Batanes archipelago that are located between Taiwan and the Philippines. The paternal genealogies of the Yami tribe from 1962 monograph of Wei and Liu were compared with our dataset of non-recombining Y (NRY chromosomes from the corresponding families. Then mitochondrial DNA polymorphism was also analyzed to determine the matrilineal relationships between Yami, Ivatan, and other East Asian populations. Results The family relationships inferred from the NRY Phylogeny suggested a low number of paternal founders and agreed with the genealogy of Wei and Liu (P The genetic affinity seen between Yami and Taiwanese aborigines or between Ivatan and the Philippine people was closer than that between Yami and Ivatan, suggesting that the Orchid islanders were colonized separately by their nearest neighbors and bred in isolation. However a northward gene flow to Orchid Island from the Philippines was suspected as Yami and Ivatan peoples both speak Western Malayo-Polynesian languages which are not spoken in Taiwan. Actually, only very little gene flow was observed between Yami and Ivatan or between Yami and the Philippines as indicated by the sharing of mtDNA haplogroup B4a1a4 and one O1a1* Y-STR lineage. Conclusions The NRY and mtDNA genetic information among Yami tribe peoples fitted well the patrilocal society model proposed by Wei and Liu. In this proposal, there were likely few genetic exchanges among Yami and the Philippine people. Trading activities may have contributed to the diffusion of Malayo-Polynesian languages among them. Finally, artifacts dating 4,000 YBP, found on Orchid Island and indicating association with the Out of Taiwan hypothesis might be related to a pioneering stage of settlement, as most dating estimates inferred from DNA variation in our data set ranged between 100-3,000 YBP.

Lee Chien-Liang

2011-01-01

379

Geography, deer, and host biodiversity shape the pattern of Lyme disease emergence in the Thousand Islands Archipelago of Ontario, Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Thousand Islands region of eastern Ontario, Canada, Lyme disease is emerging as a serious health risk. The factors that influence Lyme disease risk, as measured by the number of blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) vectors infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, are complex and vary across eastern North America. Despite study sites in the Thousand Islands being in close geographic proximity, host communities differed and both the abundance of ticks and the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection in them varied among sites. Using this archipelago in a natural experiment, we examined the relative importance of various biotic and abiotic factors, including air temperature, vegetation, and host communities on Lyme disease risk in this zone of recent invasion. Deer abundance and temperature at ground level were positively associated with tick abundance, whereas the number of ticks in the environment, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection, and the number of infected nymphs all decreased with increasing distance from the United States, the presumed source of this new endemic population of ticks. Higher species richness was associated with a lower number of infected nymphs. However, the relative abundance of Peromyscus leucopus was an important factor in modulating the effects of species richness such that high biodiversity did not always reduce the number of nymphs or the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection. Our study is one of the first to consider the interaction between the relative abundance of small mammal hosts and species richness in the analysis of the effects of biodiversity on disease risk, providing validation for theoretical models showing both dilution and amplification effects. Insights into the B. burgdorferi transmission cycle in this zone of recent invasion will also help in devising management strategies as this important vector-borne disease expands its range in North America. PMID:24416435

Werden, Lisa; Barker, Ian K; Bowman, Jeff; Gonzales, Emily K; Leighton, Patrick A; Lindsay, L Robbin; Jardine, Claire M

2014-01-01

380

Recent extreme light sea ice years in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: 2011 and 2012 eclipse 1998 and 2007  

Science.gov (United States)

Remarkably low mean September sea ice area in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) was observed in 2011 (146 × 103 km2), a record-breaking level that was nearly exceeded in 2012 (150 × 103 km2). These values were lower than previous September records set in 1998 (200 × 103 km2) and 2007 (220 × 103 km2), and are ?60% lower than the 1981-2010 mean September climatology. In this study, the processes contributing to the extreme light years of 2011 and 2012 were investigated, compared to previous extreme minima of 1998 and 2007, and contrasted against historic summer seasons with above average September ice area. The 2011 minimum was associated with positive June through September (JJAS) surface air temperature (SAT) and net solar radiation (K*) anomalies that facilitated rapid melt, coupled with atmospheric circulation that restricted multi-year ice (MYI) inflow from the Arctic Ocean into the CAA. The 2012 minimum was also associated with positive JJAS SAT and K* anomalies with coincident rapid melt, but further ice decline was temporarily mitigated by atmospheric circulation which drove Arctic Ocean MYI inflow into the CAA. Atmospheric circulation was comparable between 2011 and 1998 (impeding Arctic Ocean MYI inflow) and 2012 and 2007 (inducing Arctic Ocean MYI inflow). However, preconditioning was more apparent leading up to 2011 and 2012 than 1998 and 2007. The rapid melt process in 2011 and 2012 was more intense than observed in 1998 and 2007 because of the thinner ice cover being more susceptible to anomalous thermodynamic forcing. The thinner sea ice cover within the CAA in recent years has also helped counteract the processes that facilitate extreme heavy ice years. The recent extreme light years within the CAA are associated with a longer navigation season within the Northwest Passage.

