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Sample records for samples long-term memory

  1. Andra long term memory project - 59277

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Long term memory of repositories is required by safety, reversibility and social expectations. Thus Andra has implemented since 2010 a long-term memory project to reinforce and diversify its current arrangements in this field, as well as to explore opportunities to extend memory keeping over thousands years. The project includes opportunity studies of dedicated facilities. The 'Ecotheque' and 'Geotheque' projects contribute to memory respectively through environmental and geological samples preservation. The options of creating (i) an archive centre for Andra's interim and permanent archives, (ii) an artist center to study the contribution of arts to memory preservation, (iii) a museum of radioactive waste disposal history and technology (radium industry..., sea disposal, current solutions...) are considered. Other studies provided by the project examine our heritage. This includes the continuity of languages and symbolic systems, the continuity of writing and engraving methods, the archaeology of landscapes (memory of the earths evolution, multi-century memory of industrial and agricultural landscapes), the archaeology practices (how might a future archaeologist be interested in our current activity?), the preservation of historical sites and industrial memory, the continuity of institutional organizations, the memory and history of science evolution as well as broad historyas well as broad history

  2. A cost of long-term memory in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Mery, Frederic; Kawecki, Tadeusz J.

    2005-01-01

    Two distinct forms of consolidated associative memory are known in Drosophila: long-term memory and so-called anesthesia-resistant memory. Long-term memory is more stable, but unlike anesthesia-resistant memory, its formation requires protein synthesis. We show that flies induced to form long-term memory become more susceptible to extreme stress (such as desiccation). In contrast, induction of anesthesia-resistant memory had no detectable effect on desiccation resistance. This finding may hel...

  3. Developmental Dyslexia and Explicit Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menghini, Deny; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Marotta, Luigi; Finzi, Alessandra; Vicari, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The reduced verbal long-term memory capacities often reported in dyslexics are generally interpreted as a consequence of their deficit in phonological coding. The present study was aimed at evaluating whether the learning deficit exhibited by dyslexics was restricted only to the verbal component of the long-term memory abilities or also involved…

  4. Long-term memories in online users' selecting activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xue; Hou, Lei; Stephen, Mutua; Yang, Huijie

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the long-term memory effect in the behavior of online users. Two user-oriented online movie systems are used in this study. Due to the short length of the series, the balanced estimation of diffusion entropy approach is used to evaluate scaling-invariance in selecting activities of users in the two online movie systems. Our results indicate that persistence (long-term memory) exists widely in the movie selecting series. However, there is generally significant difference between a user's objective and subjective behaviors. Additionally, statistically, the long-term memory depends on activity levels, as results show that the much more active a users' group, the stronger the long-term memory will be. These findings provide a new criterion for constructing reasonable models, and can help understand how individuals' behaviors form a collective behavior of an online society.

  5. Children's Long-Term Memory for Autobiographical Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carole

    2002-01-01

    Traces the origins of children's autobiographical memories, discussing research on infantile amnesia and young children's memory skills. Focuses on studies of children's long-term memory for autobiographical events that investigate delays of 1-2 years and delays of 4 years or more. Reports that a few studies have documented remarkably robust…

  6. Optimal long term investment model with memory

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, A K; Inoue, Akihiko; Nakano, Yumiharu

    2005-01-01

    We consider an investment model with memory in which the prices of n risky assets are driven by an n-dimensional Gaussian process with stationary increments that is different from Brownian motion. The driving process consists of n independent components, and each component is characterized by two parameters describing the memory. For the model, we explicitly solve the problem of maximizing the expected growth rate as well as that of maximizing the probability of overperforming a given benchmark.

  7. Orienting attention based on long-term memory experience.

    OpenAIRE

    Summerfield, Jj; Lepsien, J.; Gitelman, Dr; Mesulam, Mm; Nobre, Ac

    2006-01-01

    Attentional orienting and memory are intrinsically bound, but their interaction has rarely been investigated. Here we introduce an experimental paradigm using naturalistic scenes to investigate how long-term memory can guide spatial attention and thereby enhance identification of events in the perceptual domain. In the task, stable memories of objects embedded within complex scenes guide spatial orienting. We compared the behavioral effects and neural systems of memory-guided orienting with t...

  8. Evidence for long-term spatial memory in a parid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Timothy C; LaDage, Lara D; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

    2012-03-01

    Many animals use spatial memory. Although much work has examined the accuracy of spatial memory, few studies have explicitly focused on its longevity. The importance of long-term spatial memory for foraging has been demonstrated in several cases. However, the importance of such long-term memory for all animals is unclear. In this study, we present the first evidence that a parid species (the black-capped chickadee, Poecile atricapillus) can remember the location of a single food item for at least 6 months under an associative-learning spatial memory paradigm with multiple reinforcements. We did not detect a significant difference in memory longevity between two populations of chickadees shown previously to differ in short-term spatial memory and hippocampal morphology, an area of the brain involved in spatial memory. Our study showed that small birds such as parids can maintain spatial memories for long periods, a feat shown previously only in corvids. Moreover, we were able to demonstrate this longevity within the context of only 16 repeated trials. We speculate that this ability may potentially be useful in relocating caches if reinforced by repeated visits. Future studies are necessary to test whether our results were specifically due to multiple reinforcements of the food-containing location and whether parids may have similar memory longevity during food-caching experiences in the wild. PMID:21773746

  9. A Conditioning Analysis of Infant Long-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Margaret W.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Assesses the long-term retention of conditioned operant footkicks by three-month-old infants. Views a conditioning analysis as a logical means by which to bridge the gap between animal and adult human models of memory. (Author/RH)

  10. Long Term Potentiation as a Mechanism for Learning and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Hamidi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s when long term potentiation (LTP was introduced to the scientific world;several studies have been devoted to determining whether this phenomenon is naturally abasic mechanism of learning and memory in mammalian brains. However, plenty of evidenceconfirms that a LTP is inducible in the circuits involved in learning and memory; b commonreceptors and intracellular cascades are recruited in both memory and synaptic plasticityand c LTP and memory are similarly affected by many parameters such as: ligands, environmentalsignals, history of neuronal activity. Despite this, contradictory reports exist whichoppose the similarities between LTP and memory. In this paper we briefly introduce learning,memory and LTP, and argue relevant factors that possibly connect them. Ultimately, currentconsiderations lead one to conclude that the time is too early to judge clearly if LTP is a realmechanism of learning and memory.

  11. A quantitative proteomic analysis of long-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenegger David

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Memory is the ability to store, retain, and later retrieve learned information. Long-term memory (LTM formation requires: DNA transcription, RNA translation, and the trafficking of newly synthesized proteins. Several components of these processes have already been identified. However, due to the complexity of the memory formation process, there likely remain many yet to be identified proteins involved in memory formation and persistence. Results Here we use a quantitative proteomic method to identify novel memory-associated proteins in neural tissue taken from animals that were trained in vivo to form a long-term memory. We identified 8 proteins that were significantly up-regulated, and 13 that were significantly down-regulated in the LTM trained animals as compared to two different control groups. In addition we found 19 proteins unique to the trained animals, and 12 unique proteins found only in the control animals. Conclusions These results both confirm the involvement of previously identified memory proteins such as: protein kinase C (PKC, adenylate cyclase (AC, and proteins in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway. In addition these results provide novel protein candidates (e.g. UHRF1 binding protein on which to base future studies.

  12. Long-term memory in electricity prices: Czech market evidence.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav; Lu?á?ková, P.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 63, ?. 5 (2013), s. 407-424. ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA402/09/0965 Grant ostatní: GA ?R(CZ) GAP402/11/0948 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : electricity * long-term memory Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.358, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/kristoufek-0427660.pdf

  13. Greater emotional arousal predicts poorer long-term memory of communication skills in couples

    OpenAIRE

    Baucom, Brian R.; Weusthoff, Sarah; Atkins, David; Hahlweg, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have examined the importance of learning skills in behaviorally based couple interventions but none have examined predictors of long-term memory for skills. Associations between emotional arousal and long-term recall of communication skills delivered to couples during a behaviorally based relationship distress prevention program were examined in a sample of 49 German couples. Fundamental frequency (f0), a vocal measure of encoded emotional arousal, was measured during pre-treatme...

  14. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used to determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality

  15. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Haney

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  16. Wnt Signaling Is Required for Long-Term Memory Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Tan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wnt signaling regulates synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis in the adult nervous system, suggesting a potential role in behavioral processes. Here, we probed the requirement for Wnt signaling during olfactory memory formation in Drosophila using an inducible RNAi approach. Interfering with ?-catenin expression in adult mushroom body neurons specifically impaired long-term memory (LTM without altering short-term memory. The impairment was reversible, being rescued by expression of a wild-type ?-catenin transgene, and correlated with disruption of a cellular LTM trace. Inhibition of wingless, a Wnt ligand, and arrow, a Wnt coreceptor, also impaired LTM. Wingless expression in wild-type flies was transiently elevated in the brain after LTM conditioning. Thus, inhibiting three key components of the Wnt signaling pathway in adult mushroom bodies impairs LTM, indicating that this pathway mechanistically underlies this specific form of memory.

  17. Short- and long-term memory: differential involvement of neurotransmitter systems and signal transduction cascades

    OpenAIRE

    Vianna Mo?nica, R. M.; Izquierdo Luciana, A.; Barros Daniela, M.; WALZ ROGER; Medina Jorge, H.; IZQUIERDO IVÁN

    2000-01-01

    Since William James (1890) first distinguished primary from secondary memory, equivalent to short- and long-term memory, respectively, it has been assumed that short-term memory processes are in charge of cognition while long-term memory is being consolidated. From those days a major question has been whether short-term memory is merely a initial phase of long-term memory, or a separate phenomena. Recent experiments have shown that many treatments with specific molecular actions given into th...

  18. Working Memory, Long-Term Memory, and Medial Temporal Lobe Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeneson, Annette; Squire, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    Early studies of memory-impaired patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage led to the view that the hippocampus and related MTL structures are involved in the formation of long-term memory and that immediate memory and working memory are independent of these structures. This traditional idea has recently been revisited. Impaired performance…

  19. Erythropoietin enhances hippocampal long-term potentiation and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Kordi Ahmed

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Erythropoietin (EPO improves cognition of human subjects in the clinical setting by as yet unknown mechanisms. We developed a mouse model of robust cognitive improvement by EPO to obtain the first clues of how EPO influences cognition, and how it may act on hippocampal neurons to modulate plasticity. Results We show here that a 3-week treatment of young mice with EPO enhances long-term potentiation (LTP, a cellular correlate of learning processes in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. This treatment concomitantly alters short-term synaptic plasticity and synaptic transmission, shifting the balance of excitatory and inhibitory activity. These effects are accompanied by an improvement of hippocampus dependent memory, persisting for 3 weeks after termination of EPO injections, and are independent of changes in hematocrit. Networks of EPO-treated primary hippocampal neurons develop lower overall spiking activity but enhanced bursting in discrete neuronal assemblies. At the level of developing single neurons, EPO treatment reduces the typical increase in excitatory synaptic transmission without changing the number of synaptic boutons, consistent with prolonged functional silencing of synapses. Conclusion We conclude that EPO improves hippocampus dependent memory by modulating plasticity, synaptic connectivity and activity of memory-related neuronal networks. These mechanisms of action of EPO have to be further exploited for treating neuropsychiatric diseases.

  20. Long-term memory of individual identity in ant queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Stéphanie Agnès Jeanine; Van Zweden, Jelle Stijn

    2007-01-01

    Remembering individual identities is part of our own everyday social life. Surprisingly, this ability has recently been shown in two social insects. While paper wasps recognize each other individually through their facial markings, the ant, Pachycondyla villosa, uses chemical cues. In both species, individual recognition is adaptive since it facilitates the maintenance of stable dominance hierarchies among individuals, and thus reduces the cost of conflict within these small societies. Here, we investigated individual recognition in Pachycondyla ants by quantifying the level of aggression between pairs of familiar or unfamiliar queens over time. We show that unrelated founding queens of P. villosa and Pachycondyla inversa store information on the individual identity of other queens and can retrieve it from memory after 24h of separation. Thus, we have documented for the first time that long-term memory of individual identity is present and functional in ants. This novel finding represents an advance in our understanding of the mechanism determining the evolution of cooperation among unrelated individuals.

  1. Visual Long-Term Memory Has the Same Limit on Fidelity as Visual Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, George Angelo; Brady, Timothy Francis; Konkle, Talia A.; Gill, Jonathan; Oliva, Aude

    2013-01-01

    Visual long-term memory can store thousands of objects with surprising visual detail, but just how detailed are these representations, and how can one quantify this fidelity? Using the property of color as a case study, we estimated the precision of visual information in long-term memory, and compared this with the precision of the same information in working memory. Observers were shown real-world objects in random colors and were asked to recall the colors after a delay. We quantified two p...

  2. Hippocampal Focal Knockout of CBP Affects Specific Histone Modifications, Long-Term Potentiation, and Long-Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Ruth M.; Malvaez, Melissa; Kramar, Eniko; Matheos, Dina P; Arrizon, Abraham; Cabrera, Sara M; Lynch, Gary; Greene, Robert W.; Wood, Marcelo A

    2011-01-01

    To identify the role of the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) CREB-binding protein (CBP) in neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus during memory formation, we examine the effects of a focal homozygous knockout of CBP on histone modifications, gene expression, synaptic plasticity, and long-term memory. We show that CBP is critical for the in vivo acetylation of lysines on histones H2B, H3, and H4. CBP's homolog p300 was unable to compensate for the loss of CBP. Neurons lacking CBP maintain...

  3. Analysis of long term samples in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Term Samples have been installed on the inner call in Tore Supra to monitor the surface modification of the graphite tiles. Surfaces analysis have shown a very low metallic impurity concentration (?1016 at /cm2) dominated by stainless steel compounds. the high deuterium concentration (> 1018 at/cm2) is due to a codeposition with carbon atoms. Carbon layers of about 1 ?m have been measured from which we deduced a carbon recycling coefficient Rc = 0.99. (authors). 20 refs., 6 figs

  4. Memory Functioning in Children with Reading Disabilities and/or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Clinical Investigation of Their Working Memory and Long-term Memory Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Kibby, Michelle Y.; Cohen, Morris J.

    2008-01-01

    We examined memory functioning in children with reading disabilities (RD), ADHD, and RD/ADHD using a clinic sample with a clinical instrument: the Children’s Memory Scale, enhancing its generalizability. Participants included 23 children with RD, 30 with ADHD, 30 with RD/ADHD, and 30 controls. Children with RD presented with reduced verbal short-term memory (STM) but intact visual STM, central executive (CE) and long-term memory (LTM) functioning. Their deficit in STM appeared specific to t...

  5. Short- and long-term memory: differential involvement of neurotransmitter systems and signal transduction cascades

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MÔNICA R.M., VIANNA; LUCIANA A., IZQUIERDO; DANIELA M., BARROS; ROGER, WALZ; JORGE H., MEDINA; IVÁN, IZQUIERDO.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Since William James (1890) first distinguished primary from secondary memory, equivalent to short- and long-term memory, respectively, it has been assumed that short-term memory processes are in charge of cognition while long-term memory is being consolidated. From those days a major question has be [...] en whether short-term memory is merely a initial phase of long-term memory, or a separate phenomena. Recent experiments have shown that many treatments with specific molecular actions given into the hippocampus and related brain areas after one-trial avoidance learning can effectively cancel short-term memory without affecting long-term memory formation. This shows that short-term memory and long-term memory involve separate mechanisms and are independently processed. Other treatments, however, influence both memory types similarly, suggesting links between both at the receptor and at the post-receptor level, which should not be surprising as they both deal with nearly the same sensorimotor representations. This review examines recent advances in short- and long-term memory mechanisms based on the effect of intra-hippocampal infusion of drugs acting upon neurotransmitter and signal transduction systems on both memory types.

  6. Short- and long-term memory: differential involvement of neurotransmitter systems and signal transduction cascades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÔNICA R.M. VIANNA

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Since William James (1890 first distinguished primary from secondary memory, equivalent to short- and long-term memory, respectively, it has been assumed that short-term memory processes are in charge of cognition while long-term memory is being consolidated. From those days a major question has been whether short-term memory is merely a initial phase of long-term memory, or a separate phenomena. Recent experiments have shown that many treatments with specific molecular actions given into the hippocampus and related brain areas after one-trial avoidance learning can effectively cancel short-term memory without affecting long-term memory formation. This shows that short-term memory and long-term memory involve separate mechanisms and are independently processed. Other treatments, however, influence both memory types similarly, suggesting links between both at the receptor and at the post-receptor level, which should not be surprising as they both deal with nearly the same sensorimotor representations. This review examines recent advances in short- and long-term memory mechanisms based on the effect of intra-hippocampal infusion of drugs acting upon neurotransmitter and signal transduction systems on both memory types.

  7. They Saw a Movie: Long-Term Memory for an Extended Audiovisual Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Orit; Dorfman, Nimrod; Hasson, Uri; Davachi, Lila; Dudai, Yadin

    2007-01-01

    We measured long-term memory for a narrative film. During the study session, participants watched a 27-min movie episode, without instructions to remember it. During the test session, administered at a delay ranging from 3 h to 9 mo after the study session, long-term memory for the movie was probed using a computerized questionnaire that assessed…

  8. Long-term Memory for USD/CNY based on GPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-xue HUANG

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper chooses closing price return rate series of USD/CNY to study. Sample interval covers from 22th July 2005 to 15th Sep 2008(before the financial crisis and from 16th September 2008 to 19th May 2010(after the financial crisis.The author put forward GPH and Tapered GPH Method, and concluded through comparable analysis that?In the conditions of V using T0.5?T0.525?T0.55?T0.575?T0.6 samples, standard GPH and tapered GPH tests are adopted. The results show that Fractal dimension parameter d is significantly greater than 0 and the statistics are more than critical value of 1% level before financial crisis USD/CNY. After financial crisis, the parameter has become smaller than that before financial crisis, which is near 0 significantly. In the long term, there is no trend or structural breaks in the exchange market. This study's conclusion was that long-term memory exists in daily return time series of USD/CNY become smaller after financial crisis. Key words: USD/CNY; GPH; Long-term Memory

  9. Evidence for long-term memory in sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangendorf, Sönke; Rybski, Diego; Mudersbach, Christoph; Müller, Alfred; Kaufmann, Edgar; Zorita, Eduardo; Jensen, Jürgen

    2014-08-01

    Detection and attribution of anthropogenic climate change signals in sea level rise (SLR) has experienced considerable attention during the last decades. Here we provide evidence that superimposed on any possible anthropogenic trend there is a significant amount of natural decadal and multidecadal variability. Using a set of 60 centennial tide gauge records and an ocean reanalysis, we find that sea levels exhibit long-term correlations on time scales up to several decades that are independent of any systematic rise. A large fraction of this long-term variability is related to the steric component of sea level, but we also find long-term correlations in current estimates of mass loss from glaciers and ice caps. These findings suggest that (i) recent attempts to detect a significant acceleration in regional SLR might underestimate the impact of natural variability and (ii) any future regional SLR threshold might be exceeded earlier/later than from anthropogenic change alone.

  10. Toward a molecular definition of long-term memory?storage

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Craig?H; Bartsch, Dusan; Kandel, Eric?R

    1996-01-01

    The storage of long-term memory is associated with a cellular program of gene expression, altered protein synthesis, and the growth of new synaptic connections. Recent studies of a variety of memory processes, ranging in complexity from those produced by simple forms of implicit learning in invertebrates to those produced by more complex forms of explicit learning in mammals, suggest that part of the molecular switch required for consolidation of long-term memory is th...

  11. Long-term memory guidance of visuospatial attention in a change-detection paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Maya L.; Stern, Chantal E.; Somers, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Visual task performance is generally stronger in familiar environments. One reason for this familiarity benefit is that we learn where to direct our visual attention and effective attentional deployment enhances performance. Visual working memory plays a central role in supporting long-term memory guidance of visuospatial attention. We modified a change detection task to create a new paradigm for investigating long-term memory guidance of attention. During the training phase, subjects viewed ...

  12. Long-term memory guidance of visuospatial attention in a change-detection paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    DavidCSomers

    2014-01-01

    Visual task performance is generally stronger in familiar environments. One reason for this familiarity benefit is that we learn where to direct our visual attention and effective attentional deployment enhances performance. Visual working memory plays a central role in supporting long-term memory guidance of visuospatial attention. We adapted a change detection task to create a new paradigm for investigating long-term memory guidance of attention. During the training phase, subjects viewed i...

  13. Distinct dopamine neurons mediate reward signals for short- and long-term memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Ichinose, Toshiharu; Aso, Yoshinori; Plaçais, Pierre-Yves; Friedrich, Anja B.; Sima, Richard J.; Preat, Thomas; Rubin, Gerald M.; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster can acquire a stable appetitive olfactory memory when the presentation of a sugar reward and an odor are paired. However, the neuronal mechanisms by which a single training induces long-term memory are poorly understood. Here we show that two distinct subsets of dopamine neurons in the fly brain signal reward for short-term (STM) and long-term memories (LTM). One subset induces memory that decays within several hours, whereas the other induces memory that gradually develops after training. They convey reward signals to spatially segregated synaptic domains of the mushroom body (MB), a potential site for convergence. Furthermore, we identified a single type of dopamine neuron that conveys the reward signal to restricted subdomains of the mushroom body lobes and induces long-term memory. Constant appetitive memory retention after a single training session thus comprises two memory components triggered by distinct dopamine neurons. PMID:25548178

  14. Long-term Memory and Volatility Clustering in Daily and High-frequency Price Changes

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, G J; Um, C J; Kim, Seunghwann; Oh, GabJin; Um, Cheol-Jun

    2006-01-01

    We study the long-term memory in diverse stock market indices and foreign exchange rates using the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis(DFA). For all daily and high-frequency market data studied, no significant long-term memory property is detected in the return series, while a strong long-term memory property is found in the volatility time series. The possible causes of the long-term memory property are investigated using the return data filtered by the AR(1) model, reflecting the short-term memory property, and the GARCH(1,1) model, reflecting the volatility clustering property, respectively. Notably, we found that the memory effect in the AR(1) filtered return and volatility time series remains unchanged, while the long-term memory property either disappeared or diminished significantly in the volatility series of the GARCH(1,1) filtered data. We also found that in the high-frequency data the long-term memory property may be generated by the volatility clustering as well as higher autocorrelation. Our results i...

  15. Computer Simulations of Developmental Change: The Contributions of Working Memory Capacity and Long-Term Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gary; Gobet, Fernand; Pine, Julian M.

    2008-01-01

    Increasing working memory (WM) capacity is often cited as a major influence on children's development and yet WM capacity is difficult to examine independently of long-term knowledge. A computational model of children's nonword repetition (NWR) performance is presented that independently manipulates long-term knowledge and WM capacity to determine…

  16. Lateral Habenula determines long-term storage of aversive memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micol Tomaiuolo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Lateral Habenula (LHb is a small brain structure that codifies negative motivational value and has been related to major depression. It has been shown recently that LHb activation is sufficient to induce aversive associative learning; however the key question about whether LHb activation is required for an aversive memory to be formed has not been addressed. In this article we studied the function of the LHb in memory formation using the Inhibitory Avoidance task (IA. We found that LHb inactivation during IA training does not disrupt memory when assessed 24 hours after, but abolishes it 7 days later, indicating that LHb activity during memory acquisition is not necessary for memory formation, but regulates its temporal stability. These effects suggest that LHb inactivation modifies subjective perception of the training experience.

  17. Synaptic Scaling Enables Dynamically Distinct Short- and Long-Term Memory Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Tetzlaff, Christian; Kolodziejski, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Tsodyks, Misha; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2013-01-01

    Memory storage in the brain relies on mechanisms acting on time scales from minutes, for long-term synaptic potentiation, to days, for memory consolidation. During such processes, neural circuits distinguish synapses relevant for forming a long-term storage, which are consolidated, from synapses of short-term storage, which fade. How time scale integration and synaptic differentiation is simultaneously achieved remains unclear. Here we show that synaptic scaling – a slow process usually assoc...

  18. An Account of Performance in Accessing Information Stored in Long-Term Memory. A Fixed-Links Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmeyer, Michael; Schweizer, Karl; Reiss, Siegbert; Ren, Xuezhu; Schreiner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Performance in working memory and short-term memory tasks was employed for predicting performance in a long-term memory task in order to find out about the underlying processes. The types of memory were represented by versions of the Posner Task, the Backward Counting Task and the Sternberg Task serving as measures of long-term memory, working…

  19. Reading Ability and Memory Span: Long-Term Memory Contributions to Span for Good and Poor Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Sine J. P.; Donohoe, Rachael

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the extent to which differences in memory span for good and poor readers can be explained by differences in a long-term memory component to span as well as by differences in short-term memory processes. Discusses the nature of the interrelationships between memory span, reading and measures of phonological awareness. (SG)

  20. Individual Differences in the Effects of Retrieval from Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gene A.; Unsworth, Nash

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined individual differences in the effects of retrieval from long-term memory (i.e., the testing effect). The effects of retrieving from memory make tested information more accessible for future retrieval attempts. Despite the broad applied ramifications of such a potent memorization technique there is a paucity of research…

  1. Retinoid signaling is necessary for, and promotes long-term memory formation following operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Cailin M; Spencer, Gaynor E

    2014-10-01

    Retinoic acid, a metabolite of vitamin A, is proposed to play an important role in vertebrate learning and memory, as well as hippocampal-dependent synaptic plasticity. However, it has not yet been determined whether retinoic acid plays a similar role in learning and memory in invertebrates. In this study, we report that retinoid signaling in the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis, is required for long-term memory formation following operant conditioning of its aerial respiratory behaviour. Animals were exposed to inhibitors of the RALDH enzyme (which synthesizes retinoic acid), or various retinoid receptor antagonists. Following exposure to these inhibitors, neither learning nor intermediate-term memory (lasting 2 h) was affected, but long-term memory formation (tested at either 24 or 72 h) was inhibited. We next demonstrated that various retinoid receptor agonists promoted long-term memory formation. Using a training paradigm shown only to produce intermediate-term memory (lasting 2 h, but not 24 h) we found that exposure of animals to synthetic retinoids promoted memory formation that lasted up to 30 h. These findings suggest that the role of retinoids in memory formation is ancient in origin, and that retinoid signaling is also important for the formation of implicit memories, in addition to its previously demonstrated role in hippocampal-dependent memories. PMID:24925874

  2. What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory?

    OpenAIRE

    Cowan, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    In the recent literature there has been considerable confusion about the three types of memory: long-term, short-term, and working memory. This chapter strives to reduce that confusion and makes up-to-date assessments of these types of memory. Long- and short-term memory could differ in two fundamental ways, with only short-term memory demonstrating (1) temporal decay and (2) chunk capacity limits. Both properties of short-term memory are still controversial but the current literature is rath...

  3. Astrocyte-neuron lactate transport is required for long-term memory formation

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Akinobu; Stern, Sarah A.; Bozdagi, Ozlem; Huntley, George W.; Walker, Ruth H.; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Alberini, Cristina M.

    2011-01-01

    We report that in the rat hippocampus learning leads to a significant increase in extracellular lactate levels, which derive from glycogen, an energy reserve selectively localized in astrocytes. Astrocytic glycogen breakdown and lactate release are essential for long-term but not short-term memory formation, and for the maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength elicited in-vivo. Disrupting the expression of the astrocytic lactate transporters monocarboxylate transporter...

  4. Long-term consolidation of declarative memory: insight from temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramoni, Eve; Felician, Olivier; Barbeau, Emmanuel J; Guedj, Eric; Guye, Maxime; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Ceccaldi, Mathieu

    2011-03-01

    Several experiments carried out with a subset of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy have demonstrated normal memory performance at standard delays of recall (i.e. minutes to hours) but impaired performance over longer delays (i.e. days or weeks), suggesting altered long-term consolidation mechanisms. These mechanisms were specifically investigated in a group of five adult-onset pharmaco-sensitive patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, exhibiting severe episodic memory complaints despite normal performance at standardized memory assessment. In a first experiment, the magnitude of autobiographical memory loss was evaluated using retrograde personal memory tasks based on verbal and visual cues. In both conditions, results showed an unusual U-shaped pattern of personal memory impairment, encompassing most of the patients' life, sparing however, periods of the childhood, early adulthood and past several weeks. This profile was suggestive of a long-term consolidation impairment of personal episodes, adequately consolidated over 'short-term' delays but gradually forgotten thereafter. Therefore, in a subsequent experiment, patients were submitted to a protocol specifically devised to investigate short and long-term consolidation of contextually-bound experiences (episodic memory) and context-free information (semantic knowledge and single-items). In the short term (1 h), performance at both contextually-free and contextually-bound memory tasks was intact. After a 6-week delay, however, contextually-bound memory performance was impaired while contextually-free memory performance remained preserved. This effect was independent of task difficulty and the modality of retrieval (recall and recognition). Neuroimaging studies revealed the presence of mild metabolic changes within medial temporal lobe structures. Taken together, these results show the existence of different consolidation systems within declarative memory. They suggest that mild medial temporal lobe dysfunction can impede the building and stabilization of episodic memories but leaves long-term semantic and single-items mnemonic traces intact. PMID:21354976

  5. Endogenous BDNF is required for long-term memory formation in the rat parietal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, Mariana; Bekinschtein, Pedro; Cammarota, Marti?n; Vianna, Monica R. M.; Izquierdo, Iva?n; Medina, Jorge H.

    2005-01-01

    Information storage in the brain is a temporally graded process involving different memory phases as well as different structures in the mammalian brain. Cortical plasticity seems to be essential to store stable long-term memories, although little information is available at the moment regarding molecular and cellular events supporting memory consolidation in the neocortex. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) modulates both short-term synaptic function and activity-dependent synaptic pla...

  6. Linking Working Memory and Long-Term Memory: A Computational Model of the Learning of New Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gary; Gobet, Fernand; Pine, Julian M.

    2007-01-01

    The nonword repetition (NWR) test has been shown to be a good predictor of children's vocabulary size. NWR performance has been explained using phonological working memory, which is seen as a critical component in the learning of new words. However, no detailed specification of the link between phonological working memory and long-term memory

  7. Long-term semantic representations moderate the effect of attentional refreshing on episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiza, Vanessa M; Duperreault, Kayla A; Rhodes, Matthew G; McCabe, David P

    2015-02-01

    The McCabe effect (McCabe, Journal of Memory and Language 58:480-494, 2008) refers to an advantage in episodic memory (EM) retrieval for memoranda studied in complex span versus simple span tasks, particularly for memoranda presented in earlier serial positions. This finding has been attributed to the necessity to refresh memoranda during complex span tasks that, in turn, promotes content-context binding in working memory (WM). Several frameworks have conceptualized WM as being embedded in long-term memory. Thus, refreshing may be less efficient when memoranda are not well-established in long-term semantic memory (SM). To investigate this, we presented words and nonwords in simple and complex span trials in order to manipulate the long-term semantic representations of the memoranda with the requirement to refresh the memoranda during WM. A recognition test was administered that required participants to make a remember-know decision for each memorandum recognized as old. The results replicated the McCabe effect, but only for words, and the beneficial effect of refreshing opportunities was exclusive to recollection. These results extend previous research by indicating that the predictive relationship between WM refreshing and long-term EM is specific to recollection and, furthermore, moderated by representations in long-term SM. This supports the predictions of WM frameworks that espouse the importance of refreshing in content-context binding, but also those that view WM as being an activated subset of and, therefore, constrained by the contents of long-term memory. PMID:24928092

  8. Metamemory ratings predict long-term changes in reactivated episodic memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoby, Amnon; Dudai, Yadin; Mendelsohn, Avi

    2015-01-01

    Reactivation of long-term memory can render the memory item temporarily labile, offering an opportunity to modify it via behavioral or pharmacological intervention. Declarative memory reactivation is accompanied by a metamemory ability to subjectively assess the knowledge available concerning the target item (Feeling of knowing, FOK). We set out to examine whether FOK can predict the extent of change of long-term episodic memories by post-retrieval manipulations. To this end, participants watched a short movie and were immediately thereafter tested on their memory for it. A day later, they were reminded of that movie, and either immediately or 1 day later, were presented with a second movie. The reminder phase consisted of memory cues to which participants were asked to judge their FOK regarding the original movie. The memory performance of participants to whom new information was presented immediately after reactivating the original episode corresponded to the degree of FOK ratings upon reactivation such that the lower their FOK, the less their memory declined. In contrast, no relation was found between FOK and memory strength for those who learned new information 1 day after the reminder phase. Our findings suggest that the subjective accessibility of reactivated memories may determine the extent to which new information might modify those memories. PMID:25709571

  9. SNAP-25 in hippocampal CA3 region is required for long-term memory formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SNAP-25 is a synaptosomal protein of 25 kDa, a key component of synaptic vesicle-docking/fusion machinery, and plays a critical role in exocytosis and neurotransmitter release. We previously reported that SNAP-25 in the hippocampal CA1 region is involved in consolidation of contextual fear memory and water-maze spatial memory (Hou et al. European J Neuroscience, 20: 1593-1603, 2004). SNAP-25 is expressed not only in the CA1 region, but also in the CA3 region, and the SNAP-25 mRNA level in the CA3 region is higher than in the CA1 region. Here, we provide evidence that SNAP-25 in the CA3 region is also involved in learning/memory. Intra-CA3 infusion of SNAP-25 antisense oligonucleotide impaired both long-term contextual fear memory and water-maze spatial memory, with short-term memory intact. Furthermore, the SNAP-25 antisense oligonucleotide suppressed the long-term potentiation (LTP) of field excitatory post-synaptic potential (fEPSP) in the mossy-fiber pathway (DG-CA3 pathway), with no effect on paired-pulse facilitation of the fEPSP. These results are consistent with the notion that SNAP-25 in the hippocampal CA3 region is required for long-term memory formation

  10. Transcriptional regulation of long-term memory in the marine snail Aplysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yong-Seok

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Whereas the induction of short-term memory involves only covalent modifications of constitutively expressed preexisting proteins, the formation of long-term memory requires gene expression, new RNA, and new protein synthesis. On the cellular level, transcriptional regulation is thought to be the starting point for a series of molecular steps necessary for both the initiation and maintenance of long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF. The core molecular features of transcriptional regulation involved in the long-term process are evolutionally conserved in Aplysia, Drosophila, and mouse, and indicate that gene regulation by the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB acting in conjunction with different combinations of transcriptional factors is critical for the expression of many forms of long-term memory. In the marine snail Aplysia, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the storage of long-term memory have been extensively studied in the monosynaptic connections between identified sensory neuron and motor neurons of the gill-withdrawal reflex. One tail shock or one pulse of serotonin (5-HT, a modulatory transmitter released by tail shocks, produces a transient facilitation mediated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase leading to covalent modifications in the sensory neurons that results in an enhancement of transmitter release and a strengthening of synaptic connections lasting minutes. By contrast, repeated pulses of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT induce a transcription- and translation-dependent long-term facilitation (LTF lasting more than 24 h and trigger the activation of a family of transcription factors in the presynaptic sensory neurons including ApCREB1, ApCREB2 and ApC/EBP. In addition, we have recently identified novel transcription factors that modulate the expression of ApC/EBP and also are critically involved in LTF. In this review, we examine the roles of these transcription factors during consolidation of LTF induced by different stimulation paradigms.

  11. Intrahippocampal Glutamine Administration Inhibits mTORC1 Signaling and Impairs Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas, Natalia S.; Redell, John B.; Pita-Almenar, Juan D.; McKenna, James, III.; Moore, Anthony N.; Gambello, Michael J.; Dash, Pramod K.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1), a key regulator of protein synthesis and cellular growth, is also required for long-term memory formation. Stimulation of mTORC1 signaling is known to be dependent on the availability of energy and growth factors, as well as the presence of amino acids. In vitro studies using serum- and amino…

  12. Long-Term Autobiographical Memory for Legal Involvement: Individual and Sociocontextual Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quas, Jodi A.; Alexander, Kristen Weede; Goodman, Gail S.; Ghetti, Simona; Edelstein, Robin S.; Redlich, Allison

    2010-01-01

    We examined adults' long-term autobiographical memory for a dramatic life event-participating as a child victim in a criminal prosecution because of alleged sexual abuse. The study is unique in several ways, including that we had extensive documentation concerning the sexual abuse allegations, the children's involvement in their legal case, and…

  13. Devil in the Details? Developmental Dyslexia and Visual Long-Term Memory for Details

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LynnHuestegge

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive theories on causes of developmental dyslexia can be divided into language-specific and general accounts. While the former assume that words are special in that associated processing problems are rooted in language-related cognition (e.g., phonology deficits, the latter propose that dyslexia is rather rooted in a general impairment of cognitive (e.g., visual and/or auditory processing streams. In the present study, we examined to what extent dyslexia (typically characterized by poor orthographic representations may be associated with a general deficit in visual long-term memory for details. We compared object- and detail-related visual long-term memory performance (and phonological skills between dyslexic primary school children and IQ-, age- and gender-matched controls. The results revealed that while the overall amount of long-term memory errors was comparable between groups, dyslexic children exhibited a greater portion of detail-related errors. The results suggest that not only phonological, but also general visual resolution deficits in long-term memory may play an important role in developmental dyslexia.

  14. Long-term dynamic structural memory in water: can it exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is no experimental evidence to support the hypothesis that water retains a memory of mechanical, magnetic, and electromagnetic influences it has been exposed to and of substances it has dissolved. After its solutes have been fully removed by repeated dilutions, the water does not remember having contained them or the external physical influences exerted upon it. There is no arguable reason that water should have a molecular information matrix capable of serving as long-term memory. (reviews of topical problems)

  15. The posterior parietal cortex and long-term memory representation of spatial information

    OpenAIRE

    Kesner, Raymond P.

    2008-01-01

    The hypothesis to be explored in this chapter is based on the assumption that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is directly involved in representing a subset of the spatial features associated with spatial information processing and plays an important role in perceptual memory as well as long-term memory encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of spatial information. After presentation of the anatomical location of the PPC in rats, the nature of PPC representation based on single spatial fea...

  16. Long-term olfactory memories are stabilised via protein synthesis in Camponotus fellah ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Fernando J; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Devaud, Jean-Marc; Giurfa, Martin

    2011-10-01

    Ants exhibit impressive olfactory learning abilities. Operant protocols in which ants freely choose between rewarded and non-rewarded odours have been used to characterise associative olfactory learning and memory. Yet, this approach precludes the use of invasive methods allowing the dissection of molecular bases of learning and memory. An open question is whether the memories formed upon olfactory learning that are retrievable several days after training are indeed based on de novo protein synthesis. Here, we addressed this question in the ant Camponotus fellah using a conditioning protocol in which individually harnessed ants learn an association between odour and reward. When the antennae of an ant are stimulated with sucrose solution, the insect extends its maxilla-labium to absorb the solution (maxilla-labium extension response). We differentially conditioned ants to discriminate between two long-chain hydrocarbons, one paired with sucrose and the other with quinine solution. Differential conditioning leads to the formation of a long-term memory retrievable at least 72 h after training. Long-term memory consolidation was impaired by the ingestion of cycloheximide, a protein synthesis blocker, prior to conditioning. Cycloheximide did not impair acquisition of either short-term memory (10 min) or early and late mid-term memories (1 or 12 h). These results show that, upon olfactory learning, ants form different memories with variable molecular bases. While short- and mid-term memories do not require protein synthesis, long-term memories are stabilised via protein synthesis. Our behavioural protocol opens interesting research avenues to explore the cellular and molecular bases of olfactory learning and memory in ants. PMID:21900478

  17. Similarities and Differences between Working Memory and Long-Term Memory: Evidence from the Levels-of-Processing Span Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Nathan S.; Myerson, Joel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Hale, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments compared the effects of depth of processing on working memory (WM) and long-term memory (LTM) using a levels-of-processing (LOP) span task, a newly developed WM span procedure that involves processing to-be-remembered words based on their visual, phonological, or semantic characteristics. Depth of processing had minimal effect on…

  18. Minimal effects on human memory following long-term living at moderate altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxing; Liu, Haichen; Yan, Xiaodan; Weng, Xuchu

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies describe memory deficits at extremely high altitudes. However, little is known about the effect of long-term living at moderate altitude (MA). The subjects for this study were 52 college students originally from sea level (SL), but studying at a MA of 2260?m over a 7-month period, with a return to SL for 30 days in the middle of the period. Fifty-two matched college students who stayed at SL all the time were the control group. The neuropsychological battery of assessments included the Chinese revised version of Wechsler Memory Scale tests (WMS-CR), verbal and spatial two-back working memory tests, long-term explicit memory (word recall and recognition of words, faces, and pictures) tests, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) test, degraded picture naming test, and the Serial Reaction Time Test. We found that the MA subjects showed significantly poorer performances than SL controls only in short-term visual construction assessed in the visual reproduction test from WMS-CR and in the ROCF immediate test. There were no significant differences in all other tasks between the MA group and SL group. These findings suggest that long-term hypoxic exposure at moderate altitude has minimal effects on human memory. PMID:21452964

  19. Accelerated long-term forgetting: a newly identified memory impairment in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Zoë; Mohamed, Armin; Ricci, Monica; Thayer, Zoë; Miller, Laurie

    2013-11-01

    Recently, a pattern referred to as accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) has been described in patients with epilepsy. In ALF, acquisition and retention over standard delayed recall intervals (up to 30 minutes) tend to be intact, but there is an abnormally rapid rate of forgetting over delays of days or weeks. ALF is associated with everyday memory complaints as well as impairments in autobiographical memory, but goes largely undetected by traditional neuropsychological measures. We consider here the characteristics of ALF and possible contributors to its underlying pathophysiology. Overall, a better understanding of this relatively newly recognised memory disorder should improve clinical treatment. PMID:24076316

  20. Immunoreactive LH in long-term frozen human urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet Kaur Surindar; Jimenez, Mark; Newman, Ron; Handelsman, David J

    2014-04-01

    Urine provides a convenient non-invasive alternative to blood sampling for measurement of certain hormones. Urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) measurements have been used for endocrinology research and anti-doping testing. However, the commercially available LH immunoassays are developed and validated for human blood samples but not urine so that LH assays intended for use with urine samples need thorough validation. Therefore, the present study evaluated the measurement of urinary LH immunoreactivity using previously validated immunofluorometric (IF) and immunochemiluminometric (ICL) LH assays after prolonged frozen storage. LH was measured in serial urine samples following administration of a single injection of one of two doses of recombinant human chorionic hormone (rhCG) with assays run at the end of study (2008) and again after four years of frozen (-20?°C) storage where samples were stored without adding preservatives. The ICL assay showed quantitatively reproducible LH measurements after prolonged -20?°C storage. However, the IF immunoassay gave consistently lower LH levels relative to ICL (2008) with a further proportionate reduction after four years of sample storage (2012). Yet, both the assays displayed similar patterns of the time-course of urine LH measurement both before and after four years of frozen storage. In conclusion, we found that both immunoassays are suitable for urinary LH measurements with ICL assay being more robust for quantitative urinary LH measurement such as for anti-doping purposes, whereas the IF could be applicable for research studies where urine LH levels are compared within-study but not in absolute terms. PMID:23606665

  1. High-precision visual long-term memory in children with high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuhong V; Palm, Bryce E; DeBolt, Michaela C; Goh, Yi Shuen

    2015-05-01

    Domain-general theories of autism rest on evidence that the disorder impacts not only social communication skills but also nonsocial functions such as memory. Yet recognition memory deficits have been inconsistently documented, especially for stimuli other than faces and sentences. Here we tested school-age children with high-functioning autism (ASD) and IQ, and age-matched comparison children on a visual long-term memory task involving more than 100 photographs of objects, faces, cats, houses, and abstract stimuli. Children viewed each photograph for 2 s. After a 10-min filled delay, we assessed recognition memory for object category as well as for specific exemplars. Data supported the presence of a high-capacity and high-precision visual memory in children with ASD. Both category memory and exemplar memory accuracies were above 90% for categories for which a single exemplar had been encoded. When more exemplars per category were encoded, category memory improved, but exemplar memory declined. An exception was face memory, which remained highly accurate even after many faces had been encoded. Our study provided no evidence that visual memory in general, and face memory in particular, is impaired in children with ASD. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25436998

  2. Nuclear protein phosphatase-1: an epigenetic regulator of fear memory and amygdala long-term potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshibu, K; Gräff, J; Mansuy, I M

    2011-01-26

    Complex brain diseases and neurological disorders in human generally result from the disturbance of multiple genes and signaling pathways. These disturbances may derive from mutations, deletions, translocations or rearrangements of specific gene(s). However, over the past years, it has become clear that such disturbances may also derive from alterations in the epigenome affecting several genes simultaneously. Our work recently demonstrated that epigenetic mechanisms in the adult brain are in part regulated by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), a protein Ser/Thr phosphatase that negatively regulates hippocampus-dependent long-term memory (LTM) and synaptic plasticity. PP1 is abundant in brain structures involved in emotional processing like the amygdala, it may therefore be involved in the regulation of fear memory, a form of memory related to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in human. Here, we demonstrate that PP1 is a molecular suppressor of fear memory and synaptic plasticity in the amygdala that can control chromatin remodeling in neurons. We show that the selective inhibition of the nuclear pool of PP1 in amygdala neurons significantly alters posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of histones and the expression of several memory-associated genes. These alterations correlate with enhanced fear memory, and with an increase in long-term potentiation (LTP) that is transcription-dependent. Our results underscore the importance of nuclear PP1 in the amygdala as an epigenetic regulator of emotional memory, and the relevance of protein phosphatases as potential targets for therapeutic treatment of brain disorders like PTSD. PMID:21093547

  3. Protein phosphatase 1 regulates the histone code for long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshibu, Kyoko; Gräff, Johannes; Beullens, Monique; Heitz, Fabrice D; Berchtold, Dominik; Russig, Holger; Farinelli, Mélissa; Bollen, Mathieu; Mansuy, Isabelle M

    2009-10-14

    Chromatin remodeling through histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs) and DNA methylation has recently been implicated in cognitive functions, but the mechanisms involved in such epigenetic regulation remain poorly understood. Here, we show that protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a critical regulator of chromatin remodeling in the mammalian brain that controls histone PTMs and gene transcription associated with long-term memory. Our data show that PP1 is present at the chromatin in brain cells and interacts with enzymes of the epigenetic machinery including HDAC1 (histone deacetylase 1) and histone demethylase JMJD2A (jumonji domain-containing protein 2A). The selective inhibition of the nuclear pool of PP1 in forebrain neurons in transgenic mice is shown to induce several histone PTMs that include not only phosphorylation but also acetylation and methylation. These PTMs are residue-specific and occur at the promoter of genes important for memory formation like CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) and NF-kappaB (nuclear factor-kappaB). These histone PTMs further co-occur with selective binding of RNA polymerase II and altered gene transcription, and are associated with improved long-term memory for objects and space. Together, these findings reveal a novel mechanism for the epigenetic control of gene transcription and long-term memory in the adult brain that depends on PP1. PMID:19828821

  4. Cues, context, and long-term memory: the role of the retrosplenial cortex in spatial cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M P Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Spatial navigation requires representations of landmarks and other navigation cues. The retrosplenial cortex (RSC is anatomically positioned between limbic areas important for memory formation, such as the hippocampus and the anterior thalamus, and cortical regions along the dorsal stream known to contribute importantly to long-term spatial representation, such as the posterior parietal cortex. Damage to the RSC severely impairs allocentric representations of the environment, including the ability to derive navigational information from landmarks. The specific deficits seen in tests of human and rodent navigation suggest that the RSC supports allocentric representation by processing the stable features of the environment and the spatial relationships among them. In addition to spatial cognition, the RSC plays a key role in contextual and episodic memory. The RSC also contributes importantly to the acquisition and consolidation of long-term spatial and contextual memory through its interactions with the hippocampus. Within this framework, the RSC plays a dual role as part of the feedforward network providing sensory and mnemonic input to the hippocampus and as a target of the hippocampal-dependent systems consolidation of long-term memory.

  5. Hippocampal long term memory: effect of the cholinergic system on local protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, Daniele; Cerbai, Francesca; Di Russo, Jacopo; Boscaro, Francesca; Giannetti, Ambra; Petkova-Kirova, Polina; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Giovannini, Maria Grazia

    2013-11-01

    The present study was aimed at establishing a link between the cholinergic system and the pathway of mTOR and its downstream effector p70S6K, likely actors in long term memory encoding. We performed in vivo behavioral experiments using the step down inhibitory avoidance test (IA) in adult Wistar rats to evaluate memory formation under different conditions, and immunohistochemistry on hippocampal slices to evaluate the level and the time-course of mTOR and p70S6K activation. We also examined the effect of RAPA, inhibitor of mTORC1 formation, and of the acetylcholine (ACh) muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine (SCOP) or ACh nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (MECA) on short and long term memory formation and on the functionality of the mTOR pathway. Acquisition test was performed 30 min after i.c.v. injection of RAPA, a time sufficient for the drug to diffuse to CA1 pyramidal neurons, as demonstrated by MALDI-TOF-TOF imaging. Recall test was performed 1 h, 4 h or 24 h after acquisition. To confirm our results we performed in vitro experiments on live hippocampal slices: we evaluated whether stimulation of the cholinergic system with the cholinergic receptor agonist carbachol (CCh) activated the mTOR pathway and whether the administration of the above-mentioned antagonists together with CCh could revert this activation. We found that (1) mTOR and p70S6K activation in the hippocampus were involved in long term memory formation; (2) RAPA administration caused inhibition of mTOR activation at 1 h and 4 h and of p70S6K activation at 4 h, and long term memory impairment at 24 h after acquisition; (3) scopolamine treatment caused short but not long term memory impairment with an early increase of mTOR/p70S6K activation at 1 h followed by stabilization at longer times; (4) mecamylamine plus scopolamine treatment caused short term memory impairment at 1 h and 4 h and reduced the scopolamine-induced increase of mTOR/p70S6K activation at 1 h and 4 h; (5) mecamylamine plus scopolamine treatment did not impair long term memory formation; (6) in vitro treatment with carbachol activated mTOR and p70S6K and this effect was blocked by scopolamine and mecamylamine. Taken together our data reinforce the idea that distinct molecular mechanisms are at the basis of the two different forms of memory and are in accordance with data presented by other groups that there exist molecular mechanisms that underlie short term memory, others that underlie long term memories, but some mechanisms are involved in both. PMID:24076274

  6. A brain model with the circuit to convert short-term memory into long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C W

    1997-03-01

    Assuming the existence of encoding synapses which record presynaptic axonal 'on-off' patterns as the contents of memory, and the existence of modulating synapses which help encoding synapses develop long-term potentiation and depression so as to convert short-term memory into long-term memory, it is possible to outline a brain model according to neuroanatomy. The loop of memory-conversion consists of the axons connecting the perceptive cortices, mesotemporal lobes, dorsomedial nuclei of thalamus (which also receive axons from septohippocampal complex and, indirectly, fornices), and prefrontal lobes. The contents of thought, feeling, dreaming, hallucination, and delusion all result from activation of different axonal 'on-off' patterns in many sets of synapses, and retrieval of memory, reactivation of the presynaptic axonal 'on-off' patterns in the correlating sets of synapses. In this model, degenerated synapses may be responsible for the thought disorder of schizophrenia. PMID:9140885

  7. Delayed Dopamine Signaling of Energy Level Builds Appetitive Long-Term Memory in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Musso

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sensory cues relevant to a food source, such as odors, can be associated with post-ingestion signals related either to food energetic value or toxicity. Despite numerous behavioral studies, a global understanding of the mechanisms underlying these long delay associations remains out of reach. Here, we demonstrate in Drosophila that the long-term association between an odor and a nutritious sugar depends on delayed post-ingestion signaling of energy level. We show at the neural circuit level that the activity of two pairs of dopaminergic neurons is necessary and sufficient to signal energy level to the olfactory memory center. Accordingly, we have identified in these dopaminergic neurons a delayed calcium trace that correlates with appetitive long-term memory formation. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that the Drosophila brain remembers food quality through a two-step mechanism that consists of the integration of olfactory and gustatory sensory information and then post-ingestion energetic value.

  8. Corresponding influences of top-down control on task switching and long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Franziska R; Yeung, Nick

    2014-11-18

    Three experiments investigated the impact of cognitive control on current performance and later memory in task switching. Participants first switched between object and word classification tasks, performed on picture-word stimuli that each appeared only once, then were tested for their recognition memory of these items. Each experiment replicated the recent finding that task switching results in reduced selectivity in later memory for task-relevant over task-irrelevant items. Top-down control was manipulated through varying the time available for advance task preparation (Experiment 1), the freedom of choice over which task to perform (Experiment 2), and the availability of reward incentives (Experiment 3). For each manipulation, more effective top-down control during task switching was associated with increased selectivity in memory for task-relevant information. These findings shed new light on the role of cognitive control in long-term memory encoding, in particular supporting an interactive model in which long-term memory reflects the enduring traces of perceptual and cognitive processes that operate under the selective influence of top-down control. PMID:25337969

  9. Protein phosphatase 1 regulates the histone code for long-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Koshibu, Kyoko; Gra?ff, Johannes; Beullens, Monique; Heitz, Fabrice D.; Berchtold, Dominik; Russig, Holger; Farinelli, Me?lissa; Bollen, Mathieu; Mansuy, Isabelle M.

    2009-01-01

    Chromatin remodeling through histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs) and DNA methylation has recently been implicated in cognitive functions, but the mechanisms involved in such epigenetic regulation remain poorly understood. Here, we show that protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a critical regulator of chromatin remodeling in the mammalian brain that controls histone PTMs and gene transcription associated with long-term memory. Our data show that PP1 is present at the chromatin in brain ce...

  10. Protein phosphatase 1-dependent transcriptional programs for long-term memory and plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Gra?ff, Johannes; Koshibu, Kyoko; Jouvenceau, Anne; Dutar, Patrick; Mansuy, Isabelle M.

    2010-01-01

    Gene transcription is essential for the establishment and the maintenance of long-term memory (LTM) and for long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity. The molecular mechanisms that control gene transcription in neuronal cells are complex and recruit multiple signaling pathways in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Protein kinases (PKs) and phosphatases (PPs) are important players in these mechanisms. Protein serine/threonine phosphatase 1 (PP1), in particular, was recently shown to be important f...

  11. Extreme event return times in long-term memory processes near 1/f

    OpenAIRE

    Sienz, F.; Fraedrich, K.; Blender, R.

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of extreme event return times and their correlations are analyzed in observed and simulated long-term memory (LTM) time series with 1/f power spectra. The analysis is based on tropical temperature and mixing ratio (specific humidity) time series from TOGA COARE with 1 min resolution and an approximate 1/f power spectrum. Extreme events are determined by Peak-Over-Threshold (POT) crossing. The Weibull distribution represents a reasonable fit to the return time distributions wh...

  12. Neurotrophins play differential roles in short and long-term recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Charlotte K; Kelly, Aine M

    2013-09-01

    The neurotrophin family of proteins are believed to mediate various forms of synaptic plasticity in the adult brain. Here we have assessed the roles of these proteins in object recognition memory in the rat, using icv infusions of function-blocking antibodies or the tyrosine kinase antagonist, tyrphostin AG879, to block Trk receptors. We report that tyrphostin AG879 impairs both short-term and long-term recognition memory, indicating a requirement for Trk receptor activation in both processes. The effect of inhibition of each of the neurotrophins with activity-blocking neutralising antibodies was also tested. Treatment with anti-BDNF, anti-NGF or anti-NT4 had no effect on short-term memory, but blocked long-term recognition memory. Treatment with anti-NT3 had no effect on either process. We also assessed changes in expression of neurotrophins and their respective receptors in the hippocampus, dentate gyrus and perirhinal cortex over a 24 h period following training in the object recognition task. We observed time-dependent changes in expression of the Trk receptors and their ligands in the dentate gyrus and perirhinal cortex. The data are consistent with a pivotal role for neurotrophic factors in the expression of recognition memory. PMID:23669064

  13. A requirement for the immediate early gene Zif268 in the expression of late LTP and long-term memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M W; Errington, M L; French, P J; Fine, A; Bliss, T V; Garel, S; Charnay, P; Bozon, B; Laroche, S; Davis, S

    2001-03-01

    The induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is associated with a rapid and robust transcription of the immediate early gene Zif268. We used a mutant mouse with a targeted disruption of Zif268 to ask whether this gene, which encodes a zinc finger transcription factor, is required for the maintenance of late LTP and for the expression of long-term memory. We show that whereas mutant mice exhibit early LTP in the dentate gyrus, late LTP is absent when measured 24 and 48 hours after tetanus in the freely moving animal. In both spatial and non-spatial learning tasks, short-term memory remained intact, whereas performance was impaired in tests requiring long-term memory. Thus, Zif268 is essential for the transition from short- to long-term synaptic plasticity and for the expression of long-term memories. PMID:11224546

  14. Exchange protein activated by cAMP enhances long-term memory formation independent of protein kinase A

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Nan; Abel, Ted; Hernandez, Pepe J.

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that cAMP signaling within neurons plays a major role in the formation of long-term memories—signaling thought to proceed through protein kinase A (PKA). However, here we show that exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) is able to enhance the formation of long-term memory in the hippocampus and appears to do so independent of PKA, thus demonstrating the importance of Epac-mediated signaling in memory consolidation.

  15. Deficient long-term memory and long-lasting long-term potentiation in mice with a targeted deletion of neurotrophin-4 gene

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Cui-Wei; Sayah, David; Chen, Qi-Sheng; Wei, Wei-Zheng; Smith, Desmond; LIU, XIN

    2000-01-01

    We examined the learning and memory of neurotrophin-4 (NT4)?/? mice by using fear conditioning. In both cue and context conditioning, we found significant deficits in the NT4 mutants at 2 and 24 h after training but not at 30 min. Hippocampal slices from the mutant mice showed normal basal synaptic transmission, short-term plasticity, and decremental long-term potentiation (LTP) at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. These findings, together with the normal short-term memory, suggest th...

