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Sample records for samples long-term memory

  1. Andra long term memory project - 59277

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Long term memory of repositories is required by safety, reversibility and social expectations. Thus Andra has implemented since 2010 a long-term memory project to reinforce and diversify its current arrangements in this field, as well as to explore opportunities to extend memory keeping over thousands years. The project includes opportunity studies of dedicated facilities. The 'Ecotheque' and 'Geotheque' projects contribute to memory respectively through environmental and geological samples preservation. The options of creating (i) an archive centre for Andra's interim and permanent archives, (ii) an artist center to study the contribution of arts to memory preservation, (iii) a museum of radioactive waste disposal history and technology (radium industry..., sea disposal, current solutions...) are considered. Other studies provided by the project examine our heritage. This includes the continuity of languages and symbolic systems, the continuity of writing and engraving methods, the archaeology of landscapes (memory of the earths evolution, multi-century memory of industrial and agricultural landscapes), the archaeology practices (how might a future archaeologist be interested in our current activity?), the preservation of historical sites and industrial memory, the continuity of institutional organizations, the memory and history of science evolution as well as broad history

  2. A cost of long-term memory in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Mery, Frederic; Kawecki, Tadeusz J

    2005-01-01

    Two distinct forms of consolidated associative memory are known in Drosophila: long-term memory and so-called anesthesia-resistant memory. Long-term memory is more stable, but unlike anesthesia-resistant memory, its formation requires protein synthesis. We show that flies induced to form long-term memory become more susceptible to extreme stress (such as desiccation). In contrast, induction of anesthesia-resistant memory had no detectable effect on desiccation resistance. This finding may hel...

  3. Long Term Immunological Memory to Vaccinia Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Halla Halldórsdóttir 1987

    2012-01-01

    The smallpox vaccine is a vaccine of considerable importance. It made the eradication of smallpox possible and has been shown to elicit humoral and cellular immunity that can last for over half a century. Due to concerns about smallpox being used as a biological weapon, the immune response to the vaccine is of considerable interest. In this study, long term B- and T-cell responses were investigated in individuals with extreme responses to the smallpox vaccine when they were immunised over thr...

  4. Long term memory in extreme returns of financial time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchnik, Lev; Bunde, Armin; Havlin, Shlomo

    2009-10-01

    It is well known that while daily price returns of financial markets are uncorrelated, their absolute values (‘volatility’) are long-term correlated. Here we provide evidence that certain subsequences of the returns themselves also exhibit long-term memory. These subsequences consist of maxima (or minima) of returns in consecutive time windows of R days. Our analysis shows that for both stocks and currency exchange rates, long-term correlations are significant for R?4. We argue that this long-term memory which is similar to that observed in volatility clustering sheds further insight on price dynamics that might be used for risk estimation.

  5. Long-term memories in online users' selecting activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xue; Hou, Lei; Stephen, Mutua; Yang, Huijie

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the long-term memory effect in the behavior of online users. Two user-oriented online movie systems are used in this study. Due to the short length of the series, the balanced estimation of diffusion entropy approach is used to evaluate scaling-invariance in selecting activities of users in the two online movie systems. Our results indicate that persistence (long-term memory) exists widely in the movie selecting series. However, there is generally significant difference between a user's objective and subjective behaviors. Additionally, statistically, the long-term memory depends on activity levels, as results show that the much more active a users' group, the stronger the long-term memory will be. These findings provide a new criterion for constructing reasonable models, and can help understand how individuals' behaviors form a collective behavior of an online society.

  6. Long-term memory impairment in patients with focal epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Christian; Elger, Christian E; Helmstaedter, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    In temporal lobe epilepsy, long-term memory disturbance starts early in life mainly affecting declarative memory. Primary impairment of episodic memory often results in reduced semantic and autobiographic memory. Neuropsychological performance predicts academic achievement and everyday life functioning while subjective memory complaints are highly correlated with depression. Memory impairment is also influenced by initial brain damage, developmental retardation and dynamic factors (e.g., seizure frequency, medication). Damage of functional tissue, low mental reserve capacity, and poor seizure outcome increase the risk for postsurgical memory impairment whereas functional release due to seizure freedom counteracts negative impact. Preliminary findings indicate that postsurgical training improves memory deficits and encourage further research. PMID:18047597

  7. Examining the Long-Term Stability of Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer A. Sumner; Mineka, Susan; Zinbarg, Richard E.; Craske, Michelle G; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Epstein, Alyssa

    2013-01-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a proposed trait-marker for vulnerability to depression, but relatively little work has examined its long-term stability. This study investigated the stability of OGM over several years in 271 late adolescents and young adults participating in a larger longitudinal study of risk for emotional disorders. The Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) was administered twice, with test-retest intervals ranging from approximately 3 to 6 years. There was eviden...

  8. Merging of long-term memories in an insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kathryn L; Chittka, Lars

    2015-03-16

    Research on comparative cognition has largely focused on successes and failures of animals to solve certain cognitive tasks, but in humans, memory errors can be more complex than simple failures to retrieve information [1, 2]. The existence of various types of "false memories," in which individuals remember events that they have never actually encountered, are now well established in humans [3, 4]. We hypothesize that such systematic memory errors may be widespread in animals whose natural lifestyle involves the processing and recollection of memories for multiple stimuli [5]. We predict that memory traces for various stimuli may "merge," such that features acquired in distinct bouts of training are combined in an animal's mind, so that stimuli that have never been viewed before, but are a combination of the features presented in training, may be chosen during recall. We tested this using bumblebees, Bombus terrestris. When individuals were first trained to a solid single-colored stimulus followed by a black and white (b/w)-patterned stimulus, a subsequent preference for the last entrained stimulus was found in both short-term- and long-term-memory tests. However, when bees were first trained to b/w-patterned stimuli followed by solid single-colored stimuli and were tested in long-term-memory tests 1 or 3 days later, they only initially preferred the most recently rewarded stimulus, and then switched their preference to stimuli that combined features from the previous color and pattern stimuli. The observed merging of long-term memories is thus similar to the memory conjunction error found in humans [6]. PMID:25728692

  9. A quantitative proteomic analysis of long-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenegger David

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Memory is the ability to store, retain, and later retrieve learned information. Long-term memory (LTM formation requires: DNA transcription, RNA translation, and the trafficking of newly synthesized proteins. Several components of these processes have already been identified. However, due to the complexity of the memory formation process, there likely remain many yet to be identified proteins involved in memory formation and persistence. Results Here we use a quantitative proteomic method to identify novel memory-associated proteins in neural tissue taken from animals that were trained in vivo to form a long-term memory. We identified 8 proteins that were significantly up-regulated, and 13 that were significantly down-regulated in the LTM trained animals as compared to two different control groups. In addition we found 19 proteins unique to the trained animals, and 12 unique proteins found only in the control animals. Conclusions These results both confirm the involvement of previously identified memory proteins such as: protein kinase C (PKC, adenylate cyclase (AC, and proteins in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway. In addition these results provide novel protein candidates (e.g. UHRF1 binding protein on which to base future studies.

  10. Long-term memory in electricity prices: Czech market evidence.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav; Lu?á?ková, P.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 63, ?. 5 (2013), s. 407-424. ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA402/09/0965 Grant ostatní: GA ?R(CZ) GAP402/11/0948 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : electricity * long-term memory Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.358, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/kristoufek-0427660.pdf

  11. Infants long-term memory for complex music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz; Polka, Linda; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2002-05-01

    In this study we examined infants' long-term memory for two complex pieces of music. A group of thirty 7.5 month-old infants was exposed daily to one short piano piece (i.e., either the Prelude or the Forlane by Maurice Ravel) for ten consecutive days. Following the 10-day exposure period there was a two-week retention period in which no exposure to the piece occurred. After the retention period, infants were tested on the Headturn Preference Procedure. At test, 8 different excerpts of the familiar piece were mixed with 8 different foil excerpts of the unfamiliar one. Infants showed a significant preference for the familiar piece of music. A control group of fifteen nonexposed infants was also tested and showed no preferences for either piece of music. These results suggest that infants in the exposure group retained the familiar music in their long-term memory. This was demonstrated by their ability to discriminate between the different excerpts of both the familiar and the unfamiliar pieces of music, and by their preference for the familiar piece. Confirming previous findings (Jusczyk and Hohne, 1993; Saffran et al., 2000), in this study we suggest that infants can retain complex pieces of music in their long-term memory for two weeks.

  12. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Haney

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  13. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used to determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality

  14. Greater emotional arousal predicts poorer long-term memory of communication skills in couples

    OpenAIRE

    Baucom, Brian R.; Weusthoff, Sarah; Atkins, David; Hahlweg, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have examined the importance of learning skills in behaviorally based couple interventions but none have examined predictors of long-term memory for skills. Associations between emotional arousal and long-term recall of communication skills delivered to couples during a behaviorally based relationship distress prevention program were examined in a sample of 49 German couples. Fundamental frequency (f0), a vocal measure of encoded emotional arousal, was measured during pre-treatme...

  15. Emotional Context and Visual Long-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weizhen; Zhang, Weiwei

    2015-09-01

    Emotion exerts great impacts on memory. For instance, negative emotions can enhance memory encoding or reduce retrieval-induced forgetting. In addition, congruent mood states between encoding and retrieval (e.g., negative emotions at both stages) can also improve memory performance relative to incongruent mood states (e.g., negative emotion in encoding, but positive encoding in retrieval). However, it is unclear whether mood congruency between memory retrieval and encoding increases the probability of successful retrieval or enhance the quality of retrieved memory representations. The current study directly tested these two hypotheses using a visual long-term memory recall task. In the study phase, participants remembered a sequence of colorful objects. Each object was presented on top of a gray-scale negative image from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Participants gave a valence rating for each IAPS image for emotion induction. In the test phase, participants reconstructed the colors of the previously studied objects by continuously adjusting their colors under negative or positive emotional contexts using the same emotion induction procedure as that from the study phase. Negative IAPS images used for the negative emotional context were different from, but with matched valence as, those in the study phase. Positive images for the positive emotional context had comparable arousal levels as negative images. We found that memories encoded in negative context but retrieved in positive context (the incongruent condition) were less precise than memories encoded and retrieved both in negative context (the congruent condition). In contrast, no significant difference in the probability of successful retrieval was found between the two conditions. Follow-up experiments ruled out alternative interpretations that either negative emotion or positive emotion at the retrieval alone could account for the memory quality effects observed in the first experiment. Taken together, the present results support a resolution account for mood-congruency memory effect. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325776

  16. Long-term memory of heterospecific vocalizations by African lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinnell, Jon; van Dyk, Gus; Slotow, Rob

    2005-09-01

    Animals that use and evaluate long-distance signals have the potential to glean valuable information about others in their environment via eavesdropping. In those areas where they coexist, African lions (Panthera leo) are a significant eavesdropper on spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), often using hyena vocalizations to locate and scavenge from hyena kills. This relationship was used to test African lions' long-term memory of the vocalizations of spotted hyenas via playback experiments. Hyena whoops and a control sound (Canis lupus howls) were played to three populations of lions in South Africa: (1) lions with past experience of spotted hyenas; (2) lions with current experience; and (3) lions with no experience. The results strongly suggest that lions have the cognitive ability to remember the vocalizations of spotted hyenas even after 10 years with no contact of any kind with them. Such long-term memory of heterospecific vocalizations may be widespread in species that gain fitness benefits from eavesdropping on others, but where such species are sympatric and often interact it may pass unrecognized as short-term memory instead.

  17. Accessing forgotten memory traces from long-term memory via visual movements

    OpenAIRE

    Càmara, Estela; Fuentemilla, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Because memory retrieval often requires overt responses, it is difficult to determine to what extend forgetting occurs as a problem in explicit accessing of long-term memory traces. In this study, we used eye-tracking measures in combination with a behavioral task that favored high forgetting rates to investigate the existence of memory traces from long-term memory in spite of failure in accessing them consciously. In two experiments, participants were encouraged to encode a large set of soun...

  18. Shared component processes in working memory and long-term memory : Insights from functional brain imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Marklund, Petter

    2004-01-01

    Marklund, P. (2004). Shared component processes in working memory and long-term memory: Insights from functional brain imaging. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, S-901 87 Umeå SwedenRecent findings from functional neuroimaging studies have shown pronounced similarities in the functional brain activity patterns associated with tests of various cognitive functions. This thesis investigates shared component processes in working memory and declarative long-term memory. Study 1 showed a c...

  19. Non-Climate Long Term Memory in Tree Ring Proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Yuan, Naiming; Luterbacher, Juerg; Xoplaki, Elena; Werner, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Long term memory (LTM) scaling behavior in tree-ring proxies and regional mean temperature/rainfall reconstructions has been analyzed and compared with the ones found in instrumental temperature and rainfall records. Detrended fluctuation analysis is employed to detect LTM, and its scaling exponent ? is used to measure LTM. The results show mean ? = 0.8 in tree-ring width records, and mean ? = 0.7 in tree-ring maximum density from 1yr up to 100yrs, while ? ˜ 0.6 (? = 0.5) is found in instrumental data of temperature (rainfall). By comparing the no-memory data (? = 0.5) with data with artificial LTM (? > 0.5), we demonstrate the potential influences of LTM on climate reconstructions and call special cautions in the variability analysis of proxy chronologies or reconstructions, especially in quantifying: i) trends; ii) climate anomalies; iii) extreme events.

  20. Examining the long-term stability of overgeneral autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Mineka, Susan; Zinbarg, Richard E; Craske, Michelle G; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Epstein, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a proposed trait-marker for vulnerability to depression, but relatively little work has examined its long-term stability. This study investigated the stability of OGM over several years in 271 late adolescents and young adults participating in a larger longitudinal study of risk for emotional disorders. The Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) was administered twice, with test-retest intervals ranging from approximately 3 to 6 years. There was evidence of significant but modest stability in OGM over several years. Specifically, Spearman rank correlations (?s) between the proportions of specific and categoric memories generated on the two AMTs were .31 and .32, respectively. We did not find evidence that the stability of OGM was moderated by the length of the test-retest interval. Furthermore, the stability coefficients for OGM for individuals with and without a lifetime history of major depressive disorder (MDD) were relatively similar in magnitude and not significantly different from one another (?s=.34 and .42 for the proportions of specific and categoric memories for those with a history of MDD; ?s=.31 for both the proportions of specific and categoric memories for those without a history of MDD). Implications for the conceptualisation of OGM are discussed. PMID:23439226

  1. Modified climate with long term memory in tree ring proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Yuan, Naiming; Esper, Jan; Werner, Johannes P.; Xoplaki, Elena; Büntgen, Ulf; Treydte, Kerstin; Luterbacher, Jürg

    2015-08-01

    Long term memory (LTM) scaling behavior in worldwide tree-ring proxies and subsequent climate reconstructions is analyzed for and compared with the memory structure inherent to instrumental temperature and precipitation data. Detrended fluctuation analysis is employed to detect LTM, and its scaling exponent α is used to evaluate LTM. The results show that temperature and precipitation reconstructions based on ring width measurements (mean α =0.8) contain more memory than records based on maximum latewood density (mean α =0.7). Both exceed the memory inherent to regional instrumental data (α =0.6 for temperature, α =0.5 for precipitation) in the time scales ranging from 1 year up to 50 years. We compare memory-free (α =0.5) pseudo-instrumental precipitation data with pseudo-reconstructed precipitation data with LTM (α \\gt 0.5), and demonstrate the biasing influences of LTM on climate reconstructions. We call for attention to statistical analysis with regard to the variability of proxy-based chronologies or reconstructions, particularly with respect to the contained (i) trends, (ii) past warm/cold period and wet/dry periods; and (iii) extreme events.

  2. Working Memory, Long-Term Memory, and Medial Temporal Lobe Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeneson, Annette; Squire, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    Early studies of memory-impaired patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage led to the view that the hippocampus and related MTL structures are involved in the formation of long-term memory and that immediate memory and working memory are independent of these structures. This traditional idea has recently been revisited. Impaired performance…

  3. Making long-term memories in minutes: a time pattern from memory research in education

    OpenAIRE

    PaulKelley; TerryWhatson

    2013-01-01

    Memory systems select from environmental stimuli those to encode permanently. Repeated stimuli separated by timed spaces without stimuli can initiate Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) and long-term memory (LTM) encoding. These processes occur in time scales of minutes, and has been demonstrated in many species. This study reports on using a specific timed pattern of three repeated stimuli separated by ten-minute spaces drawn from both behavioural and laboratory studies of LTP and LTM encoding. ...

  4. Long-term memory of individual identity in ant queens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Stephanie; van Zweden, Jelle S; D'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2007-10-22

    Remembering individual identities is part of our own everyday social life. Surprisingly, this ability has recently been shown in two social insects. While paper wasps recognize each other individually through their facial markings, the ant, Pachycondyla villosa, uses chemical cues. In both species, individual recognition is adaptive since it facilitates the maintenance of stable dominance hierarchies among individuals, and thus reduces the cost of conflict within these small societies. Here, we investigated individual recognition in Pachycondyla ants by quantifying the level of aggression between pairs of familiar or unfamiliar queens over time. We show that unrelated founding queens of P. villosa and Pachycondyla inversa store information on the individual identity of other queens and can retrieve it from memory after 24h of separation. Thus, we have documented for the first time that long-term memory of individual identity is present and functional in ants. This novel finding represents an advance in our understanding of the mechanism determining the evolution of cooperation among unrelated individuals. PMID:17594958

  5. Modulation of working memory updating: Does long-term memory lexical association matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artuso, Caterina; Palladino, Paola

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how working memory updating for verbal material is modulated by enduring properties of long-term memory. Two coexisting perspectives that account for the relation between long-term representation and short-term performance were addressed. First, evidence suggests that performance is more closely linked to lexical properties, that is, co-occurrences within the language. Conversely, other evidence suggests that performance is linked more to long-term representations which do not entail lexical/linguistic representations. Our aim was to investigate how these two kinds of long-term memory associations (i.e., lexical or nonlexical) modulate ongoing working memory activity. Therefore, we manipulated (between participants) the strength of the association in letters based on either frequency of co-occurrences (lexical) or contiguity along the sequence of the alphabet (nonlexical). Results showed a cost in working memory updating for strongly lexically associated stimuli only. Our findings advance knowledge of how lexical long-term memory associations between consonants affect working memory updating and, in turn, contribute to the study of factors which impact the updating process across memory systems. PMID:26323831

  6. Observation of long term potentiation in papain-based memory devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bag, A.

    2014-06-01

    Biological synaptic behavior in terms of long term potentiation has been observed in papain-based (plant protein) memory devices (memristors) for the first time. Improvement in long term potentiation depends on pulse amplitude and width (duration). Continuous/repetitive dc voltage sweep leads to an increase in memristor conductivity leading to a long term memory in the \\'learning\\' processes.

  7. DNA Methylation Mediates the Discriminatory Power of Associative Long-Term Memory in Honeybees

    OpenAIRE

    Biergans, Stephanie D.; Jones, Julia C; Treiber, Nadine; Galizia, Giovanni; Szyszka, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Memory is created by several interlinked processes in the brain, some of which require long-term gene regulation. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely candidates for regulating memory-related genes. Among these, DNA methylation is known to be a long lasting genomic mark and may be involved in the establishment of long-term memory. Here we demonstrate that DNA methyltransferases, which induce and maintain DNA methylation, are involved in a particular aspect of associative long-term memory formatio...

  8. Working memory, long-term memory, and medial temporal lobe function

    OpenAIRE

    Jeneson, Annette; Squire, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    Early studies of memory-impaired patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage led to the view that the hippocampus and related MTL structures are involved in the formation of long-term memory and that immediate memory and working memory are independent of these structures. This traditional idea has recently been revisited. Impaired performance in patients with MTL lesions on tasks with short retention intervals, or no retention interval, and neuroimaging findings with similar tasks have be...

  9. Accessing forgotten memory traces from long-term memory via visual movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Camara

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Because memory retrieval often requires overt responses, it is difficult to determine to what extend forgetting occurs as a problem in explicit accessing of long-term memory traces. In this study, we used eye-tracking measures in combination with a behavioural task that favoured high forgetting rates to investigate the existence of memory traces from long-term memory in spite of failure in accessing them consciously. In 2 experiments, participants were encouraged to encode a large set of sound-picture-location associations. In a later test, sounds were presented and participants were instructed to visually scan, before a verbal memory report, for the correct location of the associated pictures in an empty screen. We found the reactivation of associated memories by sound cues at test biased oculomotor behaviour towards locations congruent with memory representations, even when participants failed to consciously provide a memory report of it. These findings reveal the emergence of a memory-guided behaviour that can be used to map internal representations of forgotten memories from long-term memory.

  10. Musical and Verbal Memory in Alzheimer's Disease: A Study of Long-Term and Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Marie-Claude; Belleville, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Musical memory was tested in Alzheimer patients and in healthy older adults using long-term and short-term memory tasks. Long-term memory (LTM) was tested with a recognition procedure using unfamiliar melodies. Short-term memory (STM) was evaluated with same/different judgment tasks on short series of notes. Musical memory was compared to verbal…

  11. Enhanced long-term memory encoding after parietal neurostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin T; Gözenman, Filiz; Berryhill, Marian E

    2014-12-01

    Neurostimulation, e.g., transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), shows promise as an effective cognitive intervention. In spite of low spatial resolution, limited penetration, and temporary influence, evidence highlights tDCS-linked cognitive benefits in a range of cognitive domains. The left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is an accessible node in frontoparietal networks engaged during long-term memory (LTM). Here, we tested the hypothesis that tDCS can facilitate LTM by pairing LTM encoding and retrieval with PPC stimulation. Healthy young adults performed a verbal LTM task (California Verbal Learning Task) with four different stimulation parameters. In Experiment 1, we applied tDCS to left PPC during LTM encoding. In Experiment 2, we applied tDCS just prior to retrieval to test the temporal specificity of tDCS during a LTM task. In later experiments, we tested hemispheric specificity by replicating Experiment 1 while stimulating the right PPC. Experiment 1 showed that tDCS applied during LTM encoding improved the pace of list learning and enhanced retrieval after a short delay. Experiment 2 indicated anodal left PPC tDCS only improved LTM when applied during encoding, and not during maintenance. Experiments 3 and 4 confirmed that tDCS effects were hemisphere specific and that no effects were found after right PPC stimulation during encoding. These findings indicate that anodal tDCS to the PPC helps verbal LTM in healthy young adults under certain conditions. First, when it is applied to the left, not the right, PPC and second, when it is applied during encoding. PMID:25200180

  12. Memory Functioning in Children with Reading Disabilities and/or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Clinical Investigation of Their Working Memory and Long-term Memory Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Kibby, Michelle Y.; Morris J. Cohen

    2008-01-01

    We examined memory functioning in children with reading disabilities (RD), ADHD, and RD/ADHD using a clinic sample with a clinical instrument: the Children’s Memory Scale, enhancing its generalizability. Participants included 23 children with RD, 30 with ADHD, 30 with RD/ADHD, and 30 controls. Children with RD presented with reduced verbal short-term memory (STM) but intact visual STM, central executive (CE) and long-term memory (LTM) functioning. Their deficit in STM appeared specific to tas...

  13. Short- and long-term memory: differential involvement of neurotransmitter systems and signal transduction cascades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÔNICA R.M. VIANNA

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Since William James (1890 first distinguished primary from secondary memory, equivalent to short- and long-term memory, respectively, it has been assumed that short-term memory processes are in charge of cognition while long-term memory is being consolidated. From those days a major question has been whether short-term memory is merely a initial phase of long-term memory, or a separate phenomena. Recent experiments have shown that many treatments with specific molecular actions given into the hippocampus and related brain areas after one-trial avoidance learning can effectively cancel short-term memory without affecting long-term memory formation. This shows that short-term memory and long-term memory involve separate mechanisms and are independently processed. Other treatments, however, influence both memory types similarly, suggesting links between both at the receptor and at the post-receptor level, which should not be surprising as they both deal with nearly the same sensorimotor representations. This review examines recent advances in short- and long-term memory mechanisms based on the effect of intra-hippocampal infusion of drugs acting upon neurotransmitter and signal transduction systems on both memory types.

  14. Deficits in Long-Term Recognition Memory Reveal Dissociated Subtypes in Congenital Prosopagnosia

    OpenAIRE

    Stollhoff, Rainer; Jost, Jürgen; Elze, Tobias; Kennerknecht, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    The study investigates long-term recognition memory in congenital prosopagnosia (CP), a lifelong impairment in face identification that is present from birth. Previous investigations of processing deficits in CP have mostly relied on short-term recognition tests to estimate the scope and severity of individual deficits. We firstly report on a controlled test of long-term (one year) recognition memory for faces and objects conducted with a large group of participants with CP. Long-term recogni...

  15. Distinct dopamine neurons mediate reward signals for short- and long-term memories

    OpenAIRE

    Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Ichinose, Toshiharu; Aso, Yoshinori; Plaçais, Pierre-Yves; Friedrich, Anja B.; Sima, Richard J.; Preat, Thomas; Rubin, Gerald M.; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2014-01-01

    A biologically relevant event such as finding food under starvation conditions or being poisoned can drive long-term memory (LTM) in a single training session. Neuronal mechanisms by which such a strong reward or punishment induces stable memory are poorly understood. Here we show that distinct subsets of dopamine neurons signal reward for short- and long-term appetitive memories in Drosophila. The temporal dynamics of memory components triggered by the distinct reward signals are complementa...

  16. They Saw a Movie: Long-Term Memory for an Extended Audiovisual Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Orit; Dorfman, Nimrod; Hasson, Uri; Davachi, Lila; Dudai, Yadin

    2007-01-01

    We measured long-term memory for a narrative film. During the study session, participants watched a 27-min movie episode, without instructions to remember it. During the test session, administered at a delay ranging from 3 h to 9 mo after the study session, long-term memory for the movie was probed using a computerized questionnaire that assessed…

  17. Late Protein Synthesis-Dependent Phases in CTA Long-Term Memory: BDNF Requirement

    OpenAIRE

    MarthaLEscobar

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that long-term memory persistence requires a late protein synthesis-dependent phase, even many hours after memory acquisition. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an essential protein synthesis product that has emerged as one of the most potent molecular mediators for long-term synaptic plasticity. Studies in the rat hippocampus have been shown that BDNF is capable to rescue the late-phase of long-term potentiation as well as the hippocampus-related long-term memo...

  18. Long-term memory stabilized by noise-induced rehearsal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yi; Koulakov, Alexei A

    2014-11-19

    Cortical networks can maintain memories for decades despite the short lifetime of synaptic strengths. Can a neural network store long-lasting memories in unstable synapses? Here, we study the effects of ongoing spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) on the stability of memory patterns stored in synapses of an attractor neural network. We show that certain classes of STDP rules can stabilize all stored memory patterns despite a short lifetime of synapses. In our model, unstructured neural noise, after passing through the recurrent network connections, carries the imprint of all memory patterns in temporal correlations. STDP, combined with these correlations, leads to reinforcement of all stored patterns, even those that are never explicitly visited. Our findings may provide the functional reason for irregular spiking displayed by cortical neurons and justify models of system memory consolidation. Therefore, we propose that irregular neural activity is the feature that helps cortical networks maintain stable connections. PMID:25411507

  19. Excess protein synthesis in Drosophila Fragile X mutants impairs long-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bolduc, François V.; Bell, Kimberly; Cox, Hilary; Broadie, Kendal; Tully, Tim

    2008-01-01

    We used Drosophila olfactory memory in order to understand in vivo the molecular basis of cognitive defect in Fragile X syndrome. We observed that Fragile X protein (FMRP) was required acutely and interacted with argonaute1 and staufen in long-term memory (LTM). Occlusion of long-term memory formation in Fragile X mutants could be rescued by protein synthesis inhibitors, suggesting that excess baseline protein synthesis could impact negatively on cognition.

  20. Anomalous Fluctuations in Autoregressive Models with Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Honjo, Haruo

    2015-10-01

    An autoregressive model with a power-law type memory kernel is studied as a stochastic process that exhibits a self-affine-fractal-like behavior for a small time scale. We find numerically that the root-mean-square displacement ?(m) for the time interval m increases with a power law as m? with ? memory kernel.

  1. Word Length Effects in Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehan, Gerald; Tolan, Georgina Anne

    2007-01-01

    The word length effect has been a central feature of theorising about immediate memory. The notion that short-term memory traces rapidly decay unless refreshed by rehearsal is based primarily upon the finding that serial recall for short words is better than that for long words. The decay account of the word length effect has come under pressure…

  2. Lateral Habenula determines long-term storage of aversive memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micol Tomaiuolo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Lateral Habenula (LHb is a small brain structure that codifies negative motivational value and has been related to major depression. It has been shown recently that LHb activation is sufficient to induce aversive associative learning; however the key question about whether LHb activation is required for an aversive memory to be formed has not been addressed. In this article we studied the function of the LHb in memory formation using the Inhibitory Avoidance task (IA. We found that LHb inactivation during IA training does not disrupt memory when assessed 24 hours after, but abolishes it 7 days later, indicating that LHb activity during memory acquisition is not necessary for memory formation, but regulates its temporal stability. These effects suggest that LHb inactivation modifies subjective perception of the training experience.

  3. Lateral Habenula determines long-term storage of aversive memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaiuolo, Micol; Gonzalez, Carolina; Medina, Jorge H.; Piriz, Joaquin

    2014-01-01

    The Lateral Habenula (LHb) is a small brain structure that codifies negative motivational value and has been related to major depression. It has been shown recently that LHb activation is sufficient to induce aversive associative learning; however the key question about whether LHb activation is required for an aversive memory to be formed has not been addressed. In this article we studied the function of the LHb in memory formation using the Inhibitory Avoidance task (IA). We found that LHb inactivation during IA training does not disrupt memory when assessed 24 h after, but abolishes it 7 days later, indicating that LHb activity during memory acquisition is not necessary for memory formation, but regulates its temporal stability. These effects suggest that LHb inactivation modifies subjective perception of the training experience. PMID:24860453

  4. Narrative organisation at encoding facilitated children's long-term episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Bui, Van-Kim; Song, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of narrative organisation at encoding on long-term episodic memory in a sample of five- to seven-year-old children (N = 113). At an initial interview, children were asked to narrate a story from a picture book. Six months later, they were interviewed again and asked to recall the story and answer a series of direct questions about the story. Children who initially encoded more information in narrative and produced more complete, complex, cohesive and coherent narratives remembered the story in greater detail and accuracy following the six-month interval, independent of age and verbal skills. The relation between narrative organisation and memory was consistent across culture and gender. These findings provide new insight into the critical role of narrative in episodic memory. PMID:24786637

  5. Early calcium increase triggers the formation of olfactory long-term memory in honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Yukihisa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synaptic plasticity associated with an important wave of gene transcription and protein synthesis underlies long-term memory processes. Calcium (Ca2+ plays an important role in a variety of neuronal functions and indirect evidence suggests that it may be involved in synaptic plasticity and in the regulation of gene expression correlated to long-term memory formation. The aim of this study was to determine whether Ca2+ is necessary and sufficient for inducing long-term memory formation. A suitable model to address this question is the Pavlovian appetitive conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex in the honeybee Apis mellifera, in which animals learn to associate an odor with a sucrose reward. Results By modulating the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i in the brain, we show that: (i blocking [Ca2+]i increase during multiple-trial conditioning selectively impairs long-term memory performance; (ii conversely, increasing [Ca2+]i during single-trial conditioning triggers long-term memory formation; and finally, (iii as was the case for long-term memory produced by multiple-trial conditioning, enhancement of long-term memory performance induced by a [Ca2+]i increase depends on de novo protein synthesis. Conclusion Altogether our data suggest that during olfactory conditioning Ca2+ is both a necessary and a sufficient signal for the formation of protein-dependent long-term memory. Ca2+ therefore appears to act as a switch between short- and long-term storage of learned information.

  6. Anomalous Fluctuations in Autoregressive Models with Long-Term Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu

    2015-01-01

    An autoregressive model with a power-law type memory kernel is studied as a stochastic process that exhibits a self-affine-fractal-like behavior for a small time scale. We find numerically that the root-mean-square displacement for the time interval increases with a power law for small time but saturates at sufficiently large time. The exponent changes with the power exponent of the memory kernel.

  7. Merging of Long-Term Memories in an Insect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Louise Hunt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The way in which we process sensory input and our ability to store it in memory and subsequently recall it to enable modification of our behaviour appropriate to the current situation, has long been of interest. The degree to which memories for multiple inputs within the same sensory domain affect the recall of one another has been widely studied in humans, with interference theory and the use of the misinformation effect to produce false memories now widely accepted. However aside from some evidence for the effect of interference on memory, it is still largely unknown to what extent memories for multiple stimuli may affect recall of one another and in what way this may occur in non-human animals. We hypothesise that the memory traces for multiple stimuli may ‘merge’, such that features acquired in distinct bouts of training are combined in an animals mind, so that stimuli that have actually never been viewed before, but are a combination of the features presented in training may be chosen during memory recall. We tested this using the bumblebee Bombus terrestris as a model due to its excellent memory for colours and patterns, such as those of flowers and their capacity to learn multiple stimuli. A reversal learning paradigm was used to train bees to a b/w- patterned stimulus followed by a solid single-colour stimulus. Bees were then tested at one of three time intervals post-learning using both of the original stimuli and a ‘merged’ stimulus, combining elements of both the training stimuli without being identical to either one. Twenty-four hours after training, bees initially selected the last rewarded stimulus and the ’merged’ stimulus with the highest frequency. Our analysis showed that over the course of the test, preference switched from initially being for the last rewarded stimulus, to the ‘merged’ stimulus. This was the result of a genuine confusion or ‘merging’ of the information from the memory traces of both training stimuli and not just due to a generalisation to the training colour. When a different, non-relevant pattern was used in training but the same ‘merged’ stimulus was displayed in the test, bees selected only the last rewarded stimulus: colour with the highest frequency, with no stimulus switching over the course of the test. This is the first example of memory ’merging’ in a non-human animal.

  8. Biased Competition during Long-term Memory Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, J Benjamin; Pak, Sarah S; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2016-01-01

    A key task for the brain is to determine which pieces of information are worth storing in memory. To build a more complete representation of the environment, memory systems may prioritize new information that has not already been stored. Here, we propose a mechanism that supports this preferential encoding of new information, whereby prior experience attenuates neural activity for old information that is competing for processing. We evaluated this hypothesis with fMRI by presenting a series of novel stimuli concurrently with repeated stimuli at different spatial locations in Experiment 1 and from different visual categories (i.e., faces and scenes) in Experiment 2. Subsequent memory for the novel stimuli could be predicted from the reduction in activity in ventral temporal cortex for the accompanying repeated stimuli. This relationship was eliminated in control conditions where the competition during encoding came from another novel stimulus. These findings reveal how prior experience adaptively guides learning toward new aspects of the environment. PMID:26439270

  9. Massive memory revisited: Limitations on storage capacity for object details in visual long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Corbin A; Yassa, Michael A; Egeth, Howard E

    2015-11-01

    Previous work suggests that visual long-term memory (VLTM) is highly detailed and has a massive capacity. However, memory performance is subject to the effects of the type of testing procedure used. The current study examines detail memory performance by probing the same memories within the same subjects, but using divergent probing methods. The results reveal that while VLTM representations are typically sufficient to support performance when the procedure probes gist-based information, they are not sufficient in circumstances when the procedure requires more detail. We show that VLTM capacity, albeit large, is heavily reliant on gist as well as detail. Thus, the nature of the mnemonic representations stored in VLTM is important in understanding its capacity limitations. PMID:26472646

  10. GABA-Mediated Presynaptic Inhibition Is Required for Precision of Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Patrick K.; Dulka, Brooke N.; Ortiz, Samantha; Riccio, David C.; Jasnow, Aaron M.

    2014-01-01

    Though much attention has been given to the neural structures that underlie the long-term consolidation of contextual memories, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of memory precision. Here, we demonstrate a rapid time-dependent decline in memory precision in GABA [subscript B(1a)] receptor knockout mice. First, we…

  11. Fatty-Acid Binding Proteins Modulate Sleep and Enhance Long-Term Memory Consolidation in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Gerstner, Jason R.; Vanderheyden, William M; Shaw, Paul J.; LANDRY, CHARLES F.; Yin, Jerry C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is thought to be important for memory consolidation, since sleep deprivation has been shown to interfere with memory processing. However, the effects of augmenting sleep on memory formation are not well known, and testing the role of sleep in memory enhancement has been limited to pharmacological and behavioral approaches. Here we test the effect of overexpressing the brain-type fatty acid binding protein (Fabp7) on sleep and long-term memory (LTM) formation in Drosophila melanogaster. ...

  12. Debra, a Protein Mediating Lysosomal Degradation, Is Required for Long-Term Memory in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Kottler, Benjamin; Lampin-Saint-Amaux, Aurélie; Comas, Daniel; Preat, Thomas; Goguel, Valérie

    2011-01-01

    A central goal of neuroscience is to understand how neural circuits encode memory and guide behavior changes. Many of the molecular mechanisms underlying memory are conserved from flies to mammals, and Drosophila has been used extensively to study memory processes. To identify new genes involved in long-term memory, we screened Drosophila enhancer-trap P(Gal4) lines showing Gal4 expression in the mushroom bodies, a specialized brain structure involved in olfactory memory. This screening led t...

  13. Long-term memory of individual identity in ant queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Stéphanie Agnès Jeanine; Van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; D'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2007-01-01

    of familiar or unfamiliar queens over time. We show that unrelated founding queens of P. villosa and Pachycondyla inversa store information on the individual identity of other queens and can retrieve it from memory after 24h of separation. Thus, we have documented for the first time that long...

  14. Regular Rehearsal Helps in Consolidation of Long Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Milind Parle; Nirmal Singh1; Mani Vasudevan

    2006-01-01

    Memory, one of the most complex functions of the brain comprises of multiple components such as perception, registration, consolidation, storage, retrieval and decay. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of different training sessions on the retention capacity of rats. The capacity of retention of learnt task was measured using exteroceptive behavioral models such as Hexagonal swimming pool apparatus, Hebb-Williams maze and Elevated plus-maze. A total of 150 rats divided in...

  15. Insulin signaling is acutely required for long-term memory in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Daniel B.; Androschuk, Alaura; Rosenfelt, Cory; Langer, Steven; Harding, Mark; Bolduc, Francois V

    2015-01-01

    Memory formation has been shown recently to be dependent on energy status in Drosophila. A well-established energy sensor is the insulin signaling (InS) pathway. Previous studies in various animal models including human have revealed the role of insulin levels in short-term memory but its role in long-term memory remains less clear. We therefore investigated genetically the spatial and temporal role of InS using the olfactory learning and long-term memory model in Drosophila. We found that In...

  16. Post-Training Intrahippocampal Inhibition of Class I Histone Deacetylases Enhances Long-Term Object-Location Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Joshua D.; Florian, Cedrick; Abel, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Long-term memory formation involves covalent modification of the histone proteins that package DNA. Reducing histone acetylation by mutating histone acetyltransferases impairs long-term memory, and enhancing histone acetylation by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) improves long-term memory. Previous studies using HDAC inhibitors to enhance…

  17. Long-Term Episodic Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowronek, Jeffrey S.; Leichtman, Michelle D.; Pillemer, David B.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-nine grade-matched 4th-8th-grade males, 12 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (age M = 12.2 years, SD = 1.48), and 17 without (age M = 11.5, SD = 1.59), completed two working memory tasks (digit span and the Simon game) and three long-term episodic memory tasks (a personal event memory task, story memory task, and picture…

  18. Individual Differences in the Effects of Retrieval from Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gene A.; Unsworth, Nash

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined individual differences in the effects of retrieval from long-term memory (i.e., the testing effect). The effects of retrieving from memory make tested information more accessible for future retrieval attempts. Despite the broad applied ramifications of such a potent memorization technique there is a paucity of research…

  19. Hormonal and Monoamine Signaling during Reinforcement of Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation and Memory Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korz, Volker; Frey, Julietta U.

    2007-01-01

    Recently it was shown that holeboard training can reinforce, i.e., transform early-LTP into late-LTP in the dentate gyrus during the initial formation of a long-term spatial reference memory in rats. The consolidation of LTP as well as of the reference memory was dependent on protein synthesis. We have now investigated the transmitter systems…

  20. Memory Distortion in Alzheimer’s Disease: Deficient Monitoring of Short and Long-term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDuffie, Katherine E.; Atkins, Alexandra S.; Flegal, Kristin E.; Clark, Christopher M.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study measured distortions of memory during short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) versions of a semantically-associated word list learning paradigm. Performance of patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease (AD; MMSE ? 16) was compared to performance of age-matched, healthy older adult participants. Method In a STM version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) task, participants viewed four-word lists and were prompted for recall after a brief interval. The LTM task tested recall memory for 12-word lists. Results Compared to the healthy group, the AD participants show greater impairment on the LTM task than on the STM task, although veridical recall is significantly reduced on both tasks. Furthermore, on both memory tasks: a) Participants with AD generate more nonsemantic intrusions than healthy older adult participants; b) semantic intrusion rate, when computed as a proportion of total recall, does not differ between groups. Notably, nonsemantic intrusions are consistently high for AD participants across both STM and LTM despite a marked difference in recall accuracy (65% and 23%, respectively). Conclusions STM impairment with some preserved semantic processing is evident in AD. The extent and variety of intrusions reported by AD participants indicates a breakdown in their ability to monitor and constrain their recall responses, even within seconds of initial learning. PMID:22746309

  1. Long-term potentiation decay and memory loss are mediated by AMPAR endocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Zhifang; Han, Huili; Li, Hongjie; Bai, Yanrui; Wang, Wei; Tu, Man; Peng, Yan; Zhou, Limin; He, Wenting; Wu, Xiaobin; Tan, Tao; Liu, Mingjing; Xiaoyan WU; Zhou, Weihui; Jin, Wuyang

    2014-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength between hippocampal neurons is associated with learning and memory, and LTP dysfunction is thought to underlie memory loss. LTP can be temporally and mechanistically classified into decaying (early-phase) LTP and nondecaying (late-phase) LTP. While the nondecaying nature of LTP is thought to depend on protein synthesis and contribute to memory maintenance, little is known about the mechanisms and roles of decaying LTP. Here, we demonstrated th...

  2. Learning, memory and long-term potentiation are altered in Nedd4 heterozygous mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, Daria; Coleman, Harold A; Parkington, Helena C; Jenkins, Trisha A; Pow, David V; Boase, Natasha; Kumar, Sharad; Poronnik, Philip

    2016-04-15

    The consolidation of short-term memory into long-term memory involves changing protein level and activity for the synaptic plasticity required for long-term potentiation (LTP). AMPA receptor trafficking is a key determinant of LTP and recently ubiquitination by Nedd4 has been shown to play an important role via direct action on the GluA1 subunit, although the physiological relevance of these findings are yet to be determined. We therefore investigated learning and memory in Nedd4(+/-) mice that have a 50% reduction in levels of Nedd4. These mice showed decreased long-term spatial memory as evidenced by significant increases in the time taken to learn the location of and subsequently find a platform in the Morris water maze. In contrast, there were no significant differences between Nedd4(+/+) and Nedd4(+/-) mice in terms of short-term spatial memory in a Y-maze test. Nedd4(+/-) mice also displayed a significant reduction in post-synaptic LTP measured in hippocampal brain slices. Immunofluorescence of Nedd4 in the hippocampus confirmed its expression in hippocampal neurons of the CA1 region. These findings indicate that reducing Nedd4 protein by 50% significantly impairs LTP and long-term memory thereby demonstrating an important role for Nedd4 in these processes. PMID:26821291

  3. Metamemory ratings predict long-term changes in reactivated episodic memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amnon Yacoby

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Reactivation of long-term memory can render the memory item temporarily labile, offering an opportunity to modify it via behavioral or pharmacological intervention. Declarative memory reactivation is accompanied by a metamemory ability to subjectively assess the knowledge available concerning the target item (Feeling of knowing, FOK. We set out to examine whether FOK can predict the extent of change of long-term episodic memories by post-retrieval manipulations. To this end, participants watched a short movie and immediately thereafter tested on their memory for it. A day later, they were reminded of that movie, and either immediately or one day later, were presented with a second movie. The reminder phase consisted of memory cues to which participants were asked to judge their FOK regarding the original movie. The memory performance of participants to whom new information was presented immediately after reactivating the original episode corresponded to the degree of FOK ratings upon reactivation such that the lower their FOK, the less their memory declined. In contrast, no relation was found between FOK and memory strength for those who learned new information one day after the reminder phase. Our findings suggest that the subjective accessibility of reactivated memories may determine the extent to which new information might modify those memories.

  4. Long-term effects of neonatal single or multiple isoflurane exposures on spatial memory in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MarkGBaxter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available General anesthetics are neurotoxic to neonatal rodents and nonhuman primates. Neonatal exposure to general anesthetics has been associated with long-term cognitive deficits in animal models. Some data from humans are consistent with long-term deleterious effects of anesthetic exposure early in life on cognitive development, with multiple exposures to general anesthetics being particularly damaging. We sought to determine whether repeated exposure of neonatal rats to anesthesia was associated with long-term cognitive impairments and whether the magnitude of impairments was greater than that resulting from a single exposure. Male or female Long-Evans rat pups were exposed to 1.8% isoflurane for 2 hours on postnatal day (P 7, or for 2 hours each on P7, P10, and P13. Testing in a spatial working memory task began on P91. Rats that were repeatedly exposed to isoflurane were impaired relative to controls in the spatial working memory task. Male rats that received a single exposure to isoflurane showed an unexpected facilitation in spatial memory performance. These results support the hypothesis that multiple neonatal exposures to general anesthesia are associated with greater long-term cognitive impairment than a single exposure. The findings are congruent with human epidemiological studies reporting long-term cognitive impairments following multiple but not single general anesthetics early in life.

  5. SNAP-25 in hippocampal CA3 region is required for long-term memory formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SNAP-25 is a synaptosomal protein of 25 kDa, a key component of synaptic vesicle-docking/fusion machinery, and plays a critical role in exocytosis and neurotransmitter release. We previously reported that SNAP-25 in the hippocampal CA1 region is involved in consolidation of contextual fear memory and water-maze spatial memory (Hou et al. European J Neuroscience, 20: 1593-1603, 2004). SNAP-25 is expressed not only in the CA1 region, but also in the CA3 region, and the SNAP-25 mRNA level in the CA3 region is higher than in the CA1 region. Here, we provide evidence that SNAP-25 in the CA3 region is also involved in learning/memory. Intra-CA3 infusion of SNAP-25 antisense oligonucleotide impaired both long-term contextual fear memory and water-maze spatial memory, with short-term memory intact. Furthermore, the SNAP-25 antisense oligonucleotide suppressed the long-term potentiation (LTP) of field excitatory post-synaptic potential (fEPSP) in the mossy-fiber pathway (DG-CA3 pathway), with no effect on paired-pulse facilitation of the fEPSP. These results are consistent with the notion that SNAP-25 in the hippocampal CA3 region is required for long-term memory formation

  6. Heightened false memory: a long-term sequela of severe closed head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Michele; Marks, William

    2006-01-01

    Declarative memory impairment is a common long-term sequela of severe closed head injury (CHI). Although veridical memory performance following severe CHI has received attention in the literature, little is known about false memory production in this population. Within the present study, both long-term survivors of severe CHI and matched control participants studied and were tested on six 12-items word lists from the Deese Roediger McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Word lists from the DRM are composed of words that are strongly semantically associated to a non-presented word (i.e., the critical lure). Prior studies have shown that healthy young adults show a high level of false recall and recognition memory for the critical lures, and it was hypothesized individuals with severe CHI would show heightened susceptibility to false memory compared to control participants due to difficulty with monitoring of memory. It was further hypothesized that severe CHI participants would show high confidence in their false memories. Consistent with hypotheses, results indicated that although severe CHI participants remembered fewer actual list items, they made more semantically related intrusion errors (recall) and false-positive responses (recognition) than the control participants. Severe CHI participants also showed greater confidence in their false memories than did control participants. The results are interpreted in the context of theoretical accounts of false memory, and possible structural and functional brain changes that might account for the Severe CHI group's memory performance are discussed. PMID:16814819

  7. Transcriptional regulation of long-term memory in the marine snail Aplysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yong-Seok

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Whereas the induction of short-term memory involves only covalent modifications of constitutively expressed preexisting proteins, the formation of long-term memory requires gene expression, new RNA, and new protein synthesis. On the cellular level, transcriptional regulation is thought to be the starting point for a series of molecular steps necessary for both the initiation and maintenance of long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF. The core molecular features of transcriptional regulation involved in the long-term process are evolutionally conserved in Aplysia, Drosophila, and mouse, and indicate that gene regulation by the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB acting in conjunction with different combinations of transcriptional factors is critical for the expression of many forms of long-term memory. In the marine snail Aplysia, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the storage of long-term memory have been extensively studied in the monosynaptic connections between identified sensory neuron and motor neurons of the gill-withdrawal reflex. One tail shock or one pulse of serotonin (5-HT, a modulatory transmitter released by tail shocks, produces a transient facilitation mediated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase leading to covalent modifications in the sensory neurons that results in an enhancement of transmitter release and a strengthening of synaptic connections lasting minutes. By contrast, repeated pulses of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT induce a transcription- and translation-dependent long-term facilitation (LTF lasting more than 24 h and trigger the activation of a family of transcription factors in the presynaptic sensory neurons including ApCREB1, ApCREB2 and ApC/EBP. In addition, we have recently identified novel transcription factors that modulate the expression of ApC/EBP and also are critically involved in LTF. In this review, we examine the roles of these transcription factors during consolidation of LTF induced by different stimulation paradigms.

  8. Late protein synthesis-dependent phases in CTA long-term memory: BDNF requirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha L Escobar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that long-term memory persistence requires a late protein synthesis-dependent phase, even many hours after memory acquisition. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is an essential protein synthesis product that has emerged as one of the most potent molecular mediators for long-term synaptic plasticity. Studies in the rat hippocampus have been shown that BDNF is capable to rescue the late-phase of long-term potentiation as well as the hippocampus-related long-term memory when protein synthesis was inhibited. Our previous studies on the insular cortex (IC, a region of the temporal cortex implicated in the acquisition and storage of conditioned taste aversion (CTA, have demonstrated that intracortical delivery of BDNF reverses the deficit in CTA memory caused by the inhibition of IC protein synthesis due to anisomycin administration during early acquisition. In this work, we first analyze whether CTA memory storage is protein synthesis dependent in different time-windows. We observed that CTA memory become sensible to protein synthesis inhibition 5 and 7 hours after acquisition. Then, we explore the effect of BDNF delivery (2 ?g/2 ?l per side in the IC during those late protein synthesis-dependent phases. Our results show that BDNF reverses the CTA memory deficit produced by protein synthesis inhibition in both phases. These findings support the notion that recurrent rounds of consolidation-like events take place in the neocortex for maintenance of CTA memory trace and that BDNF is an essential component of these processes.

  9. Long-term working memory: A computational implementation for chess expertise

    OpenAIRE

    Gobet, F.

    2000-01-01

    Long-term working memory (Ericsson and Kintsch, 1995) is a theory covering empirical data from several domains, including expert behaviour. One difficulty in applying and evaluating this theory, however, is that it is framed in rather general terms, and that several mechanisms and parameters are left unspecified. This paper proposes a computer implementation of the theory for a domain that Ericsson and Kintsch cover in depth, namely chess memory. Simulations of Saariluoma’s (1989) experiment ...

  10. Transgenic Mice Expressing an Inhibitory Truncated Form of p300 Exhibit Long-Term Memory Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Wood, Marcelo A.; McDonough, Conor B.; Abel, Ted

    2007-01-01

    The formation of many forms of long-term memory requires several molecular mechanisms including regulation of gene expression. The mechanisms directing transcription require not only activation of individual transcription factors but also recruitment of transcriptional coactivators. CBP and p300 are transcriptional coactivators that interact with…

  11. Behavioral Specifications of Reward-Associated Long-Term Memory Enhancement in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Bianca C.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Duzel, Emrah

    2011-01-01

    Recent functional imaging studies link reward-related activation of the midbrain substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), the site of origin of ascending dopaminergic projections, with improved long-term episodic memory. Here, we investigated in two behavioral experiments how (1) the contingency between item properties and reward, (2) the…

  12. Long-Term Memory for Music: Infants Remember Tempo and Timbre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Laurel J.; Wu, Luann; Tsang, Christine D.

    2004-01-01

    We show that infants' long-term memory representations for melodies are not just reduced to the structural features of relative pitches and durations, but contain surface or performance tempo- and timbre-specific information. Using a head turn preference procedure, we found that after a one week exposure to an old English folk song, infants…

  13. The Drosophila lingerer protein cooperates with Orb2 in long-term memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shingo; Sakakibara, Yasufumi; Sato, Kosei; Ote, Manabu; Ito, Hiroki; Koganezawa, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2015-03-01

    Recently mated Drosophila females were shown to be reluctant to copulate and to exhibit rejecting behavior when courted by a male. Males that experience mate refusal by a mated female subsequently attenuate their courtship effort toward not only mated females but also virgin females. This courtship suppression persists for more than a day, and thus represents long-term memory. The courtship long-term memory has been shown to be impaired in heterozygotes as well as homozygotes of mutants in orb2, a locus encoding a set of CPEB RNA-binding proteins. We show that the impaired courtship long-term memory in orb2-mutant heterozygotes is restored by reducing the activity of lig, another putative RNA-binding protein gene, yet on its own the loss-of-function lig mutation is without effect. We further show that Lig forms a complex with Orb2. We infer that a reduction in the Lig levels compensates the Orb2 deficiency by mitigating the negative feedback for Orb2 expression and thereby alleviating defects in long-term memory. PMID:24913805

  14. Swimming exercise during pregnancy alleviates pregnancy-associated long-term memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kijeong; Chung, Eunhee; Kim, Chang-Ju; Lee, Sukho

    2012-08-20

    Regular exercise has been shown to be beneficial to the brain functions, but little is known about the effects of exercise during pregnancy on the long-term memory function of the mothers. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of swimming during pregnancy on long-term memory function in rats on postpartum day 8. We examined the impact of swimming exercise during pregnancy on cell proliferation and apoptotic neuronal cell death in the hippocampus of peripartum rats. The rats were divided into three groups: the control group, the pregnant non-swimming group, and the pregnant swimming group. We found that pregnancy impaired the long-term memory while swimming during pregnancy alleviated the memory impairment. Pregnancy decreased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, but swimming exercise during pregnancy reversed pregnancy-associated decreased cell proliferation back to control level. There was no difference in apoptotic neuronal cell death in the hippocampus among groups. Our results suggest that swimming during pregnancy alleviates pregnancy-associated decrease in memory function of mothers through an increase in cell proliferation in the hippocampus. PMID:22705471

  15. Anatomical organization of forward fiber projections from area TE to perirhinal neurons representing visual long-term memory in monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Masatoshi; Naya, Yuji; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2003-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that the perirhinal (PRh) cortex, which is part of the medial temporal lobe memory system, plays an important role in declarative long-term memory. The PRh cortex contains neurons that represent visual long-term memory. The aim of the present study is to characterize the anatomical organization of forward projections that mediate information flow from visual area TE to memory neurons in the PRh cortex. In monkeys performing a visual pair-association memory task,...

  16. Erosion of long-term wall samples in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The erosion of carbon and the deposition of carbon and impurities have been determined for graphite samples exposed at the wall of JET during the six months of operation in 1985. Graphite erosion was determined using SIMS analysis of the depth change of implanted 13C marker layers in the samples. Impurity deposition was measured using SIMS and Rutherford backscattering. The samples showed high erosion ranging from 0.2 to 0.6 ?m at various locations, with significant poloidal variation in both erosion and deposition. The deposition of substantial quantities of metal impurities and carbon was related to a probe accident and a deliberate heavy carbonization procedure during the operation period. The highest observed erosion exceeds the expected sputter erosion due to charge exchange neutrals by more than an order of magnitude, unless neutral fluxes are enhanced at the inner wall due to ions arriving along open field lines during current ramp-down. (orig.)

  17. Acute pentobarbital treatment impairs spatial learning and memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Tan, Tao; Tu, Man; He, Wenting; Dong, Zhifang; Han, Huili

    2015-10-01

    Reports of the effects of pentobarbital on learning and memory are contradictory. Some studies have not shown any interference with learning and memory, whereas others have shown that pentobarbital impairs memory and that these impairments can last for long periods. However, it is unclear whether acute local microinjections of pentobarbital affect learning and memory, and if so, the potential mechanisms are also unclear. Here, we reported that the intra-hippocampal infusion of pentobarbital (8.0mM, 1?l per side) significantly impaired hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory retrieval. Moreover, in vitro electrophysiological recordings revealed that these behavioral changes were accompanied by impaired hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP) and suppressed neuronal excitability as reflected by a decrease in the number of action potentials (APs). These results suggest that acute pentobarbital application causes spatial learning and memory deficits that might be attributable to the suppression of synaptic plasticity and neuronal excitability. PMID:26056078

  18. Effects of long term childhood mild swimming on the adulthood learning and memory in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Shahidi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The positive effects of exercise on many physiological systems, including the central nervous system, are well-established. Exercise decrease the age related impairment of learning and memory. There is no clear report concerning the effects of childhood exercise on the cognitive function during adulthood. The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of long term mild swimming exercise during childhood on the inhibitory avoidance and spatial learning and memory in the adulthood rats. Methods: Four weeks old male Wistar rats were divided randomly into the swimmer and sedentary (control groups. The swimming procedure was continued for 6 weeks. One week after the end of swimming period, inhibitory avoidance learning and memory of rats were tested. Two weeks later, spatial learning and memory test of rats were begun by using radial maze. The training procedure was done during 15 days. Then, 6 days later, spatial memory test was assessed. Results: The results of inhibitory avoidance test showed that the number of trials to acquisition in the control rats was significantly more than swimmer rats group. The results of retention test revealed that there were no significant differences in the STL and TDC between swimmer and control groups. In the radial maze task, two experimental groups showed the same learning ability in the finding the baited food arms on the 15th days. The results of retrieval test indicated that the number of total memory errors, reference memory errors and working memory errors in the swimmer group of rat were significantly less than the non-swimmer group of rat. Conclusion: It can be concluded that long term mild exercise in the childhood period can improve the acquisition but it had no significant effects on the retrieval of inhibitory avoidance learning and memory task during the adulthood. Also, long term swimming improves the long term and short term memory in the complex maze task even after cessation of swimming. This result may due to the effects of swimming on the synaptic activity in the neural structure which are involve in the learning and memory processing.