Howell, S. E. L.; Wohlleben, T.; Komarov, A.; Pizzolato, L.; Derksen, C.

2013-11-01

381

The Canadian Arctic Archipelago throughflow in a multiresolution global model: Model assessment and the driving mechanism of interannual variability  

Science.gov (United States)

The volume and freshwater transports through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) are assessed using the unstructured-mesh Finite Element Sea ice-Ocean Model (FESOM) in a global setup with the CAA resolved at 5 km scale. The hindcast simulation realistically represents fluxes through the main gates of the Arctic Ocean and the Arctic sea ice conditions. During the period 1968-2007, the mean volume transports through Lancaster Sound and Nares Strait amount to 0.86 and 0.91 Sv, respectively. The monthly mean volume transport through western Lancaster Sound is highly correlated with the observational estimate (r = 0.81). The seasonal variability of the Lancaster Sound transport is well represented in the model. The simulated mean CAA freshwater export rate is 123 mSv, slightly higher than the observational estimate. The interannual variability of CAA volume transports is determined by sea surface height (SSH) gradients between the Arctic Ocean and northern Baffin Bay. The sea level upstream of Lancaster Sound is mainly determined by that along the Beaufort Sea coast, which can be explained by changes in the wind regimes (cyclonic versus anticyclonic) associated with release or accumulation of freshwater in the Beaufort Gyre. Sea level variations downstream of Lancaster Sound and Nares Strait are connected to SSH variations in the eastern Baffin Bay and in the Labrador Sea, which can be attributed to the variability of ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes. Both processes upstream and downstream of the CAA are linked with the North Atlantic Oscillation type of atmospheric variability. The local mesh refinement of ˜5 km allows us to investigate the contribution of individual narrow straits to the Parry Channel volume transport. The volume transports through these straits show a very similar variability.

Wekerle, Claudia; Wang, Qiang; Danilov, Sergey; Jung, Thomas; Schröter, Jens

2013-09-01

382

Periodic behavior of soil CO2 emissions in diffuse degassing areas of the Azores archipelago: Application to seismovolcanic monitoring  

Science.gov (United States)

series of soil CO2 efflux recorded in the Azores archipelago volcanic-hydrothermal areas feature daily and seasonal variations. The recorded CO2 efflux values were lower during summer than in the winter season. The diurnal CO2 efflux values were higher at dawn and lower in the early afternoon, contrary to that observed in biogenic environments. CO2 efflux cycles correlated well with the environmental variables, such as air temperature, wind speed, and barometric pressure, which also showed low- and high-frequency periodicities. Several simulations were performed here using the Transport of Unsaturated Groundwater and Heat 2 (TOUGH2) geothermal simulator to complement the study of Rinaldi et al. (2012). The effects of the water table depth, air temperature perturbation amplitude, and soil thermal gradient contributed to an explanation of the contrasts observed in the diurnal (S1) and semidiurnal (S2) soil CO2 efflux peaks for the different monitoring sites and seasons. Filtering techniques (multivariate regression analysis and fast Fourier transform filters) were also applied to the recorded time series to remove effects of external variables on the soil CO2 efflux. The resulting time series (the residuals) correspond to the best approach to the deep-seated (volcanic/hydrothermal) CO2 emissions and thus should be used in seismovolcanic monitoring programs. Even if no evident correlation can be established yet between the soil CO2 residuals and seismicity over the monitored time, a seismic swarm that occurred around the end of 2008 might have triggered some deviations from the observed daily cycles.

Viveiros, Fátima; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Rinaldi, Antonio P.; Ferreira, Teresa; Silva, Catarina; Cruz, José V.

2014-10-01

383

Maldives: an archipelago that burns. A first survey of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs from human activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to its geographical peculiarities, the Republic of Maldives represents a case study of great interest for the investigation of persistent organic pollutants, from both a socio-economic and an ecological perspective. Thus, we conducted a first survey to assess the current status of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (DL-PCB) concentrations in Maldivian soils. The range for PCDD/F and DL-PCB soil concentrations was 0.01-49.3 pg WHO2005-TEQ g(-1) and 0.01-3.69 pg WHO2005-TEQ g(-1) dw respectively. PCDD/F concentrations exceeding several international soil guidelines were found in samples from locations in the proximity of local waste combustion sources. DL-PCB concentrations were lower than PCDD/Fs and comparable to those in previous reports from background areas and in areas with developing industrial and agricultural activities. PCDD/F and DL-PCB levels (expressed as WHO2005-TEQ) in soils were strongly correlated (r=0.89), which suggests that, in most of the sites, they are originated from the same emission sources. Results indicate that PCDD/F soil concentrations (expressed as WHO2005-TEQ) tend to decrease with the distance from the local pollution sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that PCDD/Fs in the most polluted locations are mainly generated by waste combustion. These findings highlight the need for immediate changes in waste management policies in the Archipelago, in order to reduce the release of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in the fragile local environment. PMID:25151268