  16. Long-term memory of color stimuli in the jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogale, Bezawork Afework; Sugawara, Satoshi; Sakano, Katsuhisa; Tsuda, Sonoko; Sugita, Shoei

    2012-03-01

    Wild-caught jungle crows (n = 20) were trained to discriminate between color stimuli in a two-alternative discrimination task. Next, crows were tested for long-term memory after 1-, 2-, 3-, 6-, and 10-month retention intervals. This preliminary study showed that jungle crows learn the task and reach a discrimination criterion (80% or more correct choices in two consecutive sessions of ten trials) in a few trials, and some even in a single session. Most, if not all, crows successfully remembered the constantly reinforced visual stimulus during training after all retention intervals. These results suggest that jungle crows have a high retention capacity for learned information, at least after a 10-month retention interval and make no or very few errors. This study is the first to show long-term memory capacity of color stimuli in corvids following a brief training that memory rather than rehearsal was apparent. Memory of visual color information is vital for exploitation of biological resources in crows. We suspect that jungle crows could remember the learned color discrimination task even after a much longer retention interval. PMID:21792628

  17. Fragile X mental retardation 1 and Filamin A interact genetically in Drosophila long-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FrancoisBolduc

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed the identification of single-gene defects associated with an impressive number of mental retardation syndromes. Fragile X syndrome, the most common cause of mental retardation for instance, results from disruption of the FMR1 gene. Similarly, Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia (PNH, which includes cerebral malformation, epilepsy and cognitive disabilities, derives from disruption of the Filamin A gene. While it remains unclear whether defects in common molecular pathways may underlie the cognitive dysfunction of these various syndromes, defects in cytoskeletal structure nonetheless appear to be common to several mental retardation syndromes. FMR1 is known to interact with Rac, profilin, PAK and Ras, which are associated with dendritic spine defects. In Drosophila, disruptions of the dFmr1 gene impair long-term memory, and the Filamin A homolog (cheerio was identified in a behavioral screen for long-term memory mutants. Thus, we investigated the possible interaction between cheerio and dFmr1 during long-term memory (LTM formation in Drosophila. We show that LTM specifically is defective in dFmr1/cheerio double heterozygotes, while it is normal in single heterozygotes for either dFmr1 or cheerio. In dFmr1 mutants, Filamin (Cheerio levels are lower than normal after spaced training. These observations support the notion that decreased actin cross-linking underlies the persistence of long and thin dendritic spines in Fragile X patients and animal models. More generally, our results represent the first demonstration of a genetic interaction between mental retardation genes in an in vivo model system of memory formation.

  18. Extreme event return times in long-term memory processes near 1/f

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sienz

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of extreme event return times and their correlations are analyzed in observed and simulated long-term memory (LTM time series with 1/f power spectra. The analysis is based on tropical temperature and mixing ratio (specific humidity time series from TOGA COARE with 1 min resolution and an approximate 1/f power spectrum. Extreme events are determined by Peak-Over-Threshold (POT crossing. The Weibull distribution represents a reasonable fit to the return time distributions while the power-law predicted by the stretched exponential for 1/f deviates considerably. For a comparison and an analysis of the return time predictability, a very long simulated time series with an approximate 1/f spectrum is produced by a fractionally differenced (FD process. This simulated data confirms the Weibull distribution (a power law can be excluded. The return time sequences show distinctly weaker long-term correlations than the original time series (correlation exponent ??0.56.

  19. A phenomenological memristor model for short-term/long-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Li, Chuandong; Huang, Tingwen; Ahmad, Hafiz Gulfam; Chen, Yiran

    2014-08-01

    Memristor is considered to be a natural electrical synapse because of its distinct memory property and nanoscale. In recent years, more and more similar behaviors are observed between memristors and biological synapse, e.g., short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). The traditional mathematical models are unable to capture the new emerging behaviors. In this article, an updated phenomenological model based on the model of the Hewlett-Packard (HP) Labs has been proposed to capture such new behaviors. The new dynamical memristor model with an improved ion diffusion term can emulate the synapse behavior with forgetting effect, and exhibit the transformation between the STM and the LTM. Further, this model can be used in building new type of neural networks with forgetting ability like biological systems, and it is verified by our experiment with Hopfield neural network.

  20. The influence of training views on infants' long-term memory for simple 3D shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraebel, Kimberly S; West, Rebecca N; Gerhardstein, Peter

    2007-05-01

    This investigation explored infants' ability to retrieve a memory for a simple 3D shape from a novel view following a 24-hr delay. Tests of memory for shape in infancy have typically used extremely short delay intervals between familiarization and test in examining the ability to equate between substantially different views of a 3D object. The current study used longer delays to assess the content of a long-term memory representation. Infants 3-4 months of age learned to kick to move a mobile displaying a simple 3D shape (brick or cylinder). Results of three experiments show that infants can recognize 3D shapes in a novel viewpoint across a 24-hr delay, provided that experience with a sufficiently wide range of views is available during training. The results suggest a capacity for the perception of 3D shape that enables access, across long delays, to a memory representation of sufficient detail that discrimination between two simple shapes (i.e., a cylinder and a brick) is possible. The results suggest that this representation is of a sufficiently abstract nature that perception of the 3D form of the object, independent of the changes in specific features accompanying changes in viewpoint, is also possible. This finding suggests that infants, like adults, possess a functional memory system for the distal shape of simple 3D objects, and can transfer training to a novel view using long-term memory, but that this ability is not as strong as in the mature system. These results have implications for the development of shape perception and for theories of object recognition in general. PMID:17455239

  1. Measuring capital market efficiency: long-term memory, fractal dimension and approximate entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav; Vosvrda, Miloslav

    2014-07-01

    We utilize long-term memory, fractal dimension and approximate entropy as input variables for the Efficiency Index [L. Kristoufek, M. Vosvrda, Physica A 392, 184 (2013)]. This way, we are able to comment on stock market efficiency after controlling for different types of inefficiencies. Applying the methodology on 38 stock market indices across the world, we find that the most efficient markets are situated in the Eurozone (the Netherlands, France and Germany) and the least efficient ones in the Latin America (Venezuela and Chile).

  2. Measuring capital market efficiency: Long-term memory, fractal dimension and approximate entropy.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    Jihlava : College of Polytechnics Jihlava, 2013 - (Vojackova, H.), s. 470-475 ISBN 978-80-87035-76-4. [International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Economics 2013 /31./. Jihlava (CZ), 11.09.2013-13.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA402/09/0965 Grant ostatní: MŠk(CZ) SVV265504 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : capital market efficiency * long-range dependence * fractal dimension * approximate entropy Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/kristoufek-measuring capital market efficienci long-term memory fractal dimension and approximate entropy.pdf

  3. Accelerated long-term forgetting in temporal lobe epilepsy: verbal, nonverbal and autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Jwala; Duncan, Rod; Greene, John; Leach, John-Paul; Razvi, Saif; McLean, John; Evans, Jonathan J

    2012-12-01

    Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) often present with memory complaints despite performing within normal limits on standard memory tests. One possible explanation for this phenomenon is accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF). The present study investigated material-specific ALF in patients with unilateral TLE and also examined whether ALF could be demonstrated on a novel, standardized anterograde autobiographical memory (ABM) task. Fourteen patients with TLE and 17 controls were administered verbal, nonverbal and ABM event memory tasks. The participants were tested for immediate recall, recall and recognition at 30-minute delay, and recall and recognition after four weeks. The extent of ALF was calculated based on the percentage decay of memory from the 30-minute delay trial to the four-week delay trial. Patients with left TLE showed significantly greater ALF for verbal material and a trend towards greater forgetting of ABM. Patients with right TLE showed a non-significant trend towards greater ALF for nonverbal material. Patients with unilateral hippocampal abnormalities showed greater ALF compared to patients without hippocampal abnormalities. Patients with seizures that generalize had more global memory deficits and greater ALF. We conclude that patients with unilateral TLE show material-specific ALF, which appears to be more pronounced with an abnormal hippocampus or seizures that secondarily generalize. PMID:23200623

  4. Sleep Improves Memory: The Effect of Sleep on Long Term Memory in Early Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Potkin, Katya Trudeau; Bunney, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep plays an important role in the consolidation of memory. This has been most clearly shown in adults for procedural memory (i.e. skills and procedures) and declarative memory (e.g. recall of facts). The effects of sleep and memory are relatively unstudied in adolescents. Declarative memory is important in school performance and consequent social functioning in adolescents. This is the first study to specifically examine the effects of normal sleep on auditory declarative memory in an earl...

  5. Attention, Working Memory, and Long-Term Memory in Multimedia Learning: An Integrated Perspective Based on Process Models of Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweppe, Judith; Rummer, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive models of multimedia learning such as the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (Mayer 2009) or the Cognitive Load Theory (Sweller 1999) are based on different cognitive models of working memory (e.g., Baddeley 1986) and long-term memory. The current paper describes a working memory model that has recently gained popularity in basic…

  6. The Drosophila cell adhesion molecule Klingon is required for long-term memory formation and is regulated by Notch

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuno, Motomi; Horiuchi, Junjiro; Tully, Tim; Saitoe, Minoru

    2008-01-01

    The ruslan (rus) mutant was previously identified in a behavioral screen for mutants defective in long-lasting memory, which consists of two consolidated memory types, anesthesia-resistant memory, and protein synthesis-dependent long-term memory (LTM). We demonstrate here that rus is a new allele of klingon (klg), which encodes a homophilic cell adhesion molecule. Klg is acutely required for LTM but not anesthesia-resistant memory formation, and Klg expression increases upon LTM induction. LT...

  7. Exchange Protein Activated by cAMP Enhances Long-Term Memory Formation Independent of Protein Kinase A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan; Abel, Ted; Hernandez, Pepe J.

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that cAMP signaling within neurons plays a major role in the formation of long-term memories--signaling thought to proceed through protein kinase A (PKA). However, here we show that exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) is able to enhance the formation of long-term memory in the hippocampus and appears to do so…

  8. The flavonol epicatechin reverses the suppressive effects of a stressor on long-term memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Bogdan; Lukowiak, Ken

    2014-11-15

    Learning and subsequent memory formation are influenced by both environmental and lifestyle factors, such as stress and diet. Epicatechin, a plant flavonol found in cocoa, red wine and green tea enhances long-term memory (LTM) formation in Lymnaea. By contrast, an ecologically relevant stressor, low-calcium pond water, suppresses LTM formation. We tested the hypothesis that epicatechin overcomes the suppressive effects of the stressor on LTM formation in the continued presence of the stressor. Snails trained in low-calcium pond water exhibit learning but not LTM. Epicatechin (15 mg l(-1)) in control pond water enhances LTM formation. When epicatechin was added to the low-calcium pond water an enhanced LTM similar to that seen in control pond water was observed. Thus, a naturally occurring bioactive plant compound was able to overcome the suppressive effects of an ecologically relevant stressor on LTM formation. PMID:25267853

  9. From Drosophila development to adult: clues to Notch function in long-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CedricSWesley

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Notch is a cell surface receptor that is well known to mediate inter-cellular communication during animal development. Data in the field indicate that it is also involved in the formation of long-term memory (LTM in the fully developed adults and in memory loss upon neurodegeneration. Our studies in the model organism Drosophila reveal that a non-canonical Notch-Protein Kinase C (PKC activity that plays critical roles in embryonic development also regulates Cyclic-AMP Response Element Binding protein (CREB during LTM formation in adults. Here we present a perspective on how the various known features of Notch function relate to LTM formation and how they might interface with elements of Wingless/Wnt signaling in this process.

  10. The coding theorem for a class of quantum channels with long-term memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we consider the transmission of classical information through a class of quantum channels with long-term memory, which are convex combinations of memoryless channels. Hence, the memory of such channels can be considered to be given by a Markov chain which is aperiodic but not irreducible. We prove the coding theorem and weak converse for this class of channels. The main techniques that we employ are a quantum version of Feinstein's fundamental lemma (Feinstein A 1954 IRE Trans. PGIT 4 2-22, Khinchin A I 1957 Mathematical Foundations of Information Theory: II. On the Fundamental Theorems of Information Theory (New York: Dover) chapter IV) and a generalization of Helstrom's theorem (Helstrom C W 1976 Quantum detection and estimation theory Mathematics in Science and Engineering vol 123 (London: Academic))

  11. Long-term memory in the Irish market (ISEQ): evidence from wavelet analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sharkasi, A; Crane, M; Sharkasi, Adel; Ruskin, Heather J.; Crane, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have used many different methods to detect the possibility of long-term dependence (long memory) in stock market returns, but evidence is in general mixed. In this paper, three different tests, (namely Rescaled Range (R/S), its modified form, and the semi-parametric method (GPH)), in addition to a new approach using the discrete wavelet transform, (DWT), have been applied to the daily returns of five Irish Stock Exchange (ISEQ) indices. These methods have also been applied to the volatility measures (namely absolute and squared returns). The aim is to investigate the existence of long-term memory properties. The indices are Overall, Financial, General, Small Cap and ITEQ and the results of these approaches show that there is no evidence of long-range dependence in the returns themselves, while there is strong evidence for such dependence in the squared and absolute returns. Moreover, the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) provides additional insight on the series breakdown. In particular, in compari...

  12. Continuum Climate Variability:. Long-Term Memory, Scaling, and 1/F-NOISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraedrich, Klaus; Blender, Richard; Zhu, Xiuhua

    Continuum temperature variability represents the response of the Earth's climate to deterministic external forcing. Scaling regimes are observed which range from hours to millennia with low frequency fluctuations characterizing long-term memory. The presence of 1/f power spectra in weather and climate is noteworthy: (i) In the tropical atmosphere 1/f scaling ranging from hours to weeks is found for several variables; it emerges as superposition of uncorrelated pulses with individual 1/f spectra. (ii) The daily discharge of the Yangtze shows 1/f within one week to one year, although the precipitation spectrum is white. (iii) Beyond one year mid-latitude sea surface temperatures reveal 1/f scaling in large parts of the global ocean. The spectra can be simulated by complex atmosphere-ocean general circulation models and understood as a two layer heat diffusion process forced by an uncorrelated stochastic atmospheric. Long-term memory on time scales up to millennia are the global sea surface temperatures and the Greenland ice core records (GISP2, GRIP) with ?18O temperature proxy data during the Holocene. Complex atmosphere ocean general circulation models reproduce this behavior quantitatively up to millennia without solar variability, interacting land-ice and vegetation components.

  13. Visual recognition memory, manifested as long-term habituation, requires synaptic plasticity in V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Sam F; Komorowski, Robert W; Kaplan, Eitan S; Gavornik, Jeffrey P; Bear, Mark F

    2015-02-01

    Familiarity with stimuli that bring neither reward nor punishment, manifested through behavioral habituation, enables organisms to detect novelty and devote cognition to important elements of the environment. Here we describe in mice a form of long-term behavioral habituation to visual grating stimuli that is selective for stimulus orientation. Orientation-selective habituation (OSH) can be observed both in exploratory behavior in an open arena and in a stereotyped motor response to visual stimuli in head-restrained mice. We found that the latter behavioral response, termed a 'vidget', requires V1. Parallel electrophysiological recordings in V1 revealed that plasticity, in the form of stimulus-selective response potentiation (SRP), occurred in layer 4 of V1 as OSH developed. Local manipulations of V1 that prevented and reversed electrophysiological modifications likewise prevented and reversed memory demonstrated behaviorally. These findings suggest that a form of long-term visual recognition memory is stored via synaptic plasticity in primary sensory cortex. PMID:25599221

  14. Forward processing of long-term associative memory in monkey inferotemporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naya, Yuji; Yoshida, Masatoshi; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2003-04-01

    The macaque inferotemporal (IT) cortex, which serves as the storehouse of visual long-term memory, consists of two distinct but mutually interconnected areas: area TE (TE) and area 36 (A36). In the present study, we tested whether memory encoding is put forward at this stage, i.e., whether association between the representations of different but semantically linked objects proceeds forward from TE to A36. To address this question, we trained monkeys in a pair-association (PA) memory task, after which single-unit activities were recorded from TE and A36 during PA trials. Neurons in both areas showed stimulus-selective cue responses (347 in TE, 76 in A36; "cue-selective neurons") that provided, at the population level, mnemonic linkage between the paired associates. The percentage of neurons in which responses to the paired associates were significantly (p A36 (33%). The pair-coding neurons in A36 were further separable into Type1 (68%) and Type2 (32%) on the basis of their initial transient responses after cue stimulus presentation. Type1 neurons, but not Type2 neurons, began to encode association between paired stimuli as soon as they exhibited stimulus selectivity. Thus, the representation of long-term memory encoded by Type1 neurons in A36 is likely substantiated without feedback input from other higher centers. Therefore, we conclude that association between the representations of the paired associates proceeds forward at this critical step within IT cortex, suggesting selective convergence onto a single A36 neuron from two TE neurons that encode separate visual objects. PMID:12684473

  15. Rio Blanco, Colorado, Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results for 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site, for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 13 and 14, 2009. Samples were analyzed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation&Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectroscopy and tritium using the conventional and enriched methods.

  16. Unforgettable film music: The role of emotion in episodic long-term memory for music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altenmüller Eckart O

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Specific pieces of music can elicit strong emotions in listeners and, possibly in connection with these emotions, can be remembered even years later. However, episodic memory for emotional music compared with less emotional music has not yet been examined. We investigated whether emotional music is remembered better than less emotional music. Also, we examined the influence of musical structure on memory performance. Results Recognition of 40 musical excerpts was investigated as a function of arousal, valence, and emotional intensity ratings of the music. In the first session the participants judged valence and arousal of the musical pieces. One week later, participants listened to the 40 old and 40 new musical excerpts randomly interspersed and were asked to make an old/new decision as well as to indicate arousal and valence of the pieces. Musical pieces that were rated as very positive were recognized significantly better. Conclusion Musical excerpts rated as very positive are remembered better. Valence seems to be an important modulator of episodic long-term memory for music. Evidently, strong emotions related to the musical experience facilitate memory formation and retrieval.

  17. Errors in nonword repetition: bridging short- and long-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.H. Santos

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the working memory model, the phonological loop is the component of working memory specialized in processing and manipulating limited amounts of speech-based information. The Children's Test of Nonword Repetition (CNRep is a suitable measure of phonological short-term memory for English-speaking children, which was validated by the Brazilian Children's Test of Pseudoword Repetition (BCPR as a Portuguese-language version. The objectives of the present study were: i to investigate developmental aspects of the phonological memory processing by error analysis in the nonword repetition task, and ii to examine phoneme (substitution, omission and addition and order (migration errors made in the BCPR by 180 normal Brazilian children of both sexes aged 4-10, from preschool to 4th grade. The dominant error was substitution [F(3,525 = 180.47; P < 0.0001]. The performance was age-related [F(4,175 = 14.53; P < 0.0001]. The length effect, i.e., more errors in long than in short items, was observed [F(3,519 = 108.36; P < 0.0001]. In 5-syllable pseudowords, errors occurred mainly in the middle of the stimuli, before the syllabic stress [F(4,16 = 6.03; P = 0.003]; substitutions appeared more at the end of the stimuli, after the stress [F(12,48 = 2.27; P = 0.02]. In conclusion, the BCPR error analysis supports the idea that phonological loop capacity is relatively constant during development, although school learning increases the efficiency of this system. Moreover, there are indications that long-term memory contributes to holding memory trace. The findings were discussed in terms of distinctiveness, clustering and redintegration hypotheses.

  18. Protein degradation and protein synthesis in long-term memory formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred J Helmstetter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term memory (LTM formation requires transient changes in the activity of intracellular signaling cascades that are thought to regulate new gene transcription and de novo protein synthesis in the brain. Consistent with this, protein synthesis inhibitors impair LTM for a variety of behavioral tasks when infused into the brain around the time of training or following memory retrieval, suggesting that protein synthesis is a critical step in LTM storage in the brain. However, evidence suggests that protein degradation mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system may also be a critical regulator of LTM formation and stability following retrieval. This requirement for increased protein degradation has been shown in the same brain regions in which protein synthesis is required for LTM storage. Additionally, increases in the phosphorylation of proteins involved in translational control parallel increases in protein polyubiquitination and the increased demand for protein degradation is regulated by intracellular signaling molecules thought to regulate protein synthesis during LTM formation. In some cases inhibiting proteasome activity can rescue memory impairments that result from pharmacological blockade of protein synthesis, suggesting that protein degradation may control the requirement for protein synthesis during the memory storage process. Results such as these suggest that protein degradation and synthesis are both critical for LTM formation and may interact to properly “consolidate” and store memories in the brain. Here, we review the evidence implicating protein synthesis and degradation in LTM storage and highlight the areas of overlap between these two opposing processes. We also discuss evidence suggesting these two processes may interact to properly form and store memories. LTM storage likely requires a coordinated regulation between protein degradation and synthesis at multiple sites in the mammalian brain.

  19. Combining Stressors That Individually Impede Long-Term Memory Blocks All Memory Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Dalesman, Sarah; Sunada, Hiroshi; Teskey, Morgan Lee; Lukowiak, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The effects of stress on memory are typically assessed individually; however, in reality different stressors are often experienced simultaneously. Here we determined the effect that two environmentally relevant stressors, crowding and low calcium availability, have on memory and neural activity following operant conditioning of aerial respiration in the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. We measured aerial breathing behaviour and activity of a neuron necessary for memory formation, right pedal do...

  20. Extreme event return times in long-term memory processes near 1/f

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blender, R.; Fraedrich, K.; Sienz, F.

    2008-07-01

    The distribution of extreme event return times and their correlations are analyzed in observed and simulated long-term memory (LTM) time series with 1/f power spectra. The analysis is based on tropical temperature and mixing ratio (specific humidity) time series from TOGA COARE with 1 min resolution and an approximate 1/f power spectrum. Extreme events are determined by Peak-Over-Threshold (POT) crossing. The Weibull distribution represents a reasonable fit to the return time distributions while the power-law predicted by the stretched exponential for 1/f deviates considerably. For a comparison and an analysis of the return time predictability, a very long simulated time series with an approximate 1/f spectrum is produced by a fractionally differenced (FD) process. This simulated data confirms the Weibull distribution (a power law can be excluded). The return time sequences show distinctly weaker long-term correlations than the original time series (correlation exponent style="text-decoration:overline">??0.56).

  1. The effect of crying on long-term memory in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagen, J W; Ohr, P S; Fleckenstein, L K; Ribner, D R

    1985-12-01

    The influence of crying on infants' long-term memory for a learned response was investigated in 3 experiments. In each, infants were trained to move a crib mobile containing 10 identical objects by means of kicking and were then exposed to a reinforcer containing only 2 of these components. This shift in component numerosity produced crying in 53% of the infants. Infants who cried in response to the reward shift evidenced no retention of the contingency 1 week later (Experiment 1) but did have excellent retention at 1 day (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, a brief reactivation treatment alleviated forgetting at 3 weeks regardless of the presence of crying in response to the change in mobiles. An unexpected recency effect characterized the efficacy of the reactivation treatment. The results indicate that crying in response to the violation of a reward-expectation habit functions as an amnesic agent to produce accelerated forgetting. PMID:4075876

  2. Interdisciplinary Approach to the Mental Lexicon: Neural Network and Text Extraction From Long-term Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardan G. Arutyunyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper touches upon the principles of mental lexicon organization in the light of recent research in psycho- and neurolinguistics. As a focal point of discussion two main approaches to mental lexicon functioning are considered: modular or dual-system approach, developed within generativism and opposite single-system approach, representatives of which are the connectionists and supporters of network models. The paper is an endeavor towards advocating the viewpoint that mental lexicon is complex psychological organization based upon specific composition of neural network. In this regard, the paper further elaborates on the matter of storing text in human mental space and introduces a model of text extraction from long-term memory. Based upon data available, the author develops a methodology of modeling structures of knowledge representation in the systems of artificial intelligence.

  3. The effect of cognitive reappraisal on long-term emotional experience and emotional memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyeon Min; Kim, Shin Ah; Hwang, In Jae; Jeong, Ji Woon; Kim, Hyun Taek; Hamann, Stephan; Kim, Sang Hee

    2015-03-01

    One's ability to properly regulate emotion is critical to psychological and physical well-being. Among various strategies to regulate emotion, cognitive reappraisal has been shown to modulate both emotional experience and emotional memory. However, most studies of reappraisal have focused on reappraisal of negative situations, with reappraisal of positive emotion receiving considerably less attention. In addition, the effects of reappraisal on emotional reactions to stimuli are typically only assessed either immediately or after a short delay, and it remains unclear whether reappraisal effects persist over longer time periods. We investigated the effect of cognitive reappraisal on emotional reactions and long-term episodic memory for positive and negative stimuli. Men and women viewed emotionally negative, positive, and neutral pictures while they were instructed to either increase, decrease, or maintain the initial emotional reactions elicited by the pictures. Subjective ratings of emotional valence and arousal were assessed during the regulation task and again after 1 week. Memory for the pictures was assessed with free recall. Results indicated that pictures accompanied by instructions to increase emotion were better recalled than pictures reappraised to decrease emotion. Modulation of emotional arousal elicited by stimuli persisted over a week, but this effect was observed only for men. These findings suggest that cognitive reappraisal can have long-lasting effects on emotional reactions to stimuli. However, the sex differences observed for the effects of reappraisal on emotional reactions highlight the importance of considering individual differences in the effects of regulation. PMID:24330427

  4. Long-term mild exercise training enhances hippocampus-dependent memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K; Hanaoka, Y; Nishijima, T; Okamoto, M; Chang, H; Saito, T; Soya, H

    2015-04-01

    Although exercise training improves hippocampus-related cognition, the optimum exercise intensity is still disputed. Based on the lactate threshold (LT, approximately 20?m/min on treadmill) of rats, we have shown that 2 weeks of training with stress-free mild exercise (ME, LT), comprising exercise stress, promotes adult hippocampal neurogenesis (Okamoto et al., PNAS, 2012), a potential substrate for memory improvement. These results led us to postulate that long-term ME, but not IE, training leads to improved hippocampal function as assessed with a Morris water maze (MWM) task. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the changes in physiological stress levels and MWM task performance in rats assigned to 6 weeks of sedentary control (CONT), ME-training or IE-training conditions. Results showed that, compared to the other conditions, only IE causes general adaptive syndrome (GAS), including adrenal hypertrophy, thymic atrophy and hypercorticosteronemia. In the MWM, ME led to enhanced memory, but not learning, compared with CONT, while IE produced no change in either capacity, probably due to GAS. These findings support the hypothesis that 6 weeks of continuous ME training leads to enhanced hippocampus-related memory, which may have implications for both healthy adults and subjects with low physical capacity. PMID:25429548

  5. Intermediate and long-term memory are different at the neuronal level in Lymnaea stagnalis (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Marvin H; Lukowiak, Ken

    2011-09-01

    Both intermediate-term memory (ITM) and long-term memory (LTM) require novel protein synthesis; however, LTM also requires gene transcription. This suggests that the behavioural output of the two processes may be produced differently at the neuronal level. The fresh-water snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, can be operantly conditioned to decrease its rate of aerial respiration and, depending on the training procedure, the memory can last 3h (ITM) or >24h (LTM). RPeD1, one of the 3 interneurons that form the respiratory central pattern generator (CPG) that drives aerial respiration, is necessary for memory formation. By comparing RPeD1's electrophysiological properties in naïve, 'ITM-trained', 'LTM-trained' and yoked control snails we discovered that while the behavioural phenotype of memory at 3 and 24h is identical, the situation at the neuronal level is different. When examined 3h after either the 'ITM' or 'LTM' training procedure RPeD1 activity is significantly depressed. That is, the firing rate, input resistance, excitability and the number of action potential bursts are all significantly decreased. In snails receiving the ITM-training, these changes return to normal 24h post-training. However, in snails receiving the 'LTM-training', measured RPeD1 properties (firing rate, excitability, membrane resistance, and the number of action potential bursts fired) are significantly different at 24h than they were at 3h. Additionally, 24h following LTM training RPeD1 appears to be functionally "uncoupled" from its control of the pneumostome as the link between RPeD1 excitation and pneumostome opening is weakened. These data suggest that the behavioural changes occurring during LTM are due to more widespread neuronal reorganization than similar behavioural changes occurring during ITM. Thus ITM and LTM are not just distinct in a chronological and transcriptional manner but are also distinct at the level of neuronal properties. PMID:21757019

  6. Long-term potentiation in bone – a role for glutamate in strain-induced cellular memory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genever Paul G

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adaptive response of bone cells to mechanical strain is a primary determinant of skeletal architecture and bone mass. In vivo mechanical loading induces new bone formation and increases bone mineral density whereas disuse, immobilisation and weightlessness induce bone loss. The potency of mechanical strain is such that a single brief period of loading at physiological strain magnitude is able to induce a long-lasting osteogenic response that lasts for days. Although the process of mechanotransduction in bone is incompletely understood, observations that responses to mechanical strain outlast the duration of stimulation necessitate the existence of a form of cellular memory through which transient strain episodes are recorded, interpreted and remembered by bone cells. Recent evidence supports the existence of a complex multicellular glutamate-signalling network in bone that shares functional similarities to glutamatergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system. In neurones, these signalling molecules coordinate synaptic communication required to support learning and memory formation, through a complex process of long-term potentiation. Presentation of the hypothesis We hypothesise that osteoblasts use a cellular mechanism similar or identical to neuronal long-term potentiation in the central nervous system to mediate long-lasting changes in osteogenesis following brief periods of mechanical strain. Testing the hypothesis N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonism should inhibit the saturating response of mechanical strain and reduce the enhanced osteogenicity of segregated loading to that of an equivalent period of uninterrupted loading. Changes in ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole propionate (AMPA receptor expression, localisation and electrophysiological responses should be induced by mechanical strain and inhibited by modulators of neuronal long-term potentiation. Implications of the hypothesis If true, this hypothesis would provide a mechanism through which the skeleton could be pharmacologically primed to enhance or retrieve the normal osteogenic response to exercise. This would form a basis through which novel therapies could be developed to target osteoporosis and other prevalent bone disorders associated with low bone mass.

  7. Brief, pre-retrieval stress differentially influences long-term memory depending on sex and corticosteroid response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Kalchik, Andrea E; Hoffman, Mackenzie M; Aufdenkampe, Rachael L; Burke, Hanna M; Woelke, Sarah A; Pisansky, Julia M; Talbot, Jeffery N

    2014-03-01

    Previous work has indicated that stress generally impairs memory retrieval. However, little research has addressed discrepancies that exist in this line of work and the factors that could explain why stress can exert differential effects on retrieval processes. Therefore, we examined the influence of brief, pre-retrieval stress that was administered immediately before testing on long-term memory in males and females. Participants learned a list of 42 words varying in emotional valence and arousal. Following the learning phase, participants were given an immediate free recall test. Twenty-four hours later, participants submerged their non-dominant hand in a bath of ice cold (Stress) or warm (No Stress) water for 3 min. Immediately following this manipulation, participants' memory for the word list was assessed via free recall and recognition tests. We observed no group differences on short-term memory. However, male participants who showed a robust cortisol response to the stress exhibited enhanced long-term recognition memory, while male participants who demonstrated a blunted cortisol response to the stress exhibited impaired long-term recall and recognition memory. These findings suggest that the effects of brief, pre-retrieval stress on long-term memory are sex-specific and mediated by corticosteroid mechanisms. PMID:24509087

  8. DAT genotype modulates striatal processing and long-term memory for items associated with reward and punishment?

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmann, Bianca C.; Tan, Geoffrey C.; Lisman, John E.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Du?zel, Emrah

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that appetitive motivation enhances episodic memory formation via a network including the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), striatum and hippocampus. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study now contrasted the impact of aversive and appetitive motivation on episodic long-term memory. Cue pictures predicted monetary reward or punishment in alternating experimental blocks. One day later, episodic memory for the cue pictures was tested. ...

  9. Stress Management Interventions and Predictors of Long-term Health : Prospectively Controlled Studies on Long-term Pain Patients and a Healthy Sample from IT- and Media Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Hasson, Dan

    2005-01-01

    This thesis reports on the effects of stress management on long-term pain patients and on a healthy sample from IT and media companies; two groups that are commonly exposed to high stress levels. Even if there are important differences between these two groups, there are similarities such as the necessity for effective stress management. Stress-related and musculoskeletal disorders are major public health issues in most industrialized countries and are expected to become increasingly common d...

  10. Effects of long-term electromagnetic field exposure on spatial learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Dongmei; Yang, Lei; Chen, Su; Tong, Jun; Tian, Yonghao; Su, Benhang; Wu, Shuicai; Zeng, Yanjun

    2013-02-01

    With the development of communications industry, mobile phone plays an important role in daily life. Whether or not the electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile phone causes any adverse effects on brain function has become of a great concern. This paper investigated the effect of electromagnetic field on spatial learning and memory in rats. 32 trained Wistar rats were divided into two groups: exposure group and control group. The exposure group was exposed to 916 MHz, 10w/m2 mobile phone electromagnetic field (EMF) 6 h a day, 5 days a week, 10 weeks. The completion time, number of total errors and the neuron discharge signals were recorded while the rats were searching for food in an eight-arm radial maze at every weekend. The neuron signals of one exposed rat and one control rat in the maze were obtained by the implanted microelectrode arrays in their hippocampal regions. It can be seen that during the weeks 4-5 of the experiment, the average completion time and error rate of the exposure group were longer and larger than that of control group (p influence learning and memory in rats to some extent in a period during exposure, and the rats can adapt to long-term EMF exposure. PMID:22362331

  11. Divergent short- and long-term effects of acute stress in object recognition memory are mediated by endogenous opioid system activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Mesa, Mauricio O; Lamprea, Marisol R; Múnera, Alejandro

    2013-11-01

    Acute stress induces short-term object recognition memory impairment and elicits endogenous opioid system activation. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate whether opiate system activation mediates the acute stress-induced object recognition memory changes. Adult male Wistar rats were trained in an object recognition task designed to test both short- and long-term memory. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive an intraperitoneal injection of saline, 1 mg/kg naltrexone or 3 mg/kg naltrexone, four and a half hours before the sample trial. Five minutes after the injection, half the subjects were submitted to movement restraint during four hours while the other half remained in their home cages. Non-stressed subjects receiving saline (control) performed adequately during the short-term memory test, while stressed subjects receiving saline displayed impaired performance. Naltrexone prevented such deleterious effect, in spite of the fact that it had no intrinsic effect on short-term object recognition memory. Stressed subjects receiving saline and non-stressed subjects receiving naltrexone performed adequately during the long-term memory test; however, control subjects as well as stressed subjects receiving a high dose of naltrexone performed poorly. Control subjects' dissociated performance during both memory tests suggests that the short-term memory test induced a retroactive interference effect mediated through light opioid system activation; such effect was prevented either by low dose naltrexone administration or by strongly activating the opioid system through acute stress. Both short-term memory retrieval impairment and long-term memory improvement observed in stressed subjects may have been mediated through strong opioid system activation, since they were prevented by high dose naltrexone administration. Therefore, the activation of the opioid system plays a dual modulating role in object recognition memory. PMID:24036398

  12. Inert gas narcosis disrupts encoding but not retrieval of long term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Malcolm; Kneller, Wendy

    2015-05-15

    Exposure to increased ambient pressure causes inert gas narcosis of which one symptom is long-term memory (LTM) impairment. Narcosis is posited to impair LTM by disrupting information encoding, retrieval (self-guided search), or both. The effect of narcosis on the encoding and retrieval of LTM was investigated by testing the effect of learning-recall pressure and levels of processing (LoP) on the free-recall of word lists in divers underwater. All participants (n=60) took part in four conditions in which words were learnt and then recalled at either low pressure (1.4-1.9atm/4-9msw) or high pressure (4.4-5.0atm/34-40msw), as manipulated by changes in depth underwater: low-low (LL), low-high(LH), high-high (HH), and high-low (HL). In addition, participants were assigned to either a deep or shallow processing condition, using LoP methodology. Free-recall memory ability was significantly impaired only when words were initially learned at high pressure (HH & HL conditions). When words were learned at low pressure and then recalled at low pressure (LL condition) or high pressure (LH condition) free-recall was not impaired. Although numerically superior in several conditions, deeper processing failed to significantly improve free-recall ability in any of the learning-recall conditions. This pattern of results support the hypothesis that narcosis disrupts encoding of information into LTM, while retrieval appears to be unaffected. These findings are discussed in relation to similar effects reported by some memory impairing drugs and the practical implications for workers in pressurised environments. PMID:25725120

  13. Differential role of entorhinal and hippocampal nerve growth factor in short- and long-term memory modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walz R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of infusion of nerve growth factor (NGF into the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex of male Wistar rats (250-300 g, N = 11-13 per group on inhibitory avoidance retention. In order to evaluate the modulation of entorhinal and hippocampal NGF in short- and long-term memory, animals were implanted with cannulae in the CA1 area of the dorsal hippocampus or entorhinal cortex and trained in one-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance (foot shock, 0.4 mA. Retention tests were carried out 1.5 h or 24 h after training to measure short- and long-term memory, respectively. Immediately after training, rats received 5 µl NGF (0.05, 0.5 or 5.0 ng or saline per side into the CA1 area and entorhinal cortex. The correct position of the cannulae was confirmed by histological analysis. The highest dose of NGF (5.0 ng into the hippocampus blocked short-term memory (P < 0.05, whereas the doses of 0.5 (P < 0.05 and 5.0 ng (P < 0.01 NGF enhanced long-term memory. NGF administration into the entorhinal cortex improved long-term memory at the dose of 5.0 ng (P < 0.05 and did not alter short-term memory. Taken as a whole, our results suggest a differential modulation by entorhinal and hippocampal NGF of short- and long-term memory.

  14. Long-term memory formation in Drosophila requires training-dependent glial transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Motomi; Horiuchi, Junjiro; Yuasa, Yoshihiro; Ofusa, Kyoko; Miyashita, Tomoyuki; Masuda, Tomoko; Saitoe, Minoru

    2015-04-01

    Long-term memory (LTM) formation requires de novo gene expression in neurons, and subsequent structural and functional modification of synapses. However, the importance of gene expression in glia during this process has not been well studied. In this report, we characterize a cell adhesion molecule, Klingon (Klg), which is required for LTM formation in Drosophila. We found that Klg localizes to the juncture between neurons and glia, and expression in both cell types is required for LTM. We further found that expression of a glial gene, repo, is reduced in klg mutants and knockdown lines. repo expression is required for LTM, and expression increases upon LTM induction. In addition, increasing repo expression in glia is sufficient to restore LTM in klg knockdown lines. These data indicate that neuronal activity enhances Klg-mediated neuron-glia interactions, causing an increase in glial expression of repo. Repo is a homeodomain transcription factor, suggesting that further downstream glial gene expression is also required for LTM. PMID:25855172

  15. Fan-Shaped Body Neurons Are Involved in "Period"-Dependent Regulation of Long-Term Courtship Memory in "Drosophila"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Takaomi; Inami, Show; Sato, Shoma; Kitamoto, Toshihiro

    2012-01-01

    In addition to its established function in the regulation of circadian rhythms, the "Drosophila" gene "period" ("per") also plays an important role in processing long-term memory (LTM). Here, we used courtship conditioning as a learning paradigm and revealed that (1) overexpression and knocking down of "per" in subsets of brain neurons enhance and…

  16. Long-Term Memory for the Terrorist Attack of September 11: Flashbulb Memories, Event Memories, and the Factors that Influence Their Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, William; Phelps, Elizabeth A.; Buckner, Randy L.; Budson, Andrew E.; Cuc, Alexandru; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Johnson, Marcia K.; Lustig, Cindy; Lyle, Keith B.; Mather, Mara; Meksin, Robert; Mitchell, Karen J.; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Schacter, Daniel L.; Simons, Jon S.; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2009-01-01

    More than 3,000 individuals from 7 U.S. cities reported on their memories of learning of the terrorist attacks of September 11, as well as details about the attack, 1 week, 11 months, and/or 35 months after the assault. Some studies of flashbulb memories examining long-term retention show slowing in the rate of forgetting after a year, whereas…

  17. A Diffusion Model Analysis of Adult Age Differences in Episodic and Semantic Long-Term Memory Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Spaniol, Julia; Madden, David J.; Voss, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments investigated adult age differences in episodic and semantic long-term memory tasks, as a test of the hypothesis of specific age-related decline in context memory. Older adults were slower and exhibited lower episodic accuracy than younger adults. Fits of the diffusion model (R. Ratcliff, 1978) revealed age-related increases in nondecisional reaction time for both episodic and semantic retrieval. In Experiment 2, an age difference in boundary separation also indicated an age-re...

  18. 2010 Survey on long-term preservation of information and memory for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preservation of information and memory across generations is a cross-cutting theme of increasing importance for radioactive waste management. Because of the experience accumulated by the advanced national programmes that the RWMC represents, and the breadth of its related high-level initiatives, the Committee is uniquely placed internationally to combine resources and help develop state-of-the-art guidance on the long-term preservation of information and memory. In the context of fostering knowledge consolidation and transfer (KCT), the RWMC has already identified - in its reference document on KCT - the area of inter-generational transfer of knowledge as one of two areas needing development. In 2009, the RWMC decided to implement its programme of work in the area of information preservation and long-term memory as a series of projects or lines of actions opened by the RWMC and supervised by its Bureau. In order to better define its first series of projects the RWMC preformed a survey of its organisations needs and available materials and experience. At its meeting in 2010 the RWMC determined that the survey materials provided by organisations from 12 NEA countries constitute a good contribution to the literature in this field, and certainly to the upcoming projects. They provide as well a good baseline of information against which to measure progress a few years hence. This document reports the answers provided by organisations from 12 countries (Belgium, Canada, Finland, France, Hungary, Japan, Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the USA,) to five questions related to long-term preservation of information and memory in the field of geological disposal. The questions are as follows: o What specific priority areas for long-term memory development have been identified in your agencies/countries? Which are the time scales of largest interest? o Do these priority proceed from good practice or/and from specific laws, regulations, policies exist in your country that set out requirements for long-term memory in long-term waste management? o How far advanced are you regarding establishing an action plan for long-term information and memory preservation in the field of geological disposal? Are you addressing the following RWMC questions: What information should be preserved? Why? Where? How should it be preserved? Which target groups? Which time horizons? What suggestions do you have for possible areas of focus for RWMC? (e.g. an international project that may assist Members?) What are the untapped areas that deserve more attention? Would you have studies, reports, policies that you might share with RWMC members? (author)

  19. Long-term olfactory memories are stabilised via protein synthesis in Camponotus fellah ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrieri, Fernando Javier; D'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    Ants exhibit impressive olfactory learning abilities. Operant protocols in which ants freely choose between rewarded and nonrewarded odours have been used to characterise associative olfactory learning and memory. Yet, this approach precludes the use of invasive methods allowing the dissection of molecular bases of learning and memory. An open question is whether the memories formed upon olfactory learning that are retrievable several days after training are indeed based on de novo protein synthesis. Here, we addressed this question in the ant Camponotus fellah using a conditioning protocol in which individually harnessed ants learn an association between odour and reward. When the antennae of an ant are stimulated with sucrose solution, the insect extends its maxilla–labium to absorb the solution (maxilla–labium extension response). We differentially conditioned ants to discriminate between two long-chain hydrocarbons, one paired with sucrose and the other with quinine solution. Differential conditioning leads to the formation of a long-term memory retrievable at least 72¿h after training. Long-term memory consolidation was impaired by the ingestion of cycloheximide, a protein synthesis blocker, prior to conditioning. Cycloheximide did not impair acquisition of either short-term memory (10¿min) or early and late mid-term memories (1 or 12¿h). These results show that, upon olfactory learning, ants form different memories with variable molecular bases. While short- and mid-term memories do not require protein synthesis, long-term memories are stabilised via protein synthesis. Our behavioural protocol opens interesting research avenues to explore the cellular and molecular bases of olfactory learning and memory in ants.

  20. The role of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in individual differences in long-term memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Felten, Andrea; Markett, Sebastian; Fischer, Luise; Winkel, Katja; Cooper, Andrew; Reuter, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in diverse memory processes and is strongly expressed in the hippocampus. The hippocampus itself is a key structure involved in the processing of information from short-term to long-term memory. Due to the putative role of BDNF in memory consolidation, a prominent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the BDNF gene (BDNF Val66Met) was investigated in the context of long-term memory performance. N=138 students were presented with 40 words from 10 categories, each consisting of eight words such as 'fruits' or 'vehicles' in a memory recognition task (specifically the Deese-Roediger-McDermott Paradigm). Recognition performance was analyzed 25 min after the initial presentation of the word list and subsequently 1 week after the initial presentation. Overall, individual long-term memory performance immediately after learning the word list (T1) and performance 1 week later (T2) did not differ on the basis of the BDNF SNP, but an interaction effect of BDNF Val66Met by time-of-recall was found: Carriers of the Met66+ variant showed the strongest decline in hit rate performance over time. PMID:25267504

  1. Two Pairs of Mushroom Body Efferent Neurons Are Required for Appetitive Long-Term Memory Retrieval in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Plaçais

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges facing memory research is to combine network- and cellular-level descriptions of memory encoding. In this context, Drosophila offers the opportunity to decipher, down to single-cell resolution, memory-relevant circuits in connection with the mushroom bodies (MBs, prominent structures for olfactory learning and memory. Although the MB-afferent circuits involved in appetitive learning were recently described, the circuits underlying appetitive memory retrieval remain unknown. We identified two pairs of cholinergic neurons efferent from the MB ? vertical lobes, named MB-V3, that are necessary for the retrieval of appetitive long-term memory (LTM. Furthermore, LTM retrieval was correlated to an enhanced response to the rewarded odor in these neurons. Strikingly, though, silencing the MB-V3 neurons did not affect short-term memory (STM retrieval. This finding supports a scheme of parallel appetitive STM and LTM processing.

  2. Enhancement of long-term memory retention and short-term synaptic plasticity in cbl-b null mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Dong Ping; Liu, Qi-Ying; Koshiya, Naohiro; Gu, Hua; Alkon, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The cbl-b gene is a member of the cbl protooncogene family. It encodes a protein with multiple domains, which can interact with other proteins in a variety of signaling pathways. The functions of cbl family genes in the brain are unknown. In this report, we used genetic, immunohistochemical, behavioral, and electrophysiological approaches to study the role of cbl-b in learning and memory. Cbl-b null mice developed normally and had no abnormalities in their locomotor performance. In spatial learning and memory studies, cbl-b null and WT mice performed similarly during training. To test memory retention, two probe trials were used. cbl-b null mice performed slightly better 1 day after training. However, in the probe trial 45 days after training, the cbl-b null group showed significantly higher memory retention than WT mice, suggesting an enhancement of long-term memory. Using electrophysiological approaches, we found there was enhanced paired-pulse facilitation in the Schaffer Collateral-CA1 glutamatergic synapses of the cbl-b null mice. On the other hand, there was no difference in long-term potentiation between the two groups of mice. In summary, we provide evidence that (i) cbl-b protein is concentrated in the synaptic regions of CA1, CA3, and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus; (ii) cbl-b null mice have enhanced long-term memory; and (iii) cbl-b null mice show an enhancement in short-term plasticity. These results indicate that cbl-b is a negative regulator of long-term memory, and its neuronal mechanism regulates synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. PMID:16549761

  3. Anatomical organization of forward fiber projections from area TE to perirhinal neurons representing visual long-term memory in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masatoshi; Naya, Yuji; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2003-04-01

    A number of studies have shown that the perirhinal (PRh) cortex, which is part of the medial temporal lobe memory system, plays an important role in declarative long-term memory. The PRh cortex contains neurons that represent visual long-term memory. The aim of the present study is to characterize the anatomical organization of forward projections that mediate information flow from visual area TE to memory neurons in the PRh cortex. In monkeys performing a visual pair-association memory task, we conducted an extensive mapping of neuronal responses in the anteroventral part of area TE (TEav) and area 36 (A36) of the PRh cortex. Then, three retrograde tracers were separately injected into A36 and the distribution of retrograde labels in TEav was analyzed. We focused on the degree of divergent projections from TEav to memory neurons in A36, because the highly divergent nature of these forward fiber projections has been implicated in memory function. We found that the degree of divergent projection to memory neurons in A36 was smaller from the TEav neurons selective to learned pictures than from the nonselective TEav neurons. This result demonstrates that the anatomical difference (the divergence) correlates with the physiological difference (selectivity of TEav neurons to the learned pictures). Because the physiological difference is attributed to whether the projections are involved in information transmission required for memory neurons in A36, it can be speculated that the reduced divergent projection resulted from acquisition of visual long-term memory, possibly through retraction of the projecting axon collaterals. PMID:12651941

  4. Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results for 2011 at Rulison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 18, 2011. The samples were shipped to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, for analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed, with the exception of the determination of tritium concentration by the enrichment method. The laboratory no longer provides that service. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional method. Starting in 2012, DOE will retain a different laboratory that provides the enriched tritium analysis service.

  5. Spatial memory and long-term object recognition are impaired by circadian arrhythmia and restored by the GABAAAntagonist pentylenetetrazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Norman F; Fernandez, Fabian; Garrett, Alex; Klima, Jessy; Zhang, Pei; Sapolsky, Robert; Heller, H Craig

    2013-01-01

    Performance on many memory tests varies across the day and is severely impaired by disruptions in circadian timing. We developed a noninvasive method to permanently eliminate circadian rhythms in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) [corrected] so that we could investigate the contribution of the circadian system to learning and memory in animals that are neurologically and genetically intact. Male and female adult hamsters were rendered arrhythmic by a disruptive phase shift protocol that eliminates cycling of clock genes within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), but preserves sleep architecture. These arrhythmic animals have deficits in spatial working memory and in long-term object recognition memory. In a T-maze, rhythmic control hamsters exhibited spontaneous alternation behavior late in the day and at night, but made random arm choices early in the day. By contrast, arrhythmic animals made only random arm choices at all time points. Control animals readily discriminated novel objects from familiar ones, whereas arrhythmic hamsters could not. Since the SCN is primarily a GABAergic nucleus, we hypothesized that an arrhythmic SCN could interfere with memory by increasing inhibition in hippocampal circuits. To evaluate this possibility, we administered the GABAA antagonist pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg/day) to arrhythmic hamsters for 10 days, which is a regimen previously shown to produce long-term improvements in hippocampal physiology and behavior in Ts65Dn (Down syndrome) mice. PTZ restored long-term object recognition and spatial working memory for at least 30 days after drug treatment without restoring circadian rhythms. PTZ did not augment memory in control (entrained) animals, but did increase their activity during the memory tests. Our findings support the hypothesis that circadian arrhythmia impairs declarative memory by increasing the relative influence of GABAergic inhibition in the hippocampus. PMID:24009680

  6. NF-?B p50 subunit knockout impairs late LTP and alters long term memory in the mouse hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oikawa Kensuke

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B is a transcription factor typically expressed with two specific subunits (p50, p65. Investigators have reported that NF-?B is activated during the induction of in vitro long term potentiation (LTP, a paradigm of synaptic plasticity and correlate of memory, suggesting that NF-?B may be necessary for some aspects of memory encoding. Furthermore, NF-?B has been implicated as a potential requirement in behavioral tests of memory. Unfortunately, very little work has been done to explore the effects of deleting specific NF-?B subunits on memory. Studies have shown that NF-?B p50 subunit deletion (p50?/? leads to memory deficits, however some recent studies suggest the contrary where p50?/? mice show enhanced memory in the Morris water maze (MWM. To more critically explore the role of the NF-?B p50 subunit in synaptic plasticity and memory, we assessed long term spatial memory in vivo using the MWM, and synaptic plasticity in vitro utilizing high frequency stimuli capable of eliciting LTP in slices from the hippocampus of NF-?B p50?/? versus their controls (p50+/+. Results We found that the lack of the NF-?B p50 subunit led to significant decreases in late LTP and in selective but significant alterations in MWM tests (i.e., some improvements during acquisition, but deficits during retention. Conclusions These results support the hypothesis that the NF-? p50 subunit is required in long term spatial memory in the hippocampus.

  7. Spatial Memory and Long-Term Object Recognition Are Impaired by Circadian Arrhythmia and Restored by the GABAAAntagonist Pentylenetetrazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Norman F.; Fernandez, Fabian; Garrett, Alex; Klima, Jessy; Zhang, Pei; Sapolsky, Robert; Heller, H. Craig

    2013-01-01

    Performance on many memory tests varies across the day and is severely impaired by disruptions in circadian timing. We developed a noninvasive method to permanently eliminate circadian rhythms in Siberian hamsters (Phodopussungorus) so that we could investigate the contribution of the circadian system to learning and memory in animals that are neurologically and genetically intact. Male and female adult hamsters were rendered arrhythmic by a disruptive phase shift protocol that eliminates cycling of clock genes within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), but preserves sleep architecture. These arrhythmic animals have deficits in spatial working memory and in long-term object recognition memory. In a T-maze, rhythmic control hamsters exhibited spontaneous alternation behavior late in the day and at night, but made random arm choices early in the day. By contrast, arrhythmic animals made only random arm choices at all time points. Control animals readily discriminated novel objects from familiar ones, whereas arrhythmic hamsters could not. Since the SCN is primarily a GABAergic nucleus, we hypothesized that an arrhythmic SCN could interfere with memory by increasing inhibition in hippocampal circuits. To evaluate this possibility, we administered the GABAA antagonist pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg/day) to arrhythmic hamsters for 10 days, which is a regimen previously shown to produce long-term improvements in hippocampal physiology and behavior in Ts65Dn (Down syndrome) mice. PTZ restored long-term object recognition and spatial working memory for at least 30 days after drug treatment without restoring circadian rhythms. PTZ did not augment memory in control (entrained) animals, but did increase their activity during the memory tests. Our findings support the hypothesis that circadian arrhythmia impairs declarative memory by increasing the relative influence of GABAergic inhibition in the hippocampus. PMID:24009680

  8. Failure of delayed nonsynaptic neuronal plasticity underlies age-associated long-term associative memory impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Shawn N

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive impairment associated with subtle changes in neuron and neuronal network function rather than widespread neuron death is a feature of the normal aging process in humans and animals. Despite its broad evolutionary conservation, the etiology of this aging process is not well understood. However, recent evidence suggests the existence of a link between oxidative stress in the form of progressive membrane lipid peroxidation, declining neuronal electrical excitability and functional decline of the normal aging brain. The current study applies a combination of behavioural and electrophysiological techniques and pharmacological interventions to explore this hypothesis in a gastropod model (Lymnaea stagnalis feeding system that allows pinpointing the molecular and neurobiological foundations of age-associated long-term memory (LTM failure at the level of individual identified neurons and synapses. Results Classical appetitive reward-conditioning induced robust LTM in mature animals in the first quartile of their lifespan but failed to do so in animals in the last quartile of their lifespan. LTM failure correlated with reduced electrical excitability of two identified serotonergic modulatory interneurons (CGCs critical in chemosensory integration by the neural network controlling feeding behaviour. Moreover, while behavioural conditioning induced delayed-onset persistent depolarization of the CGCs known to underlie appetitive LTM formation in this model in the younger animals, it failed to do so in LTM-deficient senescent animals. Dietary supplementation of the lipophilic anti-oxidant ?-tocopherol reversed the effect of age on CGCs electrophysiological characteristics but failed to restore appetitive LTM function. Treatment with the SSRI fluoxetine reversed both the neurophysiological and behavioural effects of age in senior animals. Conclusions The results identify the CGCs as cellular loci of age-associated appetitive learning and memory impairment in Lymnaea and buttress the hypothesis that lipid peroxidation-dependent depression of intrinsic excitability is a hallmark of normal neuronal aging. The data implicate both lipid peroxidation-dependent non-synaptic as well as apparently lipid peroxidation-independent synaptic mechanisms in the age-dependent decline in behavioural plasticity in this model system.

  9. Chronic treatment with ginsenoside Rg1 promotes memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation in middle-aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G; Wang, Y; Li, J; Wang, J

    2015-04-30

    Ginseng serves as a potential candidate for the treatment of aging-related memory decline or memory loss. However, the related mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we applied an intraperitoneal injection of ginsenoside Rg1, an active compound from ginseng in middle-aged mice and detected memory improvement and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that a period of 30-day administration of ginsenoside Rg1 enhanced long-term memory in the middle-aged animals. Consistent with the memory improvement, ginsenoside Rg1 administration facilitated weak theta-burst stimulation (TBS)-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in acute hippocampal slices from middle-aged animals. Ginsenoside Rg1 administration increased the dendritic apical spine numbers and area in the CA1 region. In addition, ginsenoside Rg1 administration up-regulated the expression of hippocampal p-AKT, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), proBDNF and glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1), but not p-ERK. Interestingly, the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) inhibitor (bpV) mimicked the ginsenoside Rg1 effects, including increasing p-AKT expression, promoting hippocampal basal synaptic transmission, LTP and memory. Taken together, our data suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 treatment improves memory in middle-aged mice possibly through regulating the PI3K/AKT pathway, altering apical spines and facilitating hippocampal LTP. PMID:25724866

  10. Long-term maintenance of smartphone and PDA use in individuals with moderate to severe memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Eva; Richards, Brian; Yao, Christie; Leach, Larry

    2015-06-01

    In an earlier paper we described a structured, theory-driven training programme which was administered to 10 individuals with moderate-to-severe memory impairment. All individuals received an errorless-fading-of-cues protocol in the use of personal digital assistants (PDAs) or smartphones (Svoboda, Richards, Leach, & Mertens, 2012 ) and demonstrated generalisation of acquired skills to day-to-day memory challenges. Maintenance of intervention gains over the long-term is another indicator of successful generalisation. Here we present the maintenance of device use in the same group of individuals 12 to 19?months after programme completion. A within-subject, ABABB multi-case experimental design was used to evaluate the impact of PDA or smartphone use on day-to-day memory functioning at baseline, immediately post-intervention, at return to baseline, and at short-term and long-term follow-up. Results presented here focus predominantly on long-term follow-up. All 10 individuals showed maintenance of gains in day-to-day functioning as quantified across several ecologically valid questionnaire and task-based measures. This was corroborated by family members with whom six of the participants resided. This study further demonstrates the programme's clinical effectiveness in enabling individuals with moderate-to-severe memory impairment to function more independently and with greater confidence up to 19?months following programme completion. PMID:24945553

  11. Effects of Joint Attention on Long-Term Memory in 9-Month-Old Infants: An Event-Related Potentials Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Franziska; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2011-01-01

    Joint attention develops during the first year of life but little is known about its effects on long-term memory. We investigated whether joint attention modulates long-term memory in 9-month-old infants. Infants were familiarized with visually presented objects in either of two conditions that differed in the degree of joint attention (high…

  12. Measurement of long-term average carbon dioxide concentrations using passive diffusion sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Giuliano; Ciuchini, Carla; Tappa, Remo

    A diffusive sampling device is proposed for long-term determination of average airborne concentration of CO 2 in urban and industrial areas, as well as in indoor sites. A hydro-alcoholic barium hydroxide solution is employed as a CO 2 reagent sink. The analytical method is based on the determination of the solute barium hydroxide remained after the acid-base reaction, in which its insoluble carbonate salt precipitates. Indoor laboratory experiments show that this technique exhibits a good precision and reproducibility. A 6-week internal consistency test demonstrates that this device has a constant uptake rate, allowing us to propose it as a suitable and inexpensive tool in performing the monitoring of urban and industrial sites over long periods and in indoor-outdoor studies, like those involved in the sick-building syndrome problem.