  19. Reward improves long-term retention of a motor memory through induction of offline memory gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Mitsunari; Schambra, Heidi; Wassermann, Eric M; Luckenbaugh, Dave; Schweighofer, Nicolas; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2011-04-12

    In humans, training in which good performance is rewarded or bad performance punished results in transient behavioral improvements. The relative effects of reward and punishment on consolidation and long-term retention, critical behavioral stages for successful learning, are not known. Here, we investigated the effects of reward and punishment on these different stages of human motor skill learning. We studied healthy subjects who trained on a motor task under rewarded, punished, or neutral control conditions. Performance was tested before and immediately, 6 hr, 24 hr, and 30 days after training in the absence of reward or punishment. Performance improvements immediately after training were comparable in the three groups. At 6 hr, the rewarded group maintained performance gains, whereas the other two groups experienced significant forgetting. At 24 hr, the reward group showed significant offline (posttraining) improvements, whereas the other two groups did not. At 30 days, the rewarded group retained the gains identified at 24 hr, whereas the other two groups experienced significant forgetting. We conclude that training under rewarded conditions is more effective than training under punished or neutral conditions in eliciting lasting motor learning, an advantage driven by offline memory gains that persist over time. PMID:21419628

  20. Cues, context, and long-term memory: the role of the retrosplenial cortex in spatial cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M P Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Spatial navigation requires representations of landmarks and other navigation cues. The retrosplenial cortex (RSC is anatomically positioned between limbic areas important for memory formation, such as the hippocampus and the anterior thalamus, and cortical regions along the dorsal stream known to contribute importantly to long-term spatial representation, such as the posterior parietal cortex. Damage to the RSC severely impairs allocentric representations of the environment, including the ability to derive navigational information from landmarks. The specific deficits seen in tests of human and rodent navigation suggest that the RSC supports allocentric representation by processing the stable features of the environment and the spatial relationships among them. In addition to spatial cognition, the RSC plays a key role in contextual and episodic memory. The RSC also contributes importantly to the acquisition and consolidation of long-term spatial and contextual memory through its interactions with the hippocampus. Within this framework, the RSC plays a dual role as part of the feedforward network providing sensory and mnemonic input to the hippocampus and as a target of the hippocampal-dependent systems consolidation of long-term memory.

  1. Cholestasis progression effects on long-term memory in bile duct ligation rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is evidence that cognitive functions are affected by some liver diseases such as cholestasis. Bile duct ligation induces cholestasis as a result of impaired liver function and cognition. This research investigates the effect of cholestasis progression on memory function in bile duct ligation rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, which include: control group for BDL-7, control group for BDL-21, sham group (underwent laparotomy without bile duct ligation, BDL-7 group (7 days after bile duct ligation, and BDL-21 group (21 days after bile duct ligation. Step-through passive avoidance test was employed to examine memory function. In all groups, short-term (7 days after foot shock and long-term memories (21 days after foot shock were assessed. Results: Our results showed that liver function significantly decreased with cholestasis progression (P < 0.01. Also our findings indicated BDL-21 significantly impaired acquisition time (P < 0.05. Memory retrieval impaired 7 (P < 0.05 and 21 days (P < 0.001 after foot shock in BDL-7 and BDL-21 groups, respectively. Conclusion: Based on these findings, liver function altered in cholestasis and memory (short-term and long-term memory impaired with cholestasis progression in bile duct ligation rats. Further studies are needed to better insight the nature of progression of brain damage in cholestatic disease.

  2. Do as I … Did! Long-term memory of imitative actions in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugazza, Claudia; Pogány, Ákos; Miklósi, Ádám

    2016-03-01

    This study demonstrates long-term declarative memory of imitative actions in a non-human animal species. We tested 12 pet dogs for their ability to imitate human actions after retention intervals ranging from 1 to 24 h. For comparison, another 12 dogs were tested for the same actions without delay between demonstration and recall. Our test consisted of a modified version of the Do as I Do paradigm, combined with the two-action procedure to control for non-imitative processes. Imitative performance of dogs remained consistently high independent of increasing retention intervals, supporting the idea that dogs are able to retain mental representations of human actions for an extended period of time. The ability to imitate after such delays supports the use of long-term declarative memory. PMID:26498155

  3. Delayed Dopamine Signaling of Energy Level Builds Appetitive Long-Term Memory in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Musso

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sensory cues relevant to a food source, such as odors, can be associated with post-ingestion signals related either to food energetic value or toxicity. Despite numerous behavioral studies, a global understanding of the mechanisms underlying these long delay associations remains out of reach. Here, we demonstrate in Drosophila that the long-term association between an odor and a nutritious sugar depends on delayed post-ingestion signaling of energy level. We show at the neural circuit level that the activity of two pairs of dopaminergic neurons is necessary and sufficient to signal energy level to the olfactory memory center. Accordingly, we have identified in these dopaminergic neurons a delayed calcium trace that correlates with appetitive long-term memory formation. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that the Drosophila brain remembers food quality through a two-step mechanism that consists of the integration of olfactory and gustatory sensory information and then post-ingestion energetic value.

  4. NEREC, an effective brain mapping protocol for combined language and long-term memory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Girard, Cléa; Cousin, Emilie; Vidal, Juan Ricardo; Pichat, Cédric; Kahane, Philippe; Baciu, Monica

    2015-12-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy can induce functional plasticity in temporoparietal networks involved in language and long-term memory processing. Previous studies in healthy subjects have revealed the relative difficulty for this network to respond effectively across different experimental designs, as compared to more reactive regions such as frontal lobes. For a protocol to be optimal for clinical use, it has to first show robust effects in a healthy cohort. In this study, we developed a novel experimental paradigm entitled NEREC, which is able to reveal the robust participation of temporoparietal networks in a uniquely combined language and memory task, validated in an fMRI study with healthy subjects. Concretely, NEREC is composed of two runs: (a) an intermixed language-memory task (confrontation naming associated with encoding in nonverbal items, NE) to map language (i.e., word retrieval and lexico-semantic processes) combined with simultaneous long-term verbal memory encoding (NE items named but also explicitly memorized) and (b) a memory retrieval task of items encoded during NE (word recognition, REC) intermixed with new items. Word recognition is based on both perceptual-semantic familiarity (feeling of 'know') and accessing stored memory representations (remembering). In order to maximize the remembering and recruitment of medial temporal lobe structures, we increased REC difficulty by changing the modality of stimulus presentation (from nonverbal during NE to verbal during REC). We report that (a) temporoparietal activation during NE was attributable to both lexico-semantic (language) and memory (episodic encoding and semantic retrieval) processes; that (b) encoding activated the left hippocampus, bilateral fusiform, and bilateral inferior temporal gyri; and that (c) task recognition (recollection) activated the right hippocampus and bilateral but predominant left fusiform gyrus. The novelty of this protocol consists of (a) combining two tasks in one (language and long-term memory encoding/recall) instead of applying isolated tasks to map temporoparietal regions, (b) analyzing NE data based on performances recorded during REC, (c) double-mapping networks involved in naming and in long-term memory encoding and retrieval, (d) focusing on remembering with hippocampal activation and familiarity judgment with lateral temporal cortices activation, and (e) short duration of examination and feasibility. These aspects are of particular interest in patients with TLE, who frequently show impairment of these cognitive functions. Here, we show that the novel protocol is suited for this clinical evaluation. PMID:26575255

  5. Long-term olfactory memories are stabilised via protein synthesis in Camponotus fellah ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrieri, Fernando Javier; D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Deveaud, J-M.; Giurfa, M.

    2011-01-01

    -chain hydrocarbons, one paired with sucrose and the other with quinine solution. Differential conditioning leads to the formation of a long-term memory retrievable at least 72¿h after training. Long-term memory consolidation was impaired by the ingestion of cycloheximide, a protein synthesis blocker, prior to...

  6. Making Memories: The Development of Long-Term Visual Knowledge in Children with Visual Agnosia

    OpenAIRE

    Tiziana Metitieri; Carmen Barba; Simona Pellacani; Maria Pia Viggiano; Renzo Guerrini

    2013-01-01

    There are few reports about the effects of perinatal acquired brain lesions on the development of visual perception. These studies demonstrate nonseverely impaired visual-spatial abilities and preserved visual memory. Longitudinal data analyzing the effects of compromised perceptions on long-term visual knowledge in agnosics are limited to lesions having occurred in adulthood. The study of children with focal lesions of the visual pathways provides a unique opportunity to assess the developme...

  7. Protein phosphatase 1 regulates the histone code for long-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Koshibu, Kyoko; Gräff, Johannes; Beullens, Monique; Heitz, Fabrice D.; Berchtold, Dominik; Russig, Holger; Farinelli, Mélissa; Bollen, Mathieu; Mansuy, Isabelle M.

    2009-01-01

    Chromatin remodeling through histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs) and DNA methylation has recently been implicated in cognitive functions, but the mechanisms involved in such epigenetic regulation remain poorly understood. Here, we show that protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a critical regulator of chromatin remodeling in the mammalian brain that controls histone PTMs and gene transcription associated with long-term memory. Our data show that PP1 is present at the chromatin in brain ce...

  8. Complex network structure influences processing in long-term and short-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Chan, Kit Ying; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Complex networks describe how entities in systems interact; the structure of such networks is argued to influence processing. One measure of network structure, clustering coefficient, C, measures the extent to which neighbors of a node are also neighbors of each other. Previous psycholinguistic experiments found that the C of phonological word-forms influenced retrieval from the mental lexicon (that portion of long-term memory dedicated to language) during the on-line recognition and producti...

  9. Providing Extrinsic Reward for Test Performance Undermines Long-Term Memory Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhbandner, Christof; Aslan, Alp; Emmerdinger, Kathrin; Murayama, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Based on numerous studies showing that testing studied material can improve long-term retention more than restudying the same material, it is often suggested that the number of tests in education should be increased to enhance knowledge acquisition. However, testing in real-life educational settings often entails a high degree of extrinsic motivation of learners due to the common practice of placing important consequences on the outcome of a test. Such an effect on the motivation of learners may undermine the beneficial effects of testing on long-term memory because it has been shown that extrinsic motivation can reduce the quality of learning. To examine this issue, participants learned foreign language vocabulary words, followed by an immediate test in which one-third of the words were tested and one-third restudied. To manipulate extrinsic motivation during immediate testing, participants received either monetary reward contingent on test performance or no reward. After 1 week, memory for all words was tested. In the immediate test, reward reduced correct recall and increased commission errors, indicating that reward reduced the number of items that can benefit from successful retrieval. The results in the delayed test revealed that reward additionally reduced the gain received from successful retrieval because memory for initially successfully retrieved words was lower in the reward condition. However, testing was still more effective than restudying under reward conditions because reward undermined long-term memory for concurrently restudied material as well. These findings indicate that providing performance-contingent reward in a test can undermine long-term knowledge acquisition. PMID:26869978

  10. Extreme event return times in long-term memory processes near 1/f

    OpenAIRE

    Sienz, F.; Fraedrich, K.; Blender, R.

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of extreme event return times and their correlations are analyzed in observed and simulated long-term memory (LTM) time series with 1/f power spectra. The analysis is based on tropical temperature and mixing ratio (specific humidity) time series from TOGA COARE with 1 min resolution and an approximate 1/f power spectrum. Extreme events are determined by Peak-Over-Threshold (POT) crossing. The Weibull distribution represents a reasonable fit to the return time distributions wh...

  11. Providing Extrinsic Reward for Test Performance Undermines Long-Term Memory Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhbandner, Christof; Aslan, Alp; Emmerdinger, Kathrin; Murayama, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Based on numerous studies showing that testing studied material can improve long-term retention more than restudying the same material, it is often suggested that the number of tests in education should be increased to enhance knowledge acquisition. However, testing in real-life educational settings often entails a high degree of extrinsic motivation of learners due to the common practice of placing important consequences on the outcome of a test. Such an effect on the motivation of learners may undermine the beneficial effects of testing on long-term memory because it has been shown that extrinsic motivation can reduce the quality of learning. To examine this issue, participants learned foreign language vocabulary words, followed by an immediate test in which one-third of the words were tested and one-third restudied. To manipulate extrinsic motivation during immediate testing, participants received either monetary reward contingent on test performance or no reward. After 1 week, memory for all words was tested. In the immediate test, reward reduced correct recall and increased commission errors, indicating that reward reduced the number of items that can benefit from successful retrieval. The results in the delayed test revealed that reward additionally reduced the gain received from successful retrieval because memory for initially successfully retrieved words was lower in the reward condition. However, testing was still more effective than restudying under reward conditions because reward undermined long-term memory for concurrently restudied material as well. These findings indicate that providing performance–contingent reward in a test can undermine long-term knowledge acquisition. PMID:26869978

  12. Ion beam characterisation of ODS steel samples after long term annealing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxide dispersion strengthened-reduced activation ferritic martensitic (ODS-RAFM) steels are foreseen as future structural materials for the ITER and DEMO fusion reactors. Microstructure characterisation experiments of these steels were performed in the initial normalized and tempered condition and after long term annealing. Two types of ODS steel samples were studied. Long term annealing of the samples was performed at 700 deg. C during 5000 h in ambient atmosphere. Samples were analysed by nuclear microprobe techniques before and after the long term annealing experiments and data compared. The uneven yttrium distribution found in the as-received samples produced by one of the suppliers (20-50 ?m Y depleted zones) could not be observed after the long term annealing. This same sample presented significant surface alterations that extend up to 120 ?m. The other sample showed a smaller surface alteration (?30 ?m) and the formation of Cr-rich clusters 7-10 ?m wide

  13. Depletion of Serotonin Selectively Impairs Short-Term Memory without Affecting Long-Term Memory in Odor Learning in the Terrestrial Slug "Limax Valentianus"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa, Tomofumi; Kirino, Yutaka; Watanabe, Satoshi; Shirahata, Takaaki; Tsunoda, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    The terrestrial slug "Limax" is able to acquire short-term and long-term memories during aversive odor-taste associative learning. We investigated the effect of the selective serotonergic neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) on memory. Behavioral studies indicated that 5,7-DHT impaired short-term memory but not long-term memory. HPLC…

  14. Effects of Long-Term Ayahuasca Administration on Memory and Anxiety in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Vanessa Manchim; Yonamine, Maurício; Soares, Juliana Carlota Kramer; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage that combines the action of the 5-HT2A/2C agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) from Psychotria viridis with the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) induced by beta-carbonyls from Banisteriopsis caapi. Previous investigations have highlighted the involvement of ayahuasca with the activation of brain regions known to be involved with episodic memory, contextual associations and emotional processing after ayahuasca ingestion. Moreover long term users show better performance in neuropsychological tests when tested in off-drug condition. This study evaluated the effects of long-term administration of ayahuasca on Morris water maze (MWM), fear conditioning and elevated plus maze (EPM) performance in rats. Behavior tests started 48h after the end of treatment. Freeze-dried ayahuasca doses of 120, 240 and 480 mg/kg were used, with water as the control. Long-term administration consisted of a daily oral dose for 30 days by gavage. The behavioral data indicated that long-term ayahuasca administration did not affect the performance of animals in MWM and EPM tasks. However the dose of 120 mg/kg increased the contextual conditioned fear response for both background and foreground fear conditioning. The tone conditioned response was not affected after long-term administration. In addition, the increase in the contextual fear response was maintained during the repeated sessions several weeks after training. Taken together, these data showed that long-term ayahuasca administration in rats can interfere with the contextual association of emotional events, which is in agreement with the fact that the beverage activates brain areas related to these processes. PMID:26716991

  15. Effects of Long-Term Ayahuasca Administration on Memory and Anxiety in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Vanessa Manchim; Yonamine, Maurício; Soares, Juliana Carlota Kramer; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage that combines the action of the 5-HT2A/2C agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) from Psychotria viridis with the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) induced by beta-carbonyls from Banisteriopsis caapi. Previous investigations have highlighted the involvement of ayahuasca with the activation of brain regions known to be involved with episodic memory, contextual associations and emotional processing after ayahuasca ingestion. Moreover long term users show better performance in neuropsychological tests when tested in off-drug condition. This study evaluated the effects of long-term administration of ayahuasca on Morris water maze (MWM), fear conditioning and elevated plus maze (EPM) performance in rats. Behavior tests started 48h after the end of treatment. Freeze-dried ayahuasca doses of 120, 240 and 480 mg/kg were used, with water as the control. Long-term administration consisted of a daily oral dose for 30 days by gavage. The behavioral data indicated that long-term ayahuasca administration did not affect the performance of animals in MWM and EPM tasks. However the dose of 120 mg/kg increased the contextual conditioned fear response for both background and foreground fear conditioning. The tone conditioned response was not affected after long-term administration. In addition, the increase in the contextual fear response was maintained during the repeated sessions several weeks after training. Taken together, these data showed that long-term ayahuasca administration in rats can interfere with the contextual association of emotional events, which is in agreement with the fact that the beverage activates brain areas related to these processes. PMID:26716991

  16. Neuronal correlate of visual associative long-term memory in the primate temporal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    1988-10-01

    In human long-term memory, ideas and concepts become associated in the learning process1. No neuronal correlate for this cognitive function has so far been described, except that memory traces are thought to be localized in the cerebral cortex; the temporal lobe has been assigned as the site for visual experience because electric stimulation of this area results in imagery recall,2 and lesions produce deficits in visual recognition of objects3-9. We previously reported that in the anterior ventral temporal cortex of monkeys, individual neurons have a sustained activity that is highly selective for a few of the 100 coloured fractal patterns used in a visual working-memory task10. Here I report the development of this selectivity through repeated trials involving the working memory. The few patterns for which a neuron was conjointly selective were frequently related to each other through stimulus-stimulus association imposed during training. The results indicate that the selectivity acquired by these cells represents a neuronal correlate of the associative long-term memory of pictures.

  17. A requirement for the immediate early gene Zif268 in the expression of late LTP and long-term memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M W; Errington, M L; French, P J; Fine, A; Bliss, T V; Garel, S; Charnay, P; Bozon, B; Laroche, S; Davis, S

    2001-03-01

    The induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is associated with a rapid and robust transcription of the immediate early gene Zif268. We used a mutant mouse with a targeted disruption of Zif268 to ask whether this gene, which encodes a zinc finger transcription factor, is required for the maintenance of late LTP and for the expression of long-term memory. We show that whereas mutant mice exhibit early LTP in the dentate gyrus, late LTP is absent when measured 24 and 48 hours after tetanus in the freely moving animal. In both spatial and non-spatial learning tasks, short-term memory remained intact, whereas performance was impaired in tests requiring long-term memory. Thus, Zif268 is essential for the transition from short- to long-term synaptic plasticity and for the expression of long-term memories. PMID:11224546

  18. Verapamil enhances the impairing effects of stress on retrieval of long-term memory in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rashidy-Pour

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study investigated an interaction between acute restraint stress and verapamil, as a blocker of L-type voltage sensitive channels on retrieval of long-term memory. Materials and Methods: Young adult male rats were trained in one trial inhibitory avoidance task (1mA, 1.5s footshock. On retention test given 48 hr after training, the latency to re-enter dark compartment and time spent in light chamber of the apparatus were recorded. Thirty min before retention test, the rats were exposed to a 10 min of restraint stress in a Plexiglass with or without prior treatment of verapamil (5, 10, 20 mg/kg. Results: The results showed verapamil pretreatment enhanced the impairing effect of stress on memory retrieval. The applied stress increased circulating corticosterone levels as assessed immediately after the retention test, indicating that stress–induced impairment of memory retrieval is mediated, in part, by increased plasma levels of glucocorticoids. Verapamil did not affect on this response. Conclusion: These findings indicate that acute restraint stress impair retrieval of long-term memory, and provide evidence for the existence of an interaction between stress and L-type voltage calcium channels on this process.

  19. Long-term memory in speech perception: Some new findings on talker variability, speaking rate and perceptual learning *

    OpenAIRE

    Pisoni, David B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes results from recent studies on the role of long-term memory in speech perception and spoken word recognition. Experiments on talker variability, speaking rate and perceptual learning provide strong evidence for implicit memory for very fine perceptual details of speech. Listeners apparently encode specific attributes of the talker’s voice and speaking rate into long-term memory. Acoustic–phonetic variability does not appear to be “lost” as a result of phonetic analysis. ...

  20. Extreme event return times in long-term memory processes near 1/f

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sienz

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of extreme event return times and their correlations are analyzed in observed and simulated long-term memory (LTM time series with 1/f power spectra. The analysis is based on tropical temperature and mixing ratio (specific humidity time series from TOGA COARE with 1 min resolution and an approximate 1/f power spectrum. Extreme events are determined by Peak-Over-Threshold (POT crossing. The Weibull distribution represents a reasonable fit to the return time distributions while the power-law predicted by the stretched exponential for 1/f deviates considerably. For a comparison and an analysis of the return time predictability, a very long simulated time series with an approximate 1/f spectrum is produced by a fractionally differenced (FD process. This simulated data confirms the Weibull distribution (a power law can be excluded. The return time sequences show distinctly weaker long-term correlations than the original time series (correlation exponent ??0.56.

  1. Sleep Improves Memory: The Effect of Sleep on Long Term Memory in Early Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Potkin, Katya Trudeau; Bunney, William E

    2012-01-01

    Sleep plays an important role in the consolidation of memory. This has been most clearly shown in adults for procedural memory (i.e. skills and procedures) and declarative memory (e.g. recall of facts). The effects of sleep and memory are relatively unstudied in adolescents. Declarative memory is important in school performance and consequent social functioning in adolescents. This is the first study to specifically examine the effects of normal sleep on auditory declarative memory in an earl...

  2. A phenomenological memristor model for short-term/long-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Li, Chuandong; Huang, Tingwen; Ahmad, Hafiz Gulfam; Chen, Yiran

    2014-08-01

    Memristor is considered to be a natural electrical synapse because of its distinct memory property and nanoscale. In recent years, more and more similar behaviors are observed between memristors and biological synapse, e.g., short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). The traditional mathematical models are unable to capture the new emerging behaviors. In this article, an updated phenomenological model based on the model of the Hewlett-Packard (HP) Labs has been proposed to capture such new behaviors. The new dynamical memristor model with an improved ion diffusion term can emulate the synapse behavior with forgetting effect, and exhibit the transformation between the STM and the LTM. Further, this model can be used in building new type of neural networks with forgetting ability like biological systems, and it is verified by our experiment with Hopfield neural network.

  3. Spatial coding of ordinal information in short- and long-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Ginsburg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The processing of numerical information induces a spatial response bias: Faster responses to small numbers with the left hand and faster responses to large numbers with the right hand. Most theories agree that long-term representations underlie this so called SNARC effect (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes; Dehaene, Bossini, & Giraux, 1993. However, a spatial response bias was also observed with the activation of temporary position-space associations in working memory (ordinal position effect; van Dijck & Fias, 2011. Items belonging to the beginning of a memorized sequence are responded to faster with the left hand side while items at the end of the sequence are responded to faster with the right hand side. The theoretical possibility was put forward that the SNARC effect is an instance of the ordinal position effect, with the empirical consequence that the SNARC effect and the ordinal position effect cannot be observed simultaneously. In two experiments we falsify this claim by demonstrating that the SNARC effect and the ordinal position effect are not mutually exclusive. Consequently, this suggests that the SNARC effect and the ordinal position effect result from the activation of different representations. We conclude that spatial response biases can result from the activation of both pre-existing positions in long-term memory and from temporary space associations in working memory at the same time.

  4. Improving potato drought tolerance through the induction of long-term water stress memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, D A; Rolando, J L; Yactayo, W; Monneveux, P; Mares, V; Quiroz, R

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge of drought tolerance in potato is limited and very little is known about stress memory in this crop. In the present study, long-term stress memory was tested on tuber yield and drought tolerance related traits in three potato varieties (Unica, Désirée and Sarnav) with contrasted yields under water restriction. Seed tubers produced by plants grown under non-restricted (non-primed tubers) and restricted (primed tubers) water conditions were sown and exposed to similar watering treatments. Tuber yield and leaf greenness of plants from primed and non-primed seeds as well as tuber carbon isotope discrimination (?(13)C) and antioxidant activity (AA) responses to watering treatments were compared. Higher tuber yield, both under non-restricted and restricted water regimes, was produced by primed Sarnav plants. The decrease of tuber yield and ?(13)C with water restriction was lower in primed Unica plants. Long-term stress memory consequently appears to be highly genotype-dependent in potato. Its expression in plants originated from primed tubers and facing water restriction seems to be positively associated to the degree of inherent capability of the cultivar to yield under water restriction. However, other effects of priming appear to be genotype-independent as priming enhanced the tuber AA in response to water restriction in the three varieties. PMID:26259171

  5. Persistence of Long-Term Memory in Vitrified and Revived Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita-More, Natasha; Barranco, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    Can memory be retained after cryopreservation? Our research has attempted to answer this long-standing question by using the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, a well-known model organism for biological research that has generated revolutionary findings but has not been tested for memory retention after cryopreservation. Our study's goal was to test C. elegans' memory recall after vitrification and reviving. Using a method of sensory imprinting in the young C. elegans, we establish that learning acquired through olfactory cues shapes the animal's behavior and the learning is retained at the adult stage after vitrification. Our research method included olfactory imprinting with the chemical benzaldehyde (C6H5CHO) for phase-sense olfactory imprinting at the L1 stage, the fast-cooling SafeSpeed method for vitrification at the L2 stage, reviving, and a chemotaxis assay for testing memory retention of learning at the adult stage. Our results in testing memory retention after cryopreservation show that the mechanisms that regulate the odorant imprinting (a form of long-term memory) in C. elegans have not been modified by the process of vitrification or by slow freezing. PMID:25867710

  6. Measuring capital market efficiency: Long-term memory, fractal dimension and approximate entropy.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    Jihlava : College of Polytechnics Jihlava, 2013 - (Vojackova, H.), s. 470-475 ISBN 978-80-87035-76-4. [International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Economics 2013 /31./. Jihlava (CZ), 11.09.2013-13.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA402/09/0965 Grant ostatní: MŠk(CZ) SVV265504 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : capital market efficiency * long-range dependence * fractal dimension * approximate entropy Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/kristoufek-measuring capital market efficienci long-term memory fractal dimension and approximate entropy .pdf

  7. The evidence for hippocampal long-term potentiation as a basis of memory for simple tasks

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Iván, Izquierdo; Martín, Cammarota; Weber C. Da, Silva; Lia R.M., Bevilaqua; Janine I., Rossato; Juliana S., Bonini; Pamela, Mello; Fernando, Benetti; Jaderson C., Costa; Jorge H., Medina.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A potenciação de longa duração (LTP) é o aumento de respostas pós-sinápticas durante horas, dias ou semanas após a breve estimulação repetitiva de aferentes pre-sinápticos. Foi proposto durante 30 anos ser a base da memória de longa duração. Vários achados recentes finalmente apoiaram esta hipótese: [...] a) a formação da memória de esquiva inibitória adquirida numa sessão depende de uma cadeia de processos moleculares na região CA1 do hipocampo quase idêntica à da LTP nessa mesma região; b) LTP hipocampal nessa região acompanha a formação da memóría dessa tarefa e de outra semelhante. No entanto, a LTP de CA1 e os processos de memória podem ser dissociados e, fora disso, processos plásticos em outras regiões cerebrais (amígdala, córtex entorrinal, córtex parietal) também são necessários para a formação da memória da tarefa de uma sessão e talvez de muitas outras. Abstract in english Long-term potentiation (LTP) is the enhancement of postsynaptic responses for hours, days or weeks following the brief repetitive afferent stimulation of presynaptic afferents. It has been proposed many times over the last 30 years to be the basis of long-term memory. Several recent findings finally [...] supported this hypothesis: a) memory formation of one-trial avoidance learning depends on a series of molecular steps in the CA1 region of the hippocampus almost identical to those of LTP in the same region; b)hippocampal LTP in this region accompanies memory formation of that task and of another similar task. However, CA1 LTP and the accompanying memory processes can be dissociated, and in addition plastic events in several other brain regions(amygdala, entorhinal cortex, parietal cortex) are also necessary for memory formation of the one-trial task, and perhaps of many others.

  8. Attention, Working Memory, and Long-Term Memory in Multimedia Learning: An Integrated Perspective Based on Process Models of Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweppe, Judith; Rummer, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive models of multimedia learning such as the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (Mayer 2009) or the Cognitive Load Theory (Sweller 1999) are based on different cognitive models of working memory (e.g., Baddeley 1986) and long-term memory. The current paper describes a working memory model that has recently gained popularity in basic…

  9. Valence and the development of immediate and long-term false memory illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L; Candel, Ingrid; Otgaar, Henry; Malone, Catherine; Wimmer, Marina C

    2010-01-01

    Across five experiments we examined the role of valence in children's and adults' true and false memories. Using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm and either neutral or negative-emotional lists, both adults' (Experiment 1) and children's (Experiment 2) true recall and recognition was better for neutral than negative items, and although false recall was also higher for neutral items, false recognition was higher for negative items. The last three experiments examined adults' (Experiment 3) and children's (Experiments 4 and 5) 1-week long-term recognition of neutral and negative-emotional information. The results replicated the immediate recall and recognition findings from the first two experiments. More important, these experiments showed that although true recognition decreased over the 1-week interval, false recognition of neutral items remained unchanged whereas false recognition of negative-emotional items increased. These findings are discussed in terms of theories of emotion and memory as well as their forensic implications. PMID:20391177

  10. The coding theorem for a class of quantum channels with long-term memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we consider the transmission of classical information through a class of quantum channels with long-term memory, which are convex combinations of memoryless channels. Hence, the memory of such channels can be considered to be given by a Markov chain which is aperiodic but not irreducible. We prove the coding theorem and weak converse for this class of channels. The main techniques that we employ are a quantum version of Feinstein's fundamental lemma (Feinstein A 1954 IRE Trans. PGIT 4 2-22, Khinchin A I 1957 Mathematical Foundations of Information Theory: II. On the Fundamental Theorems of Information Theory (New York: Dover) chapter IV) and a generalization of Helstrom's theorem (Helstrom C W 1976 Quantum detection and estimation theory Mathematics in Science and Engineering vol 123 (London: Academic))

  11. From Drosophila development to adult: clues to Notch function in long-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric S Wesley

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Notch is a cell surface receptor that is well known to mediate inter-cellular communication during animal development. Data in the field indicate that it is also involved in the formation of long-term memory (LTM in the fully developed adults and in memory loss upon neurodegeneration. Our studies in the model organism Drosophila reveal that a non-canonical Notch-Protein Kinase C (PKC activity that plays critical roles in embryonic development also regulates Cyclic-AMP Response Element Binding protein (CREB during LTM formation in adults. Here we present a perspective on how the various known features of Notch function relate to LTM formation and how they might interface with elements of Wingless/Wnt signaling in this process.

  12. Long-term memory in the Irish market (ISEQ): evidence from wavelet analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sharkasi, A; Crane, M; Sharkasi, Adel; Ruskin, Heather J.; Crane, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have used many different methods to detect the possibility of long-term dependence (long memory) in stock market returns, but evidence is in general mixed. In this paper, three different tests, (namely Rescaled Range (R/S), its modified form, and the semi-parametric method (GPH)), in addition to a new approach using the discrete wavelet transform, (DWT), have been applied to the daily returns of five Irish Stock Exchange (ISEQ) indices. These methods have also been applied to the volatility measures (namely absolute and squared returns). The aim is to investigate the existence of long-term memory properties. The indices are Overall, Financial, General, Small Cap and ITEQ and the results of these approaches show that there is no evidence of long-range dependence in the returns themselves, while there is strong evidence for such dependence in the squared and absolute returns. Moreover, the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) provides additional insight on the series breakdown. In particular, in compari...

  13. Helping students succeed by helping them improve their long-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettili, Nouredine; Boukahil, A.

    2005-04-01

    In this work, we focus on one of the most useful techniques of efficient study habits: How to improve long-term memory. We show that if a student carries a number of recalling sessions of the material studied and if he/she carries them at specific times, the student will be able to retain this material for a long time and hence be prepared for the exams. We argue that a student who conscientiously uses the proper techniques of efficient study habits will be able to achieve higher results than the student who does not. Moreover, a student equipped with the proper study skills will spend much less time to learn a subject than a student who has no effective study habits. After providing a summary of the most essential personal skills needed to be a successful student--concentration skills, how to take notes in class, how to prepare for and take exams---we give an extensive presentation on the techniques of improving long-term memory.

  14. Effects of Pre-Encoding Stress on Brain Correlates Associated with the Long-Term Memory for Emotional Scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Wirkner, Janine; Weymar, Mathias; Löw, Andreas; Hamm, Alfons O.

    2013-01-01

    Recent animal and human research indicates that stress around the time of encoding enhances long-term memory for emotionally arousing events but neural evidence remains unclear. In the present study we used the ERP old/new effect to investigate brain dynamics underlying the long-term effects of acute pre-encoding stress on memory for emotional and neutral scenes. Participants were exposed either to the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressure Test (SECPT) or a warm water control procedure before view...

  15. Exchange Protein Activated by cAMP Enhances Long-Term Memory Formation Independent of Protein Kinase A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan; Abel, Ted; Hernandez, Pepe J.

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that cAMP signaling within neurons plays a major role in the formation of long-term memories--signaling thought to proceed through protein kinase A (PKA). However, here we show that exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) is able to enhance the formation of long-term memory in the hippocampus and appears to do so…

  16. Unforgettable film music: The role of emotion in episodic long-term memory for music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altenmüller Eckart O

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Specific pieces of music can elicit strong emotions in listeners and, possibly in connection with these emotions, can be remembered even years later. However, episodic memory for emotional music compared with less emotional music has not yet been examined. We investigated whether emotional music is remembered better than less emotional music. Also, we examined the influence of musical structure on memory performance. Results Recognition of 40 musical excerpts was investigated as a function of arousal, valence, and emotional intensity ratings of the music. In the first session the participants judged valence and arousal of the musical pieces. One week later, participants listened to the 40 old and 40 new musical excerpts randomly interspersed and were asked to make an old/new decision as well as to indicate arousal and valence of the pieces. Musical pieces that were rated as very positive were recognized significantly better. Conclusion Musical excerpts rated as very positive are remembered better. Valence seems to be an important modulator of episodic long-term memory for music. Evidently, strong emotions related to the musical experience facilitate memory formation and retrieval.

  17. Great Apes Make Anticipatory Looks Based on Long-Term Memory of Single Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Fumihiro; Hirata, Satoshi

    2015-10-01

    Everyday life poses a continuous challenge for individuals to encode ongoing events, retrieve past events, and predict impending events [1-4]. Attention and eye movements reflect such online cognitive and memory processes [5, 6], especially through "anticipatory looks" [7-10]. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of nonhuman animals to retrieve detailed information about single events that happened in the distant past [11-20]. However, no study has tested whether nonhuman animals employ online memory processes, in which they encode ongoing movie-like events into long-term storage during single viewing experiences. Here, we developed a novel eye-tracking task to examine great apes' anticipatory looks to the events that they had encountered one time 24 hr earlier. Half-minute movie clips depicted novel and potentially alarming situations to the participant apes (six bonobos, six chimpanzees). In the experiment 1 clip, an aggressive ape-like character came out from one of two identical doors. While viewing the same movie again, apes anticipatorily looked at the door where the character would show up. In the experiment 2 clip, the human actor grabbed one of two objects and attacked the character with it. While viewing the same movie again but with object-location switched, apes anticipatorily looked at the object that the human would use, rather than the former location of the object. Our results thus show that great apes, just by watching the events once, encoded particular information (location and content) into long-term memory and later retrieved that information at a particular time in anticipation of the impending events. PMID:26387711

  18. Errors in nonword repetition: bridging short- and long-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.H. Santos

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the working memory model, the phonological loop is the component of working memory specialized in processing and manipulating limited amounts of speech-based information. The Children's Test of Nonword Repetition (CNRep is a suitable measure of phonological short-term memory for English-speaking children, which was validated by the Brazilian Children's Test of Pseudoword Repetition (BCPR as a Portuguese-language version. The objectives of the present study were: i to investigate developmental aspects of the phonological memory processing by error analysis in the nonword repetition task, and ii to examine phoneme (substitution, omission and addition and order (migration errors made in the BCPR by 180 normal Brazilian children of both sexes aged 4-10, from preschool to 4th grade. The dominant error was substitution [F(3,525 = 180.47; P < 0.0001]. The performance was age-related [F(4,175 = 14.53; P < 0.0001]. The length effect, i.e., more errors in long than in short items, was observed [F(3,519 = 108.36; P < 0.0001]. In 5-syllable pseudowords, errors occurred mainly in the middle of the stimuli, before the syllabic stress [F(4,16 = 6.03; P = 0.003]; substitutions appeared more at the end of the stimuli, after the stress [F(12,48 = 2.27; P = 0.02]. In conclusion, the BCPR error analysis supports the idea that phonological loop capacity is relatively constant during development, although school learning increases the efficiency of this system. Moreover, there are indications that long-term memory contributes to holding memory trace. The findings were discussed in terms of distinctiveness, clustering and redintegration hypotheses.

  19. Protein degradation and protein synthesis in long-term memory formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Jarome

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term memory (LTM formation requires transient changes in the activity of intracellular signaling cascades that are thought to regulate new gene transcription and de novo protein synthesis in the brain. Consistent with this, protein synthesis inhibitors impair LTM for a variety of behavioral tasks when infused into the brain around the time of training or following memory retrieval, suggesting that protein synthesis is a critical step in LTM storage in the brain. However, evidence suggests that protein degradation mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system may also be a critical regulator of LTM formation and stability following retrieval. This requirement for increased protein degradation has been shown in the same brain regions in which protein synthesis is required for LTM storage. Additionally, increases in the phosphorylation of proteins involved in translational control parallel increases in protein polyubiquitination and the increased demand for protein degradation is regulated by intracellular signaling molecules thought to regulate protein synthesis during LTM formation. In some cases inhibiting proteasome activity can rescue memory impairments that result from pharmacological blockade of protein synthesis, suggesting that protein degradation may control the requirement for protein synthesis during the memory storage process. Results such as these suggest that protein degradation and synthesis are both critical for LTM formation and may interact to properly “consolidate” and store memories in the brain. Here, we review the evidence implicating protein synthesis and degradation in LTM storage and highlight the areas of overlap between these two opposing processes. We also discuss evidence suggesting these two processes may interact to properly form and store memories. LTM storage likely requires a coordinated regulation between protein degradation and synthesis at multiple sites in the mammalian brain.

  20. Visual long term memory is spatially specific, but only after a brief consolidation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yoolim; Leber, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    For successful commerce with the world, it is essential that we remember objects that we encounter within the proper contexts. Consistent with this, visual long-term memory is known to be context dependent. However, the way in which these context dependent memories manifest has been relatively unexplored. Here, we measured the degree to which visual object memory is tied to spatial location. We manipulated the retention interval to explore how spatially specific memories emerged over time. During an initial encoding phase, we presented two placeholders on the screen (one on the left, one on the right), and we presented a series of 200 face stimuli. To associate each face stimulus with specific spatial context, half of them appeared inside the left placeholder and the other half appeared inside the right placeholder. Participants were instructed to discriminate each face's gender, regardless of its location. Subsequently, participants began the recognition phase. Critically, for one group of participants (No Retention Group), the recognition phase began immediately after encoding was finished, while for the other group (Retention Group), the recognition phase began after a 15 min retention interval in which a visual search task was performed. During the recognition phase, we presented one previously viewed (old) face and one novel face on each of 200 trials. Participants had to discriminate the side of the display containing the old face. To manipulate context dependency, we presented half of the faces inside the same placeholder as during encoding ("matching" condition) and the remaining faces inside the other placeholder ("nonmatching" condition). Results showed that the Retention group's recognition memory was significantly better in the matching condition than the nonmatching condition, while the No-Retention group's performance was equivalent in the two conditions. These results implicate a key role of consolidation in the genesis of context-specific visual memory. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325780

  1. Differentially expressed genes linked to natural variation in long-term memory formation in Cotesia parasitic wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Joke J. F. A.; Hoedjes, Katja M.; van de Geest, Henri C.; Schijlen, Elio W. G. M.; Vet, Louise E. M.; Smid, Hans M.

    2015-01-01

    Even though learning and memory are universal traits in the Animal Kingdom, closely related species reveal substantial variation in learning rate and memory dynamics. To determine the genetic background of this natural variation, we studied two congeneric parasitic wasp species, Cotesia glomerata and C. rubecula, which lay their eggs in caterpillars of the large and small cabbage white butterfly. A successful egg laying event serves as an unconditioned stimulus (US) in a classical conditioning paradigm, where plant odors become associated with the encounter of a suitable host caterpillar. Depending on the host species, the number of conditioning trials and the parasitic wasp species, three different types of transcription-dependent long-term memory (LTM) and one type of transcription-independent, anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) can be distinguished. To identify transcripts underlying these differences in memory formation, we isolated mRNA from parasitic wasp heads at three different time points between induction and consolidation of each of the four memory types, and for each sample three biological replicates, where after strand-specific paired-end 100 bp deep sequencing. Transcriptomes were assembled de novo and differential expression was determined for each memory type and time point after conditioning, compared to unconditioned wasps. Most differentially expressed (DE) genes and antisense transcripts were only DE in one of the LTM types. Among the DE genes that were DE in two or more LTM types, were many protein kinases and phosphatases, small GTPases, receptors and ion channels. Some genes were DE in opposing directions between any of the LTM memory types and ARM, suggesting that ARM in Cotesia requires the transcription of genes inhibiting LTM or vice versa. We discuss our findings in the context of neuronal functioning, including RNA splicing and transport, epigenetic regulation, neurotransmitter/peptide synthesis and antisense transcription. In conclusion, these brain transcriptomes provide candidate genes that may be involved in the observed natural variation in LTM in closely related Cotesia parasitic wasp species.

  2. Differentially expressed genes linked to natural variation in long-term memory formation in Cotesia parasitic wasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joke J. F. A. Van Vugt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though learning and memory are universal traits in the Animal Kingdom, closely related species reveal substantial variation in learning rate and memory dynamics. To determine the genetic background of this natural variation, we studied two congeneric parasitic wasp species, Cotesia glomerata and C. rubecula, which lay their eggs in caterpillars of the large and small cabbage white butterfly. A successful egg laying event serves as an unconditioned stimulus in a classical conditioning paradigm, where plant odors become associated to the encounter of a suitable host caterpillar. Depending on the host species, the number of conditioning trials and the parasitic wasp species, three different types of transcription-dependent long-term memory (LTM and one type of transcription-independent, anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM can be distinguished. To identify transcripts underlying these differences in memory formation, we isolated mRNA from parasitic wasp heads at three different time points between induction and consolidation of each of the four memory types, and for each sample three biological replicates, where after strand-specific paired-end 100 bp deep sequencing. Transcriptomes were assembled de novo and differential expression was determined for each memory type and time point after conditioning, compared to unconditioned wasps. Most differentially expressed (DE genes and antisense transcripts were only DE in one of the LTM types. Among the DE genes that were DE in two or more LTM types, were many protein kinases and phosphatases, small GTPases, receptors and ion channels. Some genes were DE in opposing directions between any of the LTM memory types and ARM, suggesting that ARM in Cotesia requires the transcription of genes inhibiting LTM or vice versa. We discuss our findings in the context of neuronal functioning, including RNA splicing and transport, epigenetic regulation, neurotransmitter/peptide synthesis and antisense transcription. In conclusion, these brain transcriptomes provide candidate genes that may be involved in the observed natural variation in LTM in closely related Cotesia parasitic wasp species.

  3. Differentially expressed genes linked to natural variation in long-term memory formation in Cotesia parasitic wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Joke J F A; Hoedjes, Katja M; van de Geest, Henri C; Schijlen, Elio W G M; Vet, Louise E M; Smid, Hans M

    2015-01-01

    Even though learning and memory are universal traits in the Animal Kingdom, closely related species reveal substantial variation in learning rate and memory dynamics. To determine the genetic background of this natural variation, we studied two congeneric parasitic wasp species, Cotesia glomerata and C. rubecula, which lay their eggs in caterpillars of the large and small cabbage white butterfly. A successful egg laying event serves as an unconditioned stimulus (US) in a classical conditioning paradigm, where plant odors become associated with the encounter of a suitable host caterpillar. Depending on the host species, the number of conditioning trials and the parasitic wasp species, three different types of transcription-dependent long-term memory (LTM) and one type of transcription-independent, anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) can be distinguished. To identify transcripts underlying these differences in memory formation, we isolated mRNA from parasitic wasp heads at three different time points between induction and consolidation of each of the four memory types, and for each sample three biological replicates, where after strand-specific paired-end 100 bp deep sequencing. Transcriptomes were assembled de novo and differential expression was determined for each memory type and time point after conditioning, compared to unconditioned wasps. Most differentially expressed (DE) genes and antisense transcripts were only DE in one of the LTM types. Among the DE genes that were DE in two or more LTM types, were many protein kinases and phosphatases, small GTPases, receptors and ion channels. Some genes were DE in opposing directions between any of the LTM memory types and ARM, suggesting that ARM in Cotesia requires the transcription of genes inhibiting LTM or vice versa. We discuss our findings in the context of neuronal functioning, including RNA splicing and transport, epigenetic regulation, neurotransmitter/peptide synthesis and antisense transcription. In conclusion, these brain transcriptomes provide candidate genes that may be involved in the observed natural variation in LTM in closely related Cotesia parasitic wasp species. PMID:26557061

  4. A phenomenological memristor model for short-term/long-term memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memristor is considered to be a natural electrical synapse because of its distinct memory property and nanoscale. In recent years, more and more similar behaviors are observed between memristors and biological synapse, e.g., short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). The traditional mathematical models are unable to capture the new emerging behaviors. In this article, an updated phenomenological model based on the model of the Hewlett–Packard (HP) Labs has been proposed to capture such new behaviors. The new dynamical memristor model with an improved ion diffusion term can emulate the synapse behavior with forgetting effect, and exhibit the transformation between the STM and the LTM. Further, this model can be used in building new type of neural networks with forgetting ability like biological systems, and it is verified by our experiment with Hopfield neural network. - Highlights: • We take the Fick diffusion and the Soret diffusion into account in the ion drift theory. • We develop a new model based on the old HP model. • The new model can describe the forgetting effect and the spike-rate-dependent property of memristor. • The new model can solve the boundary effect of all window functions discussed in [13]. • A new Hopfield neural network with the forgetting ability is built by the new memristor model

  5. The involvement of long-term serial-order memory in reading development: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, Louisa; Szmalec, Arnaud; De Maeyer, Marjolijn; Page, Mike P A; Duyck, Wouter

    2016-05-01

    Recent findings suggest that Hebb repetition learning-a paradigmatic example of long-term serial-order learning-is impaired in adults with dyslexia. The current study further investigated the link between serial-order learning and reading using a longitudinal developmental design. With this aim, verbal and visual Hebb repetition learning performance and reading skills were assessed in 96 Dutch-speaking children who we followed from first through second grade of primary school. We observed a positive association between order learning capacities and reading ability as well as weaker Hebb learning performance in early readers with poor reading skills even at the onset of reading instruction. Hebb learning further predicted individual differences in later (nonword) reading skills. Finally, Hebb learning was shown to explain a significant part of the variance in reading performance above and beyond phonological awareness. These findings highlight the role of serial-order memory in reading ability. PMID:26835842

  6. Interdisciplinary Approach to the Mental Lexicon: Neural Network and Text Extraction From Long-term Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardan G. Arutyunyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper touches upon the principles of mental lexicon organization in the light of recent research in psycho- and neurolinguistics. As a focal point of discussion two main approaches to mental lexicon functioning are considered: modular or dual-system approach, developed within generativism and opposite single-system approach, representatives of which are the connectionists and supporters of network models. The paper is an endeavor towards advocating the viewpoint that mental lexicon is complex psychological organization based upon specific composition of neural network. In this regard, the paper further elaborates on the matter of storing text in human mental space and introduces a model of text extraction from long-term memory. Based upon data available, the author develops a methodology of modeling structures of knowledge representation in the systems of artificial intelligence.

  7. CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Knockout in Mice Impairs Contextual Long-Term Memory and Enhances Spatial Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Kim, Jimok

    2016-01-01

    Neurocognitive effects of cannabinoids have been extensively studied with a focus on CB1 cannabinoid receptors because CB1 receptors have been considered the major cannabinoid receptor in the nervous system. However, recent discoveries of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the brain demand accurate determination of whether and how CB2 receptors are involved in the cognitive effects of cannabinoids. CB2 cannabinoid receptors are primarily involved in immune functions, but also implicated in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression. Here, we examined the effects of CB2 receptor knockout in mice on memory to determine the roles of CB2 receptors in modulating cognitive function. Behavioral assays revealed that hippocampus-dependent, long-term contextual fear memory was impaired whereas hippocampus-independent, cued fear memory was normal in CB2 receptor knockout mice. These mice also displayed enhanced spatial working memory when tested in a Y-maze. Motor activity and anxiety of CB2 receptor knockout mice were intact when assessed in an open field arena and an elevated zero maze. In contrast to the knockout of CB2 receptors, acute blockade of CB2 receptors by AM603 in C57BL/6J mice had no effect on memory, motor activity, or anxiety. Our results suggest that CB2 cannabinoid receptors play diverse roles in regulating memory depending on memory types and/or brain areas. PMID:26819779

  8. A Diffusion Model Analysis of Adult Age Differences in Episodic and Semantic Long-Term Memory Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaniol, Julia; Madden, David J.; Voss, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments investigated adult age differences in episodic and semantic long-term memory tasks, as a test of the hypothesis of specific age-related decline in context memory. Older adults were slower and exhibited lower episodic accuracy than younger adults. Fits of the diffusion model (R. Ratcliff, 1978) revealed age-related increases in…

  9. The limitations of our knowledge about social influences on memories of sexual abuse over the long-term

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan Mark; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2015-01-01

    Fagin, Cyr, and Hirst provide an informed and insightful application of the social memory literature to the important question of how memories of sexual abuse may be re-shaped, both over the short term and long term, by communication with others, as well as with oneself. In the following commentary...

  10. Post-learning stress enhances long-term memory and differentially influences memory in females depending on menstrual stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Peters, David M; Cadle, Chelsea E; Kalchik, Andrea E; Aufdenkampe, Rachael L; Dailey, Alison M; Brown, Callie M; Scharf, Amanda R; Earley, McKenna B; Knippen, Courtney L; Rorabaugh, Boyd R

    2015-09-01

    Most work has shown that post-learning stress enhances long-term memory; however, there have been recent inconsistencies in this literature. The purpose of the present study was to examine further the effects of post-learning stress on long-term memory and to explore any sex differences that may exist. Male and female participants learned a list of 42 words that varied in emotional valence and arousal level. Following encoding, participants completed a free recall assessment and then submerged their hand into a bath of ice cold (stress) or lukewarm (no stress) water for 3 min. The next day, participants were given free recall and recognition tests. Stressed participants recalled more words than non-stressed participants 24h after learning. Stress also enhanced female participants' recall of arousing words when they were in the follicular, but not luteal, phase. These findings replicate previous work examining post-learning stress effects on memory and implicate the involvement of sex-related hormones in such effects. PMID:26233730

  11. Stress and glucocorticoid receptor-dependent mechanisms in long-term memory: from adaptive responses to psychopathologies

    OpenAIRE

    Finsterwald, Charles; Cristina M Alberini

    2013-01-01

    A proper response against stressors is critical for survival. In mammals, the stress response is primarily mediated by secretion of glucocorticoids via the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenocortical (HPA) axis and release of catecholamines through adrenergic neurotransmission. Activation of these pathways results in a quick physical response to the stress and, in adaptive conditions, mediates long-term changes in the brain that lead to the formation of long-term memories of the experience. These lo...

  12. Word-frequency effects in long-term semantic priming and false memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Susan M; Jordan, Timothy R

    2011-08-01

    Several studies have used the lexical decision task (LDT) with the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false-memory paradigm to investigate whether long-term semantic priming (LTSP) occurs following presentation of lists of items (e.g., bed, dream, snore) for related non-presented lure words (e.g., sleep). However, results have been mixed, with some studies observing priming, whilst others have not. The present study had four goals: (i) to investigate the existence of LTSP in the LDT; (ii) to investigate effects of LTSP on standard effects of word frequency on LDT performance; (iii) to investigate the effect, if any, of word frequency on true and false recall; and (iv) to compare LDT performance with performance on a subsequent free-recall task. The findings showed (i) a significant effect of LTSP on LDT performance; (ii) no effect of LTSP on standard effects of word frequency on LDT performance; (iii) no effect of word frequency on either true or false free recall; and (iv) a significant relationship between LDT and free-recall performance. Implications of these findings for understanding LTSP and false memories are discussed. PMID:21752006

  13. Effects of long-term electromagnetic field exposure on spatial learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Dongmei; Yang, Lei; Chen, Su; Tong, Jun; Tian, Yonghao; Su, Benhang; Wu, Shuicai; Zeng, Yanjun

    2013-02-01

    With the development of communications industry, mobile phone plays an important role in daily life. Whether or not the electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile phone causes any adverse effects on brain function has become of a great concern. This paper investigated the effect of electromagnetic field on spatial learning and memory in rats. 32 trained Wistar rats were divided into two groups: exposure group and control group. The exposure group was exposed to 916 MHz, 10w/m2 mobile phone electromagnetic field (EMF) 6 h a day, 5 days a week, 10 weeks. The completion time, number of total errors and the neuron discharge signals were recorded while the rats were searching for food in an eight-arm radial maze at every weekend. The neuron signals of one exposed rat and one control rat in the maze were obtained by the implanted microelectrode arrays in their hippocampal regions. It can be seen that during the weeks 4-5 of the experiment, the average completion time and error rate of the exposure group were longer and larger than that of control group (p influence learning and memory in rats to some extent in a period during exposure, and the rats can adapt to long-term EMF exposure. PMID:22362331

  14. DAT genotype modulates striatal processing and long-term memory for items associated with reward and punishment?

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmann, Bianca C.; Tan, Geoffrey C.; Lisman, John E; Dolan, Raymond J.; Düzel, Emrah

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that appetitive motivation enhances episodic memory formation via a network including the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), striatum and hippocampus. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study now contrasted the impact of aversive and appetitive motivation on episodic long-term memory. Cue pictures predicted monetary reward or punishment in alternating experimental blocks. One day later, episodic memory for the cue pictures was tested. ...

  15. DAT genotype modulates striatal processing and long-term memory for items associated with reward and punishment?

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmann, B. C.; Tan, G. C.; Lisman, J. E.; Dolan, R J; Düzel, E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that appetitive motivation enhances episodic memory formation via a network including the substantia nigra / ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), striatum and hippocampus. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study now contrasted the impact of aversive and appetitive motivation on episodic long-term memory. Cue pictures predicted monetary reward or punishment in alternating experimental blocks. One day later, episodic memory for the cue pictures was tested...

  16. Inert gas narcosis disrupts encoding but not retrieval of long term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Malcolm; Kneller, Wendy

    2015-05-15

    Exposure to increased ambient pressure causes inert gas narcosis of which one symptom is long-term memory (LTM) impairment. Narcosis is posited to impair LTM by disrupting information encoding, retrieval (self-guided search), or both. The effect of narcosis on the encoding and retrieval of LTM was investigated by testing the effect of learning-recall pressure and levels of processing (LoP) on the free-recall of word lists in divers underwater. All participants (n=60) took part in four conditions in which words were learnt and then recalled at either low pressure (1.4-1.9atm/4-9msw) or high pressure (4.4-5.0atm/34-40msw), as manipulated by changes in depth underwater: low-low (LL), low-high(LH), high-high (HH), and high-low (HL). In addition, participants were assigned to either a deep or shallow processing condition, using LoP methodology. Free-recall memory ability was significantly impaired only when words were initially learned at high pressure (HH & HL conditions). When words were learned at low pressure and then recalled at low pressure (LL condition) or high pressure (LH condition) free-recall was not impaired. Although numerically superior in several conditions, deeper processing failed to significantly improve free-recall ability in any of the learning-recall conditions. This pattern of results support the hypothesis that narcosis disrupts encoding of information into LTM, while retrieval appears to be unaffected. These findings are discussed in relation to similar effects reported by some memory impairing drugs and the practical implications for workers in pressurised environments. PMID:25725120

  17. Rapamycin restores BDNF-LTP and the persistence of long-term memory in a model of Down's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Talavera, Yuniesky; Benito, Itziar; Casañas, Juan José; Rodríguez-Moreno, Antonio; Montesinos, María Luz

    2015-10-01

    Down's syndrome (DS) is the most prevalent genetic intellectual disability. Memory deficits significantly contribute to the cognitive dysfunction in DS. Previously, we discovered that mTOR-dependent local translation, a pivotal process for some forms of synaptic plasticity, is deregulated in a DS mouse model. Here, we report that these mice exhibit deficits in both synaptic plasticity (i.e., BDNF-long term potentiation) and the persistence of spatial long-term memory. Interestingly, these deficits were fully reversible using rapamycin, a Food and Drug Administration-approved specific mTOR inhibitor; therefore, rapamycin may be a novel pharmacotherapy to improve cognition in DS. PMID:26388397

  18. Stress Management Interventions and Predictors of Long-term Health : Prospectively Controlled Studies on Long-term Pain Patients and a Healthy Sample from IT- and Media Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Hasson, Dan

    2005-01-01

    This thesis reports on the effects of stress management on long-term pain patients and on a healthy sample from IT and media companies; two groups that are commonly exposed to high stress levels. Even if there are important differences between these two groups, there are similarities such as the necessity for effective stress management. Stress-related and musculoskeletal disorders are major public health issues in most industrialized countries and are expected to become increasingly common d...

  19. Differential role of entorhinal and hippocampal nerve growth factor in short- and long-term memory modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walz R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of infusion of nerve growth factor (NGF into the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex of male Wistar rats (250-300 g, N = 11-13 per group on inhibitory avoidance retention. In order to evaluate the modulation of entorhinal and hippocampal NGF in short- and long-term memory, animals were implanted with cannulae in the CA1 area of the dorsal hippocampus or entorhinal cortex and trained in one-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance (foot shock, 0.4 mA. Retention tests were carried out 1.5 h or 24 h after training to measure short- and long-term memory, respectively. Immediately after training, rats received 5 µl NGF (0.05, 0.5 or 5.0 ng or saline per side into the CA1 area and entorhinal cortex. The correct position of the cannulae was confirmed by histological analysis. The highest dose of NGF (5.0 ng into the hippocampus blocked short-term memory (P < 0.05, whereas the doses of 0.5 (P < 0.05 and 5.0 ng (P < 0.01 NGF enhanced long-term memory. NGF administration into the entorhinal cortex improved long-term memory at the dose of 5.0 ng (P < 0.05 and did not alter short-term memory. Taken as a whole, our results suggest a differential modulation by entorhinal and hippocampal NGF of short- and long-term memory.

