Full Text Available The presence of Salmonella was detected in 192 samples of poultry carcasses from poultry farms in Shiraz province (Iran. A total of 30 Salmonella isolates were found in chicken samples (15.6%, by conventional culturing and confirmed by PCR and serology methods. Strains of serogroup D1 were the most prevalent strains, followed by serogroups C1, B and C2. All strains were subjected to Salmonella-specific gene (invA and were confirmed as Salmonella positive by the predicted product a 284-bp DNA fragment.
T. Zahraei Salehi
In order to make a rapid and definite diagnosis of Salmonella enteritis in children, an enrichment broth culture-multiplex PCR combination assay was devised to identify Salmonella serovars directly from fecal samples. Two pairs of oligonucleotide primers were prepared according to the sequences of the chromosomal invA and plasmid spvC genes. PCR with these two primers would produce either one amplicon (from the invA gene) or two amplicons (from the invA and spvC genes), depending on whether o...
Contamination of seafood with salmonellae is a major public health concern. Detection of Salmonella by standard culture methods is time consuming. In this study, an enrichment culture step prior to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to detect 284 bp fragment of Salmonella invA in comparison with the conventional culture method in 100 shrimp samples collected from four different shrimp farms and fresh food markets around Bangkok. Samples were pre-enriched in non-selective lactose broth (LB) and selective tetrathionate broth (TTB). PCR detection limit was 10 pg and 10(4) cfu/ml of viable salmonellae with 100% specificity. PCR assay detected 19 different Salmonella serovars belonging to 8 serogroups (B, C1, C2-C3, D1, E1, E4 and K) commonly found in clinical and environmental samples in Thailand. The detection rate of PCR following TTB enrichment (24%) was higher than conventional culture method (19%). PCR following TTB, but not in LB enrichment allowed salmonella detection with 84% sensitivity, 90% specificity and 89% accuracy. Shrimp samples collected from fresh food markets had higher levels of contaminated salmonellae than those from shrimp farms. The results indicated that incorporation of an enrichment step prior to PCR has the potential to be applied for detection of naturally contaminated salmonellae in food, environment and clinical samples. PMID:20578527
Upadhyay, Bishnu Prasad; Utrarachkij, Fuangfa; Thongshoob, Jarinee; Mahakunkijcharoen, Yuvadee; Wongchinda, Niracha; Suthienkul, Orasa; Khusmith, Srisin
One of the earliest steps in the pathogenic cycle of the facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella spp. is the invasion of the cells of the intestinal epithelium. We have previously identified a genetic locus, inv, that allows Salmonella spp. to enter cultured epithelial cells. invA is a member of this locus, and it is the first gene of an operon consisting of at least two additional invasion genes. We have constructed strains carrying nonpolar mutations in invA and examined the individua...
InvA, which is essential for Salmonella spp. to enter cultured epithelial cells, is a member of a family of proteins involved in either flagellar biosynthesis or the secretion of virulence determinants by a number of plant and mammalian pathogens. The predicted overall secondary structures of these proteins show significant similarities and indicate a modular construction with a hydrophobic amino-terminal half, consisting of six to eight potential transmembrane domains, and a hydrophilic carb...
Recent outbreaks of Salmonella linked to fresh produce emphasize the need for rapid detection methods to help control the spread of disease. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) can detect the presence of mRNA (shorter half-life than DNA) with greater potential for detecting viable pathogens. The chromosomally located invA gene required for host invasion by Salmonella is widely used for detection of this pathogen by PCR. Detection of Salmonella was undertaken by real-time RT-PCR (rt-RT-PCR) using newly designed invA gene primers to develop a sensitive and specific assay. Salmonella serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis were grown (7.68 log(10) CFU/mL) in Luria-Bertani broth overnight at 37 degrees C, and RNA was extracted, followed by rt-RT-PCR with and without SYBR green I and agarose gel electrophoresis. All experiments were replicated at least thrice. Detection for both serovars using traditional RT-PCR was lower ( approximately 10(5) CFU/mL) than rt-RT-PCR (10(3) CFU/mL) by gel electrophoresis. Melt curve analysis showed melt temperatures at 87.5 degrees C with Ct values from 12 to 15 for up to 10(3) CFU/mL and improved to 10(2) CFU/mL after further optimization. Further, addition of RNA internal amplification control constructed using in vitro transcription with a T7 RNA polymerase promoter, to the RT-PCR assay also gave detection limits of 10(2) CFU/mL. Cross-reactivity was not observed against a panel of 21 non-Salmonella bacteria. Heat-inactivated (autoclaved) Salmonella showed faint or no detection by rt-RT-PCR or gel electrophoresis. This method has potential to be applied for the detection of Salmonella serovars in fresh produce and the simultaneous detection of foodborne viral (RNA viruses) and bacterial pathogens in a multiplex format. PMID:19715427
D'Souza, Doris H; Critzer, Faith J; Golden, David A
Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Salmonella spp. es un patógeno bacteriano muy importante causante de diarreas, que es transmitido tanto por la vía fecal-oral, como por alimentos y agua contaminados. En este trabajo se estandarizó una técnica de PCR en lechuga para la detección del gen invA de Salmonella spp.; dicho gen se relacion [...] a con el proceso de invasión al epitelio intestinal. Con la PCR desarrollada en este trabajo se logró estandarizar un método que permite la amplificación del gen invA con una detección de 10² UFC/25 g. Este método acorta los tiempos de respuesta de los resultados presuntivos y brinda información complementaria al cultivo tradicional del patógeno. El estudio del gen invA establece el potencial patógeno del microorganismo presente en la muestra, lo que puede ser de utilidad para la salud pública. Abstract in english Salmonella spp. is a very important bacterial pathogen that causes diarrhea and which is transmitted both through the fecal-oral pathway, as by contaminated food and water. In this study we standardized a PCR method in lettuce for the detection of the Salmonella spp. invA gene. This gene is related [...] to the invasion of the intestinal epithelium process. With the PCR method developed in this study we were able to standardize a method which permits the amplification of the invA gene with a 10² CFU/25 g detection. This method shortens the response times of the presumptive results and gives complementary information to the traditional culture of the pathogen. The study of the invA gene establishes the pathogenic potential of the microorganism present in the sample, which can be useful for public health purposes.
Luz, Chacón; Kenia, Barrantes; Cristina, García; Achí, Rosario.
The presence of two virulence foci, invA and spvC, in Salmonella isolates obtained from poultry, wastewater, and human sources was determined. All isolates (n = 245) were positive for the invA gene sequence. Differences in degree of invasiveness were apparent with the Madin Darby canine kidney cell line, as only 79 of 159 randomly selected isolates (49.7%) tested were invasive at > 0.1% of the inoculum. 25% were invasive between 0.1 and 1.0% of the inoculum, and 24.5% were invasive at > 1.0% ...
The effects of three temperatures (5, 15, and 25°C) on the survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in topsoil were investigated in small microcosms by three different techniques: plate counting, invA gene quantification, and invA mRNA quantification. Differences in survival were related to the effect of protozoan predation. Tetracycline-resistant Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was inoculated into soil and manure-amended soil at 1.5 × 108 cells g soil?1. Population densities we...
The effects of three temperatures (5, 15, and 25 degrees C) on the survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in topsoil were investigated in small microcosms by three different techniques: plate counting, invA gene quantification, and invA mRNA quantification. Differences in survival were related to the effect of protozoan predation. Tetracycline-resistant Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was inoculated into soil and manure-amended soil at 1.5 x 10(8) cells g soil(-1). Population densities were determined by plate counting and by molecular methods and monitored for 42 days. Simultaneous extraction of RNA and DNA, followed by quantitative PCR, was used to investigate invA gene levels and expression. Analysis by these three techniques showed that Salmonella serovar Typhimurium survived better at 5 degrees C. Comparing DNA and CFU levels, significantly higher values were determined by DNA-based techniques. invA mRNA levels showed a fast decrease in activity, with no detectable mRNA after an incubation period of less than 4 days in any of the soil scenarios. A negative correlation was found between Salmonella serovar Typhimurium CFU levels and protozoan most probable numbers, and we propose the role of the predator-prey interaction as a factor to explain the die-off of the introduced strain by both culture- and DNA quantification-based methods. The results indicate that temperature, manure, and protozoan predation are important factors influencing the survival of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium in soil. PMID:20562283
García, R; Baelum, J; Fredslund, L; Santorum, P; Jacobsen, C S
Full Text Available Pathogenic bacteria possess genes responsible for virulence, that when expressed, determine not only bacterial invasion and persistence and destruction of host cells but also survival capacity under inappropriate culture conditions. This study utilized 100 samples of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica Serotype Enteritidis (SE isolated from avian material, detected the virulence genes InvA and SpvC by medium of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR and compared them for possible expression of virulence factors for survival in hostile conditions of temperature, pH and reduced concentration of nutrients necessary for SE multiplication. Of all the samples analyzed, two presented the genes SpvC and InvA, simultaneously, with one probable expression of them being verified in growth with pH 10.0 or temperature of 25oC. But in relation to nutrient concentration, neither sample obtained growth when seeded in medium containing 0.5% nutrient.
Adriano Sakai Okamoto
Invasion of intestinal epithelial cells is an essential virulence factor of salmonellae. A group of genes, invABC and invD, that allow Salmonella typhimurium to penetrate cultured epithelial cells have previously been characterized (J. E. Galán and R. Curtiss III, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:6383-6387, 1989). The distribution of these genes among Salmonella isolates belonging to 37 different species or serovars was investigated by Southern and colony blot hybridization analyses. Regions of...