  13. d-Serine rescues the deficits of hippocampal long-term potentiation and learning and memory induced by sodium fluoroacetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Huili; Peng, Yan; Dong, Zhifang

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that bidirectional glia-neuron interactions play important roles in the neurophysiological and neuropathological processes. It is reported that impairing glial functions with sodium fluoroacetate (FAC) impaired hippocampal long-term depression (LTD) and spatial memory retrieval. However, it remains unknown whether FAC impairs hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and learning and/or memory, and if so, whether pharmacological treatment with exogenous d-serine can recuse the impairment. Here, we reported that systemic administration of FAC (3mg/kg, i.p.) before training resulted in dramatic impairments of spatial learning and memory in water maze and fear memory in contextual fear conditioning. Furthermore, the behavioral deficits were accompanied by impaired LTP induction in the hippocampal CA1 area of brain slices. More importantly, exogenous d-serine treatment succeeded in recusing the deficits of hippocampal LTP and learning and memory induced by FAC. Together, these results suggest that astrocytic d-serine may be essential for hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory, and that alteration of its levels may be relevant to the induction and potentially treatment of psychiatric and neurological disorders. PMID:25843400

  14. ADRA2B deletion variant selectively predicts stress-induced enhancement of long-term memory in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Kalchik, Andrea E; Hoffman, Mackenzie M; Aufdenkampe, Rachael L; Lyle, Sarah M; Peters, David M; Brown, Callie M; Cadle, Chelsea E; Scharf, Amanda R; Dailey, Alison M; Wolters, Nicholas E; Talbot, Jeffery N; Rorabaugh, Boyd R

    2014-10-01

    Clarifying the mechanisms that underlie stress-induced alterations of learning and memory may lend important insight into susceptibility factors governing the development of stress-related psychological disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous work has shown that carriers of the ADRA2B Glu(301)-Glu(303) deletion variant exhibit enhanced emotional memory, greater amygdala responses to emotional stimuli and greater intrusiveness of traumatic memories. We speculated that carriers of this deletion variant might also be more vulnerable to stress-induced enhancements of long-term memory, which would implicate the variant as a possible susceptibility factor for traumatic memory formation. One hundred and twenty participants (72 males, 48 females) submerged their hand in ice cold (stress) or warm (no stress) water for 3min. Immediately afterwards, they studied a list of 42 words varying in emotional valence and arousal and then completed an immediate free recall test. Twenty-four hours later, participants' memory for the word list was examined via free recall and recognition assessments. Stressed participants exhibiting greater heart rate responses to the stressor had enhanced recall on the 24-h assessment. Importantly, this enhancement was independent of the emotional nature of the learned information. In contrast to previous work, we did not observe a general enhancement of memory for emotional information in ADRA2B deletion carriers. However, stressed female ADRA2B deletion carriers, particularly those exhibiting greater heart rate responses to the stressor, did demonstrate greater recognition memory than all other groups. Collectively, these findings implicate autonomic mechanisms in the pre-learning stress-induced enhancement of long-term memory and suggest that the ADRA2B deletion variant may selectively predict stress effects on memory in females. Such findings lend important insight into the physiological mechanisms underlying stress effects on learning and their sex-dependent nature. PMID:24997351

  15. Creation of long-term coherent optical memory via controlled nonlinear interactions in Bose-Einstein condensates

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, RUI; Garner, Sean R.; Hau, Lene Vestergaard

    2009-01-01

    A Bose-Einstein condensate confined in an optical dipole trap is used to generate long-term coherent memory for light, and storage times of more than one second are observed. Phase coherence of the condensate as well as controlled manipulations of elastic and inelastic atomic scattering processes are utilized to increase the storage fidelity by several orders of magnitude over previous schemes. The results have important applications for creation of long-distance quantum net...

  16. Vividness of visual imagery and incidental recall of verbal cues, when phenomenological availability reflects long-term memory accessibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AmedeoD'Angiulli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between vivid visual mental images and unexpected recall (incidental recall was replicated, refined and extended. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to generate mental images from imagery-evoking verbal-cues (controlled on several verbal properties and then, on a trial-by-trial basis, rate the vividness of their images; thirty minutes later, participants were surprised with a task requiring free recall of the cues. Higher vividness ratings predicted better incidental recall of the cues than individual differences (whose effect was modest. Distributional analysis of image latencies through ex-Gaussian modeling showed an inverse relation between vividness and latency. However, recall was unrelated to image latency. The follow-up Experiment 2 showed that the processes underlying trial-by-trial vividness ratings are unrelated to the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ, as further supported by a meta-analysis of a randomly selected sample of relevant literature. The present findings suggest that vividness may act as an index of availability of long-term sensory traces, playing a non-epiphenomenal role in facilitating the access of those memories.

  17. On the interplay between short and long term memory in the power-law cross-correlations setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2015-03-01

    We focus on emergence of the power-law cross-correlations from processes with both short and long term memory properties. In the case of correlated error-terms, the power-law decay of the cross-correlation function comes automatically with the characteristics of separate processes. Bivariate Hurst exponent is then equal to an average of separate Hurst exponents of the analyzed processes. Strength of short term memory has no effect on these asymptotic properties. Implications of these findings for the power-law cross-correlations concept are further discussed.

  18. Effects of Sleep Deprivation and Aging on Long-Term and Remote Memory in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecsey, Christopher G.; Park, Alan J.; Khatib, Nora; Abel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) following hippocampus-dependent learning in young mice impairs memory when tested the following day. Here, we examined the effects of SD on remote memory in both young and aged mice. In young mice, we found that memory is still impaired 1 mo after training. SD also impaired memory in aged mice 1 d after training, but, by a…

  19. The Sleep Elaboration-Awake Pruning (SEAP) theory of memory: long term memories grow in complexity during sleep and undergo selection while awake. Clinical, psychopharmacological and creative implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G; Andras, Peter

    2009-07-01

    Long term memory (LTM) systems need to be adaptive such that they enhance an organism's reproductive fitness and self-reproducing in order to maintain their complexity of communications over time in the face of entropic loss of information. Traditional 'representation-consolidation' accounts conceptualize memory adaptiveness as due to memories being 'representations' of the environment, and the longevity of memories as due to 'consolidation' processes. The assumption is that memory representations are formed while an animal is awake and interacting with the environment, and these memories are consolidated mainly while the animal is asleep. So the traditional view of memory is 'instructionist' and assumes that information is transferred from the environment into the brain. By contrast, we see memories as arising endogenously within the brain's LTM system mainly during sleep, to create complex but probably maladaptive memories which are then simplified ('pruned') and selected during the awake period. When awake the LTM system is brought into a more intense interaction with past and present experience. Ours is therefore a 'selectionist' account of memory, and could be termed the Sleep Elaboration-Awake Pruning (or SEAP) theory. The SEAP theory explains the longevity of memories in the face of entropy by the tendency for memories to grow in complexity during sleep; and explains the adaptiveness of memory by selection for consistency with perceptions and previous memories during the awake state. Sleep is therefore that behavioural state during which most of the internal processing of the system of LTM occurs; and the reason sleep remains poorly understood is that its primary activity is the expansion of long term memories. By re-conceptualizing the relationship between memory, sleep and the environment; SEAP provides a radically new framework for memory research, with implications for the measurement of memory and the design of empirical investigations in clinical, psychopharmacological and creative domains. For example, it would be predicted that states of insufficient alertness such as delirium would produce errors of commission (memory distortion and false memories, as with psychotic delusions), while sleep deprivation would produce errors of memory omission (memory loss). Ultimately, the main argument in favour of SEAP is that long term memory must be a complex adaptive system, and complex systems arise, are selected and sustained according to the principles of systems theory; and therefore LTM cannot be functioning in the way assumed by 'representation-consolidation' theories. PMID:19349123

  20. The role of reconsolidation and the dynamic process of long-term memory formation and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CristinaMAlberini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that the processes of memory formation and storage are exquisitely dynamic. Elucidating the nature and temporal evolution of the biological changes that accompany encoding, storage and retrieval is key to understand memory formation. For explicit or medial temporal lobe-dependent memories that form after a discrete event and are stored for a long time, the physical changes underlying the encoding and processing of the information (memory trace or engram remain in a fragile state for some time. However, over time, the new memory becomes increasingly resistant to disruption until it is consolidated. Retrieval or reactivation of an apparently consolidated memory can render the memory labile again, and reconsolidation is the process that occurs to mediate its restabilization. Reconsolidation also evolves with the age of the memory: Young memories are sensitive to postreactivation disruption, but older memories are more resistant. Why does a memory become labile again if it is retrieved or reactivated? Here I suggest that the main function of reconsolidation is to contribute to the lingering consolidation process and mediate memory strengthening. I also discuss the literature and results regarding the influence of the passage of time on the reconsolidation of memory. These points have important implications for the use of reconsolidation in therapeutic settings.

  1. Depletion of Perineuronal Nets Enhances Recognition Memory and Long-Term Depression in the Perirhinal Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Romberg, C.; Yang, S.; Melani, R.; Andrews, M. R.; Horner, A. E.; Spillantini, M. G.; Bussey, T. J.; Fawcett, J. W.; Pizzorusso, T.; Saksida, L. M.

    2013-01-01

    Perineuronal nets are extracellular matrix structures surrounding cortical neuronal cell bodies and proximal dendrites, and are involved in the control of brain plasticity and the closure of critical periods. Expression of the link protein Crtl1/Hapln1 in neurons has recently been identified as the key event triggering the formation of perineuronal nets. Here we show that the genetic attenuation of perineuronal nets in adult brain Crtl1 knockout mice enhances long term object recognition memo...

  2. Norepinephrine Enhances a Discrete Form of Long-Term Depression during Fear Memory Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Clem, Roger L.; Huganir, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Amygdala excitatory synaptic strengthening is thought to contribute to both conditioned fear and anxiety. Thus, one basis for behavioral flexibility could allow these pathways to be weakened and corresponding emotion to be attenuated. However, synaptic depression within the context of amygdala-dependent behavior remains poorly understood. Previous work identified lateral amygdala (LA) calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) as a key target for synaptic removal in long-term depression (LT...

  3. Long-term sequelae of critical illness: memories and health-related quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Hough, Catherine Lee; CURTIS, J. RANDALL

    2005-01-01

    Impaired health-related quality of life after critical illness has been demonstrated in a number of studies. It is not clear exactly how or why critical illness and intensive care lead to impaired health status, but understanding this association is an important step to improving long-term outcomes of the critically ill. There is growing evidence that neuro-psychological symptoms play a significant role in this impairment and that management of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) may in...

  4. Olfaction, Emtion & the Amygdala: arousal-dependent modulation of long-term autobiographical memory and its association with olfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hughes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The sense of smell is set apart from other sensory modalities. Odours possess the capacity to trigger immediately strong emotional memories. Moreover, odorous stimuli provide a higher degree of memory retention than other sensory stimuli. Odour perception, even in its most elemental form - olfaction - already involves limbic structures. This early involvement is not paralleled in other sensory modalities. Bearing in mind the considerable connectivity with limbic structures, and the fact that an activation of the amygdala is capable of instantaneously evoking emotions and facilitating the encoding of memories, it is unsurprising that the sense of smell has its characteristic nature. The aim of this review is to analyse current understanding of higher olfactory information processing as it relates to the ability of odours to spontaneously cue highly vivid, affectively toned, and often very old autobiographical memories (episodes known anecdotally as Proust phenomena. Particular emphasis is placed on the diversity of functions attributed to the amygdala. Its role in modulating the encoding and retrieval of long-term memory is investigated with reference to lesion, electrophysiological, immediate early gene, and functional imaging studies in both rodents and humans. Additionally, the influence of hormonal modulation and the adrenergic system on emotional memory storage is outlined. I finish by proposing a schematic of some of the critical neural pathways that underlie the odour-associated encoding and retrieval of emotionally toned autobiographical memories.

  5. The Long-Term Effects of Mild Head Injury on Short-Term Memory for Visual Form, Spatial Location, and Their Conjunction in Well-Functioning University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Y.M.L.; Maybery, M.T.; Fox, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Research has suggested the presence of subtle long-term cognitive changes in otherwise well-functioning individuals who have previously sustained a mild head injury (MHI). This paper investigated the long-term effects of MHI on visual, spatial, and visual-spatial short-term memory in well-functioning university students. Sixteen students who…

  6. Mind bomb-1 is an essential modulator of long-term memory and synaptic plasticity via the Notch signaling pathway

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    Yoon Ki-Jun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Notch signaling is well recognized as a key regulator of the neuronal fate during embryonic development, but its function in the adult brain is still largely unknown. Mind bomb-1 (Mib1 is an essential positive regulator in the Notch pathway, acting non-autonomously in the signal-sending cells. Therefore, genetic ablation of Mib1 in mature neuron would give valuable insight to understand the cell-to-cell interaction between neurons via Notch signaling for their proper function. Results Here we show that the inactivation of Mib1 in mature neurons in forebrain results in impaired hippocampal dependent spatial memory and contextual fear memory. Consistently, hippocampal slices from Mib1-deficient mice show impaired late-phase, but not early-phase, long-term potentiation and long-term depression without change in basal synaptic transmission at SC-CA1 synapses. Conclusions These data suggest that Mib1-mediated Notch signaling is essential for long-lasting synaptic plasticity and memory formation in the rodent hippocampus.

  7. Differential role of entorhinal and hippocampal nerve growth factor in short- and long-term memory modulation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R., Walz; R., Roesler; A., Reinke; M.R., Martins; J., Quevedo; I., Izquierdo.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of infusion of nerve growth factor (NGF) into the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex of male Wistar rats (250-300 g, N = 11-13 per group) on inhibitory avoidance retention. In order to evaluate the modulation of entorhinal and hippocampal NGF in short- and long-term memory, ani [...] mals were implanted with cannulae in the CA1 area of the dorsal hippocampus or entorhinal cortex and trained in one-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance (foot shock, 0.4 mA). Retention tests were carried out 1.5 h or 24 h after training to measure short- and long-term memory, respectively. Immediately after training, rats received 5 µl NGF (0.05, 0.5 or 5.0 ng) or saline per side into the CA1 area and entorhinal cortex. The correct position of the cannulae was confirmed by histological analysis. The highest dose of NGF (5.0 ng) into the hippocampus blocked short-term memory (P

  8. The Effect of Synchronized Forced Running with Chronic Stress on Short, Mid and Long- term Memory in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Radahmadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Impairment of learning and memory processes has been demonstrated by many studies using different stressors. Other reports suggested that exercise has a powerful behavioral intervention to improve cognitive function and brain health. In this research, we investigated protective effects of treadmill running on chronic stress–induced memory deficit in rats.Methods: Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=10 as follows: Control (Co, Sham (Sh, Stress (St, Exercise (Ex and Stress and Exercise (St & Ex groups. Chronic restraint stress was applied by 6h/day/21days and also treadmill running at a speed 20-21­m/min for 1h/day/21days. Memory function was evaluated by the passive avoidance test in different intervals (1, 7 and 21 days after foot shock.Results: Our results showed that: 1 Although exercise alone showed beneficial effects especially on short and mid-term memory (P<0.05 in comparison with control group, but synchronized exercise with stress had not significantly improved short, mid and long-term memory deficit in stressed rats. 2 Short and mid-term memory deficit was significantly (P<0.05 observed in synchronized exercise with stress and stress groups with respect to normal rats. 3 Memory deficit in synchronized exercise with stress group was nearly similar to stressed rats. 4 Helpful effects of exercise were less than harmful effects of stress when they were associated together.Conclusion: The data correspond to the possibility that although treadmill running alone has helpful effects on learning and memory consolidation, but when it is synchronized with stress there is no significant benefit and protective effects in improvement of memory deficit induced by chronic stress. However, it is has a better effect than no training on memory deficit in stressed rats.

  9. Technical Note: Long-term memory effect in the atmospheric CO2 concentration at Mauna Loa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Varotsos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The monthly mean values of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration derived from in-situ air samples collected at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, USA during 1958–2004 (the longest continuous record available in the world are analyzed by employing the detrended fluctuation analysis to detect scaling behavior in this time series. The main result is that the fluctuations of carbon dioxide concentrations exhibit long-range power-law correlations (long memory with lag times ranging from four months to eleven years, which correspond to 1/f noise. This result indicates that random perturbations in the carbon dioxide concentrations give rise to noise, characterized by a frequency spectrum following a power-law with exponent that approaches to one; the latter shows that the correlation times grow strongly. This feature is pointing out that a correctly rescaled subset of the original time series of the carbon dioxide concentrations resembles the original time series. Finally, the power-law relationship derived from the real measurements of the carbon dioxide concentrations could also serve as a tool to improve the confidence of the atmospheric chemistry-transport and global climate models.

  10. Technical Note: Long-term memory effect in the atmospheric CO2 concentration at Mauna Loa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Efstathiou

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The monthly mean values of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration derived from in-situ air samples collected at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, during 1958–2004 (the longest continuous record available in the world are analyzed by employing the detrended fluctuation analysis to detect scaling behavior in this time series. The main result is that the fluctuations of carbon dioxide concentrations exhibit long-range power-law correlations (long memory with lag times ranging from four months to eleven years, which correspond to 1/f noise. This result indicates that random perturbations in the carbon dioxide concentrations give rise to noise, characterized by a frequency spectrum following a power-law with exponent that approaches to one; the latter shows that the correlation times grow strongly. This feature is pointing out that a correctly rescaled subset of the original time series of the carbon dioxide concentrations resembles the original time series. Finally, the power-law relationship derived from the real measurements of the carbon dioxide concentrations could also serve as a tool to improve the confidence of the atmospheric chemistry-transport and global climate models.

  11. Long-Term Aftereffects of Response Inhibition: Memory Retrieval, Task Goals, and Cognitive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbruggen, Frederick; Logan, Gordon D.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive control theories attribute control to executive processes that adjust and control behavior online. Theories of automaticity attribute control to memory retrieval. In the present study, online adjustments and memory retrieval were examined, and their roles in controlling performance in the stop-signal paradigm were elucidated. There was…

  12. Subjective vs. Documented Reality: A Case Study of Long-Term Real-Life Autobiographical Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Avi; Furman, Orit; Navon, Inbal; Dudai, Yadin

    2009-01-01

    A young woman was filmed during 2 d of her ordinary life. A few months and then again a few years later she was tested for the memory of her experiences in those days while undergoing fMRI scanning. As time passed, she came to accept more false details as true. After months, activity of a network considered to subserve autobiographical memory was…

  13. Memory and learning sequelae in long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Association with attention deficits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic study of verbal and nonverbal memory and learning was undertaken in long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia to assess the incidence and pattern of impairments and to determine the relationship between these deficits and computed tomography (CT) brain scan abnormalities. Twenty-three children who had received cranial irradiation (2,400 cGy) and intrathecal chemotherapy as central nervous system (CNS) preventive therapy and who were off all therapy for at least 4 years were evaluated. On the basis of their CT brain scan findings, patients were divided into three groups: those with intracerebral calcifications (n = 5), those with cortical atrophy (n = 8), and those with normal CT findings (n = 10). Significant deficits in verbal memory (p less than 0.025) and verbal learning (p less than 0.05) were observed that were associated with the presence and type of CT brain scan abnormalities; the greatest impairments were observed in patients with calcifications. No significant differences between CT scan groups were found for nonverbal memory and learning. Previous evaluation of attentional processing in these patients using reaction time tests had revealed the presence of deficits primarily in the ability to sustain attention. Combining those data with findings from the present study showed that memory impairments, particularly those in short-term memory, were primarily attributable to an underlying attentional defect that affect the encoding stage ofl defect that affect the encoding stage of memory processing

  14. Rapid consolidation to a radish and protein synthesis-dependent long-term memory after single-session appetitive olfactory conditioning in Drosophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Krashes, MJ; Waddell, S

    2008-01-01

    In Drosophila, formation of aversive olfactory long-term memory (LTM) requires multiple training sessions pairing odor and electric shock punishment with rest intervals. In contrast, here we show that a single 2 min training session pairing odor with a more ethologically relevant sugar reinforcement forms long-term appetitive memory that lasts for days. Appetitive LTM has some mechanistic similarity to aversive LTM in that it can be disrupted by cycloheximide, the dCreb2-b transcriptional rep...

  15. Electrical stunning and hibernation: suggestion of new terms for short- and long-term cardiac memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghi, Mehdi; Nalbantgil, Sanem

    2004-09-01

    Persistent T wave changes following resumption of sinus rhythm induced by pacing or arrhythmias that cause altering of ventricular activation sequence are named "cardiac memory". After this initial definition there has been a discussion whether such T wave changes are primary, secondary or pseudoprimary. In addition according to the results of pathophysiological studies investigating the mechanism and nature of this repolarization abnormality some authors have preferred to use the term "electrical remodelling" instead of cardiac memory. But these two terms are still not well defined. In this article, the previous terms are discussed and a new term instead of cardiac memory is introduced. PMID:15294266

  16. Errors in nonword repetition: bridging short- and long-term memory

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.H., Santos; O.F.A., Bueno; S.E., Gathercole.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the working memory model, the phonological loop is the component of working memory specialized in processing and manipulating limited amounts of speech-based information. The Children's Test of Nonword Repetition (CNRep) is a suitable measure of phonological short-term memory for Englis [...] h-speaking children, which was validated by the Brazilian Children's Test of Pseudoword Repetition (BCPR) as a Portuguese-language version. The objectives of the present study were: i) to investigate developmental aspects of the phonological memory processing by error analysis in the nonword repetition task, and ii) to examine phoneme (substitution, omission and addition) and order (migration) errors made in the BCPR by 180 normal Brazilian children of both sexes aged 4-10, from preschool to 4th grade. The dominant error was substitution [F(3,525) = 180.47; P

  17. Unforgettable film music: The role of emotion in episodic long-term memory for music

    OpenAIRE

    Altenmüller Eckart O; Münte Thomas F; Eschrich Susann

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Specific pieces of music can elicit strong emotions in listeners and, possibly in connection with these emotions, can be remembered even years later. However, episodic memory for emotional music compared with less emotional music has not yet been examined. We investigated whether emotional music is remembered better than less emotional music. Also, we examined the influence of musical structure on memory performance. Results Recognition of 40 musical excerpts was investiga...

  18. Disruption of Long-Term Alcohol-Related Memory Reconsolidation: Role of ?-Adrenoceptors and NMDA Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    JelteAWouda

    2010-01-01

    Disrupting reconsolidation of drug-related memories may be effective in reducing the incidence of relapse. In the current study we examine whether alcohol- related memories are prone to disruption by the ? -adrenergicreceptor antagonist propranolol (10 mg/kg) and the NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 (0.1 mg/kg) following their reactivation. In operant chambers, male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer a 12% alcohol solution. After 3 weeks of abstinence, the animals were placed in t...

  19. Long-term habituation (LTH) in the crab Chasmagnathus: a model for behavioral and mechanistic studies of memory

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H., Maldonado; A., Romano; D., Tomsic.

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A decade of studies on long-term habituation (LTH) in the crab Chasmagnathus is reviewed. Upon sudden presentation of a passing object overhead, the crab reacts with an escape response that habituates promptly and for at least five days. LTH proved to be an instance of associative memory and showed [...] context, stimulus frequency and circadian phase specificity. A strong training protocol (STP) (³15 trials, intertrial interval (ITI) of 171 s) invariably yielded LTH, while a weak training protocol (WTP) (£10 trials, ITI = 171 s) invariably failed. STP was used with a presumably amnestic agent and WTP with a presumably hypermnestic agent. Remarkably, systemic administration of low doses was effective, which is likely to be due to the lack of an endothelial blood-brain barrier. LTH was blocked by inhibitors of protein and RNA synthesis, enhanced by protein kinase A (PKA) activators and reduced by PKA inhibitors, facilitated by angiotensin II and IV and disrupted by saralasin. The presence of angiotensins and related compounds in the crab brain was demonstrated. Diverse results suggest that LTH includes two components: an initial memory produced by spaced training and mainly expressed at an initial phase of testing, and a retraining memory produced by massed training and expressed at a later phase of testing (retraining). The initial memory would be associative, context specific and sensitive to cycloheximide, while the retraining memory would be nonassociative, context independent and insensitive to cycloheximide

  20. Long-term habituation (LTH in the crab Chasmagnathus: a model for behavioral and mechanistic studies of memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maldonado H.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A decade of studies on long-term habituation (LTH in the crab Chasmagnathus is reviewed. Upon sudden presentation of a passing object overhead, the crab reacts with an escape response that habituates promptly and for at least five days. LTH proved to be an instance of associative memory and showed context, stimulus frequency and circadian phase specificity. A strong training protocol (STP (³15 trials, intertrial interval (ITI of 171 s invariably yielded LTH, while a weak training protocol (WTP (£10 trials, ITI = 171 s invariably failed. STP was used with a presumably amnestic agent and WTP with a presumably hypermnestic agent. Remarkably, systemic administration of low doses was effective, which is likely to be due to the lack of an endothelial blood-brain barrier. LTH was blocked by inhibitors of protein and RNA synthesis, enhanced by protein kinase A (PKA activators and reduced by PKA inhibitors, facilitated by angiotensin II and IV and disrupted by saralasin. The presence of angiotensins and related compounds in the crab brain was demonstrated. Diverse results suggest that LTH includes two components: an initial memory produced by spaced training and mainly expressed at an initial phase of testing, and a retraining memory produced by massed training and expressed at a later phase of testing (retraining. The initial memory would be associative, context specific and sensitive to cycloheximide, while the retraining memory would be nonassociative, context independent and insensitive to cycloheximide

  1. An optical model for implementing Parrondo’s game and designing stochastic game with long-term memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Using a photon propagating through a designed array of beam splitters to simulate Parrondo’s game paradox. ? Design the optical flowchart for implementing Parrondo history-dependent game paradox. ? Design new game with long-term memory on a designed tree lattice and loop lattice. - Abstract: An optical model for a photon propagating through a designed array of beam splitters is developed to give a physical implementation of Parrondo’s game and Parrondo’s history-dependent game. The winner in this optical model is a photon passed the beam splitter. The loser is a photon being reflected by the beam splitter. The optical beam splitter is the coin-tosser. We designed new games with long-term memory by using this optical diagram method. The optical output of the combined game of two losing games could be a win, or a loss, or an oscillation between win and loss. The modern technology to implement this optical model is well developed. A circularly polarized photon is a possible candidate for this physical implementation in laboratory.

  2. Long-Term Effects of Gestures on Memory for Foreign Language Words Trained in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedonia, Manuela; Klimesch, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Language and gesture are viewed as highly interdependent systems. Besides supporting communication, gestures also have an impact on memory for verbal information compared to pure verbal encoding in native but also in foreign language learning. This article presents a within-subject longitudinal study lasting 14 months that tested the use of…

  3. PKMzeta Maintains Spatial, Instrumental, and Classically Conditioned Long-Term Memories.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Serrano, P.; Friedman, E.L.; Kenney, Jana; Taubenfeld, S.M.; Zimmerman, J.M.; Hanna, J.; Alberini, C.; Kelley, A.E.; Maren, S.; Rudy, J.W.; Yin, J.C.P.; Sacktor, T.C.; Fenton, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 6, ?. 12 (2008), s. 2698-2706. ISSN 1544-9173 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ?R(CZ) GA309/06/1231 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : PKMzeta * memory * LTP Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 12.683, year: 2008

  4. Reconsolidation of a Context Long-Term Memory in the Terrestrial Snail Requires Protein Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainutdinova, Tatiana H.; Tagirova, Rosa R.; Ismailova, Asja I.; Muranova, Lyudmila N.; Samarova, Elena I.; Gainutdinov, Khalil L.; Balaban, Pavel M.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the protein synthesis blocker anisomycin on contextual memory in the terrestrial snail "Helix." Prior to the training session, the behavioral responses in two contexts were similar. Two days after a session of electric shocks (5 d) in one context only, the context conditioning was observed as the significant…

  5. Long term respiratory sequelae of whooping cough in a nationally representative sample.

    OpenAIRE

    Britten, N.; Wadsworth, J.

    1986-01-01

    The long term respiratory consequences of whooping cough in childhood were sought among members of the National Survey of Health and Development. Peak expiratory flow rate was measured when the survey members were 36 years old and seven respiratory symptoms were reported at the same time. Peak expiratory flow rate was slightly reduced in those who had had whooping cough as a child, and this difference became non-significant when other factors were taken into account. Unexpectedly, chronic cou...

  6. Historical review of long-term soil sampling for environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil samples have been collected routinely from the environs of the Hanford Site and analyzed since 1971. Correct interpretation of results depends on samples being collected from the same locations, the locations remaining relatively undisturbed, and collection and analytical procedures remaining the same or being equivalent. Historical files, documents, and annual environmental reports were reviewed to evaluate these factors. It was determined that 20 soil sampling locations, 11 onsite and 9 offsite, were established between 1971 and 1977 and represent long-term sampling locations. Sample collection and analytical procedures have remained essentially the same since 1971. The physical ecological attributes of each long-term soil sampling location were evaluated. During the review of historical records, a few results for 1970, 1971, and 1972 were noted as previously unreported in annual or special reports. These results are included in Appendix A. To complete the record, results previously reported in annual environmental reports are given in Appendix B. Global Positioning System (GPS) reading for 20 long-term soil sampling locations are provided in Appendix C

  7. Disruption of long-term alcohol-related memory reconsolidation: Role of ?-adrenoceptors and NMDA receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JelteAWouda

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Disrupting reconsolidation of drug-related memories may be effective in reducing the incidence of relapse. In the current study we examine whether alcohol- related memories are prone to disruption by the ? -adrenergicreceptor antagonist propranolol (10 mg/kg and the NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 (0.1 mg/kg following their reactivation. In operant chambers, male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer a 12% alcohol solution. After 3 weeks of abstinence, the animals were placed in the self-administration cages and were reexposed to the alcohol-associated cues for a 20-min retrieval period, immediately followed by a systemic injection of either propranolol, MK801 or saline. Rats were tested for cue-induced alcohol seeking on the following day. Retrieval session, injection and test were repeated on 2 further occasions at weekly intervals. Both propranolol and MK801 administration upon reactivation did not reduce alcohol seeking after the first reactivation test. However, a significant reduction of alcohol seeking was observed over three post-training tests in propranolol treated animals, and MK801 treated animals showed a strong tendency towards reduced alcohol seeking (p=0.06. Our data indicate that reconsolidation of alcohol-related memories can be disrupted after a long post-training interval and that particularly ?-adrenergic receptors may represent novel targets for pharmacotherapy of alcoholism, in combination with cue-exposure therapies.

  8. Characterization of long-term memory, resistance to extinction, and influence of temperament during two instrumental tasks in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenchon, Mathilde; Lévy, Frédéric; Górecka-Bruzda, Aleksandra; Calandreau, Ludovic; Lansade, Léa

    2013-11-01

    The present study investigated the influence of temperament on long-term recall and extinction of 2 instrumental tasks in 26 horses. In the first task (backward task), horses learned to walk backward, using commands given by an experimenter, in order to obtain a food reward. In the second task (active avoidance task), horses had to cross an obstacle after a bell rang in order to avoid emission of an air puff. Twenty-two months after acquisition, horses exhibited perfect recall performance in both tasks. Accordingly, no influence of temperament on recall performance could be observed for either task. In contrast, in the absence of positive or negative outcomes, the horses' ability to extinguish their response to either task was highly variable. Resistance to extinction was related to some indicators of temperament: The most fearful horses tended to be the most resistant to extinction in the backward task, while the least sensitive horses tended to be the most resistant to extinction in the active avoidance task. These findings reveal extensive long-term memory abilities in horses and suggest an influence of temperament on learning processes other than acquisition. PMID:23743707

  9. Anodal tDCS over the Primary Motor Cortex Facilitates Long-Term Memory Formation Reflecting Use-Dependent Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rroji, Orjon; van Kuyck, Kris; Nuttin, Bart; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the primary motor cortex (M1) modulates NMDA receptor dependent processes that mediate synaptic plasticity. Here we test this proposal by applying anodal versus sham tDCS while subjects practiced to flex the thumb as fast as possible (ballistic movements). Repetitive practice of this task has been shown to result in performance improvements that reflect use-dependent plasticity resulting from NMDA receptor mediated, long-term potentiation (LTP)-like processes. Using a double-blind within-subject cross-over design, subjects (n=14) participated either in an anodal or a sham tDCS session which were at least 3 months apart. Sham or anodal tDCS (1 mA) was applied for 20 min during motor practice and retention was tested 30 min, 24 hours and one week later. All subjects improved performance during each of the two sessions (p tDCS than with sham tDCS (p tDCS facilitates long-term memory formation reflecting use-dependent plasticity. Our results support the notion that anodal tDCS facilitates synaptic plasticity mediated by an LTP-like mechanism, which is in accordance with previous research. PMID:25996937

  10. Combined liposuction and excision of lipomas: long-term evaluation of a large sample of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland-Halperin, Libby R; Pimpinella, Vincenza; Copeland, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lipomas are benign tumors of mature fat cells. They can be removed by liposuction, yet this technique is seldom employed because of concerns that removal may be incomplete and recurrence may be more frequent than after conventional excision. Objectives. We assessed the short- and long-term clinical outcomes and recurrence of combined liposuction and limited surgical excision of subcutaneous lipomas. Methods. From 2003 to 2012, 25 patients with 48 lipomas were treated with liposuction followed by direct excision through the same incision to remove residual lipomatous tissue. Initial postoperative follow-up ranged from 1 week to 3 months, and long-term outcomes, complications, and recurrence were surveyed 1 to 10 years postoperatively. Results. Lipomas on the head, neck, trunk, and extremities ranged from 1 to 15?cm in diameter. Early postoperative hematoma and seromas were managed by aspiration. Among 23 survey respondents (92%), patients were uniformly pleased with the cosmetic results; none reported recurrent lipoma. Conclusions. The combination of liposuction and excision is a safe alternative for lipoma removal; malignancy and recurrence are uncommon. Liposuction performed through a small incision provides satisfactory aesthetic results in most cases. Once reduced in size, residual lipomatous and capsular tissue can be removed without expanding the incision. These favorable outcomes support wider application of this technique in appropriate cases. PMID:25694827

  11. Access to long-term optical memories using photon echoes retrieved from semiconductor spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, L.; Poltavtsev, S. V.; Yugova, I. A.; Salewski, M.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Karczewski, G.; Wojtowicz, T.; Akimov, I. A.; Bayer, M.

    2014-11-01

    The ability to store optical information is important for both classical and quantum communication. Achieving this in a comprehensive manner (converting the optical field into material excitation, storing this excitation, and releasing it after a controllable time delay) is greatly complicated by the many, often conflicting, properties of the material. More specifically, optical resonances in semiconductor quantum structures with high oscillator strength are inevitably characterized by short excitation lifetimes (and, therefore, short optical memory). Here, we present a new experimental approach to stimulated photon echoes by transferring the information contained in the optical field into a spin system, where it is decoupled from the optical vacuum field and may persist much longer. We demonstrate this for an n-doped CdTe/(Cd,Mg)Te quantum well, the storage time of which could be increased by more than three orders of magnitude, from the picosecond range up to tens of nanoseconds.

  12. Groundwater sampling in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki from borehole OL-KR6 during a long-term pumping test in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long-term pumping test from borehole OL-KR6 in Olkiluoto was initiated in 2001. Since then, flow and in situ EC measurements, as well as groundwater sampling from specific sampling sections have been performed yearly. The aim of this study was to get information on the potential connections via fractures both to the sea and to deep saline groundwater during long-term pumping of the open borehole. In 2005 four groundwater samples were collected from four different sampling depths (98.5-100.5 m, 120-125 m, 135-137 m and 422-425 m) from borebole OL-KR6. The groundwater samples were taken from packed-off sections by means of PAVE equipment. The water types of groundwater samples from OL-KR6 were Na-Cl (for samples from 98.5-100.5 m and 135-137 m depths) and Na-Ca-Cl (for samples from 120-125 m and 422-425 m depths). The sample from depth 422-425 m was saline (TDS> 10000mg/L), while other waters were brackish (1000 mg < TDS <10000 mg/L). This study presents the sampling methods and the analysis results of groundwater samples from deep borehole OL-KR6. A comparison between the results of the in situ EC measurements and the EC results measured during groundwater sampling is presented. This report also contains a short comparison of the results obtained during the long-term pumping test during 2001-2005. (orig.)

  13. Delayed emergence of effects of memory-enhancing drugs: implications for the dynamics of long-term memory.

    OpenAIRE

    Mondadori, C.; Hengerer, B; Ducret, T; Borkowski, J

    1994-01-01

    Many theories of memory postulate that processing of information outlasts the learning situation and involves several different physiological substrates. If such physiologically distinct mechanisms or stages of memory do in fact exist, they should be differentially affected by particular experimental manipulations. Accordingly, a selective improvement of the processes underlying short-term memory should be detectable only while the information is encoded in the short-term mode, and a selectiv...

  14. Long term durability of radon remedial measures in a sample of UK homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study to determine the long term effectiveness of commonly used radon remedial methods over a 15 year period is discussed. The overall failure rate for remediation systems was 63%, with roughly equal rates for passive and active type systems. The fans used in active systems performed better than expected, with many of them exceeding manufacturers’ stated life spans by several years. The study found that all types of remedial measure can last more than ten years, but also found examples for all measures that failed in less than five years. This supports HPA advice that homes should be retested every 5–10 years. It was also noted that householders found it difficult to detect failures in passive systems. The need for a follow-up study is discussed, in light of likely changes in building practices and materials during the last twenty years. (paper)

  15. Long term durability of radon remedial measures in a sample of UK homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Chris

    2013-12-01

    A study to determine the long term effectiveness of commonly used radon remedial methods over a 15 year period is discussed. The overall failure rate for remediation systems was 63%, with roughly equal rates for passive and active type systems. The fans used in active systems performed better than expected, with many of them exceeding manufacturers' stated life spans by several years. The study found that all types of remedial measure can last more than ten years, but also found examples for all measures that failed in less than five years. This supports HPA advice that homes should be retested every 5-10 years. It was also noted that householders found it difficult to detect failures in passive systems. The need for a follow-up study is discussed, in light of likely changes in building practices and materials during the last twenty years. PMID:24025515

  16. Hearing Loss Is Negatively Related to Episodic and Semantic Long-Term Memory but Not to Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronnberg, Jerker; Danielsson, Henrik; Rudner, Mary; Arlinger, Stig; Sternang, Ola; Wahlin, Ake; Nilsson, Lars-Goran

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To test the relationship between degree of hearing loss and different memory systems in hearing aid users. Method: Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to study the relationship between auditory and visual acuity and different cognitive and memory functions in an age-hetereogenous subsample of 160 hearing aid users without…

  17. Groundwater sampling in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki from drillhole OL-KR6 during a long-term pumping test in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long-term pumping test in drillhole OL-KR6 in Olkiluoto was initiated in 2001. Flow and in situ EC measurements as well as groundwater sampling from specific sampling sections have since then been performed yearly. The aim of the study was to obtain information on potential connections via fractures both to the sea and to deep saline groundwater during long-term pumping of the open drillhole. In 2007, four groundwater samples were collected at four different sampling depths (98.5-100.5 m, 125-130 m, 135-137 m and 422-425 m). The groundwater samples were taken in stages using PAVE equipment. The water types found in the groundwater samples from OL-KR6 were Na-Ca-Cl (for samples taken at depths of 98.5-100.5 m and 125-130 m) and Na-Cl (for samples taken at depths of 135-137 m and 422-425 m). The sample taken at depth 422-425 m was saline (TDS> 10000 mg/l), while the other samples were brackish (1000 mg 2O after the air correction had been made. The dominant gas in the groundwater samples was nitrogen. Carbon dioxide was the second dominant gas, except in sample OL-KR6/422-425 m, in which methane, instead, was the second dominant gas. All the samples also contained helium, ethane and argon. Small amounts of ethene, acetylene and propane were found in some samples. No hydrogen or propene was detected in the samples. The dissolved gas concentrations were higher in the OL-KR6 samples in 2006 than in the two previous years. In 2007, the dissolved gas concentration was again lower. One conclusion from this and the previous studies is that changes in the three upper sampling points were most remarkable in 2001-2002 just after pumping started. Otherwise, water compositions were invariable. (orig.)

  18. Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of learning and memory: Memory systems of the brain, long term potentiation and synaptic...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Leff

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El fenómeno de LTP es una forma de plasticidad sináptica ampliamente aceptado como un modelo de estabilización de sinapsis en procesos neurobiológicos como el desarrollo del SNC y el fenómeno de aprendizaje y memoria. Desde su descubrimiento por Bliss y Lomo (1973, el fenómeno de potenciación a largo plazo (PLP o LTP (Long-Term Potentiation, por sus siglas en inglés ha sido definido convencionalmente como la estimulación aferente de alta frecuencia que es capaz de despolarizar la célula postsináptica, a través de la activación de receptores glutamaérgicos, con la resultante entrada de calcio a la neurona postsináptica. Este evento neurobiológico produce un incremento intracelular en la concentración de calcio [(Cai] que induce la activación de diferentes sistemas moleculares de señalamiento intracelular (AMPc, proteínas cinasas, fosforilación de proteínas intracelulares que conlleva a una alteración de la actividad postsináptica y/o presináptica, dando por resultado un persistente incremento de respuesta sináptica específica dependiente de la activación del receptor glutamaérgico NMDA...

  19. Long-term memory traces for language sounds are highly context-sensitive: an MEG/ERF study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas HØjlund; Gebauer, Line

    Introduction: An early component of the auditory event-related potential (ERP), the mismatch negativity (MMN), has been shown to be sensitive to native phonemic language sound contrasts compared to non-native or allophonic language sound contrasts. So far this has not been attested for different phonetic contexts. In the present study we investigated the mismatch field (MMF) response (the magnetic counterpart of the MMN) of native Danish speakers to the Danish phonetic contrast of [t]-[d] in two different phonetic contexts: One in which the sound contrast was phonemic ([tæ] versus [dæ]), and one in which the sound contrast was allophonic ([æt] versus [æd]), i.e. its phonemic status was neutralized. Methods: The stimuli consisted of the four Danish syllables: [tæ] and [dæ] (meaning ‘take’ and ‘then’, respectively), and [æt] and [æd] (both meaning ‘that’). These were presented in a passive listening MMN paradigm while participants’ MEG was recorded. [tæ] and [æt] acted as standards, and [dæ] and [æd] thus as deviants, respectively. Results: Comparing brain responses to the deviants and the standards, only the phonemic [tæ]-[dæ] contrast showed significant effects (FWE-corrected at p<0.05 at the cluster-level) within the typical MMN time range (100 to 300 ms after deviance onset) and over both hemispheres. Comparing the differences between the two contrasts ([dæ]-[tæ] minus [æd]-[æt]), the phonemic context elicited significantly larger MMF responses than the allophonic context (FWE-corrected at p<0.05 at the cluster-level), again over both hemispheres and within the typical MMN time range. Conclusion: By manipulating the immediate phonetic context in an oddball paradigm, we demonstrate that the human brain’s MMF response to language sounds is highly context-sensitive. This has important impact on the proposed long-term memory traces for native phonological categories. In order to generate different MMF responses to the same language sound contrast depending on the phonetic context, these long-term memory traces must thus be context-sensitive themselves or exist as separate traces for the context-dependent allophones of the phonological categories.

  20. A novel nucleolar transcriptional activator ApLLP for long-term memory formation is intrinsically unstructured but functionally active.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingxian; Song, Jianxing

    2008-02-01

    A novel Aplysia nucleolar protein ApLLP has been recently characterized to be a transcriptional activator that binds to the cAMP-response element (CRE) and thus induces ApC/EBP expression required for establishing long-term memory. So far, no structural information is available for both ApLLP and its homologs. Here, we expressed the entire ApLLP and its two dissected fragments, followed by structural and binding studies using CD and NMR spectroscopy. The study leads to two interesting findings: (1) all three ApLLP proteins are highly disordered, owning no predominant secondary and tertiary structures; (2) ApLLP is capable of binding the CRE DNA element but this induces no significant change in its secondary and tertiary structures. Intriguingly, it appears that the DNA-binding residues are mainly located on the C-half of the ApLLP molecule. Taken together, our results define ApLLP as an intrinsically unstructured protein and may bear important implications in understanding the molecular mechanism underlying ApLLP functions. PMID:18078811

  1. X11beta rescues memory and long-term potentiation deficits in Alzheimer's disease APPswe Tg2576 mice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mitchell, Jacqueline C

    2009-12-01

    Increased production and deposition of amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) are believed to be key pathogenic events in Alzheimer\\'s disease. As such, routes for lowering cerebral Abeta levels represent potential therapeutic targets for Alzheimer\\'s disease. X11beta is a neuronal adaptor protein that binds to the intracellular domain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Overexpression of X11beta inhibits Abeta production in a number of experimental systems. However, whether these changes to APP processing and Abeta production induced by X11beta overexpression also induce beneficial effects to memory and synaptic plasticity are not known. We report here that X11beta-mediated reduction in cerebral Abeta is associated with normalization of both cognition and in vivo long-term potentiation in aged APPswe Tg2576 transgenic mice that model the amyloid pathology of Alzheimer\\'s disease. Overexpression of X11beta itself has no detectable adverse effects upon mouse behaviour. These findings support the notion that modulation of X11beta function represents a therapeutic target for Abeta-mediated neuronal dysfunction in Alzheimer\\'s disease.

  2. Novel interactive effects of darkness and retinoid signaling in the ability to form long-term memory following aversive operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Cailin M; Simmons, Jason; Peters, Grace; Spencer, Gaynor E

    2014-10-01

    The vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid, is important for memory formation and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in vertebrate species. In our studies in the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis, we have shown that retinoic acid plays a role in memory formation following operant conditioning of the aerial respiratory behaviour. Inhibition of either retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH) or the retinoid receptors prevents long-term memory (LTM) formation, whereas synthetic retinoid receptor agonists promote memory formation by converting intermediate-term memory (ITM) into LTM. In this study, animals were exposed to constant darkness in order to test whether light-sensitive retinoic acid would promote memory formation. However, we found that exposure to constant darkness alone (in the absence of retinoic acid) enhanced memory formation. To determine whether the memory-promoting effects of darkness could override the memory-inhibiting effects of the retinoid signaling inhibitors, we exposed snails to RALDH inhibitors or a retinoid receptor antagonist in constant darkness. We found that darkness overcame the inhibitory effects of RALDH inhibition, but did not overcome the inhibitory effects of the retinoid receptor antagonist. We also tested whether constant darkness and training affected the mRNA levels of the retinoid metabolic enzymes RALDH and Cyp26, or the mRNA levels of the retinoid receptors, but found no significant effect. Overall, these data demonstrate an interaction between environmental light conditions and the retinoid signaling pathway, which influence long-term memory formation in a mollusc. PMID:25062644

  3. Long-Term Memory for Place Learning Is Facilitated by Expression of cAMP Response Element-Binding Protein in the Dorsal Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightwell, Jennifer J.; Smith, Clayton A.; Neve, Rachael L.; Colombo, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    Extensive research has shown that the hippocampus is necessary for consolidation of long-term spatial memory in rodents. We reported previously that rats using a place strategy to solve a cross maze task showed sustained phosphorylation of hippocampus cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor implicated in…

  4. Hippocampal Overexpression of Mutant CREB Blocks Long-Term, but Not Short-Term Memory for a Socially Transmitted Food Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightwell, Jennifer J.; Countryman, Renee A.; Neve, Rachael L.; Colombo, Paul J.; Smith, Clayton A.

    2005-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB on Ser133 is implicated in the establishment of long-term memory for hippocampus-dependent tasks, including spatial learning and contextual fear conditioning. We reported previously that training on a hippocampus-dependent social transmission of food preference (STFP) task increases CREB…

  5. The E3 Ligase APC/C-Cdh1 Is Required for Associative Fear Memory and Long-Term Potentiation in the Amygdala of Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, Joseph E.; Malumbres, Marcos; Klann, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ligase regulated by Cdh1. Beyond its role in controlling cell cycle progression, APC/C-Cdh1 has been detected in neurons and plays a role in long-lasting synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. Herein, we further examined the role of Cdh1 in synaptic plasticity and memory by generating…

  6. Mapping of total scattering as a tool for long term investigations in the cleaning state of the functional coated samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadkhoda, P.; Günster, S.; Jensen, L.; Ristau, D.

    2014-11-01

    In optical coating production the generation of particles and defects is always an undesirable side effect and cannot be completely avoided in the handling steps of the optical components. Particles and defects on the substrates and in the functional coatings lead to scattering and absorption, which may cause a lower damage threshold for components of high power laser application. In this study, results of a long term investigation in the quality and the state of the cleanliness of multilayer systems produced by different deposition techniques are presented. Coated samples of different coating processes are investigated with the help of a Fast Total Scatter scanning system. Adapted data reduction algorithms for the determination of the particle sizes derived from the scattering measurements are developed and applied to the measurement results. On this basis, the density distribution of particle contamination on the samples is evaluated for selected coating runs over a long term period. The calculated statistics of the samples are related to the corresponding production conditions of individual coating plants to extract specific effects of the process environment.

  7. The Effect of Zinc Supplementation of Lactating Rats on Short-Term and Long-Term Memory of Their Male Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study the effect of zinc chloride (ZnCl2 administration on the short-term and long-term memory of rats were assessed. Methods: We enrolled six groups of adult female and control group of eight Wistar rats in each group. One group was control group with free access to food and water, and five groups drunk zinc chloride in different doses (20, 30, 50, 70 and 100 mg/kg/day in drinking water for two weeks during lactation .One month after birth, a shuttle box used to short- term and long-term memory and the latency in entering the dark chamber as well. Results: This experiment showed that maternal 70 mg/kg dietary zinc during lactation influenced the working memory of rats’ offspring in all groups. Rats received 100 mg/kg/day zinc during lactation so they had significant impairment in working memory (short-term of their offspring (P<0.05. There was no significant difference in reference (long-term memory of all groups. Conclusion: Drug consumption below70 mg/kg/day zinc chloride during lactation had no effect. While enhanced 100 mg/ kg/ day zinc in lactating rats could cause short-term memory impairment.

  8. Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results for 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rio Blanco site for the LTHMP on May 16 and 17, 2011. The samples were shipped to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, for analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed, with the exception of the determination of tritium concentration by the enrichment method, because the laboratory no longer provides that service. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and tritium using the conventional method. Starting in 2012, DOE will retain a different laboratory that provides the enriched tritium analysis service.

  9. Analyses of metallic first mirror samples after long term plasma exposure in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallic mirrors are foreseen in ITER diagnostic systems as optical elements directly viewing the plasma radiation. In the frame of an EFDA contract, metallic mirror samples have been exposed for long pulse plasma discharges in Tore Supra (TS) in order to investigate surface modifications caused by erosion and re-deposition processes. Three different materials have been selected: mono-crystalline molybdenum (mc-Mo), polycrystalline stainless steel (SS) and copper (Cu). The mc-Mo samples showed after TS exposure almost no surface roughness modifications and the lowest net-erosion. A slight reflectivity reduction, most pronounced in the near UV, is attributed to light absorption in a thin carbon deposit. Cu mirrors showed by far the highest surface roughness, erosion and diffusive reflectivity. Comparative laboratory glow discharge experiments with virgin reference samples and numerical simulations of erosion/deposition confirm the dominant contribution of conditioning procedures to erosion of mirrors exposed (without shutter protection) in Tore Supra. (authors)

  10. Long-term room temperature preservation of corpse soft tissue: an approach for tissue sample storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caputo Mariela

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disaster victim identification (DVI represents one of the most difficult challenges in forensic sciences, and subsequent DNA typing is essential. Collected samples for DNA-based human identification are usually stored at low temperature to halt the degradation processes of human remains. We have developed a simple and reliable procedure for soft tissue storage and preservation for DNA extraction. It ensures high quality DNA suitable for PCR-based DNA typing after at least 1 year of room temperature storage. Methods Fragments of human psoas muscle were exposed to three different environmental conditions for diverse time periods at room temperature. Storage conditions included: (a a preserving medium consisting of solid sodium chloride (salt, (b no additional substances and (c garden soil. DNA was extracted with proteinase K/SDS followed by organic solvent treatment and concentration by centrifugal filter devices. Quantification was carried out by real-time PCR using commercial kits. Short tandem repeat (STR typing profiles were analysed with 'expert software'. Results DNA quantities recovered from samples stored in salt were similar up to the complete storage time and underscored the effectiveness of the preservation method. It was possible to reliably and accurately type different genetic systems including autosomal STRs and mitochondrial and Y-chromosome haplogroups. Autosomal STR typing quality was evaluated by expert software, denoting high quality profiles from DNA samples obtained from corpse tissue stored in salt for up to 365 days. Conclusions The procedure proposed herein is a cost efficient alternative for storage of human remains in challenging environmental areas, such as mass disaster locations, mass graves and exhumations. This technique should be considered as an additional method for sample storage when preservation of DNA integrity is required for PCR-based DNA typing.

  11. An Optimal Sampling Design for Observing and Validating Long-Term Leaf Area Index with Temporal Variations in Spatial Heterogeneities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelu Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A sampling strategy to define elementary sampling units (ESUs for an entire site at the kilometer scale is an important step in the validation process for moderate-resolution leaf area index (LAI products. Current LAI-sampling strategies are unable to consider the vegetation seasonal changes and are better suited for single-day LAI product validation, whereas the increasingly used wireless sensor network for LAI measurement (LAINet requires an optimal sampling strategy across both spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we developed an efficient and robust LAI Sampling strategy based on Multi-temporal Prior knowledge (SMP for long-term, fixed-position LAI observations. The SMP approach employed multi-temporal vegetation index (VI maps and the vegetation classification map as a priori knowledge. The SMP approach minimized the multi-temporal bias of the VI frequency histogram between the ESUs and the entire site and maximized the nearest-neighbor index to ensure that ESUs were dispersed in the geographical space. The SMP approach was compared with four sampling strategies including random sampling, systematic sampling, sampling based on the land-cover map and a sampling strategy based on vegetation index prior knowledge using the PROSAIL model-based simulation analysis in the Heihe River basin. The results indicate that the ESUs selected using the SMP method spread more evenly in both the multi-temporal feature space and geographical space over the vegetation cycle. By considering the temporal changes in heterogeneity, the average root-mean-square error (RMSE of the LAI reference maps can be reduced from 0.12 to 0.05, and the relative error can be reduced from 6.1% to 2.2%. The SMP technique was applied to assign the LAINet ESU locations at the Huailai Remote Sensing Experimental Station in Beijing, China, from 4 July to 28 August 2013, to validate three MODIS C5 LAI products. The results suggest that the average R2, RMSE, bias and relative uncertainty for the three MODIS LAI products were 0.60, 0.33, ?0.11, and 12.2%, respectively. The MCD15A2 product performed best, exhibiting a RMSE of 0.20, a bias of ?0.07 and a relative uncertainty of 7.4%. Future efforts are needed to obtain more long-term validation datasets using the SMP approach on different vegetation types for validating moderate-resolution LAI products in time series.

  12. Glucocorticoids interact with noradrenergic activation at encoding to enhance long-term memory for emotional material in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, S K; Simon, R; McFarlin, S; Alkire, M; Desai, A; Cahill, L F

    2014-09-26

    Evidence from the animal literature suggests that post-training glucocorticoids (GCs) interact with noradrenergic activation at acquisition to enhance memory consolidation for emotional stimuli. While there is evidence that GCs enhance memory for emotional material in humans, the extent to which this depends on noradrenergic activation at encoding has not been explored. In this study, 20-mg hydrocortisone was administered to healthy young women (18-35 yrs old) in a double-blind fashion 10 min prior to viewing a series of emotional and neutral images. Saliva samples were taken at baseline, 10 min after drug or placebo administration, immediately after viewing the images, 10, 20, and 30 min after viewing the images. Participants returned 1 week later for a surprise recall test. Results suggest that, hydrocortisone administration resulted in emotional memory enhancement only in participants who displayed an increase in endogenous noradrenergic activation, measured via salivary alpha-amylase at encoding. These results support findings in the animal literature, and suggest that GC-induced memory enhancement relies on noradrenergic activation at encoding in women. PMID:25010401

  13. The effect of long term administration of ascorbic acid on the learning and memory deficits induced by diabetes in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Hasanein

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Ascorbic acid improves cognitive impairments in several experimental models. Diabetes causes learning and memory deficits. In this study we hypothesized that chronic treatment with ascorbic acid (100mg/kg, p.o would affect on the passive avoidance learning (PAL and memory in control and streptozocin-induced diabetic rats."n"nMethods: Diabetes was induced by a single i.p. injection of STZ (60mg/kg. The rats were considered diabetic if plasma glucose levels exceeded 250mg/dl on three days after STZ injection. Treatment was begun at the onset of hyperglycemia. PAL was assessed 30 days later. Retention test was done 24 h after training. At the end, animals were weighted and blood samples were drawn for plasma glucose measurement."n"nResults: Diabetes caused impairment in acquisition and retrieval processes of PAL and memory in rats. Ascorbic acid treatment improved learning and memory in control rats and reversed learning and memory deficits in diabetic rats. Ascorbic acid administration also improved the body weight loss and hyperglycemia of diabetics. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties of the vitamin may be involved in the memory improving effects of such treatment."n"nConclusion: These results show that ascorbic acid administration to rats for 30 days from onset of diabetes alleviated the negative influence of diabetes on learning and memory. Comparing with other nootropic drugs, vitamins have fewer side effects. Therefore, this regimen may provide a new potential alternative for prevention of the impaired cognitive functions associated with diabetes after confirming by clinical trials.

  14. The effect of frequency and duration of training sessions on acquisition and long-term memory in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Helle; Ladewig, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Most domestic dogs are subjected to some kind of obedience training, often on a frequent basis, but the question of how often and for how long a dog should be trained has not been fully investigated. Optimizing the training as much as possible is not only an advantage in the training of working dogs such as guide dogs and police dogs, also the training of family dogs can benefit from this knowledge. We studied the effect of frequency and duration of training sessions on acquisition and on long-term memory. Forty-four laboratory Beagles were divided into 4 groups and trained by means of operant conditioning and shaping to perform a traditional obedience task, each dog having a total of 18 training sessions. The training schedules of the 4 groups differentiated in frequency (1–2 times per week vs. daily) and duration (1 training session vs. 3 training sessions in a row). Acquisition was measured as achieved training level at a certain time. The dogs’ retention of the task was tested four weeks post-acquisition.Results demonstrated that dogs trained 1–2 times per week had significantly better acquisition than daily trained dogs, and that dogs trained only 1 session a day had significantly better acquisition than dogs trained 3 sessions in a row. The interaction between frequency and duration of training sessions was also significant, suggesting that the two affect acquisition differently depending on the combination of these. The combination of weekly training and one session resulted in the highest level of acquisition, whereas the combination of daily training and three sessions in a row resulted in the lowest level of acquisition. Daily training in one session produced similar results as weekly training combined with three sessions in a row. Training schedule did not affect retention of the learned task; all groups had a high level of retention after 4 weeks. The results of the study can be used to optimize training in dogs, which is important since the number of training sessions often is a limiting factor in practical dog training. The results also suggest that, once a task is learned, it is likely to be remembered for a period of at least four weeks after last practice, regardless of frequency and duration of the training sessions.