Colombo, Andrea; Bettinetti, Roberta; Strona, Giovanni; Cambria, Felice; Fanelli, Roberto; Zubair, Zameer; Galli, Paolo

2014-11-01

384

New IP SAN Era in Cluster Mirroring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Storage replication is one of the back bones for network environments. While many forms of Network Attached Storage (NAS, Storage Area Networks (SAN and other forms of network storage exist, there is a need for a reliable storage replication technique between distant sites (> 1 Km. Such technology allows setting new standards and removes demerits of network failover and failback systems for virtual servers; specifically, the growing storage need for effective disaster recovery (DR planning. The purpose of this manuscript is to identify growing technologies such as IP-SAN that allow with remote storage cluster replication for virtual servers. This study (Cluster Replication provides an analysis of improving the uptime and availability of SAN. For higher levels of availability, mirrored images maintained in Active/Active Cluster mirroring can provide a system with No Single Points of Failure, which is designed to improve the overall uptime of the storage system for organizations with 7x24x365 requirements.

Mr. Rajendra Purohit

2012-12-01

385

SAAF: SANS data Analysis using Analytical Functions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The recently completed Extended Q-Range Small Angle Scattering Diffractometer (EQ-SANS) has put the focus on its software needs with renewed urgency. In a series of efforts, we aim at providing a complete set of software solutions on the EQ-SANS instrument. These programs include initial data processing, data correction and reduction, analytical model fitting to the scattering data, Monte Carlo simulation for structure determination, and virtual instrument simulation for experiment planning. SAAF is one such program for analytical data modeling. It takes the reduced EQ-SANS data and allows users to fit the data to analytical models. These models are easy to write. They can either be user written, or from the pre-supplied model library.

Zhao, Jinkui [ORNL

2011-01-01

386

Cacao use and the San Lorenzo Olmec  

Science.gov (United States)

Mesoamerican peoples had a long history of cacao use—spanning more than 34 centuries—as confirmed by previous identification of cacao residues on archaeological pottery from Paso de la Amada on the Pacific Coast and the Olmec site of El Manatí on the Gulf Coast. Until now, comparable evidence from San Lorenzo, the premier Olmec capital, was lacking. The present study of theobromine residues confirms the continuous presence and use of cacao products at San Lorenzo between 1800 and 1000 BCE, and documents assorted vessels forms used in its preparation and consumption. One elite context reveals cacao use as part of a mortuary ritual for sacrificial victims, an event that occurred during the height of San Lorenzo's power. PMID:21555564

Powis, Terry G.; Cyphers, Ann; Gaikwad, Nilesh W.; Grivetti, Louis; Cheong, Kong

2011-01-01

387

Salt Ponds, South San Francisco Bay  

Science.gov (United States)

higher resolution 1000 pixel-wide image The red and green colors of the salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay are brilliant visual markers for astronauts. The STS-111 crew photographed the bay south of the San Mateo bridge in June, 2002. This photograph is timely because a large number of the salt ponds (more than 16,500 acres) that are owned by Cargill, Inc. will be sold in September for wetlands restoration-a restoration project second in size only to the Florida Everglades project. Rough boundaries of the areas to be restored are outlined on the image. Over the past century, more than 80% of San Francisco Bay's wetlands have been filled and developed or diked off for salt mining. San Francisco Bay has supported salt mining since 1854. Cargill has operated most of the bay's commercial salt ponds since 1978, and had already sold thousands of acres to the State of California and the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge. This new transaction will increase San Francisco Bay's existing tidal wetlands by 50%. The new wetlands, to be managed by the California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, will join the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge, and provide valuable habitat for birds, fish and other wildlife. The wetlands will contribute to better water quality and flood control in the bay, and open up more coastline for public enjoyment. Additional information: Cargill Salt Ponds (PDF) Turning Salt Into Environmental Gold Salt Ponds on Way to Becoming Wetlands Historic Agreement Reached to Purchase San Francisco Bay Salt Ponds Astronaut photograph STS111-376-3 was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth

2002-01-01

388

Forecasting the Next Great San Francisco Earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

The great San Francisco earthquake of 18 April 1906 and its subsequent fires killed more than 3,000 persons, and destroyed much of the city leaving 225,000 out of 400,000 inhabitants homeless. The 1906 earthquake occurred on a km segment of the San Andreas fault that runs from the San Juan Bautista north to Cape Mendocino and is estimated to have had a moment magnitude m ,l 7.9. Observations of surface displacements across the fault were in the range m. As we approach the 100 year anniversary of this event, a critical concern is the hazard posed by another such earthquake. In this talk we examine the assumptions presently used to compute the probability of occurrence of these earthquakes. We also present the results of a numerical simulation of interacting faults on the San Andreas system. Called Virtual California, this simulation can be used to compute the times, locations and magnitudes of simulated earthquakes on the San Andreas fault in the vicinity of San Francisco. Of particular importance are new results for the statistical distribution of interval times between great earthquakes, results that are difficult or impossible to obtain from a purely field-based approach. We find that our results are fit well under most circumstances by the Weibull statistical distribution, and we compute waiting times to future earthquakes based upon our simulation results. A contrasting approach to the same problem has been adopted by the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, who use observational data combined with statistical assumptions to compute probabilities of future earthquakes.