Presencia del gen de invasividad inv A en cepas de Salmonella spp: aisladas de alimentos del Caribe Colombiano Presence of the invasive gene invA in Salmonella spp: strains isolated from food in several cities of the Colombian Caribbean area
Full Text Available Objetivo: establecer la presencia del gen de invasividad invA en aislamientos de Salmonella spp. obtenidos de alimentos en la región Caribe Colombiana. Métodos: se realizó un estudio microbiológico de control de alimentos en 4 ciudades de la región Caribe entre enero de 2002 y marzo de 2003. Se analizaron 1 300 muestras de alimentos provenientes de mercados y ventas callejeras. Resultados: se recuperaron 74 aislamientos de Salmonella spp. , en carne de res 30 (40,5 %, embutidos 13 (17,6 %, pollo 12 (16,2 %, queso 9 (12,2 %, cerdo 6 (8,1 % y otros 4 (5,5 %. Los serotipos más frecuentes fueron: S. anatum 14 (18,9 %, S. uganda 13 (17,6 %, S. newport 9 (12,2 % y S. typhimurium 7 (9,5 %. El cebador invA amplificó un fragmento de 378 pb, el gen invA se detectó en 72 (97,3 % aislamientos de Salmonella. Conclusiones: se detectó la presencia del gen invA en los serotipos de Salmonella circulantes en alimentos en la región Caribe Colombiana. Las implicaciones epidemiológicas de estos resultados permiten sugerir a las autoridades sanitarias tomar medidas estrictas en el control, prevención y diagnóstico de la infección por Salmonella en esta regiónObjective: to establish the presence of invasive gene invA in Salmonella spp. strains obtained from food in several cities of the Colombian Caribbean area. Methods: from January 2002 to March 2003, a microbiological study of quality control of food was carried out in four cities of the Colombian Caribbean area. One thousand and three hundred food samples were analyzed in fast food outlets located in city squares or markets. Results: seventy four isolates of Salmonella were recovered: 30 (40.5 in meat; 13 (17.6 % in sausage; 12 (16.2 % in chicken; 9 (12.2 % in cheese; 6 (8.1 % in pork and 4 (5.5 % in other types of food. The most frequently isolated serotypes were S.anatum in 14 (18.9 %, S.uganda in 13 (17.6 %, S. newport in 9 (12.2 % y S. typhimurium in 7 (9.5 %. The invA primer amplified 378 pb fragment, invA gene was detected in 72 (97.3 % Salmonella isolates. Conclusions: it was possible to detect the invA gene in circulating serotypes of Salmonella isolates obtained from food in the Colombian Caribbean area, the epidemiological implications allow the health authorities to take measure for the prevention, control and diagnosis of Salmonella infection in the Colombian Caribbean area
Paula Espinal Marin
Full Text Available Poultry meat has been identified as one of the principal foodborne source of Salmonella. In this preliminary study the prevalence of Salmonella spp. contamination of broiler carcasses, were determined. Sixty samples were collected from poultry carcasses from the commercial broiler slaughtering facility in Namakkal, Tamil Nadu. The presence of Salmonella spp in collected samples was assessed by performing the pre-enrichment and enrichment culture, followed by PCR assay. The primers were selected from the invA gene specific for the detection of Salmonella spp. In this study 8.3% of poultry carcasses were found to be contaminated with Salmonella spp. In order to provide a more accurate profile of the prevalence of Salmonella spp in broiler carcasses, it is pertinent to use inv A gene specific PCR method that could be considered as an appropriate alternative to conventional culture method. [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 562-564
Presencia del gen de invasividad inv A en cepas de Salmonella spp: aisladas de alimentos del Caribe Colombiano Presence of the invasive gene invA in Salmonella spp: strains isolated from food in several cities of the Colombian Caribbean area
Objetivo: establecer la presencia del gen de invasividad invA en aislamientos de Salmonella spp. obtenidos de alimentos en la región Caribe Colombiana. Métodos: se realizó un estudio microbiológico de control de alimentos en 4 ciudades de la región Caribe entre enero de 2002 y marzo de 2003. Se analizaron 1 300 muestras de alimentos provenientes de mercados y ventas callejeras. Resultados: se recuperaron 74 aislamientos de Salmonella spp. , en carne de res 30 (40,5 %), embutidos 13 (17,6...
Application of pyrosequencing of six Salmonella-specific genes as a rapid Salmonella identification method was tested. Primers for hns, hisJ and hilA had non-specific reactions with non-Salmonella strains. Primers for invA, iroB and fimY had specific PCR products and pyrosequences of Salmonella, suggesting that they were suitable for Salmonella rapid identification. PMID:22342525
Li, Xiujuan; Yang, Fang; Gao, Weili; Song, Hongmei; Tian, Huifang; Xu, Baohong
A real-time PCR assay combined with a pre-enrichment step for the specific and rapid detection of Salmonella in water samples is described. Following amplification of the invA gene target, High Resolution Melt (HRM) curve analysis was used to discriminate between products formed and to positively identify invA amplification. The real-time PCR assay was evaluated for specificity and sensitivity. The assay displayed 100% specificity for Salmonella and combined with a 16-18 h non-selective pre-enrichment step, the assay proved to be highly sensitive with a detection limit of 1.0 CFU/ml for surface water samples. The detection assay also demonstrated a high intra-run and inter-run repeatability with very little variation in invA amplicon melting temperature. When applied to water samples received routinely by the laboratory, the assay showed the presence of Salmonella in particularly surface water and treated effluent samples. Using the HRM based assay, the time required for Salmonella detection was drastically shortened to less than 24 h compared to several days when using standard culturing methods. This assay provides a useful tool for routine water quality monitoring as well as for quick screening during disease outbreaks. PMID:22170841
van Blerk, G N; Leibach, L; Mabunda, A; Chapman, A; Louw, D
Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi B is a globally distributed human-specific pathogen causing paratyphoid fever. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid and reliable polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for its detection in food. The SPAB_01124 gene was found to be unique to S. Paratyphi B using comparative genomics. Primers for fragments of the SPAB_01124 gene and the Salmonella-specific invA gene were used in combination to establish a multiplex PCR assay that showed 100% specificity across 45 Salmonella strains (representing 34 serotypes) and 18 non-Salmonella strains. The detection limit was 2.2 CFU mL(-1) of S. Paratyphi B after 12-h enrichment in pure culture. It was shown that co-culture with S. Typhimurium or Escherichia coli up to concentrations of 3.6 × 10(5) CFU and 3.3 × 10(4) CFU, respectively, did not interfere with PCR detection of S. Paratyphi B. In artificially contaminated milk, the assay could detect as few as 62 CFU mL(-1) after 8 h of enrichment. In conclusion, comparative genomics was found to be an efficient approach to the mining of pathogen-specific target genes, and the PCR assay that was developed from this provided a rapid, specific, and sensitive method for detection of S. Paratyphi B. PMID:24725227
Zhai, Ligong; Yu, Qian; Bie, Xiaomei; Lu, Zhaoxin; Lv, Fengxia; Zhang, Chong; Kong, Xiaohan; Zhao, Haizhen
The presence of Salmonella was detected in 192 samples of poultry carcasses from poultry farms in Shiraz province (Iran). A total of 30 Salmonella isolates were found in chicken samples (15.6%), by conventional culturing and confirmed by PCR and serology methods. Strains of serogroup D1 were the most prevalent strains, followed by serogroups C1, B and C2. All strains were subjected to Salmonella-specific gene (invA) and were confirmed as Salmonella po...
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay had been used to detect Salmonella in food and beverage samples using suitable primers which are based on specific invA gene of Salmonella. Twenty nine samples were collected from street food counters and some canteens in Margonda Street, Depok, West Java, Indonesia. It was found that five of twenty nine samples were detected to contain Salmonella and showed the presence of the amplified product of the size 244 bp. The method of PCR demonstrated the spec...
The cytotoxic and mutagenic specificity of two therapeutically employed psoralens was examined in several Ames Salmonella typhimurium strains with near ultraviolet light activation. Photomutagenic activity of 8-methoxypsoralen (8MOP) and 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (TMP) was found to be sequence-specific, and additionally was dependent on the level of DNA-repair proficiency. Phototoxicity was essentially identical in hisC3076, hisD3052 and hisG46 strains; uvrB- excision-repair-deficient bacteria were considerably more susceptible to lethal effects than wild-type parental strains. Finally, the data show that psoralens are potent frameshift photomutagens in Salmonella hisC3076 strains and demonstrate the potential utility of these strains in evaluating photomutagenic and phototoxic activity of new furocoumarin derivatives. (Auth.)
The use of Salmonella as a potential antitumor agent has been investigated, but innate immunity against this bacterium reduces the efficacy of its tumor-targeting and antitumor activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the modulation of the tumor-targeting efficiency of Salmonella enterica serovar choleraesuis by modifying the immune response to these bacteria by coating them with poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), designated PAH-S.C. To evaluate this modulation, we used naïve mice and mice immunized with Salmonella to study the role of the preexisting immune response to the antitumor activity of PAH-S.C. When anti-Salmonella antibodies were present, the invasion activity, cytotoxicity, and gene transfer of Salmonella was significantly decreased, both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with PAH-S.C. resulted in delayed tumor growth and enhanced survival in immunized mice. Furthermore, immunohistochemical studies of the tumors revealed the infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages in immunized mice treated with PAH-S.C. These results indicate that Salmonella encapsulation effectively circumvented the Salmonella-specific immune response. PMID:22736433
Lee, Che-Hsin; Lin, Yu-Hsin; Hsieh, Jeng-Long; Chen, Man-Chin; Kuo, Wan-Lin
The standard method for detecting Salmonella generally analyzes food or fecal samples. Salmonella often occur in relatively low concentrations in environmental waters. Therefore, some form of concentration and proliferation may be needed. This study compares three Salmonella analysis methods and develops a new Salmonella detection procedure for use in environmental water samples. The new procedure for Salmonella detection include water concentration, nutrient broth enrichment, selection of Salmonella containing broth by PCR, isolation of Salmonella strains by selective culture plates, detection of possible Salmonella isolate by PCR, and biochemical testing. Serological assay and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) can be used to identify Salmonella serotype and genotype, respectively. This study analyzed 116 raw water samples taken from 18 water plants and belonging to 5 watersheds. Of these 116, 10 water samples (8.6%) taken from 7 water plants and belonging to 4 watersheds were positive for a Salmonella-specific polymerase chain reaction targeting the invA gene. Guided by serological assay results, this study identified 7 cultured Salmonella isolates as Salmonella enterica serovar: Alnaby, Enteritidis, Houten, Montevideo, Newport, Paratyphi B var. Java, and Victoria. These seven Salmonella serovars were identified in clinical cases for the same geographical areas, but only one of them was 100% homologous with clinical cases in the PFGE pattern. - Research highlights: ? A new Salmonella detecting procedure for environmental water is developed. ? Salmonella isolates are identified by serological assay and PFGE. ? A total of seven Salmonella serovars is isolated from environmental water.