  15. Inhibition of the interactions between eukaryotic initiation factors 4E and 4G impairs long-term associative memory consolidation but not reconsolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeffer, Charles A.; Cowansage, Kiriana K.; Arnold, Elizabeth C.; Banko, Jessica L.; Moerke, Nathan J.; Rodriguez, Ricard; Schmidt, Enrico K.; Klosi, Edvin; Chorev, Michael; Lloyd, Richard E.; Pierre, Philippe; Wagner, Gerhard; Ledoux, Joseph E.; Klann, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that the general blockade of protein synthesis prevents both the initial consolidation and the postretrieval reconsolidation of long-term memories. These findings come largely from studies of drugs that block ribosomal function, so as to globally interfere with both cap-dependent and -independent forms of translation. Here we show that intra-amygdala microinfusions of 4EGI-1, a small molecule inhibitor of cap-dependent translation that selectively disrupts the ...

  16. A neuroligin-1-derived peptide stimulates phosphorylation of the NMDA receptor NR1 subunit and rescues MK-801-induced decrease in long-term potentiation and memory impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunova, Irina; Gjørlund, Michelle D; Owczarek, Sylwia; Petersen, Anders V; Perrier, Jean-François; Gøtzsche, Casper René; Berezin, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Neuroligins (NLs) are postsynaptic adhesion molecules, interacting with presynaptic neurexins (NXs), which determine the differential formation of excitatory (glutamatergic, NL1) and inhibitory (GABAergic, NL2) synapses. We have previously demonstrated that treatment with a NL2-derived peptide, neurolide-2, reduces sociability and increase animal aggression. We hypothesized that interfering with NL1 function at the excitatory synapses might regulate synaptic plasticity and learning, and counteract memory deficits induced by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor inhibition. First, neuronal NMDA receptor phosphorylation after treatment with NL1 or a mimetic peptide, neurolide-1, was quantified by immunoblotting. Subsequently, we investigated effects of neurolide-1 on long-term potentiation (LTP) induction in hippocampal slices compromised by NMDA receptor inhibitor MK-801. Finally, we investigated neurolide-1 effects on short- and long-term social and spatial memory in social recognition, Morris water-maze, and Y-maze tests. We found that subcutaneous neurolide-1 administration, restored hippocampal LTP compromised by NMDA receptor inhibitor MK-801. It counteracted MK-801-induced memory deficit in the water-maze and Y-maze tests after long-term treatment (24 h and 1–2 h before the test), but not after short-term exposure (1–2 h). Long-term exposure to neurolide-1 also facilitated social recognition memory. In addition, neurolide-1-induced phosphorylation of the NMDA receptor NR1 subunit on a site important for synaptic trafficking, potentially favoring synaptic receptor retention. Our findings emphasize the role of NL1–NMDA receptor interaction in cognition, and identify neurolide-1, as a valuable pharmacological tool to examine the in vivo role of postsynaptic NL1 in cognitive behavior in physiological and pathological conditions.

  17. Acute suppression, but not chronic genetic deficiency, of c-fos gene expression impairs long-term memory in aversive taste learning

    OpenAIRE

    Yasoshima, Yasunobu; Sako, Noritaka; Senba, Emiko; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have indicated that the establishment of long-term memory requires protein synthesis, including the synthesis of immediate-early gene products. Although the anatomical expression patterns of the c-fos gene, a transcription factor-encoding immediate-early gene, in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) are well documented, the functional roles of c-fos gene expression and Fos-mediated transcription remain to be clarified. Using the antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AS-ODN) me...

  18. Critical Role of Nitric Oxide-cGMP Cascade in the Formation of cAMP-Dependent Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aonuma, Hitoshi; Mizunami, Makoto; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Unoki, Sae

    2006-01-01

    Cyclic AMP pathway plays an essential role in formation of long-term memory (LTM). In some species, the nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic GMP pathway has been found to act in parallel and complementary to the cAMP pathway for LTM formation. Here we describe a new role of the NO-cGMP pathway, namely, stimulation of the cAMP pathway to induce LTM. We have…

  19. Spatial cognition and memory: a reversible lesion with lidocaine into the anteromedial/posterior parietal cortex (AM/PPC affects differently working and long-term memory on two foraging tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO ESPINA-MARCHANT

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Place memory is relevant for exploration and forage behaviour. When food supply is dispersed, a win-shift has advantage over a win-stay strategy. In the Olton Octagonal Maze, the rat follows a win-shift strategy using working memory. However, in the Olton 4x4 version, the rat follows a win-stay strategy, using both working and long-term memories. It has been suggested that the neocortex is required for the resolution of tasks demanding long-term, but not for that demanding working memory alone. The role of anteromedial/posterior parietal cortex (AM/PPC was investigated here, using a reversible lesion induced by intracerebral lidocaine infusion. Long-Evans rats were implanted with guide cannulae into the AM/PPC and trained in an Olton 4x4 maze, counting working and long-term memory errors after a delay. Then, the animals were infused with lidocaine or saline during the delay phase and tested for three days. Another series of animals, treated as before, was tested in an Olton Octagonal Maze and subjected to the same injection schedule. In the Olton 4x4 Maze, lidocaine produced a significant increase in working and long-term memory errors, compared to saline and post-lidocaine conditions. In contrast, in the Olton Octagonal Maze, lidocaine did not induce any effect on working memory errors. Thus, AM/PPC is required when both working with previous information and long-term memories are needed, but not when only working memory is required, as it happens under ethological conditions. Whenever food supply is dispersed, a win-shift strategy is preferable

  20. Spatial cognition and memory: a reversible lesion with lidocaine into the anteromedial/posterior parietal cortex (AM/PPC) affects differently working and long-term memory on two foraging tasks

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    PABLO, ESPINA-MARCHANT; TERESA, PINTO-HAMUY; DIEGO, BUSTAMANTE; PAOLA, MORALES; LUIS, ROBLES; MARIO, HERRERA-MARSCHITZ.

    Full Text Available Place memory is relevant for exploration and forage behaviour. When food supply is dispersed, a win-shift has advantage over a win-stay strategy. In the Olton Octagonal Maze, the rat follows a win-shift strategy using working memory. However, in the Olton 4x4 version, the rat follows a win-stay stra [...] tegy, using both working and long-term memories. It has been suggested that the neocortex is required for the resolution of tasks demanding long-term, but not for that demanding working memory alone. The role of anteromedial/posterior parietal cortex (AM/PPC) was investigated here, using a reversible lesion induced by intracerebral lidocaine infusion. Long-Evans rats were implanted with guide cannulae into the AM/PPC and trained in an Olton 4x4 maze, counting working and long-term memory errors after a delay. Then, the animals were infused with lidocaine or saline during the delay phase and tested for three days. Another series of animals, treated as before, was tested in an Olton Octagonal Maze and subjected to the same injection schedule. In the Olton 4x4 Maze, lidocaine produced a significant increase in working and long-term memory errors, compared to saline and post-lidocaine conditions. In contrast, in the Olton Octagonal Maze, lidocaine did not induce any effect on working memory errors. Thus, AM/PPC is required when both working with previous information and long-term memories are needed, but not when only working memory is required, as it happens under ethological conditions. Whenever food supply is dispersed, a win-shift strategy is preferable

  1. Maternal Diabetes in Pregnancy: Early and Long-Term Outcomes on the Offspring and the Concept of “Metabolic Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Yessoufou, Akadiri; Moutairou, Kabirou

    2011-01-01

    The adverse outcomes on the offspring from maternal diabetes in pregnancy are substantially documented. In this paper, we report main knowledge on impacts of maternal diabetes on early and long-term health of the offspring, with specific comments on maternal obesity. The main adverse outcome on progenies from pregnancy complicated with maternal diabetes appears to be macrosomia, as it is commonly known that intrauterine exposure to hyperglycemia increases the risk and programs the offspring t...

  2. 2D Thermoluminescence imaging of dielectric surface long term charge memory of plasma surface interaction in DBD discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charge trapping effect due to the exposure of alumina surfaces to plasma has been studied in a volume dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in Ar and He noble gases. The long lasting charge trapping of alumina dielectric plates, used as barriers in DBDs, is evidenced by an ex situ thermoluminescence (TL) experiment performed with a standard and a custom two-dimensional (2D)-TL apparatus. The spatial density of trapped surface charges is found to be strongly correlated to the plasma morphology, and the surface spatial memory lasted for several minutes to hours after plasma exposure. In the case of Ar, the plasma channel impact signature on the surface shows a higher equivalent radiation dose with respect to the surface plasma wave and the post-discharge species signature. As a consequence, for the development of discharges, inside the dielectric surface the availability of lower energy trapped electrons is larger in the first region of plasma impact. The reported spatial memory increases the likelihood of the occurrence of plasma filaments in the same position in different runs. In He plasmas, the dielectric barrier shows an almost uniform distribution of trapped charges, meaning that there is no preferred region for the development of the discharge. In all cases a slight asymmetry was shown in the direction of the gas flow. This can be interpreted as being due to the long-living species moving in the direction of the gas flow, corresponding with the TL side experiment on the sample exposed to the plasma afterglow. The maximum values and the integral of the 2D-TL images showed a linear relation with the total charge per ac cycle, corresponding with findings for the TL glow curve. In conclusion, 2D-TL images allow the retrieval of information regarding the plasma surface interaction such as the plasma morphology, trap sites and their activation temperature. (paper)

  3. Posttraining activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus impairs object recognition long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Julia R; Rossato, Janine I; Monteiro, Siomara; Bevilaqua, Lia R M; Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín

    2008-09-01

    Evidence indicates that brain endocannabinoids are involved in memory processing. However, the participation of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors in recognition memory has not been yet conclusively determined. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of the posttraining activation of hippocampal cannabinoid receptors on the consolidation of object recognition memory. Rats with infusion cannulae stereotaxically aimed to the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus were trained in an object recognition learning task involving exposure to two different stimulus objects. Memory retention was assessed at different times after training. In the test sessions, one of the objects presented during training was replaced by a novel one. When infused in the CA1 region immediately after training, the non-selective cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN-55,212-2 and the endocannabinoid membrane transporter inhibitor VDM-11 blocked long-term memory retention in a dose-dependent manner without affecting short-term memory, exploratory behavior, anxiety state or the functionality of the hippocampus. The amnesic effect of WIN-55,212-2 and VDM-11 was not due to state-dependency and was completely reversed by co-infusion of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM-251 and mimicked by the CB1 receptor agonist ACEA but not by the CB2 receptor agonists JWH-015 and palmitoylethanolamide. Our data indicate that activation of hippocampal CB1 receptors early after training hampers consolidation of object recognition memory. PMID:18524639

  4. Long-term olfactory memories are stabilised via protein synthesis in Camponotus fellah ants

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrieri, Fernando Javier; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Deveaud, J-M.; Giurfa, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ants exhibit impressive olfactory learning abilities. Operant protocols in which ants freely choose between rewarded and nonrewarded odours have been used to characterise associative olfactory learning and memory. Yet, this approach precludes the use of invasive methods allowing the dissection of molecular bases of learning and memory. An open question is whether the memories formed upon olfactory learning that are retrievable several days after training are indeed based on de novo protein sy...

  5. Behavioral assessment of Alzheimer's transgenic mice following long-term Abeta vaccination: task specificity and correlations between Abeta deposition and spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendash, G W; Gordon, M N; Diamond, D M; Austin, L A; Hatcher, J M; Jantzen, P; DiCarlo, G; Wilcock, D; Morgan, D

    2001-11-01

    Long-term vaccinations with human beta-amyloid peptide 1-42 (Abeta1-42) have recently been shown to prevent or markedly reduce Abeta deposition in the PDAPP transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using a similar protocol to vaccinate 7.5-month-old APP (Tg2576) and APP+PS1 transgenic mice over an 8-month period, we previously reported modest reductions in brain Abeta deposition at 16 months. In these same mice, Abeta vaccinations had no deleterious behavioral effects and, in fact, benefited the mice by providing partial protection from age-related deficits in spatial working memory in the radial arm water maze task (RAWM) at 15.5 months. By contrast, control-vaccinated transgenic mice exhibited impaired performance throughout the entire RAWM test period at 15.5 months. The present study expands on our initial report by presenting additional behavioral results following long-term Abeta vaccination, as well as correlational analyses between cognitive performance and Abeta deposition in vaccinated animals. We report that 8 months of Abeta vaccinations did not reverse an early-onset balance beam impairment in transgenic mice. Additionally, in Y-maze testing at 16 months, all mice showed comparable spontaneous alternation irrespective of genotype or vaccination status. Strong correlations were nonetheless present between RAWM performance and extent of "compact" Abeta deposition in both the hippocampus and the frontal cortex of vaccinated APP+PS1 mice. Our results suggest that the behavioral protection of long-term Abeta vaccinations is task specific, with preservation of hippocampal-associated working memory tasks most likely to occur. In view of the early short-term memory deficits exhibited by AD patients, Abeta vaccination of presymptomatic AD patients could be an effective therapeutic to protect against such cognitive impairments. PMID:11788052

  6. A meta-synthesis of qualitative research on perceptions of people with long-term neurological conditions about group-based memory rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Nair, Roshan; Martin, Kristy-Jane; Sinclair, Emma J

    2015-08-01

    The effectiveness of memory rehabilitation based on randomised controlled trials and meta-analyses has been inconclusive, but patient reports based on qualitative studies have been largely positive. We conducted a meta-synthesis of qualitative studies of group-based memory rehabilitation programmes for people with neurological conditions. Based on systematic searches of electronic databases and reference lists, five papers (87 participants) were selected. Quality appraisal of papers was conducted by two independent reviewers using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Data synthesis was guided by the meta-ethnography approach. Five higher order themes were elicited. These suggested that memory rehabilitation was associated with insight and acceptance of participants' neurological condition and resultant cognitive deficits. The therapeutic effects of the groups, with social support and leisure activities, helped with participants' confidence. There were improvements in memory related to better self-awareness and learning to use new skills and strategies to compensate for memory deficits. These improvements also related to other psychological effects, in terms of positively affected mood, confidence and fatigue. Ultimately, these changes had a positive impact on daily life, with changes seen in the personal, inter-personal and professional spheres. Therefore, this synthesis of qualitative studies suggests that memory rehabilitation offers positive outcomes for people with long-term neurological conditions. PMID:25366270

  7. Long-term alteration of Rousse rock samples for CO2 storage: an experimental and numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachaud, P.; Sissmann, O.; Parra, T.

    2013-12-01

    CO2 injection into the Rousse depleted gas reservoir, located in the south-west of France, started in January 2010 and 50,000 tons of this greenhouse effect gas were ultimately injected until March 2013 (Prinet et al. 2013). CO2 fate in the reservoir represents a problem of primary importance, that have been studied by several complementary research works led in collaboration by Total and IFPEN (e.g. Girard et al. 2013, Chiquet et al. 2013). One of the aspects covered by these studies concerned geochemical reactions between the injected fluid, reservoir water and rock minerals. A long-term CO2-exposure experiment was conducted in pressure vessels, and allowed the ageing of reservoir mini-plugs at in situ temperature and pressure conditions (150°C and 80 bar) during almost 24 months. Solid characterization was led every 2 to 3 months using an X-ray microprobe. Elementary maps were then acquired and converted into mineralogical maps using a statistical analysis based on pixels composition. This method allowed the identification of main minerals and of their evolution with alteration. Solution elementary composition was analyzed every week using an ICP-MS. These compositions were used for speciation calculations using the IFPEN's geochemical code Arxim. Initial reservoir mineralogy is mainly constituted of two types of dolomites. One of which forms the rock matrix, the other fills the main reservoir fractures. Quartz, pyrite and calcite traces, as well as two types of phyllosilicates (a potassic illite and a magnesian mixture of chlorite and mica) were also evidenced thanks to our analytical method. After some months of alteration, mineralogical evolutions were observed at the sample edge. Magnesian carbonates (dolomite and magnesite) seemed to precipitate, while an increase of iron, sodium and sulphur (probably due to anhydrite formation) was detected. The combination of these experimental observations to numeric speciation and minerals Saturation Index (SI) calculations allowed us to propose a reactive pathway. A first phase would consist in a slight dissolution of dolomite, potentially accompanied by ordered-dolomite precipitation. A second phase would lead to formation of magnesite and ordered-dolomite, consuming calcium released by calcite dissolution, magnesium released by dissolution of dolomite and of the chlorite/mica mixture, and CO2, thus demonstrating the mineralization potential of the Rousse reservoir. References Chiquet, P., Thibeau, S., Lescanne, M., and Prinet, C. [2013] Geochemical assessment of the injection of CO2 into Rousse depleted gas reservoir. Part II: geochemical impact of the CO2 injection. Energy Procedia, 1-12. Girard, J., Chiquet, P., Thibeau, S., Lescanne, M., and Prinet, C. [2013] Geochemical assessment of the injection of CO2 into Rousse depleted gas reservoir. Part I: Initial mineralogical and geochemical conditions in the Mano reservoir. Energy Procedia, 1-7. Prinet, C., Monne, J., and Thibeau, S. [2013] Lacq pilot injection test: The history of selecting the reservoir, injecting 50 kt of CO2 with monitoring-modeling verification and on-going long term stability demonstration, publication to the EAGE SES Conference, Pau, France, September 30th to October 4th 2013.

  8. Long-term sampling of dioxin-like substances from a clinker kiln stack using alternative fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Austrui, J; Martinez, K; Marco-Almagro, L; Abalos, M; Abad, E

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize atmospheric emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) from a cement production plant where the existing clinker production line was completely replaced by a new state-of-the-art installation. The project started in April 2008 with the installation of a long-term sampling system in the stack of the clinker kiln that used petroleum coke as fuel; PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB emissions were then evaluated for a two year period. To carry out the second part of the study, in 2010 the sampling system was moved to the new installation in which, apart from conventional fuel, recovered derived fuel (RDF) and WWTP sludge were used as alternative fuels. For both the old and new clinker kilns, PCDD/PCDF emission values were well below the limit established by the European Waste Incineration Directive 2000/76/CE (EWID) of 100 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3); values ranged from 0.43 to 2.02 and from 0.07 to 3.31 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3), respectively. dl-PCBs accounted for approximately 25% of the WHO-TEQ toxicity. These results prove that the installation is capable of reducing PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB emissions when alternative fuels are integrated into the process. In the case of PCDDs/PCDFs, the major contributions to total TEQ were usually from 2,3,7,8-TCDD (owing to its relative abundance) and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF (due to its high I-TEF of 0.5); while for dl-PCBs, the major contribution was from PCB-126. The slight shift in the congener profile between the old and new installations was characterized and a regression model was proposed for dl-PCB emissions depending on the RDF flow rate in the clinker. PMID:24742561

  9. Analysis of regulatory T-cells and of their naïve and memory-like subsets in long-term treated aviremic HIV+ patients and untreated viremic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Imberti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: Although HIV infection impacts the proportion and phenotype of regulatory T-cells (Tregs, discrepant results have been reported depending on the surface markers employed to characterize them and on the patient populations. In addition, the effects of a long-term combined antiretroviral therapy (cART on Treg cells have not been thoroughly documented. Our study investigated the frequency and number of Tregs and their phenotype in two different groups of HIV-infected patients: one aviremic undergoing long-term cART and one viremic naïve to cART showing a similar CD4+ cell count. Methods: Thirty-six HIV+ patients with sustained suppression of plasma viremia (<37 copies/mL on effective cART for more than 6 years and 22 HIV+patients naïve to cART and without clinical signs of opportunistic infections or tumors at the time of study (untreated group were included in the study. Healthy donors (HD were used as control. Flow cytometry on fresh whole blood was used to quantify total Tregs (defined as CD25+CD127low/-CD4+ cells and the following Treg subsets: naïve (CD45RA+CCR7+ Tregs, central-memory like Tregs (CD45RA-CCR7+, TregCM, effector-memory like Tregs (CD45RA-CCR7?, TregEM Statistical comparisons of the percentages and number of Tregs and Treg subpopulations were performed by ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test. Analysis of covariance was employed in order to adjust for the effect of the age. The Spearman's test was used to assess correlations. Summary of results: In viremic untreated and aviremic long-term cART-treated patients the percentage and number of the total Treg cells were not different from those of HD. However, the analysis of Treg phenotype showed a marked redistribution of the Treg subpopulations: in the untreated viremic patients, both the percentage and number of the TregCM subset decreased compared to HD and cART-treated patients, whereas only the percentage of naïve Tregs increased. In particular, the percentage of TregCM was inversely correlated with the viral load (r=?0.51; p=0.016. Conclusions: In our aviremic long-term cART-treated and viremic untreated patients, the total Treg cell population seems to be unaffected by HIV infection. However, our results showed that the analysis of the naïve and memory-like Treg subsets may provide a better understanding of the real contribution of Tregs in HIV disease and therapy.

  10. Human dendritic cells sequentially matured with CD4+ T cells as a secondary signal favor CTL and long-term T memory cell responses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thomas, Simon; Séverine, Tanguy-Royer; Pierre-Joseph, Royer; Nicolas, Boisgerault; Jihane, Frikeche; Jean-François, Fonteneau; Marc, Grégoire.

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells involved in the control and initiation of immune responses. In vivo, DCs exposed at the periphery to maturation stimuli migrate to lymph nodes, where they receive secondary signals from CD4+ T helper cells. These DCs become able to init [...] iate CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. However, in vitro investigations concerning human monocyte-derived DCs have never focused on their functional properties after such sequential maturation. Here, we studied human DC phenotypes and functions according to this sequential exposure to maturation stimuli. As first signals, we used TNF-?/polyI:C mimicking inflammatory and pathogen stimuli and, as second signals, we compared activated CD4+ T helper cells to a combination of CD40-L/ IFN-?. Our results show that a sequential activation with activated CD4+ T cells dramatically increased the maturation of DCs in terms of their phenotype and cytokine secretion compared to DCs activated with maturation stimuli delivered simultaneously. Furthermore, this sequential maturation led to the induction of CTL with a long-term effector and central memory phenotypes. Thus, sequential delivery of maturation stimuli, which includes CD4+ T cells, should be considered in the future to improve the induction of long-term CTL memory in DC-based immunotherapy.

  11. Long-Term Effects of 56Fe Irradiation on Spatial Memory of Mice: Role of Sex and Apolipoprotein E Isoform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess whether the effects of cranial 56Fe irradiation on the spatial memory of mice in the water maze are sex and apolipoprotein E (apoE) isoform dependent and whether radiation-induced changes in spatial memory are associated with changes in the dendritic marker microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) and the presynaptic marker synaptophysin. Methods and Materials: Two-month-old male and female mice expressing human apoE3 or apoE4 received either a 3-Gy dose of cranial 56Fe irradiation (600 MeV/amu) or sham irradiation. Mice were tested in a water maze task 13 months later to assess effects of irradiation on spatial memory retention. After behavioral testing, the brain tissues of these mice were analyzed for synaptophysin and MAP-2 immunoreactivity. Results: After irradiation, spatial memory retention of apoE3 female, but not male, mice was impaired. A general genotype deficit in spatial memory was observed in sham-irradiated apoE4 mice. Strikingly, irradiation prevented this genotype deficit in apoE4 male mice. A similar but nonsignificant trend was observed in apoE4 female mice. Although there was no change in MAP-2 immunoreactivity after irradiation, synaptophysin immunoreactivity was increased in irradiated female mice, independent of genotype. Conclusions: The effects of 56Fe irradiation on the spatial memory retention of mice are critically influenced by sex, and the direction of these effects is influenced by apoEion of these effects is influenced by apoE isoform. Although in female mice synaptophysin immunoreactivity provides a sensitive marker for effects of irradiation, it cannot explain the apoE genotype-dependent effects of irradiation on the spatial memory retention of the mice.

  12. Effects of A? exposure on long-term associative memory and its neuronal mechanisms in a defined neuronal network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Lenzie; Crossley, Michael; Williams, Thomas; Thorpe, Julian R; Serpell, Louise C; Kemenes, György

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid beta (A?) induced neuronal death has been linked to memory loss, perhaps the most devastating symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although A?-induced impairment of synaptic or intrinsic plasticity is known to occur before any cell death, the links between these neurophysiological changes and the loss of specific types of behavioral memory are not fully understood. Here we used a behaviorally and physiologically tractable animal model to investigate A?-induced memory loss and electrophysiological changes in the absence of neuronal death in a defined network underlying associative memory. We found similar behavioral but different neurophysiological effects for A? 25-35 and A? 1-42 in the feeding circuitry of the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Importantly, we also established that both the behavioral and neuronal effects were dependent upon the animals having been classically conditioned prior to treatment, since A? application before training caused neither memory impairment nor underlying neuronal changes over a comparable period of time following treatment. PMID:26024049

  13. Analyses of fear memory in Arc/Arg3.1-deficient mice: intact short-term memory and impaired long-term and remote memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiko Nagaoka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc/Arg3.1 was originally identified in patients with seizures. It is densely distributed in the hip-pocampus and amygdala in particular. Because the expression of Arc/Arg3.1 is regulated by nerve in-puts, it is thought to be an immediate early gene. As shown both in vitro and in vivo, Arc/Arg3.1 is in-volved in synaptic consolidation and regulates some forms of learning and memory in rats and mice [1,2]. Furthermore, a recent study suggests that Arc/Arg3.1 may play a significant role in signal transmission via AMPA-type glutamate receptors [3-5]. Therefore, we conducted a detailed analysis of fear memory in Arc/Arg3.1-deficient mice. As previously reported, the knockout animals exhib-ited impaired fear memory in both contextual and cued test situations. Although Arc/Arg3.1-deficient mice showed almost the same performance as wild-type littermates 4 hr after a conditioning trial, their performance was impaired in the retention test after 24 hr or longer, either with or without reconsolidation. Immunohistochemical analyses showed an abnormal density of GluR1 in the hip-pocampus of Arc/Arg3.1-deficient mice; however, an application of AMPA potentiator did not improve memory performance in the mutant mice. Memory impairment in Arc/Arg3.1-deficient mice is so ro-bust that the mice provide a useful tool for devel-oping treatments for memory impairment.

  14. Long-term disorders of memory in the persons survived acute radiation sickness due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study involved two groups of the patients: main group - 52 men survived ARS aged 35-55, controls - 23 healthy men aged 36-55. Auditory and visual memory was studied. The obtained results suggest that the changes in the structure of the anterior portions of the brain which are responsible for obtaining, processing and reproduction of verbal information, namely the cortex of the left temporal and frontal regions with their cortical-subcortical associations, play the leading role in the memory disorders in persons survived ARS

  15. Representational similarity analysis offers a preview of the noradrenergic modulation of long-term fear memory at the time of encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Renée M; Kunze, Anna E; Westhoff, Bianca; Scholte, H Steven; Kindt, Merel

    2015-05-01

    Neuroimaging research on emotional memory has greatly advanced our understanding of the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. While the behavioral expression of fear at the time of encoding does not predict whether an aversive experience will evolve into long-term fear memory, the application of multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) for the analysis of BOLD-MRI data has recently provided a unique marker for memory formation. Here, we aimed to further investigate the utility of this marker by modulating the strength of fear memory with an ?2-adrenoceptor antagonist (yohimbine HCl). Fifty-two healthy participants were randomly assigned to two conditions - either receiving 20mg yohimbine or a placebo pill (double-blind) - prior to differential fear conditioning and MRI-scanning. We examined the strength of fear associations during acquisition and retention of fear (48 h later) by assessing the similarity of BOLD-MRI patterns and pupil dilation responses. Additionally, participants returned for a follow-up test outside the scanner (2-4 weeks), during which we assessed fear-potentiated startle responses. Replicating our previous findings, neural pattern similarity reflected the development of fear associations over time, and unlike average activation or pupil dilation, predicted the later expression of fear memory (pupil dilation 48 h later). While no effect of yohimbine was observed on markers of autonomic arousal, including salivary ?-amylase (sAA), we obtained indirect evidence for the noradrenergic enhancement of fear memory consolidation: sAA levels showed a strong increase prior to fMRI scanning, irrespective of whether participants had received yohimbine, and this increase correlated with the subsequent expression of fear (48 h later). Remarkably, this noradrenergic enhancement of fear was associated with changes in neural response patterns at the time of learning. These findings provide further evidence that representational similarity analysis is a sensitive tool for studying (enhanced) memory formation. PMID:25705798

  16. Time, Language and Action - A Unified Long-Term Memory Model for Sensory-Motor Chains and Word Schemata

    OpenAIRE

    Chersi, Fabian; Ferro, Marcello; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Pirrelli, Vito

    2011-01-01

    Action and language are known to be organized as closely-related brain subsystems. An Italian CNR project implemented a computational neural model where the ability to form chains of goal-directed actions and chains of linguistic units relies on a unified memory architecture obeying the same organizing principles.

  17. Caffeine suppresses exercise-enhanced long-term and location memory in middle-aged rats: Involvement of hippocampal Akt and CREB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cechella, José L; Leite, Marlon R; da Rocha, Juliana T; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Gai, Bibiana M; Soares, Félix A A; Bresciani, Guilherme; Royes, Luiz F F; Zeni, Gilson

    2014-09-27

    The cognitive function decline is closely related with brain changes generated by age. The ability of caffeine and exercise to prevent memory impairment has been reported in animal models and humans. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether swimming exercise and caffeine administration enhance memory in middle-aged Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats (18months) received caffeine at a dose of 30mg/kg, 5days per week by a period of 4weeks. Animals were subjected to swimming training with a workload (3% of body weight, 20min per day for 4weeks). After 4weeks, the object recognition test (ORT) and the object location test (OLT) were performed. The results of this study demonstrated that caffeine suppressed exercise-enhanced long-term (ORT) and spatial (OLT) memory in middle-aged and this effect may be related to a decrease in hippocampal p-CREB signaling. This study also provided evidence that the effects of this protocol on memory were not accompanied by alterations in the levels of activated Akt. The [(3)H] glutamate uptake was reduced in hippocampus of rats administered with caffeine and submitted to swimming protocol. PMID:25260559

  18. RNA interference in hippocampus demonstrates opposing roles for CREB and PP1alpha in contextual and temporal long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, M; Bletsch, M; Catapano, R; Zhang, X; Tully, T; Bourtchouladze, R

    2009-04-01

    We injected small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) directly into the hippocampus of wild-type mice, knocking down expression of cyclic AMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and disrupting long-term, but not short-term, memory after both contextual and trace fear conditioning. In contrast, similar knockdown of siRNA for protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) was sufficient to enhance contextual and temporal memory formation, thereby demonstrating with such a gain-of-function effect a lack of any general deleterious effect for this method of RNAi-mediated gene knockdown. Our findings clearly confirm that contextual memory formation involves CREB and PP1 as positive and negative regulators, respectively, and show for the first time that temporal memory formation shares this mechanism. More generally, we establish that direct injection of siRNA into identified adult brain regions yields specific gene knockdowns, which can be used to validate in vivo candidate genes involved in behavioral plasticity. PMID:19191880

  19. Long-term memory traces for familiar spoken words in tonal languages as revealed by the Mismatch Negativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiphinich Kotchabhakdi

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Mismatch negativity (MMN, a primary response to an acoustic change and an index of sensory memory, was used to investigate the processing of the discrimination between familiar and unfamiliar Consonant-Vowel (CV speech contrasts. The MMN was elicited by rare familiar words presented among repetitive unfamiliar words. Phonetic and phonological contrasts were identical in all conditions. MMN elicited by the familiar word deviant was larger than that elicited by the unfamiliar word deviant. The presence of syllable contrast did significantly alter the word-elicited MMN in amplitude and scalp voltage field distribution. Thus, our results indicate the existence of word-related MMN enhancement largely independent of the word status of the standard stimulus. This enhancement may reflect the presence of a longterm memory trace for familiar spoken words in tonal languages.

  20. Tonic inhibition in dentate gyrus impairs long-term potentiation and memory in an Alzhiemer’s disease model

    OpenAIRE

    WU, ZHENG; Guo, Ziyuan; GEARING, MARLA; Chen, Gong

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid plaques and tau tangles are common pathological hallmarks for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), however reducing A? production failed to relieve the symptoms of AD patients. Here we report a high GABA (?-aminobutyric acid) content in reactive astrocytes in the dentate gyrus (DG) of a mouse model for AD (5xFAD) that results in increased tonic inhibition and memory deficit. We also confirm in human AD patient brains that dentate astrocytes have a high GABA content, suggesting that high astr...

  1. Long-term sampling of CO2 from waste-to-energy plants: 14C determination methodology, data variation and uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Karsten; Pedersen, Niels Hald

    2014-01-01

    A dedicated sampling and measurement method was developed for long-term measurements of biogenic and fossil-derived CO2 from thermal waste-to-energy processes. Based on long-term sampling of CO2 and 14C determination, plant-specific emission factors can be determined more accurately, and the annual emission of fossil CO2 from waste-to-energy plants can be monitored according to carbon trading schemes and renewable energy certificates. Weekly and monthly measurements were performed at five Danish waste incinerators. Significant variations between fractions of biogenic CO2 emitted were observed, not only over time, but also between plants. From the results of monthly samples at one plant, the annual mean fraction of biogenic CO2 was found to be 69% of the total annual CO2 emissions. From weekly samples, taken every 3 months at the five plants, significant seasonal variations in biogenic CO2 emissions were observed (between 56% and 71% biogenic CO2). These variations confirmed that biomass fractions in the wastecan vary considerably, not only from day to day but also from month to month. An uncertainty budget for the measurement method itself showed that the expanded uncertainty of the method was ± 4.0 pmC (95 % confidence interval) at 62 pmC. The long-term sampling method was found to be useful for waste incinerators for determination of annual fossil and biogenic CO2 emissions with relatively low uncertainty.

  2. A long-term "memory" of HIF induction in response to chronic mild decreased oxygen after oxygen normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Dixy E

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial dysfunction (ED is functionally characterized by decreased vasorelaxation, increased thrombosis, increased inflammation, and altered angiogenic potential, has been intimately associated with the progression and severity of cardiovascular disease. Patients with compromised cardiac function oftentimes have a state of chronic mild decreased oxygen at the level of the vasculature and organs, which has been shown to exacerbate ED. Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF is a transcription factor complex shown to be the master regulator of the cellular response to decreased oxygen levels and many HIF target genes have been shown to be associated with ED. Methods Human endothelial and aortic smooth muscle cells were exposed either to A normoxia (21% O2 for three weeks, or to B mild decreased oxygen (15% O2 for three weeks to mimic blood oxygen levels in patients with heart failure, or to C mild decreased oxygen for two weeks followed by one week of normoxia ("memory" treatment. Levels of HIF signaling genes (HIF-1?, HIF-2?, VEGF, BNIP3, GLUT-1, PAI-1 and iNOS were measured both at the protein and mRNA levels. Results It was found that chronic exposure to mild decreased oxygen resulted in significantly increased HIF signaling. There was also a "memory" of HIF-1? and HIF target gene induction when oxygen levels were normalized for one week, and this "memory" could be interrupted by adding a small molecule HIF inhibitor to the last week of normalized oxygen. Finally, levels of ubiquitylated HIF-1? were reduced in response to chronic mild decreased oxygen and were not full restored after oxygen normalization. Conclusion These data suggest that HIF signaling may be contributing to the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and that normalization of oxygen levels may not be enough to reduce vascular stress.

  3. Long-term superelastic cycling at nano-scale in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy micropillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Juan, J., E-mail: jose.sanjuan@ehu.es; Gómez-Cortés, J. F. [Dpto. Física Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Univ. del País Vasco UPV/EHU, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); López, G. A.; Nó, M. L. [Dpto. Física Aplicada II, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Univ. del País Vasco UPV/EHU, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Jiao, C. [FEI, Achtseweg Noord 5, 5651 GG Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-01-06

    Superelastic behavior at nano-scale has been studied along cycling in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy micropillars. Arrays of square micropillars were produced by focused ion beam milling, on slides of [001] oriented Cu-Al-Ni single crystals. Superelastic behavior of micropillars, due to the stress-induced martensitic transformation, has been studied by nano-compression tests during thousand cycles, and its evolution has been followed along cycling. Each pillar has undergone more than thousand cycles without any detrimental evolution. Moreover, we demonstrate that after thousand cycles they exhibit a perfectly reproducible and completely recoverable superelastic behavior.

  4. Long-term ?- and spontaneous fission measurement of a Rf/Db sample chemically prepared in a 48Ca on 243Am experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from long-term measurements of a chemically separated Db/Rf sample prepared from the products of a 48Ca on 243Am irradiation are presented. The sample with the highest spontaneous fission activity out of eight samples produced in the course of chemical experiments performed in 2004 was selected for these measurements. We conclude that there is no evidence for SF-decay originating from heavy actinide isotopes in this sample. Hence, it is appropriate to assign the SF-events observed in this experiment to decay products of 288115.

  5. Long-term evolution of BCG- and CFA-induced granulomas in rat lungs. Correlation of histologic features with cells in bronchoalveolar lavage samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, J. C.; Jagirdar, J.; Lesser, M.

    1986-01-01

    Granulomatous inflammation was induced in the lungs of rats for assessment of the suitability of this animal species for long-term study of granuloma development and resolution and for comparison of the histologic changes with the cellular profile in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples. It was found that after a single intravenous injection of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) organisms suspended in saline-0.01% Triton, complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), or BCG suspended in CFA (BCG + CFA), dis...

  6. Long-term resource variation and group size: A large-sample field test of the Resource Dispersion Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morecroft Michael D

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Resource Dispersion Hypothesis (RDH proposes a mechanism for the passive formation of social groups where resources are dispersed, even in the absence of any benefits of group living per se. Despite supportive modelling, it lacks empirical testing. The RDH predicts that, rather than Territory Size (TS increasing monotonically with Group Size (GS to account for increasing metabolic needs, TS is constrained by the dispersion of resource patches, whereas GS is independently limited by their richness. We conducted multiple-year tests of these predictions using data from the long-term study of badgers Meles meles in Wytham Woods, England. The study has long failed to identify direct benefits from group living and, consequently, alternative explanations for their large group sizes have been sought. Results TS was not consistently related to resource dispersion, nor was GS consistently related to resource richness. Results differed according to data groupings and whether territories were mapped using minimum convex polygons or traditional methods. Habitats differed significantly in resource availability, but there was also evidence that food resources may be spatially aggregated within habitat types as well as between them. Conclusions This is, we believe, the largest ever test of the RDH and builds on the long-term project that initiated part of the thinking behind the hypothesis. Support for predictions were mixed and depended on year and the method used to map territory borders. We suggest that within-habitat patchiness, as well as model assumptions, should be further investigated for improved tests of the RDH in the future.

  7. Groundwater sampling at olkiluoto, Eurajoki from the borehole OL-KR6 during a long-term pumping test in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long-term pumping test from the borehole OL-KR6 at Olkiluoto was initiated in 2001. Both flow and in situ EC measurements as well as groundwater sampling from specific sections were performed. The aim of this study was to get information on the potential connections via fractures both to the sea and to deep saline groundwater during the long-term pumping of the open borehole. In 2004 four groundwater samples were collected from the borebole OL-KR6 from four different sampling depths (98.5-100.5 m, 125-130 m, 135-137 m and 422-425 m). The groundwater samples were taken from packed-off sections by a membrane pump and two inflatable rubber packers. All groundwater samples taken are of the water type Na-Ca-Cl. They are brackish waters (1000 mg 10000mg/L) and the water type is Na-Cl. This study presents sampling methods and the results of analysis of groundwater samples from the deep borehole OL-KR6. Comparison between the results of the in situ EC measurements and EC results measured during groundwater sampling are presented. This report also contains a short comparison of the results obtained during the long-term pumping test during 2001-2004. Based on the results of this study and on the previous studies, it can be concluded that the pumping of the upper part of the borehole is likely to have caused the changes in salinity at the three sampling sections (except 422-425 m). However, the changes were minor in years 2001-2004. (orig.)

  8. Cross-sectional study of the sperm quality in semen samples from spinal cord injured men after long-term cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, J; Göcking, K; Kissling-Niggli, M; Pannek, J

    2015-03-01

    The deterioration of semen quality occurs very early after spinal cord injury (SCI). Thus, routine cryopreservation of semen early after injury has been recommended. However, there is currently a lack of data concerning the effects of long-term cryopreservation on the quality of spermatozoa from SCI men. We have therefore investigated the quality of spermatozoa from SCI men before and after long-term cryopreservation. The semen cryobank of a SCI rehabilitation center was screened for samples with a storage duration of more than 3 years, to carry out a cross-sectional study regarding the sperm quality of semen samples from SCI men. Semen quality analysis was carried out according to the WHO-Guidelines. The quality of 28 semen samples from 16 SCI men was investigated prior to and a median 11 years (95% CI 7-13 years) after cryopreservation. Prior to cryopreservation, ejaculate volume (median = 1.7 mL, 95% CI 1-3 mL) and sperm concentration (median = 106 × 10(6) /mL, 95% CI 82-132 × 10(6) /mL) were within normal limits, but total sperm motility (median = 19%, 95% CI 13-22%) and viability (median = 27%, 95% CI 19-45%) were reduced. Cryopreservation resulted in a significant (p early (up to 3 weeks) after SCI and those collected later. Complete SCI had a significantly (p ejaculation technique had no significant (p > 0.053) effect on semen quality. Long-term cryopreservation of semen from SCI men results in essentially immotile sperm with minimal viability. Thus, routine long-term cryobanking of semen harvested early after SCI cannot be recommended. PMID:25684685

  9. Long-Term Electrophysiological and Behavioral Analysis on the Improvement of Visual Working Memory Load, Training Gains, and Transfer Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chang Kuo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence demonstrates that with training, one can enhance visual working memory (VWM capacity and attention over time in the near transfer tasks. Not only do these studies reveal the characteristics of VWM load and the influences of training, they may also provide insights into developing effective rehabilitation for patients with VWM deficiencies. However, few studies have investigated VWM over extended periods of time and evaluated transfer benefits on non-trained tasks. Here, we combined behavioral and electroencephalographical approaches to investigate VWM load, training gains, and transfer benefits. Our results reveal that VWM capacity is directly correlated to the difference of event-related potential waveforms. In particular, the “magic number 4” can be observed through the contralateral delay amplitude and the average capacity is 3.25-item over 15 participants. Furthermore, our findings indicate that VWM capacity can be improved through training; and after training exercises, participants from the training group are able to dramatically improve their performance. Likewise, the training effects on non-trained tasks can also be observed at the 12th week after training. Therefore, we conclude that participants can benefit from training gains, and augmented VWM capacity sustained over long periods of time on specific variety of tasks.

  10. Influences of a DRD2 polymorphism on updating of long-term memory representations and caudate BOLD activity: Magnification in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Jonas; Rieckmann, Anna; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Fischer, Håkan; Bäckman, Lars

    2015-04-01

    A number of genetic polymorphisms are related to individual differences in cognitive performance. Striatal dopamine (DA) functions, associated with cognitive performance, are linked to the TaqIA polymorphism of the DRD2/ANKK1 gene. In humans, presence of an A1 allele of the DRD2/ANKK1-TaqIA polymorphism is related to reduced density of striatal DA D2 receptors. The resource-modulation hypothesis assumes that aging-related losses of neurochemical and structural brain resources modulate the extent to which genetic variations affect cognitive functioning. Here, we tested this hypothesis using functional MRI during long-term memory (LTM) updating in younger and older carriers and noncarriers of the A1-allele of the TaqIa polymorphism. We demonstrate that older A1-carriers have worse memory performance, specifically during LTM updating, compared to noncarriers. Moreover, A1-carriers exhibited less blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activation in left caudate nucleus, a region critical to updating. This effect was only seen in older adults, suggesting magnification of genetic effects on functional brain activity in aging. Further, a positive relationship between caudate BOLD activation and updating performance among non-A1 carriers indicated that caudate activation was behaviorally relevant. These results demonstrate a link between the DRD2/ANKK1-TaqIA polymorphism and neurocognitive deficits related to LTM updating, and provide novel evidence that this effect is magnified in aging. Hum Brain Mapp 36:1325-1334, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25486867

  11. Gulf War agent exposure causes impairment of long-term memory formation and neuropathological changes in a mouse model of Gulf War Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirova, Zuchra; Tweed, Miles; Crynen, Gogce; Reed, Jon; Abdullah, Laila; Nissanka, Nadee; Mullan, Myles; Mullan, Michael J; Mathura, Venkatarajan; Crawford, Fiona; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania

    2015-01-01

    Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multisymptom illness with a central nervous system component such as memory deficits, neurological, and musculoskeletal problems. There are ample data that demonstrate that exposure to Gulf War (GW) agents, such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB) and pesticides such as permethrin (PER), were key contributors to the etiology of GWI post deployment to the Persian GW. In the current study, we examined the consequences of acute (10 days) exposure to PB and PER in C57BL6 mice. Learning and memory tests were performed at 18 days and at 5 months post-exposure. We investigated the relationship between the cognitive phenotype and neuropathological changes at short and long-term time points post-exposure. No cognitive deficits were observed at the short-term time point, and only minor neuropathological changes were detected. However, cognitive deficits emerged at the later time point and were associated with increased astrogliosis and reduction of synaptophysin staining in the hippocampi and cerebral cortices of exposed mice, 5 months post exposure. In summary, our findings in this mouse model of GW agent exposure are consistent with some GWI symptom manifestations, including delayed onset of symptoms and CNS disturbances observed in GWI veterans. PMID:25785457

  12. Encapsulated Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cells Actively Protect Against Intrahippocampal A?-induced Long-Term Memory Dysfunction; Upregulation of Effective Neurogenesis with the Abrogated Apoptosis and Neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaghaei, Abbas; Digaleh, Hadi; Khodagholi, Fariba; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan

    2015-07-01

    Choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs) as a secretory epithelium are responsible for the secretion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Beyond this classical tenet, CPECs also synthesize and release many neurotrophic factors such as antioxidants into the CSF, participating in brain homeostasis. In this study, CPECs were isolated from rat's brain and encapsulated in alginate microcapsules. Firstly, functional properties of alginate microcapsules and encapsulated CPECs were examined in vitro. Following, micro-encapsulated CPECs were grafted into rats' brains that were pretreated with A?. The in vivo studies include western blotting against Caspase-3 and Terminal-Transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling test that were performed to detect apoptosis in brain tissues. The in vivo part also included immunohistochemistry against Iba-1, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and Brdu to detect microglial migration, gliosis, and neurogenesis, respectively. Moreover, the activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme in hippocampi also was measured, and the memory was assessed by shuttle box apparatus. Our data suggest that transplantation of encapsulated CPECs resulted in a significant decrease in apoptosis, reduced migration microglia, diminished gliosis, increased neurogenesis, and improved long-term memory as well as upregulated antioxidant activity. Since microencapsulated CPECs do not need immunosuppression following implantation, and also we showed their neuroprotective effects against A? toxicity and oxidative stress, this may be a suitable candidate for cell therapy in neurological disorders. PMID:25634726

  13. A New Framework for Adaptive Sampling and Analysis During Long-Term Monitoring and Remedial Action Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argonne team has gathered available data on monitoring wells and measured hydraulic heads from the Argonne 317/319 site and sent it to UIUC. Xiaodong Li, a research assistant supported by the project, has reviewed the data and has fit initial spatiotemporal statistical models to it. Another research assistant, Yonas Demissie, has completed generation of the artificial data that will be used for model development and testing. In order to generate the artificial data a detailed groundwater flow and contaminant transport model was developed based upon characteristics of the 317/319 site. The model covers a multi-year time horizon that includes both before and after planting of the trees. As described in the proposal, the artificial data is created by adding ''measurement'' error to the ''true'' value from the numerical model. To date, only simple white noise error models have been considered. He is now reviewing the literature and beginning to develop a hierarchical modeling approach for the artificial data. Abhishek Singh, a third research assistant supported by the project, is implementing learning models for learning users preferences in an interactive genetic algorithm for solving the inverse problem. Meghna Babbar, the fourth research assistant supported by the project, has been improving the user interface for the interactive genetic algorithm and preparing a long-term monitoring design problem for testing the approach. Gayathri Gopalakrishnan, the last research assistant who is partially supported by the project, has collected substantial data from the 317/319 phytoremediation site at Argonne and has begun learning approaches for modeling these data

  14. Long-term collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2007-01-01

    The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

  15. Long Term Ecological Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Cooper

    Students analyze data on temperature and precipitation collected from 26 different Long Term Ecological Research sites and compare them with annual net primary productivity. The students then form an ecological rule to explain their results.

  16. Long term effects of murine postnatal exposure to decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on learning and memory are dependent upon APOE polymorphism and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reverte, Ingrid; Klein, Anders Bue

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a group of chemicals widely used as flame retardants; the lower brominated forms (1-5 bromine atoms) are highly neurotoxic and are presently not in commercial use. The highest brominated, the decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) remains in use and its adverse and persistent effects are subject to debate. Of special concern are developmental exposures that can disrupt later-in-life adult health or aging. In this study, we investigated the effects of postnatal exposure to BDE-209 in combination with apolipoprotein E (apoE) genotype, a genetic factor that is associated with varied vulnerability for the development of neurodegenerative diseases. On postnatal day 10, transgenic mice of both sexes carrying apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4 were orally exposed to 0, 10 or 30mg/kg of BDE-209. Spatial reference memory was assessed in a Morris Water Maze (MWM) task at 4 and 12months of age. The levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were determined in hippocampus and frontalcortex of mice at 5months of age. Mice carrying different apoE polymorphisms showed differences in the acquisition and retention of the spatial navigation task both at 4 and 12months of age. Postnatal exposure to BDE-209 induced long term effects in spatial learning, which were dependent upon age, sex and apoE genotype; these effects were more evident in apoE3 mice. BDNF levels were lower in the frontal cortex of apoE4 mice and higher in the hippocampus of exposed mice, independent of the genotype. The results of the present study provide evidence of long-lasting effects in spatial learning and memory after early exposure to BDE-209. Developmental exposure to this neurotoxicant may contribute to cognitive decline and abnormal aging.

  17. Transcranial focal electrical stimulation via tripolar concentric ring electrodes does not modify the short- and long-term memory formation in rats evaluated in the novel object recognition test

    OpenAIRE

    Rogel-Salazar, G; Luna-Munguía, H; Stevens, KE; Besio, WG

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive transcranial focal electrical stimulation (TFS) via tripolar concentric ring electrodes (TCREs) has been under development by Besio as an alternative/complementary therapy for seizure control. TFS has shown efficacy attenuating penicillin, pilocarpine, and pentylenetetrazole– induced acute seizures in rat models. This study evaluated the effects of TFS via TCREs on the memory formation of healthy rats as a safety test of TFS. The short and long-term memory formation was tested a...

  18. Long-Term Record of Sampled Disturbances in Northern Eurasian Boreal Forest from Pre-2000 Landsat Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Stand age distribution is an important descriptor of boreal forest structure, which is directly linked to many ecosystem processes including the carbon cycle, the land–atmosphere interaction and ecosystem services, among others. Almost half of the global boreal biome is located in Russia. The vast extent, remote location, and limited accessibility of Russian boreal forests make remote sensing the only feasible approach to characterize these forests to their full extent. A wide variety of satellite observations are currently available to monitor forest change and infer its structure; however, the period of observations is mostly limited to the 2000s era. Reconstruction of wall-to-wall maps of stand age distribution requires merging longer-term site observations of forest cover change available at the Landsat scale at a subset of locations in Russia with the wall-to-wall coverage available from coarse resolution satellites since 2000. This paper presents a dataset consisting of a suite of multi-year forest disturbance samples and samples of undisturbed forests across Russia derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus images from 1985 to 2000. These samples provide crucial information regarding disturbance history in selected regions across the Russian boreal forest and are designed to serve as a training and/or validation dataset for coarse resolution data products. The overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient for the entire sample collection was found to be 83.98% and 0.83%, respectively. It is hoped that the presented dataset will benefit subsequent studies on a variety of aspects of the Russian boreal forest, especially in relation to the carbon budget and climate.

  19. Externalizing Psychopathology and Marital Adjustment in Long-Term Marriages: Results from a Large Combined Sample of Married Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Humbad, Mikhila N.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Iacono, William G.; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the associations between externalizing psychopathology and marital adjustment in a combined sample of 1,805 married couples. We further considered the role of personality in these associations, as personality has been found to predict both the development of externalizing psychopathology as well as marital distress and instability. Diagnostic interviews assessed Conduct Disorder, adult symptoms of Antisocial Personality Disorder, and Alcohol Dependence. Personality...

  20. Working memory training shows immediate and long-term effects on cognitive performance in children [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4rj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Pugin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is important for mental reasoning and learning processes. Several studies in adults and school-age children have shown performance improvement in cognitive tests after working memory training. Our aim was to examine not only immediate but also long-term effects of intensive working memory training on cognitive performance tests in children. Fourteen healthy male subjects between 10 and 16 years trained a visuospatial n-back task over 3 weeks (30 min daily, while 15 individuals of the same age range served as a passive control group. Significant differences in immediate (after 3 weeks of training and long-term effects (after 2-6 months in an auditory n-back task were observed compared to controls (2.5 fold immediate and 4.7 fold long-term increase in the training group compared to the controls. The improvement was more pronounced in subjects who improved their performance during the training. Other cognitive functions (matrices test and Stroop task did not change when comparing the training group to the control group. We conclude that visuospatial working memory training in children boosts performance in similar memory tasks such as the auditory n-back task. The sustained performance improvement several months after the training supports the effectiveness of the training.

  1. Working memory training shows immediate and long-term effects on cognitive performance in children [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4y9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Pugin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is important for mental reasoning and learning processes. Several studies in adults and school-age children have shown performance improvement in cognitive tests after working memory training. Our aim was to examine not only immediate but also long-term effects of intensive working memory training on cognitive performance tests in children. Fourteen healthy male subjects between 10 and 16 years trained a visuospatial n-back task over 3 weeks (30 min daily, while 15 individuals of the same age range served as a passive control group. Significant differences in immediate (after 3 weeks of training and long-term effects (after 2-6 months in an auditory n-back task were observed compared to controls (2.5 fold immediate and 4.7 fold long-term increase in the training group compared to the controls. The improvement was more pronounced in subjects who improved their performance during the training. Other cognitive functions (matrices test and Stroop task did not change when comparing the training group to the control group. We conclude that visuospatial working memory training in children boosts performance in similar memory tasks such as the auditory n-back task. The sustained performance improvement several months after the training supports the effectiveness of the training.

  2. Toward long-term geochemical sampling of gases and deep fluids in subduction zone fore-arcs: New instrument developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, M. D.; Labonte, A. L.; Fueri, E.; Hilton, D. R.; Brown, K. M.

    2004-12-01

    We present preliminary results of an on-going instrument development study aimed at quantifying the rate of elemental loss to the ocean/atmosphere in active fore-arc margins. Work on subduction zones to date has focused on elemental fluxes associated with magmatism at the arc front. For example, the flux of carbon output along the strike of the Central America arc is ˜ 5 x 107 mol/yr/km, or ~14% of that potentially available by input via the trench (Shaw et al., EPSL, 2003). This result indicates that carbon is (a) efficiently recycled to the (deeper) mantle, i.e. the mantle beyond the zone of arc magma generation, and/or (b) lost in the fore-arc region. There are few constraints on elemental losses at the fore-arc region; the present work, therefore, is motivated by quantifying the flux of volatiles (and other species) lost in the early stages of the subduction cycle. This will allow a qualitative assessment of the importance of deep recycling and contribute to an increased understanding of the hydrogeology of active margins. The Chemical and Aqueous Transport (CAT) meters (Tryon et al., Deep Sea Research, 2001) used in this study record a time series of flow rates by injecting a tracer at a constant known rate into the flow stream through the instrument and by sampling downstream of this point for tracer dilution. They also collect a time series of seep fluids in copper coils and maintain them at seafloor pressure during recovery. The Optical Flow Meter (OFM) measures flow by determining the time-of-flight of a tracer pulse injected into the flow stream. An osmotic pump is used to sample fluids in a manner similar to the CAT meters. A series of tests utilizing both sets of instruments has been conducted at the Extrovert Cliffs site in Monterey Bay during 2004. Sites chosen range from diffuse flow sites with output rates of 10s of cm/yr to highly focused visibly flowing sites: all localities are covered by extensive microbial mats and chemosynthetic clams. Our coupled data sets of aqueous flow rate and geochemical/volatile composition allow us to estimate geochemical fluxes at these sites. Our next deployment of the instrumentation will target seeps off the Costa Rica margin.

  3. Immunization of mice with the nef gene from Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1: Study of immunological memory and long-term toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engström Gunnel

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 regulatory protein, Nef, is an attractive vaccine target because it is involved in viral pathogenesis, is expressed early in the viral life cycle and harbors many T and B cell epitopes. Several clinical trials include gene-based vaccines encoding this protein. However, Nef has been shown to transform certain cell types in vitro. Based on these findings we performed a long-term toxicity and immunogenicity study of Nef, encoded either by Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara or by plasmid DNA. BALB/c mice were primed twice with either DNA or MVA encoding Nef and received a homologous or heterologous boost ten months later. In the meantime, the Nef-specific immune responses were monitored and at the time of sacrifice an extensive toxicological evaluation was performed, where presence of tumors and other pathological changes were assessed. Results The toxicological evaluation showed that immunization with MVAnef is safe and does not cause cellular transformation or other toxicity in somatic organs. Both DNAnef and MVAnef immunized animals developed potent Nef-specific cellular responses that declined to undetectable levels over time, and could readily be boosted after almost one year. This is of particular interest since it shows that plasmid DNA vaccine can also be used as a potent late booster of primed immune responses. We observed qualitative differences between the T cell responses induced by the two different vectors: DNA-encoded nef induced long-lasting CD8+ T cell memory responses, whereas MVA-encoded nef induced CD4+ T cell memory responses. In terms of the humoral immune responses, we show that two injections of MVAnef induce significant anti-Nef titers, while repeated injections of DNAnef do not. A single boost with MVAnef could enhance the antibody response following DNAnef prime to the same level as that observed in animals immunized repeatedly with MVAnef. We also demonstrate the possibility to boost HIV-1 Nef-specific immune responses using the MVAnef construct despite the presence of potent anti-vector immunity. Conclusion This study shows that the nef gene vectored by MVA does not induce malignancies or other adverse effects in mice. Further, we show that when the nef gene is delivered by plasmid or by a viral vector, it elicits potent and long-lasting immune responses and that these responses can be directed towards a CD4+ or a CD8+ T cell response depending on the choice of vector.