Rundle, P.; Rundle, J. B.; Turcotte, D. L.; Donnellan, A.; Yakovlev, G.; Tiampo, K. F.

2005-12-01

389

Localization in one-dimensional lattices with non-nearest-neighbor hopping: Generalized Anderson and Aubry-Andre models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the quantum localization phenomena of noninteracting particles in one-dimensional lattices based on tight-binding models with various forms of hopping terms beyond the nearest neighbor, which are generalizations of the famous Aubry-Andre and noninteracting Anderson models. For the case with deterministic disordered potential induced by a secondary incommensurate lattice (i.e., the Aubry-Andre model), we identify a class of self-dual models, for which the boundary between localized and extended eigenstates are determined analytically by employing a generalized Aubry-Andre transformation. We also numerically investigate the localization properties of nondual models with next-nearest-neighbor hopping, Gaussian, and power-law decay hopping terms. We find that even for these nondual models, the numerically obtained mobility edges can be well approximated by the analytically obtained condition for localization transition in the self-dual models, as long as the decay of the hopping rate with respect to distance is sufficiently fast. For the disordered potential with genuinely random character, we examine scenarios with next-nearest-neighbor hopping, exponential, Gaussian, and power-law decay hopping terms numerically. We find that the higher-order hopping terms can remove the symmetry in the localization length about the energy band center compared to the Anderson model. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that for the power-law decay case, there exists a critical r-law decay case, there exists a critical exponent below which mobility edges can be found. Our theoretical results could, in principle, be directly tested in shallow atomic optical lattice systems enabling non-nearest-neighbor hopping.

390

Radium 228 distribution and mixing in San Nicolas and San Pedro Basins, southern California borderland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sediment profiles of 228Ra and 232Th and water column profiles of 228Ra are presented for San Nicolas and San Pedro Basins, located in the Southern California Borderland. These data are used to estimate fluxes of 228Ra from the sediments, the vertical eddy diffusivity (Kz) in the water column, and the upwelling velocity (wz). The fluxes of 228Ra from sediments, estimated by integrating the downcore deficiency of 228Ra with respect to its parent nuclide 232Th, are 335 ± 115 atoms/m2s for San Nicolas Basin and 166 ± 50 atom/m2s for San Pedro Basin. San Nicolas Basin sediments have an excess of 228Ra in the upper 4 cm, but irrigation and diffusion create a 228Ra deficiency from 4 to 30 cm. San Pedro Basin sediments are anoxic and laminated, have a 228Ra deficiency above 6-12 cm depth, and have no surface excess of 228Ra. Basin waters appear to be well-mixed horizontally below sill depth and in steady-state with respect to 228Ra. Concentrations of 228Ra increase from sill depth to the bottom, ranging from approximately 1.0 dpm/100 kg to 2.4 dpm/100 kg in San Nicolas Basin and from 1.6 dpm/100 kg to 3.1 dpm/100 kg in San Pedro Basin. Estimates of Kz and wz at several horizons in these basins are made by evaluating two steady state mass balance equations, one for 228Ra and one for heat. Upper limits for Kz are 23 cm2/s at 1,700 m in San Nicolas and 2.8 cm2/s at 850 m in San Pedro Basin. The best estimate for Kz and wz for the deeper part of the basins are: Kz = 5-17 cm2/s and wz = 50-150 m/y in San Nicolas Basin, and Kz = 1-3 cm2/s and wz = 20-50 m/y in San Pedro Basin

391

Philopatry drives genetic differentiation in an island archipelago: comparative population genetics of Galapagos Nazca boobies (Sula granti) and great frigatebirds (Fregata minor).  

Science.gov (United States)

Seabirds are considered highly mobile, able to fly great distances with few apparent barriers to dispersal. However, it is often the case that seabird populations exhibit strong population genetic structure despite their potential vagility. Here we show that Galapagos Nazca booby (Sula granti) populations are substantially differentiated, even within the small geographic scale of this archipelago. On the other hand, Galapagos great frigatebird (Fregata minor) populations do not show any genetic structure. We characterized the genetic differentiation by sampling five colonies of both species in the Galapagos archipelago and analyzing eight microsatellite loci and three mitochondrial genes. Using an F-statistic approach on the multilocus data, we found significant differentiation between nearly all island pairs of Nazca booby populations and a Bayesian clustering analysis provided support for three distinct genetic clusters. Mitochondrial DNA showed less differentiation of Nazca booby colonies; only Nazca boobies from the island of Darwin were significantly differentiated from individuals throughout the rest of the archipelago. Great frigatebird populations showed little to no evidence for genetic differentiation at the same scale. Only two island pairs (Darwin - Wolf, N. Seymour - Wolf) were significantly differentiated using the multilocus data, and only two island pairs had statistically significant ?(ST) values (N. Seymour - Darwin, N. Seymour - Wolf) according to the mitochondrial data. There was no significant pattern of isolation by distance for either species calculated using both markers. Seven of the ten Nazca booby migration rates calculated between island pairs were in the south or southeast to north or northwest direction. The population differentiation found among Galapagos Nazca booby colonies, but not great frigatebird colonies, is most likely due to differences in natal and breeding philopatry. PMID:23170212