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica poses a threat to both human and animal health, with more than 2500 serovars having been reported to date. Salmonella serovars are identified by slide and tube agglutination tests using O and H antigen-specific anti-sera, although this procedure is both labor intensive and time consuming. Establishment of a method for rapid screening of the major Salmonella serovars is therefore required. We have established multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) assays for identification of seven serovars of Salmonella, i.e., Typhimurium, Choleraesuis, Infantis, Hadar, Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum. Three serovar-specific genomic regions (SSGRs) of each serovar were selected using an approach in comparative genomics. The Salmonella-specific invA gene was used to confirm the genetic background of the organisms. The isolates tested were identified as a target serovar when the three selected SSGRs and invA were all positive for amplification. The specificity of each m-PCR assay was investigated using 118 serovars of Salmonella and 12 species of non-Salmonella strains. Although a small number of false-positive results were observed in the m-PCR assays used to identify Typhimurium, Choleraesuis, Enteritidis and Dublin for closely related serovars, false-negative results were not observed in any assays. These assays had sufficient specificity to identify the seven Salmonella serovars, and therefore, have the potential for use as rapid screening methods. PMID:21329737
Akiba, Masato; Kusumoto, Masahiro; Iwata, Taketoshi
The occurrence of Salmonella in 750 birds was assessed. The samples included the internal organs (caecal pouches, yolk sac, liver, and lung) of imported 1-day-old chicks (n = 150), grandparent chicks (n = 150), breeder chicks (n = 150), ducklings (n = 150), and turkey poults (n = 150), and paper-lined boxes (n = 250). Salmonellae isolated from the internal organs and paper-lined box of 1-day-old chicks, ducklings, and poults were mostly evident from the paper-lined box followed by caecal samples. Imported 1-day-old grandparent flocks were Salmonella free. Although 23.3% of the imported breeder flocks were positive for Salmonella, the imported duckling flocks and day-old turkey poults exhibited 19.3% and 12.6%, respectively. The widest diversity in isolated salmonellae was from the 1-day-old chicks where Salmonella Newport, Salmonella Kentucky, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Shubra, Salmonella Saintpaul, and Salmonella Agona were isolated. On the other hand, two Salmonella serovars were isolated from the imported breeders, Salmonella Shubra and Salmonella Shipley, and from the imported ducklings, Salmonella Shubra and Salmonella Saintpaul. The three Salmonella serovars isolated from the imported day-old turkey poults were Salmonella Shubra, Salmonella Newport, and Salmonella Saintpaul. The high percentage and diversity of Salmonella isolation from the imported birds cause concern because of the zoonotic potential of this agent and its economical importance to the local commercial poultry breeding industry. From 80 samples investigated for Salmonella, the positivity of the standard microbiological technique method was 17.5% and of the polymerase chain reaction method (Salmonella-specific invA gene) was 22.5%. The concordance between the two methods was 90% (k = 0.850). Our results indicated that the polymerase chain reaction approach is better than culturing for detecting Salmonella in poultry samples when using the preenriched medium combinations used in this study. PMID:20001323
Osman, Kamelia M; Yousef, Ashgan M M; Aly, Mona M; Radwan, Moustafa I
The objective of this study was the application and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the detection of Salmonella spp. strains isolated from food samples. Salmonella specific invA gene sequences (50 strains, 15 serotypes) were amplified at 65oC in 60 min. All of the strains of Salmonella subsp. Enterica were shown to be positive using the LAMP reaction assay, whereas, all other bacteria, virus and yeasts tested in this study were negative. LAMP products ...
Eggs and egg products have a high risk of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis contamination leading to gastroenteritis outbreaks in humans. Thus, a rapid screening tool for viable Salmonella Enteritidis cells in the egg industry is needed. Our objective was to rapidly and sensitively detect viable Salmonella Enteritidis from spiked liquid whole eggs (LWEs) within 24 h using SYBR green I-based real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the Salmonella specific invA gene along with an internal amplification control in a Bio-Rad iCycler. LWE was inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis and mixed with tetrathionate broth, and 100 ?L of serially diluted portions in phosphate-buffered saline was plated on Xylose Lysine Tergitol 4 agar or 5 mL were used for RNA extraction by the TRIzol method immediately or after enrichment of 6, 12, or 16 h at 37 °C. The real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR assay was carried out using previously described Salmonella invA gene primers. Melt temperature analysis of the PCR product was included to determine specific invA amplification. Without enrichment, the assay detection limit was 10(7) colony forming units (CFU)/25 mL LWE. After enrichment for 6 and 12 h, Salmonella Enteritidis could be detected from LWE up to 10(4) and 10(2) CFU/25 mL, respectively. Improved Salmonella Enteritidis detection up to 10(0) CFU/25 mL was obtained after 16-h enrichment. Even with 16-h enrichment, the results could be still be obtained within 24 h, which is much faster than by traditional cultural detection that takes several days. Therefore, this assay appears suitable for routine detection of Salmonella enterica contamination by the egg industry to help prevent the transmission of egg-associated Salmonella outbreaks and timely recall of contaminated products. PMID:21381900
Techathuvanan, Chayapa; D'Souza, Doris Helen
The standard method for detecting Salmonella generally analyzes food or fecal samples. Salmonella often occur in relatively low concentrations in environmental waters. Therefore, some form of concentration and proliferation may be needed. This study compares three Salmonella analysis methods and develops a new Salmonella detection procedure for use in environmental water samples. The new procedure for Salmonella detection include water concentration, nutrient broth enrichment, selection of Salmonella containing broth by PCR, isolation of Salmonella strains by selective culture plates, detection of possible Salmonella isolate by PCR, and biochemical testing. Serological assay and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) can be used to identify Salmonella serotype and genotype, respectively. This study analyzed 116 raw water samples taken from 18 water plants and belonging to 5 watersheds. Of these 116, 10 water samples (8.6%) taken from 7 water plants and belonging to 4 watersheds were positive for a Salmonella-specific polymerase chain reaction targeting the invA gene. Guided by serological assay results, this study identified 7 cultured Salmonella isolates as Salmonella enterica serovar: Alnaby, Enteritidis, Houten, Montevideo, Newport, Paratyphi B var. Java, and Victoria. These seven Salmonella serovars were identified in clinical cases for the same geographical areas, but only one of them was 100% homologous with clinical cases in the PFGE pattern. PMID:21782212
Hsu, Bing-Mu; Huang, Kuan-Hao; Huang, Shih-Wei; Tseng, Kuo-Chih; Su, Ming-Jen; Lin, Wei-Chen; Ji, Dar-Der; Shih, Feng-Cheng; Chen, Jyh-Larng; Kao, Po-Min
The administration of live attenuated Salmonella strains has proven to be an effective way to generate protective immunity against Salmonella infection in humans and mice. Studies in the mouse model have shown that protection requires Salmonella-specific Th1 cells, however the timing and stimulatory requirements for generating optimal Th1 responses have not been carefully examined. We used antibiotic interruption of vaccination with live attenuated Salmonella to examine the requirements for S...
Full Text Available The objective of this study was the application and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP method for the detection of Salmonella spp. strains isolated from food samples. Salmonella specific invA gene sequences (50 strains, 15 serotypes were amplified at 65oC in 60 min. All of the strains of Salmonella subsp. Enterica were shown to be positive using the LAMP reaction assay, whereas, all other bacteria, virus and yeasts tested in this study were negative. LAMP products could be visually detected under day light or ultraviolet light, while the specific amplification of the DNA of Salmonella strains generated ladder-like pattern bands on agarose gel. LAMP is suitable for the sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive detection of Salmonella spp. in food analytical laboratories.
A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was applied for the selective amplification of a characteristic sequence within a Salmonella-specific chromosomal fragment. A two-temperature PCR cycle enhanced both the speed and overall sensitivity of the amplification procedure. Twenty-one well-characterized Salmonella strains and a number of non-Salmonella strains were tested. With the exception of the rarely isolated Salmonella arizonae strain, the PCR-based approach enabled the specific identification of Salmonella with a detection limit of 10(3) organisms. In combination with a nested PCR assay, as few as ten organisms were detectable. Specificity was demonstrated as no distinct amplification products were detectable with any of the tested non-Salmonella strains. With a pre-enrichment step using paramagnetic anti-Salmonella beads, an increase in sensitivity was observed in the case of clinical samples while the amplification process was not influenced. PMID:8874081
Haedicke, W; Wolf, H; Ehret, W; Reischl, U
A method based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) DNA biosensor has been developed for label-free and high-sensitive detection of Salmonella. A biotinylated single-stranded oligonucleotide probe was designed to target a specific sequence in the invA gene of Salmonella and then immobilized onto a streptavidin coated dextran sensor surface. The invA gene was isolated from bacterial cultures and amplified using a modified semi-nested asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. In order to investigate the hybridization detection, experiments with different concentration of synthetic target DNA sequences have been performed. The calibration curve of synthetic target DNA had good linearity from 5 nM to 1000 nM with a detection limit of 0.5 nM. The proposed method was applied successfully to the detection of single-stranded invA amplicons from three serovars of Salmonella, i.e., Typhimurium, Enterica and Derby, and the responses to PCR products were related to different S. typhimurium concentrations in the range from 10(2) to 10(10) CFU mL(-1). While with this system to detect E. coli and S. aureus, no significant signal was observed, demonstrating good selectivity of the method. In addition, the hybridization can be completed within 15 min, and the excellent sensor surface regeneration allows at least 300 assay cycles without obvious loss of performance. PMID:22498436
Zhang, Decai; Yan, Yurong; Li, Qing; Yu, Tianxiao; Cheng, Wei; Wang, Long; Ju, Huangxian; Ding, Shijia
A SYBR Green real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for specific detection and quantification of airborne Salmonella cells in livestock housings is presented. A set of specific primers was tested and validated for specific detection and quantification of Salmonella-specific invA genes of DNA extracted from bioaerosol samples. Application of the method to poultry house bioaerosol samples showed concentrations ranging from 2.2 x 10(1) to 3 x 10(6) Salmonella targets m(-3) of air. Salmonella were also detected by a cultivation-based approach in some samples, but concentrations were two to three magnitudes lower than the concentrations detected by molecular biological results. Specificity of results was demonstrated by cloning analyses of PCR products, which were exclusively assigned to the genus Salmonella. However, by molecular methods, microorganisms are detected independently of their viability status, leading to an overestimation of concentration. Hence, the survival rate of Salmonella cells was measured on filter surfaces during filtration samplings where 82% of the cells died within 20 min of filtration. The results clearly show the specificity and practicability of the established qPCR assay for analysis and quantification of salmonellae in bioaerosols. The results demonstrate airborne Salmonella workplace concentrations in poultry production of up to 3.3% of 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole-counted total cell numbers. PMID:19675125
Fallschissel, Kerstin; Kämpfer, Peter; Jäckel, Udo
Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomes are parasitic helminths that infect humans through dermo-invasion while in contaminated water. Salmonella are also a common water-borne human pathogen that infects the gastrointestinal tract via the oral route. Both pathogens eventually enter the systemic circulation as part of their respective disease processes. Concurrent Schistosoma-Salmonella infections are common and are complicated by the bacteria adhering to adult schistosomes present in the mesenteric vasculature. This interaction provides a refuge in which the bacterium can putatively evade antibiotic therapy and anthelmintic monotherapy can lead to a massive release of occult Salmonella. Results Using a novel antibiotic protection assay, our results reveal that Schistosoma-associated Salmonella are refractory to eight different antibiotics commonly used to treat salmonellosis. The efficacy of these antibiotics was decreased by a factor of 4 to 16 due to this association. Salmonella binding to schistosomes occurs via a specific fimbrial protein (FimH present on the surface on the bacterium. This same fimbrial protein confers the ability of Salmonella to bind to mammalian cells. Conclusions Salmonella can evade certain antibiotics by binding to Schistosoma. As a result, effective bactericidal concentrations of antibiotics are unfortunately above the achievable therapeutic levels of the drugs in co-infected individuals. Salmonella-Schistosoma binding is analogous to the adherence of Salmonella to cells lining the mammalian intestine. Perturbing this binding is the key to eliminating Salmonella that complicate schistosomiasis.