  4. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Comité des collectes à long terme

    2011-01-01

    It is the time of the year when our fireman colleagues go around the laboratory for their traditional calendars sale. A part of the money of the sales will be donated in favour of the long-term collections. We hope that you will welcome them warmly.

  5. Basics (Long-Term Care)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Long-Term Care? Expand Long-term Care Considerations for LGBT Adults Expand Health Disparities Impacting LTC Expand Caregivers Expand Participant Directed Services Expand Housing, Financial, Legal Matters Expand Paying for Long-term Care – ...

  6. Mann-Kendall Test for Analysis of Groundwater Contaminant Plume Stability and Evaluation of Sampling Frequency for Long-Term Monitoring - 13233

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a spreadsheet-based approach for applying the Mann-Kendall (MK) Test to identify statistically significant increasing or decreasing concentration trends, stable concentration trends (not increasing or decreasing), and indeterminate concentration trends (no trend) defined by time-series groundwater monitoring data for inorganic, organic, or radiological contaminants. The approach has been applied in support of ongoing long-term monitoring (LTM) of groundwater contamination at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee and elsewhere on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and has proven effective at minimizing subjective bias in the evaluation and interpretation of contaminant concentration trend data. Application of the approach for the purposes of optimizing groundwater sampling frequency for LTM also is outlined. (authors)

  7. Evaluation of the Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors (QLACS scale for long-term cancer survivors in a sample of breast cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foley Kristie

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper evaluates psychometric properties of a recently developed measure focusing on the health-related quality of life (HRQL of long-term cancer survivors, the Quality of Life in Adult Survivors scale (QLACS, in a sample of breast cancer survivors. This represents an important area of study, given the large number of breast cancer patients surviving many years post diagnosis. Methods Analyses are based on an 8-year follow-up of a sample of breast cancer survivors who participated in an earlier study conducted in 1995. Participants were re-contacted in 2003 and those who were reachable and agreed to participate (n = 94 were surveyed using a variety of measures including the QLACS. Additional follow-up surveys were conducted 2 weeks and one year later. Psychometric tests of the QLACS included test-retest reliability, concurrent and retrospective validity, and responsiveness. Results The QLACS domain and summary scores showed good test-retest reliability (all test-retest correlations were above .7 and high internal consistency. The Generic Summary Score showed convergent validity with other measures designed to assess generic HRQL. The Cancer-Specific Summary score exhibited divergent validity with generic HRQL measures, but not a cancer-related specific measure. The QLACS Cancer-Specific Summary Score demonstrated satisfactory predictive validity for factors that were previously shown to be correlated with HRQL. The QLACS generally demonstrated a high level of responsiveness to life changes. Conclusion The QLACS may serve as a useful measure for assessing HRQL among long-term breast cancer survivors that are not otherwise captured by generic measures or those specifically designed for newly diagnosed patients.

  8. Long-term effects of CO2 on the mechanical behaviour of faults - a study of samples from a natural CO2 analogue (Entrada Sandstone, Utah, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangx, S. J. T.; Bakker, E.; Spiers, C. J.

    2012-04-01

    In an attempt to reduce CO2 emissions, CO2 capture and storage in depleted oil and gas reservoirs is seen as one of the most important mitigation strategies. However, in order to achieve safe storage on geological timescales, it is key to maintain integrity of the caprock and any faults penetrating the seal. One of the largest uncertainties lies in the prediction of the effects of fluid-rock interaction on the mechanical integrity and sealing capacity of the reservoir-seal system in the very long term, i.e. on timescales of the order of 103 or 104 years. As chemical interactions in the rock/CO2/brine system are slow, their long-term effects on rock composition, microstructure, mechanical properties and transport properties cannot be properly reproduced in laboratory experiments. One way of addressing this issue is to conduct experiments on reservoir, caprock and fault rock samples taken from natural CO2 reservoir-seal systems, which can serve as natural analogues for CO2 storage fields. The transport and mechanical properties of these rock samples, which have reacted with CO2 over geological timescales, can then be compared with data obtained for laterally equivalent materials that are unaffected by CO2. The observed changes in rock properties can subsequently be used as input for numerical models aimed at assessing the long-term effects of CO2 on reservoir compaction, caprock damage, fault reactivation and fault permeability. We assessed the mechanical behaviour and transport properties of fault rocks. To this end, we performed triaxial direct shear experiments at room temperature under nominally dry conditions, at normal stresses up to 90 MPa and shear velocities of 0.22 -10.9 ?m/s. Simulated fault rocks were prepared by crushing material obtained from surface outcrops of the Entrada Sandstone, one of the CO2-bearing formations from an analogue field under the Colorado Plateau, Utah, USA. Three types of starting material were obtained: 1) red-coloured samples consisting mainly of quartz and feldspar, some minor clay minerals and hematite/goethite grain coatings, 2) yellow-coloured, (so-called) bleached samples additionally containing various amounts of kaolinite, calcite and dolomite, and 3) heavily cemented samples from the surface outcrop of the fault core of the Little Grand Wash Fault, containing a high percentage of carbonates (> 40 wt%). Previous work demonstrates that the bleached samples and the material from the fault were altered as a result of interaction with CO2-rich fluids. Over the experimental range investigated, we measured friction coefficients of 0.55-0.85 for unbleached material and 0.55-0.80 for bleached material, while the fault core material showed higher friction coefficients (0.60-0.95), all showing a minor decrease with decreasing shear velocity and normal stress. Almost all samples showed velocity-strengthening slip behaviour. Overall, the frictional behaviour of Entrada Sandstone does not seem to be strongly influenced by CO2/brine/rock interactions.

  9. Collectes à long terme

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2014-01-01

    En cette fin d’année 2014 qui approche à grands pas, le Comité des Collectes à Long Terme remercie chaleureusement ses fidèles donatrices et donateurs réguliers pour leurs contributions à nos actions en faveur des plus démunis de notre planète. C’est très important, pour notre Comité, de pouvoir compter sur l’appui assidu que vous nous apportez. Depuis plus de 40 ans maintenant, le modèle des CLT est basé principalement sur des actions à long terme (soit une aide pendant 4-5 ans par projet, mais plus parfois selon les circonstances), et sa planification demande une grande régularité de ses soutiens financiers. Grand MERCI à vous ! D’autres dons nous parviennent au cours de l’année, et ils sont aussi les bienvenus. En particulier, nous tenons à remercier...

  10. A minimally invasive method of piscine tissue collection and an analysis of long-term field-storage conditions for samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smalley John V

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The acquisition of high-quality DNA for use in phylogenetic and molecular population genetic studies is a primary concern for evolutionary and genetic researchers. Many non-destructive DNA sampling methods have been developed and are used with a variety of taxa in applications ranging from genetic stock assessment to molecular forensics. Results The authors have developed a field sampling method for obtaining high-quality DNA from sunfish (Lepomis and other freshwater fish that employs a variation on the buccal swab method and results in the collection of DNA suitable for PCR amplification and polymorphism analysis. Additionally, since the circumstances of storage are always a concern for field biologists, the authors have tested the potential storage conditions of swabbed samples and whether those conditions affect DNA extraction and PCR amplification. It was found that samples stored at room temperature in the dark for over 200 days could still yield DNA suitable for PCR amplification and polymorphism detection. Conclusion These findings suggest that valuable molecular genetic data may be obtained from tissues that have not been treated or stored under optimal field conditions. Furthermore, it is clear that the lack of adequately low temperatures during transport and long term storage should not be a barrier to anyone wishing to engage in field-based molecular genetic research.

  11. Understanding Long Term Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Alvin C.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the recent district court decision in Long Term Capital Holdings v. United States, which involved the cloning of an artificial loss that was sold to two different groups of taxpayers for deduction. Professor Warren explains the convoluted transaction and then analyzes the court's decision in favor of the government. Particularly noteworthy, he says, is the court's refusal to let the taxpayers escape penalties on the grounds that they obtained favorable legal opinions fro...

  12. Long term morphological modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Deigaard, Rolf; Taaning, Martin; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Drønen, Nils; Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    A morphological modelling concept for long term nearshore morphology is proposed and examples of its application are presented and discussed. The model concept combines parameterised representations of the cross-shore morphology, with a 2DH area model for waves, currents and sediment transport in the surf zone. Two parameterization schemes are tested for two different morphological phenomena: 1) Shoreline changes due to the presence of coastal structures and 2) alongshore migration of a ne...

  13. Role of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Akt-Mammalian Target of the Rapamycin Signaling Pathway in Long-Term Potentiation and Trace Fear Conditioning Memory in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Li; Wang, Jing; Li, Bao-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets, including Akt (also known as protein kinase B, PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k), and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), may play important roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and memory in many…

  14. Serum sample stability in ligand-binding assays: challenges in assessments of long-term, bench-top and multiple freeze-thaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaraeg, Chris; Ortiz, Jessica; Calamba, Dominador; Ma, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Chris Macaraeg has been a lead scientist for method development, validation, and study support intended for regulated pre-clinical/clinical studies within the Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism department at Amgen Inc, Thousand Oaks, CA. He joined Amgen in 2006. His expertise also includes automation and method transfer to CROs. Chris received his BS degree in Physiological Science and Neuroscience from the University of California, Los Angeles, CA and MS in Forensic Science from Pace University, New York, NY. Stability of therapeutic proteins in biological matrix is an important parameter to evaluate in bioanalytical support of regulated nonclinical or clinical studies. Despite industry guidance publications, many questions still arise as to how these practices are implemented to establish therapeutic protein stability in bioanalytical method validations. This article presents findings from long-term, bench-top and freeze-thaw stability assessments for three therapeutic monoclonal antibodies using either ELISA or electrochemiluminescent technology. Studies illustrate the principles and challenges in stability tests which represent scenarios that samples will likely encounter during sample analysis. Thoughtful consideration of each study requirements and a fit-for-purpose approach is essential in successful establishment of the sample stability parameters in method validation. PMID:26110709

  15. Long-term effects of CO2 on the mechanical behaviour of faults - a study of samples from a natural CO2 analogue (Entrada Sandstone, Utah, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, E.; Hangx, S.; Spiers, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    CO2 capture followed by storage in depleted oil and gas reservoirs is currently seen as one of the most promising CO2-mitigation strategies. An important issue in relation to long-term CO2 storage is the prediction of the effects of fluid-rock interaction on the mechanical integrity and sealing capacity of the reservoir-seal system, on timescales of the order of 103 or 104 years. However, the assumed chemical interactions in the rock/CO2/brine system are slow, so that their long-term effects on rock composition, microstructure, mechanical properties and transport properties cannot be reproduced in laboratory experiments. One way to address this is to study the effects of reactions in natural CO2 reservoirs, using a so-called natural analogue approach. We tackled the question of how reactions characterizing natural CO2 fields affect fault friction, fault reactivation potential and seismic vs. aseismic slip stability, as well as transmissivity evolution during and after fault reactivation. Simulated fault gouges were prepared by crushing material obtained from surface outcrops of the Entrada Sandstone, a locally CO2-bearing formation forming an analogue field under the Colorado Plateau, Utah, USA . We used three types of starting material: 1) CO2 unaffected (unbleached) samples consisting mainly of quartz and feldspar, 2) "bleached" samples, and 3) heavily cemented/altered fault rock containing a high percentage of carbonates (> 40 wt%). The latter two were altered as a result of interaction with CO2-rich fluids over geological time. We performed triaxial direct shear experiments on these materials at room temperature under nominally dry conditions, at normal stresses up to 90 MPa and shear velocities of 0.22 -10.9 ?m/s. The results of the experiments yielded friction coefficients (?= ?/?n) of 0.55-0.85 for unbleached sandstone gouge and 0.45-0.80 for bleached material, while the fault material showed systematically higher friction coefficients (0.60-0.95). All simulated gouges showed a decrease in friction coefficient of 20-30% with increasing normal stress up to 90 MPa, with almost all samples showing velocity-strengthening (stable) slip behaviour. Permeability measurements show only minor changes during shear. Overall, our results demonstrated that higher (CO2-related) carbonate content leads to higher frictional strength and increased velocity strengthening (slip stability), notably at low normal stresses. However, preliminary results recently obtained at elevated temperatures show that carbonate-rich samples show velocity-weakening behaviour at 100°C, which is in line with previous studies on pure carbonates. A natural analogue from The Netherlands shows similar results for the chemical alteration of reservoir rock by the presence of naturally long-term stored CO2.

  16. Heat treatment effect on structure and long-term rupture strength of. gamma. /. gamma. '-MeC nickel eutectic. Length memory effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishkin, S.T.; Svetlov, I.L.; Sorokina, L.P.; Morozova, S.G.; Golubovskij, E.R.; Yushakova, F.V. (Vsesoyuznyj Inst. Aviatsionnykh Materialov, Moscow (USSR))

    1983-04-01

    Heat treatment effect on structure, phase composition and long-term rupture strength of the directional eutectics on the nickel base with ..gamma../..gamma..'-MeC structure is studied at 900-1100 deg C. It is shown that quenching from the temperature of complete dissolving of ..gamma..'-phase and ageing (900 deg - 30 hr) provide an optimum size and morphology of the ..gamma..-phase and an increase of the long-term rupture strength at 900 and 1000 deg C. Repeated thermal treatment of specimens tested during definite time restores their structure, mechanical properties and dimensions.

  17. Long-term conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-25

    Technology enabled care services (TECS), which include technologies such as telehealth, telecare, telemedicine and self-care apps, are designed to help people manage long-term conditions and retain as much independence as possible. The NHS Commissioning Assembly has published TECS Resource for Commissioners, a toolkit that raises awareness of the range of TECS available and their benefits to patients and professionals, supports commissioners to collaborate with providers to implement TECS, and advises how to create a TECS strategy, oversee implementation plans and ensure effective evaluation. The publication is at tinyurl.com/khsebyr. PMID:25806457

  18. Evaluation of a low-cost procedure for sampling, long-term storage, and extraction of RNA from blood for qPCR analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mærkedahl, Rasmus Baadsgaard; FrØkiær, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: In large clinical trials, where RNA cannot be extracted immediately after sampling, preserving RNA in whole blood is a crucial initial step in obtaining robust qPCR data. The current golden standard for RNA preservation is costly and designed for time-consuming column-based RNA-extraction. We investigated the use of lysis buffer for long-term storage of blood samples for qPCR analysis. Methods: Blood was collected from 13 healthy adults and diluted in MagMAX lysis/binding solution or PAXgene Blood RNA tubes and stored at -20 °C for 0, 1, or 4 months before RNA extraction by the matching method. RNA integrity, yield and purity were evaluated and the methods were compared by subsequent analyses of the gene expression levels of 18S, ACTB, IL1B, IL1RN, IL1R2, and PGK1 using qPCR. Results: The MagMAX system extracted 2.3-2.8 times more RNA per mL blood, with better performance in terms of purity, and with comparable levels of integrity relative to the PAXgene system. Gene expression analysis using qPCR of 18S, ACTB, IL1B, IL1RN, IL1R2, and the promising blood-specific reference gene, PGK1, revealed negligible differences (<1-fold) between the samples stored in MagMAX lysis/binding solution over time and between samples stored and extracted by the two systems. Conclusions: The MagMAX system can be used for storage of human blood for up to 4 months and is equivalent to the PAXgene system for RNA extraction. It furthermore, provides a means for significant cost reduction in large clinical trials.

  19. Quantifying the benefit of wellbore leakage potential estimates for prioritizing long-term MVA well sampling at a CO2 storage site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzolina, Nicholas A; Small, Mitchell J; Nakles, David V; Glazewski, Kyle A; Peck, Wesley D; Gorecki, Charles D; Bromhal, Grant S; Dilmore, Robert M

    2015-01-20

    This work uses probabilistic methods to simulate a hypothetical geologic CO2 storage site in a depleted oil and gas field, where the large number of legacy wells would make it cost-prohibitive to sample all wells for all measurements as part of the postinjection site care. Deep well leakage potential scores were assigned to the wells using a random subsample of 100 wells from a detailed study of 826 legacy wells that penetrate the basal Cambrian formation on the U.S. side of the U.S./Canadian border. Analytical solutions and Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the statistical power of selecting a leaking well. Power curves were developed as a function of (1) the number of leaking wells within the Area of Review; (2) the sampling design (random or judgmental, choosing first the wells with the highest deep leakage potential scores); (3) the number of wells included in the monitoring sampling plan; and (4) the relationship between a well’s leakage potential score and its relative probability of leakage. Cases where the deep well leakage potential scores are fully or partially informative of the relative leakage probability are compared to a noninformative base case in which leakage is equiprobable across all wells in the Area of Review. The results show that accurate prior knowledge about the probability of well leakage adds measurable value to the ability to detect a leaking well during the monitoring program, and that the loss in detection ability due to imperfect knowledge of the leakage probability can be quantified. This work underscores the importance of a data-driven, risk-based monitoring program that incorporates uncertainty quantification into long-term monitoring sampling plans at geologic CO2 storage sites. PMID:25551254

  20. Long-term patterns and feeding sites of southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Hawaii macadamia orchards, and sampling for management decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, M G; Follett, P A; Golden, M

    2007-12-01

    Southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula, Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a pest of macadamia nuts, causing pitting to kernels by feeding. In spite of its pest status, many aspects of the ecology of this insect in macadamia orchards are poorly understood. This study analyzes long-term N. viridula damage to macadamia nuts and investigates the extent to which damage to nuts occurs in the tree canopy, prior to nut-drop. We show that there are distinct seasonal peaks in damage detected after harvest and that, over six years of data collection, mean damage levels were fairly low, albeit with spikes in damage levels recorded. Sampling nuts at peak harvest periods from different strata in the trees and from the ground showed that incidence of damaged nuts within the canopy was typically half as high as on the fallen nuts. Damage to fallen nuts may have occurred prior to nut-drop, and continued to accumulate after nut-drop. These results show that management of N. viridula within macadamia canopies, as opposed to only on fallen nuts, is important. A sampling procedure and predictive model for estimating late-season damage based on early-season damage samples is provided. The model uses January and March damage measurements (based on samples with set level of accuracy), mean temperature and month of the year for which damage is predicted. Early-season damage of 6-10% predicts late-season damage levels that should justify N. viridula suppression based on the nominal threshold (13% damage) used by kernel processors to reject nuts based on damage. PMID:17997869

  1. Comparison of eleven methods for genomic DNA extraction suitable for large-scale whole-genome genotyping and long-term DNA banking using blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psifidi, Androniki; Dovas, Chrysostomos I; Bramis, Georgios; Lazou, Thomai; Russel, Claire L; Arsenos, Georgios; Banos, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Over the recent years, next generation sequencing and microarray technologies have revolutionized scientific research with their applications to high-throughput analysis of biological systems. Isolation of high quantities of pure, intact, double stranded, highly concentrated, not contaminated genomic DNA is prerequisite for successful and reliable large scale genotyping analysis. High quantities of pure DNA are also required for the creation of DNA-banks. In the present study, eleven different DNA extraction procedures, including phenol-chloroform, silica and magnetic beads based extractions, were examined to ascertain their relative effectiveness for extracting DNA from ovine blood samples. The quality and quantity of the differentially extracted DNA was subsequently assessed by spectrophotometric measurements, Qubit measurements, real-time PCR amplifications and gel electrophoresis. Processing time, intensity of labor and cost for each method were also evaluated. Results revealed significant differences among the eleven procedures and only four of the methods yielded satisfactory outputs. These four methods, comprising three modified silica based commercial kits (Modified Blood, Modified Tissue, Modified Dx kits) and an in-house developed magnetic beads based protocol, were most appropriate for extracting high quality and quantity DNA suitable for large-scale microarray genotyping and also for long-term DNA storage as demonstrated by their successful application to 600 individuals. PMID:25635817

  2. Exploitation of FTA cartridges for the sampling, long-term storage, and DNA-based analyses of plant-parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Martin; Zouhar, Miloslav; Douda, Ond?ej; Ma?asová, Marie; Ryšánek, Pavel

    2014-03-01

    The use of DNA-based analyses in molecular plant nematology research has dramatically increased over recent decades. Therefore, the development and adaptation of simple, robust, and cost-effective DNA purification procedures are required to address these contemporary challenges. The solid-phase-based approach developed by Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) has been shown to be a powerful technology for the preparation of DNA from different biological materials, including blood, saliva, plant tissues, and various human and plant microbial pathogens. In this work, we demonstrate, for the first time, that this FTA-based technology is a valuable, low-cost, and time-saving approach for the sampling, long-term archiving, and molecular analysis of plant-parasitic nematodes. Despite the complex structure and anatomical organization of the multicellular bodies of nematodes, we report the successful and reliable DNA-based analysis of nematode high-copy and low-copy genes using the FTA technology. This was achieved by applying nematodes to the FTA cards either in the form of a suspension of individuals, as intact or pestle-crushed nematodes, or by the direct mechanical printing of nematode-infested plant tissues. We further demonstrate that the FTA method is also suitable for the so-called "one-nematode-assay", in which the target DNA is typically analyzed from a single individual nematode. More surprisingly, a time-course experiment showed that nematode DNA can be detected specifically in the FTA-captured samples many years after initial sampling occurs. Collectively, our data clearly demonstrate the applicability and the robustness of this FTA-based approach for molecular research and diagnostics concerning phytonematodes; this research includes economically important species such as the stem nematode (Ditylenchus dipsaci), the sugar beet nematode (Heterodera schachtii), and the Northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla). PMID:24093923

  3. Synapse-specific, long-term facilitation of aplysia sensory to motor synapses: a function for local protein synthesis in memory storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, K C; Casadio, A; Zhu, H; Yaping, E; Rose, J C; Chen, M; Bailey, C H; Kandel, E R

    1997-12-26

    The requirement for transcription during long-lasting synaptic plasticity has raised the question of whether the cellular unit of synaptic plasticity is the soma and its nucleus or the synapse. To address this question, we cultured a single bifurcated Aplysia sensory neuron making synapses with two spatially separated motor neurons. By perfusing serotonin onto the synapses made onto one motor neuron, we found that a single axonal branch can undergo long-term branch-specific facilitation. This branch-specific facilitation depends on CREB-mediated transcription and involves the growth of new synaptic connections exclusively at the treated branch. Branch-specific long-term facilitation requires local protein synthesis in the presynaptic but not the postsynaptic cell. In fact, presynaptic sensory neuron axons deprived of their cell bodies are capable of protein synthesis, and this protein synthesis is stimulated 3-fold by exposure to serotonin. PMID:9428516

  4. Long-term storage of clinical samples in CyMol® medium for PNA- FISH® and culturing from the eSwab™ system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lone Heimann; Xu, Yijuan

    Objectives: A steadily growing diversity of bacteria is reported in foreign body infections, and culture-independent methods have been shown to supplement established culture methods. Therefore, sampling and preservation of specimens have become an important issue. We report here experience from a prospective clinical study enrolling patients with joint prosthesis-related problems (www.joint-prosthesis-infection-pain.dk). From the patients a range of diagnostic and peroperative specimen types were obtained. Here we report primarily on the utility of different specimen types for culture -independent analytical methods. Methods: Sampling for both culture-dependent and -independent analyses were done over a period of two years. Specimens were transferred directly to the lab, and cultures of tissue biopsies, joint fluid, sonication fluid from the prosthesis components, and eSwab™ (Copan, Italy) were performed within 24 h after sampling. The corresponding specimens for culture-independent methods were storedat -80°C until analyzed in batchs. Specimens for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis were stored for app. one year at -80°C in CyMol® (Copan, Italy), an alcohol based media, before the analyses were conducted. For direct visualization of microorganisms we used both FISH and peptide nucleic acid- fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH®, AdvanDx, USA). Both FISH and PNA-FISH® were conducted according to previous publications, with broad range probes. An initial filtration step was performed for some samples in order to concentrate bacteria. Results: We were able to perform FISH and PNA-FISH® on specimens stored for more than one year without further optimization of the hybridization protocol. The broad range probes demonstrated bacteria with a bright signal and a morphology comparable to the isolates obtained by culturing at the time of sampling. The detection limit for both FISH and PNA-FISH® were >10^3 bacteria/mL. With the eSwab™ system we were able to detect a broad range of bacteria including Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., and Corynebacterium spp. by culture and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Conclusion: It is possible to preserve samples for FISH and PNA-FISH® for long-term storage by using CyMol® with an effective detection limit in the order of >10^3 bacteria/mL. Both the morphology and intensity of staining with nucleic acid and PNA probes were distinct. The eSwab™ was a convenient system for documenting a broad range of bacterial pathogens associated with foreign body infections.

  5. Influence of long-term mineral fertilization on metal contents and properties of soil samples taken from different locations in Hesse, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, S.; Düring, R.-A.

    2015-01-01

    Essential and non-essential metals occur in soils as a result of weathering, industrial processes, fertilization, and atmospheric deposition. Badly adapted cultivation of agricultural soils (declining pH value, application of unsuitable fertilizers) can enhance the mobility of metals and thereby increase their concentrations in agricultural products. As the enrichment of metals in soils occurs over long time periods, monitoring of the long-term impact of fertilization is necessary to assess metal accumulation in agricultural soils. The main objective of this study was to test the effects of different mineral fertilizer variations on soil properties (pH, Corg, and cation exchange capacity (CEC)) and pseudo-total and mobile metal contents of soils after 14 years of fertilizer application and to determine residual effects of the fertilization 8 years after cessation of fertilizer treatment. Soil samples were taken from a field experiment which was carried out at four different locations (210, 260, 360, and 620 m above sea level) in Hesse, Germany. During the study, a significant decrease in soil pH and an evident increase in soil carbon content and cation exchange capacity with fertilization were determined. The CEC of the soils was closely related to their organic C contents. Moreover, pseudo- and mobile metal (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn) contents in the soils increased due to application of 14 years of mineral fertilizer treatments (N, P, NP, and NPK) when compared to control plots. Eight years after termination of the fertilization in the soil samples taken from soil profiles of the fertilized plots (NPK) for monitoring the residual effects of the fertilizer application, a decrease of 82.6, 54.2, 48.5, 74.4, and 56.9% in pseudo-total Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn contents, respectively, was determined.

  6. Introduction: Long term prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Making a decision upon the right choice of a material appropriate to a given application should be based on taking into account several parameters as follows: cost, standards, regulations, safety, recycling, chemical properties, supplying, transformation, forming, assembly, mechanical and physical properties as well as the behaviour in practical conditions. Data taken from a private communication (J.H.Davidson) are reproduced presenting the life time range of materials from a couple of minutes to half a million hours corresponding to applications from missile technology up to high-temperature nuclear reactors or steam turbines. In the case of deep storage of nuclear waste the time required is completely different from these values since we have to ensure the integrity of the storage system for several thousand years. The vitrified nuclear wastes should be stored in metallic canisters made of iron and carbon steels, stainless steels, copper and copper alloys, nickel alloys or titanium alloys. Some of these materials are passivating metals, i.e. they develop a thin protective film, 2 or 3 nm thick - the so-called passive films. These films prevent general corrosion of the metal in a large range of chemical condition of the environment. In some specific condition, localized corrosion such as the phenomenon of pitting, occurs. Consequently, it is absolutely necessary to determine these chemical condition and their stability in time to understand the behavior of a given mae to understand the behavior of a given material. In other words the corrosion system is constituted by the complex material/surface/medium. For high level nuclear wastes the main features for resolving problem are concerned with: geological disposal; deep storage in clay; waste metallic canister; backfill mixture (clay-gypsum) or concrete; long term behavior; data needed for modelling and for predicting; choice of appropriate solution among several metallic candidates. The analysis of the complex material/surface/medium is of great importance not only in the case of the topics of this workshop but also in other cases because the corrosion resistance of a given material is not an intrinsic property. In case of long term disposal it is essential to have very accurate data for modelling and predicting the behavior of materials engaged for the deep storage of high level nuclear wastes. It is the purpose of this workshop to bring together articles which have a significant contribution to make, and which take into account all the parameters of importance so that appropriate decision can be taken

  7. Self-referential processing is distinct from semantic elaboration: evidence from long-term memory effects in a patient with amnesia and semantic impairments.

    OpenAIRE

    Sui, J.; Humphreys, Gw

    2013-01-01

    We report data demonstrating that self-referential encoding facilitates memory performance in the absence of effects of semantic elaboration in a severely amnesic patient also suffering semantic problems. In Part 1, the patient, GA, was trained to associate items with the self or a familiar other during the encoding phase of a memory task (self-ownership decisions in Experiment 1 and self-evaluation decisions in Experiment 2). Tests of memory showed a consistent self-reference advantage, rela...

  8. Long term morphological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sten EsbjØrn Technical University of Denmark,

    2010-01-01

    A morphological modelling concept for long term nearshore morphology is proposed and examples of its application are presented and discussed. The model concept combines parameterised representations of the cross-shore morphology, with a 2DH area model for waves, currents and sediment transport in the surf zone. Two parameterization schemes are tested for two different morphological phenomena: 1) Shoreline changes due to the presence of coastal structures and 2) alongshore migration of a nearshore nourishment and a bar by-passing a harbour. In the case of the shoreline evolution calculations, a concept often used in one-line modelling of cross-shore shifting of an otherwise constant shape cross-shore profile is applied for the case of a groyne and a detached breakwater. In the case of alongshore bar/nourishment migration an alternative parameterization is adopted. All examples are presented, analysed and discussed with respect to the question of realistic representation, time scale and general applicability ofthe model concept.

  9. LONG TERM COLLECTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Long-Term Collections (CLT) committee would like to warmly thank its faithful donors who, year after year, support our actions all over the world. Without you, all this would not be possible. We would like to thank, in particular, the CERN Firemen’s Association who donated 5000 CHF in the spring thanks to the sale of their traditional calendar, and the generosity of the CERN community. A huge thank you to the firemen for their devotion to our cause. And thank you to all those who have opened their door, their heart, and their purses! Similarly, we warmly thank the CERN Yoga Club once again for its wonderful donation of 2000 CHF we recently received. We would also like to tell you that all our projects are running well. Just to remind you, we are currently supporting the activities of the «Réflexe-Partage» Association in Mali; the training centre of «Education et Développement» in Abomey, Benin; and the orphanage and ...

  10. Mice Overexpressing Type 1 Adenylyl Cyclase Show Enhanced Spatial Memory Flexibility in the Absence of Intact Synaptic Long-Term Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Hongbing

    2013-01-01

    There is significant interest in understanding the contribution of intracellular signaling and synaptic substrates to memory flexibility, which involves new learning and suppression of obsolete memory. Here, we report that enhancement of Ca[superscript 2+]-stimulated cAMP signaling by overexpressing type 1 adenylyl cyclase (AC1) facilitated…

  11. Acute effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) on hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP) of perforant path-dentate gyrus granule cells synapse related to memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaokuo; Yan, Tiebin; Chen, Rongfa; Ran, Dongzhi

    2012-01-01

    Acupuncture, a traditional Chinese therapeutic method, has been widely used in clinical practice to treat diseases such as stroke, Bell's palsy, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson diseases, dysmenorrhea and chronic pain. Mounting lab data had suggested that electro-acupuncture could alleviate dementia and restore long term potentiation of hippocampus in rat. Clinical data also indicated that electro-acupuncture could improve electrical activity of brain in vascular dementia patients. However, its biological basis and acute effects on hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP) remain not well understood. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether acute electro-acupuncture (acupoints: ST36 and SP6; continuous wave, 2 mV, 2Hz; lasted 20 min) could enhance LTP of perforant path-dentate gyrus granule cells in anesthetized rat and explore its underlying mechanisms. We found that electro-acupuncture could significantly increase PS2/PS 1 in pair pulse test (P <0.05, inter-pulse interval: 20ms and 90ms). When compared to control group, electro-acupuncture could significantly enhance LTP to about 234% which was about 143% of that in control group (P <0.05). It suggested that electro-acupuncture could modulate the function of interneurons in hippocampus hence increase LTP. PMID:23156202

  12. Long-term acarbose administration alleviating the impairment of spatial learning and memory in the SAMP8 mice was associated with alleviated reduction of insulin system and acetylated H4K8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wen-Wen; Chen, Gui-Hai; Wang, Fang; Tong, Jing-Jing; Tao, Fei

    2015-04-01

    Age-associated memory impairment (AAMI) not only reduces the quality of life for the elderly but also increases the costs of healthcare for society. Methods that can regulate glucose metabolism, insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) system and acetylated histone H4 lysine 8 (H4K8ac), one of the most well-researched facets of histone acetylation modification associating with cognition, tend to ameliorate the AAMI. Here, we used SAMP8 mice, the excellent animal model of aging and AAMI, to study the effect of long-term treatment with acarbose, an inhibitor of a-glucosidase, on AAMI and explore whether blood glucose, insulin/IGF-1 system and H4K8ac are associated with potential effects. The treatment group received acarbose (20mg/kg/d, dissolved in drinking water) at the age of 3-month until 9-month old before the behavioral test, and the controls only received water. Compared to the young controls (3-month-old, n=11), the old group (9-month-old, n=8) had declined abilities of spatial learning and memory and levels of serum insulin, hippocampal insulin receptors (InsRs) and H4K8ac. Interestingly, the acarbose group (9-month-old, n=9) showed better abilities of spatial learning and memory and higher levels of insulin, InsRs and H4K8ac relative to the old controls. Good performance of spatial learning and memory was positively correlated with the elevated insulin, InsRs and H4K8ac. All these results suggested that long-term administration of acarbose could alleviate the age-related impairment of spatial learning and memory in the SAMP8 mice, and the alleviated reduction of an insulin system and H4K8ac might be associated with the alleviation. PMID:25645154

  13. LONG TERM COLLECTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Committee would like to thank all those, from near and far, who kindly gave donations to the collection organized at the time of the sudden death of our friend and colleague Stephen O'NEALE The sum of 3,615 francs will be sent to the INEPE Association for the education of children in Quito, Ecuador. We are deeply grateful for this gesture from Steve's family and hope that they find comfort in knowing that Steve's memory will live on through the children whose daily lives will be improved by this gift.

  14. Rapid and Reversible Impairments of Short- and Long-Term Social Recognition Memory Are Caused by Acute Isolation of Adult Rats via Distinct Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Shahar-gold, Hadar; Gur, Rotem; Wagner, Shlomo

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian social organizations require the ability to recognize and remember individual conspecifics. This social recognition memory (SRM) can be examined in rodents using their innate tendency to investigate novel conspecifics more persistently than familiar ones. Here we used the SRM paradigm to examine the influence of housing conditions on the social memory of adult rats. We found that acute social isolation caused within few days a significant impairment in acquisition of short-term SRM ...

  15. MHC class I immune proteins are critical for hippocampus-dependent memory and gate NMDAR-dependent hippocampal long-term depression

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, P. Austin; Sage, Jennifer R.; Wood, Suzanne C.; Davenport, Christopher M.; Anagnostaras, Stephan G.; Boulanger, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Memory impairment is a common feature of conditions that involve changes in inflammatory signaling in the brain, including traumatic brain injury, infection, neurodegenerative disorders, and normal aging. However, the causal importance of inflammatory mediators in cognitive impairments in these conditions remains unclear. Here we show that specific immune proteins, members of the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I), are essential for normal hippocampus-dependent memory, and...

  16. Self-referential processing is distinct from semantic elaboration: evidence from long-term memory effects in a patient with amnesia and semantic impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Jie; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2013-11-01

    We report data demonstrating that self-referential encoding facilitates memory performance in the absence of effects of semantic elaboration in a severely amnesic patient also suffering semantic problems. In Part 1, the patient, GA, was trained to associate items with the self or a familiar other during the encoding phase of a memory task (self-ownership decisions in Experiment 1 and self-evaluation decisions in Experiment 2). Tests of memory showed a consistent self-reference advantage, relative to a condition where the reference was another person in both experiments. The pattern of the self-reference advantage was similar to that in healthy controls. In Part 2 we demonstrate that GA showed minimal effects of semantic elaboration on memory for items he semantically classified, compared with items subject to physical size decisions; in contrast, healthy controls demonstrated enhanced memory performance after semantic relative to physical encoding. The results indicate that self-referential encoding, not semantic elaboration, improves memory in amnesia. Self-referential processing may provide a unique scaffold to help improve learning in amnesic cases. PMID:23962675

  17. Long Term Care Insurance Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Pestieau, Pierre; Ponthiere, Gre?gory

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the alternative explanatory factors of the so-called long term care insurance puzzle, namely the fact that so few people purchase a long term care insurance whereas this would seem to be a rational conduct given the high probability of dependence and the high costs of long term care. For that purpose, we survey various theoretical and empirical studies of the demand and supply of long term care insurance. We discuss the vicious circle in which the long ...

  18. Long term care insurance puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Pestieau, Pierre; Ponthie?re, Gre?gory

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the alternative explanatory factors of the so-called long term care insurance puzzle, namely the fact that so few people purchase a long term care insurance whereas this would seem to be a rational conduct given the high probability of dependence and the high costs of long term care. For that purpose, we survey various theoretical and empirical studies of the demand and supply of long term care insurance. We discuss the vicious circle in which the long ...

  19. Long-Term Recency in Anterograde Amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmi, Deborah; Caplan, Jeremy B; Richards, Brian; Moscovitch, Morris

    2015-01-01

    Amnesia is usually described as an impairment of a long-term memory (LTM) despite an intact short-term memory (STM). The intact recency effect in amnesia had supported this view. Although dual-store models of memory have been challenged by single-store models based on interference theory, this had relatively little influence on our understanding and treatment of amnesia, perhaps because the debate has centred on experiments in the neurologically intact population. Here we tested a key prediction of single-store models for free recall in amnesia: that people with amnesia will exhibit a memory advantage for the most recent items even when all items are stored in and retrieved from LTM, an effect called long-term recency. People with amnesia and matched controls studied, and then free-recalled, word lists with a distractor task following each word, including the last (continual distractor task, CDFR). This condition was compared to an Immediate Free Recall (IFR, no distractors) and a Delayed Free Recall (DFR, end-of-list distractor only) condition. People with amnesia demonstrated the full long-term recency pattern: the recency effect was attenuated in DFR and returned in CDFR. The advantage of recency over midlist items in CDFR was comparable to that of controls, confirming a key prediction of single-store models. Memory deficits appeared only after the first word recalled in each list, suggesting the impairment in amnesia may emerge only as the participant's recall sequence develops, perhaps due to increased susceptibility to output interference. Our findings suggest that interference mechanisms are preserved in amnesia despite the overall impairment to LTM, and challenge strict dual-store models of memory and their dominance in explaining amnesia. We discuss the implication of our findings for rehabilitation. PMID:26046770

  20. Dopamine D1 Receptors Regulate Protein Synthesis-Dependent Long-Term Recognition Memory via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 in the Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Taku; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Kamei, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yukio; Nakamichi, Noritaka; Ibi, Daisuke; Nakanishi, Yutaka; Murai, Masaaki; Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2007-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and dopaminergic system is involved in learning and memory. However, it remains to be determined if the dopaminergic system and ERK1/2 pathway contribute to cognitive function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The amount of phosphorylated ERK1/2 was increased in…

  1. MHC Class I Immune Proteins Are Critical for Hippocampus-Dependent Memory and Gate NMDAR-Dependent Hippocampal Long-Term Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P. Austin; Sage, Jennifer R.; Wood, Suzanne C.; Davenport, Christopher M.; Anagnostaras, Stephan G.; Boulanger, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Memory impairment is a common feature of conditions that involve changes in inflammatory signaling in the brain, including traumatic brain injury, infection, neurodegenerative disorders, and normal aging. However, the causal importance of inflammatory mediators in cognitive impairments in these conditions remains unclear. Here we show that…

  2. Duration of the Unconditioned Stimulus in Appetitive Conditioning of Honeybees Differentially Impacts Learning, Long-Term Memory Strength, and the Underlying Protein Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marter, Kathrin; Grauel, M. Katharina; Lewa, Carmen; Morgenstern, Laura; Buckemüller, Christina; Heufelder, Karin; Ganz, Marion; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role of stimulus duration in learning and memory formation of honeybees ("Apis mellifera"). In classical appetitive conditioning honeybees learn the association between an initially neutral, conditioned stimulus (CS) and the occurrence of a meaningful stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus (US). Thereby the CS…

  3. Enhancement of declarative memory associated with emotional content in a Brazilian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J.E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have documented that emotional arousal may enhance long-term memory. This is an adaptation of a paradigm previously used in North American and European samples in investigations of the influence of emotion on long-term retention. A sample of 46 healthy adults of high and low educational levels watched a slide presentation of stories. A randomly assigned group watched a story with an arousing content and another group watched a neutral story. The stories were matched for structure and comprehensibility and the set and order of the 11 slides were the same in both conditions. Immediately after viewing the slide presentation, the participants were asked to rate the emotionality of the narrative. The arousing narrative was rated as being more emotional than the neutral narrative (t (44 = -3.6, P<0.001. Ten days later subjects were asked to remember the story and answer a multiple-choice questionnaire about it. The subjects who watched the arousing story had higher scores in the free recall measure (t (44 = -2.59, P<0.01. There were no differences between groups in the multiple-choice test of recognition memory (t (44 = 0.26. These findings confirm that an emotional arousing content enhances long-term declarative memory and indicate the possibility of applying this instrument to clinical samples of various cultural backgrounds.

  4. Effects of the uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist memantine on hippocampal long-term potentiation, short-term exploratory modulation and spatial memory in awake, freely moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C A; Danysz, W; Parsons, C G

    1996-03-01

    Chronic treatment of adult male F-344 rats (9-12 months old) with therapeutically relevant doses of memantine (30 mg/kg/day in chow for > 8 weeks) increased the maintenance of long-term potentiation of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials from perforant path-granule cell hippocampal synapses recorded in the fascia dentata in vivo. In contrast, there was no effect of memantine on baseline synaptic responses or population spikes. Likewise, short-term exploratory modulation of these hippocampal evoked responses was not different between memantine-treated and control rats. Both groups of rats were able to learn the spatial version of the Morris water task equally well, but the memantine-treated group showed a strong tendency to show more selective spatial search patterns in the training quadrant of the water pool during a final probe trial. As such, these studies provide the first electrophysiological evidence that memantine can increase the durability of synaptic plasticity and provide preclinical confirmation of the cognitive improvement seen with memantine in the treatment of demented patients. PMID:8963448

  5. Long-Term Supplementation with Beta Serum Concentrate (BSC, a Complex of Milk Lipids, during Post-Natal Brain Development Improves Memory in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Guan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that the supplementation of ganglioside-enriched complex-milk-lipids improves cognitive function and that a phospholipid-enriched complex-milk-lipid prevents age-related cognitive decline in rats. This current study evaluated the effects of post-natal supplementation of ganglioside- and phospholipid-enriched complex-milk-lipids beta serum concentrate (BSC on cognitive function in young rats. The diet of male rats was supplemented with either gels formulated BSC (n = 16 or blank gels (n = 16 from post-natal day 10 to day 70. Memory and anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated using the Morris water maze, dark–light boxes, and elevated plus maze tests. Neuroplasticity and white matter were measured using immunohistochemical staining. The overall performance in seven-day acquisition trials was similar between the groups. Compared with the control group, BSC supplementation reduced the latency to the platform during day one of the acquisition tests. Supplementation improved memory by showing reduced latency and improved path efficiency to the platform quadrant, and smaller initial heading error from the platform zone. Supplemented rats showed an increase in striatal dopamine terminals and hippocampal glutamate receptors. Thus BSC supplementation during post-natal brain development improved learning and memory, independent from anxiety. The moderately enhanced neuroplasticity in dopamine and glutamate may be biological changes underlying the improved cognitive function.

  6. Accessibility Long Term Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Axhausen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Improved accessibility and its correlate lower generalized cost of contact, travel and transport have been sought by dynamic human societies for their economic and social benefits through- out recorded history. The paper will reflect about this process at a number of different spatial and temporal scales based on a conceptual model. Looking back at European history, it will trace the interaction between Christaller's logic of local market areas and the idea of (low contact cost network cities. Focusing on Switzerland since 1950 it will show how network investment changed the relative distribution of population and employment and how this interacted with changes in the preferences of the travelers. Using a recent snapshot of how a substantial sample of Swiss maintain their social networks over often very large areas, it will try to answer the question of what will happen in the future, if the current trend of ever lower costs of contact will persist.

  7. The Long-Term Effects of E-Advertising: The Influence of Internet Pop-ups Viewed at a Low Level of Attention in Implicit Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Courbet, Didier; Fourquet-courbet, Marie-pierre; Kazan, Roland; Intartaglia, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Faced with an abundance of advertising messages, Internet users allocate only minimal cognitive resources to advertising. What are the effects of pop-up ads for a new brand viewed at low-level attention, and then measured when the Internet users have forgotten having seen them? In the theoretical context of processing fluency and implicit memory, the experiment (n = 398) studied the effects of repeated brief exposure to different types of content (words/image) in pop-up ads 7 days and 3 month...

  8. Effects of reversible pharmacological shutdown of cerebellar flocculus on the memory of long-term horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex adaptation in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Mari; Kitazawa, Hiromasa; Nagao, Soichi

    2010-11-01

    The adaptation of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (HVOR) provides an experimental model for motor learning. Two studies, using cats and mice, respectively, have recently suggested pharmacologically that the memory of adaptation is located multiply in the cerebellum and brainstem. Here, we examined the effects of acute cerebellar flocculus shutdown on the adaptation in four monkeys. Two hours of 0.11Hz-10° turntable oscillation while viewing a stationary checked-patterned screen through the left-right reversing prism decreased the HVOR gains by 0.16, and 3 days of prism wearing combined with 2h of daily turntable oscillation decreased the HVOR gains by 0.27. Injections of lidocaine into bilateral flocculi did not affect the nonadapted HVOR gains, but depressed the visual suppression of the HVOR. They recovered the HVOR gains decreased by 2h of training, but very little affected the HVOR gains decreased by previous 2 days of training. Injections of control Ringer's solution did not affect the gains adapted by 2h or 3 days of training. These results are consistent with the previous studies, and suggest that the memory trace of adaptation of the HVOR initially resides in the flocculus but later resides, presumably, in the vestibular nuclei in the monkey. PMID:20674618

  9. Ro 20-1724 Ameliorates Learning Deficit and Long-Term Memory Impairment Secondary to Repeated Ketamine Anesthesia in Young Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Peng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate effects and possible mechanism of Ro 20-1724, a PDE4 inhibitor, on long-time learning and memory ability following repeated ketamine exposure in immature rats. Methods: Sixty 21-day-old SD rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 12: C: Normal control group, S: Saline control group, K: Ketamine, K + Ro: Ketamine + Ro 20-1724, K + E: Ketamine + ethanol vehicle. Ro 20-1724 (0.5 mg·kg-1 or its vehicle (ethanol was administered intraperitoneally 30 minutes after ketamine anesthesia (70 mg·kg-1, daily for seven days. Nine weeks after birth, the Morris water maze was used to test the ability of learning and spatial localization memory on the rats. Following behavioral testing, animals’ hippocampi were removed for Western blot and electron microscopic examination. Results: In the Morris water maze test, compared with controls, the escape latency in groups exposed to ketamine or ketamine plus the ethanol vehicle were significantly prolonged (P P P 0.05, while there was no significant difference between control groups and animals treated with Ro 20-1724 following ketamine exposure (P > 0.05. Electron microscopy demonstrated degenerative changes in hippocampal neurons of animals repetitively exposed to 70 mg·kg-1 Ketamine, which was ameliorated by Ro 20-1724 (0.5 mg·kg-1. Conclusion: The PDE-4 inhibitor Ro 20-1724 (0.5 mg·kg-1

  10. Long Term Survivors of Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezih OKTAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no generally accepted definition of long-term GBM survivors (LTGBMS. Usually most authors define long-term GBM survivor as a patient who survives at least 3 years after the histological diagnosis of glioblastoma. LTGBMS are uncommon and are reported to occur in 0.5%-16% of cases. In our ENOK (Ege Neuro-Oncology Council cases we have 12 out of 372 GBM patients who survived more than 3 years (3.2%. The clinical and molecular factors that contribute to long-term survival are still unknown. Authors underline the association of glioblastoma long-term survival with prognostically favorable clinical factors, in particular young age and good initial performance score (KPS as well as MGMT promotor hypermethylation.

  11. Long-term telecommunication forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Stordahl, Kjell

    2006-01-01

    The key word for the thesis is long-term demand forecasting which have been applied on telecommunications and especially on broadband accesses and traffic. The objective with the thesis has been to structure and present work on long-term broadband forecasting, to evaluate the forecasting results and to extract the learning. Each main chapter ends with a section called experiences and conclusions. The thesis is organized in seven main parts. The first part addresses application of the Delphi t...

  12. Efectos de la escopolamina a corto y largo plazo en la memoria y las habilidades conceptuales / Effects of Short- And Long-Term Scopolamine Intoxication on Memory and Conceptual Skills

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra Milena, Camelo Roa; Alfredo, Ardila.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El uso de este tóxico en Colombia con fines delincuenciales representa un problema social y de salud de proporciones inmensurables, de ahí la importancia de conocer sus efectos a corto y largo plazo en la memoria y las habilidades conceptuales. Se evaluaron los efectos de la intoxicación por escopol [...] amina sobre memoria, categorización y clasificación en 20 sujetos, entre 15 y 60 años. Se utilizó un diseño prospectivo con dos mediciones. Los sujetos fueron evaluados a los cinco días después de egresar de la clínica y a los seis meses. Los no expuestos se evaluaron paralelamente en los dos momentos de la evaluación, por medio de la prueba de memoria de Wechsler, el test de la figura de Rey-Osterrieth, el test de clasificación de tarjetas de Wisconsin y la subprueba de matrices progresivas del WAIS III. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que la intoxicación por escopolamina provoca deterioro en la memoria y las habilidades conceptuales tanto a corto como a largo plazo. Abstract in english The intoxication by scopolamine is the second cause of acute intoxication in Bogotá and probably in others cities of Colombia. The use of this toxic in criminal attacks represents a social and health problem of immeasurable proportions. The knowledge of its long term effects in cognitive functions a [...] s the memory and conceptual abilities is scarce. In this investigation the effects of intoxication by scopolamine were evaluated in tow different times between a group of 20 people into the 15 and 60 years old, using categorization and classification upon memory and conceptual abilities. The first evaluation was carried out five days after clinic treatments and the second evaluation was made six months later. As the exposed group and as a non exposed group was evaluated parallelly in both moments of the evaluation with the Wechsler memory test, the figure of Rey-Osterrieth test, the Classification of Cards of Wisconsin test, and the progressive matrix of WAIS III subtest. The results suggest that the intoxication by scopolamine causes deterioration in memory and conceptual abilities in short and long term.

  13. Memória de longo prazo modulada pela memória de curto prazo / Long term memory modulated by short term memory / Memoria a largo plazo modulada por la memoria a corto plazo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Viviane, Moreira-Aguiar; Allan Pablo, Lameira; Erick Quintas, Conde; Antônio, Pereira Júnior; Carlo Arrigo, Umiltà; Luiz de Gonzaga, Gawryszewski.

    Full Text Available Quando um estímulo ocorre aleatoriamente à esquerda ou à direita, a resposta é mais rápida quando estímulo e resposta estão no mesmo lado (condição compatível) do que em lados opostos (condição incompatível). Na tarefa de Simon, embora a resposta seja selecionada pela forma (ou cor) do estímulo, a p [...] osição deste influencia o Tempo de Reação Manual (TRM). O efeito Simon corresponde à diferença entre as médias dos TRMs nas duas condições (incompatível e compatível). Neste trabalho, estudamos como uma tarefa prévia de compatibilidade realizada com um dedo indicador modula o efeito Simon. Vinte e oito voluntários realizaram uma tarefa de compatibilidade seguida pela tarefa de Simon. No grupo compatível (14 voluntários), encontramos um efeito Simon de 24 ms. No incompatível (14 voluntários), ocorreu um efeito Simon inverso de -16 ms. Estes resultados mostram uma modulação da memória de longo prazo por uma tarefa envolvendo a memória de curto prazo. Abstract in spanish Cuando un estimulo ocurre aleatoriamente a la izquierda o a la derecha, la respuesta es más rápida cuando el estimulo y la respuesta están del mismo lado (condición compatible), de que cuando están en lados opuestos (condición incompatible). En la prueba de Simon, el color o la forma del estímulo de [...] termina la respuesta, pero éste es más rápido cuando hay una correlación espacial entre el estímulo y la respuesta. En este trabajo, estudiamos la modulación del efecto Simon por la tarea de la compatibilidad espacial en la cual uno dedo índice respondió. Veintiocho voluntarios realizaron la prueba de compatibilidad (14 la compatible y 14 la incompatible). Después el voluntario realizó la prueba de Simon. En el grupo compatible, encontramos efecto de Simon de 21 ms. Sin embargo, en el grupo incompatibles, ocurrió un efecto de Simon inverso de -16 ms. Estos resultados demuestran una modulación de la memoria a largo plazo por la memoria a corto plazo. Abstract in english When a stimulus randomly occurs at left or right, the response is faster when stimulus and response are on the same side (compatible condition) than on opposite sides (incompatible condition). In the Simon task, color or shape determines the correct response but it is faster when there is correspond [...] ence between stimulus and response key positions. In this research, we studied the Simon effect modulation through a previous spatial compatibility task in which just one index finger presses the keys. Twenty-eight volunteers run compatibility tasks (14 compatible and 14 incompatible). Then, they performed a Simon task in which the correct response was selected by shape. A Simon effect of 24 ms was found in the compatible group. An inverse Simon effect of -16 ms occurred in the incompatible group. These results show long-term memory modulation by task involving short-term memory.

  14. Enhancement of declarative memory associated with emotional content in a Brazilian sample

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.E., Frank; C., Tomaz.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have documented that emotional arousal may enhance long-term memory. This is an adaptation of a paradigm previously used in North American and European samples in investigations of the influence of emotion on long-term retention. A sample of 46 healthy adults of high and low educatio [...] nal levels watched a slide presentation of stories. A randomly assigned group watched a story with an arousing content and another group watched a neutral story. The stories were matched for structure and comprehensibility and the set and order of the 11 slides were the same in both conditions. Immediately after viewing the slide presentation, the participants were asked to rate the emotionality of the narrative. The arousing narrative was rated as being more emotional than the neutral narrative (t (44) = -3.6, P

  15. Long-term telecommunication forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Stordahl, Kjell

    2006-01-01

    The key word for the thesis is long-term demand forecasting which have been applied on telecommunications and especially on broadband accesses and traffic.The objective with the thesis has been to structure and present work on long-term broadband forecasting, to evaluate the forecasting results and to extract the learning. Each main chapter ends with a section called experiences and conclusions.The thesis is organized in seven main parts.The first part addresses application of the Delphi tech...

  16. Long-term subcutaneous microdialysis sampling and qRT-PCR of MCP-1, IL-6 and IL-10 infreely-moving rats

    OpenAIRE

    von Grote, Erika C.; Venkatakrishnan, Venkat; Duo, Jia; Stenken, Julie A

    2010-01-01

    Cytokines are important mediators of the wound healing response. However, sampling of cytokines from the interstitial fluid at a healing wound site in experimental animals is a challenge. Microdialysis sampling is an in vivo collection technique option for this purpose as it permits continuous sampling, while remaining contiguous with the wound microenvironment. The polymeric membrane of the microdialysis probe is a foreign material thus allowing a unique approach to sample cytokines generate...

  17. Epilepsy-related long-term amnesia: anatomical perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, C.; Kapur, N.; Zeman, A.; Weller, R.; Connelly, A.

    2012-01-01

    There are few clues as to the neural basis of selective long-term amnesia. We report group and single-case data to shed light on this issue. In a group study of patients with transient epileptic amnesia, there were no significant correlations between volumetric measures of the hippocampus and indices of accelerated long-term forgetting or longer-term autobiographical memory loss. Post-mortem investigations in a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy who showed accelerated long-term forgetting, t...

  18. Medicare (Long-Term Care)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... making your decisions known. Costs & How to Pay Long-term care is expensive, but there are several ways to pay for the care you may need. Share page: Medicare Medicare only covers medically necessary care and focuses on medical acute care , such as doctor visits, drugs, and hospital ...

  19. What Is Long-Term Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Long-Term Care? Expand Long-term Care Considerations for LGBT Adults Expand Health Disparities Impacting LTC Expand Caregivers Expand Participant Directed Services Expand Housing, Financial, Legal Matters Expand Paying for Long-term Care – ...

  20. Who Pays for Long-Term Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Long-Term Care? Expand Long-term Care Considerations for LGBT Adults Expand Health Disparities Impacting LTC Expand Caregivers Expand Participant Directed Services Expand Housing, Financial, Legal Matters Expand Paying for Long-term Care – ...

  1. Who Needs Care? (Long-Term Care)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Long-Term Care? Expand Long-term Care Considerations for LGBT Adults Expand Health Disparities Impacting LTC Expand Caregivers Expand Participant Directed Services Expand Housing, Financial, Legal Matters Expand Paying for Long-term Care – ...

  2. Focal Radiation Therapy Combined with 4-1BB Activation and CTLA-4 Blockade Yields Long-Term Survival and a Protective Antigen-Specific Memory Response in a Murine Glioma Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcaid, Zineb; Phallen, Jillian A.; Zeng, Jing; See, Alfred P.; Mathios, Dimitrios; Gottschalk, Chelsea; Nicholas, Sarah; Kellett, Meghan; Ruzevick, Jacob; Jackson, Christopher; Albesiano, Emilia; Durham, Nicholas M.; Ye, Xiaobu; Tran, Phuoc T.; Tyler, Betty; Wong, John W.; Brem, Henry; Pardoll, Drew M.; Drake, Charles G.; Lim, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults and is associated with a poor prognosis. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen -4 (CTLA-4) blocking antibodies have demonstrated an ability to generate robust antitumor immune responses against a variety of solid tumors. 4-1BB (CD137) is expressed by activated T lymphocytes and served as a co-stimulatory signal, which promotes cytotoxic function. Here, we evaluate a combination immunotherapy regimen involving 4-1BB activation, CTLA-4 blockade, and focal radiation therapy in an immune-competent intracranial GBM model. Methods GL261-luciferace cells were stereotactically implanted in the striatum of C57BL/6 mice. Mice were treated with a triple therapy regimen consisted of 4-1BB agonist antibodies, CTLA-4 blocking antibodies, and focal radiation therapy using a small animal radiation research platform and mice were followed for survival. Numbers of brain-infiltrating lymphocytes were analyzed by FACS analysis. CD4 or CD8 depleting antibodies were administered to determine the relative contribution of T helper and cytotoxic T cells in this regimen. To evaluate the ability of this immunotherapy to generate an antigen-specific memory response, long-term survivors were re-challenged with GL261 glioma en B16 melanoma flank tumors. Results Mice treated with triple therapy had increased survival compared to mice treated with focal radiation therapy and immunotherapy with 4-1BB activation and CTLA-4 blockade. Animals treated with triple therapy exhibited at least 50% long-term tumor free survival. Treatment with triple therapy resulted in a higher density of CD4+ and CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. Mechanistically, depletion of CD4+ T cells abrogated the antitumor efficacy of triple therapy, while depletion of CD8+ T cells had no effect on the treatment response. Conclusion Combination therapy with 4-1BB activation and CTLA-4 blockade in the setting of focal radiation therapy improves survival in an orthotopic mouse model of glioma by a CD4+ T cell dependent mechanism and generates antigen-specific memory. PMID:25013914

  3. Spreadsheets and Long Term Corporate Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Croll, Grenville J.

    2012-01-01

    We have conducted an empirical investigation into the long term survival rates of some small but representative samples of the 30,000 largest UK limited companies. These companies were either a control or known to have used, or been interested in the use of, spreadsheets, spreadsheet based monte carlo simulation software, other spreadsheet and decision analysis software and/or related management training. We show that there is a material and statistically significant increas...