Levin, Iris I; Parker, Patricia G

2012-11-01

392

Site testing at San Pedro Mártir  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este art culo revisamos el trabajo realizado para medir la turbulencia atmosf erica al nivel del suelo en el Observatorio Astron omico Nacional en San Pedro M artir. Arguimos, basados en resultados m as modernos obtenidos a lo largo de m as de una d ecada, que la mediana de la calidad de imagen es de 0.55 segundos de arco a una altura de 15m. Este an alisis comprueba que San Pedro M artir es uno de los mejores sitios del mundo en cuanto a calidad de imagen y probablemente el mejor.

J. Echeverr\\u00EDa

2003-01-01

393

Nanostructural characterisation of catalysts by SANS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of restructured clays used as catalysts in small- and large-scale chemical reactions, have been studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Analysis of the spectra provides detailed information both on the nanopore structure and the surface texture of these materials. Additionally, pillared inter-layered clays (PILCs) have a great potential for industrial utilisation in catalysis, sorption and separations. PILCs have been studied with contrast-matching SANS in order to independently resolve the structure of each phase since by matching the neutron scattering length density of the clay or the pillars, the scattering curve results only from the non-contrast matched phase

394

Access USGS: San Francisco Bay and Delta  

Science.gov (United States)

The San Francisco Bay and Delta Ecosystem Program of the US Geological Survey has been underway since 1995. This Webpage offers a host of information on USGS research in the San Francisco Bay and Delta regions (see Overview). Organized by subject area, the site features a new Water Information section in addition to sections describing research on biology (exotic species, primary production), wetlands (change and restoration), hazards (coastal erosion, landslides, earthquakes), and land use (urban growth). In addition, the site provides real-time data, geologic maps, and digital maps (topos, aerial photos, and elevations). A collection of links and a What's New section round out the site.

395

Alpha and gamma spectrometry applied to the study of U and Th series radioactive disequilibrium in the phosphates from Abrolhos Archipelago (Brazil offshore)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results of uranium and thorium measurements made in aluminium and iron phosphates that occur in the Abrolhos Archipelago (offshore Brazil) by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The U concentrations were also indirectly determined from the gamma-ray activity of 234 Th, 214 Pb and 214 Bi, while those of Th were obtained from the 228 Ca, 212 Pb, 212 Bi and 208 T1 gamma-ray emitters. In both cases it was assumed that 238 U and 232 Th series are in radioactive secular equilibrium. The comparison between the results obtained by neutron activation and gamma-ray spectrometry show radioactive secular equilibrium in the analysed samples. (author)

396

Cultivos de uso ilícito en el municipio de San Miguel, Putumayo / Coca cultivation in the town of San Miguel, Putumayo  

OpenAIRE

Perico Ortiz, Diana Alexandra (2008) Cultivos de uso ilícito en el municipio de San Miguel, Putumayo / Coca cultivation in the town of San Miguel, Putumayo. Pregrado thesis, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Perico Ortiz, Diana Alexandra

2008-01-01

397

Long Period Ground Motions in the San Bernardino Region for Hypothetical San Andreas and San Jacinto Earthquakes  

Science.gov (United States)

The San Bernardino region of southern California is situated on a wedge shaped sedimentary basin bounded to the north by the San Andreas fault and to the south by the San Jacinto fault. Not only is this region fairly heavily populated, but both of these active faults are capable of generating Mw 7+ earthquakes, stressing the need for timely assessment of the ground shaking hazard for future scenario earthquakes. Ground motion estimation in this region is further complicated by the highly variable nature of the subsurface geology. Sediment accumulations are relatively thin in the northern portion of the basin, and then steadily increase in thickness toward the south. The maximum sediment thickness is about 1.5 km just north of the San Jacinto fault, with an abrupt step-up and shallowing of the basement surface along (and to the south of) the San Jacinto fault. Existing observations of long period (T > 1 sec) ground motions for both large (1999 Mw 7.2 Hector Mine) and small (2001 Mw 4.7 Big Bear Lake) earthquakes show significant amplification and extended durations of shaking at recording sites within the basin. Recent studies using 3D numerical simulation methods have modeled these recorded ground motions in order to develop and constrain the 3D velocity structure of the basin region. The current 3D velocity models do reasonably well at matching the recorded waveforms at periods of about 2 seconds and longer. To estimate the expected levels of ground shaking for future events in this region, I have performed 3D finite difference ground motion simulations for hypothetical Mw 7 earthquakes on the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults. The simulations use the existing 3D structural models of the region and incorporate a suite of variable slip finite-fault rupture models. To address uncertainty in the source characterizion, I consider several hypocenter locations and slip distributions on each of the faults. Preliminary results indicate that the largest long period motions occur when the ruptures propagate from the southeast (on either fault) toward and into the basin. Obviously, these rupture scenarios create strong forward directivity effects in the basin region; however, these effects are further amplified by the trapping of energy within the basin sediments. It is possible that this effect may be maximal for the Mw 7 scenarios considered here due to the coincidence of directivity amplification at 2-3 sec period with the strong basin response in this same bandwidth.