  20. Chronic stress exacerbates impairment of spatial long-term memory in LPA1-null mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Javier-Santin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA has emerged as a new regulatory molecule in the brain. Recently, some studies have demonstrated a role for this molecule and its LPA1 receptor in the regulation of plasticity and neurogenesis in the adult brain. However, no systematic studies have been conducted to investigate whether the LPA1 receptor is involved in behavior. We studied the effects of the absence of lysophosphatidic acid receptor LPA1, alone or in combination with chronic stress (immobilization in plexiglass tubes for 21 days (3 h/day using male LPA1 receptor knockout (KO and wild type (WT mice. We hypothesized that chronic stress affects diferently the hippocampal function in both genotypes. In order to study this hypothesis the mice were trained in a hole board test to assess both spatial long-term (LTM and working memory (WM. Our data indicate that the absence of LPA1 receptor impairs spatial LTM. In addition, KO mice showed an impairment in the WM task only during the first and second training days, likely associated with the acquisition of the WM rule. Hippocampal BDNF mRNA levels were increased in both WT and KO mice, but WT mice showed greater enhancement than KO mice. After immobilization WT mice showed an impairment mainly in the LTM task. Interestingly, the strongest spatial LTM impairment was observed when KO mice were training in the hole board after immobilization. In addition, immobilization did not potentiate the spatial WM deficits previously observed in KO mice. Our results suggest that LPA1 receptors play an important role in the formation of spatial LTM. In addition, the interaction between the absence of LPA1 receptor and chronic stress impairs the hippocampal-dependent memory. This work was supported by SEJ2007-61187, FIS exp.07/0629, CTS433, CTS065 and AP-2006-02582.

  1. Theta Oscillations Track the Content of Representations Retrieved from Long Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutterer, David; Anderson, David; Serences, John; Vogel, Edward; Awh, Edward

    2015-09-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that it is possible to reconstruct orientation selective channel tuning functions (CTFs) during the encoding and delay period of a working memory (WM) task using a forward encoding model and electroencephalography (EEG). Specifically these CTFs can be derived from the distribution of alpha-band (8-12hz) activity across the scalp (Anderson et al. 2014), providing a high temporal resolution measure of the content and quality of WM representations. The goal of the present work was to determine whether we could employ a similar approach to track the content of representations retrieved from long term memory (LTM). Subjects (n = 24) learned randomly assigned colors for a collection of 120 unique shapes, with the color selected from a continuous 360 degree space. Twenty four hours after the initial learning session, subjects were presented with shape cues and asked to retrieve the associated color while EEG was recorded. We found that robust color-selective CTFs could be obtained from the distribution of evoked theta-band (4-7 hz) activity during the first 400 ms following the onset of the shape cue. We replicated this pattern of results with a spatial LTM task identical to the color task save that subjects learned and reported the position of 120 unique shapes from 360 degrees of space around a circle (n = 26). Together these results reveal that the content of representations retrieved from LTM is tracked by phasic activity in the theta-frequency band, and that this pattern of results generalizes across visual features. These findings dovetail with the longstanding consensus that low frequency activity in the theta band is integral to LTM function, and they provide a powerful new method for measuring the temporal dynamics of LTM retrieval. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326801

  2. Long-Term Memory: A Review and Meta-Analysis of Studies of Declarative and Procedural Memory in Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2013-01-01

    This review examined the status of long-term memory systems in specific language impairment (SLI)--declarative memory and aspects of procedural memory in particular. Studies included in the review were identified following a systematic search of the literature and findings combined using meta-analysis. This review showed that individuals with SLI…

  3. Zif268/Egr1 gain of function facilitates hippocampal synaptic plasticity and long-term spatial recognition memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penke, Zsuzsa; Morice, Elise; Veyrac, Alexandra; Gros, Alexandra; Chagneau, Carine; LeBlanc, Pascale; Samson, Nathalie; Baumgärtel, Karsten; Mansuy, Isabelle M.; Davis, Sabrina; Laroche, Serge

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that Zif268/Egr1, a member of the Egr family of transcription factors, is critical for the consolidation of several forms of memory; however, it is as yet uncertain whether increasing expression of Zif268 in neurons can facilitate memory formation. Here, we used an inducible transgenic mouse model to specifically induce Zif268 overexpression in forebrain neurons and examined the effect on recognition memory and hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity. We found that Zif268 overexpression during the establishment of memory for objects did not change the ability to form a long-term memory of objects, but enhanced the capacity to form a long-term memory of the spatial location of objects. This enhancement was paralleled by increased long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and by increased activity-dependent expression of Zif268 and selected Zif268 target genes. These results provide novel evidence that transcriptional mechanisms engaging Zif268 contribute to determining the strength of newly encoded memories. PMID:24298160

  4. The effect of intrahippocampal microinjection of Naloxone on short –term and long-term memory in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Parsa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The hippocampus is one for the major centers of learning and memory. Role of the opioid system has been investigated and on the other hand receptors related to this system such as mu-opioid receptors (MOR are extended in the hippocampus. In this study the effect of Naloxone administration as a mu opioid receptor antagonist on passive avoidance memory in adult male rats was investigated by using shuttle box instrument. Methods:Methods: In this study 45 male adult Wistar rats at range of 200± 20 were used. They were cannulated after anesthesia and Naloxone 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 µg/rat has been injected intrahippocampally after recovery and post training by shuttle box .Then after 90 minute short –term memory and after 24 hours long- term memory were measured posttrainingly. Results:results showed that naloxone0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2µg/rat didn’t affected short – term memory on the other hand according to results of long-term memory showed that Naloxone 0.5 µg/rat didn’t affected memory and Naloxone 1 and 1.5 µg/rat improved memory and Naloxone 2 µg/rat impaired memory. Conclusion:Considering to obtained results it seems that Naloxone affected learning and memory in a dose dependent manner.

  5. Long-Term Heavy Ketamine Use is Associated with Spatial Memory Impairment and Altered Hippocampal Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Celia J A; Dodds, Chris M.; Furby, Hannah; Pepper, Fiona; Fam, Johnson; Freeman, Tom P; Hughes, Emer; Doeller, Christian; King, John; Howes, Oliver; Stone, James M

    2014-01-01

    Ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, is rising in popularity as a drug of abuse. Preliminary evidence suggests that chronic, heavy ketamine use may have profound effects on spatial memory but the mechanism of these deficits is as yet unclear. This study aimed to examine the neural mechanism by which heavy ketamine use impairs spatial memory processing. In a sample of 11 frequent ketamine users and 15 poly-drug controls, matched for IQ, age, years in education....

  6. Drosophila ORB protein in two mushroom body output neurons is necessary for long-term memory formation

    OpenAIRE

    Pai, Tsung-Pin; Chen, Chun-Chao; Lin, Hui-Hao; Chin, An-Lun; Lai, Jason Sih-Yu; Lee, Pei-Tseng; Tully, Tim; Chiang, Ann-shyn

    2013-01-01

    Memory is initially labile and gradually consolidated over time through new protein synthesis into a long-lasting stable form. Studies of odor-shock associative learning in Drosophila have established the mushroom body (MB) as a key brain structure involved in olfactory long-term memory (LTM) formation. Exactly how early neural activity encoded in thousands of MB neurons is consolidated into protein-synthesis–dependent LTM remains unclear. Here, several independent lines of evidence indicate ...

  7. A Diffusion Model Analysis of Adult Age Differences in Episodic and Semantic Long-Term Memory Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Spaniol, Julia; Madden, David J.; Voss, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments investigated adult age differences in episodic and semantic long-term memory tasks, as a test of the hypothesis of specific age-related decline in context memory. Older adults were slower and exhibited lower episodic accuracy than younger adults. Fits of the diffusion model (R. Ratcliff, 1978) revealed age-related increases in nondecisional reaction time for both episodic and semantic retrieval. In Experiment 2, an age difference in boundary separation also indicated an age-re...

  8. On the interplay between short and long term memory in the power-law cross-correlations setting

    CERN Document Server

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    We focus on emergence of the power-law cross-correlations from processes with both short and long term memory properties. In the case of correlated error-terms, the power-law decay of the cross-correlation function comes automatically with the characteristics of the separate processes. The bivariate Hurst exponent is then equal to an average of the separate Hurst exponents of the analysed processes. Strength of the short term memory has no effect on these asymptotic properties.

  9. Genetic Activation of ERK5 MAP Kinase Enhances Adult Neurogenesis and Extends Hippocampus-Dependent Long-Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wenbin; Pan, Yung-Wei; Zou, Junhui; Li, Tan; Abel, Glen M.; Palmiter, Richard D; Storm, Daniel R.; Xia, Zhengui

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that inhibition of adult neurogenesis impairs the formation of hippocampus-dependent memory. However, it is not known whether increasing adult neurogenesis affects the persistence of hippocampus-dependent long-term memory. Furthermore, signaling mechanisms that regulate adult neurogenesis are not fully defined. We recently reported that the conditional and targeted knock-out of ERK5 MAP kinase in adult neurogenic regions of the mouse brain attenuates adult neurogenes...

  10. When Music and Long-Term Memory Interact: Effects of Musical Expertise on Functional and Structural Plasticity in the Hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Groussard, Mathilde; La Joie, Renaud; Rauchs, Géraldine; Landeau, Brigitte; Chételat, Gaël; Viader, Fausto; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis; Platel, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    The development of musical skills by musicians results in specific structural and functional modifications in the brain. Surprisingly, no functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study has investigated the impact of musical training on brain function during long-term memory retrieval, a faculty particularly important in music. Thus, using fMRI, we examined for the first time this process during a musical familiarity task (i.e., semantic memory for music). Musical expertise induced supplem...

  11. On the interplay between short and long term memory in the power-law cross-correlations setting

    OpenAIRE

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    We focus on emergence of the power-law cross-correlations from processes with both short and long term memory properties. In the case of correlated error-terms, the power-law decay of the cross-correlation function comes automatically with the characteristics of separate processes. Bivariate Hurst exponent is then equal to an average of separate Hurst exponents of the analyzed processes. Strength of short term memory has no effect on these asymptotic properties. Implications...

  12. Fan-Shaped Body Neurons Are Involved in "Period"-Dependent Regulation of Long-Term Courtship Memory in "Drosophila"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Takaomi; Inami, Show; Sato, Shoma; Kitamoto, Toshihiro

    2012-01-01

    In addition to its established function in the regulation of circadian rhythms, the "Drosophila" gene "period" ("per") also plays an important role in processing long-term memory (LTM). Here, we used courtship conditioning as a learning paradigm and revealed that (1) overexpression and knocking down of "per" in subsets of brain neurons enhance and…

  13. Effects of Different Types of True-False Questions on Memory Awareness and Long-Term Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Lydia; Verkoeijen, Peter; Schmidt, Henk

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two different true-false questions on memory awareness and long-term retention of knowledge. Participants took four subsequent knowledge tests on curriculum learning material that they studied at different retention intervals prior to the start of this study (i.e. prior to the first test). At the first and…

  14. Fan-Shaped Body Neurons Are Involved in "Period"-Dependent Regulation of Long-Term Courtship Memory in "Drosophila"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Takaomi; Inami, Show; Sato, Shoma; Kitamoto, Toshihiro

    2012-01-01

    In addition to its established function in the regulation of circadian rhythms, the "Drosophila" gene "period" ("per") also plays an important role in processing long-term memory (LTM). Here, we used courtship conditioning as a learning paradigm and revealed that (1) overexpression and knocking down of "per" in subsets of brain neurons enhance and…

  15. PV plasticity sustained through D1/5 dopamine signaling required for long-term memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Smitha; Chowdhury, Ananya; Donato, Flavio; Quairiaux, Charles; Michel, Christoph M; Caroni, Pico

    2016-03-01

    Long-term consolidation of memories depends on processes occurring many hours after acquisition. Whether this involves plasticity that is specifically required for long-term consolidation remains unclear. We found that learning-induced plasticity of local parvalbumin (PV) basket cells was specifically required for long-term, but not short/intermediate-term, memory consolidation in mice. PV plasticity, which involves changes in PV and GAD67 expression and connectivity onto PV neurons, was regulated by cAMP signaling in PV neurons. Following induction, PV plasticity depended on local D1/5 dopamine receptor signaling at 0-5 h to regulate its magnitude, and at 12-14 h for its continuance, ensuring memory consolidation. D1/5 dopamine receptor activation selectively induced DARPP-32 and ERK phosphorylation in PV neurons. At 12-14 h, PV plasticity was required for enhanced sharp-wave ripple densities and c-Fos expression in pyramidal neurons. Our results reveal general network mechanisms of long-term memory consolidation that requires plasticity of PV basket cells induced after acquisition and sustained subsequently through D1/5 receptor signaling. PMID:26807952

  16. Long-term olfactory memories are stabilised via protein synthesis in Camponotus fellah ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrieri, Fernando Javier; D'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    Ants exhibit impressive olfactory learning abilities. Operant protocols in which ants freely choose between rewarded and nonrewarded odours have been used to characterise associative olfactory learning and memory. Yet, this approach precludes the use of invasive methods allowing the dissection of molecular bases of learning and memory. An open question is whether the memories formed upon olfactory learning that are retrievable several days after training are indeed based on de novo protein synthesis. Here, we addressed this question in the ant Camponotus fellah using a conditioning protocol in which individually harnessed ants learn an association between odour and reward. When the antennae of an ant are stimulated with sucrose solution, the insect extends its maxilla–labium to absorb the solution (maxilla–labium extension response). We differentially conditioned ants to discriminate between two long-chain hydrocarbons, one paired with sucrose and the other with quinine solution. Differential conditioning leads to the formation of a long-term memory retrievable at least 72¿h after training. Long-term memory consolidation was impaired by the ingestion of cycloheximide, a protein synthesis blocker, prior to conditioning. Cycloheximide did not impair acquisition of either short-term memory (10¿min) or early and late mid-term memories (1 or 12¿h). These results show that, upon olfactory learning, ants form different memories with variable molecular bases. While short- and mid-term memories do not require protein synthesis, long-term memories are stabilised via protein synthesis. Our behavioural protocol opens interesting research avenues to explore the cellular and molecular bases of olfactory learning and memory in ants.

  17. Hippocampal CA1 Kindling but Not Long-Term Potentiation Disrupts Spatial Memory Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, L. Stan; Shen, Bixia

    2006-01-01

    Long-term synaptic enhancement in the hippocampus has been suggested to cause deficits in spatial performance. Synaptic enhancement has been reported after hippocampal kindling that induced repeated electrographic seizures or afterdischarges (ADs) and after long-term potentiation (LTP) defined as synaptic enhancement without ADs. We studied…

  18. 2010 Survey on long-term preservation of information and memory for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preservation of information and memory across generations is a cross-cutting theme of increasing importance for radioactive waste management. Because of the experience accumulated by the advanced national programmes that the RWMC represents, and the breadth of its related high-level initiatives, the Committee is uniquely placed internationally to combine resources and help develop state-of-the-art guidance on the long-term preservation of information and memory. In the context of fostering knowledge consolidation and transfer (KCT), the RWMC has already identified - in its reference document on KCT - the area of inter-generational transfer of knowledge as one of two areas needing development. In 2009, the RWMC decided to implement its programme of work in the area of information preservation and long-term memory as a series of projects or lines of actions opened by the RWMC and supervised by its Bureau. In order to better define its first series of projects the RWMC preformed a survey of its organisations needs and available materials and experience. At its meeting in 2010 the RWMC determined that the survey materials provided by organisations from 12 NEA countries constitute a good contribution to the literature in this field, and certainly to the upcoming projects. They provide as well a good baseline of information against which to measure progress a few years hence. This document reports the answers provided by organisations from 12 countries (Belgium, Canada, Finland, France, Hungary, Japan, Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the USA,) to five questions related to long-term preservation of information and memory in the field of geological disposal. The questions are as follows: o What specific priority areas for long-term memory development have been identified in your agencies/countries? Which are the time scales of largest interest? o Do these priority proceed from good practice or/and from specific laws, regulations, policies exist in your country that set out requirements for long-term memory in long-term waste management? o How far advanced are you regarding establishing an action plan for long-term information and memory preservation in the field of geological disposal? Are you addressing the following RWMC questions: What information should be preserved? Why? Where? How should it be preserved? Which target groups? Which time horizons? What suggestions do you have for possible areas of focus for RWMC? (e.g. an international project that may assist Members?) What are the untapped areas that deserve more attention? Would you have studies, reports, policies that you might share with RWMC members? (author)

  19. Failure of delayed nonsynaptic neuronal plasticity underlies age-associated long-term associative memory impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Shawn N

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive impairment associated with subtle changes in neuron and neuronal network function rather than widespread neuron death is a feature of the normal aging process in humans and animals. Despite its broad evolutionary conservation, the etiology of this aging process is not well understood. However, recent evidence suggests the existence of a link between oxidative stress in the form of progressive membrane lipid peroxidation, declining neuronal electrical excitability and functional decline of the normal aging brain. The current study applies a combination of behavioural and electrophysiological techniques and pharmacological interventions to explore this hypothesis in a gastropod model (Lymnaea stagnalis feeding system that allows pinpointing the molecular and neurobiological foundations of age-associated long-term memory (LTM failure at the level of individual identified neurons and synapses. Results Classical appetitive reward-conditioning induced robust LTM in mature animals in the first quartile of their lifespan but failed to do so in animals in the last quartile of their lifespan. LTM failure correlated with reduced electrical excitability of two identified serotonergic modulatory interneurons (CGCs critical in chemosensory integration by the neural network controlling feeding behaviour. Moreover, while behavioural conditioning induced delayed-onset persistent depolarization of the CGCs known to underlie appetitive LTM formation in this model in the younger animals, it failed to do so in LTM-deficient senescent animals. Dietary supplementation of the lipophilic anti-oxidant ?-tocopherol reversed the effect of age on CGCs electrophysiological characteristics but failed to restore appetitive LTM function. Treatment with the SSRI fluoxetine reversed both the neurophysiological and behavioural effects of age in senior animals. Conclusions The results identify the CGCs as cellular loci of age-associated appetitive learning and memory impairment in Lymnaea and buttress the hypothesis that lipid peroxidation-dependent depression of intrinsic excitability is a hallmark of normal neuronal aging. The data implicate both lipid peroxidation-dependent non-synaptic as well as apparently lipid peroxidation-independent synaptic mechanisms in the age-dependent decline in behavioural plasticity in this model system.

  20. The transcription factor MEF2 negatively regulates long-term memory formation and spine density in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy J Cole

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2 was originally identified and characterized in muscles. MEF2 is also highly expressed in the brain, but the function of neural MEF2 is virtually unexplored. Recent findings suggest that MEF2 negatively regulates dendritic spine formation and spine density. As the growth and restructuring of spines and synapses are thought to underlie memory formation, we examined the effects of manipulating MEF2 function on memory formation in mice. We assessed two type of memory that critically depend on different brain regions. Spatial memory involves the hippocampus, including the dentate gyrus whereas auditory fear conditioning involves the lateral amygdala. To increase MEF2 function in a region- and temporally-specific manner, we overexpressed a constitutively active form of MEF2 using a viral-mediated in vivo expression system. Increasing MEF2 function in dentate gyrus region before training in the Morris water maze disrupted spatial memory formation. This deficit was accompanied by a reduction in dendritic spine density. Conversely, expressing a dominant negative MEF2 repressor in the dentate gyrus increased spatial memory formation. The effects of MEF2 manipulation also generalized to the lateral amygdale where increasing MEF2 similarly disrupted the formation of long-term memory for auditory and contextual fear conditioning. Our findings suggest that MEF2 is important for the formation of two distinct forms of long-term memory perhaps by repressing new spine formation.

  1. NF-?B p50 subunit knockout impairs late LTP and alters long term memory in the mouse hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oikawa Kensuke

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B is a transcription factor typically expressed with two specific subunits (p50, p65. Investigators have reported that NF-?B is activated during the induction of in vitro long term potentiation (LTP, a paradigm of synaptic plasticity and correlate of memory, suggesting that NF-?B may be necessary for some aspects of memory encoding. Furthermore, NF-?B has been implicated as a potential requirement in behavioral tests of memory. Unfortunately, very little work has been done to explore the effects of deleting specific NF-?B subunits on memory. Studies have shown that NF-?B p50 subunit deletion (p50?/? leads to memory deficits, however some recent studies suggest the contrary where p50?/? mice show enhanced memory in the Morris water maze (MWM. To more critically explore the role of the NF-?B p50 subunit in synaptic plasticity and memory, we assessed long term spatial memory in vivo using the MWM, and synaptic plasticity in vitro utilizing high frequency stimuli capable of eliciting LTP in slices from the hippocampus of NF-?B p50?/? versus their controls (p50+/+. Results We found that the lack of the NF-?B p50 subunit led to significant decreases in late LTP and in selective but significant alterations in MWM tests (i.e., some improvements during acquisition, but deficits during retention. Conclusions These results support the hypothesis that the NF-? p50 subunit is required in long term spatial memory in the hippocampus.

  2. Long-Term Effects of Neonatal Single or Multiple Isoflurane Exposures on Spatial Memory in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    MarkGBaxter; KathyLMurphy

    2013-01-01

    General anesthetics are neurotoxic to neonatal rodents and nonhuman primates. Neonatal exposure to general anesthetics has been associated with long-term cognitive deficits in animal models. Some data from humans are consistent with long-term deleterious effects of anesthetic exposure early in life on cognitive development, with multiple exposures to general anesthetics being particularly damaging. We sought to determine whether repeated exposure of neonatal rats to anesthesia was associated...

  3. Differences in long-term memory stability and AmCREB level between forward and backward conditioned honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsenberg, Johannes; Dyck, Yan; Feige, Janina; Ludwig, Jenny; Plath, Jenny Aino; Froese, Anja; Karrenbrock, Melanie; Nölle, Anna; Heufelder, Karin; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    In classical conditioning a predictive relationship between a neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus; CS) and a meaningful stimulus (unconditioned stimulus; US) is learned when the CS precedes the US. In backward conditioning the sequence of the stimuli is reversed. In this situation animals might learn that the CS signals the end or the absence of the US. In honeybees 30 min and 24 h following backward conditioning a memory for the excitatory and inhibitory properties of the CS could be retrieved, but it remains unclear whether a late long-term memory is formed that can be retrieved 72 h following backward conditioning. Here we examine this question by studying late long-term memory formation in forward and backward conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER). We report a difference in the stability of memory formed upon forward and backward conditioning with the same number of conditioning trials. We demonstrate a transcription-dependent memory 72 h after forward conditioning but do not observe a 72 h memory after backward conditioning. Moreover we find that protein degradation is differentially involved in memory formation following these two conditioning protocols. We report differences in the level of a transcription factor, the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) known to induce transcription underlying long-term memory formation, following forward and backward conditioning. Our results suggest that these alterations in CREB levels might be regulated by the proteasome. We propose that the differences observed are due to the sequence of stimulus presentation between forward and backward conditioning and not to differences in the strength of the association of both stimuli. PMID:25964749

  4. Memory and long-term potentiation (LTP) dissociated: Normal spatial memory despite CA1 LTP elimination with Kv1.4 antisense

    OpenAIRE

    Meiri, Noam; Sun, Miao-Kun; Segal, Zachary; Alkon, Daniel L.

    1998-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal slice preparation has been proposed as an in vitro model for long-term memory. However, correlation of LTP with memory in living animals has been difficult to demonstrate. Furthermore, in the last few years evidence has accumulated that dissociate the two. Because potassium channels might determine the weight of synapses in networks, we studied the role of Kv1.4, a presynaptic A-type voltage-dependent K+ channel, in both memory and LTP. Reverse ...

  5. The compensatory effect of regular exercise on long-term memory impairment in sleep deprived female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Maryam; Sheibani, Vahid; Saadati, Hakimeh; Pourrahimi, Alimohammad; khaksarihadad, Mohammad; Esmaeelpour, Khadijeh; Khodamoradi, Mehdi

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have been shown that exercise can improve short-term spatial learning, memory and synaptic plasticity impairments in sleep deprived female rats. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise on sleep deprivation (SD) induced impairment in hippocampal dependent long-term memory in female rats. Intact and ovariectomized female rats were used in the current study. Exercise protocol was 4 weeks treadmill running. Twenty four hour SD was induced by using multiple platform apparatus after learning phase. Spatial learning and long-term memory was examined by using the Morris Water Maze (MWM) test. Our results indicated that sleep deprivation impaired long term memory in the intact and ovariectomized female rats, regardless of reproductive status (pimpairment (p<0.05). In conclusion the results of the current study confirmed the negative effect of SD on cognitive functions and regular exercise seems to protect rats from these factors, however more investigations need to be done. PMID:26190016

  6. Identification of gene expression changes associated with long-term memory of courtship rejection in Drosophila males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winbush, Ari; Reed, Danielle; Chang, Peter L; Nuzhdin, Sergey V; Lyons, Lisa C; Arbeitman, Michelle N

    2012-11-01

    Long-term memory formation in Drosophila melanogaster is an important neuronal function shaping the insect's behavioral repertoire by allowing an individual to modify behaviors on the basis of previous experiences. In conditioned courtship or courtship suppression, male flies that have been repeatedly rejected by mated females during courtship advances are less likely than naïve males to subsequently court another mated female. This long-term courtship suppression can last for several days after the initial rejection period. Although genes with known functions in many associative learning paradigms, including those that function in cyclic AMP signaling and RNA translocation, have been identified as playing critical roles in long-term conditioned courtship, it is clear that additional mechanisms also contribute. We have used RNA sequencing to identify differentially expressed genes and transcript isoforms between naïve males and males subjected to courtship-conditioning regimens that are sufficient for inducing long-term courtship suppression. Transcriptome analyses 24 hours after the training regimens revealed differentially expressed genes and transcript isoforms with predicted and known functions in nervous system development, chromatin biology, translation, cytoskeletal dynamics, and transcriptional regulation. A much larger number of differentially expressed transcript isoforms were identified, including genes previously implicated in associative memory and neuronal development, including fruitless, that may play functional roles in learning during courtship conditioning. Our results shed light on the complexity of the genetics that underlies this behavioral plasticity and reveal several new potential areas of inquiry for future studies. PMID:23173095

  7. Overexpression of SIRT6 in the hippocampal CA1 impairs the formation of long-term contextual fear memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xi; Gao, Yuan; Shi, Hai-Shui; Song, Li; Wang, Jie-Chao; Shao, Juan; Geng, Xu-Hong; Xue, Gai; Li, Jian-Li; Hou, Yan-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Histone modifications have been implicated in learning and memory. Our previous transcriptome data showed that expression of sirtuins 6 (SIRT6), a member of Histone deacetylases (HDACs) family in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) was decreased after contextual fear conditioning. However, the role of SIRT6 in the formation of memory is still elusive. In the present study, we found that contextual fear conditioning inhibited translational expression of SIRT6 in the CA1. Microinfusion of lentiviral vector-expressing SIRT6 into theCA1 region selectively enhanced the expression of SIRT6 and impaired the formation of long-term contextual fear memory without affecting short-term fear memory. The overexpression of SIRT6 in the CA1 had no effect on anxiety-like behaviors or locomotor activity. Also, we also found that SIRT6 overexpression significantly inhibited the expression of insulin-like factor 2 (IGF2) and amounts of proteins and/or phosphoproteins (e.g. Akt, pAkt, mTOR and p-mTOR) related to the IGF2 signal pathway in the CA1. These results demonstrate that the overexpression of SIRT6 in the CA1 impaired the formation of long-term fear memory, and SIRT6 in the CA1 may negatively modulate the formation of contextual fear memory via inhibiting the IGF signaling pathway. PMID:26732053

  8. Overexpression of SIRT6 in the hippocampal CA1 impairs the formation of long-term contextual fear memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xi; Gao, Yuan; Shi, Hai-Shui; Song, Li; Wang, Jie-Chao; Shao, Juan; Geng, Xu-Hong; Xue, Gai; Li, Jian-Li; Hou, Yan-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Histone modifications have been implicated in learning and memory. Our previous transcriptome data showed that expression of sirtuins 6 (SIRT6), a member of Histone deacetylases (HDACs) family in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) was decreased after contextual fear conditioning. However, the role of SIRT6 in the formation of memory is still elusive. In the present study, we found that contextual fear conditioning inhibited translational expression of SIRT6 in the CA1. Microinfusion of lentiviral vector-expressing SIRT6 into theCA1 region selectively enhanced the expression of SIRT6 and impaired the formation of long-term contextual fear memory without affecting short-term fear memory. The overexpression of SIRT6 in the CA1 had no effect on anxiety-like behaviors or locomotor activity. Also, we also found that SIRT6 overexpression significantly inhibited the expression of insulin-like factor 2 (IGF2) and amounts of proteins and/or phosphoproteins (e.g. Akt, pAkt, mTOR and p-mTOR) related to the IGF2 signal pathway in the CA1. These results demonstrate that the overexpression of SIRT6 in the CA1 impaired the formation of long-term fear memory, and SIRT6 in the CA1 may negatively modulate the formation of contextual fear memory via inhibiting the IGF signaling pathway. PMID:26732053

  9. Long-term avoidance memory formation is associated with a transient increase in mushroom body synaptic complexes in leaf-cutting ants

    OpenAIRE

    Falibene, Agustina; Roces, Flavio; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Long-term behavioral changes related to learning and experience have been shown to be associated with structural remodeling in the brain. Leaf-cutting ants learn to avoid previously preferred plants after they have proved harmful for their symbiotic fungus, a process that involves long-term olfactory memory. We studied the dynamics of brain microarchitectural changes after long-term olfactory memory formation following avoidance learning in Acromyrmex ambiguus. After performing experiments to...

  10. Long-term memory traces for language sounds are highly context-sensitive: an MEG/ERF study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Højlund; Gebauer, Line; Mcgregor, William; Wallentin, Mikkel

    phonetic contexts. In the present study we investigated the mismatch field (MMF) response (the magnetic counterpart of the MMN) of native Danish speakers to the Danish phonetic contrast of [t]-[d] in two different phonetic contexts: One in which the sound contrast was phonemic ([tæ] versus [dæ]), and one......Introduction: An early component of the auditory event-related potential (ERP), the mismatch negativity (MMN), has been shown to be sensitive to native phonemic language sound contrasts compared to non-native or allophonic language sound contrasts. So far this has not been attested for different...... impact on the proposed long-term memory traces for native phonological categories. In order to generate different MMF responses to the same language sound contrast depending on the phonetic context, these long-term memory traces must thus be context-sensitive themselves or exist as separate traces for...

  11. Robust on-line sampling and analysis during long-term perfusion cultivation of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, LeeWey; Saghafi, Mehdi; Knappe, Christoph; Steigmiller, Stefan; Matanguihan, Cary; Goudar, Chetan T

    2013-05-20

    In an attempt to support robust automated sampling and analysis of mammalian cell bioreactors, an integrated platform, BaychroMA®, was developed which includes an innovative sterile sampling device, automated sample transport, a sample preparation module, online analyzers, and communication interfaces to process automation systems. The robustness of this platform was verified by applying it to a laboratory-scale perfusion bioreactor that was operated for over 100 days. Both manual and automated samples were collected over the course of the run and a comparison was made for cell density, viability, glucose, and lactate concentrations. The highest variability (14.4%) was seen for cell density estimates while those for viability, glucose, and lactate were 0.7, 12.9, and 8.2%, respectively. In addition, cell density set-point changes were made towards the end of the perfusion culture and the high frequency automated samples provided a higher resolution description of the dynamics of cell density change compared to less frequent manual sampling. Overall, our results indicate stable and robust operation of the BaychroMAT® platform in a long-term perfusion culture. This success should readily translate to shorter duration fed-batch cultures thereby enabling feed-back control based on real-time nutrient measurements. PMID:23545503

  12. Effects of Sleep Deprivation and Aging on Long-Term and Remote Memory in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecsey, Christopher G.; Park, Alan J.; Khatib, Nora; Abel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) following hippocampus-dependent learning in young mice impairs memory when tested the following day. Here, we examined the effects of SD on remote memory in both young and aged mice. In young mice, we found that memory is still impaired 1 mo after training. SD also impaired memory in aged mice 1 d after training, but, by a…

  13. Effects of D-amino acid oxidase inhibition on memory performance and long-term potentiation in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, Seth C.; Campbell, Una C; Heffernan, Michele L R; Spear, Kerry L; Jeggo, Ross D; Spanswick, David C.; Varney, Mark A; Large, Thomas H

    2013-01-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation can initiate changes in synaptic strength, evident as long-term potentiation (LTP), and is a key molecular correlate of memory formation. Inhibition of d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) may increase NMDAR activity by regulating d-serine concentrations, but which neuronal and behavioral effects are influenced by DAAO inhibition remain elusive. In anesthetized rats, extracellular field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were recorded before an...

  14. Learning to never forget—time scales and specificity of long-term memory of a motor skill

    OpenAIRE

    Se-Woong Park; Tjeerd Dijkstra; Dagmar Sternad

    2013-01-01

    Despite anecdotal reports that humans retain acquired motor skills for many years, if not a lifetime, long-term memory of motor skills has received little attention. While numerous neuroimaging studies showed practice-induced cortical plasticity, the behavioral correlates, what is retained and also what is forgotten, are little understood. This longitudinal case study on four subjects presents detailed kinematic analyses of humans practicing a bimanual polyrhythmic task over 2 months with ret...

  15. A long-term validation of the modernised DC-ARC-OES solid-sample method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florian, K. [Dept. of Chemistry, Technical University of Kosice (Slovakia); Hassler, J.; Foerster, O. [Elektroschmelzwerk GmbH, Kempten (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    The validation procedure based on ISO 17 025 standard has been used to study and illustrate both the long-term stability of the calibration process of the DC-ARC solid sample spectrometric method and the main validation criteria of the method. In the calculation of the validation characteristics depending on the linearity(calibration), also the fulfilment of predetermining criteria such as normality and homoscedasticity was checked. In order to decide whether there are any trends in the time-variation of the analytical signal or not, also the Neumann test of trend was applied and evaluated. Finally, a comparison with similar validation data of the ETV-ICP-OES method was carried out. (orig.)

  16. Vividness of visual imagery and incidental recall of verbal cues, when phenomenological availability reflects long-term memory accessibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AmedeoD'Angiulli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between vivid visual mental images and unexpected recall (incidental recall was replicated, refined and extended. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to generate mental images from imagery-evoking verbal-cues (controlled on several verbal properties and then, on a trial-by-trial basis, rate the vividness of their images; thirty minutes later, participants were surprised with a task requiring free recall of the cues. Higher vividness ratings predicted better incidental recall of the cues than individual differences (whose effect was modest. Distributional analysis of image latencies through ex-Gaussian modeling showed an inverse relation between vividness and latency. However, recall was unrelated to image latency. The follow-up Experiment 2 showed that the processes underlying trial-by-trial vividness ratings are unrelated to the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ, as further supported by a meta-analysis of a randomly selected sample of relevant literature. The present findings suggest that vividness may act as an index of availability of long-term sensory traces, playing a non-epiphenomenal role in facilitating the access of those memories.

  17. Get the gist? The effects of processing depth on false recognition in short-term and long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegal, Kristin E; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A

    2014-07-01

    Gist-based processing has been proposed to account for robust false memories in the converging-associates task. The deep-encoding processes known to enhance verbatim memory also strengthen gist memory and increase distortions of long-term memory (LTM). Recent research has demonstrated that compelling false memory illusions are relatively delay-invariant, also occurring under canonical short-term memory (STM) conditions. To investigate the contributions of gist to false memory at short and long delays, processing depth was manipulated as participants encoded lists of four semantically related words and were probed immediately, following a filled 3- to 4-s retention interval, or approximately 20 min later, in a surprise recognition test. In two experiments, the encoding manipulation dissociated STM and LTM on the frequency, but not the phenomenology, of false memory. Deep encoding at STM increases false recognition rates at LTM, but confidence ratings and remember/know judgments are similar across delays and do not differ as a function of processing depth. These results suggest that some shared and some unique processes underlie false memory illusions at short and long delays. PMID:24395065

  18. The role of reconsolidation and the dynamic process of long-term memory formation and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M Alberini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that the processes of memory formation and storage are exquisitely dynamic. Elucidating the nature and temporal evolution of the biological changes that accompany encoding, storage and retrieval is key to understand memory formation. For explicit or medial temporal lobe-dependent memories that form after a discrete event and are stored for a long time, the physical changes underlying the encoding and processing of the information (memory trace or engram remain in a fragile state for some time. However, over time, the new memory becomes increasingly resistant to disruption until it is consolidated. Retrieval or reactivation of an apparently consolidated memory can render the memory labile again, and reconsolidation is the process that occurs to mediate its restabilization. Reconsolidation also evolves with the age of the memory: Young memories are sensitive to postreactivation disruption, but older memories are more resistant. Why does a memory become labile again if it is retrieved or reactivated? Here I suggest that the main function of reconsolidation is to contribute to the lingering consolidation process and mediate memory strengthening. I also discuss the literature and results regarding the influence of the passage of time on the reconsolidation of memory. These points have important implications for the use of reconsolidation in therapeutic settings.

  19. Following the crowd: Brain Substrates of Long-Term Memory Conformity

    OpenAIRE

    Edelson, Micah; Sharot, Tali; Dolan, Raymond J.; Dudai, Yadin

    2011-01-01

    Human memory is strikingly susceptible to social influences, yet we know little about the underlying mechanisms. We examined how socially induced memory errors are generated in the brain by studying the memory of individuals exposed to recollections of others. Participants exhibited a strong tendency to conform to erroneous recollections of the group, producing both long-lasting and temporary errors, even when their initial memory was strong and accurate. Functional brain imaging revealed tha...

  20. Memory T and memory B cells share a transcriptional program of self-renewal with long-term hematopoietic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Luckey, Chance John; Bhattacharya, Deepta; Goldrath, Ananda W.; Weissman, Irving L; Benoist, Christophe; Mathis, Diane

    2006-01-01

    The only cells of the hematopoietic system that undergo self-renewal for the lifetime of the organism are long-term hematopoietic stem cells and memory T and B cells. To determine whether there is a shared transcriptional program among these self-renewing populations, we first compared the gene-expression profiles of naïve, effector and memory CD8+ T cells with those of long-term hematopoietic stem cells, short-term hematopoietic stem cells, and lineage-committed progenitors. Transcripts augm...

  1. Homologue of Protein Kinase M? Maintains Context Aversive Memory and Underlying Long-Term Facilitation in Terrestrial Snail Helix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel M. Balaban

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that a variety of long-term memories in different regions of the brain and in different species are quickly erased by local inhibition of PKM?. Using antibodies to mammalian PKM?, we describe in the present study the localization of immunoreactive molecules in the nervous system of the terrestrial snail Helix lucorum. Presence of a homologue of PKM? was confirmed with transcriptomics. We have demonstrated in behavioral experiments that contextual fear memory disappeared under a blockade of PKM? with a selective peptide blocker of PKM? (ZIP, but not with scrambled ZIP. If ZIP was combined with a “reminder” (20 min in noxious context, no impairment of the long-term contextual memory was observed. In electrophysiological experiments we investigated whether PKM? takes part in the maintenance of long-term facilitation (LTF in the neural circuit mediating tentacle withdrawal. LTF of excitatory synaptic inputs to premotor interneurons was induced by high-frequency nerve stimulation combined with serotonin bath applications and lasted at least four hours. We found that bath application of 2x10-6 M ZIP at the 90th min after the tetanization reduced the EPSP amplitude to the non-tetanized EPSP values. Applications of the scrambled ZIP peptide at a similar time and concentration didn't affect the EPSP amplitudes. In order to test whether effects of ZIP are specific to the synapses, we performed experiments with LTF of somatic membrane responses to local glutamate applications. It was shown earlier that serotonin application in such an "artificial synapse" condition elicits LTF of responses to glutamate. It was found that ZIP had no effect on LTF in these conditions, which may be explained by the very low concentration of PKM? molecules in somata of these identified neurons, as evidenced by immunochemistry. Obtained results suggest that the Helix homologue of PKM? might be involved in post-induction maintenance of long-term changes in the snail.

  2. Mind racing: The influence of exercise on long-term memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNerney, M Windy; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2015-11-01

    Over time, regular exercise can lower the risk for age-related decline in cognition. However, the immediate effects of exercise on memory consolidation in younger adults have not been fully investigated. In two experiments, the effects of exercise were assessed on three different memory tasks. These included paired-associate learning, procedural learning and text memory. Results indicate that performance on procedural learning and situation model memory was increased with exercise, regardless of if participants exercised before or after encoding. No benefit of exercise was found for paired-associate learning. These findings suggest that intense exercise may benefit certain types of memory consolidation. PMID:25312348

  3. Providing Extrinsic Reward for Test Performance Undermines Long-Term Memory Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhbandner, Christof; Aslan, Alp; Emmerdinger, Kathrin; Murayama, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Based on numerous studies showing that testing studied material can improve long-term retention more than restudying the same material, it is often suggested that the number of tests in education should be increased to enhance knowledge acquisition. However, testing in real-life educational settings often entails a high degree of extrinsic motivation of learners due to the common practice of placing important consequences on the outcome of a test. Such an effect on the motivation of learners ...

  4. Providing extrinsic reward for test performance undermines long-term memory acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhbandner, Christof; Aslan, Alp; Emmerdinger, Kathrin; Murayama, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Based on numerous studies showing that testing studied material can improve long-term retention more than restudying the same material, it is often suggested that the number of tests in education should be increased to enhance knowledge acquisition. However, testing in real-life educational settings often entails a high degree of extrinsic motivation of learners due to the common practice of placing important consequences on the outcome of a test. Such an effect on the motivation of learners ...

  5. Uncertainties in Air Exchange using Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling Tracer-Gas Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.; Lunden, Melissa M.

    2013-12-01

    The PerFluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) method is a low-cost approach commonly used for measuring air exchange in buildings using tracer gases. It is a specific application of the more general Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling (CILTS) method. The technique is widely used but there has been little work on understanding the uncertainties (both precision and bias) associated with its use, particularly given that it is typically deployed by untrained or lightly trained people to minimize experimental costs. In this article we will conduct a first-principles error analysis to estimate the uncertainties and then compare that analysis to CILTS measurements that were over-sampled, through the use of multiple tracers and emitter and sampler distribution patterns, in three houses. We find that the CILTS method can have an overall uncertainty of 10-15percent in ideal circumstances, but that even in highly controlled field experiments done by trained experimenters expected uncertainties are about 20percent. In addition, there are many field conditions (such as open windows) where CILTS is not likely to provide any quantitative data. Even avoiding the worst situations of assumption violations CILTS should be considered as having a something like a ?factor of two? uncertainty for the broad field trials that it is typically used in. We provide guidance on how to deploy CILTS and design the experiment to minimize uncertainties.

  6. Errors in nonword repetition: bridging short- and long-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, F. H.; Bueno, O. F. A.; Gathercole, S. E.

    2006-01-01

    According to the working memory model, the phonological loop is the component of working memory specialized in processing and manipulating limited amounts of speech-based information. The Children's Test of Nonword Repetition (CNRep) is a suitable measure of phonological short-term memory for English-speaking children, which was validated by the Brazilian Children's Test of Pseudoword Repetition (BCPR) as a Portuguese-language version. The objectives of the present study were: i) to investiga...

  7. Olfaction, Emtion & the Amygdala: arousal-dependent modulation of long-term autobiographical memory and its association with olfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hughes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The sense of smell is set apart from other sensory modalities. Odours possess the capacity to trigger immediately strong emotional memories. Moreover, odorous stimuli provide a higher degree of memory retention than other sensory stimuli. Odour perception, even in its most elemental form - olfaction - already involves limbic structures. This early involvement is not paralleled in other sensory modalities. Bearing in mind the considerable connectivity with limbic structures, and the fact that an activation of the amygdala is capable of instantaneously evoking emotions and facilitating the encoding of memories, it is unsurprising that the sense of smell has its characteristic nature. The aim of this review is to analyse current understanding of higher olfactory information processing as it relates to the ability of odours to spontaneously cue highly vivid, affectively toned, and often very old autobiographical memories (episodes known anecdotally as Proust phenomena. Particular emphasis is placed on the diversity of functions attributed to the amygdala. Its role in modulating the encoding and retrieval of long-term memory is investigated with reference to lesion, electrophysiological, immediate early gene, and functional imaging studies in both rodents and humans. Additionally, the influence of hormonal modulation and the adrenergic system on emotional memory storage is outlined. I finish by proposing a schematic of some of the critical neural pathways that underlie the odour-associated encoding and retrieval of emotionally toned autobiographical memories.

  8. Transient Relay Function of Midline Thalamic Nuclei during Long-Term Memory Consolidation in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen, Jan-Willem; Takashima, Atsuko; Rutters, Femke; Tendolkar, Indira; Fernández, Guillén

    2015-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that thalamic midline nuclei play a transient role in memory consolidation, we reanalyzed a prospective functional MRI study, contrasting recent and progressively more remote memory retrieval. We revealed a transient thalamic connectivity increase with the hippocampus, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and a…

  9. Consolidation power of extrinsic rewards: reward cues enhance long-term memory for irrelevant past events

    OpenAIRE

    Murayama, Kou; Kitagami, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that extrinsic rewards promote memory consolidation through dopaminergic modulation processes. However, no conclusive behavioral evidence exists given that the influence of extrinsic reward on attention and motivation during encoding and consolidation processes are inherently confounded. The present study provides behavioral evidence that extrinsic rewards (i.e., monetary incentives) enhance human memory consolidation independently of attention and motivation. Partici...

  10. The Representational Consequences of Intentional Forgetting: Impairments to Both the Probability and Fidelity of Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether intentional forgetting impacts only the likelihood of later retrieval from long-term memory or whether it also impacts the fidelity of those representations that are successfully retrieved. We accomplished this by combining an item-method directed forgetting task with a testing procedure and modeling approach inspired by the delayed-estimation paradigm used in the study of visual short-term memory (STM). Abstract or concrete colored images were each followed by a remember (R) or forget (F) instruction and sometimes by a visual probe requiring a speeded detection response (E1–E3). Memory was tested using an old–new (E1–E2) or remember-know-no (E3) recognition task followed by a continuous color judgment task (E2–E3); a final experiment included only the color judgment task (E4). Replicating the existing literature, more “old” or “remember” responses were made to R than F items and RTs to postinstruction visual probes were longer following F than R instructions. Color judgments were more accurate for successfully recognized or recollected R than F items (E2–E3); a mixture model confirmed a decrease to both the probability of retrieving the F items as well as the fidelity of the representation of those F items that were retrieved (E4). We conclude that intentional forgetting is an effortful process that not only reduces the likelihood of successfully encoding an item for later retrieval, but also produces an impoverished memory trace even when those items are retrieved; these findings draw a parallel between the control of memory representations within working and long-term memory. PMID:26709589

  11. Technical Note: Long-term memory effect in the atmospheric CO2 concentration at Mauna Loa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Varotsos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The monthly mean values of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration derived from in-situ air samples collected at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, USA during 1958–2004 (the longest continuous record available in the world are analyzed by employing the detrended fluctuation analysis to detect scaling behavior in this time series. The main result is that the fluctuations of carbon dioxide concentrations exhibit long-range power-law correlations (long memory with lag times ranging from four months to eleven years, which correspond to 1/f noise. This result indicates that random perturbations in the carbon dioxide concentrations give rise to noise, characterized by a frequency spectrum following a power-law with exponent that approaches to one; the latter shows that the correlation times grow strongly. This feature is pointing out that a correctly rescaled subset of the original time series of the carbon dioxide concentrations resembles the original time series. Finally, the power-law relationship derived from the real measurements of the carbon dioxide concentrations could also serve as a tool to improve the confidence of the atmospheric chemistry-transport and global climate models.

  12. Technical Note: Long-term memory effect in the atmospheric CO2 concentration at Mauna Loa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Efstathiou

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The monthly mean values of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration derived from in-situ air samples collected at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, during 1958–2004 (the longest continuous record available in the world are analyzed by employing the detrended fluctuation analysis to detect scaling behavior in this time series. The main result is that the fluctuations of carbon dioxide concentrations exhibit long-range power-law correlations (long memory with lag times ranging from four months to eleven years, which correspond to 1/f noise. This result indicates that random perturbations in the carbon dioxide concentrations give rise to noise, characterized by a frequency spectrum following a power-law with exponent that approaches to one; the latter shows that the correlation times grow strongly. This feature is pointing out that a correctly rescaled subset of the original time series of the carbon dioxide concentrations resembles the original time series. Finally, the power-law relationship derived from the real measurements of the carbon dioxide concentrations could also serve as a tool to improve the confidence of the atmospheric chemistry-transport and global climate models.

  13. Long-term phonological knowledge supports serial ordering in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Masataka; Tanida, Yuki; Saito, Satoru

    2015-09-01

    Serial ordering mechanisms have been investigated extensively in psychology and psycholinguistics. It has also been demonstrated repeatedly that long-term phonological knowledge contributes to serial ordering. However, the mechanisms that contribute to serial ordering have yet to be fully understood. To understand these mechanisms, we demonstrate 2 effects using triples of Japanese nonwords in immediate serial recall. One, a type of bielement frequency effect, is a retrograde compatibility effect. Bielement frequency effects are well-established phenomena whereby a 2-element sequence (e.g., "ka-re") that frequently appears in a language instantiates better recall of any sequence that includes this element (e.g., "ka-re-su-mo"). We demonstrate that bielement frequency affected both the first (e.g., "ka" for "ka-re"; retrograde compatibility effect) and second part of a sequence, indicating the existence of minicontext representations of 2-element sequences. The other effects are the position-element(s) frequency effects, whereby an element (e.g., the mora "ka") that more frequently appears in 1 position of a sequence (e.g., in the first mora of a word) than in other positions facilitates better recall of that element (i.e., the first mora). The effects demonstrated in this article indicate the long-term associations of position representations and elements. These effects are discussed in terms of the extensive learning hypothesis, which assumes that phonological structures are learned gradually. Implications for computational models are also discussed. PMID:25730304

  14. ?1-and ?2-adrenoceptors in hippocampal CA3 region are required for long-term memory consolidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian; Luo, Fei; Guo, Nan-Nan; Cheng, Zong-Yue; Li, Bao-Ming

    2015-11-19

    The existence of ?-adrenoceptors (ARs) in the hippocampus and the importance of ?-ARs in regulating synaptic plasticity and learning/memory function are well documented. As known, ?-ARs in area cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) are involved in regulating memory consolidation. However, little is known about the functional roles of the ?-ARs subtypes, ?1- and ?2-ARs, in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) region. To address this question, we firstly locally infused the ?1- or ?2-ARs antagonist into the CA3 region and observed that blockage of either ?1-AR or ?2-AR impaired long-term contextual fear memory and water-maze spatial memory. We also found that, following the contextual fear conditioning, the expression of ?1-AR in the CA3 region significantly increased, whereas ?2-AR was unchanged. Then intra-CA3 infusion of recombinant lentiviral RNAi vectors for ?1 or ?2-ARs also produced deficit in contextual memory consolidation. Taken together, the results suggested that the ?1- and ?2-ARs in the CA3 region were involved in hippocampus dependent memory consolidation. PMID:26343545

  15. Memory and learning sequelae in long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Association with attention deficits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic study of verbal and nonverbal memory and learning was undertaken in long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia to assess the incidence and pattern of impairments and to determine the relationship between these deficits and computed tomography (CT) brain scan abnormalities. Twenty-three children who had received cranial irradiation (2,400 cGy) and intrathecal chemotherapy as central nervous system (CNS) preventive therapy and who were off all therapy for at least 4 years were evaluated. On the basis of their CT brain scan findings, patients were divided into three groups: those with intracerebral calcifications (n = 5), those with cortical atrophy (n = 8), and those with normal CT findings (n = 10). Significant deficits in verbal memory (p less than 0.025) and verbal learning (p less than 0.05) were observed that were associated with the presence and type of CT brain scan abnormalities; the greatest impairments were observed in patients with calcifications. No significant differences between CT scan groups were found for nonverbal memory and learning. Previous evaluation of attentional processing in these patients using reaction time tests had revealed the presence of deficits primarily in the ability to sustain attention. Combining those data with findings from the present study showed that memory impairments, particularly those in short-term memory, were primarily attributable to an underlying attentional defect that affect the encoding stage of memory processing

  16. Consolidation power of extrinsic rewards: reward cues enhance long-term memory for irrelevant past events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kou; Kitagami, Shinji

    2014-02-01

    Recent research suggests that extrinsic rewards promote memory consolidation through dopaminergic modulation processes. However, no conclusive behavioral evidence exists given that the influence of extrinsic reward on attention and motivation during encoding and consolidation processes are inherently confounded. The present study provides behavioral evidence that extrinsic rewards (i.e., monetary incentives) enhance human memory consolidation independently of attention and motivation. Participants saw neutral pictures, followed by a reward or control cue in an unrelated context. Our results (and a direct replication study) demonstrated that the reward cue predicted a retrograde enhancement of memory for the preceding neutral pictures. This retrograde effect was observed only after a delay, not immediately upon testing. An additional experiment showed that emotional arousal or unconscious resource mobilization cannot explain the retrograde enhancement effect. These results provide support for the notion that the dopaminergic memory consolidation effect can result from extrinsic reward. PMID:23421444

  17. Errors in nonword repetition: bridging short- and long-term memory

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.H., Santos; O.F.A., Bueno; S.E., Gathercole.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the working memory model, the phonological loop is the component of working memory specialized in processing and manipulating limited amounts of speech-based information. The Children's Test of Nonword Repetition (CNRep) is a suitable measure of phonological short-term memory for Englis [...] h-speaking children, which was validated by the Brazilian Children's Test of Pseudoword Repetition (BCPR) as a Portuguese-language version. The objectives of the present study were: i) to investigate developmental aspects of the phonological memory processing by error analysis in the nonword repetition task, and ii) to examine phoneme (substitution, omission and addition) and order (migration) errors made in the BCPR by 180 normal Brazilian children of both sexes aged 4-10, from preschool to 4th grade. The dominant error was substitution [F(3,525) = 180.47; P

  18. The effect of frequency and duration of training sessions on acquisition and long-term memory in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Helle; Ladewig, Jan; Balsby, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg; Dabelsteen, Torben

    dogs such as guide dogs and police dogs, also the training of family dogs can benefit from this knowledge. We studied the effect of frequency and duration of training sessions on acquisition and on long-term memory. Forty-four laboratory Beagles were divided into 4 groups and trained by means of...... measured as achieved training level at a certain time. The dogs’ retention of the task was tested four weeks post-acquisition. Results demonstrated that dogs trained 1–2 times per week had significantly better acquisition than daily trained dogs, and that dogs trained only 1 session a day had significantly...

  19. EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM MEMANTINE ON MEMORY AND NEUROPATHOLOGY IN TS65DN MICE, A MODEL FOR DOWN SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Lockrow, Jason; Boger, Heather; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Memantine is a partial NMDA receptor antagonist that has been shown to improve learning and memory in several animal models, and is approved for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Chronic treatments using memantine in animal models of Alzheimer’s disease show disease-modifying effects and suggest a potential neuroprotective function. The present study assessed the effects of both short- and long-term memantine treatment in a mouse model of Down syndrome, the Ts65Dn mouse. The Ts65Dn mouse ...

  20. False memories and lexical decision: even twelve primes do not cause long-term semantic priming

    OpenAIRE

    Zeelenberg, R.; Pecher, D.

    2002-01-01

    Semantic priming effects are usually obtained only if the prime is presented shortly before the target stimulus. Recent evidence obtained with the so-called false memory paradigm suggests, however, that in both explicit and implicit memory tasks semantic relations between words can result in long-lasting effects when multiple 'primes' are presented. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether these effects would generalize to lexical decision. In four experiments...

  1. Posterior parietal cortex and long-term memory: some data from laboratory animals

    OpenAIRE

    Jociane C. Myskiw; Izquierdo, Iván

    2012-01-01

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) was long viewed as just involved in the perception of spatial relationships between the body and its surroundings and of movements related to them. In recent years the PPC has been shown to participate in many other cognitive processes, among which working memory and the consolidation and retrieval of episodic memory. The neurotransmitter and other molecular processes involved have been determined to a degree in rodents. More research will no doubt determin...

  2. POSTERIOR PARIETAL CORTEX AND LONG-TERM MEMORY: SOME DATA FROM LABORATORY ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    IvánIzquierdo

    2012-01-01

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC), long viewed as just involved in the perception of spatial relationships between the body and its surroundings and of movements related to it has in recent years been shown to participate in many other cognitive processes, among which working memory and the consolidation and retrieval of episodic memory. The neurotransmitter and other molecular processes involved have been determined to a degree in rodents. More research will no doubt determine the extent...

  3. An fMRI study of long-term everyday memory using SenseCam.

    OpenAIRE

    Milton, F; Muhlert, N; Butler, CR; Smith, A.; Benattayallah, A; Zeman, AZ

    2011-01-01

    We used a novel automatic camera, SenseCam, to investigate recognition memory for real-life events at a 5-month retention interval. Using fMRI we assessed recollection and familiarity memory using the remember/know procedure. Recollection evoked no medial temporal lobe (MTL) activation compared to familiarity and new responses. Instead, recollection activated diverse regions in neocortex including medial prefrontal cortex. We observed decreased activation in anterior hippocampus/ anterior par...

  4. Stress administered prior to encoding impairs neutral but enhances emotional long-term episodic memories

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Jessica D.; Jackson, Eric D.; Hoscheidt, Siobhan; Ryan, Lee; Jacobs, W. Jake; Nadel, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Stressful events frequently comprise both neutral and emotionally arousing information, yet the impact of stress on emotional and neutral events is still not fully understood. The hippocampus and frontal cortex have dense concentrations of receptors for stress hormones, such as cortisol, which at high levels can impair performance on hippocampally dependent memory tasks. Yet, the same stress hormones can facilitate memory for emotional information, which involves interactions between the hipp...