  4. Long-term relationship bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Westermark, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a bargaining model where there is a long-term relationship between a seller and a buyer and there is bargaining over a sequence of surpluses that arrives at fixed points in time. Markov Perfect Equilibria are analyzed and equilibrium payoffs characterized. The transfers between the players can be described as a first-order system of difference equations. Payoffs depend on both current and future surpluses. Future surpluses are important partly because the risk of separation leads t...

  5. Long term radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France, waste management, a sensitive issue in term of public opinion, is developing quickly, and due to twenty years of experience, is now reaching maturity. With the launching of the French nuclear programme, the use of radioactive sources in radiotherapy and industry, waste management has become an industrial activity. Waste management is an integrated system dealing with the wastes from their production to the long term disposal, including their identification, sortage, treatment, packaging, collection and transport. This system aims at guaranteing the protection of present and future populations with an available technology. In regard to their long term management, and the design of disposals, radioactive wastes are divided in three categories. This classification takes into account the different radioisotopes contained, their half life and their total activity. Presently short-lived wastes are stored in the shallowland disposal of the ''Centre de la Manche''. Set up within the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), the National Agency for waste management (ANDRA) is responsible within the framework of legislative and regulatory provisions for long term waste management in France

  6. Long-Term Physical and Mental Health Consequences of Childhood Physical Abuse: Results from a Large Population-Based Sample of Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Kristen W.; Sheridan, Jennifer; Kuo, Daphne; Carnes, Molly

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Child maltreatment has been linked to negative adult health outcomes; however, much past research includes only clinical samples of women, focuses exclusively on sexual abuse and/or fails to control for family background and childhood characteristics, both potential confounders. Further research is needed to obtain accurate,…

  7. Comparison of Four Diagnostic Techniques for Detecting Bovine Virus Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) in Buffy Coat Samples after Long-Term Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Özkul, Aykut; YE??LBA?, Kadir; BURGU, ?brahim

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, four diagnostic techniques were compared in terms of their ability to detect BVD virus in buffy coats frozen for more than one year. The samples were selected according to their initial test results. Forty-five BVDV positive and 15 BVDV negative buffy coats were used. The techniques used were the virus isolation-immunoperoxidase test (IPX), immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA), indirect immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IIPMA) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain react...

  8. Ascorbate and dehydroascorbic acid as reliable biomarkers of oxidative stress : analytical reproducibility and long-term stability of plasma samples subjected to acidic deproteinization

    OpenAIRE

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Lack of post-sampling stability of ascorbate and dehydroascorbic acid and failure to block their in vivo equilibrium have lowered their value as biomarkers of oxidative stress and limited the ability to further investigate their possible role in disease prevention. In the present paper, the analytical reproducibility was tested by repeated analysis of plasma aliquots from one individual over four years. The plasma was subjected to acidic deproteinization with an equal volume of 10% meta-phosp...

  9. Long term stability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P.; Gao, B. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Ascorbate and dehydroascorbic acid as reliable biomarkers of oxidative stress : analytical reproducibility and long-term stability of plasma samples subjected to acidic deproteinization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Lack of post-sampling stability of ascorbate and dehydroascorbic acid and failure to block their in vivo equilibrium have lowered their value as biomarkers of oxidative stress and limited the ability to further investigate their possible role in disease prevention. In the present paper, the analytical reproducibility was tested by repeated analysis of plasma aliquots from one individual over four years. The plasma was subjected to acidic deproteinization with an equal volume of 10% meta-phosphoric acid containing 2 mM EDTA and analyzed for ascorbate and dehydroascorbic acid by high-performance liquid chromatography with coulometric detection. In a parallel experiment, stability of human plasma samples treated as above and stored at -80°C for five years was tested in a cohort of 131 individuals. No degradation or shift in the equilibrium between ascorbate and dehydroascorbic acid was observed in either of the experiments. In conclusion, ascorbate and dehydroascorbic acid can be adequately preserved in plasma stored at -80°C following acidic deproteinization with meta-phosphoric acid containing 2 mM EDTA.

  11. Long-term oral administration of melatonin improves spatial learning and memory and protects against cholinergic degeneration in middle-aged Ts65Dn mice, a model of Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Andrea; Martínez, Paula; García, Susana; Vidal, Verónica; García, Eva; Flórez, Jesús; Sanchez-Barceló, Emilio J; Martínez-Cué, Carmen; Rueda, Noemí

    2013-04-01

    Ts65Dn mice (TS), the most commonly used model of Down syndrome (DS), exhibit phenotypic characteristics of this condition. Both TS mice and DS individuals present cognitive disturbances, age-related cholinergic degeneration, and increased brain expression of ?-amyloid precursor protein (A?PP). These neurodegenerative processes may contribute to the progressive cognitive decline observed in DS. Melatonin is a pineal indoleamine that has been reported to reduce neurodegenerative processes and improve cognitive deficits in various animal models. In this study, we evaluated the potentially beneficial effects of long-term melatonin treatment on the cognitive deficits, cholinergic degeneration, and enhanced A?PP and ?-amyloid levels of TS mice. Melatonin was administered for 5 months to 5- to 6-month-old TS and control (CO) mice. Melatonin treatment improved spatial learning and memory and increased the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive cells in the medial septum of both TS and CO mice. However, melatonin treatment did not significantly reduce A?PP or ?-amyloid levels in the cortex or the hippocampus of TS mice. Melatonin administration did reduce anxiety in TS mice without inducing sensorimotor alterations, indicating that prolonged treatment with this indoleamine is devoid of noncognitive behavioral side effects (e.g., motor coordination, sensorimotor abilities, or spontaneous activity). Our results suggest that melatonin administration might improve the cognitive abilities of both TS and CO mice, at least partially, by reducing the age-related degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. Thus, chronic melatonin supplementation may be an effective treatment for delaying the age-related progression of cognitive deterioration found in DS. PMID:23350971

  12. Epilepsy-related long-term amnesia: anatomical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Chris; Kapur, Narinder; Zeman, Adam; Weller, Roy; Connelly, Alan

    2012-11-01

    There are few clues as to the neural basis of selective long-term amnesia. We report group and single-case data to shed light on this issue. In a group study of patients with transient epileptic amnesia, there were no significant correlations between volumetric measures of the hippocampus and indices of accelerated long-term forgetting or longer-term autobiographical memory loss. Post-mortem investigations in a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy who showed accelerated long-term forgetting, together with a degree of autobiographical memory loss, yielded evidence of neuronal loss and gliosis in regions of both the right and the left hippocampus. Neuronal loss and gliosis were more evident in anterior than posterior hippocampus. These results indicate that the unusual forms of long-term forgetting seen in some patients with temporal lobe epilepsy have no gross anatomical correlate. The findings leave open the possibilities that subtle structural damage or subtle functional disturbance, perhaps in the form of subclinical epileptiform activity, underly epilepsy-related long-term amnesia. PMID:22841993

  13. Asthma Medicines: Long-Term Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control Health Issues Listen Asthma Medicines: Long-term Control Article Body Corticosteroids Synthetic versions of hormones produced ... form, they are used exclusively for long-term control; they are not very effective for acute symptoms. ...

  14. Effectiveness of Heparin during Long-Term Tocolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsunori Inagaki; Shintaro Makino; Takashi Yorifuji; Motoi Sugimura; Satoru Takeda

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Drip infusion during long-term tocolysis causes mechanical and infectious vasculitis and increases the frequency of peripheral venous catheter exchange (PVC), thereby placing a burden on patients. Our study aim is to confirm whether heparin ameliorates pain due to vasculitis during long-term tocolysis and reduces the frequency of peripheral venous catheter exchange. Design. Prospective study. Setting and Sample. All the patients requiring admission because of the presence of uterin...

  15. Uranium ... long-term confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Half way through 1983 the outlook for the world's uranium producers was far from bright if one takes a short term view. The readily accessible facts present a gloomy picture. The spot prices of uranium over the past few years decreased from a high of $42-$43/lb to a low of $17 in 1982. It now hovers between $23 and $24. the contract prices negotiated between producers and consumers are not so accessible but they do not reflect the spot price. The reasons why contractual uranium prices do not follow the usual dictates of supply and demand are related to the position in which uranium and associated power industries find themselves. There is public reaction with strong emotional overtones as well as much reduced expectations about the electric power needs of the world. Furthermore the supply of uranium is not guaranteed despite present over production. However the people in the industry, taking the medium- and long-term view, are not despondent

  16. Physiological, Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Long-Term Habituation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calin-Jageman, Robert J

    2009-09-12

    Work funded on this grant has explored the mechanisms of long-term habituation, a ubiquitous form of learning that plays a key role in basic cognitive functioning. Specifically, behavioral, physiological, and molecular mechanisms of habituation have been explored using a simple model system, the tail-elicited siphon-withdrawal reflex (T-SWR) in the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. Substantial progress has been made on the first and third aims, providing some fundamental insights into the mechanisms by which memories are stored. We have characterized the physiological correlates of short- and long-term habituation. We found that short-term habituation is accompanied by a robust sensory adaptation, whereas long-term habituation is accompanied by alterations in sensory and interneuron synaptic efficacy. Thus, our data indicates memories can be shifted between different sites in a neural network as they are consolidated from short to long term. At the molecular level, we have accomplished microarray analysis comparing gene expression in both habituated and control ganglia. We have identified a network of putatively regulated transcripts that seems particularly targeted towards synaptic changes (e.g. SNAP25, calmodulin) . We are now beginning additional work to confirm regulation of these transcripts and build a more detailed understanding of the cascade of molecular events leading to the permanent storage of long-term memories. On the third aim, we have fostered a nascent neuroscience program via a variety of successful initiatives. We have funded over 11 undergraduate neuroscience scholars, several of whom have been recognized at national and regional levels for their research. We have also conducted a pioneering summer research program for community college students which is helping enhance access of underrepresented groups to life science careers. Despite minimal progress on the second aim, this project has provided a) novel insight into the network mechanisms by which short-term memories are permanently stored, and b) a strong foundation for continued growth of an excellent undergraduate neuroscience program.

  17. Three-year-olds’ memory for a person met only once at the age of 12 months: Very long-term memory revealed by a late-manifesting novelty preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kingo, Osman Skjold; Staugaard, SØren RislØv

    2014-01-01

    This study examined three-year-olds’ verbal and non-verbal memory for a person met only once after a 28 month interval. Children in the Test group (N=50) had participated in an earlier experiment at our lab at the age of 12 months where they met one of two possible experimenters. At this past event half of the children were tested by one, the other half by the other experimenter. At the follow-up, run by a naïve experimenter, the children were shown two videos from the original experiment in a visual paired comparison task: One with the specific experimenter testing them at the original visit (the Target) and one of the other experimenter (the Foil), with whom they had no experience. When explicitly asked, the children’s responses did not differ from chance. However, eye-tracking data revealed a late-manifesting novelty preference for the “Foil” person indicating memory for the “Target” person met once before.

  18. Evaluation of the effects of long-term storage of bovine ear notch samples on the ability of 2 diagnostic assays to identify calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van Vuuren

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Research aimed at optimising diagnostic laboratory procedures is central to the development of effective bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV control programmes. BVDV is a singlestranded RNA virus that crosses the placenta to infect foetuses, resulting in reproductive losses due to foetal death or persistently infected calves that die early in life. Persistently infected animals are widely accepted to be the primary reservoir of BVDV and the largest source of infection. This poses important challenges to overall animal/herd health and can cause major losses to the cattle industry. Long-term storage of bovine ear notch samples from calves persistently infected with BVDV may adversely affect the ability of diagnostic assays to detect the virus efficiently. In order to test this hypothesis, ear notch samples from 7 animals were divided into 2 groups. One set was subjected to prompt formalin fixation and the other set stored either as fresh samples without preservatives at –2 °C, or soaked overnight in phosphate buffered saline followed by freezing of the supernatant fluid at –2 °C. Frozen ear notches and ear notch supernatant yielded positive results with an antigen- capture, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA for the duration of the study (6 months and optical density (OD values remained significantly within range. There was no significant difference between storing fresh ear notch samples or PBS at –2 °C. However, positive immunohistochemistry (IHC staining on formalin fixed ear notches started to fade between Day 17 and Day 29 when stored at room temperature. It was concluded that fresh ear notches could safely be stored at –2 °C for a period of 6 months prior to testing for BVD viral antigens.

  19. Evaluation of the effects of long-term storage of bovine ear notch samples on the ability of 2 diagnostic assays to identify calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F, Khan; J H, Vorster; M, van Vuuren; P, Mapham.

    Full Text Available Research aimed at optimising diagnostic laboratory procedures is central to the development of effective bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) control programmes. BVDV is a singlestranded RNA virus that crosses the placenta to infect foetuses, resulting in reproductive losses due to foetal death or pe [...] rsistently infected calves that die early in life. Persistently infected animals are widely accepted to be the primary reservoir of BVDV and the largest source of infection. This poses important challenges to overall animal/herd health and can cause major losses to the cattle industry. Long-term storage of bovine ear notch samples from calves persistently infected with BVDV may adversely affect the ability of diagnostic assays to detect the virus efficiently. In order to test this hypothesis, ear notch samples from 7 animals were divided into 2 groups. One set was subjected to prompt formalin fixation and the other set stored either as fresh samples without preservatives at -2 ºC, or soaked overnight in phosphate buffered saline followed by freezing of the supernatant fluid at -2 ºC. Frozen ear notches and ear notch supernatant yielded positive results with an antigen-capture, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) for the duration of the study (6 months) and optical density (OD) values remained significantly within range. There was no significant difference between storing fresh ear notch samples or PBS at -2 ºC. However, positive immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining on formalin fixed ear notches started to fade between Day 17 and Day 29 when stored at room temperature. It was concluded that fresh ear notches could safely be stored at -2 ºC for a period of 6 months prior to testing for BVD viral antigens

  20. LONG TERM SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY IS IMPAIRED IN RATS WITH LESIONS OF THE VENTROLATERAL PREOPTIC NUCLEUS

    OpenAIRE

    Arrigoni, Elda; LU, JUN; Vetrivelan, Ramalingam; Saper, Clifford B.

    2009-01-01

    Impairment of memory functions has been frequently reported in models of sleep deprivation. Similarly, hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity has been shown to be sensitive to sleep loss due to acute sleep restriction. However, such approaches are limited by the stressful nature of sleep deprivation, and because it is difficult to study long term sleep restriction in animals. Here we report the effects of chronic sleep loss on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in a rodent model for ...

  1. Long-term dynamics of Typha populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, J.B.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The zonation of Typha populations in an experimental pond in Michigan was re-examined 15 years after the original sampling to gain insight into the long-term dynamics. Current distributions of Typha populations were also examined in additional experimental ponds at the site that have been maintained for 23 years. The zonation between T. latifolia and T. angustifolia in the previously studied pond 15 years after the initial sampling revealed that the density and distribution of shoots had not changed significantly. Thus, it appears that previously reported results (based on 7- year old populations) have remained consistent over time. Additional insight into the interaction between these two taxa was sought by comparing mixed and monoculture stands in five experimental ponds that have remained undisturbed for their 23-year history. The maximum depth of T. latifolia, the shallow- water species, was not significantly reduced when growing in the presence of the more flood tolerant T. angustifolia. In contrast, the minimum depth of T. angustifolia was reduced from 0 to 37 cm when in the presence of T. latifolia. When total populations were compared between monoculture and mixed stands, the average density of T. angustifolia shoots was 59.4 percent lower in mixed stands while the density of T. latifolia was 32 percent lower, with T. angustifolia most affected at shallow depths (reduced by 92 percent) and T. latifolia most affected at the deepest depths (reduced by 60 percent). These long-term observations indicate that competitive displacement between Typha taxa has remained stable over time.

  2. Diversity in Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity at Inhibitory Synapses of Striatal Spiny Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E.; Mendoza, Ernesto; Hernandez, Ricardo; Aceves, Jose J.; Ibanez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, Jose

    2009-01-01

    Procedural memories and habits are posited to be stored in the basal ganglia, whose intrinsic circuitries possess important inhibitory connections arising from striatal spiny neurons. However, no information about long-term plasticity at these synapses is available. Therefore, this work describes a novel postsynaptically dependent long-term

  3. SGK Protein Kinase Facilitates the Expression of Long-Term Potentiation in Hippocampal Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yun L.; Tsai, Ming C.; Hsu, Wei L.; Lee, Eminy H.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase ("sgk") gene plays an important role in long-term memory formation. The present study further examined the role of SGK in long-term potentiation (LTP). The dominant-negative mutant of "sgk," SGKS422A, was used to inactivate SGK. Results revealed a time-dependent increase…

  4. Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment (LTDE-SD). Supporting laboratory program - Sorption diffusion experiments and rock material characterisation. With supplement of adsorption studies on intact rock samples from the Forsmark and Laxemar site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widestrand, Henrik; Byegaard, Johan; Selnert, Eva; Skaalberg, Mats; Hoeglund, Susanne; Gustafsson, Erik (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The LTDE-SD experiment, (Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment) aims at increasing the scientific knowledge of sorption and diffusion under in situ conditions and to provide data for performance and safety assessment calculations. In this report, performance and results of laboratory sorption and diffusion experiments and porosity investigations using site-specific crushed and intact rock materials are presented, including a geological and mineralogical characterization of the samples. A synthetic groundwater and a part of the radionuclide tracer cocktail that was used for the in situ experiment were used also in the laboratory experiments. 13 radionuclide tracers were analysed in the laboratory experiments. The method descriptions from SKB Site Investigations were applied in order to enable comparisons with Site Investigations data. The water saturation porosity of 10 unaltered matrix rock samples from KA3065A02 and A03 is 0.26 +- 0.08% and two fracture material samples show porosities of 2.4% and 5.2% respectively. 14C-methylmethacrylate impregnation (the PMMA-method) show that the unaltered rock matrix porosity is relatively homogeneous with grain boundary porosity, while the porosity of fracture samples is heterogeneous and have increased porosity up to more than 10% in some parts. Through-diffusion experiments using tritiated water (H3HO) give a matrix diffusivity in the range from 2.7centre dot10-14 to 6.5centre dot10-14 m2/s in four samples from KA3065A02 and A03. The results of the porosity and diffusion measurements are coherent in ranges with earlier LTDE-SD measurements and are also in line with the SKB Site Investigations results. In the batch sorption experiments using crushed rock material, two matrix rock samples of Aevroe granodiorite, one red-stained altered Aevroe granodiorite sample and two chlorite-calcite dominated fracture samples were analysed for three different size fractions as a function of time up to 186 days contact time. The strongest sorption was observed in the fracture material samples. The two matrix rock samples and the altered sample showed nearly the same sorption properties. K{sub d} values in the range from 1centre dot10-3 to 1 m3/kg could be detected with the method. The individual results for different tracers and species are interpreted in the report. Sorption-diffusion on intact rock samples showed concentration losses that were basically in line to what could be expected from the outcome of the batch sorption experiments within the LTDE-SD and the Site Investigation program. Modelling of the diffusion process showed that the product of the sorption coefficient and the formation factor, K{sub d}centre dotF{sub f}, can only be resolved by analysis of the tracer concentration profiles in the rock

  5. Long-term preservation of Anammox bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deposit of useful microorganisms in culture collections requires long-term preservation and successful reactivation techniques. The goal of this study was to develop a simple preservation protocol for the long-term storage and reactivation of the anammox biomass. To achieve this, anammox biomass w...

  6. Long Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a standardized, primary screening and assessment tool of health status that forms the foundation of the comprehensive...

  7. Long term wet spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting showed that there is continuing confidence in the use of wet storage for spent nuclear fuel and that long-term wet storage of fuel clad in zirconium alloys can be readily achieved. The importance of maintaining good water chemistry has been identified. The long-term wet storage behaviour of sensitized stainless steel clad fuel involves, as yet, some uncertainties. However, great reliance will be placed on long-term wet storage of spent fuel into the future. The following topics were treated to some extent: Oxidation of the external surface of fuel clad, rod consolidation, radiation protection, optimum methods of treating spent fuel storage water, physical radiation effects, and the behaviour of spent fuel assemblies of long-term wet storage conditions. A number of papers on national experience are included

  8. Pricing and Hedging Long-Term Options

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyungbin

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the behavior of long-term options. In many cases, option prices follow an exponential decay (or growth) rate for further maturity dates. We determine under what conditions option prices are characterized by this property. To see this, we use the martingale extraction method through which a pricing operator is transformed into a semigroup operator, which is easier to address. We also explore notions of hedging long-term options. Hedging is an...

  9. Anticipating Long-Term Stock Market Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Christian; Loch, Karin

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between long-term U.S. stock market risks and the macroeconomic environment using a two component GARCH-MIDAS model. Our results provide strong evidence in favor of counter-cyclical behavior of long-term stock market volatility. Among the various macro variables in our dataset the term spread, housing starts, corporate profits and the unemployment rate have the highest predictive ability for stock market volatility . While the term spread and housing starts are...

  10. On the Cryptographic Long Term Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Poulakis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this note we deal with the problem of long-term cryptographic security. We discuss briefly the methods of multiple encryption and signature, and the future influence of Quantum, DNA and Chaos methods in cryptography. Moreover, we propose an encryption and a signature scheme based on the problems of integer factorization and discrete logarithm suitable for applications needing long-term security.

  11. An overview of long-term care

    OpenAIRE

    Doty, Pamela; Liu, Korbin; Wiener, Joshua

    1985-01-01

    Long-term care (LTC) refers to health, social, and residential services provided to chronically disabled persons over an extended period of time. Especially during the last 20 years, State and Federal Governments have played an increasing role in the financing of long-term care. The aging of the population underlines the future importance of this topic. This article provides background data on need, supply, and expenditures; discusses government financing programs; and addresses quality of ca...

  12. Long term vision of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long-term vision of power generation leads us to the conclusion that future generation will be dominated by those technologies capable of facing the challenge of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions without neglecting other core objectives envisaged in the energy policy, i.e. supply security and competitiveness. For this reason, sustainable utilities must foster different energies in the short, medium and long term.Given the investments required by these generation technologies, power companies will need huge financial resources. (Author)

  13. Long-term outcome after coronary stenting

    OpenAIRE

    Kastrati, Adnan; Hall, Donald; Schömig, Albert

    2000-01-01

    The present review assesses the data on long-term outcome after coronary stenting. Histological, angiographical and intravascular imaging data have shown that the insertion of stents constitutes only a transient stimulus to lumen renarrowing, that this process is almost complete at 6 months and that a certain degree of neointima regression is also possible after this time. Clinical data have confirmed the sustained benefit of stenting in the long term. Careful selection of optimal stent desig...

  14. Diabetes MILES--Australia (management and impact for long-term empowerment and success: methods and sample characteristics of a national survey of the psychological aspects of living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in Australian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speight Jane

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful management of diabetes requires attention to the behavioural, psychological and social aspects of this progressive condition. The Diabetes MILES (Management and Impact for Long-term Empowerment and Success Study is an international collaborative. Diabetes MILES--Australia, the first Diabetes MILES initiative to be undertaken, was a national survey of adults living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in Australia. The aim of this study was to gather data that will provide insights into how Australians manage their diabetes, the support they receive and the impact of diabetes on their lives, as well as to use the data to validate new diabetes outcome measures. Methods/design The survey was designed to include a core set of self-report measures, as well as modules specific to diabetes type or management regimens. Other measures or items were included in only half of the surveys. Cognitive debriefing interviews with 20 participants ensured the survey content was relevant and easily understood. In July 2011, the survey was posted to 15,000 adults (aged 18-70 years with type 1 or type 2 diabetes selected randomly from the National Diabetes Services Scheme (NDSS database. An online version of the survey was advertised nationally. A total of 3,338 eligible Australians took part; most (70.4% completed the postal survey. Respondents of both diabetes types and genders, and of all ages, were adequately represented in both the postal and online survey sub-samples. More people with type 2 diabetes than type 1 diabetes took part in Diabetes MILES--Australia (58.8% versus 41.2%. Most respondents spoke English as their main language, were married/in a de facto relationship, had at least a high school education, were occupied in paid work, had an annual household income > $AUS40,000, and lived in metropolitan areas. Discussion A potential limitation of the study is the under-representation of respondents from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds (including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin. Diabetes MILES--Australia represents a major achievement in the study of diabetes in Australia, where for the first time, the focus is on psychosocial and behavioural aspects of this condition at a national level.

  15. Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of contaminated sites with multiple contaminants released from multiple sources where contaminants have transported and commingled. The U.S. government and U.S. industry are responsible for most of the contamination and are landowners of many of these contaminated properties. These sites must be surveyed periodically for various criteria including structural deterioration, water intrusion, integrity of storage containers, atmospheric conditions, and hazardous substance release. The surveys, however, are intrusive, time-consuming, and expensive and expose survey personnel to radioactive contamination. In long-term monitoring, there's a need for an automated system that will gather and report data from sensors without costly human labor. In most cases, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit is used to collect and report data from a remote location. A SCADA unit consists of an embedded computer with data acquisition capabilities. The unit can be configured with various sensors placed in different areas of the site to be monitored. A system of this type te to be monitored. A system of this type is static, i.e., the sensors, once placed, cannot be moved to other locations within the site. For those applications where the number of sampling locations would require too many sensors, or where exact location of future problems is unknown, a mobile sensing platform is an ideal solution. In many facilities that undergo regular inspections, the number of video cameras and air monitors required to eliminate the need for human inspections is very large and far too costly. HCET's remote harsh-environment surveyor (RHES) is a robotic platform with SCADA capabilities equipped with a sonar-imaging scanner, a high-resolution color CCD camera, and various combinations of sensors. The RHES is controlled remotely via a PC. This paper will discuss the development and application of this system. (authors)

  16. Inflammatory markers in relation to long-term air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Nahid; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Beelen, Rob; Modig, Lars; Palli, Domenico; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Vineis, Paolo; Hoek, Gerard; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios ?; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-08-01

    Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution can lead to chronic health effects such as cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Systemic inflammation has been hypothesized as a putative biological mechanism contributing to these adverse health effects. We evaluated the effect of long-term exposure to air pollution on blood markers of systemic inflammation. We measured a panel of 28 inflammatory markers in peripheral blood samples from 587 individuals that were biobanked as part of a prospective study. Participants were from Varese and Turin (Italy) and Umea (Sweden). Long-term air pollution estimates of nitrogen oxides (NOx) were available from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Linear mixed models adjusted for potential confounders were applied to assess the association between NOx and the markers of inflammation. Long-term exposure to NOx was associated with decreased levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-? in Italy, but not in Sweden. NOx exposure levels were considerably lower in Sweden than in Italy (Sweden: median (5th, 95th percentiles) 6.65?g/m(3) (4.8, 19.7); Italy: median (5th, 95th percentiles) 94.2?g/m(3) (7.8, 124.5)). Combining data from Italy and Sweden we only observed a significant association between long-term exposure to NOx and decreased levels of circulating IL-8. We observed some indication for perturbations in the inflammatory markers due to long-term exposure to NOx. Effects were stronger in Italy than in Sweden, potentially reflecting the difference in air pollution levels between the two cohorts. PMID:25898227

  17. Hormonal changes during long-term isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custaud, M A; Belin de Chantemele, E; Larina, I M; Nichiporuk, I A; Grigoriev, A; Duvareille, M; Gharib, C; Gauquelin-Koch, G

    2004-05-01

    Confinement and inactivity induce considerable psychological and physiological modifications through social and sensory deprivation. The aim of the SFINCSS-99 experiment was to determine the cardiovascular and hormonal pattern of blood volume regulation during long-term isolation and confinement. Simulation experiments were performed in pressurized chambers similar in size to the volumes of modern space vehicles. Group I consisted of four Russian male volunteers, who spent 240 days in a 100-m(3 )chamber. Group II included four males (one German and three Russians) who spent 110 days in isolation (200-m(3) module). The blood samples, taken before, during and after the isolation period, were used to determine haematocrit (Ht), growth hormone (GH), active renin, aldosterone, and osmolality levels. From the urine samples, electrolytes, osmolality, nitrites, nitrates, cortisol, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), aldosterone, normetanephrine and metanephrine levels were determined. The increase in plasma volume (PV) that is associated with a tendency for a decrease in plasma active renin is likely to be due to decreased sympathetic activity, and concords with the changes in urinary catecholamine levels during confinement. Urinary catecholamine levels were significantly higher during the recovery period than during confinement. This suggests that the sympathoadrenal system was activated, and concords with the increase in heart rate. Vascular resistance is determined by not only the vasoconstrictor but also vasodilator systems. The ratio of nitrite/nitrate in urine, as an indicator of nitric oxide release, did not reveal any significant changes. Analysis of data suggests that the duration of the isolation was a main factor involved in the regulation of hormones. PMID:14722779

  18. Soil seed bank of plant species as a function of long-term soil management and sampled depth Banco de sementes de espécies vegetais em função de distintos manejos do solo por longo período e profundidade amostrada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Concenço

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing the level of weed infestation indifferent areas that were submitted to different soil management for 16 years. Four management systems were studied: (1 agriculture only under conventional tillage system; (2 agriculture only under no-till system; (3 crop-livestock integrationcrop-livestock integration; (4 livestock only. These areas were sampled at three soil depths (0-5, 5-10 and 10-15 cm, and soil was stored in plastic pots and taken to a greenhouse, where soil moisture and weight were standardized. Soil was kept near 70% moisture field capacity, being revolved every 20 days when all seedling emerged from soil were counted, identified and collected for dry mass assessment. The soil coverage by weeds, number of weed seedlings and dry mass of the weedy community were assessed. A phytoecological analysis was conducted. Weed composition is differentdifferent among management systems after 16 years. Areas with livestock showed much smaller number of weed species in comparison to systems where only grain crops are grown. The presence of livestock affects the potential of germination of soil seed bank. Agriculture systems are similar in terms of weed composition along soil profile, while systems involving livestock show little relation in what regards such sampled depths. Conservationist models of land exploration contribute to reduce severity of weed species occurrence in the long term.Objetivou-se avaliar o nível de infestação por plantas daninhas em áreas submetidas a manejos distintos por 16 anos: (1 agricultura em sistema convencional de preparo; (2 agricultura em sistema plantio direto; (3 integração lavoura/pecuária; (4 somente pecuária. Amostras de solos destas áreas foram coletadas em três profundidades (0-5, 5-10 and 10-15 cm, depositadas em potes plásticos e levadas a casa de vegetação. O solo era revolvido a cada 20 dias, quando as plantas daninhas presentes eram identificadas e coletadas. Foram avaliados cobertura por plantas daninhas; densidade de plantas daninhas e massa seca da comunidade infestante. Foi também conduzida análise fitoecológica em função dos distintos manejos e profundidades. Áreas onde pastagens estiveram presentes tiveram menor infestação por plantas daninhas que áreas onde somente agricultura era utilizada. A composição florística difere entre sistemas de manejo. Áreas onde a pecuária está presente apresentaram número de plântulas de espécies daninhas muito inferior a sistemas onde somente agricultura está presente. A presença de criação de gado afeta o potencial de emergência das espécies presentes no banco de sementes do solo. Sistemas de agricultura sem integração apresentam alta similaridade em termos de composição de espécies ao longo do perfil do solo enquanto sistemas integrados com pecuária apresentam pouca relação entre as profundidades amostradas. Modelos conservacionistas de exploração do solo contribuem com a redução da severidade de ocorrência de espécies daninhas a longo prazo.

  19. Soil seed bank of plant species as a function of long-term soil management and sampled depth / Banco de sementes de espécies vegetais em função de distintos manejos do solo por longo período e profundidade amostrada

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G, Concenço; J.C, Salton; R.C, Brevilieri; P.B, Mendes; M.L, Secretti.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o nível de infestação por plantas daninhas em áreas submetidas a manejos distintos por 16 anos: (1) agricultura em sistema convencional de preparo; (2) agricultura em sistema plantio direto; (3) integração lavoura/pecuária; (4) somente pecuária. Amostras de solos destas áreas fo [...] ram coletadas em três profundidades (0-5, 5-10 and 10-15 cm), depositadas em potes plásticos e levadas a casa de vegetação. O solo era revolvido a cada 20 dias, quando as plantas daninhas presentes eram identificadas e coletadas. Foram avaliados cobertura por plantas daninhas; densidade de plantas daninhas e massa seca da comunidade infestante. Foi também conduzida análise fitoecológica em função dos distintos manejos e profundidades. Áreas onde pastagens estiveram presentes tiveram menor infestação por plantas daninhas que áreas onde somente agricultura era utilizada. A composição florística difere entre sistemas de manejo. Áreas onde a pecuária está presente apresentaram número de plântulas de espécies daninhas muito inferior a sistemas onde somente agricultura está presente. A presença de criação de gado afeta o potencial de emergência das espécies presentes no banco de sementes do solo. Sistemas de agricultura sem integração apresentam alta similaridade em termos de composição de espécies ao longo do perfil do solo enquanto sistemas integrados com pecuária apresentam pouca relação entre as profundidades amostradas. Modelos conservacionistas de exploração do solo contribuem com a redução da severidade de ocorrência de espécies daninhas a longo prazo. Abstract in english This study aimed at assessing the level of weed infestation indifferent areas that were submitted to different soil management for 16 years. Four management systems were studied: (1) agriculture only under conventional tillage system; (2) agriculture only under no-till system; (3) crop-livestock int [...] egrationcrop-livestock integration; (4) livestock only. These areas were sampled at three soil depths (0-5, 5-10 and 10-15 cm), and soil was stored in plastic pots and taken to a greenhouse, where soil moisture and weight were standardized. Soil was kept near 70% moisture field capacity, being revolved every 20 days when all seedling emerged from soil were counted, identified and collected for dry mass assessment. The soil coverage by weeds, number of weed seedlings and dry mass of the weedy community were assessed. A phytoecological analysis was conducted. Weed composition is differentdifferent among management systems after 16 years. Areas with livestock showed much smaller number of weed species in comparison to systems where only grain crops are grown. The presence of livestock affects the potential of germination of soil seed bank. Agriculture systems are similar in terms of weed composition along soil profile, while systems involving livestock show little relation in what regards such sampled depths. Conservationist models of land exploration contribute to reduce severity of weed species occurrence in the long term.

  20. Long-term anhydrobiotic survival in semi-terrestrial micrometazoans

    OpenAIRE

    Guidetti, R.; Jo?nsson, Ingemar

    2002-01-01

    This study represents the first systematic investigation of long-term anhydrobiotic survival in tardigrades, rotifers and nematodes inhabiting mosses and lichens. Sixty-three different samples from public and private collections, kept dry for 9-138 years, were examined. Rotifers of the genus Mniohia and the eutardigrade Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri (hatched from eggs) were found alive from one of the samples (9 years old). These observations represent the longest record for rotifers in the anhyd...

  1. Explaining long-term growth in Namibia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joel Hinaunye, Eita; Charlotte B, du Toit.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Supply-side economics stresses the importance of analysing and modelling the long-term properties of an economy's production structures in order to investigate each factor of production's impact on final output. This helps to determine how much should be produced, how much is available for consumpti [...] on and, eventually, how an economy can improve its long-term economic growth path. This study applied the neoclassical growth model to Namibia's growth over the period from 1971 to 2005 in order to identify and develop the main supply-side components of long-term economic growth in the country. Along with a production function, behavioural equations were estimated for the factors of production labour demand and capital investment, as well as for the links between prices and wages.

  2. Long-term results after fibroid embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibroids (leiomyoma) are the most frequent benign tumors of the uterus during female reproductive age. In the case of clinical symptoms, uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a well established treatment option for symptomatic fibroids, resulting in promising long-term results. In order to estimate long-term success after UAE, reduction of fibroids and uterus volume is less important than complete improvement and disappearance of fibroid-related symptoms. In addition to a high technical success rate and a low perioperative complication rate, UAE results in high short-term and long-term patient satisfaction (>87%) and improvement of symptoms (>81%). Candidates for UAE should be informed about potential reinterventions in terms of repeated UAE (up to 18% of cases) or surgical treatment options. (orig.)

  3. Long term planning for wind energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a planning system intended to be governed primarily by policies in statutory plans a reasonable horizon for long term planning is 10 years or longer. Because of statutory requirements, developers have no option but to pay due regard to, and take a full part in, long term planning. The paper examines the type of policies which have emerged in the last few years to cater for wind energy development. It canvasses the merits of different types of policies. Finally, it discusses the policy framework which may emerge to cater for development outside NFFO. (Author)

  4. Education and Long-Term Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Garrouste, Christelle; Kozovska, Kornelia; Arjona Perez, Elena

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between education and long-term unemployment when considering regional economic differences and other relevant variables at the individual and at the local level, using data from the 2004-2006 EU-SILC (11 countries). The analysis has been run using both a binary logit model and a binary scobit model. Our results suggest that the probability of an individual to be in long-term unemployment decreases with her educational level. There is a decrease in ret...

  5. Long-term effects of forced migration

    OpenAIRE

    Ja?ntti, Markus; Sarvima?ki, Matti; Uusitalo, Roope

    2009-01-01

    We study the long-term effects of human displacement using individual level panel data on forced migrants and comparable non-migrants. After World War II, Finland ceded a tenth of its territory to the Soviet Union and resettled the entire population living in these areas in the remaining parts of the country. We find that displacement increased the long-term income of men, but had no effect on that of women. We attribute a large part of the effect to faster transition from traditional (rural)...

  6. Long-term effects of forced migration

    OpenAIRE

    Sarvima?ki, Matti; Uusitalo, Roope; Ja?ntti, Markus

    2009-01-01

    We study the long-term effects of human displacement using individual-level panel data on forced migrants and comparable non-migrants. After World War II, Finland ceded a tenth of its territory to the Soviet Union and resettled the entire population living in these areas in the remaining parts of the country. We find that displacement increased the long-term income of men, but had no effect on that of women. We attribute a large part of the effect to faster transition from traditional (rural)...

  7. Collaboration of geldanamycin-activated P70S6K and Hsp70 against beta-amyloid-induced hippocampal apoptosis: an approach to long-term memory and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Nayereh; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Digaleh, Hadi; Khodagholi, Fariba; Maghsoudi, Nader

    2015-03-01

    One of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the accumulation of beta-amyloid peptides (A?) in senile plaques. A?-induced oxidative stress is believed to be responsible for degeneration and apoptosis of neurons and consequent cognitive and memory deficits. Here, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effect of the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor geldanamycin (GA) against amyloid pathogenesis in adult male Wistar rats. GA or vehicle was injected into the lateral cerebral ventricles of rats 24 h before injection of A? (1-42) in CA1 area of hippocampus. The learning and memory of the rats were assessed 7 days after injection of A? using passive avoidance (PA) task. As potential contributing factors in A?-induced memory decline, we evaluated apoptotic markers and also used terminal-transferase UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique to detect apoptosis in the hippocampus of A?-injected rats. Our behavioral data suggest that GA pretreatment can significantly suppress memory deficits in A?-injected rats. There was also not only a marked increase in Hsp70 level but also upregulated 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) in the hippocampus of GA-treated groups with a reduction in apoptotic factors including caspase-3, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and TUNEL-positive cells as well. Thus, we conclude that GA exerts its protective effects against A? (1-42) toxicity and memory deficits, at least in part, by upregulating of Hsp70 and P70S6K. PMID:25576151

  8. Motivational readiness for physical activity and quality of life in long-term lung cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Matthew M.; Novotny, Paul J.; Patten, Christi A.; Rausch, Sarah M.; Garces, Yolanda I.; Jatoi, Aminah; Sloan, Jeff A.; Yang, Ping

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between motivational readiness for physical activity and quality of life (QOL) in long-term lung cancer survivors. Long-term survivors are considered those who are living 5 years or more following a cancer diagnosis. This project examined the relationship between a self-report measure of motivational readiness for physical activity and QOL in a sample of 272 long-term lung cancer survivors. Participants (54% male, average age 70 years old) completed the ...

  9. Quality of Life and Functional Health Status of Long-Term Meditators

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Black; Leigh Wilson; Ramesh Manocha

    2012-01-01

    Background. There is very little data describing the long-term health impacts of meditation. Aim. To compare the quality of life and functional health of long-term meditators to that of the normative population in Australia. Method. Using the SF-36 questionnaire and a Meditation Lifestyle Survey, we sampled 343 long-term Australian Sahaja Yoga meditation practitioners and compared their scores to those of the normative Australian population. Results. Six SF-36 subscales (bodily pain, general ...

  10. Strategic long term planning in mining

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G.L., Smith.

    Full Text Available The fundamental challenge facing mineral and metal companies is how to create sustainable value while operating within mandated strategic bounds, identified constraints, and variable market and economic conditions. This can be achieved by allowing the fixed physical nature of the mineral asset to dr [...] ive definition of the optimal technical solution to mining and processing activities, and developing and resourcing a strategically aligned portfolio of production entities that creates flexibility to near- and longer-term business environment shifts, i.e. a production mix that allows variation of output to respond to short term market variation, within a long term context. The practical achievement of this outcome is enabled by the concept of strategic long term planning. The core elements of strategic long term planning in the metals and minerals industry, and the relationship between them, are expanded. The strategic long term planning framework is a logic construct that enables delivery of an optimized, strategically-aligned business plan from the mineral asset portfolio using a set of tools and techniques with a common language, standards, systems and processes to align decisions and actions on a cyclical basis.

  11. Veterans Affairs Benefits (Long-Term Care)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... programs such as nursing home care and at-home care for aging veterans with long-term care needs. The VA ... the eligible veteran’s pension benefits A Veteran Directed ... the Aging Network in partnership with the Veterans Administration Visit ...

  12. How Much Care Will You Need? (Long-Term Care)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Long-Term Care? Expand Long-term Care Considerations for LGBT Adults Expand Health Disparities Impacting LTC Expand Caregivers Expand Participant Directed Services Expand Housing, Financial, Legal Matters Expand Paying for Long-term Care – ...

  13. Where Can You Receive Care? (Long-Term Care)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Long-Term Care? Expand Long-term Care Considerations for LGBT Adults Expand Health Disparities Impacting LTC Expand Caregivers Expand Participant Directed Services Expand Housing, Financial, Legal Matters Expand Paying for Long-term Care – ...

  14. Who Will Provide Your Care? (Long-Term Care)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Long-Term Care? Expand Long-term Care Considerations for LGBT Adults Expand Health Disparities Impacting LTC Expand Caregivers Expand Participant Directed Services Expand Housing, Financial, Legal Matters Expand Paying for Long-term Care – ...

  15. Data of long term atmospheric diffusion experiments (Winter, 1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Takashi; Chino, Masamichi; Yamazawa, Hiromi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-10-01

    The data were obtained in the long-term atmospheric diffusion experiments in the Tokai area, autumn, 1991 which were a part of the Evaluation Safety Demonstration Experiments of Environmental Radiation entrusted with the Science and Technology Agency. The experiments were conducted by JAERI in cooperation with the Japan Weather Association. The report includes tracer concentration data of surface sampling points and meteorological data. (author)

  16. Long-Term Antecedents and Outcomes of Perceived Control

    OpenAIRE

    Infurna, Frank J.; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Schupp, Ju?rgen; Wagner, Gert G.

    2011-01-01

    Perceived control plays an important role in shaping development throughout adulthood and old age. Using data from the adult lifespan sample of the national German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP; N > 10,000, covering 25 years of measurement), we explored long-term antecedents, correlates, and outcomes of perceived control and examined if associations differ with age. Targeting correlates and antecedents of control, findings indicated that higher concurrent levels of social participation, life sat...

  17. Public vs private demand for covering long term care expenditures

    OpenAIRE

    Brau, Rinaldo; Lippi Bruni, Matteo; Pinna, Anna Maria

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the determinants of the willingness to pay (WTP) for long term care (LTC) coverage provided through either a public or a private insurance program. Two insurance services are considered, a first one compulsory and financed out through general taxes, another one purchased on a voluntary base and paid through an insurance premium. Data are taken from a survey on a sample of households of the Italian region Emilia Romagna, and WTP is elicited through open-ended contingent valu...

  18. Long-Term Potentiation: Mechanisms of Induction and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert D. Blitzer (Mount Sinai School of Medicine; Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry REV)

    2005-11-08

    Synapses in general exhibit various forms of plasticity; that is, the efficiency of transmission across the synapse can be potentiated or depressed in response to a prior history of stimulation. The persistence of the change in efficiency can be relatively brief, exemplified by post-tetanic potentiation (PTP), which decays within a few seconds. At the other extreme, very stable forms of plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), can be established at many synapses in the brain. LTP is often proposed as a candidate for the cellular basis of memory, but direct evidence for this hypothesis is lacking. That said, a large body of research has provided correlative evidence for LTP as a process that underlies memory formation. This lecture, which is a part of the course "Cell Signaling Systems: A Course for Graduate Students," describes LTP from a cell biological perspective. Topics include the signaling network responsible for LTP induction, evidence for upregulated postsynaptic mechanisms in LTP, and the role of gene expression regulation, at the transcriptional and translational levels, in the maintenance of LTP.

  19. SOIL AGGREGATE STABILITY AS AFFECTED BY LONG-TERM TILLAGE AND CLAY TYPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil aggregate stability and dispersivity depend on clay mineralogy. However, little is known about the effect of soil mineralogy on soil crustability for long-term cultivated soil. The effect of long-term tillage on aggregate stability was the objective of our study. More than 20 soil samples chara...

  20. Modeling long-term collider performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model for the SSC arcs is described with multipole lattice field errors agglomerated into 32 lattice points, and with first order lattice errors and modulation provided by discrete transfer elements. Numerical solutions for long term dynamic aperture studies are obtained by multipole kick-drift tracking. The CPU time required to track through one turn is minimal, and comparable to that required to implement a one-turn fifth-order Taylor series map. Comparisons with tracking results using a fine grained representation of the lattice are made, and found to be satisfactory. The effects of tune modulation are studied and can substantially degrade long-term dynamic aperture. The effects of small relativistic momentum corrections, usually neglected for the large momenta at the SSC, are shown to have negligible influence on tracking results. 5 refs., 7 figs

  1. Prediction of long term stability by extrapolation

    CERN Document Server

    Parzen, G

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies the possibility of using the survival function to predict long term stability by extrapolation. The survival function is a function of the initial coordinates and is the number of turns a particle will survive for a given set of initial coordinates. To determine the difficulties in extrapolating the survival function, tracking studies were done to compute the survival function. The survival function was found to have two properties that may cause difficulties in extrapolating the survival function. One is the existence of rapid oscillations, and the second is the existence of plateaus. It was found that it appears possible to extrapolate the survival function to estimate long term stability by taking the two difficulties into account. A model is proposed which pictures the survival function to be a series of plateaus with rapid oscillations superimposed on the plateaus. The tracking studies give results for the widths of these plateaus and for the seperation between adjacent plateaus which ...

  2. Long-term home care scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Jensen, Thomas Sejr

    2011-01-01

    In several countries, home care is provided for certain citizens living at home. The long-term home care scheduling problem is to generate work plans spanning several days such that a high quality of service is maintained and the overall cost is kept as low as possible. A solution to the problem provides detailed information on visits and visit times for each employee on each of the covered days. We propose a branch-and-price algorithm for the long-term home care scheduling problem. The pricing problem generates one-day plans for an employee, and the master problem merges the plans with respect to regularity constraints. The method solves instances with up to 99 visits during one week. This truly illustrates the complexity of the problem.

  3. INTELLIGENT SYSTEM FOR LONG TERM LOAD FORECASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohi Kapoor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long term load forecasting plays an important role in the economic optimization and secured operation of electric power systems. The plans of the electric power sector have been done and developed with the aid of statistical prediction methods. Electric utilities companies need monthly peak and yearly load forecasting for budget planning, maintenance scheduling and fuel management. The present work presents a comparative study between the approach based on neural network and a hybrid fuzzy neural technique for long term load forecasting of Haryana State. A large number of influencing factors have been examined and tested. This paper presents a system developed for the prediction of maximum electric demand and consumption of electricity. The strength of this technique lies in its ability to reduce appreciable computational time and its comparable accuracy with other modeling techniques.

  4. Quantifying Long-term Scientific Impact

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Dashun; Barabási, Albert-László

    2013-01-01

    An ability to accurately assess the long-term impact of a scientific discovery has implications from science policy to individual reward. Yet, the documented lack of predictability of citation based measures frequently used to gauge impact, from impact factors to short-term citations, raises a fundamental question: is there long-term predictability in citation patterns? Here we derive a mechanistic model for the citation dynamics of individual papers, allowing us to collapse the citation histories of papers from different journals and disciplines into a single curve, indicating that all papers follow the same universal temporal pattern. The observed patterns not only help us uncover the basic mechanisms that govern scientific impact, but also offer reliable measures of influence with potential policy implications.

  5. On the fractional Eulerian numbers and equivalence of maps with long term power-law memory (integral Volterra equations of the second kind) to Grünvald-Letnikov fractional difference (differential) equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Mark

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a simple general form of a deterministic system with power-law memory whose state can be described by one variable and evolution by a generating function. A new value of the system's variable is a total (a convolution) of the generating functions of all previous values of the variable with weights, which are powers of the time passed. In discrete cases, these systems can be described by difference equations in which a fractional difference on the left hand side is equal to a total (also a convolution) of the generating functions of all previous values of the system's variable with the fractional Eulerian number weights on the right hand side. In the continuous limit, the considered systems can be described by the Grünvald-Letnikov fractional differential equations, which are equivalent to the Volterra integral equations of the second kind. New properties of the fractional Eulerian numbers and possible applications of the results are discussed.

  6. Long term economic relationships from cointegration maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Renato; Pereira, Carlos de B.; Leite, Vitor B. P.; Caticha, Nestor

    2007-07-01

    We employ the Bayesian framework to define a cointegration measure aimed to represent long term relationships between time series. For visualization of these relationships we introduce a dissimilarity matrix and a map based on the sorting points into neighborhoods (SPIN) technique, which has been previously used to analyze large data sets from DNA arrays. We exemplify the technique in three data sets: US interest rates (USIR), monthly inflation rates and gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates.

  7. Energy: solutions for the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Power towers' operated by sunlight, vertical-axis, windmills capable of generating electricity, breeder reactors producing more uranium than they consume, and power plants fuelled by nuclear fusion - these are some of the exotic energy sources to be created as long term alternatives under the U.S. Government's plan for energy and research development. International co-operation, which has already begun, could permit other nations to share with America the fruits of this investment in the future

  8. Long-term outcomes of sports injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker, Rienk,

    2004-01-01

    Participation in sports is an important way to spend spare time. Being actively involved in sports has clear advantages, like the improvement of physical endurance and the prevention of Western diseases. However, it can be questioned whether these advantages are not outweighted by the notable side effects: the occurrence and the adverse outcome of a large number of injuries. Long-term consequences are of importance in determining this outcome, since sportsmen are generally young and, conseque...

  9. Long-term consequences of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meczekalski, Blazej; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Katulski, Krzysztof

    2013-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs mainly in female adolescents and young women. The obsessive fear of weight gain, critically limited food intake and neuroendocrine aberrations characteristic of AN have both short- and long-term consequences for the reproductive, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and skeletal systems. Neuroendocrine changes include impairment of gonadotropin releasing-hormone (GnRH) pulsatile secretion and changes in neuropeptide activity at the hypothalamic level, which cause profound hypoestrogenism. AN is related to a decrease in bone mass density, which can lead to osteopenia and osteoporosis and a significant increase in fracture risk in later life. Rates of birth complications and low birth weight may be higher in women with previous AN. The condition is associated with fertility problems, unplanned pregnancies and generally negative attitudes to pregnancy. During pregnancy, women with the condition have higher rates of hyperemesis gravidarum, anaemia and obstetric complications, as well as impaired weight gain and compromised intrauterine foetal growth. It is reported that 80% of AN patients are affected by a cardiac complications such as sinus bradycardia, a prolonged QT interval on electrocardiography, arrythmias, myocardial mass modification and hypotension. A decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the most important medical consequences of AN. Reduced BMD may subsequently lead to a three- to seven-fold increased risk of spontaneous fractures. Untreated AN is associated with a significant increase in the risk of death. Better detection and sophisticated therapy should prevent the long-term consequences of this disorder. The aims of treatment are not only recovery but also prophylaxis and relief of the long-term effects of this disorder. Further investigations of the long-term disease risk are needed. PMID:23706279

  10. Clinical review: Long-term noninvasive ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, Dominique; Argaud, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Noninvasive positive ventilation has undergone a remarkable evolution over the past decades and is assuming an important role in the management of both acute and chronic respiratory failure. Long-term ventilatory support should be considered a standard of care to treat selected patients following an intensive care unit (ICU) stay. In this setting, appropriate use of noninvasive ventilation can be expected to improve patient outcomes, reduce ICU admission, enhance patient comfort, and increase...

  11. SLEEP DISTURBANCES IN LONG-TERM CARE

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Jennifer L.; Ancoli-israel, Sonia

    2008-01-01

    Nighttime sleep disruption is characteristic of long-term care residents, is typically accompanied by daytime sleepiness and may be caused by a multitude of factors. Causal factors include medical and psychiatric illness, medications, circadian rhythm abnormalities, sleep disordered breathing and other primary sleep disorders, environmental factors and lifestyle habits. There is some suggestion that these factors are amenable to treatment; however, further research on the implementation of tr...

  12. Long-term participation tax rates

    OpenAIRE

    Bartels, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Generous income support programs as provided by European welfare states have often been blamed to reduce work incentives for the lowskilled and to increase durations of unemployment. Standard studies measure work incentives based on annual income concepts. This paper analyzes work incentives inherent in the German tax-benefit system when extending the time horizon to three years (long-term). Participation tax rates are computed for 1-year and 3-year periods 1995-1997 and 2005-2007 to reveal p...

  13. Long Term Economic Relationships From Cointegration Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente, Renato; Pereira, Carlos B.; Leite, Vitor B. P.; Caticha, Nestor

    2007-01-01

    We employ the Bayesian framework to define a cointegration measure aimed to represent long term relationships between time series. For visualization of these relationships we introduce a dissimilarity matrix and a map based on the Sorting Points Into Neighborhoods (SPIN) technique, which has been previously used to analyze large data sets from DNA arrays. We exemplify the technique in three data sets: US interest rates, monthly inflation rates and gross domestic product grow...

  14. Long-term Treatment in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya ULUDÜZ

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is a chronic neuro-inflammatory and neuro-degenerative disease of the CNS which may present and progress heterogeneously. It is rather a spectrum and currently there is some evidence that long term treatments may be effective for its relapsing forms. Such treatments have been shown to reduce the number of attacks and MRI-related disease burden with the probability to slow progression. These long term treatments are considered to have mostly an anti-inflammatory activity. Interferon beta group drugs and glatiramer acetate are likely to exert their therapeutic effects through a number of different mechanisms but probably the main one is anti-inflammatory being through such mechanisms, but their efficacy is limited. Immunosuppressive drugs such as Mitoxantrone and Cyclophosphamide are accepted to have a more potent anti-inflammatory effect with better efficacy, but with more serious adverse effects. Natalizumab is one of the new players in the field with a supposedly better efficacy than the interferon betas or glatiramer acetate, but yet carries an increased risk of being associated with progressive mulifocal leukoencepalopathy as a serious side effect. As not all patients with MS progress and end up with disability, long-term treatments may not be necessary for every individual, who receives the diagnosis of MS. It is the MS neurologist who should consider first whether the patient should be put on long term treatment and once such a decision is given, then which one. The agents to be selected should be determined according to the benefit-risk ratio for each patient individually. In this review these issues are discussed. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2008; 45 Supplement: 26-36

  15. Dynamics of long-term statin therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, Maarit Jaana; Helin-salmivaara, Arja; Huupponen, Risto

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Knowledge of the different usage patterns that emerge during a long-term statin therapy is limited. The aim of this study was to characterize statin use, including the rates of reinitiation after extended periods of non-use, transitions between good and poor adherence, and the effect of the length of a drug-free period on the identification of new users. Methods The study cohort comprised ...

  16. French Approach for Long Term Storage Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRSN presents its statement regarding long-term storage facilities; in France, the regulatory documents do not define the long term duration. The storage facility lifetime can only be appreciated according to the needs and materials stored therein. However, the magnitude of the long-term can be estimated at a few hundred years compared to a few decades for current storage. Usually, in France, construction of storage facilities is driven from the necessity various necessities, linked to the management of radioactive material (eg spent fuel) and to the management of radioactive waste. Because of the variety of 'stored materials and objects' (fission product solutions, plutonium oxide powders, activated solids, drums containing technological waste, spent fuel...), a great number of storage facility design solutions have been developed (surface, subsurface areas, dry or wet conditions...) in the World. After describing the main functions of a storage facility, IRSN displays the safety principles and the associated design principles. The specific design principles applied to particular storage (dry or wet spent fuel storage, depleted uranium or reprocessed uranium storage, plutonium storage, waste containing tritium storage, HLW and ILLW storage...) are also presented. Finally, the concerns due to the long-term duration storage and related safety assessment are developed. After discussing these issues, IRSN displays its statement. The authorization procedures governing the facility lifetime are similar to those of any basic nuclear installation, the continuation of the facility operation remaining subject to periodic safety reviews (in France, every 10 years). The applicant safety cases have to show, that the safety requirements are always met; this requires, at minimum, to take into account at the design stage, comfortable design margins. (author)

  17. Long term complications in juvenile diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Nordwall, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Background/aim. The incidence of microvascular complications has been reported to be unchanged the last decades. However, in randomized clinical trials it has been shown that improved metabolic control can reduce the development of long term complications. It has been debated whether it is possible to achieve the same results in an unselected population. In a previous study we found a decreased incidence of overt nephropathy, but unchanged incidence of severe laser treated retinopathy in a po...

  18. Long-term Variation of AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J. H.; Xie, G. Z.; Adam, G.; Copin, Y.; Lin, R. G.; Bai, J. M.; Quin, Y. P.