Graves, R. W.

2001-12-01

398

An hydroelectrical dam in the San Juan River? (Informative article) ¿Una represa hidroeléctrica sobre el río San Juan? (Artículo informativo)  

OpenAIRE

The author uses the geomorphological map of the San Juan River border sector to indicate the conse- quences for the border area with Costa Rica by the waters rising of the San Juan river hydroelectrical project.El autor utiliza el mapa geomorfológico del sector fronterizo al San Juan para indicar las consecuencias que un proyecto hidroeléctrico en el río San Juan tendría para el sector fronterizo con Costa Rica por la subida de las aguas represadas.

Jean Pierre Bergoeing Guida

2012-01-01

399

An hydroelectrical dam in the San Juan River? (Informative article ¿Una represa hidroeléctrica sobre el río San Juan? (Artículo informativo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author uses the geomorphological map of the San Juan River border sector to indicate the conse- quences for the border area with Costa Rica by the waters rising of the San Juan river hydroelectrical project.El autor utiliza el mapa geomorfológico del sector fronterizo al San Juan para indicar las consecuencias que un proyecto hidroeléctrico en el río San Juan tendría para el sector fronterizo con Costa Rica por la subida de las aguas represadas.

Jean Pierre Bergoeing Guida

2012-12-01

400

Avaliação da atividade antibacteriana e triagem fitoquímica das folhas de Acacia longifolia (Andr.) Willd. (Leguminosae) / Evaluation of the antibacterial activity and phytochemical screening of the leaves of Acacia longifolia (Andr.) Willd., Leguminosae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se a atividade antibacteriana de extratos das folhas de Acacia longifolia (Andr.) Willd., através do método da difusão em gel. Os extratos foram incorporados em discos de papel, e foi verificado o efeito sobre o crescimento de bactérias patogênicas ao homem: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) [...] , Escherichia coli (ATCC 11129) e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027). Verificou-se que o extrato etanólico bruto, a fração acetato de etila e a fração etanólica remanescente inibiram o crescimento de S. aureus, mas não o de E. coli; somente o extrato etanólico bruto inibiu, em menor grau o crescimento de P. aeruginosa. A triagem fitoquímica indicou a presença de taninos, leucoantocianidinas, flavonóides e triterpenos/esteróides nas folhas de A. longifolia. Abstract in english The antibacterial activity of the extracts of Acacia longifolia (Andr.) Willd. leaves was evaluated by the gel diffusion method. The extracts were incorporated in paper discs and it was verified the effect on the human pathogenic bacteria growth. The tested bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC [...] 6538), Escherichia coli (ATCC 11129) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027). The crude ethanolic extract, the ethyl acetate and the remained ethanolic fractions showed growth inhibition of S. aureus, only the crude ethanilic extract showed, in lower extension, growth inhibition of P. aeruginosa and no growth inhibition at all of E. coli. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of tannins, leucoanthocianidins, flavonoids and triterpene/steroids.

C., Peitz; M.M., Cúnico; O.G., Miguel; M.D., Miguel; V.A., Kerber.

2003-12-01

401

77 FR 59969 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University, Department of Anthropology, San...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Francisco State University, Department of Anthropology, San Francisco, CA; Correction AGENCY...Program (formerly in the Department of Anthropology). The human remains and associated...Francisco State University Department of Anthropology records. In the Federal...

2012-10-01

402

76 FR 1386 - Safety Zone; Centennial of Naval Aviation Kickoff, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

...the Centennial of Naval Aviation Kickoff will take place in...voluntary consensus standards. Environment We have analyzed this proposed...significant effect on the human environment. A preliminary environmental...Zone; Centennial of Naval Aviation Kickoff; San Diego...