  5. Conversion of short-term to long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Shannon J.; Deshpande, Kaivalya; Stinnett, Gwen S.; Seasholtz, Audrey F.; Geoffrey G Murphy

    2013-01-01

    It is well-known that stress can significantly impact learning; however, whether this effect facilitates or impairs the resultant memory depends on the characteristics of the stressor. Investigation of these dynamics can be confounded by the role of the stressor in motivating performance in a task. Positing a cohesive model of the effect of stress on learning and memory necessitates elucidating the consequences of stressful stimuli independently from task-specific functions. Therefore, the go...

  6. Unforgettable film music: The role of emotion in episodic long-term memory for music

    OpenAIRE

    Altenmüller Eckart O; Münte Thomas F; Eschrich Susann

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Specific pieces of music can elicit strong emotions in listeners and, possibly in connection with these emotions, can be remembered even years later. However, episodic memory for emotional music compared with less emotional music has not yet been examined. We investigated whether emotional music is remembered better than less emotional music. Also, we examined the influence of musical structure on memory performance. Results Recognition of 40 musical excerpts was investiga...

  7. Autobiographical memory in long-term survivors of severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Robert G; O'Hagan, Kimberley

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the ability of persons who had sustained a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) at least 6 years previously to recall memories associated with famous names. Each of 19 persons with TBI was matched with a healthy control of the same age, gender, and occupational-educational background. A list of 115 names of famous people was compiled, 25 of whom came to prominence in each decade from 1960 to 1999, and 15 in the period 2000 to 2005. Participants were first asked whether they recognized each name as being of a famous person and to state the reason for the individual's fame. For those names they correctly identified, they were asked to recall a memory associated with the person; each memory produced was categorized as a context-specific memory or a general memory. The ability to recognize and identify famous names was well preserved in the TBI group; however, they showed a consistent impairment in the ability to recall specific episodic memories acquired before and after the date of the TBI. This inability to generate personal and specific information is likely to have an impact on the ability of the person with TBI to participate in interpersonal interactions and problem solve in complex social situations. PMID:18972310

  8. Brain potentials during sentence verification: late negativity and long-term memory strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischler, I; Bloom, P A; Childers, D G; Arroyo, A A; Perry, N W

    1984-01-01

    Subjects decided whether self-referential statements were true or false. Event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with final words creating false statements displayed a late negativity (N340) relative to ERPs for true completions. The size of this difference between true and false statements was greater for highly familiar statements (e.g. "My name is Ira") than for less familiar ones (e.g. "I go to bed late") even after all the statements had been practised a number of times. The late negativity appears to be associated with a discrepancy between presented and remembered information, and its magnitude reflects the long-term familiarity or strength of the remembered information. PMID:6504296

  9. POSTERIOR PARIETAL CORTEX AND LONG-TERM MEMORY: SOME DATA FROM LABORATORY ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Izquierdo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The posterior parietal cortex (PPC, long viewed as just involved in the perception of spatial relationships between the body and its surroundings and of movements related to it has in recent years been shown to participate in many other cognitive processes, among which working memory and the consolidation and retrieval of episodic memory. The neurotransmitter and other molecular processes involved have been determined to a degree in rodents. More research will no doubt determine the extent to which these findings can be extrapolated to primates, including humans. In these there appears to be a paradox: imaging studies strongly suggest an important participation of the PPC in episodic memory, whereas lesion studies are much less suggestive, let alone conclusive.

  10. Emotion and memory: Children's long-term remembering, forgetting, and suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quas, J A; Goodman, G S; Bidrose, S; Pipe, M E; Craw, S; Ablin, D S

    1999-04-01

    Children's memories for an experienced and a never-experienced medical procedure were examined. Three- to 13-year-olds were questioned about a voiding cystourethrogram fluoroscopy (VCUG) they endured between 2 and 6 years of age. Children 4 years or older at VCUG were more accurate than children younger than 4 at VCUG. Longer delays were associated with providing fewer units of correct information but not with more inaccuracies. Parental avoidant attachment style was related to increased errors in children's VCUG memory. Children were more likely to assent to the false medical procedure when it was alluded to briefly than when described in detail, and false assents were related to fewer "do-not-know" responses about the VCUG. Results have implications for childhood amnesia, stress and memory, individual differences, and eyewitness testimony. PMID:10074380

  11. Anisomycin Injection in Area CA3 of the Hippocampus Impairs Both Short-Term and Long-Term Memories of Contextual Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remaud, Jessica; Ceccom, Johnatan; Carponcy, Julien; Dugué, Laura; Menchon, Gregory; Pech, Stéphane; Halley, Helene; Francés, Bernard; Dahan, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Protein synthesis is involved in the consolidation of short-term memory into long-term memory. Previous electrophysiological data concerning LTP in CA3 suggest that protein synthesis in that region might also be necessary for short-term memory. We tested this hypothesis by locally injecting the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin in hippocampal…

  12. Social Isolation During Adolescence Strengthens Retention of Fear Memories and Facilitates Induction of Late-Phase Long-Term Potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-Hong; You, Qiang-Long; Wei, Mei-Dan; Wang, Qian; Luo, Zheng-Yi; Lin, Song; Huang, Lang; Li, Shu-Ji; Li, Xiao-Wen; Gao, Tian-Ming

    2015-12-01

    Social isolation during the vulnerable period of adolescence produces emotional dysregulation that often manifests as abnormal behavior in adulthood. The enduring consequence of isolation might be caused by a weakened ability to forget unpleasant memories. However, it remains unclear whether isolation affects unpleasant memories. To address this, we used a model of associative learning to induce the fear memories and evaluated the influence of isolation mice during adolescence on the subsequent retention of fear memories and its underlying cellular mechanisms. Following adolescent social isolation, we found that mice decreased their social interaction time and had an increase in anxiety-related behavior. Interestingly, when we assessed memory retention, we found that isolated mice were unable to forget aversive memories when tested 4 weeks after the original event. Consistent with this, we observed that a single train of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) enabled a late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region of isolated mice, whereas only an early-phase LTP was observed with the same stimulation in the control mice. Social isolation during adolescence also increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus, and application of a tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor inhibitor ameliorated the facilitated L-LTP seen after isolation. Together, our results suggest that adolescent isolation may result in mental disorders during adulthood and that this may stem from an inability to forget the unpleasant memories via BDNF-mediated synaptic plasticity. These findings may give us a new strategy to prevent mental disorders caused by persistent unpleasant memories. PMID:25860250

  13. Ipsilateral hippocampal atrophy is associated with long-term memory dysfunction after ischemic stroke in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaapsmeerders, Pauline; van Uden, Inge W M; Tuladhar, Anil M; Maaijwee, Noortje A M; van Dijk, Ewoud J; Rutten-Jacobs, Loes C A; Arntz, Renate M; Schoonderwaldt, Hennie C; Dorresteijn, Lucille D A; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Kessels, Roy P C

    2015-07-01

    Memory impairment after stroke in young adults is poorly understood. In elderly stroke survivors memory impairments and the concomitant loss of hippocampal volume are usually explained by coexisting neurodegenerative disease (e.g., amyloid pathology) in interaction with stroke. However, neurodegenerative disease, such as amyloid pathology, is generally absent at young age. Accumulating evidence suggests that infarction itself may cause secondary neurodegeneration in remote areas. Therefore, we investigated the relation between long-term memory performance and hippocampal volume in young patients with first-ever ischemic stroke. We studied all consecutive first-ever ischemic stroke patients, aged 18-50 years, admitted to our academic hospital center between 1980 and 2010. Episodic memory of 173 patients was assessed using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and the Rey Complex Figure and compared with 87 stroke-free controls. Hippocampal volume was determined using FSL-FIRST, with manual correction. On average 10 years after stroke, patients had smaller ipsilateral hippocampal volumes compared with controls after left-hemispheric stroke (5.4%) and right-hemispheric stroke (7.7%), with most apparent memory dysfunctioning after left-hemispheric stroke. A larger hemispheric stroke was associated with a smaller ipsilateral hippocampal volume (b=-0.003, Premote injury to the hippocampus, which may lower or expedite the threshold for cognitive impairment or even dementia later in life. PMID:25757914

  14. Long-term habituation (LTH in the crab Chasmagnathus: a model for behavioral and mechanistic studies of memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Maldonado

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A decade of studies on long-term habituation (LTH in the crab Chasmagnathus is reviewed. Upon sudden presentation of a passing object overhead, the crab reacts with an escape response that habituates promptly and for at least five days. LTH proved to be an instance of associative memory and showed context, stimulus frequency and circadian phase specificity. A strong training protocol (STP (³15 trials, intertrial interval (ITI of 171 s invariably yielded LTH, while a weak training protocol (WTP (£10 trials, ITI = 171 s invariably failed. STP was used with a presumably amnestic agent and WTP with a presumably hypermnestic agent. Remarkably, systemic administration of low doses was effective, which is likely to be due to the lack of an endothelial blood-brain barrier. LTH was blocked by inhibitors of protein and RNA synthesis, enhanced by protein kinase A (PKA activators and reduced by PKA inhibitors, facilitated by angiotensin II and IV and disrupted by saralasin. The presence of angiotensins and related compounds in the crab brain was demonstrated. Diverse results suggest that LTH includes two components: an initial memory produced by spaced training and mainly expressed at an initial phase of testing, and a retraining memory produced by massed training and expressed at a later phase of testing (retraining. The initial memory would be associative, context specific and sensitive to cycloheximide, while the retraining memory would be nonassociative, context independent and insensitive to cycloheximide

  15. Long-term habituation (LTH) in the crab Chasmagnathus: a model for behavioral and mechanistic studies of memory

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H., Maldonado; A., Romano; D., Tomsic.

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A decade of studies on long-term habituation (LTH) in the crab Chasmagnathus is reviewed. Upon sudden presentation of a passing object overhead, the crab reacts with an escape response that habituates promptly and for at least five days. LTH proved to be an instance of associative memory and showed [...] context, stimulus frequency and circadian phase specificity. A strong training protocol (STP) (³15 trials, intertrial interval (ITI) of 171 s) invariably yielded LTH, while a weak training protocol (WTP) (£10 trials, ITI = 171 s) invariably failed. STP was used with a presumably amnestic agent and WTP with a presumably hypermnestic agent. Remarkably, systemic administration of low doses was effective, which is likely to be due to the lack of an endothelial blood-brain barrier. LTH was blocked by inhibitors of protein and RNA synthesis, enhanced by protein kinase A (PKA) activators and reduced by PKA inhibitors, facilitated by angiotensin II and IV and disrupted by saralasin. The presence of angiotensins and related compounds in the crab brain was demonstrated. Diverse results suggest that LTH includes two components: an initial memory produced by spaced training and mainly expressed at an initial phase of testing, and a retraining memory produced by massed training and expressed at a later phase of testing (retraining). The initial memory would be associative, context specific and sensitive to cycloheximide, while the retraining memory would be nonassociative, context independent and insensitive to cycloheximide

  16. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation and neurofeedback in insomnia - A long-term study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Schabus

    2015-02-01

    Current results indicate that healthy as well as insomnia patients do show associations of (overnight memory performance and (fast sleep spindle activity and interestingly are even able to increase these spindles by means of instrumental 12-15Hz EEG conditioning. Research was supported by FWF research grants (P-21154-B18; I-934 from the Austrian Science Foundation.

  17. Two Distinct Origins of Long-Term Learning Effects in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve; Perez, Trecy Martinez; Oberauer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Verbal short-term memory (STM) is highly sensitive to learning effects: digit sequences or nonword sequences which have been rendered more familiar via repeated exposure are recalled more accurately. In this study we show that sublist-level, incidental learning of item co-occurrence regularities affects immediate serial recall of words and…

  18. Aversive Olfactory Learning and Associative Long-Term Memory in "Caenorhabditis elegans"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Hisayuki; Maruyama, Ichiro N.

    2011-01-01

    The nematode "Caenorhabditis elegans" ("C. elegans") adult hermaphrodite has 302 invariant neurons and is suited for cellular and molecular studies on complex behaviors including learning and memory. Here, we have developed protocols for classical conditioning of worms with 1-propanol, as a conditioned stimulus (CS), and hydrochloride (HCl) (pH…

  19. ROLE OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN SHORT- AND LONG-TERM MEMORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, E.L.; Rosenzweig, M.R.; Flood, J.F.

    1978-10-01

    Anisomycin is an effective inhibitor of cerebral protein synthesis in mice and is also an effective amnestic agent for both passive and active behavioral tasks. From use of anisomycin in combination with a variety of stimulant and depressant drugs, we conclude that the level of arousal following acquisition plays an important role in determining the duration and the rate of the biosynthetic phase of memory formation. While we have interpreted the experiments with anisomycin as evidence for an essential role of protein in memory storage, others have suggested that side effects of inhibitors of protein synthesis on catecholamine metabolism are the main cause of amnesia. Several experiments were therefore done to compare the effects of anisemycin and catecholamine inhibitors on memory. We conclude that anisomycin's principal amnestic mechanism does not involve inhibition of the catecholamine system. The results strengthen our conclusion that protein synthesis is an essential component for longterm memory trace formation. Also, it is suggested that proteins synthesized in the neuronal cell body are used, in conjunction with other molecules, to produce permanent and semi-permanent anatomical changes.

  20. Using the context preexposure facilitation effect to study long-term context memory in preweanling, juvenile, adolescent, and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Drummer, Patrese A; Stanton, Mark E

    2015-09-01

    The present study used the context preexposure facilitation effect (CPFE) to examine long-term retention of incidental context learning in periweanling, adolescent and adult rats. The CPFE is a variant of contextual fear conditioning in which encoding the context representation, associating this representation with shock, and expressing the context-shock association each occur on separate occasions. Experiment 1 manipulated the retention interval-1d, 8d, 15d, or 22d-between context preexposure and training with immediate shock to determine how long the encoded context could be remembered (testing always occurred 24h following training). The other factors were age-postnatal day (PND) 24 vs 31-and training group-Preexposed to the training context (Pre) vs. an alternate context (Alt-Pre). At both ages, significantly more freezing was evident in the Pre vs. Alt Pre Groups at the 24h, 8d and 15d retention intervals but not at the 22d interval, indicating that juvenile-adolescent rats remember the context for up to 15d. In contrast, context memory persists for 22days in adult rats (Experiment 2); and is not evident after 24h, 8d, or 15d retention intervals in PND 17 rats (Experiment 3). The present study illustrates the value of the CPFE paradigm for investigations of long-term context memory in developing rats. Implications for the neurobiology of infantile amnesia are discussed. PMID:25542890

  1. An optical model for implementing Parrondo’s game and designing stochastic game with long-term memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Using a photon propagating through a designed array of beam splitters to simulate Parrondo’s game paradox. ? Design the optical flowchart for implementing Parrondo history-dependent game paradox. ? Design new game with long-term memory on a designed tree lattice and loop lattice. - Abstract: An optical model for a photon propagating through a designed array of beam splitters is developed to give a physical implementation of Parrondo’s game and Parrondo’s history-dependent game. The winner in this optical model is a photon passed the beam splitter. The loser is a photon being reflected by the beam splitter. The optical beam splitter is the coin-tosser. We designed new games with long-term memory by using this optical diagram method. The optical output of the combined game of two losing games could be a win, or a loss, or an oscillation between win and loss. The modern technology to implement this optical model is well developed. A circularly polarized photon is a possible candidate for this physical implementation in laboratory.

  2. LONG-TERM AGROECOSYSTEM EXPERIMENTS AND SAMPLE ARCHIVES AT USDA-ARS-NGPRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS Northern Great Plains Research Laboratory (NGPRL) near Mandan, North Dakota, USA (46º 46’ 12” N, 100º 54’ 57” W) was established in 1914, and currently manages three long-term agroecosystem experiments, each related to a different form of grazing management. Two native vegetation pastu...

  3. Reprint of: DAT genotype modulates striatal processing and long-term memory for items associated with reward and punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Bianca C; Tan, Geoffrey C; Lisman, John E; Dolan, Raymond J; Düzel, Emrah

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that appetitive motivation enhances episodic memory formation via a network including the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), striatum and hippocampus. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study now contrasted the impact of aversive and appetitive motivation on episodic long-term memory. Cue pictures predicted monetary reward or punishment in alternating experimental blocks. One day later, episodic memory for the cue pictures was tested. We also investigated how the neural processing of appetitive and aversive motivation and episodic memory were modulated by dopaminergic mechanisms. To that end, participants were selected on the basis of their genotype for a variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene. The resulting groups were carefully matched for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene. Recognition memory for cues from both motivational categories was enhanced in participants homozygous for the 10-repeat allele of the DAT, the functional effects of which are not known yet, but not in heterozygous subjects. In comparison with heterozygous participants, 10-repeat homozygous participants also showed increased striatal activity for anticipation of motivational outcomes compared to neutral outcomes. In a subsequent memory analysis, encoding activity in striatum and hippocampus was found to be higher for later recognized items in 10-repeat homozygotes compared to 9/10-repeat heterozygotes. These findings suggest that processing of appetitive and aversive motivation in the human striatum involve the dopaminergic system and that dopamine plays a role in memory for both types of motivational information. In accordance with animal studies, these data support the idea that encoding of motivational events depends on dopaminergic processes in the hippocampus. PMID:24139823

  4. DAT genotype modulates striatal processing and long-term memory for items associated with reward and punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Bianca C; Tan, Geoffrey C; Lisman, John E; Dolan, Raymond J; Düzel, Emrah

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that appetitive motivation enhances episodic memory formation via a network including the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), striatum and hippocampus. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study now contrasted the impact of aversive and appetitive motivation on episodic long-term memory. Cue pictures predicted monetary reward or punishment in alternating experimental blocks. One day later, episodic memory for the cue pictures was tested. We also investigated how the neural processing of appetitive and aversive motivation and episodic memory were modulated by dopaminergic mechanisms. To that end, participants were selected on the basis of their genotype for a variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene. The resulting groups were carefully matched for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene. Recognition memory for cues from both motivational categories was enhanced in participants homozygous for the 10-repeat allele of the DAT, the functional effects of which are not known yet, but not in heterozygous subjects. In comparison with heterozygous participants, 10-repeat homozygous participants also showed increased striatal activity for anticipation of motivational outcomes compared to neutral outcomes. In a subsequent memory analysis, encoding activity in striatum and hippocampus was found to be higher for later recognized items in 10-repeat homozygotes compared to 9/10-repeat heterozygotes. These findings suggest that processing of appetitive and aversive motivation in the human striatum involve the dopaminergic system and that dopamine plays a role in memory for both types of motivational information. In accordance with animal studies, these data support the idea that encoding of motivational events depends on dopaminergic processes in the hippocampus. PMID:23911780

  5. Postischemic PKC activation rescues retrograde and anterograde long-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Miao-Kun; Hongpaisan, Jarin; Alkon, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    Therapeutics for cerebral ischemia/hypoxia, which often results in ischemic stroke in humans, are a global unmet medical need. Here, we report that bryostatin-1, a highly potent protein kinase C (PKC) activator, interrupts pathophysiological molecular cascades and apoptosis triggered by cerebral ischemia/hypoxia, enhances neurotrophic activity, and induces synaptogenesis in rats. This postischemic therapeutic approach is further shown to preserve learning and memory capacity even 4 months lat...

  6. Two distinct origins of long-term learning effects in verbal short-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Majerus, Steve; Martinez Perez, Trecy; Oberauer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Verbal short-term memory (STM) is highly sensitive to learning effects: digit sequences or nonword sequences which have been rendered more familiar via repeated exposure are recalled more accurately. In this study we show that sublist-level, incidental learning of item co-occurrence regularities affects immediate serial recall of words and nonwords, but not digits. In contrast, list-level chunk learning affects serial recall of digits. In a first series of experiments, participants heard a co...

  7. Serial position effects in a singer's long term recall identify landmarks and lacunae in memory

    OpenAIRE

    Chaffin, Roger; Ginsborg, Jane; Dixon, James

    2009-01-01

    An experienced singer learned Stravinsky’s Ricercar 1, for soprano and small instrumental ensemble for public performance and annotated copies of the score to indicate the location of musical features that she attended to during practice and performance cues that she attended to during performance. During the next five years, she wrote out the words and music from memory six times. Recall was initially perfect, but declined over time as portions of the piece were progressively forgotten. Land...

  8. A requirement for memory retrieval during and after long-term extinction learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyang, Ming; Thomas, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    Current learning theories are based on the idea that learning is driven by the difference between expectations and experience (the delta rule). In extinction, one learns that certain expectations no longer apply. Here, we test the potential validity of the delta rule by manipulating memory retrieval (and thus expectations) during extinction learning. Adrenergic signaling is critical for the time-limited retrieval (but not acquisition or consolidation) of contextual fear. Using genetic and pha...

  9. Chronic administration of sulbutiamine improves long term memory formation in mice: possible cholinergic mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheau, J; Durkin, T P; Destrade, C; Rolland, Y; Jaffard, R

    1985-08-01

    Thiamine deficiency in both man and animals is known to produce memory dysfunction and cognitive disorders which have been related to an impairment of cholinergic activity. The present experiment was aimed at testing whether, inversely, chronic administration of large doses of sulbutiamine would have a facilitative effect on memory and would induce changes in central cholinergic activity. Accordingly mice received 300 mg/kg of sulbutiamine daily for 10 days. They were then submitted to an appetitive operant level press conditioning test. When compared to control subjects, sulbutiamine treated mice learned the task at the same rate in a single session but showed greatly improved performance when tested 24 hr after partial acquisition of the same task. Parallel neurochemical investigations showed that the treatment induced a slight (+ 10%) but significant increase in hippocampal sodium-dependent high affinity choline uptake. The present findings and previous results suggest that sulbutiamine improves memory formation and that this behavioral effect could be mediated by an increase in hippocampal cholinergic activity. PMID:4059305

  10. Long-term geoelectrical monitoring of laboratory freeze-thaw experiments on bedrock samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuras, Oliver; Uhlemann, Sebastian; Murton, Julian; Krautblatter, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Much attention has recently focussed on the continuous and near-real-time geophysical monitoring of permafrost-affected bedrock with permanently installed sensor arrays. It is hoped that such efforts will enhance process understanding in such environments (permafrost degradation, weathering mechanisms) and augment our capability to predict future instabilities of rock walls and slopes. With regard to electrical methods for example, recent work has demonstrated that temperature-calibrated electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is capable of imaging recession and re-advance of rock permafrost in response to the ambient temperature regime. However, field experience also shows that several fundamental improvements to ERT methodology are still required to achieve the desired sensitivity, spatial-temporal resolution and long-term robustness that must underpin continuous geophysical measurements. We have applied 4D geoelectrical tomography to monitoring laboratory experiments simulating permafrost growth, persistence and thaw in bedrock over a period of 26 months. Six water-saturated samples of limestone and chalk of varying porosity represented lithologies commonly affected by permafrost-related instability. Time-lapse imaging of the samples was undertaken during multiple successive freeze-thaw cycles, emulating annual seasonal change over several decades. Further experimental control was provided by simultaneous measurements of vertical profiles of temperature and moisture content within the bedrock samples. These experiments have helped develop an alternative methodology for the volumetric imaging of permafrost bedrock and tracking active layer dynamics. Capacitive resistivity imaging (CRI), a technique based upon low-frequency, capacitively-coupled measurements emulates ERT methodology, but without the need for galvanic contact on frozen rock. The latter is perceived as a key potential weakness, which could lead to significant limitations as a result of the variable quality of contact between sensors and the host material as it freezes and thaws. Our experiments have directly compared the CRI and ERT approaches. Numerical simulation of dense capacitive multi-sensor geometries shows that the basic assumptions of CRI remain valid for our experimental setup; as a consequence, conventional ERT methodology (including time-lapse inversion) becomes applicable to the capacitive measurements. Permafrost processes tend to be multi-scale in space and time; any imaging technique must therefore be capable of resolving subtle changes in rock properties over a range of spatial scales and long periods of time. Frequent data acquisition (three times per 24-hour period) allowed us to obtain 3D resistivity models of all samples as the freeze-thaw experiment progressed. Data from different stages of the simulated seasonal cycles show that CRI is capable of imaging temperature-dominated changes in resistivity, associated with an approximate temperature range between 20°C and -5°C. Volumetric temperature models of the samples were obtained using calibration curves determined by separate freeze-thaw experiments using identical material. Below the freezing point temperature dominates the resistivity response and the resistivity-based temperature models show very good agreement with point estimates from temperature probes. The CRI and ERT methodologies both hold promise for the systematic and strategic assessment of the thermal state of bedrock permafrost in the field using geoelectrical monitoring.

  11. Early shifts of brain metabolism by caloric restriction preserve white matter integrity and long-term memory in aging mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Ling Lin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of brain integrity with age is highly associated with lifespan determination. Caloric restriction (CR has been shown to increase longevity and healthspan in various species; however, its effects on preserving living brain functions in aging remain largely unexplored. In the study, we used multimodal, non-invasive neuroimaging (PET/MRI/MRS to determine in vivo brain glucose metabolism, energy metabolites, and white matter structural integrity in young and old mice fed with either control or 40% CR diet. In addition, we determined the animals’ memory and learning ability with behavioral assessments. Blood glucose, blood ketone bodies, and body weight were also measured. We found distinct patterns between normal aging and CR aging on brain functions - normal aging showed reductions in brain glucose metabolism, white matter integrity, and long-term memory, resembling human brain aging. CR aging, in contrast, displayed an early shift from glucose to ketone bodies metabolism, which was associated with preservations of brain energy production, white matter integrity, and long-term memory in aging mice. Among all the mice, we found a positive correlation between blood glucose level and body weight, but an inverse association between blood glucose level and lifespan. Our findings suggest that CR could slow down brain aging, in part due to the early shift of energy metabolism caused by lower caloric intake, and we were able to identify the age-dependent effects of CR non-invasively using neuroimaging. These results provide a rationale for CR-induced sustenance of brain health with extended longevity.

  12. Early Shifts of Brain Metabolism by Caloric Restriction Preserve White Matter Integrity and Long-Term Memory in Aging Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Janet; Bakshi, Vikas; Lin, Ai-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of brain integrity with age is highly associated with lifespan determination. Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase longevity and healthspan in various species; however, its effects on preserving living brain functions in aging remain largely unexplored. In the study, we used multimodal, non-invasive neuroimaging (PET/MRI/MRS) to determine in vivo brain glucose metabolism, energy metabolites, and white matter structural integrity in young and old mice fed with either control or 40% CR diet. In addition, we determined the animals’ memory and learning ability with behavioral assessments. Blood glucose, blood ketone bodies, and body weight were also measured. We found distinct patterns between normal aging and CR aging on brain functions?–?normal aging showed reductions in brain glucose metabolism, white matter integrity, and long-term memory, resembling human brain aging. CR aging, in contrast, displayed an early shift from glucose to ketone bodies metabolism, which was associated with preservations of brain energy production, white matter integrity, and long-term memory in aging mice. Among all the mice, we found a positive correlation between blood glucose level and body weight, but an inverse association between blood glucose level and lifespan. Our findings suggest that CR could slow down brain aging, in part due to the early shift of energy metabolism caused by lower caloric intake, and we were able to identify the age-dependent effects of CR non-invasively using neuroimaging. These results provide a rationale for CR-induced sustenance of brain health with extended longevity. PMID:26617514

  13. Acute exposure to selenium disrupts associative conditioning and long-term memory recall in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Christina M; Elmore, Christopher; Hladun, Kristen R; Trumble, John T; Smith, Brian H

    2016-05-01

    A plethora of toxic compounds - including pesticides, heavy metals, and metalloids - have been detected in honey bees (Apis mellifera) and their colonies. One such compound is selenium, which bees are exposed to by consuming nectar and pollen from flowers grown in contaminated areas. Though selenium is lethal at high concentrations, sublethal exposure may also impair honey bees' ability to function normally. Examining the effect of selenium exposure on learning and memory provides a sensitive assay with which to identify sublethal effects on honey bee health and behavior. To determine whether sublethal selenium exposure causes learning and memory deficits, we used proboscis extension reflex conditioning coupled with recall tests 30min and 24h post-conditioning. We exposed forager honey bees to a single sublethal dose of selenium, and 3h later we used an olfactory conditioning assay to train the bees to discriminate between one odor associated with sucrose-reinforcement and a second unreinforced odor. Following conditioning we tested short- and long-term recall of the task. Acute exposure to as little as 1.8ng of an inorganic form of selenium (sodium selenate) before conditioning caused a reduction in behavioral performance during conditioning. And, exposure to 18ng of either an inorganic form (sodium selenate) or an organic form (methylseleno-l-cysteine) of selenium caused a reduction in the bees' performance during the long-term recall test. These concentrations of selenium are lower than those found in the nectar of plants grown in selenium-contaminated soil, indicating that even low-grade selenium toxicity produces significant learning and memory impairments. This may reduce foragers' ability to effectively gather resources for the colony or nurse bees' ability to care for and maintain a healthy colony. PMID:26802564

  14. Long-term avoidance memory formation is associated with a transient increase in mushroom body synaptic complexes in leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falibene, Agustina; Roces, Flavio; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Long-term behavioral changes related to learning and experience have been shown to be associated with structural remodeling in the brain. Leaf-cutting ants learn to avoid previously preferred plants after they have proved harmful for their symbiotic fungus, a process that involves long-term olfactory memory. We studied the dynamics of brain microarchitectural changes after long-term olfactory memory formation following avoidance learning in Acromyrmex ambiguus. After performing experiments to control for possible neuronal changes related to age and body size, we quantified synaptic complexes (microglomeruli, MG) in olfactory regions of the mushroom bodies (MBs) at different times after learning. Long-term avoidance memory formation was associated with a transient change in MG densities. Two days after learning, MG density was higher than before learning. At days 4 and 15 after learning-when ants still showed plant avoidance-MG densities had decreased to the initial state. The structural reorganization of MG triggered by long-term avoidance memory formation clearly differed from changes promoted by pure exposure to and collection of novel plants with distinct odors. Sensory exposure by the simultaneous collection of several, instead of one, non-harmful plant species resulted in a decrease in MG densities in the olfactory lip. We hypothesize that while sensory exposure leads to MG pruning in the MB olfactory lip, the formation of long-term avoidance memory involves an initial growth of new MG followed by subsequent pruning. PMID:25904854

  15. Long-term avoidance memory formation is associated with a transient increase in mushroom body synaptic complexes in leaf-cutting ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falibene, Agustina; Roces, Flavio; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Long-term behavioral changes related to learning and experience have been shown to be associated with structural remodeling in the brain. Leaf-cutting ants learn to avoid previously preferred plants after they have proved harmful for their symbiotic fungus, a process that involves long-term olfactory memory. We studied the dynamics of brain microarchitectural changes after long-term olfactory memory formation following avoidance learning in Acromyrmex ambiguus. After performing experiments to control for possible neuronal changes related to age and body size, we quantified synaptic complexes (microglomeruli, MG) in olfactory regions of the mushroom bodies (MBs) at different times after learning. Long-term avoidance memory formation was associated with a transient change in MG densities. Two days after learning, MG density was higher than before learning. At days 4 and 15 after learning—when ants still showed plant avoidance—MG densities had decreased to the initial state. The structural reorganization of MG triggered by long-term avoidance memory formation clearly differed from changes promoted by pure exposure to and collection of novel plants with distinct odors. Sensory exposure by the simultaneous collection of several, instead of one, non-harmful plant species resulted in a decrease in MG densities in the olfactory lip. We hypothesize that while sensory exposure leads to MG pruning in the MB olfactory lip, the formation of long-term avoidance memory involves an initial growth of new MG followed by subsequent pruning. PMID:25904854

  16. Long-term avoidance memory formation is associated with a transient increase in mushroom body synaptic complexes in leaf-cutting ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Falibene

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-term behavioral changes related to learning and experience have been shown to be associated with structural remodeling in the brain. Leaf-cutting ants learn to avoid previously preferred plants after they have proved harmful for their symbiotic fungus, a process that involves long-term olfactory memory. We studied the dynamics of brain microarchitectural changes after long-term olfactory memory formation following avoidance learning in Acromyrmex ambiguus. After performing experiments to control for possible neuronal changes related to age and body size, we quantified synaptic complexes (microglomeruli, MG in olfactory regions of the mushroom bodies (MB at different times after learning. Long-term avoidance memory formation was associated with a transient change in MG densities. Two days after learning, MG density was higher than before learning. At days 4 and 15 after learning — when ants still showed plant avoidance — MG densities had decreased to the initial state. The structural reorganization of MG triggered by long-term avoidance memory formation clearly differed from changes promoted by pure exposure to and collection of novel plants with distinct odors. Sensory exposure by the simultaneous collection of several, instead of one, non-harmful plant species resulted in a decrease in MG densities in the olfactory lip. We hypothesize that while sensory exposure leads to MG pruning in the MB olfactory lip, the formation of long-term avoidance memory involves an initial growth of new MG followed by subsequent pruning.

  17. The development of the abilities to acquire novel detailed orthographic representations and maintain them in long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binamé, Florence; Poncelet, Martine

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have clearly demonstrated that the development of orthographic representations relies on phonological recoding. However, substantial questions persist about the remaining unexplained variance in the acquisition of word-specific orthographic knowledge that is still underspecified. The main aim of this study was to explore whether two cognitive factors-sensitivity to orthographic regularities and short-term memory (STM) for serial order-make independent contributions to the acquisition of novel orthographic representations beyond that of the phonological core component and the level of preexisting word-specific orthographic knowledge. To this end, we had children from second to sixth grades learn novel written word forms using a repeated spelling practice paradigm. The speed at which children learned the word forms and their long-term retention (1week and 1month later) were assessed. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that phonological recoding, preexisting word-specific orthographic knowledge, and order STM explained a portion of the variance in orthographic learning speed, whereas phonological recoding, preexisting word-specific orthographic knowledge, and orthographic sensitivity each explained a portion of variance in the long-term retention of the newly created orthographic representations. A secondary aim of the study was to determine the developmental trajectory of the abilities to acquire novel orthographic word forms over the course of primary schooling. As expected, results showed an effect of age on both learning speed and long-term retention. The specific roles of orthographic sensitivity and order STM as independent factors involved in different steps of orthographic learning are discussed. PMID:26600080

  18. Making the case that episodic recollection is attributable to operations occurring at retrieval rather than to content stored in a dedicated subsystem of long-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Stanley B.

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory often is conceptualized as a uniquely human system of long-term memory that makes available knowledge accompanied by the temporal and spatial context in which that knowledge was acquired. Retrieval from episodic memory entails a form of first–person subjectivity called autonoetic consciousness that provides a sense that a recollection was something that took place in the experiencer's personal past. In this paper I expand on this definition of episodic memory. Specifically, I ...

  19. Making the Case that Episodic Recollection is Attributable to Operations Occurring at Retrieval rather than to Content Stored in a Dedicated Subsystem of Long-Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    StanKlein

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory often is conceptualized as a uniquely human system of long-term memory that makes available knowledge accompanied by the temporal and spatial context in which that knowledge was acquired. Retrieval from episodic memory entails a form of first–person subjectivity called autonoetic consciousness that provides a sense that a recollection was something that took place in the experiencer’s personal past. In this paper I expand on this definition of episodic memory. Specifically...

  20. Long-term effect of early-life stress from earthquake exposure on working memory in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li N

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Na Li,1-3* Yumei Wang,1-3* Xiaochuan Zhao,1-3 Yuanyuan Gao,1-3 Mei Song,1-3 Lulu Yu,1-3 Lan Wang,1-3 Ning Li,1-3 Qianqian Chen,1-3 Yunpeng Li,1-3 Jiajia Cai,1-3 Xueyi Wang1-31Department of Psychiatry, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 2Mental Health Institute of Hebei Medical University, 3Brain Ageing and Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Hebei, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the long-term effect of 1976 Tangshan earthquake exposure in early life on performance of working memory in adulthood.Methods: A total of 907 study subjects born and raised in Tangshan were enrolled in this study. They were divided into three groups according to the dates of birth: infant exposure (3–12 months, n=274, prenatal exposure (n=269, and no exposure (born at least 1 year after the earthquake, n=364. The prenatal group was further divided into first, second, and third trimester subgroups based on the timing of exposure during pregnancy. Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R were used to measure the performance of working memory. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the influential factors for impaired working memory.Results: The Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised scores did not show significant difference across the three groups. Compared with no exposure group, the BVMT-R scores were slightly lower in the prenatal exposure group and markedly decreased in the infant exposure group. When the BVMT-R scores were analyzed in three subgroups, the results showed that the subjects whose mothers were exposed to earthquake in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy had significantly lower BVMT-R scores compared with those in the first trimester. Education level and early-life earthquake exposure were identified as independent risk factors for reduced performance of visuospatial memory indicated by lower BVMT-R scores.Conclusion: Infant exposure to earthquake-related stress impairs visuospatial memory in adulthood. Fetuses in the middle and late stages of development are more vulnerable to stress-induced damage that consequently results in impaired visuospatial memory. Education and early-life trauma can also influence the performance of working memory in adulthood. Keywords: Tangshan earthquake, early life stress, working memory, chronic effect

  1. Stress hormone action: corticosterone determines the strength of long-term fear memory dependent on the mouse genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Diamantopoulou

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is characterized by strong, uncontrolled memories of the negative event, not prone to extinction. Corticosterone, the glucocorticoid secreted in response to stress in rodents, either strengthened or weakened emotional memory processing during 4 days, depending on (i the genetic background of the mice (C57BL/6J; BALB/c and (ii the spatio-temporal context of its action (Brinks et al. ExpNeurol.2009. (BALB/c: increased corticosterone-stress response and emotionality compared to C57BL/6J. Using the Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm of alternating cue/context exposures, we assessed the persistence of fear memories (expressed as freezing. BALB/c mice exhibited enhanced fear memory compared to the C57BL/6J, which decays over time. Re-exposure to the fear-related environment on days 15 and 16 after acquisition, favored extinction of fear memory in C57BL/6J mice on days 52 and 53, which was not the case for the BALB/c. Corticosterone (250 ìg/kg, i.p. 5 minutes before acquisition in C57BL/6J specifically facilitated memory for context related fear, opposing the extinction-favoring effects of prior re-exposure sessions. However, BALB/c mice treated with corticosterone, directly after acquisition exhibited reduced freezing during cue and context episodes on days 52 and 53, enhanced time-dependent cue fear memory decay and abolished the context-cue distinction ability. We conclude that corticosterone prior to stress in C57BL/6J mice strengthened consolidation of contextual stress-associated signals, resulting in sustained long-term fear memory: relevant for preventing the development of stress related disorders such as PTSD. Corticosterone in BALB/c mice destabilized consolidation and predominantly strongly decreased cue-related fear memories: this will allow studying therapeutic treatments. Supported by KNAW-Dobberke Stichting 2007-07(VB, IRTG NWO-DN95-420(MSO, Brain Foundation Netherlands 2008(1-38(MSO,AD, NENS(AD.

  2. Impaired long-term memory retention and working memory in sdy mutant mice with a deletion in Dtnbp1, a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Keizo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a complex genetic disorder caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. The dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1: dysbindin-1 gene is a major susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. Genetic variations in DTNBP1 are associated with cognitive functions, general cognitive ability and memory function, and clinical features of patients with schizophrenia including negative symptoms and cognitive decline. Since reduced expression of dysbindin-1 has been observed in postmortem brains of patients with schizophrenia, the sandy (sdy mouse, which has a deletion in the Dtnbp1 gene and expresses no dysbindin-1 protein, could be an animal model of schizophrenia. To address this issue, we have carried out a comprehensive behavioral analysis of the sdy mouse in this study. Results In a rotarod test, sdy mice did not exhibit motor learning whilst the wild type mice did. In a Barnes circular maze test both sdy mice and wild type mice learned to selectively locate the escape hole during the course of the training period and in the probe trial conducted 24 hours after last training. However, sdy mice did not locate the correct hole in the retention probe tests 7 days after the last training trial, whereas wild type mice did, indicating impaired long-term memory retention. A T-maze forced alternation task, a task of working memory, revealed no effect of training in sdy mice despite the obvious effect of training in wild type mice, suggesting a working memory deficit. Conclusion Sdy mouse showed impaired long-term memory retention and working memory. Since genetic variation in DTNBP1 is associated with both schizophrenia and memory function, and memory function is compromised in patients with schizophrenia, the sdy mouse may represent a useful animal model to investigate the mechanisms of memory dysfunction in the disorder.

  3. Despair-associated memory requires a slow-onset CA1 long-term potentiation with unique underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Liang; Duan, Ting-Ting; Tian, Meng; Yuan, Qiang; Tan, Ji-Wei; Zhu, Yong-Yong; Ding, Ze-Yang; Cao, Jun; Yang, Yue-Xiong; Zhang, Xia; Mao, Rong-Rong; Richter-Levin, Gal; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Xu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    The emotion of despair that occurs with uncontrollable stressful event is probably retained by memory, termed despair-associated memory, although little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Here, we report that forced swimming (FS) with no hope to escape, but not hopefully escapable swimming (ES), enhances hippocampal ?-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR)-dependent GluA1 Ser831 phosphorylation (S831-P), induces a slow-onset CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP) in freely moving rats and leads to increased test immobility 24-h later. Before FS application of the antagonists to block S831-P or N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) or glucocorticoid receptor (GR) disrupts LTP and reduces test immobility, to levels similar to those of the ES group. Because these mechanisms are specifically linked with the hopeless of escape from FS, we suggest that despair-associated memory occurs with an endogenous CA1 LTP that is intriguingly mediated by a unique combination of rapid S831-P with NMDAR and GR activation to shape subsequent behavioral despair. PMID:26449319

  4. Can we throw information out of visual working memory and does this leave informational residue in long-term memory?

    OpenAIRE

    AshleighMonetteMaxcey; GeoffreyF.Woodman

    2014-01-01

    Can we entirely erase a temporary memory representation from mind? This question has been addressed in several recent studies that tested the specific hypothesis that a representation can be erased from visual working memory based on a cue that indicated that the representation was no longer necessary for the task. In addition to behavioral results that are consistent with the idea that we can throw information out of visual working memory, recent neurophysiological recordings support this pr...

  5. The effect of frequency and duration of training sessions on acquisition and long-term memory in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Helle; Ladewig, Jan; Balsby, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg; Dabelsteen, Torben

    Most domestic dogs are subjected to some kind of obedience training, often on a frequent basis, but the question of how often and for how long a dog should be trained has not been fully investigated. Optimizing the training as much as possible is not only an advantage in the training of working...... dogs such as guide dogs and police dogs, also the training of family dogs can benefit from this knowledge. We studied the effect of frequency and duration of training sessions on acquisition and on long-term memory. Forty-four laboratory Beagles were divided into 4 groups and trained by means of...... operant conditioning and shaping to perform a traditional obedience task, each dog having a total of 18 training sessions. The training schedules of the 4 groups differentiated in frequency (1–2 times per week vs. daily) and duration (1 training session vs. 3 training sessions in a row). Acquisition was...

  6. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Formation of Long-Term Reward Memories and Extinction Memories in the Honeybee ("Apis Mellifera")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    The honeybee ("Apis mellifera") has long served as an invertebrate model organism for reward learning and memory research. Its capacity for learning and memory formation is rooted in the ecological need to efficiently collect nectar and pollen during summer to ensure survival of the hive during winter. Foraging bees learn to associate a…

  7. Hearing Loss Is Negatively Related to Episodic and Semantic Long-Term Memory but Not to Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronnberg, Jerker; Danielsson, Henrik; Rudner, Mary; Arlinger, Stig; Sternang, Ola; Wahlin, Ake; Nilsson, Lars-Goran

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To test the relationship between degree of hearing loss and different memory systems in hearing aid users. Method: Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to study the relationship between auditory and visual acuity and different cognitive and memory functions in an age-hetereogenous subsample of 160 hearing aid users without…

  8. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Formation of Long-Term Reward Memories and Extinction Memories in the Honeybee ("Apis Mellifera")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    The honeybee ("Apis mellifera") has long served as an invertebrate model organism for reward learning and memory research. Its capacity for learning and memory formation is rooted in the ecological need to efficiently collect nectar and pollen during summer to ensure survival of the hive during winter. Foraging bees learn to associate a…

  9. Episodic Long-Term Memory of Spoken Discourse Masked by Speech: What Is the Role for Working Memory Capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorqvist, Patrik; Ronnberg, Jerker

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether working memory capacity (WMC) modulates the effects of to-be-ignored speech on the memory of materials conveyed by to-be-attended speech. Method: Two tasks (reading span, Daneman & Carpenter, 1980; Ronnberg et al., 2008; and size-comparison span, Sorqvist, Ljungberg, & Ljung, 2010) were used to measure individual…

  10. Historical review of long-term soil sampling for environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil samples have been collected routinely from the environs of the Hanford Site and analyzed since 1971. Correct interpretation of results depends on samples being collected from the same locations, the locations remaining relatively undisturbed, and collection and analytical procedures remaining the same or being equivalent. Historical files, documents, and annual environmental reports were reviewed to evaluate these factors. It was determined that 20 soil sampling locations, 11 onsite and 9 offsite, were established between 1971 and 1977 and represent long-term sampling locations. Sample collection and analytical procedures have remained essentially the same since 1971. The physical ecological attributes of each long-term soil sampling location were evaluated. During the review of historical records, a few results for 1970, 1971, and 1972 were noted as previously unreported in annual or special reports. These results are included in Appendix A. To complete the record, results previously reported in annual environmental reports are given in Appendix B. Global Positioning System (GPS) reading for 20 long-term soil sampling locations are provided in Appendix C

  11. Historical review of long-term soil sampling for environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site and vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.

    1997-08-01

    Soil samples have been collected routinely from the environs of the Hanford Site and analyzed since 1971. Correct interpretation of results depends on samples being collected from the same locations, the locations remaining relatively undisturbed, and collection and analytical procedures remaining the same or being equivalent. Historical files, documents, and annual environmental reports were reviewed to evaluate these factors. It was determined that 20 soil sampling locations, 11 onsite and 9 offsite, were established between 1971 and 1977 and represent long-term sampling locations. Sample collection and analytical procedures have remained essentially the same since 1971. The physical ecological attributes of each long-term soil sampling location were evaluated. During the review of historical records, a few results for 1970, 1971, and 1972 were noted as previously unreported in annual or special reports. These results are included in Appendix A. To complete the record, results previously reported in annual environmental reports are given in Appendix B. Global Positioning System (GPS) reading for 20 long-term soil sampling locations are provided in Appendix C.

  12. D-cycloserine prevents relational memory deficits and suppression of long-term potentiation induced by scopolamine in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portero-Tresserra, Marta; Del Olmo, Nuria; Martí-Nicolovius, Margarita; Guillazo-Blanch, Gemma; Vale-Martínez, Anna

    2014-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that systemic D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), enhances memory processes in different learning paradigms and attenuates mnemonic deficits produced by diverse pharmacological manipulations. In the present study two experiments were conducted in rats to investigate whether DCS administered in the hippocampus may rescue relational memory deficits and improve deficient synaptic plasticity, both induced by an intracerebral injection of the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine (SCOP). In experiment 1, we assessed whether DCS would prevent SCOP-induced amnesia in an olfactory learning paradigm requiring the integrity of the cholinergic system, the social transmission of food preference (STFP). The results showed that DCS (10 ?g/site) injected into the ventral hippocampus (vHPC) before STFP acquisition compensated the 24-h retention deficit elicited by post-training intra-vHPC SCOP (40 ?g/site), although it did not affect memory expression in non-SCOP treated rats. In experiment 2, we evaluated whether the perfusion of DCS in hippocampal slices may potentiate synaptic plasticity in CA1 synapses and thus recover SCOP-induced deficits in long-term potentiation (LTP). We found that DCS (50 µM and 100 µM) was able to rescue SCOP (100 µM)-induced LTP maintenance impairment, in agreement with the behavioral findings. Additionally, DCS alone (50 µM and 100 µM) enhanced field excitatory postsynaptic potentials prior to high frequency stimulation, although it did not significantly potentiate LTP. Our results suggest that positive modulation of the NMDAR, by activation of the glycine-binding site, may compensate relational memory impairments due to hippocampal muscarinic neurotransmission dysfunction possibly through enhancements in LTP maintenance. PMID:25453488

  13. Groundwater sampling from borehole KR6 during long-term pumping test at olkiluoto, Eurajoki in 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long-term pumping test from borehole KR6 at Olkiluoto was initiated in 2001. Both flow and in situ EC measurements as well as groundwater samplings from specific sections are being performed. The aim is to get information on the potential connections via fractures both to the sea and to the deep saline groundwater during long term pumping of the borehole. In 2002 and at the beginning of 2003 six groundwater samples were collected from borehole KR6 at three different sampling depths (98,5-100,5 m, 125-130 m and 135-137 m). Groundwater samples were taken from the packed-off sections by a membrane pump. Salinities of two groundwater samples from depths 98,5-100,5 m and 135-137 m were increasing due to the long term pumping of the borehole KR6. Whereas the salinity of the groundwater samples taken from section 125-130 m was decreasing between two groundwater samplings done in 2002. All taken groundwater samples represent water type Na-Ca-Cl and they are brackish (1 000 mg/l < TDS< 10 000 mg/l). Electrical conductivity, which was measured during the groundwater sampling, was compared to the in situ electrical conductivity measurements. The results achieved with different methods agreed well except for one sample. Based on EC results it can be concluded that groundwater samples taken from borehole KR6 represent good groundwater from a single fracture or narrow fracture zone. This study presents sampling methods and the results of analyses of groundwater samples from the deep borehole KR6. Beside these the report presents operating principles of the in situ EC measurements and also comparison of the results to the EC results measured during groundwater sampling. This report also contains a short comparison of the groundwater sampling results achieved in 2002 and 2003. (orig.)

  14. Differential Roles for "Nr4a1" and "Nr4a2" in Object Location vs. Object Recognition Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Susan E.; Barrett, Ruth M.; Vogel-Ciernia, Annie; Malvaez, Melissa; Hernandez, Nicole; Davatolhagh, M. Felicia; Matheos, Dina P.; Schiffman, Aaron; Wood, Marcelo A.

    2012-01-01

    "Nr4a1" and "Nr4a2" are transcription factors and immediate early genes belonging to the nuclear receptor Nr4a family. In this study, we examine their role in long-term memory formation for object location and object recognition. Using siRNA to block expression of either "Nr4a1" or "Nr4a2", we found that "Nr4a2" is necessary for both long-term…

  15. Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of learning and memory: Memory systems of the brain, long term potentiation and synaptic...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Leff

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El fenómeno de LTP es una forma de plasticidad sináptica ampliamente aceptado como un modelo de estabilización de sinapsis en procesos neurobiológicos como el desarrollo del SNC y el fenómeno de aprendizaje y memoria. Desde su descubrimiento por Bliss y Lomo (1973, el fenómeno de potenciación a largo plazo (PLP o LTP (Long-Term Potentiation, por sus siglas en inglés ha sido definido convencionalmente como la estimulación aferente de alta frecuencia que es capaz de despolarizar la célula postsináptica, a través de la activación de receptores glutamaérgicos, con la resultante entrada de calcio a la neurona postsináptica. Este evento neurobiológico produce un incremento intracelular en la concentración de calcio [(Cai] que induce la activación de diferentes sistemas moleculares de señalamiento intracelular (AMPc, proteínas cinasas, fosforilación de proteínas intracelulares que conlleva a una alteración de la actividad postsináptica y/o presináptica, dando por resultado un persistente incremento de respuesta sináptica específica dependiente de la activación del receptor glutamaérgico NMDA...

  16. Groundwater sampling in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki from borehole OL-KR6 during a long-term pumping test in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long-term pumping test from borehole OL-KR6 in Olkiluoto was initiated in 2001. Since then, flow and in situ EC measurements, as well as groundwater sampling from specific sampling sections have been performed yearly. The aim of this study was to get information on the potential connections via fractures both to the sea and to deep saline groundwater during long-term pumping of the open borehole. In 2005 four groundwater samples were collected from four different sampling depths (98.5-100.5 m, 120-125 m, 135-137 m and 422-425 m) from borebole OL-KR6. The groundwater samples were taken from packed-off sections by means of PAVE equipment. The water types of groundwater samples from OL-KR6 were Na-Cl (for samples from 98.5-100.5 m and 135-137 m depths) and Na-Ca-Cl (for samples from 120-125 m and 422-425 m depths). The sample from depth 422-425 m was saline (TDS> 10000mg/L), while other waters were brackish (1000 mg < TDS <10000 mg/L). This study presents the sampling methods and the analysis results of groundwater samples from deep borehole OL-KR6. A comparison between the results of the in situ EC measurements and the EC results measured during groundwater sampling is presented. This report also contains a short comparison of the results obtained during the long-term pumping test during 2001-2005. (orig.)

  17. Weight Cycling Practices and Long-term Health Conditions in a Sample of Former Wrestlers and Other Collegiate Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Nitzke, Susan A; Voichick, S. Jane; Olson, Diane

    1992-01-01

    Weight cycling (repeated episodes of weight loss and regain) has been shown to reduce the resting metabolic rate in some chronic dieters. Concerns have been raised that wrestlers' repeated patterns of weight loss and gain may reduce metabolic rates and increase long-term health risks. We conducted this study to assess previous weight loss practices, current body weight, and incidence of chronic disease in a sample of male athletes who earned athletic letters in intercollegiate sports at the U...

  18. Ganzfeld stimulation or sleep enhance long term motor memory consolidation compared to normal viewing in saccadic adaptation paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voges, Caroline; Helmchen, Christoph; Heide, Wolfgang; Sprenger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation of saccade amplitude in response to intra-saccadic target displacement is a type of implicit motor learning which is required to compensate for physiological changes in saccade performance. Once established trials without intra-saccadic target displacement lead to de-adaptation or extinction, which has been attributed either to extra-retinal mechanisms of spatial constancy or to the influence of the stable visual surroundings. Therefore we investigated whether visual deprivation ("Ganzfeld"-stimulation or sleep) can partially maintain this motor learning compared to free viewing of the natural surroundings. Thirty-five healthy volunteers performed two adaptation blocks of 100 inward adaptation trials - interspersed by an extinction block - which were followed by a two-hour break with or without visual deprivation (VD). Using additional adaptation and extinction blocks short and long (4 weeks) term memory of this implicit motor learning were tested. In the short term, motor memory tested immediately after free viewing was superior to adaptation performance after VD. In the long run, however, effects were opposite: motor memory and relearning of adaptation was superior in the VD conditions. This could imply independent mechanisms that underlie the short-term ability of retrieving learned saccadic gain and its long term consolidation. We suggest that subjects mainly rely on visual cues (i.e., retinal error) in the free viewing condition which makes them prone to changes of the visual stimulus in the extinction block. This indicates the role of a stable visual array for resetting adapted saccade amplitudes. In contrast, visual deprivation (GS and sleep), might train subjects to rely on extra-retinal cues, e.g., efference copy or prediction to remap their internal representations of saccade targets, thus leading to better consolidation of saccadic adaptation. PMID:25867186

  19. Long-term memory traces for language sounds are highly context-sensitive: an MEG/ERF study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas HØjlund; Gebauer, Line

    Introduction: An early component of the auditory event-related potential (ERP), the mismatch negativity (MMN), has been shown to be sensitive to native phonemic language sound contrasts compared to non-native or allophonic language sound contrasts. So far this has not been attested for different phonetic contexts. In the present study we investigated the mismatch field (MMF) response (the magnetic counterpart of the MMN) of native Danish speakers to the Danish phonetic contrast of [t]-[d] in two different phonetic contexts: One in which the sound contrast was phonemic ([tæ] versus [dæ]), and one in which the sound contrast was allophonic ([æt] versus [æd]), i.e. its phonemic status was neutralized. Methods: The stimuli consisted of the four Danish syllables: [tæ] and [dæ] (meaning ‘take’ and ‘then’, respectively), and [æt] and [æd] (both meaning ‘that’). These were presented in a passive listening MMN paradigm while participants’ MEG was recorded. [tæ] and [æt] acted as standards, and [dæ] and [æd] thus as deviants, respectively. Results: Comparing brain responses to the deviants and the standards, only the phonemic [tæ]-[dæ] contrast showed significant effects (FWE-corrected at p<0.05 at the cluster-level) within the typical MMN time range (100 to 300 ms after deviance onset) and over both hemispheres. Comparing the differences between the two contrasts ([dæ]-[tæ] minus [æd]-[æt]), the phonemic context elicited significantly larger MMF responses than the allophonic context (FWE-corrected at p<0.05 at the cluster-level), again over both hemispheres and within the typical MMN time range. Conclusion: By manipulating the immediate phonetic context in an oddball paradigm, we demonstrate that the human brain’s MMF response to language sounds is highly context-sensitive. This has important impact on the proposed long-term memory traces for native phonological categories. In order to generate different MMF responses to the same language sound contrast depending on the phonetic context, these long-term memory traces must thus be context-sensitive themselves or exist as separate traces for the context-dependent allophones of the phonological categories.

  20. Differential roles for Nr4a1 and Nr4a2 in object location vs. object recognition long-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    McNulty, Susan E.; Barrett, Ruth M.; Vogel-Ciernia, Annie; Malvaez, Melissa; Hernandez, Nicole; Davatolhagh, M. Felicia; Matheos, Dina P; Schiffman, Aaron; Wood, Marcelo A.

    2012-01-01

    Nr4a1 and Nr4a2 are transcription factors and immediate early genes belonging to the nuclear receptor Nr4a family. In this study, we examine their role in long-term memory formation for object location and object recognition. Using siRNA to block expression of either Nr4a1 or Nr4a2, we found that Nr4a2 is necessary for both long-term memory for object location and object recognition. In contrast, Nr4a1 appears to be necessary only for object location. Indeed, their roles in these different ty...

  1. Integration of Metagenomic and Biogeochemical Data from Soils Sampled from a Long-Term Reciprocal Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, V. L.; Hess, N. J.; McCue, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    The long-term impacts of climate conditions on soil ecosystems are difficult to discern with sufficient resolution to underpin a predictive understanding of ecosystem response to global climate change. The structure and function of the microbial community is intimately linked to soil organic carbon (SOC) by both the deposition of new carbon, and metabolism and respiration of existing SOC. We are studying the resilience of the microbial community, and the vulnerability of the soil carbon reservoirs, to changing climate conditions using a reciprocal soil transplant experiment initiated in 1994 in eastern Washington. Soil cores were reciprocally transplanted between two elevations (310 m and 844 m); the lower site is warmer and drier with 0.8% soil carbon, and the upper site is cooler and wetter with 1.8% soil carbon. We resampled these cores in 2012-13 to analyze the structure of the microbial community, biochemical activities of carbohydrate-active enzymes, and the soil carbon and nitrogen content. We hypothesized that microbial and biochemical dynamics developed under cool, moist conditions would destabilize under hot, dry conditions, such that carbon and nitrogen losses would be faster in warmer climate soils than the accruals in cooler climate soils. Metagenomics data analyses show that the microbial communities below 5 cm depth in the transplanted soils are most similar to those in the native and control soils from their original (pre-1994) location, whereas the surface microbial community has been influenced by their new (post-1994) location. Enzyme activities are highest in soils from the cooler, moister location, and the activities of the reciprocally transplanted soils are shifting toward the activities typical of their new location. Integration of these results with high-resolution mass spectrometry data of the soil carbon moieties will contribute to our fundamental understanding of climate change effects on the terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle.