Day Tim A
As part of a major international project for the validation and standardization of PCR for detection of five major food-borne pathogens, four primer sets specific for Salmonella species were evaluated in-house for their analytical accuracy (selectivity and detection limit) in identifying 43 Salmonella spp. and 47 non-Salmonella strains. The most selective primer set was found to be 139-141 (K. Rahn, S. A. De Grandis, R. C. Clarke, S. A. McEwen, J. E. Galan, C. Ginocchio, R. Curtiss 111, and C. L. Gyles, Mol. Cell. Probes 6:271-279, 1992), which targets the invA gene. An extended determination of selectivity by using 364 strains showed that the inclusivity was 99.6% and the exclusivity was 100% for the invA primer set. To indicate possible PCR inhibitors derived from the sample DNA, an internal amplification control (IAC), which was coamplified with the invA target gene, was constructed. In the presence of 300 DNA copies of the IAC, the detection probability for primer set 139-141 was found to be 100% when a cell suspension containing 10(4) CFU/ml was used as the template in the PCR (50 CFU per reaction). The primer set was further validated in an international collaborative study that included 16 participating laboratories. Analysis with 28 coded ("blind") DNA samples revealed an analytical accuracy of 98%. Thus, a simple PCR assay that is specific for Salmonella spp. and amplifies a chromosomal DNA fragment detected by gel electrophoresis was established through extensive validation and is proposed as an international standard. This study addresses the increasing demand of quality assurance laboratories for standard diagnostic methods and presents findings that can facilitate the international comparison and exchange of epidemiological data.
A quantitative real-time (RT)-PCR assay was developed to detect Salmonella spp. in the feces of 911 equine species admitted to a veterinary hospital. Fresh feces and feces enriched for 24h in selenite broth were assessed by conventional culture and by RT-PCR targeting the Salmonella invA gene. The detection limit for the RT-PCR assay was 3 and 10 organisms, respectively, when spiked samples were purified from selenite broth and feces. The analytical specificity was 100% based on the detection of a panel of 40 salmonella serotypes from five serogroups and the lack of cross-reactivity with non-related micro-organisms. Although Salmonella spp. were not cultured from fresh feces, the organism was cultured from 6/911 (0.6%) of broth-enriched samples. The bacterial load in enriched samples varied from 3 to 861,037 salmonella invA gene copies/?L DNA. The RT-PCR assay had an overall relative accuracy of 98%, a relative sensitivity of 100% and a relative specificity of 98%, when compared to conventional culture. The judicious use of such a RT-PCR method has the potential to reduce the risk of nosocomial infections such as salmonellosis through the provision of highly accurate and rapid pathogen detection. PMID:19766027
Pusterla, Nicola; Byrne, Barbara A; Hodzic, Emir; Mapes, Samantha; Jang, Spencer S; Magdesian, K Gary
Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) detects the presence of mRNA and has a greater potential for detecting viable pathogens than do DNA-based PCR assays, with improved speed and sensitivity compared with traditional methods. Our objective was to rapidly and sensitively detect Salmonella Typhimurium from pork within two 8-h work shifts using a SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR (rt-RT-PCR) assay. Pork chop and sausage samples (25 g) were inoculated with 10(8) to 10(0) CFU of Salmonella Typhimurium and stomached in 225 ml of tetrathionate broth. Serial dilutions were spread plated on xylose lysine Tergitol 4 agar either immediately or after 10 h of selective preenrichment or preenrichment followed by 12 h of selective enrichment (for stressed cells) at 37 degrees C for standard cultural enumeration. RNA was extracted using the TRIzol method. The rt-RT-PCR assay was carried out in a Bio-Rad iCycler using a SYBR Green I one-step RT-PCR kit and Salmonella specific invA gene primers with an internal amplification control (IAC). The PCR was followed by melting temperature (T(m)) analysis to determine specific Salmonella invA (T(m) = 87.5 degrees C) and IAC (T(m) = 82 degrees C) products. Improved Salmonella detection up to 10(1) CFU/25 g of pork and 10(0) CFU/25 g of sausages was obtained after 10 h of enrichment within approximately 24 h. Even without enrichment, Salmonella could be detected from both pork chop and sausage at 10(6) CFU/25 g within 1 day. This robust rt-RT-PCR detects and confirms Salmonella in pork within approximately 24 h and thus is significantly faster than traditional methods that take >/=1 week. This assay shows promise for routine testing and monitoring of Salmonella by the pork industry. PMID:20202337
Techathuvanan, Chayapa; Draughon, Frances Ann; D'Souza, Doris Helen
Full Text Available Salmonella enterica, the most pathogenic species of the genusSalmonella, includes more than 2,500 serovars, many of which are of great veterinary and medical significance. The emergence of food-borne pathogens, such as Salmonella spp., has increased knowledge about the mechanisms helping microorganisms to persist and spread within new host populations. It has also increased information about the properties they acquire for adapting in the biological environment of a new host. Thedifferences observed between serovars in their host preference and clinical manifestations are referred to as “serovar-host specificity” or “serovar-host adaptation”. The genus Salmonella, highly adaptive to vertebrate hosts, has many pathogenic serovars showing host specificity. Serovar Salmonella Typhi, causing disease to man and higher primates, is a good example of host specificity. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that Salmonella serovars use to overcome animal species' barriers or adapt to new hosts is also important for understanding the origins of any other infectious diseases or the emergence of new pathogens. In addition, molecular methods used to study the virulence determinants of Salmonella serovars, could also be used to model ways of studying the virulence determinants used by bacteria in general, when causing disease to a specific animal species
In a previous study, we reported the performance of a PCR assay amplifying 285-bp of the invA gene of Salmonella spp. through an international ring-trial involving four participating laboratories [Int. J. Food Microbiol. 89 (2003) 241]. Based on the validated set of primers and recent advancements in PCR technology, we have designed two specific PCR assays for detecting Salmonella spp. We have compared PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA) and LightCycler real-time PCR assay (LC-PCR) with the standard ISO 6579 bacteriological reference method. The two PCR tests incorporated an internal amplification control (IAC) co-amplified with the invA gene of Salmonella to monitor potential PCR inhibitors and ensure successful amplification. The selectivity study involved 84 Salmonella and 44 non-Salmonella strains and the samples tested were represented by 60 artificially-contaminated samples of fish, minced beef and raw milk, and 92 naturally-contaminated milk and meat samples. When using either PCR-ELISA or LC-PCR assays, only Salmonella strains were detected. PCR-ELISA and LC-PCR assays gave with pure Salmonella cultures the same detection limit level of 10(3) CFU/ml, which corresponds respectively to 50 and 10 cells per PCR tube. Data on artificially contaminated samples indicated that both PCR methods were able to detect after enrichment less than five Salmonella cells in 25 g of food, giving 100% concordance with the ISO 6579 reference method. The results on naturally contaminated samples demonstrated that despite certain inhibition problems, LC-PCR and PCR-ELISA assays were highly specific and sensitive, and provide a powerful tool for detection of Salmonella in food samples.
Salmonella is a leading cause of waterborne diseases. Salmonella can survive for a long time in aquatic environments, and its persistence in the environment is of great concern to public health. Nonetheless, the presence and diversity of Salmonella in the aquatic environments in most areas remain relatively unknown. In this study, we examined three analytical processes for an optimum Salmonella detection method, and the optimized method was used to evaluate seasonal variations of Salmonella in aquatic environments. In addition, Salmonella strains were isolated by selective culture medium to identify the serotypes by biochemical testing and serological assay, and to identify the genotypes by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis based on the genetic patterns. A total of 136 water samples were collected in the study area in 9 months. Forty-one (30.1%) samples were found to contain Salmonella-specific invA gene, and most (24/41) of the detections occurred in summer. The serovars of Salmonella enterica were identified, including Bareilly, Isangi, Newport, Paratyphi B var. Java, Potsdam and Typhimurium. PMID:24417320
Huang, Kuan-Hao; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Chou, Ming-Yuan; Tsai, Hsien-Lung; Kao, Po-Min; Wang, Hung-Jen; Hsiao, Hsiang-Yu; Su, Ming-Jen; Huang, Yu-Li
Reptile-associated salmonellosis in humans has become a growing problem worldwide. Reptiles are frequently asymptomatic carriers of Salmonella and therefore, they are considered as an important reservoir for these bacteria. The classical biochemical method for Salmonella subspecies detection is time consuming, especially in samples from reptiles since they frequently carry more than one Salmonella subspecies. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a multiplex PCR assay for a rapid and accurate differentiation of Salmonella subspecies I, II, IIa, IIIb and IV. In the present study, the occurrence of the genes invA, ttrCA, iroB, STM4075, sciA, STM3690, sadA, gatD, foxA, pagN, fljB, iucD, spvB, lacZ, iutA, mdcA and irp2 was examined in 41 Salmonella strains from Middle Eastern animals (mainly reptiles) by monoplex PCR. According to the results a multiplex PCR assay was developed based on the genes ttrCA, sciA, foxA, iutA. Compared to biochemical analysis this method allowed a fast identification of the subspecies from all the Middle Eastern Salmonella strains (n = 41), as well as 79 strains from German children (n = 18) with reptile associated salmonellosis and other humans and animals (n = 61) with salmonellosis.These results revealed the multiplex PCR as a fast assay for a specific identification of Salmonella subspecies I, II, IIIa, and IIIb. PMID:23367664
Münch, Sebastian; Wernery, Ulrich; Kinne, Jörg; Joseph, Marina; Braun, Peggy; Pees, Michael; Flieger, Antje; Fruth, Angelika; Rabsch, Wolfgang
Salmonella enterica serovars are virulent pathogens of humans and animals with many strains possessing multiple drug resistance traits. They have been found to carry resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline (ACSSuT-resistant). A rapid and sensitive multiplex PCR (mPCR)-based assay was developed for the detection of Salmonella serovars from seafood. Six sets of primers which are one primer pair targeting Salmonella specific gene invA (284 bp), two Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2) genes ssaT (780 bp) and sseF (888 bp) and three antibiotic resistance genes floR (198 bp), sul1 (425 bp), tetG (550 bp) were used for the study. The specificity and sensitivity of the assay were tested by spiking shrimp/fish/clam homogenate with viable cells of Salmonella. This assay allows for the cost effective and reliable detection of pathogenic Salmonella enterica from seafood. The mPCR developed in the present study proved to be a potent analytical tool for the rapid identification of multidrug-resistant Salmonella serovars from seafood. PMID:23545447
Deekshit, Vijaya Kumar; Kumar, Ballamoole Krishna; Rai, Praveen; Rohit, Anusha; Karunasagar, Indrani
A non-radio-labeled probe-based detection method was developed for rapid enumeration of Salmonella in seafood and water samples. A Salmonella-specific invA gene probe was developed using a digoxigenin-based non-radio labeling assay, which was evaluated with naturally contaminated seafood and water samples. The probe-based technique was further compared with the quantitative PCR assay. The method was specific for detection of different Salmonella serovars without any nonspecific hybridization with other Salmonella-related Enterobacteriaceae. The optimum labeling efficiency was determined for the labeled probe, and 10 pg/microL probe concentration was observed to be most efficient for detection of Salmonella colonies on nylon membrane. Quantification of Salmonella in naturally contaminated seafood and water samples (n = 21) was in the range 10-10(2) CFU/mL. The assay successfully quantified Salmonella in spiked seafood and water samples in the presence of background flora, and the entire assay was completed within 48 h. The probe-based assay was further evaluated with real-time PCR, and results showed that the assay was comparable to real-time PCR assay. Thus, this probe-based assay can be a rapid, useful, and alternative technique for quantitative detection of Salmonella in food, feed, and water samples. PMID:23451381
Kumar, Rakesh; Lalitha, K V
Full Text Available Abstract Background A fast and simple two-step multiplex real-time PCR assay has been developed to replace the traditional, laborious Salmonella serotyping procedure. Molecular beacons were incorporated into the assay as probes for target DNA. Target sequences were regions of the invA, prot6E and fliC genes specific for Salmonella spp. Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, respectively, the two most clinically relevant serotypes. An internal amplification positive control was included in the experiment to ensure the optimal functioning of the PCR and detect possible PCR inhibition. Three sets of primers were used for the amplification of the target sequences. The results were compared to those of the Kauffmann-White antigenic classification scheme. Results The assay was 100% sensitive and specific, correctly identifying all 44 Salmonella strains, all 21 samples of S. Enteritidis and all 17 samples of S. Typhimurium tested in this work. Therefore, the entire experiment had specificity and sensitivity of 100%. The detection limit was down to 10 copies of DNA target per 25 ?l reaction. Conclusion The assay can amplify and analyse a large number of samples in approximately 8 hours, compared to the 4 to 5 days conventional identification takes, and is thus considered a very promising method for detecting the two major serotypes of Salmonella quickly and accurately from clinical and environmental samples.