    In this paper we will present the long-term variation in the optical and the infrared bands for some selected AGNs. 1. Some new optical data observed by us have been presented for BL Lacertae (1995-1996) and OJ 287 (1994-1995), and new infrared data are presented for OJ 287 (Nov=2E 1995), which corresponds to the second optical peak (Sillanpaa et al. 1996; Takalo et al. 1996) and during last outburst. 2. For objects with long term observations, the Jurkevich's method has been used to analyses the long-term variation period. It is interesting that the reported periods of AGNs are of the similar value of about 10 years: 3C 345 11.4 years (Webb et al. 1988), 3C 120 15 years (Belokon et al. 1987; Hagen-Thorn et al. 1997), ON 231 13.6 years (Liu et al. 1995), OJ 287 12 years (Sillanpaa et al. 1988; Kidger et al. 1992), PKS 0735+178 14 years (Fan et al. 1997), NGC 4151 15 years (Fan et al. 1998a), BL Lacertae 14.0 years (Fan et al. 1998b). Is the mechanism for the long-term variation the same for different AGNs? 3. The DCF method has been adopted to analysis the variation correlation in the optical and infrared bands for BL Lac object OJ 287, the results show that these two bands are strongly correlated, which suggest that the emission mechanism in the two bands is the same. 4. For the optical and infrared bands, the maximum variations are correlated.

  19. Long Term Evolution of Plasma Wakefields

    OpenAIRE

    Sahai, Aakash A.; Katsouleas, T. C.; Tsung, F. S.; Mori, W. B.

    2014-01-01

    We study the long-term evolution (LTE) of plasma wakefields over multiple plasma-electron periods and few plasma-ion periods, much less than a recombination time. The evolution and relaxation of such a wakefield-perturbed plasma over these timescales has important implications for the upper limits of repetition-rates in plasma colliders. Intense fields in relativistic lasers (or intense beams) create plasma wakefields (modes around {\\omega}pe) by transferring energy to the p...

  20. INTELLIGENT SYSTEM FOR LONG TERM LOAD FORECASTING

    OpenAIRE

    Roohi Kapoor; Gopal Krishan; Neha Kapoor

    2011-01-01

    Long term load forecasting plays an important role in the economic optimization and secured operation of electric power systems. The plans of the electric power sector have been done and developed with the aid of statistical prediction methods. Electric utilities companies need monthly peak and yearly load forecasting for budget planning, maintenance scheduling and fuel management. The present work presents a comparative study between the approach based on neural network and a hybrid fuzzy ne...

  1. Malaria prophylaxis for long-term travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C; Tucker, R; Bannister, B; Bradley, D J

    2003-09-01

    These guidelines are designed to assist healthcare workers who are advising long-term travellers on malaria prophylaxis, defined for the purpose of this document as those travelling for longer than 6 months. The document focuses on long-term use of antimalarials for adults, but also identifies specific issues for women and children. However, data on the long-term use of antimalarials is limited for all travellers and few data are available on the incidence of malaria in travellers overseas or, indeed, deaths overseas from malaria. Whilst all available evidence is taken into account, the advice provided also reflects experienced professional opinion. This document has been written on behalf of the Health Protection Agency's Advisory Committee on Malaria Prevention for UK Travellers, and is designed to act as a supplement to the 'Guidelines for malaria prevention in travellers from the United Kingdom for 2003'. The latter document contains a more complete description of antimalarials and additional preventive measures, together with recommendations for malaria chemoprophylaxis for individuals countries. Decisions on the terms under which different drugs are licensed for use are the responsibility of the Committee on Safety of Medicines. This paper should also, therefore, be used in conjunction with Summary of Product Characteristics (data sheets). PMID:14708269

  2. Long-term stability of Mg/SiC multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizzo, Maria Guglielmina; Fineschi, Silvano; Corso, Alain Jody; Zuppella, Paola; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio; Seely, John; Kjornrattanawanich, Benjawan; Windt, David L.

    2012-02-01

    Mg/SiC multilayers have been selected to coat the primary and secondary mirrors of the SCORE (Sounding-rocket CORonagraphic Experiment) telescope, a part of the NASA HERSCHEL program. Their experimental reflectance at the He II 30.4 nm wavelength is twice as much that of standard Mo/Si multilayer coatings, with a large improvement of the instrument effective area. Nevertheless, their long-term stability still needs to be evaluated in order to consider them as a valuable candidate for instrumentation of a long term space mission. A study is carried out on different Mg/SiC samples designed and fabricated varying the structural parameters and/or the capping layer material and thickness, which have been monitored for four years after deposition.

  3. Long-term monitoring for closed special sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology is presented for planning and implementing a long-term environmental monitoring program for closed special radioactive waste disposal sites. The steps in the method involve collection of the available background information on the site history, site and area characteristics, waste inventory, pathway analysis, prior monitoring programs, applicable standards, and the legal/regulatory requirements. This information is coupled with factors such as experience, half-life, radionuclide migration rates, and potential hazard to develop a monitoring program. As an example, a site-specific long-term monitoring program is described for the AMAX site using the available information. Sampling techniques and practices for the monitoring program are discussed and techniques and practices expected to be available in the future are considered. 7 references, 2 tables

  4. Sample autocovariances of long-memory time series

    OpenAIRE

    Horva?th, Lajos; Kokoszka, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    We find the asymptotic distribution of the sample autocovariances of long-memory processes in cases of finite and infinite fourth moment. Depending on the interplay of assumptions on moments and the intensity of dependence, there are three types of convergence rates and limit distributions. In particular, a normal approximation with the standard rate does not always hold in practically relevant cases.

  5. Long-term dietary extra-virgin olive oil rich in polyphenols reverses age-related dysfunctions in motor coordination and contextual memory in mice: role of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitozzi, Vanessa; Jacomelli, Michela; Catelan, Dolores; Servili, Maurizio; Taticchi, Agnese; Biggeri, Annibale; Dolara, Piero; Giovannelli, Lisa

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of olive oil phenols on brain aging in mice and to verify whether the antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities of these polyphenols were involved. C57Bl/6J mice were fed from middle age to senescence with extra-virgin olive oil (10% wt/wt dry diet) rich in phenols (total polyphenol dose/day, 6?mg/kg). Behavioral tests were employed to assess cognitive, motor, and emotional behavior after 6 or 12 months of treatment. Parameters of oxidative status and inflammation were measured in different brain areas at the same times and evaluated for correlation with behavioral changes. The treatment with olive oil phenols improved contextual memory in the step-down test to levels similar to young animals and prevented the age-related impairment in motor coordination in the rotarod test. This motor effect was correlated with reduced lipid peroxidation in the cerebellum (polive oil can improve some age-related dysfunctions by differentially affecting different brain areas. Such a modulation can be obtained with an olive oil intake that is normal in the Mediterranean area, provided that the oil has a sufficiently high content of polyphenols. PMID:22950431

  6. Long-term EARLINET dust observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, Lucia; Amiridis, Vassilis; Amodeo, Aldo; Binietoglou, Ioannis; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Schwarz, Anja; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Papayannis, Alexandros; Sicard, Michael; Comeron, Adolfo; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2015-04-01

    Systematic observations of Saharan dust events over Europe are performed from May 2000 by EARLINET, the European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork. EARLINET is a coordinated network of stations that make use of advanced lidar methods for the vertical profiling of aerosols. The backbone of EARLINET network is a common schedule for performing the measurements and the quality assurance of instruments/data. Particular attention is paid to monitoring the Saharan dust intrusions over the European continent. The geographical distribution of the EARLINET stations is particularly appealing for the dust observation, with stations located all around the Mediterranean and in the center of the Mediterranean (Italian stations) where dust intrusions are frequent, and with several stations in the central Europe where dust penetrates occasionally. All aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles related to observations collected during these alerts are grouped in the devoted "Saharan dust" category of the EARLINET database. This category consists of about 4700 files (as of December 2013). Case studies involving several stations around Europe selected from this long-term database have been provided the opportunity to investigate dust modification processes during transport over the continent. More important, the long term EARLINET dust monitoring allows the investigation of the horizontal and vertical extent of dust outbreaks over Europe and the climatological analysis of dust optical intensive and extensive properties at continental scale. This long-term database is also a unique tool for a systematic comparison with dust model outputs and satellite-derived dust products. Because of the relevance for both dust modeling and satellite retrievals improvement, results about desert dust layers extensive properties as a function of season and source regions are investigated and will be presented at the conference. First comparisons with models outputs and CALIPSO dust products will be presented. ACKNOWLEDGMENTs The financial support by the European Community through the ACTRIS Research Infrastructure Action under the 7th Framework Programme under ACTRIS Grant Agreement n° 262254 is gratefully acknowledged.

  7. Long-term governance for sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meritxell Martell spoke of the long-term aspects of radioactive waste management. She pointed out that decision-making processes need to be framed within the context of sustainability, which means that a balance should be sought between scientific considerations, economic aspects and structural conditions. Focusing on structural aspects, Working Group 3 of COWAM-Spain came to the conclusion that the activity of the regulator is a key factor of long-term management. Another finding is that from a sustainability perspective multi-level governance is more effective for coping with the challenges of radioactive waste management than one tier of government-making decisions. The working group also felt that the current Local Information Committees need to evolve towards more institutionalized and legitimized mechanisms for long-term involvement. Ms. Martell introduced a study comparing the efficiency of economic instruments to advance sustainable development in nuclear communities vs. municipalities in mining areas. The study found that funds transferred to nuclear zones had become a means to facilitate local acceptance of nuclear facilities rather than a means to promote socio-economic development. Another finding is that economic instruments are not sufficient guarantees of sustainable development by themselves; additional preconditions include leadership, vision and entrepreneur-ship on the part of community leaders, private or public investments, among others. Finally, ublic investments, among others. Finally, Ms. Martell summarised the challenges faced by the Spanish radioactive waste management programme, which include the need for strategic thinking, designing the future in a participatory fashion, and working with local and regional governments and citizens to devise mechanisms for social learning, economic development and environmental protection. (author)

  8. Establishment of a cohort for the long-term clinical follow-up with dose reconstruction under the joint medical research project conducted by Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation (Japan) and the Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene (Russia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cohort of children in the western districts of the Bryansk Region of Russia exposed to radiation following the Chernobyl accident is described in this paper. The cohort was selected under the Joint Medical Research Project on Dosimetry Associated with the Chernobyl Accident conducted by Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation (SMHF, Japan) and the Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene (RIRH, Russia). The subjects of the Research Project are those people residing in the most contaminated areas of Russia who was 0 to 10 years old at the time of exposure. At the moment the cohort comprises 1210 subjects, though this number may slightly decrease in course of a follow-up in view of migration of population. Most of cohort subjects were examined on their health status within the framework of the Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project (CSHMCP) from 1991-1996. In view of the main findings of studies in CSHMCP were thyroid abnormalities, selection of subjects was conducted on the basis of the credible estimates of thyroid dose. Preference for subjects to be included into the cohort was defined by the availability of health examination data from previous study (1991-1996) and individual dosimetry, environmental and social data that may prove useful for reconstruction of individual dose. The primary data analyzed for subjects selection are measurements of iodine-131 in the thyroid in May-June 1986, questionnaire data on individual food habits and early measuron individual food habits and early measurements of radiocesium in the body of subjects made by RIRH from May to September 1986. Plausible analytical models were applied to calculate thyroid dose from available data. Previously worked out methods of thyroid dose reconstruction using early measurement data of radiocesium content in the body and questionnaire data on individual consumption of locally produced milk were reevaluated. Basing on these analytical procedures, the individual thyroid dose was ascribed to each member of the cohort. The preliminary distribution of internal radiation doses to the thyroid among subjects of the cohort is presented in the paper. The summary characteristics of dose distribution for cohort subjects seems to be reasonably credible, whereas, the individual doses to particular subjects are evaluated with essential degree of uncertainty. The further stage of dose reconstruction for a cohort study, that is now in progress, consists of reduction of these uncertainties by using additional (newly derived) questionnaire information, as well as by taking into account contribution of external radiation to thyroid dose and updating analytical procedures to interpret primary data. Finally, the distribution of subjects into several thyroid dose ranges, from 2 Gy, would be an acceptable approximation for the purposes of radiation epidemiology in a trial to access the radiation risk of developing thyroid diseases. (author)

  9. Long-term plant availability of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental releases of actinide elements raise issues about which data are very limited. Quantitative information is required to assess the long-term behavior of actinides and their potential hazards resulting from the transport through food chains leading to man. Of special interest is the effect of time on the changes in the availability of actinide elements for uptake by plants from soil. This study provides valuable information on the effects of weathering and aging on the uptake of actinides from soil by range and crop plants grown under realistic field conditions

  10. Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

  11. Osteoarthropathy in long-term hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors reviewed hand and wrist films of 81 patients who had undergone hemodialysis for a minimum of 5 and a mean duration 7.5 years. The films of 32 patients showed arthritic changes consisting of articular erosions, joint space narrowings, periarticular cysts, and osteopenia. Five of these patients had subcutaneous or periarticular calcific deposits. The frequency and severity of the radiographic findings increased with increasing duration of dialysis. It appears that in addition to the well-recognized secondary hyperparathyroidism there is a second commonly occurring osteoarthropathy (40% in this series) related to long-term hemodialysis

  12. Types of Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... f InteliHealth/Harvard Medical Content 2012-08-24 Types of Memory Memory is broken down into two types: short term and long term. Short-term memory, also known as working memory, stores information that ...

  13. Long-term clinical outcome in patients with pineal germinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We retrospectively analyzed the long-term clinical course of 10 patients with pineal germinomas to determine the best treatment modality for achieving a good outcome. Subjects were treated at the Gunma University Hospital between 1980 and 1998, given a total dose of 40-50 Gy (mean: 49 Gy) delivered under a conventional fractionation schedule. Tumors had shrunk at 20 Gy in all 10 patients. Mean follow-up was 13.5 years (162 months, range, 59 to 268 months). Five-year survival for the group was 100%. None experienced intracranial disease recurrence. No new abnormalities in internal secretion considered to be due to radiotherapy were seen. Karnofsky performance scales (KPS) for 8 of the 10 were 100. KPS of the remaining 2 were 80, including easy fatiguability, mild ataxia, and recent memory disturbance. Administration of doses of 50 Gy for pineal germinoma is adequate for controlling the tumor over the long term but may reduce the patientis quality of life. Further study is therefore needed to determine the optimal dosage for pineal germinoma. (author)

  14. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M

    2000-04-01

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: (i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, (ii) modelling, (iii) countermeasures, (iv) runoff (v) spatial variations, and (vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239-240}Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  15. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, ii) modelling, iii) countermeasures, iv) runoff v) spatial variations, and vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides 137Cs, 90Sr and 239-240Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  16. Distribution long term planning at BC Hydro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prpic, M. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    BC Hydro serves 94 percent of the electrical requirements of British Columbia (BC). The utility's asset management framework was discussed with particular reference to long-term distribution planning in this power point presentation. The planning cycle includes substation load and small area load forecasts, long-range area plans, integrated distribution-substation planning, and the interconnection of distributed generation. The previous year's peak load is considered in relation to municipal plans and anticipated load growth. A multi-linear regression model is used to determine the relationship between loads and other factors. The utility's long range planning process considers area loads in a geographical area that includes several substations. The plan considers losses, environmental impacts, capital costs, and forecast load growth over a 30-year period. The utility measures system performance and identifies solutions to ensure that reliability is maintained. BC Hydro is also planning to include smart grid systems to meet long-term operational and customer requirements. tabs., figs.

  17. Long term modulation of cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of the long term modulation of cosmic ray in interplanetary space give valuable information on the electromagnetic state in the solar magnetosphere as well as the properties of galactic cosmic ray. In the light of the Parker's diffusion-convection theory, the modulation of galactic cosmic ray can be well explained by setting proper physical states in the modulating region, but it is not clear how the physical states are related to solar activities. In this paper, it is demonstrated that the long term variation in cosmic ray intensity can be described by an integral equation, which is derived from the generalization of Simpson's coasting solar wind model. The function for cosmic ray intensity is given by some appropriate solar activity index, and the characteristic function expresses time dependence of the influence on the intensity depression due to solar disturbances when the disturbances generated by the solar activity propagate through the modulating region with the solar wind. From the integral equation with sunspot number as the solar activity index, the characteristic function for the variation with 11-year period in cosmic ray intensity is derived, using data of ionchambers and neutron monitors. (Yoshimori, M.)

  18. The long term radioactive storage alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With uncertainty regarding the Yucca Mountain geologic repository being just one manifestation of the controversy over where, how, and whether radioactive waste can be safely treated and disposed in a publicly acceptable manner, the authors suggest that a new approach regarding the storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive waste is needed and, fortunately, available. Safely storing wastes in an environmentally-acceptable, monitored manner while a national political and technical consensus is reached on how to properly treat it prior to its ultimate disposal may be the most cost-effective and rational method of addressing these issues in the interim. Because of the limitations imposed on treatment and disposal options by state governments, legislative and regulatory requirements, and legal challenges, spent fuel, other reactor irradiated nuclear material (RINM), and radioactive waste are remaining where they were produced, usually in facilities neither sited nor designed with long-term storage in mind. The inertia associated with difficult choices based on imperfect information has resulted in a decision-making gridlock where an unpopular status quo continues and promising solutions remain untried. However, well-planned and locally accepted centralization of wastes (especially medical) within states and/or acceptance of dry spent fuel storage at each nuclear generating station can break the current gridlock of disposal and storage actions and inactions and cal and storage actions and inactions and can result in a more desirable outcome both in the intermediate and long term

  19. Long term testing of PSI-membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huslage, J.; Brack, H.P.; Geiger, F.; Buechi, F.N.; Tsukada, A.; Scherer, G.G. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Long term tests of PSI membranes based on radiation-grafted FEP and ETFE films were carried out and FEP-based membranes were evaluated by monitoring the in-situ membrane area resistance measured by a current pulse method. By modifying our irradiation procedure and using the double crosslinking concept we obtain reproducible membrane cell lifetimes (in term of in-situ membrane resistance) of greater than 5000 hours at 60-65{sup o}C. Preliminary tests at 80-85{sup o}C with lifetimes of greater than 2500 demonstrate the potential long term stability of PSI proton exchange membranes based on FEP over the whole operating temperature range of low-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Radiation grafted PSI membranes based on ETFE have better mechanical properties than those of the FEP membranes. Mechanical properties are particularly important in large area cells and fuel cell stacks. ETFE membranes have been tested successfully for approximately 1000 h in a 2-cell stack (100 cm{sup 2} active area each cell). (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  20. Institutionalization and organizational long-term success

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Denise, Fleck.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Institutionalization processes have an ambivalent effect on organizational long-term success. Even though they foster organizational stability and permanence, they also bring about rigidity and resistance to change. As a result, successful organizations are likely to lose their competitive advantage [...] over time. The paper addresses this issue through the investigation of the institutionalization processes of two long-lived companies: General Electric, a firm that has been a long-term success and its rival, Westinghouse, which was broken up after eleven decades of existence. The longitudinal, multilevel analysis of firms and industry has identified two different modes of organizational institutionalization. The reactive mode gives rise to rigidity and change resistance, much like institutional theory predicts; the proactive mode, on the other hand, neutralizes those negative effects of institutionalization processes. In the reactive mode, structure predominates. In the proactive mode, agency plays a major role in organizational institutionalization, and in managing the organization's relations with the environment, clearly contributing to environmental institutionalization.

  1. Neo bladder long term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the commonest forms of orthotopic bladder substitution for bladder cancer surivors, used in our institute, is the use of ileocecal segment. Sometimes, the need for Indiana pouch heterotropic continent diversion arises. Aim: To compare the long-term effect of orthotopic ileocecal bladder and heterotropic Indiana pouch following radical cystectomy in bladder cancer patients. Patients and methods: Between January 2008 and December 2011, 91 patients underwent radical cystectomy/anterior pelvic exentration and ortho topic ileocecal bladder reconstruction (61 patients) and Indiana pouch (30 patients), when orthotopic diversion could not be technically or oncologically feasible. Results: Convalescence was uneventful in most patients. All minor and major urinary leakage cases, in both diversions groups, where successfully conservatively treated. Only one patient in the ileocecal group with major urinary leak required re-exploration with successful revision of uretro-colonic anastomosis. Only one patient in the Indiana pouch group had accidentally discovered sub-centimetric stone, which was simply expelled. The overall survival proportion of ileocecal group was 100% compared to 80% in the Indiana pouch group (p < 0.001). The disease free survival proportion of ileocecal group was 90.8% compared to 80% in the Indiana pouch group (p = 0.076). Effective comparative daytime and nighttime urinary continence as well as renal function deterioration were not statistically significant between both reconstruction types. Conclusion: Both ileocecal bladder and Indiana pouch are safe procedures in regard to long-term effects over kidney function following radical cystectomy

  2. The Effects of Elaboration and Rehearsal on Long-Term Retention of Shape Names by Kindergarteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Ronald; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Elaboration and overt rehearsal are compared as instructional paradigms for memory retention. Superior long-term retention was produced in the elaboration condition when the initial acquisition effects were statistically removed. Short-term data suggest acquisition was complexly affected by experimental condition, I.Q., and task. Elaboration…

  3. Sistemas de memoria: reseña histórica, clasificación y conceptos actuales. Primera parte: Historia, taxonomía de la memoria, sistemas de memoria de largo plazo: la memoria semántica / Memory systems: historical background, classification, and current concepts. Part one: History, taxonomy of memory, long-term memory systems: Semantic memory

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paul, Carrillo-Mora.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La memoria es una función cerebral fascinante, mediante ella el Sistema Nervioso codifica, almacena, organiza y recupera una gran variedad de tipos de información que resultan de vital importancia para el individuo en particular. Los conocimientos actuales nos permiten conceptualizar a la memoria co [...] mo conformada por una red compleja de subsistemas de memoria que pueden trabajar en paralelo, cooperando e incluso en ocasiones funcionar de forma competitiva entre sí. La evolución de la clasificación de los sistemas de memoria se ha desarrollado en paralelo al conocimiento acerca del funcionamiento del los procesos mnésicos. Las primeras aproximaciones al estudio de la memoria estaban conformadas por métodos filosóficos que comprendían la observación, reflexión, lógica, etc. En el siglo XIX surgieron los primeros estudios científicos para el estudio experimental de la memoria. Autores como Ebbinghaus o Lashley estudiaron por primera vez la memoria humana y animal respectivamente. Los conductistas como Pavlov, Skinner, Thorndike y Watson sentaron las bases del aprendizaje asociativo que conocemos como condicionamiento clásico y condicionamiento operante. Más tarde los estudios neuropsicológicos de pacientes con lesiones quirúrgicas focales temporales arrojaron resultados contundentes acerca del sustrato anatómico de la memoria declarativa en el lóbulo temporal, lo que inició una avalancha de estudios y descripciones neuropsicológicas cada vez más finas sobre las consecuencias de las lesiones y patologías cerebrales en los distintos procesos de memoria. Más recientemente, los estudios de los procesos celulares y moleculares de las formas de aprendizaje más elementales (habituación y sensibilización) en modelos de animales invertebrados han demostrado los requerimientos celulares mínimos para el establecimiento del aprendizaje así como los mecanismos moleculares diferenciales involucrados en la memoria de corto y largo plazo. A últimas fechas, la introducción de los estudios de neuroimagen funcional en pacientes enfermos y sanos ha permitido la expansión de los conocimientos sobre el funcionamiento dinámico y en tiempo real de los diversos procesos de memoria. En la actualidad la clasificación más aceptada de los sistemas de memoria de largo plazo considera dos grandes esferas principales: la memoria declarativa y la no declarativa. La memoria declarativa se refiere a la que contiene información de la cual se tiene un registro consciente y que se puede verbalizar o transmitir fácilmente a través de algún medio a otro individuo. La memoria no declarativa comprende información que no se puede verbalizar fácilmente o cuyo aprendizaje puede ser inconsciente e incluso involuntario. La memoria declarativa se subdivide en memoria semántica y episódica. El ámbito de la memoria semántica es la información almacenada acerca de las características y atributos que definen los conceptos (hechos que carecen de un marco espacio temporal definido), así como los procesos que permiten su recuperación de forma eficiente para su utilización en el pensamiento y el lenguaje actual. Los estudios de imagen funcional han demostrado que la información sobre las características de objetos específicos que es necesaria para la generación de conceptos es almacenada dentro de los mismos sistemas neuronales que están activos durante la percepción de esos mismos estímulos. El rol del lóbulo temporal en esta variedad de memoria está comprobado por estudios experimentales y clínicos, pero los estudios de imagen funcional han demostrado otras áreas asociadas a la codificación y recuperación semántica cuyo papel aún no ha sido comprendido por completo. Abstract in english Memory is a fascinating brain function by means of which the nervous system can codify, store, organize, and recover a variety of information relevant to the subject. The formal study of memory started more than a century ago, providing in this time a considerable amount of scientific information on [...]

  4. Nonlicensed employee turnover in a long-term care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, T; Bechtel, G A

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze nonlicensed employee turnover in a long-term care facility using Maslow's hierarchy of needs as a framework. During exit interviews, a convenience sample of 34 employees completed an attitudes and beliefs survey regarding their work environment. Findings were mixed; 39.6 percent of the employees stated positive personal relationships were a strength of the organization, although 24.3 percent resigned because of personal/staff conflicts. Financial concerns were not a major factor in their resignations. The study suggests that decreasing nonlicensed employee stress and increasing their personal satisfaction with patient care may decrease employee turnover. PMID:10142543

  5. Long-term performance of filtration layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radfar, A.; Rockaway, T. D.

    2013-12-01

    Permeable pavements are commonly employed to capture and divert stormwater before it enters the stormwater or sewer conveyance systems. During a storm event, runoff water passes through the permeable pavement surface, enters a storage gallery and finally exfiltrates into the surrounding soil. Thus, the ability of the system to store an appropriate volume of runoff water is an important consideration for stormwater control design. Traditionally, crushed stone or other porous material has been used to provide the necessary interstitial void space to store the runoff water. Unfortunately, over time the available void space within the storage gallery is reduced due to settlement, biological growth and sediment accumulation. This gradual reduction in void space reduces the long-term effectiveness of these stormwater controls by limiting its ability to store and pass runoff water. This study examined the long-term performance of the storage gallery layer with respect to its ability to both store and pass runoff water. As the porosity within the storage gallery decreased, it was anticipated that volumetric water content within the gallery would increase and that time necessary to drain the gallery would increase as well. The effects of the gallery porosity were assessed over a one-year study using both laboratory experimentation and monitoring data from naturally occurring rain events. Changes in gallery porosity were first assessed by correlating monitoring piezometer data with surface infiltration testing; building a relation between know volume of poured water being used for the test and the associated pressure head at the base of the gallery. As a known volume of water enters the system, volume change in the gallery directly correlate to increases in pressure head. Second, the time required for water to permeate through pavers and gallery layer to trigger the TDRs in the filtration layer and the time to drain it from the crushed stone were calculated and compared by the age of permeable pavement. These data were utilized to develop a model that more appropriately considered changes in gallery porosity. By better understanding the progression of the runoff water through the storage gallery a better assessment of the long-term performance of the entire system can be developed. Future storage gallery designs can be appropriately modified to account for changes within the storage gallery so that volume and flow requirements are maintained throughout the life of the structure.

  6. Antagonism of lateral amygdala alpha1-adrenergic receptors facilitates fear conditioning and long-term potentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzaro, Stephanie C.; Hou, Mian; Cunha, Catarina; LeDoux, Joseph E.; Cain, Christopher K.

    2010-01-01

    Norepinephrine receptors have been studied in emotion, memory, and attention. However, the role of alpha1-adrenergic receptors in fear conditioning, a major model of emotional learning, is poorly understood. We examined the effect of terazosin, an alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, on cued fear conditioning. Systemic or intra-lateral amygdala terazosin delivered before conditioning enhanced short- and long-term memory. Terazosin delivered after conditioning did not affect consolidation. I...

  7. Opposing actions of chronic ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinoid antagonists on hippocampal long-term potentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Alexander F; Oz, Murat; Yang, Ruiqin; Lichtman, Aron H.; Lupica, Carl R

    2007-01-01

    Memory deficits produced by marijuana arise partly via interaction of the psychoactive component, ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC), with cannabinoid receptors in the hippocampus. Although cannabinoids acutely reduce glutamate release and block hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a potential substrate for learning and memory, the consequences of prolonged exposure to ?9-THC for hippocampal function are poorly understood. Rats were injected with ?9-THC (10 mg/kg, i.p., q.d.) for 1, 3, or ...

  8. Accelerated long-term forgetting in transient epileptic amnesia: an acquisition or consolidation deficit?

    OpenAIRE

    Hoefeijzers, S; Dewar, M.; Della Sala, S; Zeman, A; Butler, C

    2013-01-01

    Accelerated Long-term Forgetting (ALF) is the rapid loss of newly acquired memories over days to weeks despite normal retention at standard (~30 min) intervals. It has recently been described in association with epilepsy, particularly the syndrome of Transient Epileptic Amnesia (TEA). The cognitive mechanisms underlying ALF remain uncertain, but disruption either of memory acquisition or consolidation processes has been postulated. To arbitrate between these accounts, we reanalysed data from ...

  9. Measuring forgetting: A critical review of accelerated long-term forgetting studies

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Gemma.; Isaac, Claire L.; Muhlert, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) refers to abnormal forgetting over hours to weeks despite normal acquisition or initial consolidation. Since standardised assessments of memory typically only test at delays of up to 40-minutes, ALF may go undetected in clinical practice. The memory difficulties associated with ALF can however cause considerable distress to patients. It is important therefore that clinicians are aware that ALF may represent a distinct phenomenon that will require additio...

  10. Long-term behaviour of photovoltaic installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents and discusses the results obtained from the long-term monitoring of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) installations that has been carried out since 1992 by the University of Applied Science in Burgdorf, Switzerland. Most of the 42 installations monitored were located near Burgdorf, but plant located in alpine regions, the 'Mont Soleil' PV plant in the Jura mountains and three more recent installations using thin-film cells were also monitored. The article discusses inverter reliability and presents failure statistics in table form. The evolution of specific energy yield for the various installations is examined. Also, the degradation of the photovoltaic laboratory's own PV installation caused by soiling and ageing of the panels is discussed

  11. [Childhood liver transplantation. Long-term results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Paloma; Hierro, Loreto

    2010-05-01

    Liver transplantation allows long-term survival (10 years or more) in 75% of children receiving transplants before 2000. The risk of mortality after the first year is 4-10% in the next 10-20 years. Chronic rejection affects 6%. The need for late retransplantation is 3-5%. However, the follow-up of these patients involves the management of diverse problems in the graft (immunological, biliary, vascular) and others related to the use of immunosuppressants (renal dysfunction, lymphoproliferative syndrome). The transition from pediatric to adult care generates special needs. Adolescence and young adulthood are associated with a lack of compliance. Adult specialists should be aware of the special features of the original diagnosis and the surgical techniques used in childhood transplantation. Final quality of life is good overall but is lower than that in healthy young persons. PMID:20122757

  12. Long-term nuclear power optimization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An energy demand forecasting model, energy systems optimization model and optimal electrical expansion planning model of the Republic of Korea are developed. Using the first model of them, long-term energy and electric power demand to the year 2001 are forcasted, using the second model, the future energy systems especially for the reference year 1981 are analyzed and optimal energy flows are computed through possible energy supply-demand paths. Also, using the third model, the future nuclear power strategies are analyzed by the optimizing total investment costs for different nuclear reaction combination, assuming that there will be three available reactor types, namely, light water reactor, heavy water reactor and fast breeder reactor up to the year 2000 in Korea. (KAERI INIS Section)

  13. Safety of long-term PPI therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors have become the mainstay of medical treatment of acid-related disorders. Long-term use is becoming increasingly common, in some cases without a proper indication. A large number of mainly observational studies on a very wide range of possible associations have been published in the past decade and are critically reviewed in this article and the existing evidence is evaluated and translated into possible clinical consequences. Based on the existing evidence the benefits of PPI treatment seem to outweigh potential risks in the large majority of patients especially if PPI use is based on a relevant indication. The concern for complications should primarily be directed at elderly, malnourished with significant co-morbidity. In this population an increased risk for enteric infections, fractures and nutritional deficiencies might have clinical consequences and should lead to a careful evaluation of the indication for PPI treatment.

  14. Nonproliferation: a long-term strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major elements of President Carter's non-proliferation policy are analyzed in terms of their possible long-term effects. The policy's goal is seen as one which better addresses the realities of regional instabilities and the balance of world power. The three-decade chronology of nuclear policy is traced to underline the advantages of slowing commercial reprocessing until safer technologies and better international institutions are developed. Six elements of the strategy are identified: (1) safeguards, (2) restraints, (3) incentives, (4) building consensus, (5) domestic nuclear policy, and (6) measures to affect motivation. Challenges, both domestic and international, have developed to the policy, but none of the available alternatives is felt to promote the needed reexamination and redirection as well

  15. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes

  16. Managing Records for the Long Term - 12363

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing vast amounts of information documenting historical and current operations. This information is critical to the operations of the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Managing legacy records and information is challenging in terms of accessibility and changing technology. The Office of Legacy Management is meeting these challenges by making records and information management an organizational priority. The Office of Legacy Management mission is to manage DOE post-closure responsibilities at former Cold War weapons sites to ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. These responsibilities include environmental stewardship and long-term preservation and management of operational and environmental cleanup records associated with each site. A primary organizational goal for the Office of Legacy Management is to 'Preserve, Protect, and Share Records and Information'. Managing records for long-term preservation is an important responsibility. Adequate and dedicated resources and management support are required to perform this responsibility successfully. Records tell the story of an organization and may be required to defend an organization in court, provide historical information, identify lessons learned, or provide valuable information for researchers. Loss of records or the inability to retrieve records because of poor records management processes can have serious consequences and even lead to an organisation's downfall. Organizations must invest time and resources to establish a good records management program because of its significance to the organization as a whole. The Office of Legacy Management will continue to research and apply innovative ways of doing business to ensure that the organization stays at the forefront of effective records and information management. DOE is committed to preserving records that document our nation's Cold War legacy, and the Office of Legacy Management will keep records management as a high priority. (authors)

  17. [Long-term results of tricuspid prostheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ismail, M; Curran, Y; Bousnina, A

    1981-09-01

    The results of a series of 38 patients with a tricuspid valve prostheses (:76% Starr-Edwards ball valves) associated with correction of one or two left heart valvular lesions are presented. 24 patients underwent clinical and haemodynamic assessment on average 4,2 years after surgery. The conclusions were that signs of systemic venous hypertension were mainly related to residual right ventricular failure despite normal valve function and secondarily to the poor hemodynamic profile of these prostheses and their paradoxical motion. Using these results: 18% early mortality; 24% late mortality; 24% late thrombosis amongst survivors and 52% residual right ventricular failure; and 47,5% of excellent results. The clinical and haemodynamic profiles of the patients were analysed to determine the surgical indications. Apart from the correction of associated left heart valve lesions, it seems that the prognosis in tricuspid valve repair depends on the duration of tricuspid regurgitation and the severity of right ventricular myocardial disease. In elderly patients with chronic tricuspid regurgitation and severe right ventricular failure, long-term analysis showed 87,5% poor results, whilst in younger patients with a shorter history of tricuspid regurgitation and less severe right ventricular failure, there was 77,7% excellent long-term results. Semi circular annuloplasty is widely indicated in mild or severe functional tricuspid regurgitation. Tricuspid valve replacement, a much more serious operation, remains essential in chronic organic lesions and in some cases of massive functional tricuspid regurgitation. A regards the choice of prosthesis, the authors suggest the Hancock bioprosthesis as a logical choice in cases of severe right ventricular failure as they are less prone to thrombosis than mechanical prostheses and have good haemodynamic profiles. The evolution of the right ventricular failure even after correction of tricuspid regurgitation underlines the importance of preventative therapy by early correction of left heart lesions. PMID:6794514

  18. Long-term reductions in tinnitus severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folmer Robert L

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was undertaken to assess long-term changes in tinnitus severity exhibited by patients who completed a comprehensive tinnitus management program; to identify factors that contributed to changes in tinnitus severity within this population; to contribute to the development and refinement of effective assessment and management procedures for tinnitus. Methods Detailed questionnaires were mailed to 300 consecutive patients prior to their initial appointment at the Oregon Health & Science University Tinnitus Clinic. All patients were then evaluated and treated within a comprehensive tinnitus management program. Follow-up questionnaires were mailed to the same 300 patients 6 to 36 months after their initial tinnitus clinic appointment. Results One hundred ninety patients (133 males, 57 females; mean age 57 years returned follow-up questionnaires 6 to 36 months (mean = 22 months after their initial tinnitus clinic appointment. This group of patients exhibited significant long-term reductions in self-rated tinnitus loudness, Tinnitus Severity Index scores, tinnitus-related anxiety and prevalence of current depression. Patients who improved their sleep patterns or Beck Depression Inventory scores exhibited greater reductions of tinnitus severity scores than patients who continued to experience insomnia and depression at follow-up. Conclusions Individualized tinnitus management programs that were designed for each patient contributed to overall reductions in tinnitus severity exhibited on follow-up questionnaires. Identification and treatment of patients experiencing anxiety, insomnia or depression are vital components of an effective tinnitus management program. Utilization of acoustic therapy also contributed to improvements exhibited by these patients.

  19. GEOPOLYMER MATERIALS ON THE FLYASH BASIS – LONG-TERM PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANTIŠEK ŠKVÁRA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the external environment on the properties of geopolymers on the basis of fly ashes exposed to various conditions (environments of different humidity levels, autoclave, dry conditions at 80°C, immersed in water has been investigated for two years. The strength values of geopolymers kept under various conditions do not drop during the period of two years. The maximum values could be achieved if the geopolymers were kept under dry conditions at 80°C and in the air at a relative humidity ranging from 40 to 50 percent. The strength values do not change practically if the geopolymers are kept in water, in an autoclave or in an environment with the relative humidity of 95 percent. The long-term exposure of fly ash-based geopolymers does not result in any change in their microstructure and practically no new phases arise. The exposure to water is accompanied by a gradual leaching of sodium until its almost complete transition to water. The exposure of geopolymers to alternating humid and dry conditions gives rise to efflorescences. The NMR 23Na, 27Al and 29Si spectra of fly ash-based geopolymers revealed a practically unchanged occurrence of structures in samples after their long-term exposure to various conditions as compared with the initial structures. Practically no evidence (X-ray diffraction and IR analyses of any formation of new phases after various exposure conditions. No significant morphological changes (the formation of crystalline phases in samples kept under above mentioned conditions could be identified after two years as compared to the initial state; hence, the original amorphous character of the geopolymers is preserved. The structure of man-made geopolymers can probably be deduced rather from the amorphous mineral allophane than from crystaline zeolites. Therefore, thanks to a comprehensive long-term investigation, the fly ash-based geopolymers can be regarded as stable hydraulic binders.

  20. Comparison of long-term care in an acute care institution and in a long-term care institution

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, R.; Kalant, N.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute care hospitals in Quebec are required to reserve 10% of their beds for patients receiving long-term care while awaiting transfer to a long-term care facility. It is widely believed that this is inefficient because it is more costly to provide long-term care in an acute care hospital than in one dedicated to long-term care. The purpose of this study was to compare the quality and cost of long-term care in an acute care hospital and in a long-term care facility. METHODS: A con...

  1. Does “Long-Term Compensation” Make CEOs Think Long-Term? A Study of CEO Compensation in the Commercial Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Krause

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue of CEO compensation has become a controversial staple of media dialogue and academic pondering, especially after a crisis such as the 2007 mortgage market meltdown. CEOs, through stock options, stock grants, and cash bonuses, are supposedly paid to maximize long-term shareholder value. This desired result, however, often fails to come to fruition. In this study, from a sample of twenty-seven US commercial banks, I look for a correlation between the share of a CEO’s compensation that is designated “long-term” and two metrics of effective long-term strategy. I find no statistically significant evidence to suggest that the long-term portion of a CEO’s pay is correlated with the percentage change in either a bank’s net income or its allowance for loan losses, taken as a percentage of total loans. Nevertheless, I do find some evidence that long-term compensation plans that incorporate preset performance goals may improve the chances of long-term stability.

  2. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Timothy V.P., Bliss; Sam F., Cooke.

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal [...] cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke.

  3. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy V.P. Bliss

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke.

  4. Long-Term Control Medications for Lung Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient 1.877.CALL NJH ( 877.225.5654 ) View Denver Pollen Count You are here: Health Information > Medications > Asthma and Lung Diseases > Long-Term Control Medications Long-Term Control Medications for ...

  5. Efficient quantum memory using a weakly absorbing sample

    CERN Document Server

    Sabooni, Mahmood; Kröll, Stefan; Rippe, Lars

    2013-01-01

    A light-storage experiment with a total (storage and retrieval) efficiency $\\eta=58 \\pm 5%$ is carried out by enclosing a sample, with a single pass absorption of 10%, in an impedance-matched cavity. The experiment is carried out using the Atomic Frequency Comb (AFC) technique in a praseodymium-doped crystal ($0.05%Pr^{3+}:Y_2SiO_5$) and the cavity is created by reflection coating the crystal surfaces. The AFC technique has previously by far demonstrated the highest multi-mode capacity of all quantum memory concepts tested experimentally. We claim that the present work shows that it is realistic to create efficient, on-demand, long storage time AFC memories.

  6. Long-term outcome and prognosis of dissociative disorder with onset in childhood or adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Wewetzer Christoph; Ellgring Heiner; Schneider Wolfgang; Weigand Tobias; Schneck-Seif Stefanie; Jans Thomas; Warnke Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background In the majority of cases short-term treatment outcome of juvenile dissociative disorder is rather favourable. In contrast, the long-term course seems to be less positive, but meaningful results are still fragmentary. The aim of this follow-up study is to bridge this gap to some extent describing the long-term outcome of juvenile dissociative disorder in a clinical sample. To our knowledge there is no comparable other long-term follow-up study which is based on a case defin...

  7. Long term effects on potential repository sites: occurrence and diagenesis of anhydrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report deals with the long-term behaviour of anhydrite as a potential host rock for deep disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The principal long-term effect on the integrity of such a repository is the possibility of penetration of groundwater and consequent transformation to gypsum. Therefore, in order to assess the chydrological and geochemical processes of hydration in detail, mineralogical and geochemical analyses have been carried out on anhydrite samples in a drillcore taken near Darlington, United Kingdom. The results are discussed in terms of the long-term integrity of anhydrite as a repository site. (U.K.)

  8. Long-term decline of radiocaesium in Fennoscandian reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NKS-B project REIN was established to synthesize the available information on contamination levels and effective half-times for 137Cs in reindeer in Finland, Sweden and Norway. Several studies of radiocaesium contamination in reindeer have been carried out in the Nordic countries over the last 50 years. However, the current slow decline in concentrations, which will maintain the consequences of the Chernobyl deposition for Swedish and Norwegian reindeer husbandry for at least another 10-20 years, have not previously been observed nor predicted. In the Chernobyl affected areas 137Cs concentrations in reindeer initially declined by effective half-times of 3-4 years, whereas the current decline appears to be mainly governed by the nuclide's physical half-life (30 years). The review of effective half-times of 137Cs in reindeer across Fennoscandia suggests that concentrations declined more rapidly in the northernmost areas. The reason(-s) remains unclear, and demonstrates the need for more long-term sampling of the various components of reindeer's diet. Such sampling should aim at covering climatically different areas, as climate may influence transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer via lichen growth and weathering rates, composition of plant communities and lichen availability, as well as soil-to-plant radiocaesium uptake. The lack of long-term data on radiocaesium in natural vegetation in the Nordic countries is one of the main limitations for the development of mechanistic models for radiocaesium in reindeer, and for further elucidation of the observed long-term trends in 137Cs concentrations in reindeer. Currently our understanding of the long-term trends observed in various areas is not good enough to predict how future radiocaesium deposition will behave. The high transfer of nuclides to reindeer, the geographical extension of reindeer herding and the special position of the Sami population in Finland, Sweden and Norway, demonstrates the need for maintaining competence and further developing the common basis for Nordic fallout management and emergency preparedness related to this food-chain. (au)

  9. Long-term decline of radiocaesium in Fennoscandian reindeer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Norwegian Reindeer Husbandry Administration (Norway)); AAhman, B. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden)); Solatie, D. (STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)); Gaare, E. (Norwegian Institute for Nature Researc (Norway))

    2009-06-15

    The NKS-B project REIN was established to synthesize the available information on contamination levels and effective half-times for 137Cs in reindeer in Finland, Sweden and Norway. Several studies of radiocaesium contamination in reindeer have been carried out in the Nordic countries over the last 50 years. However, the current slow decline in concentrations, which will maintain the consequences of the Chernobyl deposition for Swedish and Norwegian reindeer husbandry for at least another 10-20 years, have not previously been observed nor predicted. In the Chernobyl affected areas 137Cs concentrations in reindeer initially declined by effective half-times of 3-4 years, whereas the current decline appears to be mainly governed by the nuclide's physical half-life (30 years). The review of effective half-times of 137Cs in reindeer across Fennoscandia suggests that concentrations declined more rapidly in the northernmost areas. The reason(-s) remains unclear, and demonstrates the need for more long-term sampling of the various components of reindeer's diet. Such sampling should aim at covering climatically different areas, as climate may influence transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer via lichen growth and weathering rates, composition of plant communities and lichen availability, as well as soil-to-plant radiocaesium uptake. The lack of long-term data on radiocaesium in natural vegetation in the Nordic countries is one of the main limitations for the development of mechanistic models for radiocaesium in reindeer, and for further elucidation of the observed long-term trends in 137Cs concentrations in reindeer. Currently our understanding of the long-term trends observed in various areas is not good enough to predict how future radiocaesium deposition will behave. The high transfer of nuclides to reindeer, the geographical extension of reindeer herding and the special position of the Sami population in Finland, Sweden and Norway, demonstrates the need for maintaining competence and further developing the common basis for Nordic fallout management and emergency preparedness related to this food-chain. (au)

  10. Biochemical effects on long-term frozen human costal cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, the progresses on treatment of musculoskeletal diseases with the evolving of artificial implants and the success of tissue transplantation between genetically different individuals have conducted to an increase in radiosterilization. Regarding to tissue transplantation, it is essential to have sterile tissue and many tissue banks use radiosterilization as an effective method to sterilize these tissues. However, high doses of ionizing radiation and the preservation method may induce structural modifications in the tissues, as degradation of structural scaffold, decreasing its mechanical properties. Particularly, cartilage have been preserved in high concentrations of glycerol or deep-frozen at -70 degree C for storage after radiosterilization. Therefore, it is important to study the modifications induced in cartilage by preservation methods and by radiosterilization to determine the appropriated parameters for high quality of human allografts. Costal cartilages were obtained from cadaveric donors and were frozen at -20 degree C for 2 years long in order to compare with previous studies for fresh, deep-frozen and glycerolised cartilages. The mechanical tests were carried out in a universal testing machine until sample failure. According our results, there is no significant statistical difference between stress at break of fresh, long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages and deep-frozen cartilage. This early result suggests, regarding to tensile property, that long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages corresponds to glycerolised costal cartilages irradiated with 25 kGy or deep-frozen cartilages irradiated with 25 and 50 kGy. Thus, this long-term frozen cartilages may be used for tissue banks, but more studies about effects of ionizing radiation are necessary. (author)

  11. Biochemical effects on long-term frozen human costal cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santin, Stefany P.; Martinho Junior, Antonio C.; Yoshito, Daniele; Soares, Fernando A.N.; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: mathor@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Currently, the progresses on treatment of musculoskeletal diseases with the evolving of artificial implants and the success of tissue transplantation between genetically different individuals have conducted to an increase in radiosterilization. Regarding to tissue transplantation, it is essential to have sterile tissue and many tissue banks use radiosterilization as an effective method to sterilize these tissues. However, high doses of ionizing radiation and the preservation method may induce structural modifications in the tissues, as degradation of structural scaffold, decreasing its mechanical properties. Particularly, cartilage have been preserved in high concentrations of glycerol or deep-frozen at -70 degree C for storage after radiosterilization. Therefore, it is important to study the modifications induced in cartilage by preservation methods and by radiosterilization to determine the appropriated parameters for high quality of human allografts. Costal cartilages were obtained from cadaveric donors and were frozen at -20 degree C for 2 years long in order to compare with previous studies for fresh, deep-frozen and glycerolised cartilages. The mechanical tests were carried out in a universal testing machine until sample failure. According our results, there is no significant statistical difference between stress at break of fresh, long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages and deep-frozen cartilage. This early result suggests, regarding to tensile property, that long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages corresponds to glycerolised costal cartilages irradiated with 25 kGy or deep-frozen cartilages irradiated with 25 and 50 kGy. Thus, this long-term frozen cartilages may be used for tissue banks, but more studies about effects of ionizing radiation are necessary. (author)

  12. Long Term Stability of Nanowire Nanoelectronics in Physiological Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Nanowire nanoelectronic devices have been exploited as highly sensitive subcellular resolution detectors for recording extracellular and intracellular signals from cells, as well as from natural and engineered/cyborg tissues, and in this capacity open many opportunities for fundamental biological research and biomedical applications. Here we demonstrate the capability to take full advantage of the attractive capabilities of nanowire nanoelectronic devices for long term physiological studies by passivating the nanowire elements with ultrathin metal oxide shells. Studies of Si and Si/aluminum oxide (Al2O3) core/shell nanowires in physiological solutions at 37 °C demonstrate long-term stability extending for at least 100 days in samples coated with 10 nm thick Al2O3 shells. In addition, investigations of nanowires configured as field-effect transistors (FETs) demonstrate that the Si/Al2O3 core/shell nanowire FETs exhibit good device performance for at least 4 months in physiological model solutions at 37 °C. The generality of this approach was also tested with in studies of Ge/Si and InAs nanowires, where Ge/Si/Al2O3 and InAs/Al2O3 core/shell materials exhibited stability for at least 100 days in physiological model solutions at 37 °C. In addition, investigations of hafnium oxide-Al2O3 nanolaminated shells indicate the potential to extend nanowire stability well beyond 1 year time scale in vivo. These studies demonstrate that straightforward core/shell nanowire nanoelectronic devices can exhibit the long term stability needed for a range of chronic in vivo studies in animals as well as powerful biomedical implants that could improve monitoring and treatment of disease. PMID:24479700

  13. Short- and Long-Term Cognitive Effects of Chronic Cannabinoids Administration in Late-Adolescence Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abush, Hila; Akirav, Irit

    2012-01-01

    The use of cannabis can impair cognitive function, especially short-term memory. A controversial question is whether long-term cannabis use during the late-adolescence period can cause irreversible deficits in higher brain function that persist after drug use stops. In order to examine the short- and long-term effects of chronic exposure to cannabinoids, rats were administered chronic i.p. treatment with the CB1/CB2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN; 1.2 mg/kg) for two weeks during the late a...

  14. “Silent” Metaplasticity of the Late Phase of Long-Term Potentiation Requires Protein Phosphatases

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Newton H.; Nguyen, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    The late phase of long-term potentiation (L-LTP) is correlated with some types of long-term memory, but the mechanisms by which L-LTP is modulated by prior synaptic activity are undefined. Activation of protein phosphatases by low-frequency stimulation (LFS) given before induction of L-LTP may significantly modify L-LTP. Using cellular electrophysiological recording methods in mouse hippocampal slices, we show that LFS given before induction of L-LTP inhibited L-LTP in an activity-dependent m...

  15. Factors important in the purchase of partnership long-term care insurance.

    OpenAIRE

    Mccall, N.; Mangle, S.; Bauer, E.; Knickman, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To understand the factors important in the purchase of long-term care insurance through the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Partnership for Long-Term Care. DATA SOURCES: Information on the Partnership programs, telephone surveys, data on Partnership purchasers, and random sample frames. STUDY DESIGN: Logistic regression analysis is used to examine characteristics associated with the purchase of a Partnership insurance policy. Independent variables are health status, demographic and ...

  16. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF LONG TERM TONGUE ULCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegde Nidarsh D.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Oral ulcers is a very common disorder of the oral mucosa. Patients with signs or symptoms of oral ulcers are sometimes referred to gastroenterology clinics, however, in most instances the ulcers does not reflect gastrointestinal disease, some with a chronic non- healing ulcer are advised biopsy. Indeed, a spectrum of disorders can give rise to oral mucosal ulcers ranging from minor local trauma to significant local disease such as malignancy or systemic illness. Lesions of the tongue have a broad differential diagnosis ranging from benign idiopathic processes to infections, cancers, and infiltrative disorders. This article will focus on common ulcerative disorders of the tongue in aspects of their clinical features and differential diagnosis, two case reports with the diagnosis and conservative management for long-term chronic ulcers. The two cases which are reported in this article had a differential diagnosis of Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. The clinical picture was craterlike lesion, having a velvety-red base and a rolled, indurated border and most important painless in both cases. Removal of the irritant which was the tooth, rehabilitation of the oral mucosa by lubrication with Cocus Nucifera resulted in the healing of the ulcers. Functional components of Cocus Nucifera are Squaline, tocopherol, phytosterols and other sterols which are all plant steroids.

  17. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (103-105 years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., open-quotes natural analoguesclose quotes) provide perhaps the only means of partial open-quotes validation,close quotes as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (103-108 years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the open-quotes validationclose quotes of performance assessments

  18. Long-Term Variations in Sunspot Characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Tlatov, A G

    2013-01-01

    Relative variations in the number of sunspots and sunspot groups in activity cycles have been analyzed based on data from the Kislovodsk Mountain Astronomical Station and international indices. The following regularities have been established: (1) The relative fraction of small sunspots decreases linearly and that of large sunspots increase with increasing activity cycle amplitude. (2) The variation in the average number of sunspots in one group has a trend, and this number decreased from 12 in cycle 19 to 7.5 in cycle 24. (3) The ratio of the sunspot index (Ri) to the sunspot group number index (Ggr) varies with a period of about 100 years. (4) An analysis of the sunspot group number index (Ggr) from 1610 indicates that the Gnevyshev-Ohl rule reverses at the minimums of secular activity cycles. (5) The ratio of the total sunspot area to the umbra area shows a long-term variation with a period about eight cycles and minimum in cycles 16-17. (6) It has been indicated that the magnetic field intensity and sunsp...

  19. Long-term plutonium storage: Design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Program is the development of facilities for long-term storage of plutonium. The WCR design goals are to provide storage for metals, oxides, pits, and fuel-grade plutonium, including material being held as part of the Strategic Reserve and excess material. Major activities associated with plutonium storage are sorting the plutonium inventory, material handling and storage support, shipping and receiving, and surveillance of material in storage for both safety evaluations and safeguards and security. A variety of methods for plutonium storage have been used, both within the DOE weapons complex and by external organizations. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of proposed storage concepts based upon functional criteria. The concepts discussed include floor wells, vertical and horizontal sleeves, warehouse storage on vertical racks, and modular storage units. Issues/factors considered in determining a preferred design include operational efficiency, maintenance and repair, environmental impact, radiation and criticality safety, safeguards and security, heat removal, waste minimization, international inspection requirements, and construction and operational costs

  20. Model of long-term seismogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rhoades

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A three-stage faulting model explains the observed quantitative relations between long-term precursory seismicity, mainshocks and aftershocks. Seismogenesis starts with the formation of a major crack, culminates in the corresponding major fracture and earthquake, and ends with healing. Crack formation is a self-organised critical phenomenon, and shear fracture is a delayed sequel to crack formation. It is postulated that the major crack generates a set of minor cracks, just as, later, the major fracture generates a set of minor fractures. Fracturing of the minor cracks raises the average seismicity level. By Mogi?s uniformity criterion, the major earthquake is delayed until the minor fractures have healed and the stress-field has regained relative uniformity. In accord with the scaling principle, the model applies at all magnitude levels. The size of any given initial crack determines the scale of the ensuing seismogenic process. A graphical technique of cumulative magnitude analysis gives a quantitative representation of the seismicity aspects of the model. Examples are given for large earthquakes in a region of continental collision and a subduction region. The principle of hierarchy is exemplified by the seismogenesis of a M 5.9 mainshock occurring entirely within the precursory stage of a M 7.0 mainshock. The model is capable of accommodating a variety of proposed shorter-term precursory phenomena.

  1. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., {open_quotes}natural analogues{close_quotes}) provide perhaps the only means of partial {open_quotes}validation,{close_quotes} as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10{sup 3}-10{sup 8} years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the {open_quotes}validation{close_quotes} of performance assessments.

  2. The long term macroeconomic role for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arguments about the role of energy in economic systems are incomplete without analysis of the effects of changes in the price of energy. It may be true (because energy can substitute for so many other things) that we can continue to increase energy output per capita as long as we are prepared to increase energy consumption per unit of output, but if the price of energy is higher than consumers are prepared to pay the process will come to a stop. It follows that the output at any point in time is the result of an equilibrium between a great many factors in the economy one of which is the price of energy. The question that I now pose is whether the price of energy is an especially important factor. The subject is analyzed under the headings: the economics of energy price; a first attempt to model long-term effects; what is a price hike; modelling energy price hikes; implications and lessons for nuclear energy; the present reality. (author)

  3. Long term results of Wilms' tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen long term survivors of Wilms' tumor which were experienced in our deprtment were analyzed. No patients showed abnormalities in non-specific cell mediated immunity, endocrine function, secondary sexual development or renal function. In patients who were followed more than 10 years after surgery, the function of the remaining kidney, as determined by DMSA uptake, was well developed. In 15 patients who were treated by radiotherapy, changes in the spinal bodies were seen in all 15, scoliosis (average 9 deg) in 14 and hypoplasia in the iliac bone on the irradiated side in 12. In 14 patients who were examined by CT scan, atrophies of the erector spinae and illopsoas muscles on the irradiated side were seen in all cases. A significant correlation between the severity of the atrophic erector spinae muscle and the degree of scoliosis was obtained. Sixty nine patients with Wilms' tumor who survived more than ten years after surgery were found in the files of 13 institutions in our conutry. Our of them, 25 (36%) developed late disturbances and many of them were due to irradiation therapy. (author)

  4. Transuranic waste: long-term planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Societal concerns for the safe handling and disposal of toxic waste are behind many of the regulations and the control measures in effect today. Transuranic waste, a specific category of toxic (radioactive) waste, serves as a good example of how regulations and controls impact changes in waste processing - and vice versa. As problems would arise with waste processing, changes would be instituted. These changes improved techniques for handling and disposal of transuranic waste, reduced the risk of breached containment, and were usually linked with regulatory changes. Today, however, we face a greater public awareness of and concern for toxic waste control; thus, we must anticipate potential problems and work on resolving them before they can become real problems. System safety analyses are valuable aids in long-term planning for operations involving transuranic as well as other toxic materials. Examples of specific system safety analytical methods demonstrate how problems can be anticipated and resolution initiated in a timely manner having minimal impacts upon allocation of resource and operational goals. 7 refs., 1 fig

  5. Long-Term Soft Denture Lining Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Chladek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-term soft denture lining (LTSDL materials are used to alleviate the trauma associated with wearing complete dentures. Despite their established clinical efficacy, the use of LTSDLs has been limited due to the unfavorable effects of the oral environment on some of their mechanical and performance characteristics. The unresolved issue of LTSDL colonization by Candida albicans is particularly problematic. Silicone-based LTSDL (SLTSDL materials, which are characterized by more stable hardness, sorption and solubility than acrylic-based LTSDLs (ALTSDLs, are currently the most commonly used LTSDLs. However, SLTSDLs are more prone to debonding from the denture base. Moreover, due to their limitations, the available methods for determining bond strength do not fully reflect the actual stability of these materials under clinical conditions. SLTSDL materials exhibit favorable viscoelastic properties compared with ALTSDLs. Furthermore, all of the lining materials exhibit an aging solution-specific tendency toward discoloration, and the available cleansers are not fully effective and can alter the mechanical properties of LTSDLs. Future studies are needed to improve the microbiological resistance of LTSDLs, as well as some of their performance characteristics.