  2. Groundwater sampling in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki from drillhole OL-KR6 during a long-term pumping test in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long-term pumping test in drillhole OL-KR6 in Olkiluoto was initiated in 2001. Flow and in situ EC measurements as well as groundwater sampling from specific sampling sections have since then been performed yearly. The aim of the study was to obtain information on potential connections via fractures both to the sea and to deep saline groundwater during long-term pumping of the open drillhole. In 2007, four groundwater samples were collected at four different sampling depths (98.5-100.5 m, 125-130 m, 135-137 m and 422-425 m). The groundwater samples were taken in stages using PAVE equipment. The water types found in the groundwater samples from OL-KR6 were Na-Ca-Cl (for samples taken at depths of 98.5-100.5 m and 125-130 m) and Na-Cl (for samples taken at depths of 135-137 m and 422-425 m). The sample taken at depth 422-425 m was saline (TDS> 10000 mg/l), while the other samples were brackish (1000 mg 2O after the air correction had been made. The dominant gas in the groundwater samples was nitrogen. Carbon dioxide was the second dominant gas, except in sample OL-KR6/422-425 m, in which methane, instead, was the second dominant gas. All the samples also contained helium, ethane and argon. Small amounts of ethene, acetylene and propane were found in some samples. No hydrogen or propene was detected in the samples. The dissolved gas concentrations were higher in the OL-KR6 samples in 2006 than in the two previous years. In 2007, the dissolved gas concentration was again lower. One conclusion from this and the previous studies is that changes in the three upper sampling points were most remarkable in 2001-2002 just after pumping started. Otherwise, water compositions were invariable. (orig.)

  3. Distractibility during Retrieval of Long-Term Memory: Domain-General Interference, Neural Networks and Increased Susceptibility in Normal Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PeterEdwardWais

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The mere presence of irrelevant external stimuli results in interference with the fidelity of details retrieved from long-term memory (LTM. Recent studies suggest that distractibility during LTM retrieval occurs when the focus of resource-limited, top-down mechanisms that guide the selection of relevant mnemonic details is disrupted by representations of external distractors. We review findings from four studies that reveal distractibility during episodic retrieval. The approach cued participants to recall previously studied visual details when their eyes were closed, or were open and irrelevant visual information was present. The results showed a negative impact of the distractors on the fidelity of details retrieved from LTM. An fMRI experiment using the same paradigm replicated the behavioral results and found that diminished episodic memory was associated with the disruption of functional connectivity in whole-brain networks. Specifically, network connectivity supported recollection of details based on visual imagery when eyes were closed, but connectivity declined in the presence of visual distractors. Another experiment using auditory distractors found equivalent effects for auditory and visual distraction during cued recall, suggesting that the negative impact of distractibility is a domain-general phenomenon in LTM. Comparisons between older and younger adults revealed an aging-related increase in the negative impact of distractibility on retrieval of LTM. Finally, a new study that compared categorization abilities between younger and older adults suggests a cause underlying age-related decline of visual details in LTM. The sum of our findings suggests that cognitive control resources, although limited, have the capability to resolve interference from distractors during tasks of moderate effort, but these resources are overwhelmed when additional processes associated with episodic retrieval, or categorization of complex prototypes, are required.

  4. X11beta rescues memory and long-term potentiation deficits in Alzheimer's disease APPswe Tg2576 mice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mitchell, Jacqueline C

    2009-12-01

    Increased production and deposition of amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) are believed to be key pathogenic events in Alzheimer\\'s disease. As such, routes for lowering cerebral Abeta levels represent potential therapeutic targets for Alzheimer\\'s disease. X11beta is a neuronal adaptor protein that binds to the intracellular domain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Overexpression of X11beta inhibits Abeta production in a number of experimental systems. However, whether these changes to APP processing and Abeta production induced by X11beta overexpression also induce beneficial effects to memory and synaptic plasticity are not known. We report here that X11beta-mediated reduction in cerebral Abeta is associated with normalization of both cognition and in vivo long-term potentiation in aged APPswe Tg2576 transgenic mice that model the amyloid pathology of Alzheimer\\'s disease. Overexpression of X11beta itself has no detectable adverse effects upon mouse behaviour. These findings support the notion that modulation of X11beta function represents a therapeutic target for Abeta-mediated neuronal dysfunction in Alzheimer\\'s disease.

  5. Long-term effectiveness of CBT for anxiety disorders in an adult outpatient clinic sample: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMauro, Jennifer; Domingues, Janine; Fernandez, Geraldine; Tolin, David F

    2013-02-01

    The short-term efficacy and effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for treating anxiety disorders in adults has been well established by a multitude of clinical studies and well-controlled randomized trials. However, though the long-term efficacy of CBT as a treatment modality is fairly well established, the degree of its long-term effectiveness has yet to be fully evaluated. Thus, the present study sought to assess both the immediate and long-term effectiveness of individually-administered CBT for the treatment of anxiety disorders in an outpatient psychological clinic. Individuals with a primary diagnosis of Panic Disorder, Social Phobia, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, or Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder who had received 3 or more sessions of CBT were assessed for symptom severity and improvement prior to initiating treatment, at posttreatment, and at one-year follow-up. Symptom severity and improvement ratings were used to categorize patients as "responders" or "remitters" at posttreatment, and "maintained responders" or "maintained remitters" at follow-up. Findings demonstrated that posttreatment success as responder and remitter was significantly maintained at one-year follow-up. Additionally, pre- and posttreatment severity and posttreatment improvement scores were also predictive of maintenance. Furthermore, effect sizes were used to compare the effectiveness of CBT in the present clinical sample to research treatment outcomes demonstrated by previous efficacy studies. PMID:23262115

  6. Unconventional cytokine profiles and development of T cell memory in long-term survivors after cancer vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyte, Jon Amund; Trachsel, Sissel; Risberg, Bente; thor Straten, Per; Lislerud, Kari; Gaudernack, Gustav

    2009-01-01

    Cancer vaccine trials frequently report on immunological responses, without any clinical benefit. This paradox may reflect the challenge of discriminating between effective and pointless immune responses and sparse knowledge on their long-term development. Here, we have analyzed T cell responses in long-term survivors after peptide vaccination. There were three main study aims: (1) to characterize the immune response in patients with a possible clinical benefit. (2) To analyze the long-term deve...

  7. Making the Case that Episodic Recollection is Attributable to Operations Occurring at Retrieval rather than to Content Stored in a Dedicated Subsystem of Long-Term Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Klein

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory often is conceptualized as a uniquely human system of long-term memory that makes available knowledge accompanied by the temporal and spatial context in which that knowledge was acquired. Retrieval from episodic memory entails a form of first–person subjectivity called autonoetic consciousness that provides a sense that a recollection was something that took place in the experiencer’s personal past. In this paper I expand on this definition of episodic memory. Specifically, I suggest that (a the core features assumed unique to episodic memory are shared by semantic memory, (b episodic memory cannot be fully understood unless one appreciates that episodic recollection requires the coordinated function of a number of distinct, yet interacting, “enabling” systems. Although these systems – ownership, self, subjective temporality, and agency – are not traditionally viewed as memorial in nature, each is necessary for episodic recollection and jointly they may be sufficient, and (c the type of subjective awareness provided by episodic recollection (autonoetic is relational rather than intrinsic – i.e., it can be lost in certain patient populations, thus rendering episodic memory content indistinguishable from the content of semantic long-term memory.

  8. The Effects of Changing Attention and Context in an Awake Offline Processing Period on Visual Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellmore, Timothy M.; Feng, Anna; Ng, Kenneth; Dewan, Luthfunnahar; Root, James C.

    2016-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that sleep as well as awake offline processing is important for the transformation of new experiences into long-term memory (LTM). Yet much remains to be understood about how various cognitive factors influence the efficiency of awake offline processing. In the present study we investigated how changes in attention and context in the immediate period after exposure to new visual information influences LTM consolidation. After presentation of multiple naturalistic scenes within a working memory paradigm, recognition was assessed 30 min and 24 h later in three groups of subjects. One group of subjects engaged in a focused attention task [the Revised Attentional Network Task (R-ANT)] in the 30 min after exposure to the scenes. Another group of subjects remained in the testing room during the 30 min after scene exposure and engaged in no goal- or task-directed activities. A third group of subjects left the testing room and returned 30 min later. A signal detection analysis revealed no significant differences among the three groups in hits, false alarms, or sensitivity on the 30-min recognition task. At the 24-h recognition test, the group that performed the R-ANT made significantly fewer hits compared to the group that left the testing room and did not perform the attention ask. The group that performed the R-ANT and the group that remained in the testing room during the 30-min post-exposure interval made significantly fewer false alarms on the 24-h recognition test compared to the group that left the testing room. The group that stayed in the testing room and engaged in no goal- or task-directed activities exhibited significantly higher sensitivity (d?) compared to the group that left the testing room and the group that performed the R-ANT task. Staying in the same context after exposure to new information and resting quietly with minimal engagement of attention results in the best ability to distinguish old from novel visual stimuli after 24 h. These findings suggest that changes in attentional demands and context during an immediate post-exposure offline processing interval modulate visual memory consolidation in a subtle but significant manner. PMID:26779056

  9. The E3 Ligase APC/C-Cdh1 Is Required for Associative Fear Memory and Long-Term Potentiation in the Amygdala of Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, Joseph E.; Malumbres, Marcos; Klann, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ligase regulated by Cdh1. Beyond its role in controlling cell cycle progression, APC/C-Cdh1 has been detected in neurons and plays a role in long-lasting synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. Herein, we further examined the role of Cdh1 in synaptic plasticity and memory by generating…

  10. The E3 Ligase APC/C-Cdh1 Is Required for Associative Fear Memory and Long-Term Potentiation in the Amygdala of Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, Joseph E.; Malumbres, Marcos; Klann, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ligase regulated by Cdh1. Beyond its role in controlling cell cycle progression, APC/C-Cdh1 has been detected in neurons and plays a role in long-lasting synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. Herein, we further examined the role of Cdh1 in synaptic plasticity and memory by generating…

  11. Evidence for large long-term memory capacities in baboons and pigeons and its implications for learning and the evolution of cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Fagot, Joël; Cook, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has shown that birds and primates have a rich repertoire of behavioral and cognitive skills, but the mechanisms underlying these abilities are not well understood. A common hypothesis is that these adaptations are mediated by an efficient long-term memory, allowing animals to remember specific external events and associate appropriate behaviors to these events. Because earlier studies have not sufficiently challenged memory capacity in animals, our comparative research exami...

  12. Hippocampal Overexpression of Mutant CREB Blocks Long-Term, but Not Short-Term Memory for a Socially Transmitted Food Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightwell, Jennifer J.; Countryman, Renee A.; Neve, Rachael L.; Colombo, Paul J.; Smith, Clayton A.

    2005-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB on Ser133 is implicated in the establishment of long-term memory for hippocampus-dependent tasks, including spatial learning and contextual fear conditioning. We reported previously that training on a hippocampus-dependent social transmission of food preference (STFP) task increases CREB…

  13. Naringin Enhances CaMKII Activity and Improves Long-Term Memory in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Feng Zhang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Amyloid-? (A?-induced impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity is an underlying mechanism of memory loss in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD in human and mouse models. The inhibition of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII autophosphorylation plays an important role in long-term memory. In this study, we isolated naringin from Pomelo peel (a Citrus species and studied its effect on long-term memory in the APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mouse model of AD. Three-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice were randomly assigned to a vehicle group, two naringin (either 50 or 100 mg/kg body weight/day groups, or an Aricept (2 mg/kg body weight/day group. After 16 weeks of treatment, we observed that treatment with naringin (100 mg/kg body weight/day enhanced the autophosphorylation of CaMKII, increased the phosphorylation of the ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic (AMPA receptor at a CaMKII-dependent site and improved long-term learning and memory ability. These findings suggest that the increase in CaMKII activity may be one of the mechanisms by which naringin improves long-term cognitive function in the APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mouse model of AD.

  14. Protein Synthesis-Dependent Long-Term Memory Induced by One Single Associative Training Trial in the Parasitic Wasp Lariophagus distinguendus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steidle, Johannes L. M.; Collatz, Jana; Muller, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    Protein synthesis-dependent long-term memory in Apis mellifera and Drosophila melanogaster is formed after multiple trainings that are spaced in time. The parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus remarkably differs from these species. It significantly responds to the artificial odor furfurylheptanoate (FFH) in olfactometer experiments, when this…

  15. Long-term storage of salivary cortisol samples at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ming; Cintron, Nitza M.; Whitson, Peggy A.

    1992-01-01

    Collection of saliva samples for the measurement of cortisol during space flights provides a simple technique for studying changes in adrenal function due microgravity. In the present work, several methods for preserving saliva cortisol at room temperature were investigated using radioimmunoassays for determining cortisol in saliva samples collected on a saliva-collection device called Salivettes. It was found that a pretreatment of Salivettes with citric acid resulted in preserving more than 85 percent of the salivary cortisol for as long as six weeks. The results correlated well with those for a sample stored in a freezer on an untreated Salivette.

  16. The Effect of Zinc Supplementation of Lactating Rats on Short-Term and Long-Term Memory of Their Male Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study the effect of zinc chloride (ZnCl2 administration on the short-term and long-term memory of rats were assessed. Methods: We enrolled six groups of adult female and control group of eight Wistar rats in each group. One group was control group with free access to food and water, and five groups drunk zinc chloride in different doses (20, 30, 50, 70 and 100 mg/kg/day in drinking water for two weeks during lactation .One month after birth, a shuttle box used to short- term and long-term memory and the latency in entering the dark chamber as well. Results: This experiment showed that maternal 70 mg/kg dietary zinc during lactation influenced the working memory of rats’ offspring in all groups. Rats received 100 mg/kg/day zinc during lactation so they had significant impairment in working memory (short-term of their offspring (P<0.05. There was no significant difference in reference (long-term memory of all groups. Conclusion: Drug consumption below70 mg/kg/day zinc chloride during lactation had no effect. While enhanced 100 mg/ kg/ day zinc in lactating rats could cause short-term memory impairment.

  17. Analyses of metallic first mirror samples after long term plasma exposure in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipa, M. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA-Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)]. E-mail: manfred.lipa@cea.fr; Schunke, B. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA-Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Gil, Ch. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA-Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Bucalossi, J. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA-Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Voitsenya, V.S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, NSC KIPT, Akademichna St. 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Konovalov, V. [Institute of Plasma Physics, NSC KIPT, Akademichna St. 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Vukolov, K. [NFI RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Balden, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); De Temmerman, G. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Oelhafen, P. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Litnovsky, A. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-42425 Juelich (Germany); Wienhold, P. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-42425 Juelich (Germany)

    2006-02-15

    Metallic mirrors are foreseen in ITER diagnostic systems as optical elements directly viewing the plasma radiation. In the frame of an EFDA contract, metallic mirror samples have been exposed for long pulse plasma discharges in Tore Supra (TS) in order to investigate surface modifications caused by erosion and re-deposition processes. Three different materials have been selected: mono-crystalline molybdenum (mc-Mo), polycrystalline stainless steel (SS) and copper (Cu). The mc-Mo samples showed after TS exposure almost no surface roughness modifications and the lowest net-erosion. A slight reflectivity reduction, most pronounced in the near UV, is attributed to light absorption in a thin carbon deposit. Cu mirrors showed by far the highest surface roughness, erosion and diffusive reflectivity. Comparative laboratory glow discharge experiments with virgin reference samples and numerical simulations of erosion/deposition confirm the dominant contribution of conditioning procedures to erosion of mirrors exposed (without shutter protection) in Tore Supra.

  18. Analyses of metallic first mirror samples after long term plasma exposure in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipa, M.; Schunke, B.; Gil, Ch.; Bucalossi, J. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Voitsenya, V.S.; Konovalov, V. [Institut of Plasma Physics, NSC KIPT (Ukraine); Vukolov, K. [Kurchatov Institute, NFI RRC, Moscow (Russian Federation); Balden, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Temmerman, G. de; Oelhafen, P. [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik; Litnovsky, A.; Wienhold, P. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Julich (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Metallic mirrors are foreseen in ITER diagnostic systems as optical elements directly viewing the plasma radiation. In the frame of an EFDA contract, metallic mirror samples have been exposed for long pulse plasma discharges in Tore Supra (TS) in order to investigate surface modifications caused by erosion and re-deposition processes. Three different materials have been selected: mono-crystalline molybdenum (mc-Mo), polycrystalline stainless steel (SS) and copper (Cu). The mc-Mo samples showed after TS exposure almost no surface roughness modifications and the lowest net-erosion. A slight reflectivity reduction, most pronounced in the near UV, is attributed to light absorption in a thin carbon deposit. Cu mirrors showed by far the highest surface roughness, erosion and diffusive reflectivity. Comparative laboratory glow discharge experiments with virgin reference samples and numerical simulations of erosion/deposition confirm the dominant contribution of conditioning procedures to erosion of mirrors exposed (without shutter protection) in Tore Supra. (authors)

  19. PKA Increases in the Olfactory Bulb Act as Unconditioned Stimuli and Provide Evidence for Parallel Memory Systems: Pairing Odor with Increased PKA Creates Intermediate- and Long-Term, but Not Short-Term, Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Matthew T.; Harley, Carolyn W.; Darby-King, Andrea; McLean, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal odor-preference memory in rat pups is a well-defined associative mammalian memory model dependent on cAMP. Previous work from this laboratory demonstrates three phases of neonatal odor-preference memory: short-term (translation-independent), intermediate-term (translation-dependent), and long-term (transcription- and…

  20. Intimate Partner Violence and Long-Term Psychosocial Functioning in a National Sample of American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnick, Caron; Johnson, Dawn M.; Kohn, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of American married or cohabiting women, this prospective study examined women who reported or denied intimate partner violence (IPV) at wave 1 and compared them on a range of psychosocial outcomes at a 5-year follow-up. This study also examined the rate of divorce or separation during the 5-year interval…

  1. An evaluation of long-term preservation methods for brown bear (Ursus arctos) faecal DNA samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M.A.; Waits, L.P.; Kendall, K.C.; Wasser, S.K.; Higbee, J.A.; Bogden, R.

    2002-01-01

    Relatively few large-scale faecal DNA studies have been initiated due to difficulties in amplifying low quality and quantity DNA template. To improve brown bear faecal DNA PCR amplification success rates and to determine post collection sample longevity, five preservation methods were evaluated: 90% ethanol, DETs buffer, silica-dried, oven-dried stored at room temperature, and oven-dried stored at -20??C. Preservation effectiveness was evaluated for 50 faecal samples by PCR amplification of a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) locus (???146 bp) and a nuclear DNA (nDNA) locus (???200 bp) at time points of one week, one month, three months and six months. Preservation method and storage time significantly impacted mtDNA and nDNA amplification success rates. For mtDNA, all preservation methods had ??? 75% success at one week, but storage time had a significant impact on the effectiveness of the silica preservation method. Ethanol preserved samples had the highest success rates for both mtDNA (86.5%) and nDNA (84%). Nuclear DNA amplification success rates ranged from 26-88%, and storage time had a significant impact on all methods but ethanol. Preservation method and storage time should be important considerations for researchers planning projects utilizing faecal DNA. We recommend preservation of faecal samples in 90% ethanol when feasible, although when collecting in remote field conditions or for both DNA and hormone assays a dry collection method may be advantageous.

  2. Mapping of total scattering as a tool for long term investigations in the cleaning state of the functional coated samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadkhoda, P.; Günster, S.; Jensen, L.; Ristau, D.

    2014-11-01

    In optical coating production the generation of particles and defects is always an undesirable side effect and cannot be completely avoided in the handling steps of the optical components. Particles and defects on the substrates and in the functional coatings lead to scattering and absorption, which may cause a lower damage threshold for components of high power laser application. In this study, results of a long term investigation in the quality and the state of the cleanliness of multilayer systems produced by different deposition techniques are presented. Coated samples of different coating processes are investigated with the help of a Fast Total Scatter scanning system. Adapted data reduction algorithms for the determination of the particle sizes derived from the scattering measurements are developed and applied to the measurement results. On this basis, the density distribution of particle contamination on the samples is evaluated for selected coating runs over a long term period. The calculated statistics of the samples are related to the corresponding production conditions of individual coating plants to extract specific effects of the process environment.

  3. Long-term room temperature preservation of corpse soft tissue: an approach for tissue sample storage

    OpenAIRE

    Caputo Mariela; Bosio Luis A; Corach Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Disaster victim identification (DVI) represents one of the most difficult challenges in forensic sciences, and subsequent DNA typing is essential. Collected samples for DNA-based human identification are usually stored at low temperature to halt the degradation processes of human remains. We have developed a simple and reliable procedure for soft tissue storage and preservation for DNA extraction. It ensures high quality DNA suitable for PCR-based DNA typing after at least...

  4. Long-term room temperature preservation of corpse soft tissue: an approach for tissue sample storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caputo Mariela

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disaster victim identification (DVI represents one of the most difficult challenges in forensic sciences, and subsequent DNA typing is essential. Collected samples for DNA-based human identification are usually stored at low temperature to halt the degradation processes of human remains. We have developed a simple and reliable procedure for soft tissue storage and preservation for DNA extraction. It ensures high quality DNA suitable for PCR-based DNA typing after at least 1 year of room temperature storage. Methods Fragments of human psoas muscle were exposed to three different environmental conditions for diverse time periods at room temperature. Storage conditions included: (a a preserving medium consisting of solid sodium chloride (salt, (b no additional substances and (c garden soil. DNA was extracted with proteinase K/SDS followed by organic solvent treatment and concentration by centrifugal filter devices. Quantification was carried out by real-time PCR using commercial kits. Short tandem repeat (STR typing profiles were analysed with 'expert software'. Results DNA quantities recovered from samples stored in salt were similar up to the complete storage time and underscored the effectiveness of the preservation method. It was possible to reliably and accurately type different genetic systems including autosomal STRs and mitochondrial and Y-chromosome haplogroups. Autosomal STR typing quality was evaluated by expert software, denoting high quality profiles from DNA samples obtained from corpse tissue stored in salt for up to 365 days. Conclusions The procedure proposed herein is a cost efficient alternative for storage of human remains in challenging environmental areas, such as mass disaster locations, mass graves and exhumations. This technique should be considered as an additional method for sample storage when preservation of DNA integrity is required for PCR-based DNA typing.

  5. A long-term sampling study of copepods across a tropical creek in Mombasa, Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    OKemwa, E.N.

    1992-01-01

    Surface copepod samples were taken across Port Kilindini (Likoni Ferry), Mombasa (Kenya), during April, June, August, October, December 1985 and February 1986, including six 24-h series, and analysed for relative abundance. Changes were observed among abundant species of copepods, namely Corycaeus, Acrocalanus, Oithona, Acartia, Oncaea, Centropages, and Temora spp., and Macrosetella gracilis. A regular, predictable cycle caused by the springneap tidal and high-low tidal cycle was revealed. Th...

  6. Long term observations of materials deposited on wall samples in ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protective glasses are mounted inside the vacuum vessel in front of the observation windows used for Hsub(?)-measurements. These glass discs are positioned near the wall surface and are routinely replaced at each major opening of the vessel, namely after several months of operation of ASDEX. Comprehensive surface analyses are performed using a scanning electron microscope combined with Auger, SIMS and X-ray microanalysis techniques. The lateral as well as the depth distributions of deposited materials are measured. The observations based on large number of samples (about 30) distributed all over the vacuum vessel, are the following: - deposits in the main plasma chamber consist of thin layers of stainless steel (i.e. Fe, Cr, Ni) and of titanium. These layers are completely oxidized and have been successively deposited during the major phases of the machine operation (limiter, divertor, titanium gettering). Many stainless-steel particles are observed. These are molten droplets projected and stuck on the glass surface. Their dimensions range from a few ?m to about 100 ?m. Very tiny titanium particles are also observed spread over the surface. - Deposits on samples exposed in the upper divertor chamber are covered with a uniform titanium layer. It is heavily oxidized over its thickness of approx. equal to 10 nm. No droplets are observed in the upper divertor chamber, but many are found in the lower chamber. (orig.)

  7. Long-term environmental trends: Selection of sampling locations in a reactor-aquatic cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study objective was to determine whether environmental radionuclide accumulations were occurring in an aquatic system with a 13-y history of supplying a power plant with reactor-cooling water as well as receiving plant discharge. The aquatic system consisted of the following: (1) a reactor-cooling lake; (2) a secondary lake approximately 8 km downstream; and (3) a small stream that interfaced with the two lakes. Gamma-emitting radionuclides were identified and quantified in samples of benthic sediments obtained from representative areas of the aquatic system. This study demonstrated that in a reactor-aquatic cooling system, the component of the aquatic system most likely to experience radionuclide accumulation will not necessarily be the reactor-cooling lake, but will be that component of the aquatic system whose benthic sediments contain the highest concentrations of organic matter. Further, it was shown that the quantity of oxidizable organic matter present in a sediment is a good predictor or marker for potential sites of radionuclide accumulation (i.e., 60Co and 137Cs)

  8. The effect of long term administration of ascorbic acid on the learning and memory deficits induced by diabetes in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Hasanein

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Ascorbic acid improves cognitive impairments in several experimental models. Diabetes causes learning and memory deficits. In this study we hypothesized that chronic treatment with ascorbic acid (100mg/kg, p.o would affect on the passive avoidance learning (PAL and memory in control and streptozocin-induced diabetic rats."n"nMethods: Diabetes was induced by a single i.p. injection of STZ (60mg/kg. The rats were considered diabetic if plasma glucose levels exceeded 250mg/dl on three days after STZ injection. Treatment was begun at the onset of hyperglycemia. PAL was assessed 30 days later. Retention test was done 24 h after training. At the end, animals were weighted and blood samples were drawn for plasma glucose measurement."n"nResults: Diabetes caused impairment in acquisition and retrieval processes of PAL and memory in rats. Ascorbic acid treatment improved learning and memory in control rats and reversed learning and memory deficits in diabetic rats. Ascorbic acid administration also improved the body weight loss and hyperglycemia of diabetics. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties of the vitamin may be involved in the memory improving effects of such treatment."n"nConclusion: These results show that ascorbic acid administration to rats for 30 days from onset of diabetes alleviated the negative influence of diabetes on learning and memory. Comparing with other nootropic drugs, vitamins have fewer side effects. Therefore, this regimen may provide a new potential alternative for prevention of the impaired cognitive functions associated with diabetes after confirming by clinical trials.

  9. Forgetting of long-term memory requires activation of NMDA receptors, L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, and calcineurin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachser, Ricardo Marcelo; Santana, Fabiana; Crestani, Ana Paula; Lunardi, Paula; Pedraza, Lizeth Katherine; Quillfeldt, Jorge Alberto; Hardt, Oliver; de Oliveira Alvares, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying memory consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction have been well characterized. However, the neurobiological underpinnings of forgetting processes remain to be elucidated. Here we used behavioral, pharmacological and electrophysiological approaches to explore mechanisms controlling forgetting. We found that post-acquisition chronic inhibition of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel (LVDCC), and protein phosphatase calcineurin (CaN), maintains long-term object location memory that otherwise would have been forgotten. We further show that NMDAR activation is necessary to induce forgetting of object recognition memory. Studying the role of NMDAR activation in the decay of the early phase of long-term potentiation (E-LTP) in the hippocampus, we found that ifenprodil infused 30?min after LTP induction in vivo blocks the decay of CA1-evoked postsynaptic plasticity, suggesting that GluN2B-containing NMDARs activation are critical to promote LTP decay. Taken together, these findings indicate that a well-regulated forgetting process, initiated by Ca2+ influx through LVDCCs and GluN2B-NMDARs followed by CaN activation, controls the maintenance of hippocampal LTP and long-term memories over time. PMID:26947131

  10. Protective long-term antibody memory by antigen-driven and T help-dependent differentiation of long-lived memory B cells to short-lived plasma cells independent of secondary lymphoid organs

    OpenAIRE

    Ochsenbein, Adrian F.; Pinschewer, Daniel D; Sierro, Sophie; Horvath, Edit; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    2000-01-01

    Memory is a hallmark of immunity. Memory carried by antibodies is largely responsible for protection against reinfection with most known acutely lethal infectious agents and is the basis for most clinically successful vaccines. However, the nature of long-term B cell and antibody memory is still unclear. B cell memory was studied here after infection of mice with the rabies-like cytopathic vesicular stomatitis virus, the noncytopathic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus...

  11. The influence of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor val66met Polymorphism on the degree of long-term potentiation of human visual evoked potentials predicts memory performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian J Kirk

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A single nucleotide polymorphism of the human BDNF (Val66Met gene may account for much of the variation in human memory performance. BDNF may influence memory via either a modulation of acute plasticity (i.e. long-term potentiation (LTP, or a chronic influence on developing neural systems. Until recently, the link between BDNF and LTP has been difficult to assess in humans. Here we employ our recently developed human LTP paradigm to assess the effects of BDNF polymorphism on LTP and memory. We show that subjects carrying the Met allele had significantly lower levels of LTP than those homozygous for the Val allele, and performed significantly less well in a test of visual memory. Further, the degree of LTP was significantly correlated with the index of visual memory. Thus, polymorphism in the BDNF gene is associated with differences in the degree of acute neural plasticity (LTP, which predicts differences in human mnemonic ability.

  12. Genetic Disruption of Protein Kinase A Anchoring Reveals a Role for Compartmentalized Kinase Signaling in Theta-Burst Long-Term Potentiation and Spatial Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, Ting; McDonough, Conor B.; Huang, Ted; Nguyen, Peter V; Abel, Ted

    2007-01-01

    Studies of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular model of memory storage, implicate cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms of LTP. The anchoring of PKA to AKAPs (A kinase-anchoring proteins) creates compartmentalized pools of PKA, but the roles of presynaptically and postsynaptically anchored forms of PKA in late-phase LTP are unclear. In this study, we have created genetically modified mice that conditionally express Ht31, an inhibitor o...

  13. Memory deficits in long-term survivors of childhood brain tumors may primarily reflect general cognitive dysfunctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, Tonny Solveig; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2007-01-01

    To analyze the impact of potential predictors on memory performance in survivors of childhood brain tumors and to examine whether deficits in memory after radiotherapy (RT) should be considered part of a more global mental dysfunction....

  14. Redintegration and the benefits of long-term knowledge in verbal short-term memory: an evaluation of Schweickert's (1993) multinomial processing tree model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Annabel S C; Gathercole, Susan E; Frankish, Clive R

    2005-03-01

    The impact of four long-term knowledge variables on serial recall accuracy was investigated. Serial recall was tested for high and low frequency words and high and low phonotactic frequency nonwords in 2 groups: monolingual English speakers and French-English bilinguals. For both groups the recall advantage for words over nonwords reflected more fully correct recalls with fewer recall attempts that consisted of fragments of the target memory items (one or two of the three target phonemes recalled correctly); completely incorrect recalls were equivalent for the 2 list types. However, word frequency (for both groups), nonword phonotactic frequency (for the monolingual group), and language familiarity all influenced the proportions of completely incorrect recalls that were made. These results are not consistent with the view that long-term knowledge influences on immediate recall accuracy can be exclusively attributed to a redintegration process of the type specified in multinomial processing tree model of immediate recall. The finding of a differential influence on completely incorrect recalls of these four long-term knowledge variables suggests instead that the beneficial effects of long-term knowledge on short-term recall accuracy are mediated by more than one mechanism. PMID:15680142

  15. Unconventional cytokine profiles and development of T cell memory in long-term survivors after cancer vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyte, Jon Amund; Trachsel, Sissel; Risberg, Bente; thor Straten, Per; Lislerud, Kari; Gaudernack, Gustav

    2009-01-01

    adaptive immune system. Interestingly, these pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles do not follow a Th1/Th2-delineation. Most IFN gamma(high)/IL4(low)/IL10(low) cultures include high concentrations of hallmark Th2-cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. This does not reflect a mixture of Th1- and Th2-clones, but applies to...... display unconventional cytotoxicity and specifically kill tumor cells expressing mutated TGFbeta receptor II. Cytokine profiling on the long-term survivors demonstrates high IFN gamma/IL10-ratios, favoring immunity over tolerance, and secretion of multiple chemokines likely to mobilize the innate and......Cancer vaccine trials frequently report on immunological responses, without any clinical benefit. This paradox may reflect the challenge of discriminating between effective and pointless immune responses and sparse knowledge on their long-term development. Here, we have analyzed T cell responses in...

  16. Long-term memory in Aplysia modulates the total number of varicosities of single identified sensory neurons.

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, C H; Chen, M.

    1988-01-01

    The morphological consequences of long-term habituation and sensitization of the gill withdrawal reflex in Aplysia california were explored by examining the total number of presynaptic varicosities of single identified sensory neurons (a critical site of plasticity for the biochemical and biophysical changes that underlie both types of learning) in control and behaviorally trained animals. Sensory neurons from habituated animals had 35% fewer synaptic varicosities than did sensory neurons fro...

  17. Maternal Diabetes in Pregnancy: Early and Long-Term Outcomes on the Offspring and the Concept of “Metabolic Memory”

    OpenAIRE

    Kabirou Moutairou; Akadiri Yessoufou

    2011-01-01

    The adverse outcomes on the offspring from maternal diabetes in pregnancy are substantially documented. In this paper, we report main knowledge on impacts of maternal diabetes on early and long-term health of the offspring, with specific comments on maternal obesity. The main adverse outcome on progenies from pregnancy complicated with maternal diabetes appears to be macrosomia, as it is commonly known that intrauterine exposure to hyperglycemia increases the risk and programs the offspring t...

  18. KAOLIN-INDUCED VENTRICULOMEGALY AT WEANING PRODUCES LONG-TERM LEARNING, MEMORY, AND MOTOR DEFICITS IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Michael T; Braun, Amanda A.; Amos-Kroohs, Robyn; McAllister, James P; Lindquist, Diana M.; Mangano, Francesco T; Vorhees, Charles V; Yuan, Weihong

    2014-01-01

    Ventriculomegaly occurs when there is imbalance between creation and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); even when treated, long-term behavioral changes occur. Kaolin injection in the cisterna magna of rats produces an obstruction of CSF outflow and models one type of hydrocephalus. Previous research with this model shows that neonatal onset has mixed effects on Morris water maze (MWM) and motoric performance; we hypothesized that this might be because the severity of ventricular enlarge...

  19. Spatial cognition and memory: a reversible lesion with lidocaine into the anteromedial/posterior parietal cortex (AM/PPC) affects differently working and long-term memory on two foraging tasks

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    PABLO, ESPINA-MARCHANT; TERESA, PINTO-HAMUY; DIEGO, BUSTAMANTE; PAOLA, MORALES; LUIS, ROBLES; MARIO, HERRERA-MARSCHITZ.

    Full Text Available Place memory is relevant for exploration and forage behaviour. When food supply is dispersed, a win-shift has advantage over a win-stay strategy. In the Olton Octagonal Maze, the rat follows a win-shift strategy using working memory. However, in the Olton 4x4 version, the rat follows a win-stay stra [...] tegy, using both working and long-term memories. It has been suggested that the neocortex is required for the resolution of tasks demanding long-term, but not for that demanding working memory alone. The role of anteromedial/posterior parietal cortex (AM/PPC) was investigated here, using a reversible lesion induced by intracerebral lidocaine infusion. Long-Evans rats were implanted with guide cannulae into the AM/PPC and trained in an Olton 4x4 maze, counting working and long-term memory errors after a delay. Then, the animals were infused with lidocaine or saline during the delay phase and tested for three days. Another series of animals, treated as before, was tested in an Olton Octagonal Maze and subjected to the same injection schedule. In the Olton 4x4 Maze, lidocaine produced a significant increase in working and long-term memory errors, compared to saline and post-lidocaine conditions. In contrast, in the Olton Octagonal Maze, lidocaine did not induce any effect on working memory errors. Thus, AM/PPC is required when both working with previous information and long-term memories are needed, but not when only working memory is required, as it happens under ethological conditions. Whenever food supply is dispersed, a win-shift strategy is preferable

  20. Spatial cognition and memory: a reversible lesion with lidocaine into the anteromedial/posterior parietal cortex (AM/PPC affects differently working and long-term memory on two foraging tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO ESPINA-MARCHANT

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Place memory is relevant for exploration and forage behaviour. When food supply is dispersed, a win-shift has advantage over a win-stay strategy. In the Olton Octagonal Maze, the rat follows a win-shift strategy using working memory. However, in the Olton 4x4 version, the rat follows a win-stay strategy, using both working and long-term memories. It has been suggested that the neocortex is required for the resolution of tasks demanding long-term, but not for that demanding working memory alone. The role of anteromedial/posterior parietal cortex (AM/PPC was investigated here, using a reversible lesion induced by intracerebral lidocaine infusion. Long-Evans rats were implanted with guide cannulae into the AM/PPC and trained in an Olton 4x4 maze, counting working and long-term memory errors after a delay. Then, the animals were infused with lidocaine or saline during the delay phase and tested for three days. Another series of animals, treated as before, was tested in an Olton Octagonal Maze and subjected to the same injection schedule. In the Olton 4x4 Maze, lidocaine produced a significant increase in working and long-term memory errors, compared to saline and post-lidocaine conditions. In contrast, in the Olton Octagonal Maze, lidocaine did not induce any effect on working memory errors. Thus, AM/PPC is required when both working with previous information and long-term memories are needed, but not when only working memory is required, as it happens under ethological conditions. Whenever food supply is dispersed, a win-shift strategy is preferable

  1. Zif268/Egr1 gain of function facilitates hippocampal synaptic plasticity and long-term spatial recognition memory

    OpenAIRE

    Penke, Zsuzsa; Morice, Elise; Veyrac, Alexandra; Gros, Alexandra; Chagneau , Carine; LeBlanc, Pascale; Samson, Nathalie; Baumgärtel, Karsten; Mansuy, Isabelle M.; Davis, Sabrina; Laroche, Serge

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that Zif268/Egr1, a member of the Egr family of transcription factors, is critical for the consolidation of several forms of memory; however, it is as yet uncertain whether increasing expression of Zif268 in neurons can facilitate memory formation. Here, we used an inducible transgenic mouse model to specifically induce Zif268 overexpression in forebrain neurons and examined the effect on recognition memory and hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity. We found ...

  2. Forebrain NR2B Overexpression Facilitating the Prefrontal Cortex Long-Term Potentiation and Enhancing Working Memory Function in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Yihui; Jin, Jing; Zhang, Xuliang; Xu, Hao(School of Physics, Nankai University, 300071, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China); Yang, Liguo; Du, Dan; Zeng, Qingwen; Tsien, Joe Z.; Yu, Huiting; Cao, Xiaohua

    2011-01-01

    Prefrontal cortex plays an important role in working memory, attention regulation and behavioral inhibition. Its functions are associated with NMDA receptors. However, there is little information regarding the roles of NMDA receptor NR2B subunit in prefrontal cortical synaptic plasticity and prefrontal cortex-related working memory. Whether the up-regulation of NR2B subunit influences prefrontal cortical synaptic plasticity and working memory is not yet clear. In the present study, we measure...

  3. Improvement in Memory and Brain Long-term Potentiation Deficits Due to Permanent Hypoperfusion/Ischemia by Grape Seed Extract in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sarkaki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Cerebral hypoperfusion/ischemia (CHI is a neurological disease where impaired hippocampus electrical activity and cognition caused by a serial pathophysiological events. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic oral administration of grape seed extract (GSE on passive avoidance memory and long-term potentiation (LTP after permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (2CCAO in male adult rats.   Materials and Methods: Thirty-two adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into: 1 Sham+Veh, 2 Isch+Veh, 3 Sham+GSE, 4 Isch+GSE. In order to make 2CCAO as an animal model of CHI, carotid arteries were ligatured and then cut bilaterally. To evaluation of passive avoidance memory, step-down latency (STL was measured and LTP was recorded from hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG after high frequency stimulation (HFS in all rats. Results: We found that memory was significantly impaired in rats after CHI (P

  4. Long-term treadmill exercise improves spatial memory of male APPswe/PS1dE9 mice by regulation of BDNF expression and microglia activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, J Y; Li, S C; Sun, Y X; Zhang, X S; Dong, Z Z; Zhong, P; Sun, X R

    2015-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that physical activity could delay or attenuate the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). But the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. To investigate the effect of long-term treadmill exercise on the spatial memory of AD mice and the possible role of β-amyloid, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and microglia in the effect, male APPswe/PS1dE9 AD mice aged 4 months were subjected to treadmill exercise for 5 months with 6 sessions per week and gradually increased load. A Morris water maze was used to evaluate the spatial memory. Expression levels of β-amyloid, BDNF and Iba-1 (a microglia marker) in brain tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry. Sedentary AD mice and wildtype C57BL/6J mice served as controls. The results showed that 5-month treadmill exercise significantly decreased the escape latencies (P exercise significantly increased the number of BDNF-positive cells and decreased the ratios of activated microglia in both the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. However, treadmill exercise did not significantly alleviate the accumulation of β-amyloid in either the cerebral cortex or the hippocampus of the AD mice (P > 0.05). The study suggested that long-term treadmill exercise could improve the spatial memory of the male APPswe/PS1dE9 AD mice. The increase in BDNF-positive cells and decrease in activated microglia might underpin the beneficial effect. PMID:26681831

  5. Long-term treadmill exercise improves spatial memory of male APPswe/PS1dE9 mice by regulation of BDNF expression and microglia activation

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, JY; Li, SC; Sun, YX; Zhang, XS; Dong, ZZ; Zhong, P; Sun, XR

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that physical activity could delay or attenuate the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). But the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. To investigate the effect of long-term treadmill exercise on the spatial memory of AD mice and the possible role of β-amyloid, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and microglia in the effect, male APPswe/PS1dE9 AD mice aged 4 months were subjected to treadmill exercise for 5 months with 6 sessions per week and...

  6. The Effect of Synchronized Forced Running with Chronic Stress on Short, Mid and Long- term Memory in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Radahmadi; Hojjatallah Alaei; Mohammad Reza Sharifi; Nasrin Hosseini

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Impairment of learning and memory processes has been demonstrated by many studies using different stressors. Other reports suggested that exercise has a powerful behavioral intervention to improve cognitive function and brain health. In this research, we investigated protective effects of treadmill running on chronic stress–induced memory deficit in rats.Methods: Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=10) as follows: Control (Co), Sham (Sh), Stress (St), Exe...

  7. Application of Long-term cultured Interferon-? Enzyme-linked Immunospot Assay for Assessing Effector and Memory T Cell Responses in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioli, Mayara F; Palmer, Mitchell V; Vordermeier, H Martin; Whelan, Adam O; Fosse, James M; Nonnecke, Brian J; Waters, W Ray

    2015-01-01

    Effector and memory T cells are generated through developmental programing of naïve cells following antigen recognition. If the infection is controlled up to 95 % of the T cells generated during the expansion phase are eliminated (i.e., contraction phase) and memory T cells remain, sometimes for a lifetime. In humans, two functionally distinct subsets of memory T cells have been described based on the expression of lymph node homing receptors. Central memory T cells express C-C chemokine receptor 7 and CD45RO and are mainly located in T-cell areas of secondary lymphoid organs. Effector memory T cells express CD45RO, lack CCR7 and display receptors associated with lymphocyte homing to peripheral or inflamed tissues. Effector T cells do not express either CCR7 or CD45RO but upon encounter with antigen produce effector cytokines, such as interferon-?. Interferon-? release assays are used for the diagnosis of bovine and human tuberculosis and detect primarily effector and effector memory T cell responses. Central memory T cell responses by CD4(+) T cells to vaccination, on the other hand, may be used to predict vaccine efficacy, as demonstrated with simian immunodeficiency virus infection of non-human primates, tuberculosis in mice, and malaria in humans. Several studies with mice and humans as well as unpublished data on cattle, have demonstrated that interferon-? ELISPOT assays measure central memory T cell responses. With this assay, peripheral blood mononuclear cells are cultured in decreasing concentration of antigen for 10 to 14 days (long-term culture), allowing effector responses to peak and wane; facilitating central memory T cells to differentiate and expand within the culture. PMID:26275095

  8. Long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal. Radioactive analysis of samples from spent fuel leaching experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assess the long-term performance of spent fuel during direct disposal, high burnup fuel (50 MWd/kg U) has been exposed to non-buffered brine solutions and to deionized water under static anaerobic conditions at 25 C. The leaching behaviour of several radionuclides has been observed over periods of approximately 500 d. Currently used radiometric methods (?-, ?-, ?-spectrometry) were applied to the analysis of sample solutions. Due to its low specific activity, uranium was determined using ICP-mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) or laser induced fluorescence spectrometry (LFS). In order to determine radionuclide concentrations without interferences a preceeding radiochemical separation by ion-exchange, solvent-extraction or extraction chromatography was necessary in most cases. The Sc-isotopes 134/137, which are present in a high excess over other ?-emitting nuclides, were separated using the inorganic ion exchanger ammonium molybdato phosphate (AMP). This step allowed the subsequent ?-spectrometric determination of Am-241, Ag-110m, Ru-106, Sb-125 and Eu-154/155. Activity concentrations of pure ?-emitters like Sr-90, Tc-99, I-129 and Pu-241 were determined by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) after selective separation using extraction chromatography or solvent extraction. The actinides Am-241, Cm-242/244, Pu-238/239/240 and Np-237 were analysed by ?-spectrometry again after selective separation. The direct analysis of uranium by LFS or ICP-MS was hampered by high salt concentrations. Therefore a separation by extraction chromatography turned out to be necessary, too. The analytical procedures used throughout this work are described in detail. (orig.)

  9. Relative Ease in Creating Detailed Orthographic Representations Contrasted with Severe Difficulties to Maintain Them in Long-term Memory Among Dyslexic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binamé, Florence; Danzio, Sophie; Poncelet, Martine

    2015-11-01

    Most research into orthographic learning abilities has been conducted in English with typically developing children using reading-based tasks. In the present study, we examined the abilities of French-speaking children with dyslexia to create novel orthographic representations for subsequent use in spelling and to maintain them in long-term memory. Their performance was compared with that of chronological age (CA)-matched and reading age (RA)-matched control children. We used an experimental task designed to provide optimal learning conditions (i.e. 10 spelling practice trials) ensuring the short-term acquisition of the spelling of the target orthographic word forms. After a 1-week delay, the long-term retention of the targets was assessed by a spelling post-test. Analysis of the results revealed that, in the short term, children with dyslexia learned the novel orthographic word forms well, only differing from both CA and RA controls on the initial decoding of the targets and from CA controls on the first two practice trials. In contrast, a dramatic drop was observed in their long-term retention relative to CA and RA controls. These results support the suggestion of the self-teaching hypothesis (Share, 1995) that initial errors in the decoding and spelling of unfamiliar words may hinder the establishment of fully specified novel orthographic representations. PMID:26358745

  10. Long-Term Effects of 56Fe Irradiation on Spatial Memory of Mice: Role of Sex and Apolipoprotein E Isoform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess whether the effects of cranial 56Fe irradiation on the spatial memory of mice in the water maze are sex and apolipoprotein E (apoE) isoform dependent and whether radiation-induced changes in spatial memory are associated with changes in the dendritic marker microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) and the presynaptic marker synaptophysin. Methods and Materials: Two-month-old male and female mice expressing human apoE3 or apoE4 received either a 3-Gy dose of cranial 56Fe irradiation (600 MeV/amu) or sham irradiation. Mice were tested in a water maze task 13 months later to assess effects of irradiation on spatial memory retention. After behavioral testing, the brain tissues of these mice were analyzed for synaptophysin and MAP-2 immunoreactivity. Results: After irradiation, spatial memory retention of apoE3 female, but not male, mice was impaired. A general genotype deficit in spatial memory was observed in sham-irradiated apoE4 mice. Strikingly, irradiation prevented this genotype deficit in apoE4 male mice. A similar but nonsignificant trend was observed in apoE4 female mice. Although there was no change in MAP-2 immunoreactivity after irradiation, synaptophysin immunoreactivity was increased in irradiated female mice, independent of genotype. Conclusions: The effects of 56Fe irradiation on the spatial memory retention of mice are critically influenced by sex, and the direction of these effects is influenced by apoE isoform. Although in female mice synaptophysin immunoreactivity provides a sensitive marker for effects of irradiation, it cannot explain the apoE genotype-dependent effects of irradiation on the spatial memory retention of the mice.

  11. Long-term alteration of Rousse rock samples for CO2 storage: an experimental and numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachaud, P.; Sissmann, O.; Parra, T.

    2013-12-01

    CO2 injection into the Rousse depleted gas reservoir, located in the south-west of France, started in January 2010 and 50,000 tons of this greenhouse effect gas were ultimately injected until March 2013 (Prinet et al. 2013). CO2 fate in the reservoir represents a problem of primary importance, that have been studied by several complementary research works led in collaboration by Total and IFPEN (e.g. Girard et al. 2013, Chiquet et al. 2013). One of the aspects covered by these studies concerned geochemical reactions between the injected fluid, reservoir water and rock minerals. A long-term CO2-exposure experiment was conducted in pressure vessels, and allowed the ageing of reservoir mini-plugs at in situ temperature and pressure conditions (150°C and 80 bar) during almost 24 months. Solid characterization was led every 2 to 3 months using an X-ray microprobe. Elementary maps were then acquired and converted into mineralogical maps using a statistical analysis based on pixels composition. This method allowed the identification of main minerals and of their evolution with alteration. Solution elementary composition was analyzed every week using an ICP-MS. These compositions were used for speciation calculations using the IFPEN's geochemical code Arxim. Initial reservoir mineralogy is mainly constituted of two types of dolomites. One of which forms the rock matrix, the other fills the main reservoir fractures. Quartz, pyrite and calcite traces, as well as two types of phyllosilicates (a potassic illite and a magnesian mixture of chlorite and mica) were also evidenced thanks to our analytical method. After some months of alteration, mineralogical evolutions were observed at the sample edge. Magnesian carbonates (dolomite and magnesite) seemed to precipitate, while an increase of iron, sodium and sulphur (probably due to anhydrite formation) was detected. The combination of these experimental observations to numeric speciation and minerals Saturation Index (SI) calculations allowed us to propose a reactive pathway. A first phase would consist in a slight dissolution of dolomite, potentially accompanied by ordered-dolomite precipitation. A second phase would lead to formation of magnesite and ordered-dolomite, consuming calcium released by calcite dissolution, magnesium released by dissolution of dolomite and of the chlorite/mica mixture, and CO2, thus demonstrating the mineralization potential of the Rousse reservoir. References Chiquet, P., Thibeau, S., Lescanne, M., and Prinet, C. [2013] Geochemical assessment of the injection of CO2 into Rousse depleted gas reservoir. Part II: geochemical impact of the CO2 injection. Energy Procedia, 1-12. Girard, J., Chiquet, P., Thibeau, S., Lescanne, M., and Prinet, C. [2013] Geochemical assessment of the injection of CO2 into Rousse depleted gas reservoir. Part I: Initial mineralogical and geochemical conditions in the Mano reservoir. Energy Procedia, 1-7. Prinet, C., Monne, J., and Thibeau, S. [2013] Lacq pilot injection test: The history of selecting the reservoir, injecting 50 kt of CO2 with monitoring-modeling verification and on-going long term stability demonstration, publication to the EAGE SES Conference, Pau, France, September 30th to October 4th 2013.

  12. Newcastle disease virotherapy induces long-term survival and tumor-specific immune memory in orthotopic glioma through the induction of immunogenic cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koks, Carolien A; Garg, Abhishek D; Ehrhardt, Michael; Riva, Matteo; Vandenberk, Lien; Boon, Louis; De Vleeschouwer, Steven; Agostinis, Patrizia; Graf, Norbert; Van Gool, Stefaan W

    2015-03-01

    The oncolytic features of several naturally oncolytic viruses have been shown on Glioblastoma Multiforme cell lines and in xenotransplant models. However, orthotopic glioma studies in immunocompetent animals are lacking. Here we investigated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in the orthotopic, syngeneic murine GL261 model. Seven days after tumor induction, mice received NDV intratumorally. Treatment significantly prolonged median survival and 50% of animals showed long-term survival. We demonstrated immunogenic cell death (ICD) induction in GL261 cells after NDV infection, comprising calreticulin surface exposure, release of HMGB1 and increased PMEL17 cancer antigen expression. Uniquely, we found absence of secreted ATP. NDV-induced ICD occurred independently of caspase signaling and was blocked by Necrostatin-1, suggesting the contribution of necroptosis. Autophagy induction following NDV infection of GL261 cells was demonstrated as well. In vivo, elevated infiltration of IFN-?(+) T cells was observed in NDV-treated tumors, along with reduced accumulation of myeloid derived suppressor cells. The importance of a functional adaptive immune system in this paradigm was demonstrated in immunodeficient Rag2(-/-) mice and in CD8(+) T cell depleted animals, where NDV slightly prolonged survival, but failed to induce long-term cure. Secondary tumor induction with GL261 cells or LLC cells in mice surviving long-term after NDV treatment, demonstrated the induction of a long-term, tumor-specific immunological memory response by ND virotherapy. For the first time, we describe the therapeutic activity of NDV against GL261 tumors, evidenced in an orthotopic mouse model. The therapeutic effect relies on the induction of ICD in the tumor cells, which primes adaptive antitumor immunity. PMID:25208916

  13. Activin Plays a Key Role in the Maintenance of Long-Term Memory and Late-LTP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageta, Hiroshi; Ikegami, Shiro; Miura, Masami; Masuda, Masao; Migishima, Rika; Hino, Toshiaki; Takashima, Noriko; Murayama, Akiko; Sugino, Hiromu; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Kida, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa; Tsuchida, Kunihiro; Aosaki, Toshihiko; Inokuchi, Kaoru

    2010-01-01

    A recent study has revealed that fear memory may be vulnerable following retrieval, and is then reconsolidated in a protein synthesis-dependent manner. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of these processes. Activin [beta]A, a member of the TGF-[beta] superfamily, is increased in activated neuronal circuits and regulates…

  14. The Ubiquitin-Specific Protease 14 (USP14) Is a Critical Regulator of Long-Term Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarome, Timothy J.; Kwapis, Janine L.; Hallengren, Jada J.; Wilson, Scott M.; Helmstetter, Fred J.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested a role for ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated protein degradation in learning-dependent synaptic plasticity; however, very little is known about how protein degradation is regulated at the level of the proteasome during memory formation. The ubiquitin-specific protease 14 (USP14) is a proteasomal deubiquitinating enzyme…

  15. Reversal of Impaired Hippocampal Long-term Potentiation and Contextual Fear Memory Deficits in Angelman Syndrome Model Mice by ErbB Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphzan, Hanoch; Hernandez, Pepe; Jung, Joo In; Cowansage, Kiriana K.; Deinhardt, Katrin; Chao, Moses V.; Abel, Ted; Klann, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Background Angelman syndrome (AS) is a human neuropsychiatric disorder associated with autism, mental retardation, motor abnormalities, and epilepsy. In most cases, AS is caused by the deletion of the maternal copy of UBE3A gene, which encodes the enzyme ubiquitin ligase E3A, also termed E6-AP. A mouse model of AS has been generated and these mice exhibit many of the observed neurological alterations in humans. Because of clinical and neuroanatomical similarities between AS and schizophrenia, we examined AS model mice for alterations in the neuregulin-ErbB4 pathway, which has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We focused our studies on the hippocampus, one of the major brain loci impaired in AS mice. Methods We determined the expression of NRG1 and ErbB4 receptors in AS mice and wild-type littermates (ages 10-16 weeks), and studied the effects of ErbB inhibition on long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal area CA1 and on hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory. Results We observed enhanced neuregulin-ErbB4 signaling in the hippocampus of AS model mice and found that ErbB inhibitors could reverse deficits in LTP, a cellular substrate for learning and memory. In addition, we found that an ErbB inhibitor enhanced long-term contextual fear memory in AS model mice. Conclusions Our findings suggest that neuregulin-ErbB4 signaling is involved in synaptic plasticity and memory impairments in AS model mice, suggesting that ErbB inhibitors have therapeutic potential for the treatment of AS. PMID:22381732

  16. Leishmania braziliensis-reactive T cells are down-regulated in long-term cured cutaneous Leishmaniasis, but the renewal capacity of T effector memory compartments is preserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Carvalho, Regina; Mendes-Aguiar, Carolina O; Oliveira-Neto, Manoel P; Covas, Cláudia J F; Bertho, Alvaro L; Da-Cruz, Alda M; Gomes-Silva, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis control and tissue damage relate to the effector immune response, which in turn affects clinical outcome. Leishmania reactive CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells are expanded in long-term healed cutaneous leishmaniasis (hCL) patients but their functional characteristics remain to be determined. This study investigates antigen-specific recall in long-term healed CL caused by L. braziliensis infection. Healed CL subjects were grouped according to the time elapsed since the end of therapy: less than two years and two to five years. Activation phenotype (CD69(+) or CD25(+)) and subpopulations of memory T cell phenotypes [central memory (Tcm): CD45RO(+) CCR7(+) or effector memory (Tem): CD45RO(+) CCR7(-)] were quantified in ex vivo blood mononuclear cells and after Leishmania antigens stimuli. A reduction in the percentage of activated Leishmania-responder CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in hCL was associated with the time elapsed since clinical cure. Percentage of CD69(+) in TCD4(+) and TCD8(+) cells were negatively correlated with IL-10 levels. Ex vivo analyses showed contracted Tem CD4(+) and Tem CD8(+) compartments from hCL with long time elapsed since clinical cure, although renewal of these compartments was observed following in vitro exposure to leishmanial stimuli. Our results show that healed L. braziliensis infected patients exhibit a recall response to Leishmania antigens with evident expansion of effector memory T cells. Regulated leishmanial-specific response seems to emerge only about two years after initial contact with the parasite antigens. PMID:24303052

  17. Leishmania braziliensis-Reactive T Cells Are Down-Regulated in Long-Term Cured Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, but the Renewal Capacity of T Effector Memory Compartments Is Preserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Carvalho, Regina; Mendes-Aguiar, Carolina O.; Oliveira-Neto, Manoel P.; Covas, Cláudia J. F.; Bertho, Álvaro L.; Da-Cruz, Alda M.; Gomes-Silva, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis control and tissue damage relate to the effector immune response, which in turn affects clinical outcome. Leishmania reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are expanded in long-term healed cutaneous leishmaniasis (hCL) patients but their functional characteristics remain to be determined. This study investigates antigen-specific recall in long-term healed CL caused by L. braziliensis infection. Healed CL subjects were grouped according to the time elapsed since the end of therapy: less than two years and two to five years. Activation phenotype (CD69+ or CD25+) and subpopulations of memory T cell phenotypes [central memory (Tcm): CD45RO+ CCR7+ or effector memory (Tem): CD45RO+ CCR7-] were quantified in ex vivo blood mononuclear cells and after Leishmania antigens stimuli. A reduction in the percentage of activated Leishmania-responder CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in hCL was associated with the time elapsed since clinical cure. Percentage of CD69+ in TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells were negatively correlated with IL-10 levels. Ex vivo analyses showed contracted Tem CD4+ and Tem CD8+ compartments from hCL with long time elapsed since clinical cure, although renewal of these compartments was observed following in vitro exposure to leishmanial stimuli. Our results show that healed L. braziliensis infected patients exhibit a recall response to Leishmania antigens with evident expansion of effector memory T cells. Regulated leishmanial-specific response seems to emerge only about two years after initial contact with the parasite antigens. PMID:24303052

  18. Human dendritic cells sequentially matured with CD4+ T cells as a secondary signal favor CTL and long-term T memory cell responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Simon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are professional antigen-presenting cells involved in the control and initiation of immune responses. In vivo, DCs exposed at the periphery to maturation stimuli migrate to lymph nodes, where they receive secondary signals from CD4+ T helper cells. These DCs become able to initiate CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses. However, in vitro investigations concerning human monocyte-derived DCs have never focused on their functional properties after such sequential maturation. Here, we studied human DC phenotypes and functions according to this sequential exposure to maturation stimuli. As first signals, we used TNF-?/polyI:C mimicking inflammatory and pathogen stimuli and, as second signals, we compared activated CD4+ T helper cells to a combination of CD40-L/ IFN-?. Our results show that a sequential activation with activated CD4+ T cells dramatically increased the maturation of DCs in terms of their phenotype and cytokine secretion compared to DCs activated with maturation stimuli delivered simultaneously. Furthermore, this sequential maturation led to the induction of CTL with a long-term effector and central memory phenotypes. Thus, sequential delivery of maturation stimuli, which includes CD4+ T cells, should be considered in the future to improve the induction of long-term CTL memory in DC-based immunotherapy.