Emmanuel Maria A
... Salmonella Share Compartir Diagnosis and Treatment How Can Salmonella Infections Be Diagnosed? Many different kinds of illnesses ... testing can determine its specific type. How Can Salmonella Infections Be Treated? Salmonella gastrointestinal infections usually resolve ...
Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, a major cause of food poisoning, can be transmitted to humans through intact chicken eggs when the contents have not been thoroughly cooked. Infection in chickens is asymptomatic; therefore, simple, sensitive, and specific detection methods are crucial for efforts to limit human exposure. Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to isolate DNA restriction fragments present in Salmonella serovar Enteritidis but absent in other bacteria found in po...
Agron, Peter G.; Walker, Richard L.; Kinde, Hailu; Sawyer, Sherilyn J.; Hayes, Dawn C.; Wollard, Jessica; Andersen, Gary L.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the profile of inflammatory response in patients with acute salmonellosis caused by two serotypes of Salmonella enterica, S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, as well as in convalescent patients with previous acute disease caused by S. Enteritidis. Patients with acute disease showed significantly elevated levels of IL-1Î², IL-17, IL-10, and calprotectin compared to healthy control subjects. In convalescent patients, these markers were also significantly elevated, with the exception of IL-1Î². Multivariate statistical analyses with the use of these variables produced models with a good predictive accuracy resulting in excellent separation of the diseased and healthy cohorts studied. Overall, the results suggest that the profile of inflammatory response in this disease is determined, to a significant degree, by the serotype of Salmonella, and the profile of certain cytokines and calprotectin remains abnormal for a number of months following the acute disease stage.
Ktsoyan, Zhanna; Ghazaryan, Karine
A multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction procedure was developed to identify the most prevalent clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. Genes from the rfb, fliC, fljB, and viaB groups that encode the O, H, and Vi antigens were used to design 15 primer pairs and TaqMan probes specific for the genes rfbJ, wzx, fliC, fljB, wcdB, the sdf-l sequence, and invA, which was used as an internal amplification control. The primers and probes were variously combined into six sets....
Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterium Salmonella enterica includes a diversity of serotypes that cause disease in humans and different animal species. Some Salmonella serotypes show a broad host range, some are host restricted and exclusively associated with one particular host, and some are associated with one particular host species, but able to cause disease in other host species and are thus considered "host adapted". Five Salmonella genome sequences, representing a broad host range serotype (Typhimurium, two host restricted serotypes (Typhi [two genomes] and Paratyphi and one host adapted serotype (Choleraesuis were used to identify core genome genes that show evidence for recombination and positive selection. Results Overall, 3323 orthologous genes were identified in all 5 Salmonella genomes analyzed. Use of four different methods to assess homologous recombination identified 270 genes that showed evidence for recombination with at least one of these methods (false discovery rate [FDR] ompC, a gene encoding an outer membrane protein, which has also been found to be under positive selection in other bacteria. A total of 8, 16, 7, and 5 genes showed evidence for positive selection in Choleraesuis, Typhi, Typhimurium, and Paratyphi branch analyses, respectively. Sequencing and evolutionary analyses of four genes in an additional 42 isolates representing 23 serotypes confirmed branch specific positive selection and recombination patterns. Conclusion Our data show that, among the four serotypes analyzed, (i less than 10% of Salmonella genes in the core genome show evidence for homologous recombination, (ii a number of Salmonella genes are under positive selection, including genes that appear to contribute to virulence, and (iii branch specific positive selection contributes to the evolution of host restricted Salmonella serotypes.
Salmonella spp. is a common water-borne pathogens and its genus comprises more than 2,500 serotypes. Major pathogenic genotypes which cause typhoid fever, enteritis and other intestinal-type diseases are S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Stanley, S. Agona, S.Albany, S. Schwarzengrund, S. Newport, S. Choleraesuis, and S. Derby. Hence, the identification of the serotypes of Salmonella spp. is important. In the present study, the analytical procedures include direct concentration method, non-selective pre-enrichment method and selective enrichment method of Salmonella spp.. Both selective enrichment method and cultured bacteria were detected with specific primers of Salmonella spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). At last, the serotypes of Salmonella were confirmed by using MLST (multilocus sequence typing) with aroC, dnaN, hemD, hisD, purE, sucA, thrA housekeeping genes to identify the strains of positive samples. This study contains 121 samples from three different types of water sources including the drinking water (51), streams (45), and swine wastewater (25). Thirteen samples with positive invA gene are separated from culture method. The strains of these positive samples which identified from MLST method are S. Albany, S. Typhimurium, S. Newport, S. Bareilly, and S. Derby. Some of the serotypes, S. Albany, S. Typhimurium and S. Newport, are highly pathogenic which correlated to human diarrhea. In our results, MLST is a useful method to identify the strains of Salmonella spp.. Keywords: Salmonella, PCR, MLST.
Kuo, C.; Hsu, B.; Shen, T.; Tseng, S.; Tsai, J.; Huang, K.; Kao, P.; Chen, J.
Conventional culture detection methods are time consuming and labor-intensive. For this reason, an alternative rapid method combining real-time PCR and immunomagnetic separation (IMS) was investigated in this study to detect both healthy and heat-injured Salmonella Typhimurium on raw duck wings. Firstly, the IMS method was optimized by determining the capture efficiency of Dynabeads(®) on Salmonella cells on raw duck wings with different bead incubation (10, 30 and 60min) and magnetic separation (3, 10 and 30min) times. Secondly, three Taqman primer sets, Sal, invA and ttr, were evaluated to optimize the real-time PCR protocol by comparing five parameters: inclusivity, exclusivity, PCR efficiency, detection probability and limit of detection (LOD). Thirdly, the optimized real-time PCR, in combination with IMS (PCR-IMS) assay, was compared with a standard ISO and a real-time PCR (PCR) method by analyzing artificially inoculated raw duck wings with healthy and heat-injured Salmonella cells at 10(1) and 10(0)CFU/25g. Finally, the optimized PCR-IMS assay was validated for Salmonella detection in naturally contaminated raw duck wing samples. Under optimal IMS conditions (30min bead incubation and 3min magnetic separation times), approximately 85 and 64% of S. Typhimurium cells were captured by Dynabeads® from pure culture and inoculated raw duck wings, respectively. Although Sal and ttr primers exhibited 100% inclusivity and exclusivity for 16 Salmonella spp. and 36 non-Salmonella strains, the Sal primer showed lower LOD (10(3)CFU/ml) and higher PCR efficiency (94.1%) than the invA and ttr primers. Moreover, for Sal and invA primers, 100% detection probability on raw duck wings suspension was observed at 10(3) and 10(4)CFU/ml with and without IMS, respectively. Thus, the Sal primer was chosen for further experiments. The optimized PCR-IMS method was significantly (P=0.0011) better at detecting healthy Salmonella cells after 7-h enrichment than traditional PCR method. However there was no significant difference between the two methods with longer enrichment time (14h). The diagnostic accuracy of PCR-IMS was shown to be 98.3% through the validation study. These results indicate that the optimized PCR-IMS method in this study could provide a sensitive, specific and rapid detection method for Salmonella on raw duck wings, enabling 10-h detection. However, a longer enrichment time could be needed for resuscitation and reliable detection of heat-injured cells. PMID:24974274
Zheng, Qianwang; Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yang, Yishan; Xu, Wang; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun
We have recently reported that the intravaginal instillation of synthetic Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) or TLR9 agonists after a subcutaneous vaccination against human papillomavirus E7 highly increases (~5-fold) the number of vaccine-specific CD8+ T cells in the genital mucosa of mice, without affecting E7-specific systemic responses. Here, we show that the instillation of live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium similarly, though more efficiently (~15- fold), increases both E7-...
Decrausaz, Loane; Pythoud, Christelle; Domingos-pereira, Sonia; Derre?, Laurent; Jichlinski, Patrice; Nardelli-haefliger, Denise
Salmonella enteritidis (SE) colonizes the intestinal tract of poultry and causes food born illness in humans. Reduction of (SE) colonization in the intestinal tract of poultry reduces potential carcass contamination during slaughter. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SE-specific yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) on prevention of SE colonization in orally infected broiler chickens. Commercial Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL) hens were hyperimmunized with SE whole...
Shaban Rahimi; Zahra Moghadam Shiraz; Taghi Zahraei Salehi; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad A.; Grimes, Jesse L.
The chromosomal region containing the Salmonella enterica pathogenic island inv-spa was present in the last common ancestor of all the contemporary lineages of salmonellae. For multiple strains of S. enterica, representing all eight subspecies, nucleotide sequences were obtained for five genes of the inv-spa invasion complex, invH, invE, invA, spaM, and spaN, al of which encode proteins that are required for entry of the bacteria into cultured epithelial cells. The invE, invA, spaM, and spaN ...
Analysis of Salmonella enterica Serotype-Host Specificity in Calves: Avirulence of S. enterica Serotype Gallinarum Correlates with Bacterial Dissemination from Mesenteric Lymph Nodes and Persistence In Vivo
Host and bacterial factors that determine whether Salmonella serotypes remain restricted to the gastrointestinal tract or penetrate beyond the mucosa and cause systemic disease remain largely undefined. Here, factors influencing Salmonella host specificity in calves were assessed by characterizing the pathogenesis of different serotypes. Salmonella enterica serotype Dublin was highly virulent intravenously, whereas S. enterica serotype Choleraesuis was moderately virulent. Both serotypes were...
Paulin, Susan M.; Watson, Patricia R.; Benmore, Annette R.; Stevens, Mark P.; Jones, Philip W.; Villarreal-ramos, Bernardo; Wallis, Timothy S.
Protein type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are organic nanosyringes that achieve an energy-dependent translocation of bacterial proteins through the two membranes of Gram-negative organisms. Examples include the pathogenic systems of animals, plants and symbiotic bacteria that inject factors into eukaryotic cells, and the flagellar export system that secretes flagellin. T3SSs possess a core of several membrane-associated proteins that are conserved across all known bacterial species that use this system. The Salmonella protein InvA is one of the most highly conserved proteins of this core of critical T3SS components. The crystal structure of a C-terminal domain of InvA reveals an unexpected homology to domains that have been repeatedly found as building blocks of other elements of the T3SS apparatus. This suggests the surprising hypothesis that evolution has produced a significant component of the apparatus structure through a series of gene-duplication and gene-rearrangement events.