2011-01-10

403

Studies on Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) instrument  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research is a sub-project of 'Neutron Beam Applications'. The purpose of this research is to test sample environment facilities of the HANARO instrument in order to prepare for its effective operation. Recently, KAERI took the initiative in utilizing the neutron beams within HANARO facility, and many scientists are interested in performing various studies using the neutron beam. As a result, it is highly recommended to carefully check the HANARO SANS instrument and to test data reproducibility by comparing SANS measurements in the HANARO and the measurements taken at other facilities such as NIST in U.S.A.. We investigated the microstructure and homopolymer distribution in a series of mixtures of PS-PI-PS triblock copolymers and deuterated PS homopolymers by using SANS. We also studied the sol-to-gel transition of aqueous solutions of PEO-PLGA-PEO triblock copolymers which are known to be strong neutron scatterers. By comparing the SANS data taken from the HANARO with those from NIST, we checked sample environment facilities of the HANARO SANS instrument and examined the reproducibility of the HANARO SANS data. Data acquisition and analysis procedure were also carefully evaluated. We acquired the data acquisition and analysis softwares and guidelines of the HANARO SANS data and sample environment based on the on site experience at the NGI SANS (8m SANS) beam line at NIST. Using both HANARO SANS and NIST NGI SANS instruments, we obtained useful information on the microstructure and homopolymer distribution in an series of mixtures of PS-PI-PS triblock copolymers and deuterated PS homopolymers. Furthermore, we analyze the gelation behavior of aqueous solutions of PEO-PLGA-PEO triblock copolymers using both HANARO SANS and NG7 SANS (30m SANS) instruments. As a result, We confirmed the correct performance of sample environment facility and the data reproducibility of the HANARO SANS instrument. 36 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

Char, Kook Heon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Hong Doo [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea); Kim, Eu Gene [Hongik Univ., Seoul (Korea)

2001-04-01

404

Programas sociales y bienestar social en comunidades oaxaqueñas: San Miguel Achiutla y San Ildefonso Sola  

OpenAIRE

Estudio realizado en dos comunidades del estado de Oaxaca, San Ildefonso Sola y San Miguel Achiutla, pertenecientes a la Región Sierra Sur y Mixteca respectivamente. La primera está conformada por población mestiza y la segunda por indígena mixtecos. Ambas comunidades presentan alto grado de marginación, y reflejan diversas carencias materiales que influyen negativamente en su bienestar, son comunidades pobres. Dedicados principalmente a la agricultura de subsistencia, los pobladores obt...

Mireya Carmina Cruz Aragón; Anselmo Arellanes Meixueiro

2013-01-01

405

Lick-Wilmerding School San Francisco, California.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the design of a new library/art facility at a San Francisco high school that complemented the school's contemporary academic program and reputation for excellence. Discusses the planning and architectural strategies and the technological and convenience additions designed to meet greater student needs. (GR)

Fang, Eric C. Y.

1997-01-01

406

UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Cancer Center was founded in 1978, the same year it received its NCI designation. In 2001, the Center achieved the status of comprehensive cancer center. The Center was later renamed the Moores Cancer Center (MCC). A new facility was opened in 2005 to consolidate cancer research and patient care under one roof.

407

San Miguel High School: Focus and Preparation  

Science.gov (United States)

The corporate internship program is a cornerstone of the education that students receive at San Miguel High School in Tucson, Arizona. Four students share one job, so each student works for a corporate partner outside of the school every fourth day. The money they earn is used to help defray the cost of their education, and the experience is…

Principal Leadership, 2010

2010-01-01

408

Simulations of the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Simulations of the Great 1906 San Francisco earthquake are being performed as part of the event's centenary. LLNL is participating in a large effort to study this event and possible consequences if the event were to happen today. This document is meant to describe our efforts to others participating in the project.

Rodgers, A; Petersson, A; Tkalcic, H

2005-12-16

409

Physics festival brightens rainy san jose.  

Science.gov (United States)

A week after floodwaters surged through parts of San Jose's downtown, a flood tide of physicists-almost 6000 of them-appeared for the annual March meeting of the American Physical Society (APS). Gloom and drizzle continued for the first 4 days of the gathering, but there were plenty of bright spots inside the hall. PMID:17755225

Travis, J

1995-04-01

410

San Antonio, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of San Antonio, TX, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

2011-10-01

411

SAN PEDRO VEGETATION MAP GRID DATA  

Science.gov (United States)

This data set is a digital vegetation map of the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area and Babocomari River. The map was produced by manual interpretation of true-color, stereo aerial photography flown in November 2000. Standard U.S. Geological Survey Digital Orthophoto...

412

SAN PEDRO VEGETATION MAP VECTOR DATA  

Science.gov (United States)

This data set is a digital vegetation map of the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area and Babocomari River. The map was produced by manual interpretation of true-color, stereo aerial photography flown in November 2000. Standard U.S. Geological Survey Digital Orthophoto...

413

San Jose, California: Solar in Action (Brochure)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of San Jose, CA, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

2011-10-01

414

ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area  

Science.gov (United States)

This image of the San Francisco Bay region was acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters about 50 to 300 feet ), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.Image: This image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The combination of bands portrays vegetation in red, and urban areas in gray. Sediment in the Suisun Bay, San Pablo Bay, San Francisco Bay, and the Pacific Ocean shows up as lighter shades of blue. Along the west coast of the San Francisco Peninsula, strong surf can be seen as a white fringe along the shoreline. A powerful rip tide is visible extending westward from Daly City into the Pacific Ocean. In the lower right corner, the wetlands of the South San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge appear as large dark blue and brown polygons. The high spatial resolution of ASTER allows fine detail to be observed in the scene. The main bridges of the area (San Mateo, San Francisco-Oakland Bay, Golden Gate, Richmond-San Rafael, Benicia-Martinez, and Carquinez) are easily picked out, connecting the different communities in the Bay area. Shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen over the adjacent bay water. With enlargement the entire road network can be easily mapped; individual buildings are visible, including the shadows of the high-rises in downtown San Francisco.Inset: This enlargement of the San Francisco Airport highlights the high spatial resolution of ASTER. With further enlargement and careful examination, airplanes can be seen at the terminals.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