  19. Human dendritic cells sequentially matured with CD4+ T cells as a secondary signal favor CTL and long-term T memory cell responses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thomas, Simon; Séverine, Tanguy-Royer; Pierre-Joseph, Royer; Nicolas, Boisgerault; Jihane, Frikeche; Jean-François, Fonteneau; Marc, Grégoire.

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells involved in the control and initiation of immune responses. In vivo, DCs exposed at the periphery to maturation stimuli migrate to lymph nodes, where they receive secondary signals from CD4+ T helper cells. These DCs become able to init [...] iate CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. However, in vitro investigations concerning human monocyte-derived DCs have never focused on their functional properties after such sequential maturation. Here, we studied human DC phenotypes and functions according to this sequential exposure to maturation stimuli. As first signals, we used TNF-?/polyI:C mimicking inflammatory and pathogen stimuli and, as second signals, we compared activated CD4+ T helper cells to a combination of CD40-L/ IFN-?. Our results show that a sequential activation with activated CD4+ T cells dramatically increased the maturation of DCs in terms of their phenotype and cytokine secretion compared to DCs activated with maturation stimuli delivered simultaneously. Furthermore, this sequential maturation led to the induction of CTL with a long-term effector and central memory phenotypes. Thus, sequential delivery of maturation stimuli, which includes CD4+ T cells, should be considered in the future to improve the induction of long-term CTL memory in DC-based immunotherapy.

  20. Memories of GAMES: Exploring the Long-Term Impacts of After-School Museum Programming on Girls' Attitudes Towards Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Sarah Elizabeth

    The purpose of this study is to investigate any lasting impacts of the University of Colorado Museum of Natural History's Girls at the Museum Exploring Science (GAMES) Program. Using assessment document analysis, student focus groups, and adult interviews, this study examined whether students' positive associations with science continue after completion of the program and whether the program affects the academic and career choices of past participants. Results from the analysis suggest that GAMES has a generally positive impact on participant attitudes towards science in both the short- and long-term. These results also support existing research in identifying key factors in the success of the program including hands-on activities, exposure to diverse careers and female role models, and the incorporation of authentic objects and experiences. These factors of success can contribute to the evidence base about the role of informal education programs in increasing science participation among women, as well as ways in which schools and universities can collaborate to effectively serve populations that are traditionally underrepresented in the sciences.

  1. Long-term memory traces for familiar spoken words in tonal languages as revealed by the Mismatch Negativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiphinich Kotchabhakdi

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Mismatch negativity (MMN, a primary response to an acoustic change and an index of sensory memory, was used to investigate the processing of the discrimination between familiar and unfamiliar Consonant-Vowel (CV speech contrasts. The MMN was elicited by rare familiar words presented among repetitive unfamiliar words. Phonetic and phonological contrasts were identical in all conditions. MMN elicited by the familiar word deviant was larger than that elicited by the unfamiliar word deviant. The presence of syllable contrast did significantly alter the word-elicited MMN in amplitude and scalp voltage field distribution. Thus, our results indicate the existence of word-related MMN enhancement largely independent of the word status of the standard stimulus. This enhancement may reflect the presence of a longterm memory trace for familiar spoken words in tonal languages.

  2. INTRA-HIPPOCAMPAL ADMINISTRATION OF THE VEGF RECEPTOR BLOCKER PTK787/ZK222584 IMPAIRS LONG-TERM MEMORY

    OpenAIRE

    Pati, Shibani; Orsi, Sara A.; Moore, Anthony N.; Dash, Pramod K.

    2008-01-01

    A number of studies have established a role for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in angiogenesis. Recent reports have shown that VEGF overexpression in the hippocampus improves learning and memory and is associated with enhanced neurogenesis. PTK787/ZK222584 (PTK/ZK) is a reported inhibitor of VEGFR signaling that is currently being tested for its effects on lung and colon cancer. However, the influence of this drug on cognition has not been examined. In the present study, we questio...

  3. Effects of fresh, aged and cooked garlic extracts on short- and long-term memory in diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Sarkaki; Saeed Valipour Chehardacheric; Yaghoub Farbood; Seyed Mohammad Taghi Mansouri; Bahareh Naghizadeh; Effat Basirian

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was hypothesized to investigate the beneficial effects of fresh, aged, and cooked garlic extracts on blood glucose and memory of diabetic rats induced by streptozocine (STZ). Material and Methods: Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg body weight). An oral dose of 1000 mg/kg of each garlic extract was given daily for 4 weeks after diabetes induction. Five days after STZ injection, five groups were formed: Control (intact) rats (C...

  4. Protective long-term antibody memory by antigen-driven and T help-dependent differentiation of long-lived memory B cells to short-lived plasma cells independent of secondary lymphoid organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsenbein, A F; Pinschewer, D D; Sierro, S; Horvath, E; Hengartner, H; Zinkernagel, R M

    2000-11-21

    Memory is a hallmark of immunity. Memory carried by antibodies is largely responsible for protection against reinfection with most known acutely lethal infectious agents and is the basis for most clinically successful vaccines. However, the nature of long-term B cell and antibody memory is still unclear. B cell memory was studied here after infection of mice with the rabies-like cytopathic vesicular stomatitis virus, the noncytopathic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (Armstrong and WE), and after immunization with various inert viral antigens inducing naive B cells to differentiate either to plasma cells or memory B cells in germinal centers of secondary lymphoid organs. The results show that in contrast to very low background levels against internal viral antigens, no significant neutralizing antibody memory was observed in the absence of antigen and suggest that memory B cells (i) are long-lived in the absence of antigen, nondividing, and relatively resistant to irradiation, and (ii) must be stimulated by antigen to differentiate to short-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells, a process that is also efficient in the bone marrow and always depends on radiosensitive, specific T help. Therefore, for vaccines to induce long-term protective antibody titers, they need to repeatedly provide, or continuously maintain, antigen in minimal quantities over a prolonged time period in secondary lymphoid organs or the bone marrow for sufficient numbers of long-lived memory B cells to mature to short-lived plasma cells. PMID:11069289

  5. Long-term cannabidiol treatment prevents the development of social recognition memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, David; Spiro, Adena S; Jenner, Andrew M; Garner, Brett; Karl, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Impairments in cognitive ability and widespread pathophysiological changes caused by neurotoxicity, neuroinflammation, oxidative damage, and altered cholesterol homeostasis are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to reverse cognitive deficits of AD transgenic mice and to exert neuroprotective, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo. Here we evaluate the preventative properties of long-term CBD treatment in male A?PPSwe/PS1?E9 (A?PP × PS1) mice, a transgenic model of AD. Control and AD transgenic mice were treated orally from 2.5 months of age with CBD (20 mg/kg) daily for 8 months. Mice were then assessed in the social preference test, elevated plus maze, and fear conditioning paradigms, before cortical and hippocampal tissues were analyzed for amyloid load, oxidative damage, cholesterol, phytosterols, and inflammation. We found that A?PP × PS1 mice developed a social recognition deficit, which was prevented by CBD treatment. CBD had no impact on anxiety or associative learning. The prevention of the social recognition deficit was not associated with any changes in amyloid load or oxidative damage. However, the study revealed a subtle impact of CBD on neuroinflammation, cholesterol, and dietary phytosterol retention, which deserves further investigation. This study is the first to demonstrate CBD's ability to prevent the development of a social recognition deficit in AD transgenic mice. Our findings provide the first evidence that CBD may have potential as a preventative treatment for AD with a particular relevance for symptoms of social withdrawal and facial recognition. PMID:25024347

  6. A structural basis for enhancement of long-term associative memory in single dendritic spines regulated by PKC

    OpenAIRE

    Hongpaisan, Jarin; Alkon, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    Using both scanning confocal and electron microscopic morphometric measurements, we analyzed single dendritic spines of CA1 pyramidal cells in the hippocampi of water maze-trained rats vs. controls. Two days after completion of all training, we observed a memory-specific increase in the number of mushroom spines—all of which make synaptic contacts—but not in the numbers of filopodia or stubby or thin spines, as quantified with double-blind protocols in both scanning confocal and electron micr...

  7. Long-term superelastic cycling at nano-scale in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy micropillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Juan, J., E-mail: jose.sanjuan@ehu.es; Gómez-Cortés, J. F. [Dpto. Física Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Univ. del País Vasco UPV/EHU, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); López, G. A.; Nó, M. L. [Dpto. Física Aplicada II, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Univ. del País Vasco UPV/EHU, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Jiao, C. [FEI, Achtseweg Noord 5, 5651 GG Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-01-06

    Superelastic behavior at nano-scale has been studied along cycling in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy micropillars. Arrays of square micropillars were produced by focused ion beam milling, on slides of [001] oriented Cu-Al-Ni single crystals. Superelastic behavior of micropillars, due to the stress-induced martensitic transformation, has been studied by nano-compression tests during thousand cycles, and its evolution has been followed along cycling. Each pillar has undergone more than thousand cycles without any detrimental evolution. Moreover, we demonstrate that after thousand cycles they exhibit a perfectly reproducible and completely recoverable superelastic behavior.

  8. Long-term continuous allopregnanolone elevation causes memory decline and hippocampus shrinkage, in female wild-type B6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Sara K S; Johansson, Maja; Bäckström, Torbjörn

    2016-02-01

    Chronic stress in various forms increases the risk for cognitive dysfunction, dementia and Alzheimer's disease. While the pathogenesis behind these findings is unknown, growing evidence suggests that chronic increase in neurosteroid levels, such as allopregnanolone, is part of the mechanism. We treated wild-type C57BL/6J mice with allopregnanolone for 5months, using osmotic pumps. This treatment led to moderately increased levels of allopregnanolone, equivalent to that of mild chronic stress. After an interval of no treatment for 1month, female mice showed impaired learning and memory function in the Morris water maze (MWM) in combination with diminished hippocampus weight and increased cerebellum weight, both correlating to MWM performance. Male mice showed a minor reduction in memory function and no differences in brain structure. We conclude that chronic allopregnanolone elevation can lead to cognitive dysfunction and negative brain alterations. We suggest that allopregnanolone could play a key role in the pathogenesis of stress-induced cognitive disturbances and perhaps dementia. PMID:26497250

  9. Long-Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Long-Term Care What Is Long-Term Care? Long-term care involves a variety of services ... 8 sec Click to watch this video Most Care Provided at Home Click for more information Long- ...

  10. Long-term effects of neonatal exposure to MK-801 on recognition memory and excitatory-inhibitory balance in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J-T; Zhao, Y-Y; Wang, H-L; Wang, X-D; Su, Y-A; Si, T-M

    2015-11-12

    Blockade of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) during the neonatal period has been reported to induce long-term behavioral and neurochemical alterations that are relevant to schizophrenia. In this study, we examined the effects of such treatment on recognition memory and hippocampal excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) balance in both adolescence and adulthood. After exposure to the NMDAR antagonist, MK-801, at postnatal days (PND) 5-14, male Sprague-Dawley rats were tested for object and object-in-context recognition memory during adolescence (PND 35) and adulthood (PND 63). The parvalbumin-positive (PV+) ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons and presynaptic markers for excitatory and inhibitory neurons, vesicular glutamate transporter-1 (VGLUT1) and vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) were examined in the hippocampus to reflect the E/I balance. We found that rats receiving MK-801 treatment showed deficits of recognition memory, reduction in PV+ cell counts and upregulation of the VGLUT1/VGAT ratio in both adolescence and adulthood. Notably, the changes of the VGLUT1/VGAT ratio at the two time points exhibited distinct mechanisms. These results parallel findings of hippocampal abnormalities in schizophrenia and lend support to the usefulness of neonatal NMDAR blockade as a potential neurodevelopmental model for the disease. PMID:26349007

  11. Influence of long-term storage in cold hibernation on strain recovery and recovery stress of polyurethane shape memory polymer foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, S. J.; Huang, W. M.; Sokolowski, W. M.

    2001-04-01

    In this paper, the effects of long-term storage in compressed cold hibernated elastic memory (CHEM) polyurethane foam, a kind of shape memory polymer, are investigated experimentally. The foams were pre-strained at a high temperature, which was above the glass transition temperature, to 80% and 93.4%, respectively, and then cooled back to room temperature. After various periods of cold hibernation (up to two months), they were heated up at fixed length or against different constant loads. It is found that: (1) the maximum stress that the foam could exert at fixed length depends heavily on the amount of pre-strain; (2) expansion rates of 380 and 1273% from the hibernated size against a 1 N load (pre-strained by 80 and 93.4%, respectively) are achievable. However, upon further increases in load, the expansion is reduced dramatically. It appears that the tested CHEM polyurethane foam retains its shape memory properties even after being stored in a compacted state for a long period. Complete strain recovery is attainable for a hibernation period of up to two months.

  12. Single fluoxetine treatment before but not after stress prevents stress-induced hippocampal long-term depression and spatial memory retrieval impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Huili; Dai, Chunfang; Dong, Zhifang

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has shown that chronic treatment with fluoxetine, a widely prescribed medication for treatment of depression, can affect synaptic plasticity in the adult central nervous system. However, it is not well understood whether acute fluoxetine influences synaptic plasticity, especially on hippocampal CA1 long-term depression (LTD), and if so, whether it subsequently impacts hippocampal-dependent spatial memory. Here, we reported that LTD facilitated by elevated-platform stress in hippocampal slices was completely prevented by fluoxetine administration (10?mg/kg, i.p.) 30?min before stress. The LTD was not, however, significantly inhibited by fluoxetine administration immediately after stress. Similarly, fluoxetine incubation (10??M) during electrophysiological recordings also displayed no influence on the stress-facilitated LTD. In addition, behavioral results showed that a single fluoxetine treatment 30?min before but not after acute stress fully reversed the impairment of spatial memory retrieval in the Morris water maze paradigm. Taken together, these results suggest that acute fluoxetine treatment only before, but not after stress, can prevent hippocampal CA1 LTD and spatial memory retrieval impairment caused by behavioral stress in adult animals. PMID:26218751

  13. Learning-Induced Gene Expression in the Hippocampus Reveals a Role of Neuron -Astrocyte Metabolic Coupling in Long Term Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Tadi, Monika

    2015-10-29

    We examined the expression of genes related to brain energy metabolism and particularly those encoding glia (astrocyte)-specific functions in the dorsal hippocampus subsequent to learning. Context-dependent avoidance behavior was tested in mice using the step-through Inhibitory Avoidance (IA) paradigm. Animals were sacrificed 3, 9, 24, or 72 hours after training or 3 hours after retention testing. The quantitative determination of mRNA levels revealed learning-induced changes in the expression of genes thought to be involved in astrocyte-neuron metabolic coupling in a time dependent manner. Twenty four hours following IA training, an enhanced gene expression was seen, particularly for genes encoding monocarboxylate transporters 1 and 4 (MCT1, MCT4), alpha2 subunit of the Na/K-ATPase and glucose transporter type 1. To assess the functional role for one of these genes in learning, we studied MCT1 deficient mice and found that they exhibit impaired memory in the inhibitory avoidance task. Together, these observations indicate that neuron-glia metabolic coupling undergoes metabolic adaptations following learning as indicated by the change in expression of key metabolic genes.

  14. Learning-Induced Gene Expression in the Hippocampus Reveals a Role of Neuron -Astrocyte Metabolic Coupling in Long Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadi, Monika; Allaman, Igor; Lengacher, Sylvain; Grenningloh, Gabriele; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the expression of genes related to brain energy metabolism and particularly those encoding glia (astrocyte)-specific functions in the dorsal hippocampus subsequent to learning. Context-dependent avoidance behavior was tested in mice using the step-through Inhibitory Avoidance (IA) paradigm. Animals were sacrificed 3, 9, 24, or 72 hours after training or 3 hours after retention testing. The quantitative determination of mRNA levels revealed learning-induced changes in the expression of genes thought to be involved in astrocyte-neuron metabolic coupling in a time dependent manner. Twenty four hours following IA training, an enhanced gene expression was seen, particularly for genes encoding monocarboxylate transporters 1 and 4 (MCT1, MCT4), alpha2 subunit of the Na/K-ATPase and glucose transporter type 1. To assess the functional role for one of these genes in learning, we studied MCT1 deficient mice and found that they exhibit impaired memory in the inhibitory avoidance task. Together, these observations indicate that neuron-glia metabolic coupling undergoes metabolic adaptations following learning as indicated by the change in expression of key metabolic genes. PMID:26513352

  15. Long-term sampling of CO2 from waste-to-energy plants: 14C determination methodology, data variation and uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Karsten; Pedersen, Niels Hald

    2014-01-01

    A dedicated sampling and measurement method was developed for long-term measurements of biogenic and fossil-derived CO2 from thermal waste-to-energy processes. Based on long-term sampling of CO2 and 14C determination, plant-specific emission factors can be determined more accurately, and the annual emission of fossil CO2 from waste-to-energy plants can be monitored according to carbon trading schemes and renewable energy certificates. Weekly and monthly measurements were performed at five Danish waste incinerators. Significant variations between fractions of biogenic CO2 emitted were observed, not only over time, but also between plants. From the results of monthly samples at one plant, the annual mean fraction of biogenic CO2 was found to be 69% of the total annual CO2 emissions. From weekly samples, taken every 3 months at the five plants, significant seasonal variations in biogenic CO2 emissions were observed (between 56% and 71% biogenic CO2). These variations confirmed that biomass fractions in the wastecan vary considerably, not only from day to day but also from month to month. An uncertainty budget for the measurement method itself showed that the expanded uncertainty of the method was ± 4.0 pmC (95 % confidence interval) at 62 pmC. The long-term sampling method was found to be useful for waste incinerators for determination of annual fossil and biogenic CO2 emissions with relatively low uncertainty.

  16. Effect of long-term storage on hormone measurements in samples from pregnant women: The experience of the Finnish Maternity Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Lundin, Eva; Kaasila, Marjo; Grankvist, Kjell; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Hallmans, Göran; Lehtinen, Matti; Pukkala, Eero; Surcel, Helja-Marja; Toniolo, Paolo; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Koskela, Pentti; Lukanova, Annekatrin

    2007-01-01

    Validity of biobank studies on hormone associated cancers depend on the extent the sample preservation is affecting the hormone measurements. We investigated the effect of long-term storage (up to 22 years) on immunoassay measurements of three groups of hormones and associated proteins: sex-steroids [estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, dihydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)], pregnancy-specific hormones [human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), placental gr...

  17. Groundwater sampling at olkiluoto, Eurajoki from the borehole OL-KR6 during a long-term pumping test in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long-term pumping test from the borehole OL-KR6 at Olkiluoto was initiated in 2001. Both flow and in situ EC measurements as well as groundwater sampling from specific sections were performed. The aim of this study was to get information on the potential connections via fractures both to the sea and to deep saline groundwater during the long-term pumping of the open borehole. In 2004 four groundwater samples were collected from the borebole OL-KR6 from four different sampling depths (98.5-100.5 m, 125-130 m, 135-137 m and 422-425 m). The groundwater samples were taken from packed-off sections by a membrane pump and two inflatable rubber packers. All groundwater samples taken are of the water type Na-Ca-Cl. They are brackish waters (1000 mg 10000mg/L) and the water type is Na-Cl. This study presents sampling methods and the results of analysis of groundwater samples from the deep borehole OL-KR6. Comparison between the results of the in situ EC measurements and EC results measured during groundwater sampling are presented. This report also contains a short comparison of the results obtained during the long-term pumping test during 2001-2004. Based on the results of this study and on the previous studies, it can be concluded that the pumping of the upper part of the borehole is likely to have caused the changes in salinity at the three sampling sections (except 422-425 m). However, the changes were minor in years 2001-2004. (orig.)

  18. Dilution as a Model of Long-Term Forgetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdale, Mark; Baguley, Thom

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a model of long term forgetting based on 3 ideas: (a) Memory for a stimulus can be described by a population of accessible traces; (b) probability of retrieval after a delay is predicted by the proportion of traces in this population that will be defined as correct if sampled; and (c) this population is diluted over time by…

  19. A New Framework for Adaptive Sampling and Analysis During Long-Term Monitoring and Remedial Action Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argonne team has gathered available data on monitoring wells and measured hydraulic heads from the Argonne 317/319 site and sent it to UIUC. Xiaodong Li, a research assistant supported by the project, has reviewed the data and has fit initial spatiotemporal statistical models to it. Another research assistant, Yonas Demissie, has completed generation of the artificial data that will be used for model development and testing. In order to generate the artificial data a detailed groundwater flow and contaminant transport model was developed based upon characteristics of the 317/319 site. The model covers a multi-year time horizon that includes both before and after planting of the trees. As described in the proposal, the artificial data is created by adding ''measurement'' error to the ''true'' value from the numerical model. To date, only simple white noise error models have been considered. He is now reviewing the literature and beginning to develop a hierarchical modeling approach for the artificial data. Abhishek Singh, a third research assistant supported by the project, is implementing learning models for learning users preferences in an interactive genetic algorithm for solving the inverse problem. Meghna Babbar, the fourth research assistant supported by the project, has been improving the user interface for the interactive genetic algorithm and preparing a long-term monitoring design problem for testing the approach. Gayathri Gopalakrishnan, the last research assistant who is partially supported by the project, has collected substantial data from the 317/319 phytoremediation site at Argonne and has begun learning approaches for modeling these data

  20. Long term effects of murine postnatal exposure to decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on learning and memory are dependent upon APOE polymorphism and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reverte, Ingrid; Klein, Anders B

    2013-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a group of chemicals widely used as flame retardants; the lower brominated forms (1-5 bromine atoms) are highly neurotoxic and are presently not in commercial use. The highest brominated, the decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) remains in use and its adverse and persistent effects are subject to debate. Of special concern are developmental exposures that can disrupt later-in-life adult health or aging. In this study, we investigated the effects of postnatal exposure to BDE-209 in combination with apolipoprotein E (apoE) genotype, a genetic factor that is associated with varied vulnerability for the development of neurodegenerative diseases. On postnatal day 10, transgenic mice of both sexes carrying apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4 were orally exposed to 0, 10 or 30mg/kg of BDE-209. Spatial reference memory was assessed in a Morris Water Maze (MWM) task at 4 and 12months of age. The levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were determined in hippocampus and frontalcortex of mice at 5months of age. Mice carrying different apoE polymorphisms showed differences in the acquisition and retention of the spatial navigation task both at 4 and 12months of age. Postnatal exposure to BDE-209 induced long term effects in spatial learning, which were dependent upon age, sex and apoE genotype; these effects were more evident in apoE3 mice. BDNF levels were lower in the frontal cortex of apoE4 mice and higher in the hippocampus of exposed mice, independent of the genotype. The results of the present study provide evidence of long-lasting effects in spatial learning and memory after early exposure to BDE-209. Developmental exposure to this neurotoxicant may contribute to cognitive decline and abnormal aging.

  1. Long term effects of murine postnatal exposure to decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on learning and memory are dependent upon APOE polymorphism and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reverte, Ingrid; Klein, Anders Bue; Domingo, José L; Colomina, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    associated with varied vulnerability for the development of neurodegenerative diseases. On postnatal day 10, transgenic mice of both sexes carrying apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4 were orally exposed to 0, 10 or 30mg/kg of BDE-209. Spatial reference memory was assessed in a Morris Water Maze (MWM) task at 4 and 12......months of age. The levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were determined in hippocampus and frontal cortex of mice at 5months of age. Mice carrying different apoE polymorphisms showed differences in the acquisition and retention of the spatial navigation task both at 4 and 12months of...... age. Postnatal exposure to BDE-209 induced long term effects in spatial learning, which were dependent upon age, sex and apoE genotype; these effects were more evident in apoE3 mice. BDNF levels were lower in the frontal cortex of apoE4 mice and higher in the hippocampus of exposed mice, independent...

  2. Identification and Characterization of the V(D)J Recombination Activating Gene 1 in Long-Term Memory of Context Fear Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Pérez, Edgardo; Soto-Soto, Emilio; Pérez-Carambot, Marizabeth; Dionisio-Santos, Dawling; Saied-Santiago, Kristian; Ortiz-Zuazaga, Humberto G.; Peña de Ortiz, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that mechanisms related to the introduction and repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) may be associated with long-term memory (LTM) processes. Previous studies from our group suggested that factors known to function in DNA recombination/repair machineries, such as DNA ligases, polymerases, and DNA endonucleases, play a role in LTM. Here we report data using C57BL/6 mice showing that the V(D)J recombination-activating gene 1 (RAG1), which encodes a factor that introduces DSBs in immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes, is induced in the amygdala, but not in the hippocampus, after context fear conditioning. Amygdalar induction of RAG1 mRNA, measured by real-time PCR, was not observed in context-only or shock-only controls, suggesting that the context fear conditioning response is related to associative learning processes. Furthermore, double immunofluorescence studies demonstrated the neuronal localization of RAG1 protein in amygdalar sections prepared after perfusion and fixation. In functional studies, intra-amygdalar injections of RAG1 gapmer antisense oligonucleotides, given 1?h prior to conditioning, resulted in amygdalar knockdown of RAG1 mRNA and a significant impairment in LTM, tested 24?h after training. Overall, these findings suggest that the V(D)J recombination-activating gene 1, RAG1, may play a role in LTM consolidation. PMID:26843989

  3. Groundwater sampling at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki from the borehole OL-KR6 during a long-term pumping test in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long-term pumping test at borehole OL-KR6 at Olkiluoto was initiated in 2001. Since then, flow and in situ EC measurements as well as groundwater sampling from specific sampling sections have been performed yearly. The aim of this study was to obtain information on the potential connections via fractures both to the sea and to deep saline groundwater during long-term pumping of the open borehole. In 2006, four groundwater samples were collected from four different sampling depths (98.5-100.5 m, 125-130 m, 135-137 m and 422-425 m). The groundwater samples were taken in stages using PAVE equipment. The water types found in the groundwater samples from OL-KR6 were Na-Ca-Cl (for samples from depths of 98.5-100.5 m and 125-130 m) and Na-Cl (for samples from depths of 135-137 m and 422-425 m). The sample from depth 422-425 m was saline (TDS> 10000 mg/l), while other waters were brackish (1000 mg < TDS <10000 mg/l). This study presents the sampling methods and analysis results of groundwater samples from deep borehole OL-KR6, and draws a comparison between the results of the in situ EC measurements and the EC results measured during groundwater sampling. This report also contains a short comparison of the results obtained from the long-term pumping test conducted between 2001-2006. In situ EC results and EC results measured in laboratory are in quite good agreement. At sampling depth, 422-425 m, EC increased between 2004-2006. At a depth of 423 m, much variation in situ EC-values indicates that routes of groundwater may change during long-term pumping due to the limited storages of different aquifers or the heterogeneity of the content of groundwater in different locations in the bedrock. The minor systematic difference between in situ and sampling EC at a depth of 136 m was probably due to the different flow fields during flow logging and water sampling. The dominant gas in the groundwater samples was nitrogen. Carbon dioxide was the second dominant gas, except for the OL-KR6/125-130 m sample, where argon was the second dominant. All sample vessels were argon treated before sampling so contamination by argon was possible. In 2006, dissolved gas concentrations were higher in OL-KR6 samples than in the two previous years. Higher concentrations were noticed in nitrogen, carbon dioxide and argon (contamination possible) contents at all sampling depths. One of the conclusions from this and previous studies is that the changes in the three upper sampling points were most remarkable in 2001-2002 just after pumping started. Otherwise, water compositions were invariable. (orig.)

  4. Freshwater suspended particles: An intercomparison of long-term integrating sampling systems used for environmental radioactivity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampling and sample preparation are known to carry large, but typically unknown uncertainty contributions to the final analytical data and there is a lack of qualitative and quantitative data on the comparability of results achieved by different sampling methods. To this end an intercomparison exercise was carried out to compare different methods for the collection of suspended material used for the monitoring of environmental radioactivity in freshwater bodies. This paper presents the results of this intercomparison exercise in which 'in situ' particulate sampling devices were compared in field exercises performed in the Kiev Reservoir (Ukraine) and in the Po River (Italy). The main criterion for this intercomparison was the agreement among the 137Cs activity concentrations associated with the suspended particles expressed as Bq x g-1 and among the (C/N) molar ratios measured on the suspended particles. In addition, an estimate of the uncertainties associated with each measuring method has been performed. (author)

  5. Long-term collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2007-01-01

    The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

  6. A New Framework for Adaptive Sampling and Analysis During Long-Term Monitoring and Remedial Action Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minsker, Barbara; Albert Valocchi; Barbara Bailey

    2008-01-27

    DOE and other Federal agencies are making a significant investment in the development of field analytical techniques, nonintrusive technologies, and sensor technologies that will have a profound impact on the way environmental monitoring is conducted. Monitoring and performance evaluation networks will likely be base on suites of in situ sensors, with physical sampling playing a much more limited role. Designing and using these types of networks effectively will require development of a new paradigm for sampling and analysis of remedial actions, which is the overall goal of this project.

  7. Skill-memory consolidation in the striatum: Critical for late but not early long-term memory and stabilized by cocaine

    OpenAIRE

    Willuhn, Ingo; Steiner, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    The sensorimotor striatum is important for procedural learning, including skill learning. Our previous findings indicate that this part of the striatum mediates the acquisition of a motor skill in a running-wheel task and that this skill learning is dependent on striatal D1 dopamine receptors. Here, we investigated whether the sensorimotor striatum is also involved in the consolidation of this skill memory and whether this consolidation is modified by the indirect dopamine receptor agonist co...

  8. Impaired long-term memory retention and working memory in sdy mutant mice with a deletion in Dtnbp1, a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Takao Keizo; Toyama Keiko; Nakanishi Kazuo; Hattori Satoko; Takamura Hironori; Takeda Masatoshi; Miyakawa Tsuyoshi; Hashimoto Ryota

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a complex genetic disorder caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. The dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1: dysbindin-1) gene is a major susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. Genetic variations in DTNBP1 are associated with cognitive functions, general cognitive ability and memory function, and clinical features of patients with schizophrenia including negative symptoms and cognitive decline. Since reduced expression of dysbindin-1 has be...

  9. Long-Term Record of Sampled Disturbances in Northern Eurasian Boreal Forest from Pre-2000 Landsat Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Stand age distribution is an important descriptor of boreal forest structure, which is directly linked to many ecosystem processes including the carbon cycle, the land–atmosphere interaction and ecosystem services, among others. Almost half of the global boreal biome is located in Russia. The vast extent, remote location, and limited accessibility of Russian boreal forests make remote sensing the only feasible approach to characterize these forests to their full extent. A wide variety of satellite observations are currently available to monitor forest change and infer its structure; however, the period of observations is mostly limited to the 2000s era. Reconstruction of wall-to-wall maps of stand age distribution requires merging longer-term site observations of forest cover change available at the Landsat scale at a subset of locations in Russia with the wall-to-wall coverage available from coarse resolution satellites since 2000. This paper presents a dataset consisting of a suite of multi-year forest disturbance samples and samples of undisturbed forests across Russia derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus images from 1985 to 2000. These samples provide crucial information regarding disturbance history in selected regions across the Russian boreal forest and are designed to serve as a training and/or validation dataset for coarse resolution data products. The overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient for the entire sample collection was found to be 83.98% and 0.83%, respectively. It is hoped that the presented dataset will benefit subsequent studies on a variety of aspects of the Russian boreal forest, especially in relation to the carbon budget and climate.

  10. Working memory training shows immediate and long-term effects on cognitive performance in children [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4y9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Pugin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is important for mental reasoning and learning processes. Several studies in adults and school-age children have shown performance improvement in cognitive tests after working memory training. Our aim was to examine not only immediate but also long-term effects of intensive working memory training on cognitive performance tests in children. Fourteen healthy male subjects between 10 and 16 years trained a visuospatial n-back task over 3 weeks (30 min daily, while 15 individuals of the same age range served as a passive control group. Significant differences in immediate (after 3 weeks of training and long-term effects (after 2-6 months in an auditory n-back task were observed compared to controls (2.5 fold immediate and 4.7 fold long-term increase in the training group compared to the controls. The improvement was more pronounced in subjects who improved their performance during the training. Other cognitive functions (matrices test and Stroop task did not change when comparing the training group to the control group. We conclude that visuospatial working memory training in children boosts performance in similar memory tasks such as the auditory n-back task. The sustained performance improvement several months after the training supports the effectiveness of the training.

  11. Working memory training shows immediate and long-term effects on cognitive performance in children [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4rj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Pugin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is important for mental reasoning and learning processes. Several studies in adults and school-age children have shown performance improvement in cognitive tests after working memory training. Our aim was to examine not only immediate but also long-term effects of intensive working memory training on cognitive performance tests in children. Fourteen healthy male subjects between 10 and 16 years trained a visuospatial n-back task over 3 weeks (30 min daily, while 15 individuals of the same age range served as a passive control group. Significant differences in immediate (after 3 weeks of training and long-term effects (after 2-6 months in an auditory n-back task were observed compared to controls (2.5 fold immediate and 4.7 fold long-term increase in the training group compared to the controls. The improvement was more pronounced in subjects who improved their performance during the training. Other cognitive functions (matrices test and Stroop task did not change when comparing the training group to the control group. We conclude that visuospatial working memory training in children boosts performance in similar memory tasks such as the auditory n-back task. The sustained performance improvement several months after the training supports the effectiveness of the training.

  12. Mid- and long-term effects of family constellation seminars in a general population sample: 8- and 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Christina; Weinhold, Jan; Bornhäuser, Annette; Link, Leoni; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2015-06-01

    In a previous randomized controlled trial (RCT), short-term efficacy of family constellation seminars (FCSs) in a general population sample was demonstrated. In this article, we examined mid- and long-term stability of these effects. Participants were 104 adults (M = 47 years; SD = 9; 84% female) who were part of the intervention group in the original RCT (3-day FCS; 64 active participants and 40 observing participants). FCSs were carried out according to manuals. It was predicted that FCSs would improve psychological functioning (Outcome Questionnaire OQ-45.2) at 8- and 12-month follow-up. Additionally, we assessed the effects of FCSs on psychological distress, motivational incongruence, individuals' experience in their personal social systems, and overall goal attainment. Participants yielded significant improvement in psychological functioning (d = 0.41 at 8-month follow-up, p = .000; d = 0.40 at 12-month follow-up, p = .000). Results were confirmed for psychological distress, motivational incongruence, the participants' experience in their personal social systems, and overall goal attainment. No adverse events were reported. This study provides first evidence for the mid- and long-term efficacy of FCSs in a nonclinical population. The implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25264190

  13. Social Investigation and Long-Term Recognition Memory Performance in 129S1/SvImJ and C57BL/6JOlaHsd Mice and Their Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hädicke, Jana; Engelmann, Mario

    2013-01-01

    When tested for their behavioural performance, the mixed genetic background of transgenic mice is a critical, but often ignored, issue. Such issues can arise because of the significant differences in defined behavioural parameters between embryonic stem cell donor and recipient strains. In this context, the commonly used stem cell donor strain ‘129’ shows ‘deficits’ in different paradigms for learning and long-term memory. We investigated the long-term social recognition memory performance and the investigative behaviour in commercially available 129S1/SvImJ and C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice and two F1-hybrids (129S1/SvImJ×C57BL/6JOlaHsd) by using the social discrimination procedure and its modification, the volatile fraction cage (VFC). Our data revealed an unimpaired olfactory long-term recognition memory not only in female and male 129S1/SvImJ and C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice but also in the two hybrid lines (129S1/SvImJxC57BL/6JOlaHsd) when the full ‘olfactory signature’ of the ‘to-be-recognized’ conspecific was presented. Under these conditions we also failed to detect differences in the long-term recognition memory between male and female mice of the tested strains and revealed that the oestrus cycle did not affect the performance in this memory task. The performance in the VFC, based only on the volatile components of the ‘olfactory signature’ of the ‘to-be-recognized’ conspecific, was similar to that observed under direct exposure except that females of one F1 hybrid group failed to show an intact long-term memory. Thus, the social discrimination procedure allowing direct access between the experimental subject and the stimulus animal(s) is highly suitable to investigate the impact of genetic manipulations on long-term memory in male and female mice of the strain 129S1/SvImJ, C57BL/6JOlaHsd and 129S1/SvImJxC57BL/6JOlaHsd hybrids. PMID:23342157

  14. Influence of Pre-Training Predator Stress on the Expression of c-fos mRNA in the Hippocampus, Amygdala, and Striatum Following Long-Term Spatial Memory Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    DavidMDiamond; MichaelBVanElzakker; PhillipRZoladz

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the influence of pre-training psychological stress on the expression of c-fos mRNA following long-term spatial memory retrieval. Rats were trained to learn the location of a hidden escape platform in the radial-arm water maze, and then their memory for the platform location was assessed 24?h later. Rat brains were extracted 30?min after the 24-h memory test trial for analysis of c-fos mRNA. Four groups were tested: (1) Rats given standard training (Standard); (2) Rats given ca...

  15. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Comité des collectes à long terme

    2011-01-01

    It is the time of the year when our fireman colleagues go around the laboratory for their traditional calendars sale. A part of the money of the sales will be donated in favour of the long-term collections. We hope that you will welcome them warmly.

  16. Exploration of the short-term and long-term effects of parental illness on children's educational and behavioral functioning using a large Taiwanese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chi

    2014-05-01

    This study used data from Waves I and II of the Taiwan Educational Panel Survey (TEPS) to explore the potential short-term and long-term effects of parental illness and health condition on children's behavioral and educational functioning. A sample of 11,018 junior high school students and their parents and teachers in Taiwan were included in this present study. The results supported previous work that parental illness may place children at slight risk for poor psychosocial adjustment and behavioral problems. Parental illness was associated with lower adaptive skills and more behavioral problems in children. Children of ill parents showed resilience in their educational functioning in the event of parental illness as children's academic achievement and learning skills were not related to parental illness/health condition. PMID:24203409

  17. Evaluation of the Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors (QLACS) scale for long-term cancer survivors in a sample of breast cancer survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, Nancy E; Ip, Edward; Foley, Kristie Long

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper evaluates psychometric properties of a recently developed measure focusing on the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of long-term cancer survivors, the Quality of Life in Adult Survivors scale (QLACS), in a sample of breast cancer survivors. This represents an important area of study, given the large number of breast cancer patients surviving many years post diagnosis. Methods Analyses are based on an 8-year follow-up of a sample of breast cancer survivors who participated in an earlier study conducted in 1995. Participants were re-contacted in 2003 and those who were reachable and agreed to participate (n = 94) were surveyed using a variety of measures including the QLACS. Additional follow-up surveys were conducted 2 weeks and one year later. Psychometric tests of the QLACS included test-retest reliability, concurrent and retrospective validity, and responsiveness. Results The QLACS domain and summary scores showed good test-retest reliability (all test-retest correlations were above .7) and high internal consistency. The Generic Summary Score showed convergent validity with other measures designed to assess generic HRQL. The Cancer-Specific Summary score exhibited divergent validity with generic HRQL measures, but not a cancer-related specific measure. The QLACS Cancer-Specific Summary Score demonstrated satisfactory predictive validity for factors that were previously shown to be correlated with HRQL. The QLACS generally demonstrated a high level of responsiveness to life changes. Conclusion The QLACS may serve as a useful measure for assessing HRQL among long-term breast cancer survivors that are not otherwise captured by generic measures or those specifically designed for newly diagnosed patients. PMID:17140438

  18. Evaluation of the Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors (QLACS scale for long-term cancer survivors in a sample of breast cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foley Kristie

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper evaluates psychometric properties of a recently developed measure focusing on the health-related quality of life (HRQL of long-term cancer survivors, the Quality of Life in Adult Survivors scale (QLACS, in a sample of breast cancer survivors. This represents an important area of study, given the large number of breast cancer patients surviving many years post diagnosis. Methods Analyses are based on an 8-year follow-up of a sample of breast cancer survivors who participated in an earlier study conducted in 1995. Participants were re-contacted in 2003 and those who were reachable and agreed to participate (n = 94 were surveyed using a variety of measures including the QLACS. Additional follow-up surveys were conducted 2 weeks and one year later. Psychometric tests of the QLACS included test-retest reliability, concurrent and retrospective validity, and responsiveness. Results The QLACS domain and summary scores showed good test-retest reliability (all test-retest correlations were above .7 and high internal consistency. The Generic Summary Score showed convergent validity with other measures designed to assess generic HRQL. The Cancer-Specific Summary score exhibited divergent validity with generic HRQL measures, but not a cancer-related specific measure. The QLACS Cancer-Specific Summary Score demonstrated satisfactory predictive validity for factors that were previously shown to be correlated with HRQL. The QLACS generally demonstrated a high level of responsiveness to life changes. Conclusion The QLACS may serve as a useful measure for assessing HRQL among long-term breast cancer survivors that are not otherwise captured by generic measures or those specifically designed for newly diagnosed patients.

  19. Mini-CORK observatories using the MeBo seafloor drill rig - a new development for long-term data acquisition and sampling in shallow boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, A.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Bergenthal, M.; Renken, J.; Zabel, M.; Wefer, G.

    2011-12-01

    State of the art technology for long-term monitoring of fluid migration within the sea floor is the sealing of a borehole with a Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK) after sensor installation and/or fluid sampling devices within the drill string. However, the combined used of a drilling vessels and a remotely operated drilling (ROV) required for a CORK installation in the deep sea is a costly exercise that limits the number of monitoring stations installed. Robotic sea floor drill rigs are a cost effective alternative for shallow drillings down to 50-100 m below sea floor. Here we present a Mini-CORK system that is developed for installation with the sea floor drill rig MeBo. This rig was developed at MARUM Research Centre, University of Bremen in 2005 and can sample the sea floor in water depths up to 2000 m. The MeBo is deployed on the seabed and remotely controlled from the vessel. All required drill tools for wire-line core drilling down to 70 m below sea floor are stored on two rotating magazines and can be loaded below the top drive drill head for assembling the drill string. For one of the upcoming cruises with RV Sonne offshore Japan (Nankai Trough accretionary prism), MeBo will be used for the first time to place observatories. Two different designs have been developed. The first, relatively simple long-term device resembles a MeBo drill rod in its geometry, and contains a pressure and temperature transducer in the borehole plus an identical pair of transducers for seafloor reference. The device also contains a data logger, battery unit, and an acoustic modem so that data can be downloaded at any time from a ship of opportunity. The key element at the base of the observatory rod is a seal at the conical thread to separate the borehole hydraulically from the overlying water body. It is realized by an adapter, which also contains a hotstab hydraulic connection and an electrical connection. The second observatory device is a seafloor unit, which replaces part of the first unit and which is deployed by ROV. In essence, the upper portion of the former observatory is taken away by ROV, and an umbilical containing hydraulic lines and tubing to withdraw formation water from the borehole is plugged into the hotstab female adapter by ROV. At the far end, the umbilical is connected to a seafloor unit with battery power, data logger, P and T transducers, and the same acoustic modem as the former one. In addition, the latter contains osmo samplers and biological chambers (FLOCS) for in situ sampling and experiments. After the envisaged deployment period, the entire unit is replaced while an identical one is prepared on deck and lowered from the vessel. In theory, the MeBo hole infinitely serves as an access to depth since no electronic, but only tubing is lowered into the (open) hole. In summary, long-term borehole installations with MeBo offer an affordable way to measure key physical properties over time and sample the formation fluids for geochemistry and microbiology (in case of the second, ROV-deployed CORK).

  20. Collectes à long terme

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2014-01-01

    En cette fin d’année 2014 qui approche à grands pas, le Comité des Collectes à Long Terme remercie chaleureusement ses fidèles donatrices et donateurs réguliers pour leurs contributions à nos actions en faveur des plus démunis de notre planète. C’est très important, pour notre Comité, de pouvoir compter sur l’appui assidu que vous nous apportez. Depuis plus de 40 ans maintenant, le modèle des CLT est basé principalement sur des actions à long terme (soit une aide pendant 4-5 ans par projet, mais plus parfois selon les circonstances), et sa planification demande une grande régularité de ses soutiens financiers. Grand MERCI à vous ! D’autres dons nous parviennent au cours de l’année, et ils sont aussi les bienvenus. En particulier, nous tenons à remercier...

  1. Quantifying the benefit of wellbore leakage potential estimates for prioritizing long-term MVA well sampling at a CO2 storage site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzolina, Nicholas A; Small, Mitchell J; Nakles, David V; Glazewski, Kyle A; Peck, Wesley D; Gorecki, Charles D; Bromhal, Grant S; Dilmore, Robert M

    2015-01-20

    This work uses probabilistic methods to simulate a hypothetical geologic CO2 storage site in a depleted oil and gas field, where the large number of legacy wells would make it cost-prohibitive to sample all wells for all measurements as part of the postinjection site care. Deep well leakage potential scores were assigned to the wells using a random subsample of 100 wells from a detailed study of 826 legacy wells that penetrate the basal Cambrian formation on the U.S. side of the U.S./Canadian border. Analytical solutions and Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the statistical power of selecting a leaking well. Power curves were developed as a function of (1) the number of leaking wells within the Area of Review; (2) the sampling design (random or judgmental, choosing first the wells with the highest deep leakage potential scores); (3) the number of wells included in the monitoring sampling plan; and (4) the relationship between a well’s leakage potential score and its relative probability of leakage. Cases where the deep well leakage potential scores are fully or partially informative of the relative leakage probability are compared to a noninformative base case in which leakage is equiprobable across all wells in the Area of Review. The results show that accurate prior knowledge about the probability of well leakage adds measurable value to the ability to detect a leaking well during the monitoring program, and that the loss in detection ability due to imperfect knowledge of the leakage probability can be quantified. This work underscores the importance of a data-driven, risk-based monitoring program that incorporates uncertainty quantification into long-term monitoring sampling plans at geologic CO2 storage sites. PMID:25551254

  2. Long-term patterns and feeding sites of southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Hawaii macadamia orchards, and sampling for management decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, M G; Follett, P A; Golden, M

    2007-12-01

    Southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula, Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a pest of macadamia nuts, causing pitting to kernels by feeding. In spite of its pest status, many aspects of the ecology of this insect in macadamia orchards are poorly understood. This study analyzes long-term N. viridula damage to macadamia nuts and investigates the extent to which damage to nuts occurs in the tree canopy, prior to nut-drop. We show that there are distinct seasonal peaks in damage detected after harvest and that, over six years of data collection, mean damage levels were fairly low, albeit with spikes in damage levels recorded. Sampling nuts at peak harvest periods from different strata in the trees and from the ground showed that incidence of damaged nuts within the canopy was typically half as high as on the fallen nuts. Damage to fallen nuts may have occurred prior to nut-drop, and continued to accumulate after nut-drop. These results show that management of N. viridula within macadamia canopies, as opposed to only on fallen nuts, is important. A sampling procedure and predictive model for estimating late-season damage based on early-season damage samples is provided. The model uses January and March damage measurements (based on samples with set level of accuracy), mean temperature and month of the year for which damage is predicted. Early-season damage of 6-10% predicts late-season damage levels that should justify N. viridula suppression based on the nominal threshold (13% damage) used by kernel processors to reject nuts based on damage. PMID:17997869

  3. Evaluation of a low-cost procedure for sampling, long-term storage, and extraction of RNA from blood for qPCR analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mærkedahl, Rasmus Baadsgaard; FrØkiær, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: In large clinical trials, where RNA cannot be extracted immediately after sampling, preserving RNA in whole blood is a crucial initial step in obtaining robust qPCR data. The current golden standard for RNA preservation is costly and designed for time-consuming column-based RNA-extraction. We investigated the use of lysis buffer for long-term storage of blood samples for qPCR analysis. Methods: Blood was collected from 13 healthy adults and diluted in MagMAX lysis/binding solution or PAXgene Blood RNA tubes and stored at -20 °C for 0, 1, or 4 months before RNA extraction by the matching method. RNA integrity, yield and purity were evaluated and the methods were compared by subsequent analyses of the gene expression levels of 18S, ACTB, IL1B, IL1RN, IL1R2, and PGK1 using qPCR. Results: The MagMAX system extracted 2.3-2.8 times more RNA per mL blood, with better performance in terms of purity, and with comparable levels of integrity relative to the PAXgene system. Gene expression analysis using qPCR of 18S, ACTB, IL1B, IL1RN, IL1R2, and the promising blood-specific reference gene, PGK1, revealed negligible differences (<1-fold) between the samples stored in MagMAX lysis/binding solution over time and between samples stored and extracted by the two systems. Conclusions: The MagMAX system can be used for storage of human blood for up to 4 months and is equivalent to the PAXgene system for RNA extraction. It furthermore, provides a means for significant cost reduction in large clinical trials.

  4. Surface analysis of the central and top part of a 1984 JET graphite limiter and of 1984 JET long term samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JET graphite limiter (top and central part) from octant IV as well as long term samples (LTS) and a bellow protection plate all exposed to plasma discharges during the 1984 experimental period have been investigated by means of surface layer analyses techniques. The limiter tiles show characteristic differences in the deposition of metals compared to the 1983 limiter reflecting the higher power loads from the plasma achieved in 1984. Analysis of the LTS reveals a close correlation between erosion sources at the vessel walls of JET and the redeposition areas. This indicates that a major part of the metals eroded at the limiter surface or the wall during normal discharges may not enter the central plasma, but is immediately redeposited close to the area of erosion. Deuterium was found on the sides of the graphite limiter with concentrations exceeding the amount, which could be deposited by simple implantation by at least an order of magnitude. This incidates a codeposition of carbon and deuterium at those areas. (orig.)

  5. Comparison of Eleven Methods for Genomic DNA Extraction Suitable for Large-Scale Whole-Genome Genotyping and Long-Term DNA Banking Using Blood Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psifidi, Androniki; Dovas, Chrysostomos I.; Bramis, Georgios; Lazou, Thomai; Russel, Claire L.; Arsenos, Georgios; Banos, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Over the recent years, next generation sequencing and microarray technologies have revolutionized scientific research with their applications to high-throughput analysis of biological systems. Isolation of high quantities of pure, intact, double stranded, highly concentrated, not contaminated genomic DNA is prerequisite for successful and reliable large scale genotyping analysis. High quantities of pure DNA are also required for the creation of DNA-banks. In the present study, eleven different DNA extraction procedures, including phenol-chloroform, silica and magnetic beads based extractions, were examined to ascertain their relative effectiveness for extracting DNA from ovine blood samples. The quality and quantity of the differentially extracted DNA was subsequently assessed by spectrophotometric measurements, Qubit measurements, real-time PCR amplifications and gel electrophoresis. Processing time, intensity of labor and cost for each method were also evaluated. Results revealed significant differences among the eleven procedures and only four of the methods yielded satisfactory outputs. These four methods, comprising three modified silica based commercial kits (Modified Blood, Modified Tissue, Modified Dx kits) and an in-house developed magnetic beads based protocol, were most appropriate for extracting high quality and quantity DNA suitable for large-scale microarray genotyping and also for long-term DNA storage as demonstrated by their successful application to 600 individuals. PMID:25635817

  6. Exploitation of FTA cartridges for the sampling, long-term storage, and DNA-based analyses of plant-parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Martin; Zouhar, Miloslav; Douda, Ond?ej; Ma?asová, Marie; Ryšánek, Pavel

    2014-03-01

    The use of DNA-based analyses in molecular plant nematology research has dramatically increased over recent decades. Therefore, the development and adaptation of simple, robust, and cost-effective DNA purification procedures are required to address these contemporary challenges. The solid-phase-based approach developed by Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) has been shown to be a powerful technology for the preparation of DNA from different biological materials, including blood, saliva, plant tissues, and various human and plant microbial pathogens. In this work, we demonstrate, for the first time, that this FTA-based technology is a valuable, low-cost, and time-saving approach for the sampling, long-term archiving, and molecular analysis of plant-parasitic nematodes. Despite the complex structure and anatomical organization of the multicellular bodies of nematodes, we report the successful and reliable DNA-based analysis of nematode high-copy and low-copy genes using the FTA technology. This was achieved by applying nematodes to the FTA cards either in the form of a suspension of individuals, as intact or pestle-crushed nematodes, or by the direct mechanical printing of nematode-infested plant tissues. We further demonstrate that the FTA method is also suitable for the so-called "one-nematode-assay", in which the target DNA is typically analyzed from a single individual nematode. More surprisingly, a time-course experiment showed that nematode DNA can be detected specifically in the FTA-captured samples many years after initial sampling occurs. Collectively, our data clearly demonstrate the applicability and the robustness of this FTA-based approach for molecular research and diagnostics concerning phytonematodes; this research includes economically important species such as the stem nematode (Ditylenchus dipsaci), the sugar beet nematode (Heterodera schachtii), and the Northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla). PMID:24093923

  7. Long-term storage of clinical samples in CyMol® medium for PNA- FISH® and culturing from the eSwab™ system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lone Heimann; Xu, Yijuan

    Objectives: A steadily growing diversity of bacteria is reported in foreign body infections, and culture-independent methods have been shown to supplement established culture methods. Therefore, sampling and preservation of specimens have become an important issue. We report here experience from a prospective clinical study enrolling patients with joint prosthesis-related problems (www.joint-prosthesis-infection-pain.dk). From the patients a range of diagnostic and peroperative specimen types were obtained. Here we report primarily on the utility of different specimen types for culture -independent analytical methods. Methods: Sampling for both culture-dependent and -independent analyses were done over a period of two years. Specimens were transferred directly to the lab, and cultures of tissue biopsies, joint fluid, sonication fluid from the prosthesis components, and eSwab™ (Copan, Italy) were performed within 24 h after sampling. The corresponding specimens for culture-independent methods were stored at -80°C until analyzed in batchs. Specimens for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis were stored for app. one year at -80°C in CyMol® (Copan, Italy), an alcohol based media, before the analyses were conducted. For direct visualization of microorganisms we used both FISH and peptide nucleic acid- fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH®, AdvanDx, USA). Both FISH and PNA-FISH® were conducted according to previous publications, with broad range probes. An initial filtration step was performed for some samples in order to concentrate bacteria. Results: We were able to perform FISH and PNA-FISH® on specimens stored for more than one year without further optimization of the hybridization protocol. The broad range probes demonstrated bacteria with a bright signal and a morphology comparable to the isolates obtained by culturing at the time of sampling. The detection limit for both FISH and PNA-FISH® were >10^3 bacteria/mL. With the eSwab™ system we were able to detect a broad range of bacteria including Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., and Corynebacterium spp. by culture and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Conclusion: It is possible to preserve samples for FISH and PNA-FISH® for long-term storage by using CyMol® with an effective detection limit in the order of >10^3 bacteria/mL. Both the morphology and intensity of staining with nucleic acid and PNA probes were distinct. The eSwab™ was a convenient system for documenting a broad range of bacterial pathogens associated with foreign body infections.