Lilic, M.; Quezada, C; Stebbins, C
Protein type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are organic nanosyringes that achieve an energy-dependent translocation of bacterial proteins through the two membranes of Gram-negative organisms. Examples include the pathogenic systems of animals, plants and symbiotic bacteria that inject factors into eukaryotic cells, and the flagellar export system that secretes flagellin. T3SSs possess a core of several membrane-associated proteins that are conserved across all known bacterial species that use this system. The Salmonella protein InvA is one of the most highly conserved proteins of this core of critical T3SS components. The crystal structure of a C-terminal domain of InvA reveals an unexpected homology to domains that have been repeatedly found as building blocks of other elements of the T3SS apparatus. This suggests the surprising hypothesis that evolution has produced a significant component of the apparatus structure through a series of gene-duplication and gene-rearrangement events. PMID:20516623
Lilic, Mirjana; Quezada, Cindy M; Stebbins, C Erec
Salmonella are the main responsible agent for the frequent food borne gastrointestinal diseases. In Tunisia, this pathogen is considered one of the most important causes of toxiinfections and its detection using classical methods is laborious and requires a large amount of time for revelation. To solve this problem, we developed a rapid molecular technique for the detection of the invA virulence gene sequence which is found in the majority of Salmonella spp. This technique is a hemi nested PCR amplification using specific primers designed and by bioinformatics tools. The detection method consisted of pre-enrichment of the sample in buffered peptone water (BPW), followed by a total DNA extraction step prior to single tube hemi nested PCR amplification. This method was found highly specific and sensitive to detect low levels of salmonella typhimurium and salmonella enteritidis (1cfu/ 25g) in naturally contaminated spicy sausage (merguez) samples. These results can benefit the public health agencies concerning microbiological and quality aspects of the commercial and traditional merguez meat production in Tunisia. (Author)
A PCR procedure has been developed for routine analysis of viable Salmonella spp. in feed samples. The objective was to develop a simple PCR-compatible enrichment procedure to enable DNA amplification without any sample pretreatment such as DNA extraction or cell lysis. PCR inhibition by 14 different feed samples and natural background flora was circumvented by the use of the DNA polymerase Tth. This DNA polymerase was found to exhibit a high level of resistance to PCR inhibitors present in these feed samples compared to DyNAzyme II, FastStart Taq, Platinum Taq, Pwo, rTth, Taq, and Tfl. The specificity of the Tth assay was confirmed by testing 101 Salmonella and 43 non-Salmonella strains isolated from feed and food samples. A sample preparation method based on culture enrichment in buffered peptone water and DNA amplification with Tth DNA polymerase was developed. The probability of detecting small numbers of salmonellae in feed, in the presence of natural background flora, was accurately determined and foundto follow a logistic regression model. From this model, the probability of detecting I CFU per 25 g of feed in artificially contaminated soy samples was calculated and found to be 0.81. The PCR protocol was evaluated on 155 naturally contaminated feed samples and compared to an established culture-based method, NMKL-71. Eight percent of the samples were positive by PCR, compared with 3% with the conventional method. The reasons for the differences in sensitivity are discussed. Use of this method in the routine analysis of animal feed samples would improve safety in the food chain.
LÃ¶fstrÃ¶m, Charlotta; Knutsson, R.
To address the question of whether Salmonella-infected nonphagocytic cells could serve as target cells for recognition by antigen-specific, major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), four recombinant Salmonella typhimurium constructs that expressed full-length, or fragments of, influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP) were made. The bacteria were shown to infect Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Appropriate major histocompatibility complex restriction mole...
Gao, X. M.; Tite, J. P.; Lipscombe, M.; Rowland-jones, S.; Ferguson, D. J.; Mcmichael, A. J.
Importing day-old ducklings (DOD) unknowingly infected with non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS) may be associated with disease risk. Domestic and international trade may enhance this risk. Salmonella enterica serovars, their virulence genes combinations and antibiotic resistance, garner attention for their potentiality to contribute to the adverse health effects on populations throughout the world. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of imported versus domestic DOD as potential carriers of NTS. The results confirm the prevalence of salmonellosis in imported ducklings was 18·5% (25/135), whereas only 12% (9/75) of cases were determined in the domestic ducklings. Fourteen serovars (Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella kisii, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella gaillac, Salmonella uno, Salmonella eingedi, Salmonella shubra, Salmonella bardo, Salmonella inganda, Salmonella kentucky, Salmonella stanley, Salmonella virchow, Salmonella haifa, and Salmonella anatum) were isolated from the imported ducklings, whereas only S. enteritidis, S. typhimurium, S. virchow, and S. shubra were isolated from the domestic ducklings. The isolated Salmonella serovars were 100% susceptible to only colistin sulphate and 100% resistant to lincomycin. The 14 Salmonella serovars were screened for 11 virulence genes (invA, avrA, ssaQ, mgtC, siiD, sopB, gipA, sodC1, sopE1, spvC, and bcfC) by PCR. The invA, sopB, and bcfC genes were detected in 100% of the Salmonella serovars; alternatively, the gipA gene was absent in all of the isolated Salmonella serovars. The 11 virulent genes were not detected in either of S. stanley or S. haifa serovars. The results confirm an association between antibiotic resistance and virulence of Salmonella in the DOD. This study confirms the need for a country adherence to strict public health and food safety regimes. PMID:24548159
Osman, Kamelia M; Marouf, Sherif H; Zolnikov, Tara R; AlAtfeehy, Nayerah
Desarrollo y validación de una reacción en cadena de la polimerasa múltiple para la identificación de los serogrupos Salmonella enterica B, C2, D y E de Salmonella enterica / Development and validation of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for molecular identification of Salmonella enterica serogroups B, C2, D and E
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. El esquema Kaufmann-White para la serotipificación de Salmonella, reconoce 46 antígenos O y 119 antígenos H, los cuales han permitido la caracterización de 2.541 serovares. La serotipificación es una herramienta epidemiológica útil en la identificación de serovares circulantes y estudi [...] o de brotes, sin embargo, presenta limitaciones técnicas, de interpretación de resultados y alto costo. Objetivo. Desarrollar una prueba de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa múltiple (PCR-M) como alternativa para identificar los serogrupos B, C2, D y E de Salmonella enterica. Materiales y métodos. Se desarrolló una PCR-M para detectar los genes rfbJ de los serogrupos B y C2 y wzx de los serogrupos D y E. Para estandarizar la PCR-M se probaron cepas de referencia de Salmonella pertenecientes a los serogrupos de estudio. Se incluyó el gen invA específico del género Salmonella como control interno de amplificación. La técnica fue validada con un estudio ciego que incluyó 400 aislamientos de Salmonella previamente serotipificados. Resultados. La PCR-M permitió identificar los serogrupos de Salmonella con resultados reproducibles (índice kappa=0,95). La sensibilidad de la prueba estuvo entre 98% y 100% y la especificidad entre 96% y 100%. Conclusiones. El polimorfismo de los genes rfbJ y wzx permitió desarrollar un método de tipificación molecular sensible, específico y reproducible, que podría servir de apoyo a la serotipificación para identificar serogrupos de Salmonella. Abstract in english Introduction. The scheme Kauffman-White (KW) for serotyping of Salmonella recognizes 46 O antigens, and 119 H antigens, thereby permitting the characterization of 2,541 serotypes. The serotyping is a useful epidemiological tool in identifying circulating serotypes and to characterize outbreaks. Howe [...] ver, the method presents technical limitations, difficulty in interpretation of results and high costs. Objective. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction test (M-PCR) was developed as an alternative method for the identification of serogroups B, C2, D, and E of Salmonella enterica. Materials and methods. The M-PCR detected Salmonella genes rfbJ of serogroups B and C2 and wzx of serogroups D and E. To standardize the M-PCR, reference strains of Salmonella serogroups were compared. Amplification of invA gender-specific gene of Salmonella was included as internal control of amplification. To validate the test, a blind study was conducted to identify by M-PCR 400 isolates that had been previously characterized by serology. Results. The M-PCR detected Salmonella serogroups with reproducible results (Kappa index=0.95). The sensitivity of the test was between 98% to 100% and specificity between 96% to 100%. Conclusions. The polymorphisms in the Salmonella genes rfbJ and wzx permitted the development of a method for molecular typing of Salmonella serogroups that was sensitive, specific and reproducible.
Lelia, Lavalett; Miryan Margot, Sánchez; Nélida, Múñoz; Jaime, Moreno; Nora, Cardona-Castro.
Four serotypes recovered from clinically diarrheic human faecal samples (Salmonella Muenster, Salmonella Florian, Salmonella Omuna and Salmonella Noya) were investigated for the presence of 11 virulence genes (invA, avrA, ssaQ, mgtC, siiD, sopB, gipA, sodC1, sopE1, spvC, and bcfC) and their association with antibiotic resistance. The 4 Salmonella serotypes lacked virulence genes gipA and spvC. Resistance to 7 of the 14 antimicrobials was detected. The frequency of resistance, to lincomycin and streptomycin (100% of the Salmonella Muenster [2/5], Salmonella Florian [1/5], Salmonella Omuna [1/5], and Salmonella Noya [1/5] isolates), chloramphenicol (100% of the Salmonella Muenster [2/5] and Salmonella Florian [1/5] isolates) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (100% of the Salmonella Florian [1/5] and Salmonella Omuna [1/5] isolates) was an outstanding feature. With the rest of the antibiotics, the four Salmonella serotypes exhibited a great diversity in their resistance patterns. Overall, the four Salmonella serotypes were resistant to more than one antimicrobial. The antimicrobials to which the Salmonella Muenster, Salmonella Florian, and Salmonella Omuna isolates were resistant, contributed to five different antimicrobial resistance profiles. The virulence associated genes invA, ssaQ, siiD, sopB, and bcfC genes were 100% associated with certain antimicrobial resistance phenotypes (streptomycin and lincosamide) not recorded previously, and secondly, the presence of invA, avrA, ssaQ, mgtC, siiD, sopB, and bcfC was associated with resistance to chloramphenicol. The results of this study will help in understanding the spread of virulence genotypes and antibiotic resistance in Salmonella in the region of study. PMID:23621859
Osman, Kamelia M; Marouf, Sherif H; Alatfeehy, Nayerah
Full Text Available Salmonella enteritidis (SE colonizes the intestinal tract of poultry and causes food born illness in humans. Reduction of (SE colonization in the intestinal tract of poultry reduces potential carcass contamination during slaughter. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SE-specific yolk immunoglobulin (IgY on prevention of SE colonization in orally infected broiler chickens. Commercial Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL hens were hyperimmunized with SE whole cell antigens. The presence of anti-Salmonella antibody, IgY and IgG in egg yolk and serum respectively, was monitored by Enzyme Linked Sorbent Assay (ELISA. Two hundred forty male `Ross 308` day old chicks were randomly assigned to 8 groups and 3 replications of 10 birds were grown for 42 days of experiment. Eight experimental groups identified with, S, P, A, SP, SA, AP, SPA, C. Four birds from four challenged groups (S, were orally inoculated with 1 mL of bacterial suspension that contained 1×106 CFU mL-1 S. enteritidis at 3 day of age. The groups that supplemented with antibody (A received 15 mL of yolk contained antibody mixed per 3.84 mL of drinking water on day 1 and continuing for duration of the experiment. The probiotic treated groups (P were received probiotic, 0.1% of feed and 0.5% of feed, until day 21 and 56 respectively. One group as control (C did not received any treatment of probiotic and antibody. A-treated and A-P treated groups had significantly lower fecal shedding (p<0.01 and lower concentration of SE cecal colonization (p<0.01. These groups also had a lower isolation of SE from the liver, spleen and ileum. The use of Salmonella enteritidis-specific IgY combined with probiotic had a beneficial effect in reducing the colonization of Salmonella in market-aged broiler under the condition of this study.