2000-01-01

415

Genetic affinities between the Yami tribe people of Orchid Island and the Philippine Islanders of the Batanes archipelago  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Yami and Ivatan islanders are Austronesian speakers from Orchid Island and the Batanes archipelago that are located between Taiwan and the Philippines. The paternal genealogies of the Yami tribe from 1962 monograph of Wei and Liu were compared with our dataset of non-recombining Y (NRY) chromosomes from the corresponding families. Then mitochondrial DNA polymorphism was also analyzed to determine the matrilineal relationships between Yami, Ivatan, and other East Asian populations. Results The family relationships inferred from the NRY Phylogeny suggested a low number of paternal founders and agreed with the genealogy of Wei and Liu (P Yami families, no other Y-STR lineages were shared between villages, whereas mtDNA haplotypes were indiscriminately distributed throughout Orchid Island. The genetic affinity seen between Yami and Taiwanese aborigines or between Ivatan and the Philippine people was closer than that between Yami and Ivatan, suggesting that the Orchid islanders were colonized separately by their nearest neighbors and bred in isolation. However a northward gene flow to Orchid Island from the Philippines was suspected as Yami and Ivatan peoples both speak Western Malayo-Polynesian languages which are not spoken in Taiwan. Actually, only very little gene flow was observed between Yami and Ivatan or between Yami and the Philippines as indicated by the sharing of mtDNA haplogroup B4a1a4 and one O1a1* Y-STR lineage. Conclusions The NRY and mtDNA genetic information among Yami tribe peoples fitted well the patrilocal society model proposed by Wei and Liu. In this proposal, there were likely few genetic exchanges among Yami and the Philippine people. Trading activities may have contributed to the diffusion of Malayo-Polynesian languages among them. Finally, artifacts dating 4,000 YBP, found on Orchid Island and indicating association with the Out of Taiwan hypothesis might be related to a pioneering stage of settlement, as most dating estimates inferred from DNA variation in our data set ranged between 100-3,000 YBP. PMID:21281460

2011-01-01

416

The Leo Archipelago: A System of Earth-Rings for Communications, Mass-Transport to Space, Solar Power, and Control of Global Warming  

CERN Document Server

A multi-purpose low-earth-orbit system of rings circling the earth - the "LEO ARCHIPELAGO" - is proposed as a means of solving or bypassing many major problems hindering man's quest to get into space. A fiber-optic ring about the earth would be an initial testing and developmental stage for the ring systems, while providing cash-flow through a LEO-based, high-band-width, world-wide communication system. A Low-Earth-Orbit-based space-elevator system, "Sling-on-a-Ring," is proposed as the crucial developmental stage of the LEO Archipelago. Being a LEO-based heavy-mass lifter, rather than earth- or GEO-based, it is much less massive and therefore less costly than other proposed space-elevators. With the advent of lower-cost, higher-mass transport to orbit, the options for further space development (e.g., communications, space solar power, radiation dampers, sun shades, and permanent LEO habitation) are greatly expanded. This paper provides an update of the Sling-on-a-Ring concept in terms of new materials, poten...

Meulenberg, Andrew

2010-01-01

417

Fatty acid profile of plasma, muscle and adipose tissues in Chilota lambs grazing on two different low quality pasture types in Chiloé Archipelago (Chile).  

Science.gov (United States)

There is no information about the effect of different pasture types on tissue fatty acid profiles of a native rustic lamb breed of the Chiloe Archipelago, the Chilota. Eight Chilota lambs were grazed on a 'Calafatal' pasture (CP), a typical secondary succession of Chiloé Archipelago (Chile) and eight Chilota lambs were located to graze on naturalized pasture (NP) of Chiloé. Botanical, chemical and lipid composition of the two types of pastures and of different lamb tissues (muscle, subcutaneous - and tail adipose tissues) and plasma were performed. Both pasture types induced high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and CLAcis-9,trans-11 proportions in Chilota meat. Thus, in muscle, Chilota lambs grazing CP showed higher sum PUFA, sum n-6 PUFA proportion and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio compared with Chilota lambs grazing NP. In tail fats of Chilota lambs grazing CP significantly higher proportions of 18:3n-3, sum saturated fatty acids, sum PUFA, n-3 and n-6 PUFA were detected compared with Chilota lambs grazing NP. Feeding of different pasture types (CP?vs.?NP) caused significant differences in fatty acid composition of muscle and the two fat depots in Chilota lambs, but also point to tissue-specific responses of de novo synthesized fatty acid deposition in the tissues. PMID:24964067

Gallardo, Maria A; Dannenberger, Dirk; Rivero, Jordana; Pulido, Ruben; Nuernberg, Karin

2014-11-01