  8. Introduction: Long term prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Making a decision upon the right choice of a material appropriate to a given application should be based on taking into account several parameters as follows: cost, standards, regulations, safety, recycling, chemical properties, supplying, transformation, forming, assembly, mechanical and physical properties as well as the behaviour in practical conditions. Data taken from a private communication (J.H.Davidson) are reproduced presenting the life time range of materials from a couple of minutes to half a million hours corresponding to applications from missile technology up to high-temperature nuclear reactors or steam turbines. In the case of deep storage of nuclear waste the time required is completely different from these values since we have to ensure the integrity of the storage system for several thousand years. The vitrified nuclear wastes should be stored in metallic canisters made of iron and carbon steels, stainless steels, copper and copper alloys, nickel alloys or titanium alloys. Some of these materials are passivating metals, i.e. they develop a thin protective film, 2 or 3 nm thick - the so-called passive films. These films prevent general corrosion of the metal in a large range of chemical condition of the environment. In some specific condition, localized corrosion such as the phenomenon of pitting, occurs. Consequently, it is absolutely necessary to determine these chemical condition and their stability in time to understand the behavior of a given material. In other words the corrosion system is constituted by the complex material/surface/medium. For high level nuclear wastes the main features for resolving problem are concerned with: geological disposal; deep storage in clay; waste metallic canister; backfill mixture (clay-gypsum) or concrete; long term behavior; data needed for modelling and for predicting; choice of appropriate solution among several metallic candidates. The analysis of the complex material/surface/medium is of great importance not only in the case of the topics of this workshop but also in other cases because the corrosion resistance of a given material is not an intrinsic property. In case of long term disposal it is essential to have very accurate data for modelling and predicting the behavior of materials engaged for the deep storage of high level nuclear wastes. It is the purpose of this workshop to bring together articles which have a significant contribution to make, and which take into account all the parameters of importance so that appropriate decision can be taken

  9. LONG TERM COLLECTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Long-Term Collections (CLT) committee would like to warmly thank its faithful donors who, year after year, support our actions all over the world. Without you, all this would not be possible. We would like to thank, in particular, the CERN Firemen’s Association who donated 5000 CHF in the spring thanks to the sale of their traditional calendar, and the generosity of the CERN community. A huge thank you to the firemen for their devotion to our cause. And thank you to all those who have opened their door, their heart, and their purses! Similarly, we warmly thank the CERN Yoga Club once again for its wonderful donation of 2000 CHF we recently received. We would also like to tell you that all our projects are running well. Just to remind you, we are currently supporting the activities of the «Réflexe-Partage» Association in Mali; the training centre of «Education et Développement» in Abomey, Benin; and the orphanage and ...

  10. Methamphetamine-induced short-term increase and long-term decrease in spatial working memory affects Protein Kinase M zeta (PKM?, dopamine, and glutamate receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid K Tulloch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (MA is a toxic, addictive drug shown to modulate learning and memory, yet the neural mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of 2 weekly injections of MA (30 mg/kg on working memory using the radial 8-arm maze (RAM across 5 weeks in adolescent-age mice. MA-treated mice show a significant improvement in working memory performance 1 week following the first MA injection compared to saline-injected controls. Following 5 weeks of MA abstinence mice were re-trained on a reference and working memory version of the RAM to assess cognitive flexibility. MA-treated mice show significantly more working memory errors without effects on reference memory performance. The hippocampus and dorsal striatum were assessed for expression of glutamate receptors subunits, GluA2 and GluN2B; dopamine markers, dopamine 1 receptor (D1, dopamine transporter (DAT and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; and memory markers, protein kinase M zeta (PKM? and protein kinase C zeta (PKC?. Within the hippocampus, PKM? and GluA2 are both significantly reduced after MA supporting the poor memory performance. Additionally, a significant increase in GluN2B and decrease in D1 identifies dysregulated synaptic function. In the striatum, MA treatment increased cytosolic DAT and TH levels associated with dopamine hyperfunction. MA treatment significantly reduced GluN2B while increasing both PKM? and PKC? within the striatum. We discuss the potential role of PKM?/PKC? in modulating dopamine and glutamate receptors after MA treatment. These results identify potential underlying mechanisms for working memory deficits induced by MA.

  11. Petrophysical characterization of first ever drilled core samples from an active CO2 storage site, the German Ketzin Pilot Site - Comparison with long term experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemke, Kornelia; Liebscher, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Petrophysical properties like porosity and permeability are key parameters for a safe long-term storage of CO2 but also for the injection operation itself. These parameters may change during and/or after the CO2 injection due to geochemical reactions in the reservoir system that are triggered by the injected CO2. Here we present petrophysical data of first ever drilled cores from a newly drilled well at the active CO2 storage site - the Ketzin pilot site in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. By comparison with pre-injection baseline data from core samples recovered prior to injection, the new samples provide the unique opportunity to evaluate the impact of CO2 on pore size related properties of reservoir and cap rocks at a real injection site under in-situ reservoir conditions. After injection of 61 000 tons CO2, an additional well was drilled and new rock cores were recovered. In total 100 core samples from the reservoir and the overlaying caprock were investigated by NMR relaxation. Permeability of 20 core samples was estimated by nitrogen and porosity by helium pycnometry. The determined data are comparable between pre-injection and post-injection core samples. The lower part of the reservoir sandstone is unaffected by the injected CO2. The upper part of the reservoir sandstone shows consistently slightly lower NMR porosity and permeability values in the post-injection samples when compared to the pre-injection data. This upper sandstone part is above the fluid level and CO2 present as a free gas phase and a possible residual gas saturation of the cores distorted the NMR results. The potash-containing drilling fluid can also influence these results: NMR investigation of twin samples from inner and outer parts of the cores show a reduced fraction of larger pores for the outer core samples together with lower porosities and T2 times. The drill mud penetration depth can be controlled by the added fluorescent tracer. Due to the heterogeneous character of the Stuttgart Formation it is difficult to estimate definite CO2 induced changes from petrophysical measurements. The observed changes are only minor. Several batch experiments on Ketzin samples drilled prior injection confirm the results from investigation of the in-situ rock cores. Core samples of the pre-injection wells were exposed to CO2 and brine in autoclaves over various time periods. Samples were characterized prior to and after the experiments by NMR and Mercury Injection Porosimetry (MIP). The results are consistent with the logging data and show only minor change. Unfortunately, also in these experiments observed mineralogical and petrophysical changes were within the natural heterogeneity of the Ketzin reservoir and precluded unequivocal conclusions. However, given the only minor differences between post-injection well and pre-injection well, it is reasonable to assume that the potential dissolution-precipitation processes appear to have no severe consequences on reservoir and cap rock integrity or on the injection behaviour. This is also in line with the continuously recorded injection operation parameter. These do not point to any changes in reservoir injectivity.|

  12. Methamphetamine-induced short-term increase and long-term decrease in spatial working memory affects protein Kinase M zeta (PKM?), dopamine, and glutamate receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Braren, Stephen H.; Drapala, Damian; Tulloch, Ingrid K.; Serrano, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is a toxic, addictive drug shown to modulate learning and memory, yet the neural mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of 2 weekly injections of MA (30 mg/kg) on working memory using the radial 8-arm maze (RAM) across 5 weeks in adolescent-age mice. MA-treated mice show a significant improvement in working memory performance 1 week following the first MA injection compared to saline-injected controls. Following 5 weeks of MA abstinence mice were...

  13. Long-term follow-up on affinity maturation and memory B-cell generation in patients with common variable immunodeficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, Vibe Cecilie Diederich; Permin, H; Katzenstein, T L; Marquart, H V; Schejbel, L

    2013-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) comprises a heterogeneous group of primary immunodeficiency disorders. Immunophenotyping of memory B cells at the time of diagnosis is increasingly used for the classification of patients into subgroups with different clinical prognoses. The EUROclass...

  14. Beneficial Effects of Tianeptine on Hippocampus-Dependent Long-Term Memory and Stress-Induced Alterations of Brain Structure and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Muñoz; Diamond, David M.; Phillip R. Zoladz

    2010-01-01

    Tianeptine is a well-described antidepressant which has been shown to prevent stress from producing deleterious effects on brain structure and function. Preclinical studies have shown that tianeptine blocks stress-induced alterations of neuronal morphology and synaptic plasticity. Moreover, tianeptine prevents stress from impairing learning and memory, and, importantly, demonstrates memory-enhancing properties in the absence of stress. Recent research has indicated that tianeptine works by no...

  15. Exercise and Sodium Butyrate Transform a Subthreshold Learning Event into Long-Term Memory via a Brain-Derived Neurotrophic factor-Dependent Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Intlekofer, Karlie A; Berchtold, Nicole C.; Malvaez, Melissa; Carlos, Anthony J.; McQuown, Susan C; Cunningham, Michael J; Wood, Marcelo A.; Cotman, Carl W.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that exercise enables hippocampal-dependent learning in conditions that are normally subthreshold for encoding and memory formation, and depends on hippocampal induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a key mechanism. Using a weak training paradigm in an object location memory (OLM) task, we show that sedentary mice are unable to discriminate 24 h later between familiar and novel object locations. In contrast, 3 weeks of prior voluntary exercise e...

  16. Long-term testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferber, M.; Graves, G. A., Jr.

    Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000-10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

  17. Intensive cognitive training in schizophrenia enhances working memory and associated prefrontal cortical efficiency in a manner that drives long-term functional gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Karuna; Luks, Tracy L; Garrett, Coleman; Chung, Cleo; Fisher, Melissa; Nagarajan, Srikantan; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2014-10-01

    We investigated whether intensive computerized cognitive training in schizophrenia could improve working memory performance and increase signal efficiency of associated middle frontal gyri (MFG) circuits in a functionally meaningful manner. Thirty schizophrenia participants and 13 healthy comparison participants underwent fMRI scanning during a letter N-back working memory task. Schizophrenia participants were then randomly assigned to either 80 h (16 weeks) of cognitive training or a computer games control condition. After this intervention, participants completed a second fMRI N-back scanning session. At baseline, during 2-back working memory trials, healthy participants showed the largest and most significant activation in bilateral MFG, which correlated with task performance. Schizophrenia participants showed impaired working memory, hypoactivation in left MFG, and no correlation between bilateral MFG signal and task performance. After training, schizophrenia participants improved their 2-back working memory performance and showed increased activation in left MFG. They also demonstrated a significant association between enhanced task performance and right MFG signal, similar to healthy participants. Both task performance and brain activity in right MFG after training predicted better generalized working memory at 6-month follow-up. Furthermore, task performance and brain activity within bilateral MFG predicted better occupational functioning at 6-month follow-up. No such findings were observed in the computer games control participants. Working memory impairments in schizophrenia and its underlying neural correlates in MFG can be improved by intensive computerized cognitive training; these improvements generalize beyond the trained task and are associated with enduring effects on cognition and functioning 6 months after the intervention. PMID:24867353

  18. LONG TERM COLLECTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Committee would like to thank all those, from near and far, who kindly gave donations to the collection organized at the time of the sudden death of our friend and colleague Stephen O'NEALE The sum of 3,615 francs will be sent to the INEPE Association for the education of children in Quito, Ecuador. We are deeply grateful for this gesture from Steve's family and hope that they find comfort in knowing that Steve's memory will live on through the children whose daily lives will be improved by this gift.

  19. The Effect of Insulin and Insulin-Like Growth Factors on Hippocampus- and Amygdala-Dependent Long-Term Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Sarah A.; Chen, Dillon Y.; Alberini, Cristina M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has reported that the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) promotes memory enhancement. Furthermore, impaired insulin or IGF1 functions have been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration and cognitive impairments, hence implicating the insulin/IGF system as an important target for cognitive enhancement and/or…

  20. Dopamine D1 Receptors Regulate Protein Synthesis-Dependent Long-Term Recognition Memory via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 in the Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Taku; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Kamei, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yukio; Nakamichi, Noritaka; Ibi, Daisuke; Nakanishi, Yutaka; Murai, Masaaki; Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2007-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and dopaminergic system is involved in learning and memory. However, it remains to be determined if the dopaminergic system and ERK1/2 pathway contribute to cognitive function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The amount of phosphorylated ERK1/2 was increased in…

  1. MHC Class I Immune Proteins Are Critical for Hippocampus-Dependent Memory and Gate NMDAR-Dependent Hippocampal Long-Term Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P. Austin; Sage, Jennifer R.; Wood, Suzanne C.; Davenport, Christopher M.; Anagnostaras, Stephan G.; Boulanger, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Memory impairment is a common feature of conditions that involve changes in inflammatory signaling in the brain, including traumatic brain injury, infection, neurodegenerative disorders, and normal aging. However, the causal importance of inflammatory mediators in cognitive impairments in these conditions remains unclear. Here we show that…

  2. Duration of the Unconditioned Stimulus in Appetitive Conditioning of Honeybees Differentially Impacts Learning, Long-Term Memory Strength, and the Underlying Protein Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marter, Kathrin; Grauel, M. Katharina; Lewa, Carmen; Morgenstern, Laura; Buckemüller, Christina; Heufelder, Karin; Ganz, Marion; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role of stimulus duration in learning and memory formation of honeybees ("Apis mellifera"). In classical appetitive conditioning honeybees learn the association between an initially neutral, conditioned stimulus (CS) and the occurrence of a meaningful stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus (US). Thereby the CS…

  3. Exercise and sodium butyrate transform a subthreshold learning event into long-term memory via a brain-derived neurotrophic factor-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intlekofer, Karlie A; Berchtold, Nicole C; Malvaez, Melissa; Carlos, Anthony J; McQuown, Susan C; Cunningham, Michael J; Wood, Marcelo A; Cotman, Carl W

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate that exercise enables hippocampal-dependent learning in conditions that are normally subthreshold for encoding and memory formation, and depends on hippocampal induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a key mechanism. Using a weak training paradigm in an object location memory (OLM) task, we show that sedentary mice are unable to discriminate 24?h later between familiar and novel object locations. In contrast, 3 weeks of prior voluntary exercise enables strong discrimination in the spatial memory task. Cognitive benefits of exercise match those attained with post-training sodium butyrate (NaB), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor previously shown to enable subthreshold learning. We demonstrate that the enabling effects of exercise and NaB on subthreshold OLM learning are dependent on hippocampal BDNF upregulation, and are blocked by hippocampal infusion of BDNF short-interfering RNA. Exercise and NaB increased bdnf transcripts I and IV, and the increases were associated with BDNF promoter acetylation on H4K8 but not H4K12. These data provide support for the concept that exercise engages epigenetic control mechanisms and serves as a natural stimulus that operates in part like NaB and potentially other HDAC inhibitors, placing the brain into a state of readiness for plasticity. PMID:23615664

  4. Long-Term Supplementation with Beta Serum Concentrate (BSC, a Complex of Milk Lipids, during Post-Natal Brain Development Improves Memory in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Guan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that the supplementation of ganglioside-enriched complex-milk-lipids improves cognitive function and that a phospholipid-enriched complex-milk-lipid prevents age-related cognitive decline in rats. This current study evaluated the effects of post-natal supplementation of ganglioside- and phospholipid-enriched complex-milk-lipids beta serum concentrate (BSC on cognitive function in young rats. The diet of male rats was supplemented with either gels formulated BSC (n = 16 or blank gels (n = 16 from post-natal day 10 to day 70. Memory and anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated using the Morris water maze, dark–light boxes, and elevated plus maze tests. Neuroplasticity and white matter were measured using immunohistochemical staining. The overall performance in seven-day acquisition trials was similar between the groups. Compared with the control group, BSC supplementation reduced the latency to the platform during day one of the acquisition tests. Supplementation improved memory by showing reduced latency and improved path efficiency to the platform quadrant, and smaller initial heading error from the platform zone. Supplemented rats showed an increase in striatal dopamine terminals and hippocampal glutamate receptors. Thus BSC supplementation during post-natal brain development improved learning and memory, independent from anxiety. The moderately enhanced neuroplasticity in dopamine and glutamate may be biological changes underlying the improved cognitive function.

  5. Medial prefrontal cortex ablation results in impaired spatial memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation with increased functional connectivity in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Latif-Hernandez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampus (HC and prefrontal cortex (PFC are two brain regions that are essential for cognitive flexibility, ability to adapt to new situational demands (Hampshire, Chaudhry, Owen, & Roberts, 2012. PFC/HC projections are activated during attention and dissociable types of flexible behavior (Hok V, Lenck-Santini PP, Roux S, Save E, Muller RU, 2007. Furthermore, impaired PFC/HC communications might contribute to the cognitive rigidity observed in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s and frontotemporal dementia (Ittner & Götz, 2011. In the present study, we investigated the functional role of the PFC/HC network in cognitive flexibility by combining behavioral, electrophysiological, molecular readouts and brain imaging “in vivo” with excitotoxic inactivation (quinolinic acid, 30 mM. C57/BL6J mice were trained in the Morris water maze for ten consecutive days, a hippocampus-dependent spatial learning task. Immediately after acquisition learning, excitotoxic lesions were applied to the PFC (comprising infralimbic -IL/prelimbic –PrL-cortices and cognitive flexibility was assessed during spatial reversal trials for five days. PFC lesions impaired reversal learning and affected search strategies to locate the hidden platform. Lesioned animals used a significantly higher percentage of non-spatial search strategies during reversal learning whereas control mice benefitted significantly more from spatial search strategies. Furthermore, the lesions in the IL/PrL area altered long-term potentiation (LTP in the hippocampal CA1-region of slices prepared ex-vivo immediately after reversal learning. PFC-lesioned mice showed reduced hippocampal LTP and decreased amplitude in the Input/Output curve, as a measure of basal synaptic transmission. We also examined whether the reduced LTP was a consequence of the missing PFC input or rather an acute effect of the excitotoxic hyperactivation of NMDA receptors in the PFC caused by quinolinic acid. Importantly, twenty-four hours after the excitotoxic injection, hippocampal LTP was similar to controls. Moreover, the analysis of synaptic proteins revealed that PSD95, AMPA receptors and the NR2A subunit of the NMDA receptors were not affected in the hippocampi tissue from the lesioned mice compared with sham treated. In addition, resting state magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI on day seven after the QA injection into PFC revealed stronger functional connectivity of the CA1 region of the HC with the rest brain areas, which might indicate an hippocampal hyperactivation caused by compensatory mechanisms to counteract the prefrontal impairment. In conclusion, mPFC lesions impair behavioral flexibility that is needed to adjust behavior to new environmental demands and hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

  6. Accessibility Long Term Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Axhausen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Improved accessibility and its correlate lower generalized cost of contact, travel and transport have been sought by dynamic human societies for their economic and social benefits through- out recorded history. The paper will reflect about this process at a number of different spatial and temporal scales based on a conceptual model. Looking back at European history, it will trace the interaction between Christaller's logic of local market areas and the idea of (low contact cost network cities. Focusing on Switzerland since 1950 it will show how network investment changed the relative distribution of population and employment and how this interacted with changes in the preferences of the travelers. Using a recent snapshot of how a substantial sample of Swiss maintain their social networks over often very large areas, it will try to answer the question of what will happen in the future, if the current trend of ever lower costs of contact will persist.

  7. Enhancement of declarative memory associated with emotional content in a Brazilian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J.E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have documented that emotional arousal may enhance long-term memory. This is an adaptation of a paradigm previously used in North American and European samples in investigations of the influence of emotion on long-term retention. A sample of 46 healthy adults of high and low educational levels watched a slide presentation of stories. A randomly assigned group watched a story with an arousing content and another group watched a neutral story. The stories were matched for structure and comprehensibility and the set and order of the 11 slides were the same in both conditions. Immediately after viewing the slide presentation, the participants were asked to rate the emotionality of the narrative. The arousing narrative was rated as being more emotional than the neutral narrative (t (44 = -3.6, P<0.001. Ten days later subjects were asked to remember the story and answer a multiple-choice questionnaire about it. The subjects who watched the arousing story had higher scores in the free recall measure (t (44 = -2.59, P<0.01. There were no differences between groups in the multiple-choice test of recognition memory (t (44 = 0.26. These findings confirm that an emotional arousing content enhances long-term declarative memory and indicate the possibility of applying this instrument to clinical samples of various cultural backgrounds.

  8. Influence of a combination of two tetrachlorobiphenyl congeners (PCB 47; PCB 77) on thyroid status, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, and short- and long-term memory in 30-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The important role of thyroid hormones in growth and development, maintenance of body temperature, digestion, cardiac function, and normal brain development can be disrupted by environmental contaminants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Polychlorinated biphenyls are environmental contaminants that are widespread, persistent, lipophilic, and bioaccumulate through food webs, concentrating in adipose tissue. Placental and lactational PCB exposure of offspring causes metabolic and endocrine disruptions including hypothyroxinemia, spatial learning and memory deficits, neurochemical and neurobehavioral alterations, and reproductive problems. Previous studies in our lab using the individual congeners PCB 47 (2,2',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, ortho-substituted) and PCB 77 (3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, non-ortho-substituted) have demonstrated alterations in thyroid hormone levels, alterations in brain choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, and spatial learning deficits. In the present study, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet with or without a mixture of PCB 47/77 at 1.25 ppm, 12.5 ppm or 25.0 ppm (w/w). Rat pups were swum in the Morris water maze four times a day on days 21-29 in order for the animals to learn the position of a submerged fixed platform. A probe test was run on day 24 (30 min after last swim) for short-term memory, and on day 29 (24 h after the last swim) for long-term memory after removal of the platform. Time spent in the quadrant previously containing the platform was recorded. Rats were decapitated on day 30, serum collected and frozen at -20 deg. ChAT activity was measured radiometrically in basal forebrain and hippocampus. All PCB-treated animals experienced a depression in both triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). The present study found that all doses of PCB depressed ChAT activity in hippocampus with no significant alteration in the basal forebrain. In PCB-treated animals, short-term memory showed a trend toward improvement and long-term memory toward depression, but these trends were not significant. The consequences likely stem from endocrine disruption, especially with regard to the thyroid

  9. WRP/srGAP3 facilitates the initiation of spine development by an inverse F-BAR domain, and its loss impairs long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Benjamin R; Lloyd, Krissey E; Kruszewski, Allison; Kim, Il-Hwan; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Heindel, Clifford; Faytell, Marika; Dudek, Serena M; Wetsel, William C; Soderling, Scott H

    2011-02-16

    The WAVE-associated Rac GAP, WRP, is thought to regulate key aspects of synapse development and function and may be linked to mental retardation in humans. WRP contains a newly described inverse F-BAR (IF-BAR) domain of unknown function. Our studies show that this domain senses/facilitates outward protrusions analogous to filopodia and that the molecular basis for this is likely explained by a convex lipid-binding surface on the WRP IF-BAR domain. In dendrites the IF-BAR domain of WRP forms a bud on the shaft from which precursors to spines emerge. Loss of WRP in vivo and in vitro results in reduced density of spines. In vivo this is primarily a loss of mushroom-shaped spines. Developmentally, WRP function is critical at the onset of spinogenesis, when dendritic filopodia are prevalent. Finally, because WRP is implicated in mental retardation, behaviors of WRP heterozygous and null mice have been evaluated. Results from these studies confirm that loss of WRP is linked to impaired learning and memory. PMID:21325512

  10. Memória de longo prazo modulada pela memória de curto prazo / Long term memory modulated by short term memory / Memoria a largo plazo modulada por la memoria a corto plazo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Viviane, Moreira-Aguiar; Allan Pablo, Lameira; Erick Quintas, Conde; Antônio, Pereira Júnior; Carlo Arrigo, Umiltà; Luiz de Gonzaga, Gawryszewski.

    Full Text Available Quando um estímulo ocorre aleatoriamente à esquerda ou à direita, a resposta é mais rápida quando estímulo e resposta estão no mesmo lado (condição compatível) do que em lados opostos (condição incompatível). Na tarefa de Simon, embora a resposta seja selecionada pela forma (ou cor) do estímulo, a p [...] osição deste influencia o Tempo de Reação Manual (TRM). O efeito Simon corresponde à diferença entre as médias dos TRMs nas duas condições (incompatível e compatível). Neste trabalho, estudamos como uma tarefa prévia de compatibilidade realizada com um dedo indicador modula o efeito Simon. Vinte e oito voluntários realizaram uma tarefa de compatibilidade seguida pela tarefa de Simon. No grupo compatível (14 voluntários), encontramos um efeito Simon de 24 ms. No incompatível (14 voluntários), ocorreu um efeito Simon inverso de -16 ms. Estes resultados mostram uma modulação da memória de longo prazo por uma tarefa envolvendo a memória de curto prazo. Abstract in spanish Cuando un estimulo ocurre aleatoriamente a la izquierda o a la derecha, la respuesta es más rápida cuando el estimulo y la respuesta están del mismo lado (condición compatible), de que cuando están en lados opuestos (condición incompatible). En la prueba de Simon, el color o la forma del estímulo de [...] termina la respuesta, pero éste es más rápido cuando hay una correlación espacial entre el estímulo y la respuesta. En este trabajo, estudiamos la modulación del efecto Simon por la tarea de la compatibilidad espacial en la cual uno dedo índice respondió. Veintiocho voluntarios realizaron la prueba de compatibilidad (14 la compatible y 14 la incompatible). Después el voluntario realizó la prueba de Simon. En el grupo compatible, encontramos efecto de Simon de 21 ms. Sin embargo, en el grupo incompatibles, ocurrió un efecto de Simon inverso de -16 ms. Estos resultados demuestran una modulación de la memoria a largo plazo por la memoria a corto plazo. Abstract in english When a stimulus randomly occurs at left or right, the response is faster when stimulus and response are on the same side (compatible condition) than on opposite sides (incompatible condition). In the Simon task, color or shape determines the correct response but it is faster when there is correspond [...] ence between stimulus and response key positions. In this research, we studied the Simon effect modulation through a previous spatial compatibility task in which just one index finger presses the keys. Twenty-eight volunteers run compatibility tasks (14 compatible and 14 incompatible). Then, they performed a Simon task in which the correct response was selected by shape. A Simon effect of 24 ms was found in the compatible group. An inverse Simon effect of -16 ms occurred in the incompatible group. These results show long-term memory modulation by task involving short-term memory.

  11. Efectos de la escopolamina a corto y largo plazo en la memoria y las habilidades conceptuales / Effects of Short- And Long-Term Scopolamine Intoxication on Memory and Conceptual Skills

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra Milena, Camelo Roa; Alfredo, Ardila.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El uso de este tóxico en Colombia con fines delincuenciales representa un problema social y de salud de proporciones inmensurables, de ahí la importancia de conocer sus efectos a corto y largo plazo en la memoria y las habilidades conceptuales. Se evaluaron los efectos de la intoxicación por escopol [...] amina sobre memoria, categorización y clasificación en 20 sujetos, entre 15 y 60 años. Se utilizó un diseño prospectivo con dos mediciones. Los sujetos fueron evaluados a los cinco días después de egresar de la clínica y a los seis meses. Los no expuestos se evaluaron paralelamente en los dos momentos de la evaluación, por medio de la prueba de memoria de Wechsler, el test de la figura de Rey-Osterrieth, el test de clasificación de tarjetas de Wisconsin y la subprueba de matrices progresivas del WAIS III. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que la intoxicación por escopolamina provoca deterioro en la memoria y las habilidades conceptuales tanto a corto como a largo plazo. Abstract in english The intoxication by scopolamine is the second cause of acute intoxication in Bogotá and probably in others cities of Colombia. The use of this toxic in criminal attacks represents a social and health problem of immeasurable proportions. The knowledge of its long term effects in cognitive functions a [...] s the memory and conceptual abilities is scarce. In this investigation the effects of intoxication by scopolamine were evaluated in tow different times between a group of 20 people into the 15 and 60 years old, using categorization and classification upon memory and conceptual abilities. The first evaluation was carried out five days after clinic treatments and the second evaluation was made six months later. As the exposed group and as a non exposed group was evaluated parallelly in both moments of the evaluation with the Wechsler memory test, the figure of Rey-Osterrieth test, the Classification of Cards of Wisconsin test, and the progressive matrix of WAIS III subtest. The results suggest that the intoxication by scopolamine causes deterioration in memory and conceptual abilities in short and long term.

  12. Long Term Survivors of Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezih OKTAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no generally accepted definition of long-term GBM survivors (LTGBMS. Usually most authors define long-term GBM survivor as a patient who survives at least 3 years after the histological diagnosis of glioblastoma. LTGBMS are uncommon and are reported to occur in 0.5%-16% of cases. In our ENOK (Ege Neuro-Oncology Council cases we have 12 out of 372 GBM patients who survived more than 3 years (3.2%. The clinical and molecular factors that contribute to long-term survival are still unknown. Authors underline the association of glioblastoma long-term survival with prognostically favorable clinical factors, in particular young age and good initial performance score (KPS as well as MGMT promotor hypermethylation.

  13. Analysis of regulatory T-cells and of their naïve and memory-like subsets in long-term treated aviremic HIV+ patients and untreated viremic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Imberti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: Although HIV infection impacts the proportion and phenotype of regulatory T-cells (Tregs, discrepant results have been reported depending on the surface markers employed to characterize them and on the patient populations. In addition, the effects of a long-term combined antiretroviral therapy (cART on Treg cells have not been thoroughly documented. Our study investigated the frequency and number of Tregs and their phenotype in two different groups of HIV-infected patients: one aviremic undergoing long-term cART and one viremic naïve to cART showing a similar CD4+ cell count. Methods: Thirty-six HIV+ patients with sustained suppression of plasma viremia (<37 copies/mL on effective cART for more than 6 years and 22 HIV+patients naïve to cART and without clinical signs of opportunistic infections or tumors at the time of study (untreated group were included in the study. Healthy donors (HD were used as control. Flow cytometry on fresh whole blood was used to quantify total Tregs (defined as CD25+CD127low/-CD4+ cells and the following Treg subsets: naïve (CD45RA+CCR7+ Tregs, central-memory like Tregs (CD45RA-CCR7+, TregCM, effector-memory like Tregs (CD45RA-CCR7−, TregEM Statistical comparisons of the percentages and number of Tregs and Treg subpopulations were performed by ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test. Analysis of covariance was employed in order to adjust for the effect of the age. The Spearman's test was used to assess correlations. Summary of results: In viremic untreated and aviremic long-term cART-treated patients the percentage and number of the total Treg cells were not different from those of HD. However, the analysis of Treg phenotype showed a marked redistribution of the Treg subpopulations: in the untreated viremic patients, both the percentage and number of the TregCM subset decreased compared to HD and cART-treated patients, whereas only the percentage of naïve Tregs increased. In particular, the percentage of TregCM was inversely correlated with the viral load (r=−0.51; p=0.016. Conclusions: In our aviremic long-term cART-treated and viremic untreated patients, the total Treg cell population seems to be unaffected by HIV infection. However, our results showed that the analysis of the naïve and memory-like Treg subsets may provide a better understanding of the real contribution of Tregs in HIV disease and therapy.

  14. Prophylactic Subacute Administration of Zinc Increases CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 Expression and Prevents the Long-Term Memory Loss in a Rat Model of Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Alvarez, Victor Manuel; Soto-Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Brambila, Eduardo; Torres-Soto, Maricela; Aguilar-Peralta, Ana Karina; Gonzalez-Vazquez, Alejandro; Tomás-Sanchez, Constantino; Limón, I. Daniel; Eguibar, Jose R.; Ugarte, Araceli; Hernandez-Castillo, Jeanett; Leon-Chavez, Bertha Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Prophylactic subacute administration of zinc decreases lipoperoxidation and cell death following a transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, thus suggesting neuroprotective and preconditioning effects. Chemokines and growth factors are also involved in the neuroprotective effect in hypoxia-ischemia. We explored whether zinc prevents the cerebral cortex-hippocampus injury through regulation of CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 expression following a 10?min of common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO). Male rats were grouped as follows: (1) Zn96h, rats injected with ZnCl2 (one dose every 24?h during four days); (2) Zn96h + CCAO, rats treated with ZnCl2 before CCAO; (3) CCAO, rats with CCAO only; (4) Sham group, rats with mock CCAO; and (5) untreated rats. The cerebral cortex-hippocampus was dissected at different times before and after CCAO. CCL2/CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 expression was assessed by RT-PCR and ELISA. Learning in Morris Water Maze was achieved by daily training during 5 days. Long-term memory was evaluated on day 7 after learning. Subacute administration of zinc increased expression of CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 in the early and late phases of postreperfusion and prevented the CCAO-induced memory loss in the rat. These results might be explained by the induction of neural plasticity because of the expression of CCL2 and growth factors. PMID:26355725

  15. Enhancement of declarative memory associated with emotional content in a Brazilian sample

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.E., Frank; C., Tomaz.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have documented that emotional arousal may enhance long-term memory. This is an adaptation of a paradigm previously used in North American and European samples in investigations of the influence of emotion on long-term retention. A sample of 46 healthy adults of high and low educatio [...] nal levels watched a slide presentation of stories. A randomly assigned group watched a story with an arousing content and another group watched a neutral story. The stories were matched for structure and comprehensibility and the set and order of the 11 slides were the same in both conditions. Immediately after viewing the slide presentation, the participants were asked to rate the emotionality of the narrative. The arousing narrative was rated as being more emotional than the neutral narrative (t (44) = -3.6, P

  16. Long-term study of accommodative esotropia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig, Irene H; Imberman, Susan P; Hilary W. Thompson; Parks, Marshall M

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: Previous studies of accommodative esotropia have been hampered by bias-prone methods of data collection and analysis and by small sample size. The studies have conflicting conclusions, causing uncertain results. This study aims to determine long-term results of standard treatment of accommodative esotropia and identify predictors of outcome, while minimizing bias in data collection and analysis, using the largest possible sample size. METHODS: A research assistant collected data from...

  17. Optimizing nucleic acid extraction from thyroid fine-needle aspiration cells in stained slides, formalin-fixed/paraffin-embedded tissues, and long-term stored blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina M. L. Kizys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Adequate isolation of nucleic acids from peripheral blood, fine-needle aspiration cells in stained slides, and fresh and formalin-fixed/paraffin-embedded tissues is crucial to ensure the success of molecular endocrinology techniques, especially when samples are stored for long periods, or when no other samples can be collected from patients who are lost to follow-up. Here, we evaluate several procedures to improve current methodologies for DNA (salting-out and RNA isolation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used proteinase K treatment, heat shock, and other adaptations to increase the amount and quality of the material retrieved from the samples. RESULTS: We successfully isolated DNA and RNA from the samples described above, and this material was suitable for PCR, methylation profiling, real-time PCR and DNA sequencing. CONCLUSION: The techniques herein applied to isolate nucleic acids allowed further reliable molecular analyses. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2012;56(9:618-26

  18. Potential groundwater sampling sites for installation of a well network for long-term monitoring of agricultural chemicals in the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are in support of report DS 456 (Arnold and others, 2009). This dataset includes 90 potential groundwater sampling sites randomly generated using...

  19. Rate of Recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Frozen Acid-Fast-Bacillus Smear-Positive Sputum Samples Subjected to Long-Term Storage in Northwest Ethiopia ?

    OpenAIRE

    Tessema, Belay; Beer, Joerg; Emmrich, Frank; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C.

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. The diagnosis and treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis remain a challenge in the country. This study aimed to assess whether single morning sputum samples could be stored at ?20°C for extended periods of time at remote settings and then transported and successfully cultured for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Single morning sputum samples were collected from all smear-positive tuberculosis patients diagnosed at Gondar Hospital, Gondar...

  20. Nuclear Energy, Long Term Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are serious warnings about depletion of oil and gas and even more serious warnings about dangers of climate change caused by emission of carbon dioxide. Should developed countries be called to replace CO2 emitting energy sources as soon as possible, and the time available may not be longer then few decades, can nuclear energy answer the call and what are the requirements? Assuming optimistic contribution of renewable energy sources, can nuclear energy expand to several times present level in order to replace large part of fossil fuels use? Paper considers intermediate and long-term requirements. Future of nuclear power depends on satisfactory answers on several questions. First group of questions are those important for near and intermediate future. They deal with economics and safety of nuclear power stations in the first place. On the same time scale a generally accepted concept for radioactive waste disposal is also required. All these issues are in the focus of present research and development. Safer and more economical reactors are targets of international efforts in Generation IV and INPRO projects, but aiming further ahead these innovative projects are also addressing issues such as waste reduction and proliferation resistance. However, even assuming successful technical development of these projects, and there is no reason to doubt it, long term and large-scale nuclear power use is thereby not yet secured. If nuclear power is to play an essential role in the long-term future energy production and in reduction of CO2 emission, than several additional questions must be replied. These questions will deal with long-term nuclear fuel sufficiency, with necessary contribution of nuclear power in sectors of transport and industrial processes and with nuclear proliferation safety. This last issue is more political then technical, thus sometimes neglected by nuclear engineers, yet it will have essential role for the long-term prospects of nuclear power. The status of the intermediate and long-term issues will be discussed, with special attention to the nuclear proliferation issue in view of unfavourable recent development, such as failure of 2005 NPT renewal conference and the Iran and North Korea cases. It will be argued that nuclear proliferation threat is the only really serious obstacle to the large-scale use of nuclear energy. In positive political environment solution of this problem could be possible on the lines of the very early US proposal (so called Baruch plan, UN 1946). Present political developments appear to demand renewed attempt to internationalize proliferation sensitive fuel cycle installations. Reasons will be discussed for a conviction that prospects for this may be better than in 1946. (author)

  1. Estimating the long-term effects of stocking domesticated trout into wild brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) populations : an approach using microsatellite DNA analysis of historical and contemporary samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller

    2002-01-01

    admixture proportions showed a small genetic contribution from domesticated trout (approximately 6%), and individual admixture analysis demonstrated a majority of nonadmixed individuals. The expected genetic contribution by domesticated trout was 64%, assessed from the number of stocked trout and assuming...... samples from a broodstock thought to represent the indigenous population and in a sample of wild spawners. Survival of domesticated trout and admixture with indigenous fish in the broodstock and subsequent stocking into the river, combined with a low population size of native trout relative to the number...

  2. Long-term sampling of CO2 from waste-to-energy plants: 14C determination methodology, data variation and uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Karsten; Pedersen, Niels Hald; Larsen, Anna Warberg; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    emission of fossil CO2 from waste-to-energy plants can be monitored according to carbon trading schemes and renewable energy certificates. Weekly and monthly measurements were performed at five Danish waste incinerators. Significant variations between fractions of biogenic CO2 emitted were observed, not...... only over time, but also between plants. From the results of monthly samples at one plant, the annual mean fraction of biogenic CO2 was found to be 69% of the total annual CO2 emissions. From weekly samples, taken every 3 months at the five plants, significant seasonal variations in biogenic CO2...

  3. Spine Expansion and Stabilization Associated with Long-term Potentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yunlei; Wang, Xiao-Bin; Frerking, Matthew; Zhou, Qiang

    2008-01-01

    Stable expression of long-term synaptic plasticity is critical for the developmental refinement of neural circuits and for some forms of learning and memory. Although structural remodeling of dendritic spines is associated with the stable expression of long term potentiation (LTP), the relationship between structural and physiological plasticity remains unclear. To define whether these two processes are related or distinct, we simultaneously monitored EPSPs and dendritic spines, using combine...

  4. Long-term Video-EEG Monitoring for Paroxysmal Events

    OpenAIRE

    Ying-Ying Lee; Mei-Ying Lee; Yu-Tai Tsai; Chung-Yang Sung; Hsiang-Yao Hsieh; Siew-Na Lim; Peter Wu Hung; Tony Wu; I-an Chen

    2009-01-01

    Background: Long term video-electroencephalography monitoring (VEM) has been widelyused for the diagnosis, classification, and management of seizures. Fewstudies have systemically examined its safety issues and clinical utility. Thisprospective study investigates the general clinical application of long termVEM in the management of paroxysmal events.Methods: This study cohort consisted of patients admitted to the inpatient VEM unit atChang Gung Memorial Hospital (Lin-Kou). Standard 19 channel...

  5. Long-Term Physical and Mental Health Consequences of Childhood Physical Abuse: Results from a Large Population-Based Sample of Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Kristen W.; Sheridan, Jennifer; Kuo, Daphne; Carnes, Molly

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Child maltreatment has been linked to negative adult health outcomes; however, much past research includes only clinical samples of women, focuses exclusively on sexual abuse and/or fails to control for family background and childhood characteristics, both potential confounders. Further research is needed to obtain accurate,…

  6. Comparing long term energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major projection studies by international organizations and senior analysts have been compared with reference to individual key parameters (population, energy demand/supply, resources, technology, emissions and global warming) to understand trends and implications of the different scenarios. Then, looking at the long term (i.e., 2050 and beyond), parameters and trends have been compared together to understand and quantify whether and when possible crisis or market turbulence might occur due to shortage of resources or environmental problems

  7. Long-term continuous sampling of ¹²CO?, ¹³CO? and ¹²C¹?O¹?O in ambient air with a quantum cascade laser spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, J Barry; Nelson, David D; Zahniser, Mark S

    2010-03-01

    A recently developed laser spectroscopic instrument allows real-time continuous measurements of the stable isotopologues of carbon dioxide at ambient concentrations. This compact instrument offers sufficient precision (0.2 per thousand in 1 s, 0.02 per thousand in 60 s) and stability (drift in 1 h ofcascade of timescales and show some results in application of that method to the continuous sampling data set. PMID:20229384

  8. Rate of recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from frozen acid-fast-bacillus smear-positive sputum samples subjected to long-term storage in Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessema, Belay; Beer, Joerg; Emmrich, Frank; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C

    2011-07-01

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. The diagnosis and treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis remain a challenge in the country. This study aimed to assess whether single morning sputum samples could be stored at -20 °C for extended periods of time at remote settings and then transported and successfully cultured for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Single morning sputum samples were collected from all smear-positive tuberculosis patients diagnosed at Gondar Hospital, Gondar Health Center, Metemma Hospital, Bahir Dar Hospital, and Debre Markos Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia between March and July 2009. Specimens were stored at the study sites and sent to the mycobacteriology laboratory at the University Hospital, Leipzig, Germany, where specimens were processed and inoculated into the BacT/Alert 3D system and Lowenstein-Jensen and Gottsacker media. Ice packs were added in the package of the specimens during transport. A total of 319 patients were enrolled in this study. The median specimen storage time was 132 days (range, 16 to 180 days). Of all specimens, 283 (88.7%) were culture positive by any of the three culturing systems. M. tuberculosis isolates from four contaminated specimens in all culturing systems were successfully isolated on Middlebrook 7H10 agar; thereby, the recovery rate increased to 287 (90.0%). The length of time of sputum storage had no significant effect on the rate of recovery of M. tuberculosis in all culturing systems. In conclusion, single morning sputum specimens collected at remote settings stored at -20 °C for long periods of time without the addition of preservatives can yield a high recovery rate. These findings suggest a simple and cost-effective alternative method of sputum storage for epidemiological and drug resistance studies in low-resource countries. PMID:21562105

  9. Long term stability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P.; Gao, B. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Three-year-olds’ memory for a person met only once at the age of 12 months: Very long-term memory revealed by a late-manifesting novelty preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kingo, Osman Skjold; Staugaard, Søren Risløv; Krøjgaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study examined three-year-olds’ verbal and non-verbal memory for a person met only once after a 28 month interval. Children in the Test group (N=50) had participated in an earlier experiment at our lab at the age of 12 months where they met one of two possible experimenters. At this past event half of the children were tested by one, the other half by the other experimenter. At the follow-up, run by a naïve experimenter, the children were shown two videos from the original experiment in a v...

  11. Three-year-olds’ memory for a person met only once at the age of 12 months: Very long-term memory revealed by a late-manifesting novelty preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kingo, Osman Skjold; Staugaard, SØren RislØv

    2014-01-01

    This study examined three-year-olds’ verbal and non-verbal memory for a person met only once after a 28 month interval. Children in the Test group (N=50) had participated in an earlier experiment at our lab at the age of 12 months where they met one of two possible experimenters. At this past event half of the children were tested by one, the other half by the other experimenter. At the follow-up, run by a naïve experimenter, the children were shown two videos from the original experiment in a visual paired comparison task: One with the specific experimenter testing them at the original visit (the Target) and one of the other experimenter (the Foil), with whom they had no experience. When explicitly asked, the children’s responses did not differ from chance. However, eye-tracking data revealed a late-manifesting novelty preference for the “Foil” person indicating memory for the “Target” person met once before.

  12. What Does Long-Term Care Include?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Video: "What Does Long-Term Care Include?" Long-term care involves a variety of services designed to meet a person's health or personal care needs during a short or long period of ...

  13. Long-term corrosion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of this activity is to assess the long-term corrosion properties of metallic materials under consideration for fabricating waste package containers. Three classes of metals are to be assessed: corrosion resistant, intermediate corrosion resistant, and corrosion allowance. Corrosion properties to be evaluated are general, pitting and crevice corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, and galvanic corrosion. The performance of these materials will be investigated under conditions that are considered relevant to the potential emplacement site. Testing in four aqueous solutions, and vapor phases above them, and at two temperatures are planned for this activity. (The environmental conditions, test metals, and matrix are described in detail in Section 3.0.) The purpose and objective of this activity is to obtain the kinetic and mechanistic information on degradation of metallic alloys currently being considered for waste package containers. This information will be used to provide assistance to (1) waste package design (metal barrier selection) (E-20-90 to E-20-92), (2) waste package performance assessment activities (SIP-PA-2), (3) model development (E-20-75 to E-20-89). and (4) repository license application

  14. Long-term biosignals visualization and processing

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Ricardo Rafael Baptista

    2011-01-01

    Long-term biosignals acquisitions are an important source of information about the patients’state and its evolution. However, long-term biosignals monitoring involves managing extremely large datasets, which makes signal visualization and processing a complex task. To overcome these problems, a new data structure to manage long-term biosignals was developed. Based on this new data structure, dedicated tools for long-term biosignals visualization and processing were implemented. A mul...

  15. Natural radionuclides in the atmosphere. An interpretation of long term radionuclide data for lead-210 and beryllium-7 collected at Murdoch University for the Surface Air Sampling Program (SASP) of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (US Department of Energy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines various aspects of natural radioactive materials in the atmosphere over Perth in order to characterise the behaviour of these radionuclides. Data for this study was provided by the surface air sampling program (SASP) of the U.S. Department of Energy, which focuses on the lowest 2 metre layer of air; sampling being at 1.6 metres above the surface. The study particularly aimed to interpret correlation between existing radionuclide concentration data and meteorological data; which has been achieved in a qualitative sense. A general conclusion drawn form the observed results is that long-term averages of radionuclide concentrations have the highest correlation with climatic data; correlations between sample readings and contemporaneous weather data have the lowest correlation coefficients. Limitations in both the radionuclide and meteorological data were realised early in the project. The focus of the project accordingly changed from one of data processing to a broad-based review and documentation of particular disciplines that deal with atmospheric trace substances and their movement. A review served to bring together these disciplines and produce a handbook of background information required by anyone pursuing similar research. A number of future research projects are identified. 152 refs., 23 tabs., 40 figs

  16. Analysis of long-term soxhlet tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclic leaching patterns were exhibited by simulated waste glass and ceramic titanate (w/10% zeolite) materials during long-term elevated temperature soxhlet leaching studies. In the vitreous waste form, these patterns appear to be due to the formation and subsequent spallation of multilayered alteration products which were characterized using electron microprobe analysis. Electron microprobe studies of the leached titanate sample illustrated a more subdued attack of the surface with no alteration layer formation. During fabrication, cesium was concentrated in zeolite pockets which were leached, presumably by a process similar to that for glasses. One difficulty in leaching studies is the large sample volume required when very low concentrations of elements are to be determined. Studies presently in progress indicate that laser excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry is applicable to determining less than picogram quantities of cesium in 50 ?L sample volumes

  17. Physiological, Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Long-Term Habituation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calin-Jageman, Robert J

    2009-09-12

    Work funded on this grant has explored the mechanisms of long-term habituation, a ubiquitous form of learning that plays a key role in basic cognitive functioning. Specifically, behavioral, physiological, and molecular mechanisms of habituation have been explored using a simple model system, the tail-elicited siphon-withdrawal reflex (T-SWR) in the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. Substantial progress has been made on the first and third aims, providing some fundamental insights into the mechanisms by which memories are stored. We have characterized the physiological correlates of short- and long-term habituation. We found that short-term habituation is accompanied by a robust sensory adaptation, whereas long-term habituation is accompanied by alterations in sensory and interneuron synaptic efficacy. Thus, our data indicates memories can be shifted between different sites in a neural network as they are consolidated from short to long term. At the molecular level, we have accomplished microarray analysis comparing gene expression in both habituated and control ganglia. We have identified a network of putatively regulated transcripts that seems particularly targeted towards synaptic changes (e.g. SNAP25, calmodulin) . We are now beginning additional work to confirm regulation of these transcripts and build a more detailed understanding of the cascade of molecular events leading to the permanent storage of long-term memories. On the third aim, we have fostered a nascent neuroscience program via a variety of successful initiatives. We have funded over 11 undergraduate neuroscience scholars, several of whom have been recognized at national and regional levels for their research. We have also conducted a pioneering summer research program for community college students which is helping enhance access of underrepresented groups to life science careers. Despite minimal progress on the second aim, this project has provided a) novel insight into the network mechanisms by which short-term memories are permanently stored, and b) a strong foundation for continued growth of an excellent undergraduate neuroscience program.

  18. Evaluation of the effects of long-term storage of bovine ear notch samples on the ability of 2 diagnostic assays to identify calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F, Khan; J H, Vorster; M, van Vuuren; P, Mapham.

    Full Text Available Research aimed at optimising diagnostic laboratory procedures is central to the development of effective bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) control programmes. BVDV is a singlestranded RNA virus that crosses the placenta to infect foetuses, resulting in reproductive losses due to foetal death or pe [...] rsistently infected calves that die early in life. Persistently infected animals are widely accepted to be the primary reservoir of BVDV and the largest source of infection. This poses important challenges to overall animal/herd health and can cause major losses to the cattle industry. Long-term storage of bovine ear notch samples from calves persistently infected with BVDV may adversely affect the ability of diagnostic assays to detect the virus efficiently. In order to test this hypothesis, ear notch samples from 7 animals were divided into 2 groups. One set was subjected to prompt formalin fixation and the other set stored either as fresh samples without preservatives at -2 ºC, or soaked overnight in phosphate buffered saline followed by freezing of the supernatant fluid at -2 ºC. Frozen ear notches and ear notch supernatant yielded positive results with an antigen-capture, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) for the duration of the study (6 months) and optical density (OD) values remained significantly within range. There was no significant difference between storing fresh ear notch samples or PBS at -2 ºC. However, positive immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining on formalin fixed ear notches started to fade between Day 17 and Day 29 when stored at room temperature. It was concluded that fresh ear notches could safely be stored at -2 ºC for a period of 6 months prior to testing for BVD viral antigens

  19. Providing Long-Term Participation Incentive in Participatory Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    GAO, LIN; Hou, Fen; Huang, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    Providing an adequate long-term participation incentive is important for a participatory sensing system to maintain enough number of active users (sensors), so as to collect a sufficient number of data samples and support a desired level of service quality. In this work, we consider the sensor selection problem in a general time-dependent and location-aware participatory sensing system, taking the long-term user participation incentive into explicit consideration. We study t...

  20. Subacute neurotoxicity following long-term exposure to carbaryl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, R A; Jacqz, E

    1986-04-01

    Carbaryl, a widely used insecticide, is reputed to have a wide safety margin. It can induce acute cholinesterase poisoning, which is rapidly reversible on discontinuation of exposure. Long-term sequelae from long-term exposure have not previously been described in humans. This report describes the experience of a 75-year-old man who had long-term excessive exposure to carbaryl and in whom a debilitating syndrome, including headaches, memory loss, proximal muscle weakness, muscle fasciculation, muscle cramps, and anorexia with marked weight loss, developed. At the time of diagnosis, serum pseudocholinesterase levels were low, and his major symptoms resolved on termination of exposure. Late clinical features were sleep apnea and progressive development of a peripheral neuropathy. The difficulty in diagnosing the cause of a group of relatively nonspecific symptoms raises the question of whether chronic carbaryl neurotoxicity might be occurring more frequently than previously suspected. PMID:3083676

  1. Long term sampling and measuring program. Joint report for 1987, 1988 and 1989. Within the project: Fallout studies in the Gideaa and Finnsjoe areas after the Chernobyl accident in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A redistribution and migration study of the Chernobyl fallout begun in 1986. It was realized in an early stage that the fallout from Chernobyl could be used as a large scale tracer study. After one early sampling and measurement it was concluded that at least five of the radioactive nuclides could be used in a long term perspective. The sorption and migration of these elements in geohydrological systems have been investigated during a period of three and a half years and a model of the redistribution is now prepared. The basis for successful modelling of the redistribution of fallout products within a small catchment area is dependent on accurate input. A repeated sampling of geological materials, and 'direct' measurement of gamma radiation in field, will then be needed. This report is a summary of the work that has been performed during 1987, 1988 and 1989 within sampling and measurement of radionuclide content in geological materials and surface vegetation. Migration studies and modelling work are other parts of the project that are not presented here. The collecting of field data is mainly done in a small catchment area (0.74 square km) c.30 km N-E of the city of Oernskoeldsvik county of Vaesternorrland. A minor field study is also done in an area east of Lake Finnsjoen, situated c.50 km north of the city of Uppsala. The conclusions that can be drawn from the Gideaa study site surface measurements are that the gamma radiation in general is decreasing with varying magnitude. But the picture is not all unambiguous. In the subsurface layers of studied soil profiles, an increase can be observed in the upper part of the enriched layer. The outflow of radionuclides with ground water seems to be fairly constant after the peak flow in 1986. Some indications of larger transport and outflow of radionuclides in connection with heavy rain or spring flood is also presented. (authors)

  2. Long-term solar-terrestrial observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The results of an 18-month study of the requirements for long-term monitoring and archiving of solar-terrestrial data is presented. The value of long-term solar-terrestrial observations is discussed together with parameters, associated measurements, and observational problem areas in each of the solar-terrestrial links (the sun, the interplanetary medium, the magnetosphere, and the thermosphere-ionosphere). Some recommendations are offered for coordinated planning for long-term solar-terrestrial observations.

  3. Projecting Long-Term Primary Energy Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Csereklyei, Zsuzsanna; Humer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we use the long-term empirical relationship among primary energy consumption, real income, physical capital, population and technology, obtained by averaged panel error correction models, to project the long-term primary energy consumption of 56 countries up to 2100. In forecasting long-term primary energy consumption, we work with four different Shared Socioeconomic Pathway Scenarios (SSPs) developed for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) framew...

  4. Long-term criticality analyses process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process for evaluating long-term disposal criticality control in a potential repository is being developed to support long-term disposal as well as ensure the acceptance of the Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC). This paper outlines the current Waste Package Development process for performing long-term disposal criticality control evaluations. The process allows the entire time period of disposal criticality control to be evaluated with the issues for each time period addressed separately

  5. Long-term monitoring for closed sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure is presented for planning and implementing a long-term environmental monitoring program for closed low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The initial task in this procedure is to collect the available information on the legal/regulatory requirements, site and area characteristics, source term, pathway analysis, and prior monitoring results. This information is coupled with parameters such as half-life and retardation factors to develop a monitoring program. As examples, programs are presented for a site that has had little or no waste migration, and for sites where waste has been moved by suface water, by ground water, and by air. Sampling techniques and practices are discussed relative to how a current program would be structured and projections are made on techniques and practices expected to be available in the future. 8 refs., 2 figs

  6. Financing long term liabilities (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany the basis for the management of radioactive residues is the polluter-pays principle. All steps of treatment of radioactive waste arising from operation, decommissioning and dismantling including conditioning, interim storage and disposal of radioactive waste have to be financed by the waste producers. The waste producers are responsible for the harmless recycling of the residues or for their orderly management as radioactive waste. The Federal Government is responsible for establishing disposal facilities. Accordingly the waste producers are constructing and operating facilities in which the radioactive residues can be treated and stored until their disposal. As far as the radioactive waste cannot be stored by the producer, waste originating from research, medicine and industry can be stored in surface storage facilities of the federal states. Spent fuel from German NPPs is partly reprocessed in France and UK. The rest has to be disposed off directly in deep geologic formations. Until a repository for spent fuel is available in Germany spent fuel will be stored in interim storage facilities on the sites of the NPPs. The storage will take place in casks in a dry way. In exceptional cases, if the storage at a NPP site is not possible, there are two central storages at Ahaus and Gorleben which are in operation and can be made available as reserve. Radioactive waste returning from the reprocessing of German spent fuel in France and UK is stored in the Gorleben central storage. The Federal Government is aiming to establish a repository in deep geological formations about the year 2030 which shall be available for all types and quantities of radioactive waste. The necessary expenses for the planning and construction of radioactive waste disposal facilities are initially carried by the Federal Government. The Government recovers the costs by contributions or advance payments from the waste producers. The use of storage and disposal facilities is financed by charges and fees levied from the waste producers. Altogether, financial resources for decommissioning are needed for the following steps: the post-operational phase in which the facility is prepared for dismantling after its final shut-down, dismantling of the radioactive part of the facility, management, storage and disposal of the radioactive waste, restoration of the site, licensing and regulatory supervision of all these steps. Additional means are necessary for the management, storage and disposal of the spent fuel. The way in which the availability of financial resources is secured differs between public owned installations and installations of the private power utilities. In Germany, past practices has resulted in singular contaminated sites of limited extent, mainly during the first half of the 20. century. Those contaminated sites have been or are being cleaned up and redeveloped. In large areas of Saxony and Thuringia, the geological formations permitted the surface and underground mining of Uranium ore. Facilities of the former Soviet-German WISMUT Ltd. where ore was mined and processed from 1946 until the early 1990's can be found at numerous sites. In the course of the re-unification of Germany, the soviet shares of the WISMUT were taken over by the Federal Republic of Germany and the closure of the WISMUT facilities was initiated. In that phase the extent of the damages to the environment and of the necessary remediation work became clear. All mining and milling sites are now closed and are under decommissioning. A comprehensive remediation concept covers all WISMUT sites. Heaps and mill-tailing ponds are transferred into a long-term stable condition. The area of the facilities to be remediated amounts to more than 30 km2. Heaps cover a total area of ca. 15,5 km2, tailing ponds in which the tailings resulting from the Uranium production are stored as sludges cover 6,3 km2). In total, the remediation issues are very complex and without precedent. The implementation of the measures will cover a period of 15 to 20 years depending on the site. The necessary expenses are carried by the Federal Government and estimated to amount to about EUR 6.5 billion. In addition the Federal Republic of Germany inherited 6 operating NPPs of soviet design from the former GDR. Comprehensive safety analyses after the German reunification arrived at the conclusion that they did not correspond to Western German safety standards. They had to be shut down in 1990. As the power industry was not prepared to carry the financial risks of backfitting and re-licensing the reactors, the Federal Republic of Germany took over the liabilities. The aim is to finish the decommissioning activities around the year 2012. The total costs for dismantling the plants and storing the resulting waste are estimated to amount to about EUR 3.1 billion

  7. Defining a communication system for the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prof. Eleni Mitropoulou presented an ongoing study, undertaken on behalf of Andra, on long-term communication. The speaker highlighted that it is not so much the marking that needs to be sustainable, but above all what the marking communicates. She highlighted the importance of sustainable human action to produce memory and, thus, the need to reconcile the passive character of geological disposal and the active character of memory keeping. Focusing on semiotics, the interaction between the short, medium and long term was pointed out, highlighting the need to create a relay system. A multidimensional message was proposed, for the purposes of information ('storage site here'), interpellation (to warn, prevent or alert) and integration (with regard to the surrounding environment). This corresponds to the systemic approach of the RK and M initiative, which is based on a variety of RK and M transmission mechanisms that are integrated with and/or complement one another

  8. LONG TERM SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY IS IMPAIRED IN RATS WITH LESIONS OF THE VENTROLATERAL PREOPTIC NUCLEUS

    OpenAIRE

    Arrigoni, Elda; Lu, Jun; Vetrivelan, Ramalingam; Saper, Clifford B

    2009-01-01

    Impairment of memory functions has been frequently reported in models of sleep deprivation. Similarly, hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity has been shown to be sensitive to sleep loss due to acute sleep restriction. However, such approaches are limited by the stressful nature of sleep deprivation, and because it is difficult to study long term sleep restriction in animals. Here we report the effects of chronic sleep loss on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in a rodent model for ...