  6. Effective long term operation for Dukovany NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukovany NPP now started third decade of service that is also its last decade of design life time. It is clear that the NPP has all considerations for service past the design life time called Long Term Operation (LTO). This LTO has two main aspects, technical and economical, that influence each other. From technical view the age of NPP systems, structures and components (SSCs) affects negatively the ability to perform necessary design changes in a good quality and also the long lived SSC reliability. These possible impacts have also their safety aspects and to obtain regulatory body agreement with LTO of NPP it is necessary to show that these impacts are acceptable. It means to show that all applied design changes are done in agreement with NPP design bases (DB) and all ageing impacts on SSCs functions important for safety are properly managed. From economical view that is significant for NPP owner it is necessary to demonstrate a required profitability of investment for effective LTO. These are reasons why Dukovany NPP performs three following projects: - Safety design bases collation and reconstitution, - Enhancement of plant life management program (New program preparation), - Technical-economical (TE) study of NPP LTO. All of these projects are managed by Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (NRI) and performed in close cooperation with NPP staff and different co-operaters. This presentation will be concentrated to the last named project.named project.

  7. Transuranic waste: long-term planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K.C.

    1985-07-01

    Societal concerns for the safe handling and disposal of toxic waste are behind many of the regulations and the control measures in effect today. Transuranic waste, a specific category of toxic (radioactive) waste, serves as a good example of how regulations and controls impact changes in waste processing - and vice versa. As problems would arise with waste processing, changes would be instituted. These changes improved techniques for handling and disposal of transuranic waste, reduced the risk of breached containment, and were usually linked with regulatory changes. Today, however, we face a greater public awareness of and concern for toxic waste control; thus, we must anticipate potential problems and work on resolving them before they can become real problems. System safety analyses are valuable aids in long-term planning for operations involving transuranic as well as other toxic materials. Examples of specific system safety analytical methods demonstrate how problems can be anticipated and resolution initiated in a timely manner having minimal impacts upon allocation of resource and operational goals. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Energy in 2010 - 2020. Long term challenges; Energie 2010-2020. Les defis du long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessus, Benjamin [ed.] [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-02-02

    This report presents the results of a workshop intending to anticipate the long term challenges, to guide better the short term power options, to understand the available political, economical and technical assumptions for the prospective world situation, to give some strategic hints on the necessary transition. Indeed, the difficult issue which the workshop tried to tackle was how should we prepare to reveal the energetic challenge of the development of the eight to ten billion inhabitants of our Planet in the next century without jeopardizing its existence. The energetic problems, a hardcore of the international preoccupation of both growth and environment, as it was recently evidenced by the climatic conference in Kyoto, have ever been the object of a particular attention on the part of General Commissariat of Plan. Thus, the commission 'Energy in 2010 - 2020' has been instituted in April 1996 in order to update the works done in 1990 - 1991 by the commission 'Energy 2010'. Soon it occurred to this new commission the task of illuminating its works by a long term (2050 - 2100) world prospective analysis of the challenges and problems linked to energy, growth and environment. In conclusion, this document tried to find answers to questions like: - which are the risks the energy consumption augmentation entail? - can we control them by appropriate urbanism and transport policies or technological innovation?. Four options for immediate action are suggested: - the energy efficiency should become a priority objective of policies; -coping with the long term challenges requires acting at present; - building the transition between governmental leadership and market; - taking profit of all the possible synergies between short and long term planning.

  9. A reliability evaluation methodology for memory chips for space applications when sample size is small

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Nguyen, D.; Guertin, S.; Berstein, J.; White, M.; Menke, R.; Kayali, S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a reliability evaluation methodology to obtain the statistical reliability information of memory chips for space applications when the test sample size needs to be kept small because of the high cost of the radiation hardness memories.

  10. Memory in aged granular media

    OpenAIRE

    Barrat, A.; Loreto, V.

    2000-01-01

    Stimulated by recent experimental results, we simulate ``temperature''-cycling experiments in a model for the compaction of granular media. We report on the existence of two types of memory effects: short-term dependence on the history of the sample, and long-term memory for highly compact (aged) systems. A natural interpretation of these results is provided by the analysis of the density heterogeneities.

  11. A new long-term care manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Robert L

    2015-04-01

    This article argues for a fresh look at how we provide long-term care (LTC) for older persons. Essentially, LTC offers a compensatory service that responds to frailty. Policy debate around LTC centers on costs, but we are paying for something we really don't want. Building societal enthusiasm (or even support) for LTC will require re-inventing and re-branding. LTC has three basic components: personal care, housing, and health care (primarily chronic disease management). They can be delivered in a variety of settings. It is rare to find all three done well simultaneously. Personal care (PC) needs to be both competent and compassionate. Housing must provide at least minimal amenities and foster autonomy; when travel time for PC raises costs dramatically, some form of clustered housing may be needed. Health care must be proactive, aimed at preventing exacerbations of chronic disease and resultant hospitalizations. Enhancing preferences means allowing taking informed risks. Payment incentives should reward both quality of care and quality of life, but positive outcomes must be defined as slowing decline. Paying for services but not for housing under Medicaid would automatically level the playing field between nursing homes (NH) and community-based services. Regulations should achieve greater parity between NH and community care and include both positive and negative feedback. Providing post-acute care should be separate from LTC. Using the tripartite LTC framework, we can create innovative flexible approaches to providing needed services for frail older persons in formats that are both desirable and affordable. Such care will be more socially desirable and hence worth paying for. PMID:26035606

  12. The long-term nuclear explosives predicament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scenario is described, where the production of new military fissile materials is halted and where civil nuclear power is phased out in a 'no-new orders' case. It is found that approximately 1100 tonnes of weapons-grade uranium, 233 tonnes of weapons-grade plutonium and 3795 tonnes of reactor-grade plutonium have to be finally disposed of as nuclear waste. This material could be used for the construction of over 1 million nuclear explosives. Reactor-grade plutonium is found to be easier to extract from spent nuclear fuel with time and some physical characteristics important for the construction of nuclear explosives are improved. Alternative methods for disposal of the fissile material that will avoid the long-term nuclear explosives predicament are examined. Among these methods are dilution, denaturing or transmutation of the fissile material and options for practicably irrecoverable disposal in deep boreholes, on the sea-bed, and in space. It is found that the deep boreholes method for disposal should be the primary alternative to be examined further. This method can be combined with an effort to 'forget' where the material was put. Included in the thesis is also an evaluation of the possibilities of controlling the limited civil nuclear activities in a post-nuclear world. Some surveillance technologies for a post-nuclear world are described, including satellite surveillance. In a review part of the thesis, methods for the production of fissile material for nuclearproduction of fissile material for nuclear explosives are described, the technological basis for the construction of nuclear weapons is examined, including use of reactor-grade plutonium for such purposes; also plans for the disposal of spent fuel from civil nuclear power reactors and for the handling of the fissile material from dismantled warheads is described. The Swedish plan for the handling and disposal of spent nuclear fuel is described in detail. (490 refs., 66 figs., 27 tabs.)

  13. HLW Long-term Management Technology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuels from the power generation is considered to be the unique method for the conservation of human being and nature in the present and future. In spite of spent nuclear fuels produced from power generation, based on the recent trends on the gap between supply and demand of energy, the advance on energy price and reduction of carbon dioxide, nuclear energy is expected to play a role continuously in Korea. It means that a new concept of nuclear fuel cycle is needed to solve problems on spent nuclear fuels. The concept of the advanced nuclear fuel cycle including PYRO processing and SFR was presented at the 255th meeting of the Atomic Energy Commission. According to the concept of the advanced nuclear fuel cycle, actinides and long-term fissile nuclides may go out of existence in SFR. And then it is possible to dispose of short term decay wastes without a great risk bearing. Many efforts had been made to develop the KRS for the direct disposal of spent nuclear fuels in the representative geology of Korea. But in the case of the adoption of Advanced nuclear fuel cycle, the disposal of PYRO wastes should be considered. For this, we carried out the Safety Analysis on HLW Disposal Project with 5 sub-projects such as Development of HLW Disposal System, Radwaste Disposal Safety Analysis, Feasibility study on the deep repository condition, A study on the Nuclide Migration and Retardation Using Natural Barrier, and In-situ Study on the Performance of Engineered Barriers

  14. Glioblastoma multiforme with long term survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Prabal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM Patients generally have a dismal prognosis, with median survival of 10-12 months. GBM with long-term survival (LTS of ³ 5 years is rare, and no definite markers indicating better prognosis have been identified till date. The present study was undertaken to evaluate GBMs with LTS in order to identify additional correlates associated with favourable outcome. The cases were evaluated for relevant clinicopathological data, proliferation index and expression of tumortumour suppressor gene ( p53 , cyclin-dependant kinase-inhibitors ( p27 and p16 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR proteins. Six cases of GBM with LTS with an average survival of 9 years (range 5-15 years were identified. All were young patients with mean age of 27 years (range 8-45 years. Histology of three cases was consistent with conventional GBM, while two showed prominent oligodendroglial component admixed with GBM areas. One was a giant cell GBM, which progressed to gliosarcoma on recurrence. The mean MIB-1LI was 12% (range 6-20%. p53 was immunopositive in 4 out of 5 cases. EGFR and p27 were immunonegative in all, whereas p16 was immunonegative in 3 out of 5 cases. Currently, in the absence of specific molecular and genetic markers, GBM in young patients should be meticulously evaluated for foci of oligodendroglial component and/or giant cell elements, in addition to proliferative index and p53 expression, since these probably have prognostic connotations, as evident in this study. The role of p16 and p27 however needs better definition with study of more number of cases.

  15. Long term thermal stability of organic PCMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Paraffin based PCM’s have been noted to undergo irreversible physical change with time changing their thermal performance. • The melting point and latent heat of RT21 mixture change while kept at elevated temperatures. • Ester based PCM have shown to have superior thermo-physical characteristics with reduced fire hazardous. - Abstract: Thermal energy storage using phase change materials (PCMs) have been a focal point in the efficient energy utilisation in buildings for over 30 years. The possible use of PCM in buildings is becoming more and more attractive due to the large energy storage density and nearly isothermal nature of the PCM storage when compared to sensible heat storage. Although there is large amount of information available on this topic, literatures show very little information about the long term thermal performance of phase change materials. In this research, changes in thermal characteristics of two commercial organic PCMs when exposed to a constant temperature above their melting point were examined. The thermal characteristic (i.e. melting range and latent heat of fusion) of Rubitherm 21 (RT21, a paraffin mixture) and propyl stearic and palmitate mixture with a melting point in the range of 18–25 °C were tested after an exposure to storage temperatures of 30 and 55 °C. The results obtained indicated that the paraffin based mixture such as RT21 experienced a significant irreversible physical change with time. The data collected and analysis indicated a shift in the peak melting point from 21 to 28 °C and increase in latent heat of fusion from 134 to 170 J/g over a period of 120 days when kept at a temperature of 55 °C. On the other hand, the mixed esters experienced almost no change in mass due to their lower vapour pressure

  16. Northern European long term climate archives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohl, Veronica [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is responsible for the management and disposal of Sweden's radioactive waste. It is intended to deposit the spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository. This repository shall keep the radiotoxic material separated from humans and the environment for extended periods, from decades to millennia and possibly to geological timescales. During this time perspective climate induced changes such as shore-level displacement and evolution of permafrost and ice sheets are expected to occur which may affect the repository. The possible occurrence, extent and duration of these long-term changes, are therefore of interest when considering the assessment of repository performance and safety. The main climate parameters determining both surface and subsurface conditions are temperature and precipitation. As a result of the last advance of the Weichselian ice sheet only few geological archives exist, which contain information on past climatic conditions in Sweden before c 16,000 years BP. The purpose of this literature review is to compile and evaluate available information from Scandinavian, Northern and Central European geological archives, which record climatic conditions during the Weichselian time period. The compilation provides paleotemperature data sets, which may be used to explore the possible evolution of periglacial permafrost in Sweden. This report is a synopsis of 22 publications detailing climatic and environmental changes during the Weichselian time period in Northwestern Europe based on quantified paleotemperature records. Some of the data is presented as temperature curves which were digitised specifically for this report. The time range covered by the different publications varies considerably. Only few authors dealt with the whole Weichselian period and the majority cover only a few thousand years. This however is not considered to influence the reliability of the archives. The reason for the varying time ranges is that some authors focused on a certain time interval, while others, especially those dealing with sites that had been affected by glaciation only present fragmented sediment sequences. Studies of the flora and climate of the region for the time period before the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in Europe have been limited due to the low number of Late Pleniglacial botanical records. The geographical range of this investigation covers North Western Europe from c 47 deg. N to c 78 deg. N and c 10 deg. W to c 30 deg. E. Additional publications, to those detailed in were also reviewed, but were excluded where the chronologies were considered unreliable. The various proxy data used to derive paleotemperatures are primarily: coleoptera, chironomids, pollen, plant macrofossils and periglacial features. In seven of the publications reviewed here a multiproxy approach had been applied.

  17. Northern European long term climate archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is responsible for the management and disposal of Sweden's radioactive waste. It is intended to deposit the spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository. This repository shall keep the radiotoxic material separated from humans and the environment for extended periods, from decades to millennia and possibly to geological timescales. During this time perspective climate induced changes such as shore-level displacement and evolution of permafrost and ice sheets are expected to occur which may affect the repository. The possible occurrence, extent and duration of these long-term changes, are therefore of interest when considering the assessment of repository performance and safety. The main climate parameters determining both surface and subsurface conditions are temperature and precipitation. As a result of the last advance of the Weichselian ice sheet only few geological archives exist, which contain information on past climatic conditions in Sweden before c 16,000 years BP. The purpose of this literature review is to compile and evaluate available information from Scandinavian, Northern and Central European geological archives, which record climatic conditions during the Weichselian time period. The compilation provides paleotemperature data sets, which may be used to explore the possible evolution of periglacial permafrost in Sweden. This report is a synopsis of 22 publications detailing climatic and environmental changes during the Weichselian time period in Northwestern Europe based on quantified paleotemperature records. Some of the data is presented as temperature curves which were digitised specifically for this report. The time range covered by the different publications varies considerably. Only few authors dealt with the whole Weichselian period and the majority cover only a few thousand years. This however is not considered to influence the reliability of the archives. The reason for the varying time ranges is that some authors focused on a certain time interval, while others, especially those dealing with sites that had been affected by glaciation only present fragmented sediment sequences. Studies of the flora and climate of the region for the time period before the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in Europe have been limited due to the low number of Late Pleniglacial botanical records. The geographical range of this investigation covers North Western Europe from c 47 deg. N to c 78 deg. N and c 10 deg. W to c 30 deg. E. Additional publications, to those detailed in were also reviewed, but were excluded where the chronologies were considered unreliable. The various proxy data used to derive paleotemperatures are primarily: coleoptera, chironomids, pollen, plant macrofossils and periglacial features. In seven of the publications reviewed here a multiproxy approach had been applied

  18. Long-Term Space Astrophysics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowark, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report for our Long-Term Space Astrophysics Program (NRA 94-OSS-12) grant NAG 5-3225. The proposal is entitled 'Spectral and Temporal Properties of Black Hole Candidates', and began funding in May 1995, and ran through 31 Aug 2000. The project summary from the original proposal was as follows: 'We will study the spectral and temporal properties of black hole candidates (BHC) by using data from archival sources (e.g., EXOSAT, Ginga, ROSAT) and proposed follow-up observations with modern instruments (e.g., ASCA, XTE). Our spectral studies will focus on identifying the basic characteristics and luminosities of the emission components in the various 'states' of BHC. We hope to understand and quantify the global energetics of these states. Our temporal studies will focus on expanding and classifying our knowledge of BHC variability properties in each state. We will explore the nature of quasi-periodic oscillations in BHC. We will combine our spectral and temporal studies by analyzing time lags and variability coherence between energy channels. In addition, we will investigate ways of correlating observed variability behavior with specific emission components.' We have accomplished many of these goals laid out within the original proposal. As originally proposed, we have utilized both archival and proprietary satellite data. In terms of archival data, we have utilized data from the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), ROSAT, and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). We also obtained proprietary data from ASCA, RXTE, and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). In terms of sources, we have examined a wide variety of both galactic black hole candidates and extra-galactic black holes. For the galactic black holes we have observed and analyzed both the low/hard state and the high/soft state. We have performed both spectral and timing analyses on all of these objects. In addition, we have also examined a number of neutron stars or potential neutron stars. All of our research on the above mentioned objects has resulted in one or more publications in peer-reviewed journals. Attached is a list of refereed publications of research results which have been funded by this grant over approximately the past five and a half years. In addition, we have included a list of conference proceedings and other similar reports that have been associated with this grant.

  19. Long-term sterility of orthodontic-surgical appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusca, María I; Nastri, Natalia; Mosca, Christian O; Nastri, María L; Rosa, Alcira C

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term sterility of new dental appliances according to the non rigid wrapping employed and assess the effectiveness of sterilization in a steam autoclave at 134 degrees for 20 minutes using physical, chemical, and biological indicators. All the experimental (E) samples and the control samples (C) were assigned to one of three groups according to the type of packaging: paper bag (E1), paper/plastic pouch (E2), nylon tubing bag (E3). Each bag contained standardized orthodontic wires and brackets and sterility indicators. The samples were evaluated at the following experimental times: immediately, and 6, 12, 24 and 30 months post-sterilization. The samples were analyzed under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in keeping with the protocol currently in use at the Department of Microbiology, School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires. The group of control, non-sterilized samples (C1, C2, C3) were analyzed prior to the onset of the study, and were found to be contaminated. None of the sterilized samples in any of the three experimental groups evidenced contamination at any of the experimental times. The results showed that, under the present conditions, the packages and orthodontic appliances remained sterile for 30 months. These results show the importance of controlling sterility and the storage conditions over time for all the orthodontic/surgical appliances used in invasive treatments. PMID:15584258

  20. Long-term side effects of adjuvant CNS therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adjuvant CNS therapy is nowadays carried out almost as a rule in patients with acute lymphatic leukaemia (ALL), and to a lesser extent also in patients with small-cell lung cancer. The present investigations of the potential long-term toxicity of these measures, however, still lack sufficient biometrical substantiation, the more so as a required quantity of random sample is not reached. Moreover, many conclusions are biased by inadequately defined patient selection. Due to the inconstancy of the phenomena observed clinically, therefore, it is particularly the relevance of cerebral maturity at the beginning of treatment to the development of intelligence, of academic achievement and of social behaviour, which remains undecided despite the defects of the white substance verified both by histopathological investigations and imaging procedures. (orig.)

  1. Sodium tetraphenylborate solution stability: A long term study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1992-06-11

    Sodium tetraphenylborata (NaTPB) is a specialty chemical required for the In Tank Precipitation Process (ITP). It precipitates cesium, aiding in the decontamination of high level radioactive waste solutions. Long term stability of aqueous alkaline solutions of NATPB has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the relative stabilities of NATPB solutions exposed to varying temperatures and copper concentrations over an extended period of time. Additionally, vendor-supplied samples, incubated at 40{degree}C, were stored for more than a year without decomposing. Collected data demonstrates that in the absence of elevated copper concentrations, NATPB solutions will remain stable for periods of 1 to 2 years (at a minimum) at maximum expected operating conditions (<40{degree}C). Additionally, biuret, (H{sub 2}NCO){sub 2}NH, was tested as an additive to prevent copper-induced decomposition without success.

  2. Sodium tetraphenylborate solution stability: A long term study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1992-06-11

    Sodium tetraphenylborata (NaTPB) is a specialty chemical required for the In Tank Precipitation Process (ITP). It precipitates cesium, aiding in the decontamination of high level radioactive waste solutions. Long term stability of aqueous alkaline solutions of NATPB has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the relative stabilities of NATPB solutions exposed to varying temperatures and copper concentrations over an extended period of time. Additionally, vendor-supplied samples, incubated at 40[degree]C, were stored for more than a year without decomposing. Collected data demonstrates that in the absence of elevated copper concentrations, NATPB solutions will remain stable for periods of 1 to 2 years (at a minimum) at maximum expected operating conditions (<40[degree]C). Additionally, biuret, (H[sub 2]NCO)[sub 2]NH, was tested as an additive to prevent copper-induced decomposition without success.

  3. Long term behaviour of singularly perturbed parabolic degenerated equation

    CERN Document Server

    Faye, Ibrahima; Seck, Diaraf

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider models for short-term, mean-term and long-term morphodynamics of dunes and megariples. We give an existence and uniqueness result for long term dynamics of dunes. This result is based on a time-space periodic solution existence result for degenerated parabolic equation that we set out. Finally the mean-term and long-term models are homogenized.

  4. Role of Healthcare in Korean Long-Term Care Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Im-oak; Park, Chong Yon; Lee, Yunhwan

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid aging of the population, Korea introduced public long-term care insurance for older people in 2008. The long-term care insurance was designed as a separate scheme from the national health insurance, with eligibility qualifications and the certification process based on functional disability, benefits and coverage of community-based and institutional care, and a financing structure through multi-party contributions. Delivering appropriate health services to long-term care benefi...

  5. The long-term management of Canada's used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the long-term management of Canada's used nuclear fuel. The Nuclear Fuel Waste Act passed by the Government of Canada requires the establishment of a nuclear waste management organization operating on a not-for-profit basis to be responsible for the long-term management of irradiated fuel bundles removed from commercial or research fission reactor, and the creation of a trust fund to finance the design, siting, construction, operation and decommissioning of the long-term facility.

  6. Long-term lung transplantation in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, A; Tonsho, M; Ng, C Y; Lee, S; Millington, T; Nadazdin, O; Wain, J C; Cosimi, A B; Sachs, D H; Smith, R N; Colvin, R B; Kawai, T; Madsen, J C; Benichou, G; Allan, J S

    2015-05-01

    Despite advances in surgical technique and clinical care, lung transplantation still remains a short-term solution for the treatment of end-stage lung disease. To date, there has been limited experience in experimental lung transplantation using nonhuman primate models. Therefore, we have endeavored to develop a long-term, nonhuman primate model of orthotopic lung transplantation for the ultimate purpose of designing protocols to induce tolerance of lung grafts. Here, we report our initial results in developing this model and our observation that the nonhuman primate lung is particularly prone to rejection. This propensity toward rejection may be a consequence of 1) upregulated nonspecific inflammation, and 2) a larger number of pre-existing alloreactive memory T cells, leading to augmented deleterious immune responses. Our data show that triple-drug immunosuppression mimicking clinical practice is not sufficient to prevent acute rejection in nonhuman primate lung transplantation. The addition of horse-derived anti-thymocyte globulin and a monoclonal antibody to the IL-6 receptor allowed six out of six lung recipients to be free of rejection for over 120 days. PMID:25772308

  7. Neuropsychological sequelae of childhood cancer in long-term survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assess the effects of various cancer treatments on neuropsychological functioning, 74 long-term survivors of childhood cancer were examined. A comprehensive battery of tests was administered to two CNS treatment groups (irradiated and nonirradiated leukemia and lymphoma patients) and a control group (solid tumor and Hodgkin disease patients receiving no CNS treatment). The CNS-irradiated group obtained lower scores than the other two groups, with significant differences in visual-motor and fine motor skills, spatial memory, and arithmetic achievement resulting in significant differences in IQ scores (VIQ, PIQ, FSIQ). The results are discussed in relation to: (1) the effects of CNS irradiation on cognitive development; (2) the specificity of these effects; and (3) the relationship of age at diagnosis to treatment effects. It is concluded that although there is a general lowering of scores after CNS irradiation, the effect is most pronounced for nonlanguage skills. Age at diagnosis was less important than the type of treatment, with CNS irradiation reducing performance regardless of when cancer was diagnosed. There were indications that children with any type of cancer diagnosed before age 5 years are more likely to have some cognitive difficulties

  8. Private long-term care insurance and state tax incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, David G; Frank, Richard G; Tau, Jocelyn

    2009-01-01

    To increase the role of private insurance in financing long-term care, tax incentives for long-term care insurance have been implemented at both the federal and state levels. To date, there has been surprisingly little study of these initiatives. Using a panel of national data, we find that market take-up for long-term care insurance increased over the last decade, but state tax incentives were responsible for only a small portion of this growth. Ultimately, the modest ability of state tax incentives to lower premiums implies that they should be viewed as a small piece of the long-term care financing puzzle. PMID:19938726

  9. Long term stability of a terrestrial cave community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Di Russo

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We report data on the spatial structure and seasonal variation of the community of Valmarino cave, a medium sized sandstone cave, located a few kilometres from the coast line, in Central Italy. Due to both its habitat features and its relatively recent geological history, Valmarino cave is only inhabited by terrestrial, troglophilic elements, i.e facultative cave dwellers. By means of monthly censuses and density plot estimates we have investigated species abundance, diversity and their spatial organization, by considering separately samples from different cave sectors. Homogeneous sampling design allowed to compare series of samplings performed in 1974 and 1994. On the whole 21 arthropods and one snail species constitute the cave community. Ordination plots resulting from correspondence analyses of monthly samples outline a distinct spatial and temporal structure. Two main sub-communities can be identified: a inner subcommunity, mainly represented by eu-troglophilic species, showing a remarkable stability throughout the year and an outer sub-community, mainly represented by sub-troglophilic species, showing strong seasonal variation. Both spatial and temporal vectors show similar importance in shaping the community structure. An interesting result of this study is the long term stability of both spatial and seasonal components of the community structure which remained almost identical after 20 years, as shown by the comparison of ordination plots obtained from 1974 and 1994 sampling series. Therefore this study provides empirical evidence of a frequently hypothesised, albeit never demonstrated feature of the cave ecosystem.

  10. Long-term material compatibility testing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, L. R.; Weiner, R. S.; Griffin, D. C., Jr.; Porter, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    System includes procedure for hermetically sealing solid materials and fluids in glass ampoule and use of temperature-controlled facility containing sample holder, which permits sample containers to be retrieved safely and conveniently. Solid material and fluid are sealed within chemically-clean glass ampoule according to highly detailed procedure.

  11. Dopamine D1/D5 Receptors Mediate Informational Saliency that Promotes Persistent Hippocampal Long-Term Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Niels; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) plays an essential role in the enablement of cognition. It adds color to experience-dependent information storage, conferring salience to the memories that result. At the synaptic level, experience-dependent information storage is enabled by synaptic plasticity, and given its importance for memory formation, it is not surprising that DA comprises a key neuromodulator in the enablement of synaptic plasticity, and particularly of plasticity that persists for longer periods of time: Analogous to long-term memory. The hippocampus, that is a critical structure for the synaptic processing of semantic, episodic, spatial, and declarative memories, is specifically affected by DA, with the D1/D5 receptor proving crucial for hippocampus-dependent memory. Furthermore, D1/D5 receptors are pivotal in conferring the properties of novelty and reward to information being processed by the hippocampus. They also facilitate the expression of persistent forms of synaptic plasticity, and given reports that both long-term potentiation and long-term depression encode different aspects of spatial representations, this suggests that D1/D5 receptors can drive the nature and qualitative content of stored information in the hippocampus. In light of these observations, we propose that D1/D5 receptors gate hippocampal long-term plasticity and memory and are pivotal in conferring the properties of novelty and reward to information being processed by the hippocampus. PMID:23183712

  12. Network Sampling with Memory: A proposal for more efficient sampling from social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouw, Ted; Verdery, Ashton M

    2012-08-01

    Techniques for sampling from networks have grown into an important area of research across several fields. For sociologists, the possibility of sampling from a network is appealing for two reasons: (1) A network sample can yield substantively interesting data about network structures and social interactions, and (2) it is useful in situations where study populations are difficult or impossible to survey with traditional sampling approaches because of the lack of a sampling frame. Despite its appeal, methodological concerns about the precision and accuracy of network-based sampling methods remain. In particular, recent research has shown that sampling from a network using a random walk based approach such as Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) can result in high design effects (DE)-the ratio of the sampling variance to the sampling variance of simple random sampling (SRS). A high design effect means that more cases must be collected to achieve the same level of precision as SRS. In this paper we propose an alternative strategy, Network Sampling with Memory (NSM), which collects network data from respondents in order to reduce design effects and, correspondingly, the number of interviews needed to achieve a given level of statistical power. NSM combines a "List" mode, where all individuals on the revealed network list are sampled with the same cumulative probability, with a "Search" mode, which gives priority to bridge nodes connecting the current sample to unexplored parts of the network. We test the relative efficiency of NSM compared to RDS and SRS on 162 school and university networks from Add Health and Facebook that range in size from 110 to 16,278 nodes. The results show that the average design effect for NSM on these 162 networks is 1.16, which is very close to the efficiency of a simple random sample (DE=1), and 98.5% lower than the average DE we observed for RDS. PMID:24159246

  13. Delayed Noradrenergic Activation in the Dorsal Hippocampus Promotes the Long-Term Persistence of Extinguished Fear

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Ning; Liu, Jian-feng; Xue, Yan-xue; Yang, Chang; Wei YAN; Wang, Hui-Min; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Shi, Hai-Shui; Wang, Ji-shi; Bao, Yan-Ping; Meng, Shi-Qiu; Ding, Zeng-Bo; Wang, Xue-Yi; Lu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Fear extinction has been extensively studied, but little is known about the molecular processes that underlie the persistence of extinction long-term memory (LTM). We found that microinfusion of norepinephrine (NE) into the CA1 area of the dorsal hippocampus during the early phase (0?h) after extinction enhanced extinction LTM at 2 and 14 days after extinction. Intra-CA1 infusion of NE during the late phase (12?h) after extinction selectively promoted extinction LTM at 14 days after extinctio...

  14. Extracellular proteolysis by matrix metalloproteinase-9 drives dendritic spine enlargement and long-term potentiation coordinately

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiao-bin; Bozdagi, Ozlem; Nikitczuk, Jessica S.; Zhai, Zu Wei; Zhou, Qiang; Huntley, George W.

    2008-01-01

    Persistent dendritic spine enlargement is associated with stable long-term potentiation (LTP), and the latter is thought to underlie long-lasting memories. Extracellular proteolytic remodeling of the synaptic microenvironment could be important for such plasticity, but whether or how proteolytic remodeling contributes to persistent modifications in synapse structure and function is unknown. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is an extracellular protease that is activated perisynaptically afte...

  15. G protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium channels mediate depotentiation of long-term potentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Hee Jung; Ge, Woo-ping; Qian, Xiang; Wiser, Ofer; Jan, Yuh Nung; Jan, Lily Yeh

    2008-01-01

    Excitatory synapses in the brain undergo activity-dependent changes in the strength of synaptic transmission. Such synaptic plasticity as exemplified by long-term potentiation (LTP) is considered a cellular correlate of learning and memory. The presence of G protein-activated inwardly rectifying K+ (GIRK) channels near excitatory synapses on dendritic spines suggests their possible involvement in synaptic plasticity. However, whether activity-dependent regulation of GIRK channels affects exci...

  16. Abeta oligomer-mediated long-term potentiation impairment involves protein phosphatase 1-dependent mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Knobloch, M.; Farinelli, M.; Konietzko, U.; Nitsch, R. M.; Mansuy, I. M.

    2007-01-01

    Amyloid beta (Abeta) oligomers are derived from proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and can impair memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in vivo and in vitro. They are recognized as the primary neurotoxic agents in Alzheimer's disease. The mechanisms underlying such toxicity on synaptic functions are complex and not fully understood. Here, we provide the first evidence that these mechanisms involve protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). Using a novel transgenic mouse m...

  17. ANDRA's sustainable development annual report: From strategy to first actions: the ANDRA's long term commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brochure is a communication document which aims at highlighting the strategy and the actions of ANDRA (the French national agency for radioactive waste management) for a committed governance (at the company level, in its consultancy and monitoring activities, with respect to human resources), for a sustainable activity (monitoring, storage ecological footprint, storage very long term memory, knowledge sharing, environment survey), and for a citizen company (energy savings and carbon assessment, eco-responsible purchases)

  18. Positron-emission tomography imaging of long-term shape?recognition?challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Rosier, A.; Cornette, L.; Dupont, P.; Bormans, G.; Michiels, J.; Mortelmans, L.; Orban, G. A.

    1997-01-01

    Long-term visual memory performance was impaired by two types of challenges: a diazepam challenge on acquisition and a sensory challenge on recognition. Using positron-emission tomography regional cerebral blood flow imaging, we studied the effect of these challenges on regional brain activation during the delayed recognition of abstract visual shapes as compared with a baseline fixation task. Both challenges induced a significant decrease in differential activation in the left fusiform gyrus...

  19. Paradoxical sleep: A vigilance state to gate long-term brain plasticity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravassard, Pascal; Hamieh, Al Mahdy; Malleret, Gaël; Salin, Paul-Antoine

    2015-07-01

    Memory consolidation is the process for long-term storage of information and protection against interferences. It has been proposed that long-term potentiation (LTP), the long-lasting enhancementof synaptic transmission, is a cellular model for memory consolidation. Since consolidation of several forms of memory is facilitated by paradoxical sleep (PS) we ask whether PS modulates the cellular and molecular pathways underlying LTP. The long-lasting form of LTP (L-LTP) is dependent on the activation of transcription factors, enzymatic cascades and the secreted neurotrophin BDNF. By using PS deprivation, immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), we showed that an increase in PS amount (produced by rebound in PS deprived rats) is able to up-regulate the expression level of transcription factors Zif268 and c-Fos as well as Arc and BDNF in the CA1 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus. Several studies involved these factors in dendritic protein synthesis and in long-term structural changes of synapses underlying L-LTP. The present study together with the work of others (Ribeiro et al., 2002) suggest that by this mechanism, a post-learning increase in PS quantity (post-learning PS window) could convert a transient form of LTP to L-LTP. PMID:25448317

  20. Long-term prevention of diabetic nephropathy: an audit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoedt, K.J.; Hansen, H.P.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In type 1 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria not receiving antihypertensive treatment, an increase in urinary AER (UAER) of 6-14%/year and a risk of developing diabetic nephropathy (DN) of 3-30%/year have been reported. We audited the long-term effect of blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) with an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) in microalbuminuric type 1 diabetic patients on progression of microalbuminuria and development of DN. METHODS: All patients with type 1 diabetes and persistent microalbuminuria (30-300 mg/24 h) were identified (n=227) in 1995 at Steno Diabetes Center and followed for 11 years. Development of DN was defined as a UAER of >300 mg/24 h in two of three consecutive urine samples. RESULTS: Age and duration of diabetes at baseline (mean+/-SD) were 46+/-15 and 28+/-13 years, respectively. During follow-up 14 patients emigrated and 58 (26%) died. Over the same period 79% were treated with an ACEI or ARB. There was a mean decline in UAER of 4%/year. Sixty-five patients (29%) progressed to overt DN, corresponding to 3.1%/year. However, 29 of them regressed to normo- or microalbuminuria on intensified antihypertensive treatment. Glycaemic control and blood pressure remained nearly unchanged. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In our outpatient clinic, the implementation of RAAS-blocking treatment in type 1 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria successfully reduced long-term progression to overt DN to a rate similar to those previously reported in randomised, double-blind intervention trials of shorter duration using RAAS blockade Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6

  1. Long-term oxygen therapy: Are we prescribing appropriately?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Rosa Güell Rous

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Mª Rosa Güell RousDepartament de Pneumologia, Hospital de la Santa Creu I de Sant Pau, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT is the treatment proven to improve survival in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients with chronic respiratory failure. It also appears to reduce the number of hospitalizations, increase effort capacity, and improve health-related quality of life. Standard LTOT criteria are related to COPD patients who have PaO2 <60 mmHg, are in a clinical stable situation, and are receiving optimal pharmacological treatment. According to LTOT guidelines, oxygen should be prescribed for at least 18 hours per day although some authors consider 24 hours would be more beneficial. The benefits of LTOT depend on correction of hypoxemia. Arterial blood gases should be measured at rest. During exercise, an effort test should be done to assure adequate SaO2. During sleep, continuous monitoring of SaO2 and PaCO2 should be performed to confirm correction of SaO2 overnight. An arterial blood gas sample should be taken at awakening to assess PaCO2 in order to prevent hypoventilation from the oxygen therapy. Several issues that need to be addressed are the use of LTOT in COPD patients with moderate hypoxemia, the efficacy of LTOT in patients who desaturate during exercise or during sleep, the optimal dosage of oxygen supplementation, LTOT compliance, and the LTOT prescription in diseases other than COPD.Keywords: long-term oxygen therapy, COPD, oxygen supplementation, chronic respiratory failure, hypoxemia

  2. Long-term Dynamics of Kepler Multiple Planet Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Matthew

    We propose to determine the masses, radii, and orbital parameters for Kepler multiple planet systems and to then investigate the long-term dynamics of these systems. We will determine the physical and orbital parameters of the systems using a combination of photo-dynamical modeling and Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis. This approach yields a posterior probability distribution of the model parameters (including the masses, positions, and velocities for the planets and star) that fit the photometry (and other available observations) and which represents a statistical sample of the dynamical and physical state of the system. These same parameters are the input for long-term dynamical investigations. We have already developed and applied these techniques to Kepler-36, a compact planetary system that shows short time scale dynamical chaos. The Kepler-36 system is very close to the boundary of stability; we expect this to inform models of planet formation. The expected results will be (1) a more complete set of measurements of masses and radii, with well-determined uncertainties, for a wide range of planet types; (2) a detailed assessment of what fraction of planets near period commensurabilities are actually dynamically resonant; and (3) a refined understanding of the degree to which systems of planets are near the boundary of stability. Our proposed research is relevant to the goals of the NASA Origins of Solar Systems program. In particular, it involves the physical and dynamical characterization of exoplanets to explain Kepler observations of multiple planet systems and to improve our understanding of the origins of planetary systems. Our investigations will yield observational predictions that can be tested and refined with current and future Kepler data.

  3. STRUCTURE FUNCTION ANALYSIS OF LONG-TERM QUASAR VARIABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Vries, W; Becker, R; White, R; Loomis, C

    2004-11-15

    In our second paper on long-term quasar variability, we employ a much larger database of quasars than in de Vries, Becker & White. This expanded sample, containing 35,165 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 2, and 6,413 additional quasars in the same area of the sky taken from the 2dF QSO Redshift Survey, allows us to significantly improve on our earlier conclusions. As before, all the historic quasar photometry has been calibrated onto the SDSS scale by using large numbers of calibration stars around each quasar position. We find the following: (1) the outbursts have an asymmetric light-curve profile, with a fast-rise, slow-decline shape; this argues against a scenario in which micro-lensing events along the line-of-sight to the quasars are dominating the long-term variations in quasars; (2) there is no turnover in the Structure Function of the quasars up to time-scales of {approx}40 years, and the increase in variability with increasing time-lags is monotonic and constant; and consequently, (3) there is not a single preferred characteristic outburst time-scale for the quasars, but most likely a continuum of outburst time-scales, (4) the magnitude of the quasar variability is a function of wavelength: variability increases toward the blue part of the spectrum, (5) high-luminosity quasars vary less than low-luminosity quasars, consistent with a scenario in which variations have limited absolute magnitude. Based on this, we conclude that quasar variability is intrinsic to the Active Galactic Nucleus, is caused by chromatic outbursts/flares with a limited luminosity range and varying time-scales, and which have an overall asymmetric light-curve shape. Currently the model that has the most promise of fitting the observations is based on accretion disk instabilities.

  4. Factors associated with long-term mortality in acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NØjgaard, Camilla; Matzen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the long-term prognosis of acute pancreatitis (AP) is limited. The aims were to investigate: (1) prognostic factors associated with long-term mortality in patients with AP; (2) whether or not the level of serum (S-)amylase at admission had an impact on the prognosis; (3) causes of death in these patients.

  5. [Developing the core competencies of long-term care professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huey-Tzy; Lee, Kuang-Ting

    2012-12-01

    Longer average life expectancies and an ageing society have made long-term care an urgent and important issue in Taiwan. Although the implementation of Long-Term Care Ten-year Project four years ago has begun showing success in terms of assessing Taiwan's needs in terms of long-term care services and resources, there has been little forward progress in terms of training, recruiting and maintaining more competent professionals in the long-term care sector. This paper explores the current state of long-term care competency in Taiwan and educational strategies in place to improve the competency of long-term care professionals. Results indicate that the term geriatric competency embraces sub-competencies in direct care, communication, assessment, teamwork, cultural sensitivities and career care competencies. The term long-term care competency embraces the sub-competencies of supervision, management, information technology, resource management, and organizational skill. As a main contributor to effective long-term care, the nursing profession must employ effective strategies to develop competency-based education. Also, the profession must have an adequate supply of competent manpower to effectively respond to Taiwan's aging society. PMID:23212250

  6. Standards for Psychological Services in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Smith, Michael; Frazer, Deborah; Molinari, Victor; Rosowsky, Erlene; Crose, Royda; Stillwell, Nick; Kramer, Nanette; Hartman-Stein, Paula; Qualls, Sara; Salamon, Michael; Duffy, Michael; Parr, Joyce; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    1998-01-01

    Describes the development of standards for psychological practice in long-term care facilities. The standards, which were developed by Psychologists in Long-Term Care, address provider characteristics, methods of referral, assessment practices, treatment, and ethical issues. Offers suggestions for use of the standards. (MKA)

  7. Long-term maternal recall of obstetric complications in schizophrenia research.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walshe, Muriel

    2011-05-30

    Obstetric complications (OCs) are consistently implicated in the aetiology of schizophrenia. Information about OCs is often gathered retrospectively, from maternal interview. It has been suggested that mothers of people with schizophrenia may not be accurate in their recollection of obstetric events. We assessed the validity of long term maternal recall by comparing maternal ratings of OCs with those obtained from medical records in a sample of mothers of offspring affected and unaffected with psychotic illness. Obstetric records were retrieved for 30 subjects affected with psychosis and 40 of their unaffected relatives. The Lewis-Murray scale of OCs was completed by maternal interview for each subject blind to the obstetric records. There was substantial agreement between maternal recall and birth records for the summary score of "definite" OCs, birth weight, and most of the individual items rated, with the exception of antepartum haemorrhage. There were no significant differences in the validity of recall or in errors of commission by mothers for affected and unaffected offspring. These findings indicate that several complications of pregnancy and delivery are accurately recalled by mother\\'s decades after they occurred. Furthermore, there is no indication that mothers are less accurate in recalling OCs for their affected offspring than their unaffected offspring. When comparing women with and without recall errors, we found those with recall errors to have significantly worse verbal memory than women without such errors. Assessing the cognition of participants in retrospective studies may allow future studies to increase the reliability of their data.

  8. Diagnostics of cognitive functions of treated clients with an anamnesis of long-term drug use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ond?ej Krup?ík

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Clients in treatment and aftercare programmes with a history of long-term abuse of substances like alcohol, cannabis, methamphetamine or heroin often exhibit serious problems while coming back to the working process and managing complex responsibilities and difficulties. It is very important to find a job in the aftercare process for many reasons. It is a source of living, it enables clients to plan their own housing, and it makes repayment of debts possible. Job is also important for establishing new social relations which are not connected with problematic drug environment. Last but not least employment contributes to a reconstruction of a healthy rhythm of life and meaningful spending of time. Thus it is very important for decreasing a probability of a relapse. This process can be disrupted by the deteriorated cognitive functioning. These problems may not be evident in an everyday life routine while talking with friends or performing automatic activities, but can be evident in demanding working tasks, because the job usually requires concentration, memory, decision making etc. The Goal of this study is an evaluation of potential benefits an individual cognitive performance assessment can have in treatment and aftercare. The paper summarizes pilot research in which a complete Neuro-psychological battery of diagnostic methods such as Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT, Verbal fluency Test (FAS, Trail Making Test (TMT, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF, Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT, Stroop Colour Word Test (SCWT and Numeric square is used for assessment of cognitive functions of a small sample of treated clients (N=24. We present two case histories with detailed results. In some cases, in line with the expectations, the worsened cognitive functioning is evident. We recommend a cognitive training focused on attention and memory for three clients. In other cases, surprisingly, we can find normal cognitive functions quality, but another obstruction for optimal performance, such as enhanced anxiety, can be detected. Probably, long-term drug abusers can have a larger tendency to be anxious, due to a problematical self-image and fighting other difficulties. An effect of comorbidity should also be taken into account. A depression or anxious syndromes or other common problems can take their part anyway. But it is important to notify that in our sample are not present any confirmed psychiatric diagnoses other than the syndrome of dependence. Standard aftercare programmes devote a lot of attention to another aspect of a treatment like psychosocial, physical and/or socioeconomic issues, but the cognitive assessment and the cognitive training is not a standard part of their effort. We believe that individualized and detailed assessment of cognitive functions of clients in the aftercare programmes can contribute to creating an optimal therapeutic plan which has a larger chance to be effective and successful. This paper is a pilot study for a more extensive quantitative study with larger number of clients in which we will try to compare specific effect of different kind of drugs. We would like to describe the long-term effect of abuse of drugs like alcohol, cannabis, methamphetamine and heroin. Negative effects of drugs for human cognitive functioning are evident. But we can't say that an effect of specific drugs itself is the only cause. Patterns of use, combinations with other substances, and effects of additives or regime of life and so on are also very important. From the point of view of methodology, this area is therefore rather problematic. We would like to bring more awareness of this theme using already tested battery of psychodiagnostic methods.

  9. Andra Environmental Specimen Bank: archiving the environmental chemical quality for long-term monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Elisabeth; d'Arbaumont, Maëlle; Verron, Jean-Patrick; Goldstein, Céline; Cesar, Frédérique; Dewonck, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    Andra Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) was established in 2010 as a part of the Perennial Observatory of the Environment (OPE), ongoing Long-Term Environmental Research Monitoring and Testing System located next to the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) at Bure, Meuse/Haute-Marne, France. The URL is used to study the deep geological disposal of high and intermediate level radioactive waste. Andra ESB is designed to archive during at least 100 years samples collected to define the initial state of environmental quality of the local area before the construction of industrial facilities and to ensure the traceability of long-term series of samples collected by the OPE ( http://www.andra.fr/ope ), using safe long-term conservation practices. Samples archived in the bank include some local food chain products (milk, cheese, honey, cereals, grass, cherry plum…) and specimen usually archived internationally to monitor the environmental quality (soil, sediment, water, fish, tree leaves, wild life, etc.). Regarding the different samples and analytical issues, three conservation modalities and facilities were designed: dry conservation under controlled temperature and humidity, cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen (LN2) vapor phase freezers (-150 °C) and in deep-freezing at -80 °C for temporary storage and raw samples before preparation. Andra ESB is equipped with a sample preparation clean room, certified ISO Class 5, dedicated to cryopreservation. This paper describes this first French experiment of long-term chemical quality monitoring and samples cryopreservation of different ecosystems and environmental compartments. PMID:24809491

  10. Environmental Management Long-Term Stewardship Transition Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after the completion of facility cleanup. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. This report describes the background of long-term stewardship and gives general guidance about considerations when ownership and/or responsibility of a site should be transferred to a long-term stewardship program. This guidance document will assist the U.S. Department of Energy in: (a) ensuring that the long-term stewardship program leads transition planning with respect to facility and site areas, and (b) describing the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete.

  11. Soil pyrogenic carbon lacks long-term persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfalla, Suzanne; Abiven, Samuel; Barré, Pierre; Wiedemeier, Daniel; Christensen, Bent; Houot, Sabine; Kätterer, Thomas; Macdonald, Andy; van Oort, Fok; Chenu, Claire

    2015-04-01

    In the context of climate change, one mitigation technique currently investigated is the use of pyrogenic organic carbon (PyOC) -which is biomass turned into charcoal- to sequester carbon in soils with the hypothesis that PyOC is persistent and will not be biodegraded (or mineralized). In this study, we use the unique opportunity offered by five long term bare fallow (LTBF) experiments across Europe (Askov in Denmark, Grignon and Versailles in France, Ultuna in Sweden and Rothamsted in the United Kingdom) to compare the dynamics of PyOC and soil organic carbon (SOC) in the same plots at the decadal time scale (from 25 to 80 years of bare fallow depending on the site). Bare fallow plots were regularly sampled throughout the bare fallow duration and these samples were carefully archived. In bare fallow plots, with negligible external carbon input and with continuing biodegradation, SOC is depleting. Using the Benzene Polycarboxylic Acid (BPCA) technique to estimate the PyOC quantity and quality in the soils at different sampling dates, we investigated if PyOC content was also decreasing and compared the rates of depletion of PyOC and SOC. We found that PyOC contents decreased rapidly in soils at all sites. The loss of PyOC between the first and the last soil sampling ranged from 19.8 to 57.3% of the initial PyOC content. Furthermore, PyOC quality exhibited a similar evolution at all sites, becoming more enriched in condensed material with time. We applied a one pool model with mono-exponential decay to our data and found an average mean residence time of native PyOC of 116 years across the different sites, with a standard deviation of 15 years, just 1.6 times longer than that of SOC. Our results show that, though having a longer residence time than total SOC, PyOC content can decrease rapidly in soils suggesting that the potential for long-term C storage in soil by PyOC amendments is less than currently anticipated. Our results therefore question the concept of biochar production as a climate change mitigation strategy.

  12. LONG TERM EFFECTS OF CANNABIS1

    OpenAIRE

    Sethi, B. B.; Trivedi, J. K.; Singh, Harjeet

    1981-01-01

    50 chronic cannabis users were studied for their physical, mental, cognitive and socio-economic aspects of health. They were given W.M.S., Bhatia Battery of intelligence and B.G.T. It was observed that only 12% provided clue for suspecting cognitive deficiency. No social breakdown phenomenon was observed in the sample. Also, no significant physical illness was detected in the subjects.

  13. Long-term persistence of various 14C-labeled pesticides in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fate of the 14C-labeled herbicides ethidimuron (ETD), methabenzthiazuron (MBT), and the fungicide anilazine (ANI) in soils was evaluated after long-term aging (9–17 years) in field based lysimeters subject to crop rotation. Analysis of residual 14C activity in the soils revealed 19% (ETD soil; 0–10 cm depth), 35% (MBT soil; 0–30), and 43% (ANI soil; 0–30) of the total initially applied. Accelerated solvent extraction yielded 90% (ETD soil), 26% (MBT soil), and 41% (ANI soil) of residual pesticide 14C activity in the samples. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed the parent compounds ETD and MBT, accounting for 3% and 2% of applied active ingredient in the soil layer, as well as dihydroxy-anilazine as the primary ANI metabolite. The results for ETD and MBT were matching with values obtained from samples of a 12 year old field plot experiment. The data demonstrate the long-term persistence of these pesticides in soils based on outdoor trials. - Highlights: ? The environmental persistence of three 14C-labeled pesticides in soils is presented. ? Extract analysis revealed the pesticides and metabolites after 9–17 years of aging. ? Pesticide residues may represent a long-term soil burden. ? The bioaccessibility and/or bioavailability of long-term aged pesticide residues remain unknown. - Residual fractions of the pesticides ethidimuron, methabenzthiazuron, and metabolites of anilazine are highly persistent in soils and persistent in soils and remain extractable after long-term environmental aging.

  14. Memory Training and Strategy Use in Older Adults: Results from the ACTIVE Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Alden L.; Rebok, George W.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the long-term effects of memory training in later life on strategy use. Data from the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study (n = 1,401) were used to describe strategy use in a community-dwelling sample of older adults. Strategy clustering scores on verbal list learning tasks of episodic memory were used to test the impact of memory training on strategy use and study longitudinal associations between strategy clustering, memory perfo...

  15. Autobiographical memory and psychological distress in a sample of upper-limb amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetti, Martina; Montebarocci, Ornella; Rossi, Nicolino; Cutti, Andrea G; Sutin, Angelina R

    2014-01-01

    Amputation is a traumatic and life-changing event that can take years to adjust to. The present study (a) examines psychological adjustment in a specific trauma-exposed sample, (b) compares the phenomenology (e.g., vividness) of amputation-related memories to more recent memories, and (c) tests whether memory phenomenology is associated with psychological distress. A total of 24 upper-limb amputees recalled two autobiographical memories--an amputation-related memory and a recent memory--and rated the phenomenological qualities of each memory, including Vividness, Coherence, Emotional Intensity, Visual Perspective, and Distancing. Participants also completed self-rated measures of psychological distress and personality. The sample was generally well adjusted; participants showed no relevant symptoms of anxiety and depression, and personality scores were similar to the general population. There were no significant differences in phenomenology between the two types of memories recalled. Even though amputation-related memories were, on average, almost 20 years older than the recent memories, they retained their intense phenomenology. Despite the intensity of the memory, none of the phenomenological dimensions were associated with psychological distress. It is worth to further define which dimensions of phenomenology characterize memories of traumatic events, and their association with individuals' psychological reactions. PMID:24924483

  16. ON TESTS FOR LONG-TERM DEPENDENCE: INDIA’S INTERNATIONAL TOURISM MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRASERT CHAITIP

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been growing interest in studying behaviour of long memory process in tourism market. In this research examine the behaviour of India’s international tourism market based on long-memory analysis. The international tourism market of India combined with nine countries. For example, tourists from USA, tourists from UK, tourists from Canada, tourists from Germany, tourists from France, tourists from Japan, tourists from Malaysia, tourists from Australia and tourists form Sri Lanka. Moreover, three statistical test for long-memory process such as R/S test, Modified R/S test and GPH-test are employed to test in these markets. The empirical findings in general provide more support for no long memory process or no long-term dependence in international tourism market of India.

  17. OBS development for long term observation in the Marmara Sea, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Narumi; Shimizu, Satoshi; Maekawa, Takuya; Kalafat, Dogan; Pinar, Ali; Citak, Seckin; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2015-04-01

    We have carried out a collaboration study between Japan and Turkey since 2013, which is one of SATREPS projects, "Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey". The main objective of this project is to reduce risk brought by earthquakes and tsunamis. In particular, the North Anatolian Fault system runs through the Marmara sea and it is expected that the seismic gap exists there according to past seismic studies. The details of seismicity distribution in the Marmara Sea is, however, still insufficient to construct fault model along the active faults. Therefore, we prepare ten ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) to realize long term observation. We aim to identify size and depth of seismogenic zones using micro seismicity. In addition, we need to cover relative broad area from off-shore Istanbul city to the western end of the Marmara Sea. To clear these conditions, OBS specifications we need are high dynamic range and low instrument noise to observe micro seismicity, low electrical consumption to realize long term observation of over one year, high cost performance to cover the broad area for OBS installation, low cost implementation, and good operability to treat by relatively small number of persons. All items, which are three components velocity sensor, batteries, a recorder, a GPS receiver, a transponder and its transducer to control OBS retrieval, a flasher and a beacon, are installed in the 17 inches glass sphere. The natural frequency of the velocity sensor is 4.5 Hz and the frequency range of our OBS is from 4.5 Hz to 250 Hz. Data sampling is selectable among 100 Hz, 250 Hz and 500 Hz. Because our OBS is deployed by free fall, accuracy of the OBS clock is essentially one of important factors, and it is less than 0.1 ppm. And the resolution of A/D conversion performed on the recorder is 24 bit and we keep the dynamic range of over 135 dB. These data is stored on a semiconductor memory and the capacity is over 300 days with 100 Hz sampling observation. We adopted noncontact charge using lithium ion batteries to reduce implementation cost. And we can charge batteries and transfer stored data without opening glass sphere. All parameters of each OBS are controlled using wireless LAN. In this presentation, we introduce details of OBS development for Japan-Turkey project.

  18. Foreign Ownership and Long-term Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Dorte; Thomsen, Steen

    2006-01-01

    Does foreign ownership enhance or decrease a firm's chances of survival? Over the 100 year period 1895-2001 this paper compares the survival of foreign subsidiaries in Denmark to a control sample matched by industry and firm size. We find that foreign-owned companies have higher survival probability. On average exit risk for domestic companies is 2.3 times higher than for foreign companies. First movers like Siemens, Philips, Kodak, Ford, GM or Goodyear have been active in the country for almost a century. Relative foreign survival increases with company age. However, the foreign survival advantage appears to be eroded by globalization, it decreases over time and disappears at the end of the century.

  19. Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energy’s (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOE’s long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOE’s cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

  20. Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embley, Robert W; Chadwick, William W; Baker, Edward T; Butterfield, David A; Resing, Joseph A; de Ronde, Cornel E J; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Lupton, John E; Juniper, S Kim; Rubin, Kenneth H; Stern, Robert J; Lebon, Geoffrey T; Nakamura, Ko-ichi; Merle, Susan G; Hein, James R; Wiens, Douglas A; Tamura, Yoshihiko

    2006-05-25

    Three-quarters of the Earth's volcanic activity is submarine, located mostly along the mid-ocean ridges, with the remainder along intraoceanic arcs and hotspots at depths varying from greater than 4,000 m to near the sea surface. Most observations and sampling of submarine eruptions have been indirect, made from surface vessels or made after the fact. We describe here direct observations and sampling of an eruption at a submarine arc volcano named NW Rota-1, located 60 km northwest of the island of Rota (Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands). We observed a pulsating plume permeated with droplets of molten sulphur disgorging volcanic ash and lapilli from a 15-m diameter pit in March 2004 and again in October 2005 near the summit of the volcano at a water depth of 555 m (depth in 2004). A turbid layer found on the flanks of the volcano (in 2004) at depths from 700 m to more than 1,400 m was probably formed by mass-wasting events related to the eruption. Long-term eruptive activity has produced an unusual chemical environment and a very unstable benthic habitat exploited by only a few mobile decapod species. Such conditions are perhaps distinctive of active arc and hotspot volcanoes. PMID:16724063