Several saccharides representative of the O-antigenic polysaccharide chain of Salmonella typhimurium (O antigens 4 and 12) were used as haptenic groups covalently linked to bovine serum albumin. The disaccharide abequose 1 ? 3 D-mannose was synthesized, and the [Formula: see text] tetra-, octa- and dodecasaccharides were isolated after cleavage of isolated S. typhimurium O-polysaccharide chains by using bacteriophage endo-glycosidases. Rabbits immunized with the saccharide-protein conjugate...
Svenson, Stefan B.; Lindberg, Alf A.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole genome sequencing of bacteriophages suitable for biocontrol of pathogens in food products is a pre-requisite to any phage-based intervention procedure. Trials involving the biosanitization of Salmonella Typhimurium in the pig production environment identified one such candidate, ?SH19. Results This phage was sequenced and analysis of its 157,785 bp circular dsDNA genome revealed a number of interesting features. ?SH19 constitutes another member of the recently-proposed Myoviridae Vi01-like family of phages, containing S. Typhi-specific Vi01 and Shigella-specific SboM-AG3. At the nucleotide level ?SH19 is highly similar to phage Vi01 (80-98% pairwise identity over the length of the genome, with the major differences lying in the region associated with host-range determination. Analyses of the proteins encoded within this region by ?SH19 revealed a cluster of three putative tail spikes. Of the three tail spikes, two have protein domains associated with the pectate lyase family of proteins (Tsp2 and P22 tail spike family (Tsp3 with the prospect that these enable Salmonella O antigen degradation. Tail spike proteins of Vi01 and SboM-AG3 are predicted to contain conserved right-handed parallel ?-helical structures but the internal protein domains are varied allowing different host specificities. Conclusions The addition or exchange of tail spike protein modules is a major contributor to host range determination in the Vi01-like phage family.
The presence of three virulence genes, invA, spvR, and spvC, was determined in Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from poultry, pigs, humans and food. All isolates were positive for the invA gene, with 91.2% being positive for spvR and 90.2% for spvC. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of the virulence genes between isolates from different sources. The results indicate that there is a putative high virulence potential for the S. Enteritidis isolates characterized.A presen?...
This report presents SMM-system, a software package that implements various personalized pre- and post-BLASTN tasks for mining specific markers of microbial pathogens. The main functionalities of SMM-system are summarized as follows: (i) converting multi-FASTA file, (ii) cutting interesting genomic sequence, (iii) automatic high-throughput BLASTN searches, and (iv) screening target sequences. The utility of SMM-system was demonstrated by using it to identify 214 Salmonella enterica-specific protein-coding sequences (CDSs). Eighteen primer pairs were designed based on eighteen S. enterica-specific CDSs, respectively. Seven of these primer pairs were validated with PCR assay, which showed 100% inclusivity for the 101 S. enterica genomes and 100% exclusivity of 30 non-S. enterica genomes. Three specific primer pairs were chosen to develop a multiplex PCR assay, which generated specific amplicons with a size of 180bp (SC1286), 238bp (SC1598) and 405bp (SC4361), respectively. This study demonstrates that SMM-system is a high-throughput specific marker generation tool that can be used to identify genus-, species-, serogroup- and even serovar-specific DNA sequences of microbial pathogens, which has a potential to be applied in food industries, diagnostics and taxonomic studies. SMM-system is freely available and can be downloaded from http://foodsafety.sjtu.edu.cn/SMM-system.html. PMID:21256892
Yu, Shuijing; Liu, Weibing; Shi, Chunlei; Wang, Dapeng; Dan, Xianlong; Li, Xiao; Shi, Xianming
Salmonella is very important from the zoonotic point of view, as it causes many diseases in animals and humans. This study was conducted during September 2005 to February 2006 to develop rapid detection system for Salmonella from poultry samples. In the present study 300 poultry samples were screened for Salmonella. Earlier, isolation and identification of Salmonella from clinical samples by traditional cultural techniques required laborious procedures which can last upto 7 days, whereas amplification of DNA sequences unique to an organism using the PCR improves both the speed of detection and the level of sensitivity at which organisms can be detected and has been increasingly used to identify several bacterial species from food and clinical samples. In this study Salmonella were rapidly detected by targeting invA gene, giving PCR product of 284 bp size. Therefore this technique can be used for the screening of Salmonella in the routine testing. PMID:20469760
Siddique, R A; Saxena, M; Lakhchaura, B D
Poultry meat has been identified as one of the principal foodborne source of Salmonella. In this preliminary study the prevalence of Salmonella spp. contamination of broiler carcasses, were determined. Sixty samples were collected from poultry carcasses from the commercial broiler slaughtering facility in Namakkal, Tamil Nadu. The presence of Salmonella spp in collected samples was assessed by performing the pre-enrichment and enrichment culture, followed by PCR assay. The primers were select...
The ability to enter intestinal epithelial cells is an essential virulence factor of salmonellae. We have previously cloned a group of genes (invA, B, C, and D) that allow S. typhimurium to penetrate tissue culture cells (J. E. Galán and R. Curtiss III, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:6383-6387, 1989). Transcriptional and translational cat and phoA fusions to invA (the proximal gene in the invABC operon) were constructed, and their expression was studied by measuring the levels of alkaline pho...
A heavy-chain class-specific, solid-phase radioimmunoassay was developed to characterize the murine antibody response to Salmonella typhimurium. The specificity of the assay was verified by quantitation of the extent of binding of anti-S. typhimurium antibodies to other bacterial genera and species and by cross-adsorption studies. The sensitivity of the procedure was also examined, and it was determined to be substantially more sensitive than either the passive hemagglutination or the whole-c...
Metcalf, E. S.; O Brien, A. D.
Genetically modified Salmonella typhimurium VNP20009 (VNP) is a useful vehicle for cancer therapy and vaccine development but exhibits limited tumor targeting in vivo. We engineered a novel VNP derivative that expressed carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-specific single chain antibody fragments (scFv) on the cell surface to increase tumor-specific targeting. There was significant scFv cell surface display visualized by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy when cells were probed with fluorescent...
Bereta, Michal; Hayhurst, Andrew; Gajda, Mariusz; Chorobik, Paulina; Targosz, Marta; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz; Kaufman, Howard L.
The use of bacteriophages, instead of antibodies, in the ELISA-based detection of bacterial strains was tested. This procedure appeared to be efficient, and specific strains of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli could be detected. The sensitivity of the assay was about 105 bacterial cells/well (106/ml), which is comparable with or outperforms other ELISA tests detecting intact bacterial cells without an enrichment step. The specificity of the assay depends on the kind of bacteriophage u...
Galikowska, E.; Kunikowska, D.; Tokarska-pietrzak, E.; Dziadziuszko, H.; ?os?, J. M.; Golec, P.; We?grzyn, G.; ?os?, M.
Desarrollo y validación de una reacción en cadena de la polimerasa múltiple para la identificación de los serogrupos B, C2, D y E de Salmonella enterica Development and validation of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for molecular identification of Salmonella enterica serogroups B, C2, D and E
Full Text Available
Introducción. El esquema Kaufmann-White para la serotipificación de Salmonella, reconoce 46 antígenos O y 119 antígenos H, los cuales han permitido la caracterización de 2.541 serovares. La serotipificación es una herramienta epidemiológica útil en la identificación de serovares circulantes y estudio de brotes, sin embargo, presenta limitaciones técnicas, de interpretación de resultados y alto costo.
Objetivo. Desarrollar una prueba de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa múltiple (PCR-M como alternativa para identificar los serogrupos B, C2, D y E de Salmonella enterica.
Materiales y métodos. Se desarrolló una PCR-M para detectar los genes rfbJ de los serogrupos B y C2 y wzx de los serogrupos D y E. Para estandarizar la PCR-M se probaron cepas de referencia de Salmonella pertenecientes a los serogrupos de estudio. Se incluyó el gen invA específico del género Salmonella como control interno de amplificación. La técnica fue validada con un estudio ciego que incluyó 400 aislamientos de Salmonella previamente serotipificados.
Resultados. La PCR-M permitió identificar los serogrupos de Salmonella con resultados reproducibles (índice kappa=0,95. La sensibilidad de la prueba estuvo entre 98% y 100% y la especificidad entre 96% y 100%.
Conclusiones. El polimorfismo de los genes rfbJ y wzx permitió desarrollar un método de tipificación molecular sensible, específico y reproducible, que podría servir de apoyo a la serotipificación para identificar serogrupos de Salmonella.