  9. Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment (LTDE-SD). Supporting laboratory program - Sorption diffusion experiments and rock material characterisation. With supplement of adsorption studies on intact rock samples from the Forsmark and Laxemar site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LTDE-SD experiment, (Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment) aims at increasing the scientific knowledge of sorption and diffusion under in situ conditions and to provide data for performance and safety assessment calculations. In this report, performance and results of laboratory sorption and diffusion experiments and porosity investigations using site-specific crushed and intact rock materials are presented, including a geological and mineralogical characterization of the samples. A synthetic groundwater and a part of the radionuclide tracer cocktail that was used for the in situ experiment were used also in the laboratory experiments. 13 radionuclide tracers were analysed in the laboratory experiments. The method descriptions from SKB Site Investigations were applied in order to enable comparisons with Site Investigations data. The water saturation porosity of 10 unaltered matrix rock samples from KA3065A02 and A03 is 0.26 ± 0.08% and two fracture material samples show porosities of 2.4% and 5.2% respectively. 14C-methylmethacrylate impregnation (the PMMA-method) show that the unaltered rock matrix porosity is relatively homogeneous with grain boundary porosity, while the porosity of fracture samples is heterogeneous and have increased porosity up to more than 10% in some parts. Through-diffusion experiments using tritiated water (H3HO) give a matrix diffusivity in the range from 2.7·10-14 to 6.5·10-14 m2/s in four samples from KA3065A02 and A03. The results of the porosity and diffusion measurements are coherent in ranges with earlier LTDE-SD measurements and are also in line with the SKB Site Investigations results. In the batch sorption experiments using crushed rock material, two matrix rock samples of Aevroe granodiorite, one red-stained altered Aevroe granodiorite sample and two chlorite-calcite dominated fracture samples were analysed for three different size fractions as a function of time up to 186 days contact time. The strongest sorption was observed in the fracture material samples. The two matrix rock samples and the altered sample showed nearly the same sorption properties. Kd values in the range from 1·10-3 to 1 m3/kg could be detected with the method. The individual results for different tracers and species are interpreted in the report. Sorption-diffusion on intact rock samples showed concentration losses that were basically in line to what could be expected from the outcome of the batch sorption experiments within the LTDE-SD and the Site Investigation program. Modelling of the diffusion process showed that the product of the sorption coefficient and the formation factor, Kd·Ff, can only be resolved by analysis of the tracer concentration profiles in the rock

  10. Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment (LTDE-SD). Supporting laboratory program - Sorption diffusion experiments and rock material characterisation. With supplement of adsorption studies on intact rock samples from the Forsmark and Laxemar site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widestrand, Henrik; Byegaard, Johan; Selnert, Eva; Skaalberg, Mats; Hoeglund, Susanne; Gustafsson, Erik (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The LTDE-SD experiment, (Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment) aims at increasing the scientific knowledge of sorption and diffusion under in situ conditions and to provide data for performance and safety assessment calculations. In this report, performance and results of laboratory sorption and diffusion experiments and porosity investigations using site-specific crushed and intact rock materials are presented, including a geological and mineralogical characterization of the samples. A synthetic groundwater and a part of the radionuclide tracer cocktail that was used for the in situ experiment were used also in the laboratory experiments. 13 radionuclide tracers were analysed in the laboratory experiments. The method descriptions from SKB Site Investigations were applied in order to enable comparisons with Site Investigations data. The water saturation porosity of 10 unaltered matrix rock samples from KA3065A02 and A03 is 0.26 +- 0.08% and two fracture material samples show porosities of 2.4% and 5.2% respectively. 14C-methylmethacrylate impregnation (the PMMA-method) show that the unaltered rock matrix porosity is relatively homogeneous with grain boundary porosity, while the porosity of fracture samples is heterogeneous and have increased porosity up to more than 10% in some parts. Through-diffusion experiments using tritiated water (H3HO) give a matrix diffusivity in the range from 2.7centre dot10-14 to 6.5centre dot10-14 m2/s in four samples from KA3065A02 and A03. The results of the porosity and diffusion measurements are coherent in ranges with earlier LTDE-SD measurements and are also in line with the SKB Site Investigations results. In the batch sorption experiments using crushed rock material, two matrix rock samples of Aevroe granodiorite, one red-stained altered Aevroe granodiorite sample and two chlorite-calcite dominated fracture samples were analysed for three different size fractions as a function of time up to 186 days contact time. The strongest sorption was observed in the fracture material samples. The two matrix rock samples and the altered sample showed nearly the same sorption properties. K{sub d} values in the range from 1centre dot10-3 to 1 m3/kg could be detected with the method. The individual results for different tracers and species are interpreted in the report. Sorption-diffusion on intact rock samples showed concentration losses that were basically in line to what could be expected from the outcome of the batch sorption experiments within the LTDE-SD and the Site Investigation program. Modelling of the diffusion process showed that the product of the sorption coefficient and the formation factor, K{sub d}centre dotF{sub f}, can only be resolved by analysis of the tracer concentration profiles in the rock

  11. How long will long-term potentiation last?

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Wickliffe C.

    2003-01-01

    The paramount feature of long-term potentiation (LTP) as a memory mechanism is its characteristic persistence over time. Although the basic phenomenology of LTP persistence was established 30 years ago, new insights have emerged recently about the extent of LTP persistence and its regulation by activity and experience. Thus, it is now evident that LTP, at least in the dentate gyrus, can either be decremental, lasting from hours to weeks, or stable, lasting months or longer. Although mechanism...

  12. Concept Formation Skills in Long-Term Cochlear Implant Users

    OpenAIRE

    Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G.; de Beer, Jessica; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Ditmars, Allison; PISONI, DAVID B.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated if a period of auditory sensory deprivation followed by degraded auditory input and related language delays affects visual concept formation skills in long-term prelingually deaf cochlear implant (CI) users. We also examined if concept formation skills are mediated or moderated by other neurocognitive domains (i.e., language, working memory, and executive control). Relative to normally hearing (NH) peers, CI users displayed significantly poorer performance in several s...

  13. The Long-Term Swap Rate and a General Analysis of Long-Term Interest Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Biagini, Francesca; Gnoatto, Alessandro; Härtel, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    We introduce here for the first time the long-term swap rate, characterised as the fair rate of an overnight indexed swap with infinitely many exchanges. Furthermore we analyse the relationship between the long-term swap rate, the long-term yield, see [4], [5], and [25], and the long-term simple rate, considered in [8] as long-term discounting rate. We finally investigate the existence of these long-term rates in two term structure methodologies, the Flesaker-Hughston model ...

  14. SGK Protein Kinase Facilitates the Expression of Long-Term Potentiation in Hippocampal Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yun L.; Tsai, Ming C.; Hsu, Wei L.; Lee, Eminy H.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase ("sgk") gene plays an important role in long-term memory formation. The present study further examined the role of SGK in long-term potentiation (LTP). The dominant-negative mutant of "sgk," SGKS422A, was used to inactivate SGK. Results revealed a time-dependent increase…

  15. Representational Specificity of Within-Category Phonetic Variation in the Long-Term Mental Lexicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Min; Luce, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the potential encoding in long-term memory of subphonemic, within-category variation in voice onset time (VOT) and the degree to which this encoding of subtle variation is mediated by lexical competition. In 4 long-term repetition-priming experiments, magnitude of priming was examined as a function of variation in VOT in words…

  16. Long-term radiological surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) is committed to ensure that no public safety hazard exists or has developed at any site used for nuclear experimentation. This commitment is assured through strict adherence to applicable safety regulations during active site occupation and through the use of long-term monitoring programs after site activities have terminated. This program is carried out by the Environmental Protection Agency/Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory-Las Vegas (EPA/EMSL-LV) under the cognizance of the ERDA/NV. The Tatum Dome Test Site, used for Project Dribble, was the site of two nuclear and two nonnuclear events between 1964 and 1970. No radioactive contaminants were released to the environment by the actual tests themselves; however, minor releases did occur in connection with reentry drilling. The site was decontaminated, restored to near preshot conditions, and deactivated in 1972. No need for bioenvironmental monitoring, soil sampling, or seismic monitoring has been demonstrated for this site. However, water from all water-bearing formations above the Cook Mountain limestone and from the surface in the vicinity of the site will be periodically sampled, including deep wells, domestic wells, surface waters, and municipal water supplies. The sampling program will continue until it can be established that the need no longer exists. Annual reports will be prepared to document the results of the program. (auth)

  17. Long-Term Low-Level Arsenic Exposure Is Associated with Poorer Neuropsychological Functioning: A Project FRONTIER Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Barber

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to elements in groundwater (toxic or beneficial is commonplace yet, outside of lead and mercury, little research has examined the impact of many commonly occurring environmental exposures on mental abilities during the aging process. Inorganic arsenic is a known neurotoxin that has both neurodevelopmental and neurocognitive consequences. The aim of this study was to examine the potential association between current and long-term arsenic exposure and detailed neuropsychological functioning in a sample of rural-dwelling adults and elders. Data were analyzed from 434 participants (133 men and 301 women of Project FRONTIER, a community-based participatory research study of the epidemiology of health issues of rural-dwelling adults and elders. The results of the study showed that GIS-based groundwater arsenic exposure (current and long-term was significantly related to poorer scores in language, visuospatial skills, and executive functioning. Additionally, long-term low-level exposure to arsenic was significantly correlated to poorer scores in global cognition, processing speed and immediate memory. The finding of a correlation between arsenic and the domains of executive functioning and memory is of critical importance as these are cognitive domains that reflect the earliest manifestations of Alzheimer’s disease. Additional work is warranted given the population health implications associated with long-term low-level arsenic exposure.

  18. Diabetes MILES--Australia (management and impact for long-term empowerment and success: methods and sample characteristics of a national survey of the psychological aspects of living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in Australian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speight Jane

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful management of diabetes requires attention to the behavioural, psychological and social aspects of this progressive condition. The Diabetes MILES (Management and Impact for Long-term Empowerment and Success Study is an international collaborative. Diabetes MILES--Australia, the first Diabetes MILES initiative to be undertaken, was a national survey of adults living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in Australia. The aim of this study was to gather data that will provide insights into how Australians manage their diabetes, the support they receive and the impact of diabetes on their lives, as well as to use the data to validate new diabetes outcome measures. Methods/design The survey was designed to include a core set of self-report measures, as well as modules specific to diabetes type or management regimens. Other measures or items were included in only half of the surveys. Cognitive debriefing interviews with 20 participants ensured the survey content was relevant and easily understood. In July 2011, the survey was posted to 15,000 adults (aged 18-70 years with type 1 or type 2 diabetes selected randomly from the National Diabetes Services Scheme (NDSS database. An online version of the survey was advertised nationally. A total of 3,338 eligible Australians took part; most (70.4% completed the postal survey. Respondents of both diabetes types and genders, and of all ages, were adequately represented in both the postal and online survey sub-samples. More people with type 2 diabetes than type 1 diabetes took part in Diabetes MILES--Australia (58.8% versus 41.2%. Most respondents spoke English as their main language, were married/in a de facto relationship, had at least a high school education, were occupied in paid work, had an annual household income > $AUS40,000, and lived in metropolitan areas. Discussion A potential limitation of the study is the under-representation of respondents from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds (including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin. Diabetes MILES--Australia represents a major achievement in the study of diabetes in Australia, where for the first time, the focus is on psychosocial and behavioural aspects of this condition at a national level.

  19. Long Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a standardized, primary screening and assessment tool of health status that forms the foundation of the comprehensive...

  20. Long term wet spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting showed that there is continuing confidence in the use of wet storage for spent nuclear fuel and that long-term wet storage of fuel clad in zirconium alloys can be readily achieved. The importance of maintaining good water chemistry has been identified. The long-term wet storage behaviour of sensitized stainless steel clad fuel involves, as yet, some uncertainties. However, great reliance will be placed on long-term wet storage of spent fuel into the future. The following topics were treated to some extent: Oxidation of the external surface of fuel clad, rod consolidation, radiation protection, optimum methods of treating spent fuel storage water, physical radiation effects, and the behaviour of spent fuel assemblies of long-term wet storage conditions. A number of papers on national experience are included

  1. MD iMAP: Long Term Care

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This is a MD iMAP hosted service. Find more information at http://imap.maryland.gov. DHMH has identified licensed long-term care and assisted living facilities in...

  2. Long Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a standardized, primary screening and assessment tool of health status that forms the foundation of the comprehensive...

  3. Long-term outcome after coronary stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Donald

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present review assesses the data on long-term outcome after coronary stenting. Histological, angiographical and intravascular imaging data have shown that the insertion of stents constitutes only a transient stimulus to lumen renarrowing, that this process is almost complete at 6 months and that a certain degree of neointima regression is also possible after this time. Clinical data have confirmed the sustained benefit of stenting in the long term. Careful selection of optimal stent designs and application of the recent advances in adjunctive pharmacological therapy are currently effective strategies to improve both short-and long-term results with coronary stenting. However, further efforts are needed and are ongoing to combat restenosis, a process that counters the excellent short-term results of stenting in the long term.

  4. Long-term solar activity predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcintosh, P. S.; Brown, G. M.; Buhmann, R.; Clark, T.; Fougere, P. F.; Hunter, H.; Lincoln, J. V.; Sargent, H. H., III; Timothy, J. G.; Lin, Y. Z.

    1979-01-01

    The need for long term solar activity predictions is addressed. The spatial organization of solar activity is described including applications for predictions, and ancient evidence for solar variability. Methods of predicting sunspot numbers are discussed. The inherent accuracy of the methods varies considerably, but a typical error bar 20%. The accuracy of sunspot cycle predictions is considered along with long term predictions of great solar events.

  5. Reversing cerebellar long-term depression

    OpenAIRE

    Lev-Ram, Varda; Mehta, Samar B; Kleinfeld, David; Tsien, Roger Y

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of a postsynaptically expressed form of cerebellar parallel fiber–Purkinje cell long-term potentiation (LTP) raises the question whether this is the long-sought resetting mechanism for long-term depression (LTD). Extracellular monitoring of PC spikes enables stable prolonged recordings of parallel fiber–Purkinje cell synaptic efficacy. LTD, saturated by repeated induction protocols, can be reversed by a single round of postsynaptic LTP or nitric oxide (NO), enabling LTD to be re...

  6. The Lithuanian Long-term Care System

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The remarkable growth of older population has moved long-term care to the front ranks of the social policy agenda in the European Union. This paper addresses the issue of the longterm care in Lithuania, its philosophy, the legal and funding regularities, management issues and LTC policy. Its attempt is also to provide a complex set of information about the demand side of long-term care including the demographic characteristics of people in need. The paper also presents a detailed description ...

  7. Foreign Currency for Long-Term Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Viceira, Luis; Campbell, John; White, Joshua

    2003-01-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that conservative investors should avoid exposure to foreign currency risk. Even if they hold foreign equities, they should hedge the currency exposure of these positions and hold only domestic Treasury bills. This paper argues that the conventional wisdom may be wrong for long-term investors. Domestic bills are risky for long-term investors, because real interest rates vary over time and bills must be rolled over at uncertain future interest rates. This risk can be ...

  8. Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, N; Henningfield, J; BENOWITZ, N.; Connolly, G; Dresler, C; Fagerstrom, K; M. Jarvis(Imperial College, London, United Kingdom); Boyle, P.

    2005-01-01

    Global tobacco deaths are high and rising. Tobacco use is primarily driven by nicotine addiction. Overall tobacco control policy is relatively well agreed upon but a long term nicotine policy has been less well considered and requires further debate. Reaching consensus is important because a nicotine policy is integral to the target of reducing tobacco caused disease, and the contentious issues need to be resolved before the necessary political changes can be sought. A long term and comprehen...

  9. Long-term prophylaxis in bipolar disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, MJ; Goodwin, GM

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a major cause of disability, and the prevention of relapse is a key management goal. Pharmacological interventions, effectively delivered through enhanced clinical care, are central to long-term management. This article summarises the available evidence for a range of pharmacological options, and provides guidance on common issues in clinical management in line with current practice guidelines. The use of medications for long-term prophylaxis should be considered in all pa...

  10. Diabetes MILES--Australia (management and impact for long-term empowerment and success): Methods and sample characteristics of a national survey of the psychological aspects of living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in Australian adults

    OpenAIRE

    Speight Jane; Browne Jessica L; Holmes-Truscott Elizabeth; Hendrieckx Christel; Pouwer Frans

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Successful management of diabetes requires attention to the behavioural, psychological and social aspects of this progressive condition. The Diabetes MILES (Management and Impact for Long-term Empowerment and Success) Study is an international collaborative. Diabetes MILES--Australia, the first Diabetes MILES initiative to be undertaken, was a national survey of adults living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in Australia. The aim of this study was to gather data that will pr...

  11. LONG-TERM MONITORING SENSOR NETWORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck

    2003-10-16

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor. Sample collection, storage, preparation, analysis, and reporting can add a significant financial burden to project expense when extended over many years. Development of unattended, in situ monitoring networks capable of providing quantitative data satisfactory to regulatory concerns has the potential to significantly reduce LTM costs. But survival and dependable operation in a difficult environment is a common obstacle to widespread use across the DOE complex or elsewhere. Deploying almost any sensor in the subsurface for extended periods of time will expose it to chemical and microbial degradation. Over the time-scales required for in situ LTM, even the most advanced sensor systems may be rendered useless. Frequent replacement or servicing (cleaning) of sensors is expensive and labor intensive, offsetting most, if not all, of the cost savings realized with unattended, in situ sensors. To enable facile, remote monitoring of contaminants and other subsurface parameters over prolonged periods, Applied Research Associates, Inc has been working to develop an advanced LTM sensor network consisting of three key elements: (1) an anti-fouling sensor chamber that can accommodate a variety of chemical and physical measurement devices based on electrochemical, optical and other techniques; (2) two rapid, cost effective, and gentle means of emplacing sensor packages either at precise locations directly in the subsurface or in pre-existing monitoring wells; and (3) a web browser-based data acquisition and control system (WebDACS) utilizing field-networked microprocessor-controlled smart sensors housed in anti-fouling sensor chambers. The monitoring network is highly versatile and can be applied to a variety of subsurface sensing scenarios in different media. However, the current project focused on monitoring water quality parameters of pH, oxidation-reduction potential, conductivity, and temperature in groundwater.

  12. Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of contaminated sites with multiple contaminants released from multiple sources where contaminants have transported and commingled. The U.S. government and U.S. industry are responsible for most of the contamination and are landowners of many of these contaminated properties. These sites must be surveyed periodically for various criteria including structural deterioration, water intrusion, integrity of storage containers, atmospheric conditions, and hazardous substance release. The surveys, however, are intrusive, time-consuming, and expensive and expose survey personnel to radioactive contamination. In long-term monitoring, there's a need for an automated system that will gather and report data from sensors without costly human labor. In most cases, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit is used to collect and report data from a remote location. A SCADA unit consists of an embedded computer with data acquisition capabilities. The unit can be configured with various sensors placed in different areas of the site to be monitored. A system of this type is static, i.e., the sensors, once placed, cannot be moved to other locations within the site. For those applications where the number of sampling locations would require too many sensors, or where exact location of future problems is unknown, a mobile sensing platform is an ideal solution. In many facilities that undergo regular inspections, the number of video cameras and air monitors required to eliminate the need for human inspections is very large and far too costly. HCET's remote harsh-environment surveyor (RHES) is a robotic platform with SCADA capabilities equipped with a sonar-imaging scanner, a high-resolution color CCD camera, and various combinations of sensors. The RHES is controlled remotely via a PC. This paper will discuss the development and application of this system. (authors)

  13. Long-term costs of colorectal cancer treatment in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Corral, Julieta; Castells, Xavier; Molins, Eduard; Chiarello, Pietro; Borras, Josep Maria; Cots, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Background Assessing the long-term cost of colorectal cancer (CRC) increases our understanding of the disease burden. The aim of this paper is to estimate the long-term costs of CRC care by stage at diagnosis and phase of care in the Spanish National Health Service. Methods Retrospective study on resource use and direct medical cost of a cohort of 699 patients diagnosed and treated for CRC in 2000–2006, with follow-up until 30 June 2011, at Hospital del Mar (Barcelona). The Kaplan-Meier sampl...

  14. Long-term stability scintillation tiles for LHCb detector

    CERN Document Server

    Grinyov, B V; Khlapova, N P; Lebedev, V N; Melnychuk, S V; Senchyshyn, V G; 10.1016/j.radmeas.2004.02.018

    2004-01-01

    Accelerated thermal aging tests of materials-UPS-923A, UPS-96G, UPS-96GM and their analogues, SCSN-81 (Kuraray) and BC-408 (Bicron)- were made. A forecast of tile lifetime was made for normal conditions of usage (20% reduction of light output and 50% reduction of the bulk attenuation length (BAL) and technical attenuation length (TAL). Scintillator UPS-96GM has the most long-term stability of parameters- more than 11 yr. BC-408 samples have the minimum lifetime ~7 yr. The long-term stability, calculated by light yield reduction, of UPS-96G, UPS-923A and SCSN-81 is 10, 9 and 8 yr, respectively.

  15. Collaboration of geldanamycin-activated P70S6K and Hsp70 against beta-amyloid-induced hippocampal apoptosis: an approach to long-term memory and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Nayereh; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Digaleh, Hadi; Khodagholi, Fariba; Maghsoudi, Nader

    2015-03-01

    One of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the accumulation of beta-amyloid peptides (A?) in senile plaques. A?-induced oxidative stress is believed to be responsible for degeneration and apoptosis of neurons and consequent cognitive and memory deficits. Here, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effect of the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor geldanamycin (GA) against amyloid pathogenesis in adult male Wistar rats. GA or vehicle was injected into the lateral cerebral ventricles of rats 24 h before injection of A? (1-42) in CA1 area of hippocampus. The learning and memory of the rats were assessed 7 days after injection of A? using passive avoidance (PA) task. As potential contributing factors in A?-induced memory decline, we evaluated apoptotic markers and also used terminal-transferase UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique to detect apoptosis in the hippocampus of A?-injected rats. Our behavioral data suggest that GA pretreatment can significantly suppress memory deficits in A?-injected rats. There was also not only a marked increase in Hsp70 level but also upregulated 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) in the hippocampus of GA-treated groups with a reduction in apoptotic factors including caspase-3, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and TUNEL-positive cells as well. Thus, we conclude that GA exerts its protective effects against A? (1-42) toxicity and memory deficits, at least in part, by upregulating of Hsp70 and P70S6K. PMID:25576151

  16. Soil seed bank of plant species as a function of long-term soil management and sampled depth / Banco de sementes de espécies vegetais em função de distintos manejos do solo por longo período e profundidade amostrada

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G, Concenço; J.C, Salton; R.C, Brevilieri; P.B, Mendes; M.L, Secretti.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o nível de infestação por plantas daninhas em áreas submetidas a manejos distintos por 16 anos: (1) agricultura em sistema convencional de preparo; (2) agricultura em sistema plantio direto; (3) integração lavoura/pecuária; (4) somente pecuária. Amostras de solos destas áreas fo [...] ram coletadas em três profundidades (0-5, 5-10 and 10-15 cm), depositadas em potes plásticos e levadas a casa de vegetação. O solo era revolvido a cada 20 dias, quando as plantas daninhas presentes eram identificadas e coletadas. Foram avaliados cobertura por plantas daninhas; densidade de plantas daninhas e massa seca da comunidade infestante. Foi também conduzida análise fitoecológica em função dos distintos manejos e profundidades. Áreas onde pastagens estiveram presentes tiveram menor infestação por plantas daninhas que áreas onde somente agricultura era utilizada. A composição florística difere entre sistemas de manejo. Áreas onde a pecuária está presente apresentaram número de plântulas de espécies daninhas muito inferior a sistemas onde somente agricultura está presente. A presença de criação de gado afeta o potencial de emergência das espécies presentes no banco de sementes do solo. Sistemas de agricultura sem integração apresentam alta similaridade em termos de composição de espécies ao longo do perfil do solo enquanto sistemas integrados com pecuária apresentam pouca relação entre as profundidades amostradas. Modelos conservacionistas de exploração do solo contribuem com a redução da severidade de ocorrência de espécies daninhas a longo prazo. Abstract in english This study aimed at assessing the level of weed infestation indifferent areas that were submitted to different soil management for 16 years. Four management systems were studied: (1) agriculture only under conventional tillage system; (2) agriculture only under no-till system; (3) crop-livestock int [...] egrationcrop-livestock integration; (4) livestock only. These areas were sampled at three soil depths (0-5, 5-10 and 10-15 cm), and soil was stored in plastic pots and taken to a greenhouse, where soil moisture and weight were standardized. Soil was kept near 70% moisture field capacity, being revolved every 20 days when all seedling emerged from soil were counted, identified and collected for dry mass assessment. The soil coverage by weeds, number of weed seedlings and dry mass of the weedy community were assessed. A phytoecological analysis was conducted. Weed composition is differentdifferent among management systems after 16 years. Areas with livestock showed much smaller number of weed species in comparison to systems where only grain crops are grown. The presence of livestock affects the potential of germination of soil seed bank. Agriculture systems are similar in terms of weed composition along soil profile, while systems involving livestock show little relation in what regards such sampled depths. Conservationist models of land exploration contribute to reduce severity of weed species occurrence in the long term.

  17. Long-Term Interest Rates and Public Debt Maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Sakalauskaite, Ieva; BEETSMA, Roel; GIULIODORI, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    For a sample of sixteen OECD countries over the period 1980-2007 we show that, for given debt-GDP ratio, an increase in the maturity of the public debt by one year lowers its long-term interest rate by around 20-30 basis points. This effect is stronger for countries with higher average inflation or debt.

  18. Hormonal changes during long-term isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custaud, M A; Belin de Chantemele, E; Larina, I M; Nichiporuk, I A; Grigoriev, A; Duvareille, M; Gharib, C; Gauquelin-Koch, G

    2004-05-01

    Confinement and inactivity induce considerable psychological and physiological modifications through social and sensory deprivation. The aim of the SFINCSS-99 experiment was to determine the cardiovascular and hormonal pattern of blood volume regulation during long-term isolation and confinement. Simulation experiments were performed in pressurized chambers similar in size to the volumes of modern space vehicles. Group I consisted of four Russian male volunteers, who spent 240 days in a 100-m(3 )chamber. Group II included four males (one German and three Russians) who spent 110 days in isolation (200-m(3) module). The blood samples, taken before, during and after the isolation period, were used to determine haematocrit (Ht), growth hormone (GH), active renin, aldosterone, and osmolality levels. From the urine samples, electrolytes, osmolality, nitrites, nitrates, cortisol, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), aldosterone, normetanephrine and metanephrine levels were determined. The increase in plasma volume (PV) that is associated with a tendency for a decrease in plasma active renin is likely to be due to decreased sympathetic activity, and concords with the changes in urinary catecholamine levels during confinement. Urinary catecholamine levels were significantly higher during the recovery period than during confinement. This suggests that the sympathoadrenal system was activated, and concords with the increase in heart rate. Vascular resistance is determined by not only the vasoconstrictor but also vasodilator systems. The ratio of nitrite/nitrate in urine, as an indicator of nitric oxide release, did not reveal any significant changes. Analysis of data suggests that the duration of the isolation was a main factor involved in the regulation of hormones. PMID:14722779

  19. Long term consequences on spatial learning-memory of low-calorie diet during adolescence in female rats; hippocampal and prefrontal cortex BDNF level, expression of NeuN and cell proliferation in dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptan, Zülal; Akgün-Dar, Kadriye; Kapucu, Ay?egül; Dedeakayo?ullar?, Huri; Batu, ?ule; Üzüm, Gülay

    2015-08-27

    Calorie restriction (CR) is argued to positively affect general health, longevity and normally occurring age-related reduction of cognition. Obesity during adolescence may adversely affect cognition in adulthood but, to date effects of CR have not been investigated. We hypothesized that feeding with as low as 15% low-calorie diet (LCD) during adolescence would increase hippocampal and prefrontal BDNF (Brain-derived neurotrophic factor) levels, proliferative cells and neuron numbers in dentate gyrus (DG), thus positively affecting spatial memory in adulthood. Spatial learning-memory function was improved in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats fed with LCD during adolescence. PCNA (Proliferating cell nuclear antigen-cell proliferation marker) expressing cells and NeuN (Neuronal nuclear antigen-neuron marker) expressing cells in hippocampus DG which are critically involved in memory were increased. Hippocampus and prefrontal cortex BDNF levels were increased while serum glucose levels and level of lipid peroxidation indicator malondialdehyde in serum and hippocampus were reduced. Our unique results suggest that improved cognition in adult rats with LCD feeding during adolescence may result from the increase of neurogenesis and BDNF. These findings reveal the importance of nutrition in adolescence for cognitive function in adulthood. Our results may be useful for further studies aiming to treat age-related cognitive impairments. PMID:26072462

  20. Long-term prisoner in prison isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Grudzi?ska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term prisoner belongs to a particular category of people who are imprisoned in prisons. On the one hand in this group are often heavily demoralized people who committed the most serious crimes, on the other hand it is a group of prisoners, who should be well thought out and programmed the impact of rehabilitation. The situation of man trapped for years poses in a complicated situation not only the prisoners, but also the entire prison staff. They have to take care of the fact that the prison isolation did not cause the state in which convicts form itself in learned helplessness and lack of skills for self-planning and decision-making. In addition, planning the rehabilitation impact of long-term prisoners should not be forgotten that these prisoners in the short or the long term will return to the libertarian environment therefore, should prevent any negative effects of long-term imprisonment. This article presents the main issues related to the execution of imprisonment against long-term prisoners. It is an attempt to systematize the knowledge of this category of people living in prison isolation.

  1. Long-term symptom relief after septoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundh, Carolina; Sunnergren, Ola

    2015-10-01

    The results for long-term symptom relief after septoplasty are contradictory in reviewed publications but the findings suggest that results are unsatisfactory. In this study, we analyzed and compared short- and long-term symptom relief after septoplasty and factors possibly associated with symptom relief. 111 patients that underwent septoplasty between 2008 and 2010 were included in the study. Medical charts were reviewed for preoperative characteristics and assessments. Data on short-term symptom relief (6 months) were retrieved from the Swedish National Quality Registry for Septoplasty; data on long-term symptom relief (34-70 months) were collected through a questionnaire. Upon the 34-70 month follow-up, 53% of the patients reported that symptoms either remained or had worsened and 83% reported nasal obstruction. Degree of symptom relief was significantly higher among patients not reporting nasal obstruction than among patients reporting nasal obstruction at long-term follow-up. The proportion of patients that reported "my symptoms are gone" declined from 53% after 6 months to 18% after 34-70 months. None of the factors taken into consideration, age at surgery, gender, follow-up time, primary operation/reoperation, history of nasal trauma, self-reported allergy, rhinometric obstruction, or same sided rhinometric, clinical and subjective nasal obstruction were associated with symptom relief. The long-term results after septoplasty are unsatisfactory. A majority of patients report that their symptoms remain after septoplasty. PMID:25432640

  2. Explaining long-term growth in Namibia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joel Hinaunye, Eita; Charlotte B, du Toit.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Supply-side economics stresses the importance of analysing and modelling the long-term properties of an economy's production structures in order to investigate each factor of production's impact on final output. This helps to determine how much should be produced, how much is available for consumpti [...] on and, eventually, how an economy can improve its long-term economic growth path. This study applied the neoclassical growth model to Namibia's growth over the period from 1971 to 2005 in order to identify and develop the main supply-side components of long-term economic growth in the country. Along with a production function, behavioural equations were estimated for the factors of production labour demand and capital investment, as well as for the links between prices and wages.

  3. Long-term alteration of cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term alteration of cementitious materials in the geological condition has been discussed for the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal. This paper describes the status of understanding long-term chemical alteration of cement, by reviewing some of our investigations on this issue in which we developed a thermodynamic incongruent C-S-H dissolution/precipitation model and a reactive transport calculation code. Alteration of C-S-H gel in a saline groundwater and the change of chemical barrier performance of cementitious materials due to the alteration are also discussed. Some key issues to be discussed further are given and suggested for the future studies on the long-term alteration of cementitious materials in the repository environment. (author)

  4. Long-term changes in Saturn's troposphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attention is given to the results of a long term monitoring study of Saturn's H2 quadrupole and CH4 band absorptions outside the equatorial zone, over an interval of half a Saturn year that covers most of the perihelion half of Saturn's elliptical orbit (which is approximately bounded by the equinoxes). Marked long term changes are noted in the CH4 absorption, accompanied by weakly opposite changes in the H2 absorption. Seasonal changes are inferred on the basis of temporal variations in absorption. Spatial measurements have also been made in the 6450 A NH3 band since the 1980 equinox. 42 references

  5. Long term planning for wind energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a planning system intended to be governed primarily by policies in statutory plans a reasonable horizon for long term planning is 10 years or longer. Because of statutory requirements, developers have no option but to pay due regard to, and take a full part in, long term planning. The paper examines the type of policies which have emerged in the last few years to cater for wind energy development. It canvasses the merits of different types of policies. Finally, it discusses the policy framework which may emerge to cater for development outside NFFO. (Author)

  6. Long-term home care scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Jensen, Thomas Sejr

    2011-01-01

    In several countries, home care is provided for certain citizens living at home. The long-term home care scheduling problem is to generate work plans spanning several days such that a high quality of service is maintained and the overall cost is kept as low as possible. A solution to the problem provides detailed information on visits and visit times for each employee on each of the covered days. We propose a branch-and-price algorithm for the long-term home care scheduling problem. The pricing ...

  7. Long-Term Memory Deficits are Associated with Elevated Synaptic ERK1/2 Activation and Reversed by mGluR5 Antagonism in an Animal Model of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seese, Ronald R; Maske, Anna R; Lynch, Gary; Gall, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    A significant proportion of patients with autism exhibit some degree of intellectual disability. The BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J mouse strain exhibits behaviors that align with the major diagnostic criteria of autism. To further evaluate the BTBR strain's cognitive impairments, we quantified hippocampus-dependent object location memory (OLM) and found that one-third of the BTBR mice exhibited robust memory, whereas the remainder did not. Fluorescence deconvolution tomography was used to test whether synaptic levels of activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), a protein that contributes importantly to plasticity, correlate with OLM scores in individual mice. In hippocampal field CA1, the BTBRs had fewer post-synaptic densities associated with high levels of phosphorylated (p-) ERK1/2 as compared with C57BL/6 mice. Although counts of p-ERK1/2 immunoreactive synapses did not correlate with OLM performance, the intensity of synaptic p-ERK1/2 immunolabeling was negatively correlated with OLM scores across BTBRs. Metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 5 signaling activates ERK1/2. Therefore, we tested whether treatment with the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP normalizes synaptic and learning measures in BTBR mice: MPEP facilitated OLM and decreased synaptic p-ERK1/2 immunolabeling intensity without affecting numbers of p-ERK1/2+ synapses. In contrast, semi-chronic ampakine treatment, which facilitates memory in other models of cognitive impairment, had no effect on OLM in BTBRs. These results suggest that intellectual disabilities associated with different neurodevelopmental disorders on the autism spectrum require distinct therapeutic strategies based on underlying synaptic pathology. PMID:24448645

  8. Hippocampal BDNF content in response to short- and long-term exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhzadeh, Farzam; Etemad, Asieh; Khoshghadam, Sahar; Asl, Naser Ahmadi; Zare, Peyman

    2015-07-01

    The hippocampus is a region in the brain that is crucial for learning and memory. Previous researches proved that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a probable responsible protein in the learning and memory formation process. BDNF content is thought to be affected by environmental enrichment and physical activity. The purpose of this research was to identify the effect of short- and long-term forced exercise on hippocampal BDNF levels. A total of 30 Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (control, short-term exercise and long-term exercise) and treated by treadmill running based on their group. As the treadmill running period finished, the animals were anesthetized. The hippocampus was dissected out immediately and BDNF content of the samples was assessed by ELISA. None of the exercise paradigms did make any significant change on hippocampal BDNF levels. Although exercise was proposed to up-regulate BDNF levels, these results show that the intensity or the duration of running paradigm used in forced exercise protocols here was not enough to affect BDNF levels in the hippocampus significantly. PMID:25860428

  9. Long term charge retention dynamics of SONOS cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreghini, A.; Akil, N.; Driussi, F.; Esseni, D.; Selmi, L.; van Duuren, M. J.

    2008-09-01

    We present a model for charge retention dynamics in SONOS non volatile memory cells which accounts for the space and energy distributions of the trapped charge in the silicon nitride, self consistently with the potential. Long term retention measurements (beyond 106 s) versus temperature allowed us to decouple two charge loss mechanisms, to calibrate the model parameters and then to reproduce a large set of measurements on devices featuring different gate stacks, initial threshold voltages (including negative ones) and operation temperatures. A detailed analysis has been also carried out to compare the retention dynamics of cells featuring thin or thick tunnel oxide barriers.

  10. Long-term prognosis of depression in primary care.

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, G. E.

    2000-01-01

    This article uses longitudinal data from a primary care sample to examine long-term prognosis of depression. A sample of 225 patients initiating antidepressant treatment in primary care completed assessments of clinical outcome (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the mood module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IIIR) 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months after initiating treatment. The proportion of patients continuing to meet criteria for major depression fell rapidly to approximate...

  11. Long-term risks of bisphosphonate therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson B. Watts

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective this study was to summarize long-term risks associated with bisphosphonate therapy. Search of relevant medical publications for data from clinical trials, trial extensions, observational studies and post-marketing reports. Trial extensions and modifications did not reveal significant long-term safety issues. Observational data suggest at least as many benefits as risks. Post-marketing reports of musculoskeletal pain, osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femur fractures have been widely circulated in the lay press. Most focus on long-terms risks has been on osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femur fractures which occur in patients who have not received bisphosphonate therapy but may be more frequent (though still uncommon in patients who have been on treatment for 5 years or longer. Lower-risk patients may be able to stop treatment after 3-5 years for a “drug holiday,” which mitigates these long-term risks; for higher risk patients, therapy through 6-10 years appears to be advisable and offers more benefits than risks.

  12. Long-term risks of bisphosphonate therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Nelson B

    2014-07-01

    The objective this study was to summarize long-term risks associated with bisphosphonate therapy. Search of relevant medical publications for data from clinical trials, trial extensions, observational studies and post-marketing reports. Trial extensions and modifications did not reveal significant long-term safety issues. Observational data suggest at least as many benefits as risks. Post-marketing reports of musculoskeletal pain, osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femur fractures have been widely circulated in the lay press. Most focus on long-terms risks has been on osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femur fractures which occur in patients who have not received bisphosphonate therapy but may be more frequent (though still uncommon) in patients who have been on treatment for 5 years or longer. Lower-risk patients may be able to stop treatment after 3-5 years for a "drug holiday," which mitigates these long-term risks; for higher risk patients, therapy through 6-10 years appears to be advisable and offers more benefits than risks. PMID:25166043

  13. NATIONAL LONG TERM CARE SURVEY (NLTCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Long Term Care Surveys (NLTCS) are surveys of the entire aged population with a particular emphasis on the functionally impaired. Longitudinal study of the health and well-being of elderly Americans. Information about the population of chronically disabled elderly person...

  14. Strategic long term planning in mining

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G.L., Smith.

    Full Text Available The fundamental challenge facing mineral and metal companies is how to create sustainable value while operating within mandated strategic bounds, identified constraints, and variable market and economic conditions. This can be achieved by allowing the fixed physical nature of the mineral asset to dr [...] ive definition of the optimal technical solution to mining and processing activities, and developing and resourcing a strategically aligned portfolio of production entities that creates flexibility to near- and longer-term business environment shifts, i.e. a production mix that allows variation of output to respond to short term market variation, within a long term context. The practical achievement of this outcome is enabled by the concept of strategic long term planning. The core elements of strategic long term planning in the metals and minerals industry, and the relationship between them, are expanded. The strategic long term planning framework is a logic construct that enables delivery of an optimized, strategically-aligned business plan from the mineral asset portfolio using a set of tools and techniques with a common language, standards, systems and processes to align decisions and actions on a cyclical basis.

  15. Long term trends in the lower ionosphere.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovi?ka, Jan

    Ostseebad Kühlungsborn : Leibniz Institut für Atmosphären Physik , 2002 - (Heinrich, W.). s. 31 [276. WE Heraeus Seminar. 13.05.2002-16.05.2002, Ostseebad Kühlungsborn] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA3042101; GA AV ?R KSK3012103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : long-term trends * lower ionosphere * upper atmosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  16. Long-term behavior of bituminized waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term properties of bituminized ion exchange resins were studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are related to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product

  17. Synapse Specificity of Long-Term Potentiation Breaks Down with Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ris, Laurence; Godaux, Emile

    2007-01-01

    Memory shows age-related decline. According to the current prevailing theoretical model, encoding of memories relies on modifications in the strength of the synapses connecting the different cells within a neuronal network. The selective increases in synaptic weight are thought to be biologically implemented by long-term potentiation (LTP). Here,…

  18. On the fractional Eulerian numbers and equivalence of maps with long term power-law memory (integral Volterra equations of the second kind) to Grünvald-Letnikov fractional difference (differential) equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Mark

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a simple general form of a deterministic system with power-law memory whose state can be described by one variable and evolution by a generating function. A new value of the system's variable is a total (a convolution) of the generating functions of all previous values of the variable with weights, which are powers of the time passed. In discrete cases, these systems can be described by difference equations in which a fractional difference on the left hand side is equal to a total (also a convolution) of the generating functions of all previous values of the system's variable with the fractional Eulerian number weights on the right hand side. In the continuous limit, the considered systems can be described by the Grünvald-Letnikov fractional differential equations, which are equivalent to the Volterra integral equations of the second kind. New properties of the fractional Eulerian numbers and possible applications of the results are discussed.

  19. Hot functional test chemistry - long term experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary circuit materials undergo general corrosion in high temperature, deoxygenated, neutral or mildly alkaline solutions to form thin oxide films. These oxide layers (films) serve as protective film and mitigate the further corrosion of primary materials. Inner chromium-rich oxide layer has low cation diffusion coefficients and thus control iron and nickel transport from the metal surface to the outer layer and their dissolution into the coolant. Much less corrosion products are generated by the compact, integral and stable oxide (passivation) layer. For the latest Czech and Slovak stations commissioned (Temelin and Mochovce) a modified Hot Functional Test (HFT) chemistry was developed in the NRI Rez. Chromium rich surface layer formatted due to modified HTF chemistry ensures lower corrosion rates and radiation field formation and thus also mitigates crud formation during operation. This procedure was also designed to prepare the commissioned unit for the further proper water chemistry practise. Mochovce 1 (SK) was the first station commissioned using these recommendations in 1998. Mochovce 2 (1999) and Temelin 1 and 2 (CZ - 2000 and 2002) were subsequently commissioned using these guidelines too. The main principles of the controlled primary water chemistry applied during the hot functional tests are reviewed and importance of the water chemistry, technological and other relevant parameters is stressed regarding to the quality of the passive layer formed on the primary system surfaces. Samples from Mochovce indicated that duplex oxide layers up to 20 ?m thick were produced, which were mainly magnetite substituted with nickel and chromium (e.g. 60-65% Fe, 18-28% Cr, 9-12% Ni, <1% Mn and 1-2% Si on a stainless steel primary circuit sample). Long term operation experience from both nuclear power plants are discussed in this paper. Radiation field, occupational radiation exposure and corrosion layers evolution during the first c. ten years of operation are compared and presented. The operation experience from all above mentioned units showed a low level of corrosion products in the primary system as well as low dose rates. Thus, there is no need for any larger decontamination works. The effect of the initial passivation performed during hot functional tests and the primary water chemistry on the radioactivity level and overall radiation situation of corrosion products is discussed. (author)

  20. Switched capacitor arrays analog memory for sparse data sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the design and the test performed on ADeLinel, a Full-Custom Analog Memory for sparse data sampling. It has been designed as an array of switched capacitors. It is only one channel of 8 cells. The control part of the ADeLine chip is custom designed for the size reduction, high speed performance and low power dissipation. The memory has been integrated in double poly, double metal AMS 0.8 ?m CMOS. It has 3.5 V input and output swings, a linearity within ± 6 mV in a 2 V range and 11 bits of resolution. (author)

  1. Improving students' long-term knowledge retention through personalized review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Robert V; Shroyer, Jeffery D; Pashler, Harold; Mozer, Michael C

    2014-03-01

    Human memory is imperfect; thus, periodic review is required for the long-term preservation of knowledge and skills. However, students at every educational level are challenged by an ever-growing amount of material to review and an ongoing imperative to master new material. We developed a method for efficient, systematic, personalized review that combines statistical techniques for inferring individual differences with a psychological theory of memory. The method was integrated into a semester-long middle-school foreign-language course via retrieval-practice software. Using a cumulative exam administered after the semester's end, we compared time-matched review strategies and found that personalized review yielded a 16.5% boost in course retention over current educational practice (massed study) and a 10.0% improvement over a one-size-fits-all strategy for spaced study. PMID:24444515

  2. Electric field modulation of long-term plastic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belen Lafon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial electrical stimulation in humans can lead to electric fields of at most 1V/m on the cortical surface. This may polarize cell membranes by a fraction of a milivolt. While these intensities seem very small, there are a number of in vitro experiments explaining the basic mechanisms by which such low-amplitude electric fields may nevertheless acutely alter neuronal activity, both at the single cell and at the network level . However, the long-term plastic effects which have been repeatedly observed clinically are less understood. Here we are particularly interested in the effects of slow-oscillating stimulation during sleep which were shown to boost the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent declarative memory. How synaptic connections are modified resulting in a memory improvement is still unknown. Currently, two main complementary hypotheses exist regarding consolidation of memory during sleep. The synaptic homeostasis hypothesis conjunctures that consolidation is in part a result of synaptic downscaling that improves the signal-to-noise ratio for all synapses that were potentiated during prior waking experiences. The active system consolidation hypothesis proposes an active consolidation process where learning-specific synaptic connections are strengthened by means of increased plasticity-related immediate early gene transcription and induction of LTP. Slow-oscillating stimulation might be improving memory consolidation by means of modulating synaptic downscaling and/or learning-specific synaptic connections. Current results of our group show that this low-amplitude fields induced an effect on the homeostatic downscaling of endogenous slow-waves during sleep. However, the modulation LTP processes related to the potentiation of learning related synapses has not yet been studied for such fields. Previous studies show that electrical stimulation coupled with ongoing activity in the brain induces plasticity, here we will focus on the modulation of LTP processes while applying acutely several low-amplitude field configurations. Thus linking the long-term behavioral effects with acute electrical stimulation.

  3. Chronic pain and other sequelae in long-term breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuckmann, Vera Irina; Ekholm, Ola; Rasmussen, N K; Groenvold, M; Christiansen, P; Møller, S; Eriksen, J; Sjøgren, P

    2009-01-01

    To investigate self-reported chronic pain and other sequelae in a nationally representative sample of long-term breast cancer survivors (BCS).......To investigate self-reported chronic pain and other sequelae in a nationally representative sample of long-term breast cancer survivors (BCS)....

  4. Long-term depression of nociception and pain in healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Rottmann, Silke

    2010-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), represents a cellular model of learning and memory. LTP, a long-lasting increase of synaptic strength, can be induced by electrical stimulation with a high frequency. Low-frequency stimulation (LFS) leads to a decrease of synaptic transmission referred to as LTD. Synaptic plasticity was shown in the nociceptive system. LTP is suggested to be involved in central sensitization of pain, leading to a so-ca...

  5. [Long-term plasticity of HVC-RA synapses in adult male zebra finches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Ling; Li, Dong-Feng

    2013-12-25

    Long-term synaptic plasticity is considered as a key part of the neural mechanism of learning and memory. The production of learned vocalization of male zebra finches is closely related to high vocal center (HVC)-robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) pathway. However, the long-term plasticity of HVC-RA synapses is unclear. This study investigated the long-term plasticity of HVC-RA synapses in adult male zebra finches through in vivo field potential recording. The results showed that physiologic stimulation, i.e., ? rhythmic stimulation and low frequency stimulation could not effectively induce long-term synaptic plasticity. The former leaded to no change of the amplitudes of evoked population spikes, and the latter induced short-term depression (STD) of the amplitudes of the second evoked population spikes caused by paired pulses. But high frequency stimulation induced long-term depression (LTD) of the amplitudes of evoked population spikes to show out long-term synaptic plasticity. These results suggest that LTD represents the long-term plasticity of HVC-RA synapses in adult male zebra finches, which may be a key part of the neural mechanism of vocal learning and memory and can explain the plasticity of adult song to some degree. PMID:24343715

  6. Quality of Life and Functional Health Status of Long-Term Meditators

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Black; Leigh Wilson; Ramesh Manocha

    2012-01-01

    Background. There is very little data describing the long-term health impacts of meditation. Aim. To compare the quality of life and functional health of long-term meditators to that of the normative population in Australia. Method. Using the SF-36 questionnaire and a Meditation Lifestyle Survey, we sampled 343 long-term Australian Sahaja Yoga meditation practitioners and compared their scores to those of the normative Australian population. Results. Six SF-36 subscales (bodily pain, general ...

  7. Motivational readiness for physical activity and quality of life in long-term lung cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Matthew M.; Novotny, Paul J.; Patten, Christi A; Rausch, Sarah M.; Garces, Yolanda I; Jatoi, Aminah; Sloan, Jeff A; Yang, Ping

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between motivational readiness for physical activity and quality of life (QOL) in long-term lung cancer survivors. Long-term survivors are considered those who are living 5 years or more following a cancer diagnosis. This project examined the relationship between a self-report measure of motivational readiness for physical activity and QOL in a sample of 272 long-term lung cancer survivors. Participants (54% male, average age 70 years old) completed the ...

  8. Long-term selenium status in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association of sub-optimal selenium status with increased risk factors for some cancers has been reported in two recent epidemiological studies. In both studies the same threshold in selenium status was observed, below which, cancer incidence increased. To assess the use of nails as a biologic monitor to measure the long-term selenium status, an eight-year longitudinal study was undertaken with a group of 11 adult subjects, 5 women and 6 men. Selenium has been measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Differences between fingernails and toenails with be discussed. In addition, the results will be discussed in the context of the long-term stability of the nail monitor to measure selenium status during those periods when selenium determinants are static; and the changes that occur as a result of selenium supplementation. (author)

  9. Analysis of long-term energy scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemming, J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    1998-09-01

    When addressing the role of fusion energy in the 21. century, the evaluation of possible future structures in the electricity market and the energy sector as a whole, can be a useful tool. Because fusion energy still needs demonstration, commercialized fusion energy is not likely to be a reality within the next few decades. Therefore long-term scenarios are needed describing the energy markets, which fusion energy eventually will be part of. This report performs an analysis of two of the most detailed existing long-term scenarios describing possible futures of the energy system. The aim is to clarify the frames in which the future development of the global energy demand, as well as the structure of the energy system can be expected to develop towards the year 2100. (au) 19 refs.

  10. Quantifying Long-term Scientific Impact

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Dashun; Barabási, Albert-László

    2013-01-01

    An ability to accurately assess the long-term impact of a scientific discovery has implications from science policy to individual reward. Yet, the documented lack of predictability of citation based measures frequently used to gauge impact, from impact factors to short-term citations, raises a fundamental question: is there long-term predictability in citation patterns? Here we derive a mechanistic model for the citation dynamics of individual papers, allowing us to collapse the citation histories of papers from different journals and disciplines into a single curve, indicating that all papers follow the same universal temporal pattern. The observed patterns not only help us uncover the basic mechanisms that govern scientific impact, but also offer reliable measures of influence with potential policy implications.

  11. Case presentation: long-term treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucksman, Myron L

    2013-01-01

    The long-term (14 years) psychodynamic psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy of a depressed, suicidal, self-mutilating female patient is described. Her diagnoses included Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, and Recurrent Major Depression. Treatment was punctuated with repeated hospitalizations for self-mutilation (cutting) and suicidal ideation. A major determinant for her psychopathology was sexual abuse by her father from ages 6 to 14. This resulted in feelings of guilt and rage that she repressed and acted out through self-mutilating and suicidal behavior. A prolonged negative transference gradually became ambivalent, then positive. This was associated with her internalization of the healing qualities of the therapeutic relationship. She also gained insight into the reasons for her need to punish herself. Her initial self-representation as unworthy and bad was transformed into perceiving herself as a worthwhile, loving person. This case illustrates the role of long-term treatment for a complex, life-threatening, psychiatric disorder. PMID:24001161

  12. Long term evolution 4G and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Yacoub, Michel; Figueiredo, Fabrício; Tronco, Tania

    2016-01-01

    This book focus on Long Term Evolution (LTE) and beyond. The chapters describe different aspects of research and development in LTE, LTE-Advanced (4G systems) and LTE-450 MHz such as telecommunications regulatory framework, voice over LTE, link adaptation, power control, interference mitigation mechanisms, performance evaluation for different types of antennas, cognitive mesh network, integration of LTE network and satellite, test environment, power amplifiers and so on. It is useful for researchers in the field of mobile communications.

  13. Safety of long-term PPI therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors have become the mainstay of medical treatment of acid-related disorders. Long-term use is becoming increasingly common, in some cases without a proper indication. A large number of mainly observational studies on a very wide range of possible associations have been published in the past decade and are critically reviewed in this article and the existing evidence is evaluated and translated into possible clinical consequences. Based on the existing evidence the benefits of ...

  14. Endogenous altruism, redistribution, and long term care

    OpenAIRE

    Cremer, Helmuth; Gahvari, Firouz; Pestieau, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies public provision of long term care insurance in a world in which family assistance is (i) uncertain and (ii) endogenous depending on the time parents spend raising their children. Public benefits will be paid in case of disability but cannot be combined with self-insurance or family aid. The benefits are provided equally to all recipients and financed by a proportional payroll tax. The paper shows that tax distortions imply that full insurance is undesirable. It characteriz...

  15. Long-term outcomes of sports injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker, Rienk

    2004-01-01

    Participation in sports is an important way to spend spare time. Being actively involved in sports has clear advantages, like the improvement of physical endurance and the prevention of Western diseases. However, it can be questioned whether these advantages are not outweighted by the notable side effects: the occurrence and the adverse outcome of a large number of injuries. Long-term consequences are of importance in determining this outcome, since sportsmen are generally young and, conseque...

  16. Long-term Treatment in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya ULUDÜZ

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is a chronic neuro-inflammatory and neuro-degenerative disease of the CNS which may present and progress heterogeneously. It is rather a spectrum and currently there is some evidence that long term treatments may be effective for its relapsing forms. Such treatments have been shown to reduce the number of attacks and MRI-related disease burden with the probability to slow progression. These long term treatments are considered to have mostly an anti-inflammatory activity. Interferon beta group drugs and glatiramer acetate are likely to exert their therapeutic effects through a number of different mechanisms but probably the main one is anti-inflammatory being through such mechanisms, but their efficacy is limited. Immunosuppressive drugs such as Mitoxantrone and Cyclophosphamide are accepted to have a more potent anti-inflammatory effect with better efficacy, but with more serious adverse effects. Natalizumab is one of the new players in the field with a supposedly better efficacy than the interferon betas or glatiramer acetate, but yet carries an increased risk of being associated with progressive mulifocal leukoencepalopathy as a serious side effect. As not all patients with MS progress and end up with disability, long-term treatments may not be necessary for every individual, who receives the diagnosis of MS. It is the MS neurologist who should consider first whether the patient should be put on long term treatment and once such a decision is given, then which one. The agents to be selected should be determined according to the benefit-risk ratio for each patient individually. In this review these issues are discussed. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2008; 45 Supplement: 26-36

  17. Energy: solutions for the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Power towers' operated by sunlight, vertical-axis, windmills capable of generating electricity, breeder reactors producing more uranium than they consume, and power plants fuelled by nuclear fusion - these are some of the exotic energy sources to be created as long term alternatives under the U.S. Government's plan for energy and research development. International co-operation, which has already begun, could permit other nations to share with America the fruits of this investment in the future

  18. Timber joints under long-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldborg, T.; Johansen, M.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes tests and results from stiffness and strength testing of splice joints under long-term loading. During two years of loading the spicimens were exposed to cyclically changing relative humidity. After the loading period the specimens were short-term tested. The connectors were integral nail-plates and nailed steel and plywood gussets. The report is intended for designers and researchers in timber engineering.

  19. Bacterial cellulose : long-term biocompatibility studies

    OpenAIRE

    P??rtile, Renata Aparecida Nedel; Moreira, Susana Margarida Gomes; Costa, Rui M. Gil da; Correia, Alexandra; Guard??o, Lu??sa; Gartner, F??tima; Vilanova, Manuel; Gama, F.M.

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial cellulose (BC) secreted by G. xylinus is a network of pure cellulose nanofibers, which has high crystallinity, wettability and mechanical strength. These characteristics make BC an excellent material for tissue engineering constructs, noteworthy for artificial vascular grafts. In this work, the in vivo biocompatibility of BC membranes produced by two G. xylinus strains was analyzed through histological analysis of long-term subcutaneous implants in the mice. The BC implants caus...

  20. The discovery of long-term potentiation.

    OpenAIRE

    Lømo, Terje

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes circumstances around the discovery of long-term potentiation (LTP). In 1966, I had just begun independent work for the degree of Dr medicinae (PhD) in Per Andersen's laboratory in Oslo after an eighteen-month apprenticeship with him. Studying the effects of activating the perforant path to dentate granule cells in the hippocampus of anaesthetized rabbits, I observed that brief trains of stimuli resulted in increased efficiency of transmission at the perforant path-granule...