For immediate discrimination among isolated cells we propose a novel device and technique for isolation of cells and sequential detection of specific gene(s) within them by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In this study, we isolated Salmonella enterica cells and detected the Salmonella-specific invA gene from isolated cells by PCR on a compact disk (CD)-shaped device. This device enabled liquid flow by centrifugal force without a micro pump, and was fabricated from silicon wafer and glass to avoid evaporation of a small amount of reagent. One device has 24 microchannels, and 313 microchambers integrated on each microchannel. One microliter of PCR mixture containing cells was separated into microchambers on the device at 5000 rpm for 30 s. Each microchamber contained approximately 1.5 nL PCR mixture. A Poisson distribution of S. enterica cells was observed for different densities of cell suspension. At 200 cells ?L(-1) of S. enterica or less, isolated single cells could be determined on the device by amplification of DNA of the invA gene; at 400 cells ?L(-1), chambers containing no, one, two, or three cells could be determined on the device. Selective detection of S. enterica was achieved by PCR from a mixture of S. enterica and Escherichia coli on the CD-shaped device. PMID:20865405
Furutani, Shunsuke; Nagai, Hidenori; Takamura, Yuzuru; Kubo, Izumi
This paper presents two immobilization methods for the intracellular invertase (INVA), from Zymomonas mobilis. In the first method, a chimeric protein containing the invertase INVA, fused through its C-terminus to CBDCex from Cellulomonas fimi was expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). INVA was purified and immobilized on crystalline cellulose (Avicel) by means of affinity, in a single step. No changes were detected in optimal pH and temperature when INVA-CBD was immobilized on Avicel, where values of 5.5 and 30 degrees C, respectively, were registered. The kinetic parameters of the INVA-CBD fusion protein were determined in both its free form and when immobilized on Avicel. Km and Vmax were affected with immobilization, since both showed an increase of up to threefold. Additionally, we found that subsequent to immobilization, the INVA-CBD fusion protein was 39% more susceptible to substrate inhibition than INVA-CBD in its free form. The second method of immobilization was achieved by the expression of a 6xHis-tagged invertase purified on Ni-NTA resin, which was then immobilized on Nylon-6 by covalent binding. An optimal pH of 5.5 and a temperature of 30 degrees C were maintained, subsequent to immobilization on Nylon-6 as well as with immobilization on crystalline cellulose. The kinetic parameters relating to Vmax increased up to 5.7-fold, following immobilization, whereas Km increased up to 1.7-fold. The two methods were compared showing that when invertase was immobilized on Nylon-6, its activity was 1.9 times that when immobilized on cellulose for substrate concentrations ranging from 30 to 390 mM of sucrose. PMID:18712537
de Los Angeles Calixto-Romo, María; Santiago-Hernández, José Alejandro; Vallejo-Becerra, Vanessa; Amaya-Delgado, Lorena; del Carmen Montes-Horcasitas, María; Hidalgo-Lara, María Eugenia
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A presença de três genes de virulência (invA, spvR e spvC) foi determinada em Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de aves, suínos, humanos e alimentos. Todos os isolados foram positivos para o gene invA, 91,2% também foram positivos para o spvR e 90,2% para o spvC. Não existiu diferença significativa na [...] prevalência dos genes de virulência entre isolados de diferentes origens. Os resultados indicaram que, provavelmente, exista um alto potencial de virulência nos isolados de S. Enteritidis caracterizados. Abstract in english The presence of three virulence genes, invA, spvR, and spvC, was determined in Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from poultry, pigs, humans and food. All isolates were positive for the invA gene, with 91.2% being positive for spvR and 90.2% for spvC. There was no significant difference in the prevalen [...] ce of the virulence genes between isolates from different sources. The results indicate that there is a putative high virulence potential for the S. Enteritidis isolates characterized.
Sílvia Dias de, Oliveira; Carla Rosane, Rodenbusch; Geovana B., Michael; Marisa I.R., Cardoso; Cláudio Wageck, Canal; Adriano, Brandelli.
Full Text Available The presence of three virulence genes, invA, spvR, and spvC, was determined in Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from poultry, pigs, humans and food. All isolates were positive for the invA gene, with 91.2% being positive for spvR and 90.2% for spvC. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of the virulence genes between isolates from different sources. The results indicate that there is a putative high virulence potential for the S. Enteritidis isolates characterized.A presença de três genes de virulência (invA, spvR e spvC foi determinada em Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de aves, suínos, humanos e alimentos. Todos os isolados foram positivos para o gene invA, 91,2% também foram positivos para o spvR e 90,2% para o spvC. Não existiu diferença significativa na prevalência dos genes de virulência entre isolados de diferentes origens. Os resultados indicaram que, provavelmente, exista um alto potencial de virulência nos isolados de S. Enteritidis caracterizados.
Sílvia Dias de Oliveira
We investigated the ability of live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strains delivered to mice intranasally to induce specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses at regional and systemic levels. Mice immunized with two doses (28 days apart) of Salmonella serovar Typhi strain Ty21a, the licensed oral typhoid vaccine, and genetically attenuated mutants CVD 908 (?aroC ?aroD), CVD 915 (?guaBA), and CVD 908-htrA (?aroC ?aroD ?htrA) induced CTL specific for Salmonella serovar ...
It is important to rapidly and selectively detect and analyze pathogenic Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica in contaminated food to reduce the morbidity and mortality of Salmonella infection and to guarantee food safety. In the present work, we developed an oligonucleotide microarray containing duplicate specific capture probes based on the carB gene, which encodes the carbamoyl phosphate synthetase large subunit, as a competent biomarker evaluated by genetic analysis to selectively and efficiently detect and discriminate three S. enterica subsp. enterica serotypes: Choleraesuis, Enteritidis, and Typhimurium. Using the developed microarray system, three serotype targets were successfully analyzed in a range as low as 1.6 to 3.1 nM and were specifically discriminated from each other without nonspecific signals. In addition, the constructed microarray did not have cross-reactivity with other common pathogenic bacteria and even enabled the clear discrimination of the target Salmonella serotype from a bacterial mixture. Therefore, these results demonstrated that our novel carB-based oligonucleotide microarray can be used as an effective and specific detection system for S. enterica subsp. enterica serotypes. PMID:24185846
Shin, Hwa Hui; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Cha, Hyung Joon
By experimental infection, host-specific Salmonella serotypes were shown to demonstrate specificities for chickens, mice, and other laboratory animals. Following oral inoculation, four strains of Salmonella gallinarum and two S. pullorum strains, isolated from diseased poultry, were more virulent for chickens than for mice. By contrast, four strains each of S. choleraesuis and S. dublin, isolated from diseased pigs and cattle, respectively, were more virulent for mice than for chickens. These...
Barrow, P. A.; Huggins, M. B.; Lovell, M. A.
Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the adaption of the impedimetric method to detect the lytic infection by Salmonella-specific bacteriophages and to provide a higher selectivity to this rapid method in detecting Salmonella spp. by using specific agents. Three bacteriophages and twelve strains of Salmonella spp. were tested. Each of the twelve strains was used separately to inoculate TSB together with each one of the phages. The inoculum concentration was between 106 and 107?cfu/mL, at a cell: phage ratio of 1 : 100. From the sample analysis, based on conductance (G measurements (37°C, the infection could be detected, by observation of both detection-time delay and distinct curve trends. The main conclusions were that kinetic detection by impedance microbiology with phage typing constitutes a method of determining whether a test microorganism is sensitive to the bacteriophage and a method to evaluate whether a lytic bacteriophage is present in a sample, by affecting bacterial growth rate/metabolic change.
Paula C. Teixeira
GtgE is an effector protein from Salmonella Typhimurium that modulates trafficking of the Salmonella-containing vacuole. It exerts its function by cleaving the Rab-family GTPases Rab29, Rab32 and Rab38, thereby preventing the delivery of antimicrobial factors to the bacteria-containing vacuole. Here, the crystal structure of GtgE at 1.65?Å resolution is presented, and structure-based mutagenesis and in vivo infection assays are used to identify its catalytic triad. A panel of cysteine protease inhibitors were examined and it was determined that N-ethylmaleimide, antipain and chymostatin inhibit GtgE activity in vitro. These findings provide the basis for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat Salmonella infections. PMID:24531472
Kohler, Amanda C; Spanò, Stefania; Galán, Jorge E; Stebbins, C Erec
The O specific polysaccharide (OSP) of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A is a protective antigen and the target for vaccine development. LPS is the major constituent of the outer membrane of S. Paratyphi A with the OSP exposed on the surface, in addition to the cell associated LPS a large amount of free LPS was present in the fermentation broth. A purification method was developed to take advantage of both sources of LPS and to maximize recovery of OSP. After fermentation the bacterial cells were concentrated and washed, the permeate containing the free LPS was processed separately from the cells. The free LPS was concentrated and washed on a 100kD ultrafiltration membrane to remove low molecular weight impurities. The LPS was then detoxified by separation of the lipid A from the OSP using acid hydrolysis at 100°C, the precipitated lipid A was removed by 0.2?m membrane filtration. Contaminants were then removed by acid precipitation in the presence of sodium deoxycholate. The OSP was concentrated and washed with 1M NaCl then water using a 10kD ultrafiltration membrane then sterile filtered through a 0.2?m membrane filter. The cells were treated by acid hydrolysis at 100°C, the remaining cells, cell debris and precipitate was removed by centrifugation. The filtrate was then treated in the same way as described above for the free LPS. The combined yield of purified OSP from free LPS plus the cells was greater than 880mg/L of culture broth. The method developed yields large amounts of OSP, is scalable and compatible with cGMP so would be readily transferrable to developing country vaccine manufacturers for low cost production of vaccine against S. Paratyphi A. PMID:24631090
Kothari, Sudeep; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Kothari, Neha; Jones, Christopher; Choe, Woo Seok; Carbis, Rodney
Molecular characterization of Salmonella strains in individuals with acute diarrhea syndrome in the State of Sucre, Venezuela / Caracterização molecular de cepas de Salmonella em indivíduos com síndrome da diarreia aguda no Estado de Sucre, Venezuela
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Na Venezuela, síndrome da diarreia aguda (SDA) é a principal causa de mórbi-mortalidade, muitas vezes envolvem o gênero Salmonella. Infecções por Salmonella são associadas com gastroenterite aguda, uma das mais comuns intoxicações alimentares causada pelo consumo de água e alimentos cont [...] aminados, principalmente carne. MÉTODOS: Métodos convencionais e moleculares foram usados para detectar cepas de Salmonella em 330 amostras de fezes de indivíduos com SDA de diferentes idades e ambos os sexos. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) foi utilizada para a caracterização molecular de genes Salmonella invA, sefA e fliC para identificar o gênero e os sorotipos Enteritidis e Typhimurium, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: A maior frequência de indivíduos com SDA foi encontrada em crianças de 0-2 (39,4%) anos, e a frequência total de culturas de fezes positiva foi de 76,9%. Um total de 14 (4,2%) cepas foram bioquímica e imunologicamente identificados como Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, dos quais 7 foram classificados como pertencentes ao sorotipo Enteritidis, Typhimurium sorotipo 4 e 3 para outros sorotipos. Cepas S. enterica foram distribuídas mais frequentemente em grupos de 3-4 e 9-10 anos de idade. CONCLUSÕES: O método de caracterização molecular usada provou ser altamente específico para tipificar as estirpes dos S. enterica usando tanto DNA extraído de colônias isoladas e direta e caldos de enriquecimento seletivo inoculados com amostras fecais, o que representa uma ferramenta complementar para a detecção e identificação de bactérias que causam a SDA. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION:In Venezuela, acute diarrheic syndrome (ADS) is a primary cause of morbi-mortality, often involving the Salmonella genus. Salmonella infections are associated with acute gastroenteritis, one of the most common alimentary intoxications, and caused by the consumption of contaminated water [...] and food, especially meat. METHODS: Conventional and molecular methods were used to detect Salmonella strains from 330 fecal samples from individuals of different ages and both sexes with ADS. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the molecular characterization of Salmonella, using invA, sefA, and fliC genes for the identification of this genus and the serotypes Enteritidis and Typhimurium, respectively. RESULTS: The highest frequency of individuals with ADS was found in children 0-2 years old (39.4%), and the overall frequency of positive coprocultures was 76.9%. A total of 14 (4.2%) strains were biochemically and immunologically identified as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, of which 7 were classified as belonging to the Enteritidis serotype, 4 to the Typhimurium serotype, and 3 to other serotypes. The S. enterica strains were distributed more frequently in the age groups 3-4 and 9-10 years old. CONCLUSIONS: The molecular characterization method used proved to be highly specific for the typing of S. enterica strains using DNA extracted from both the isolated colonies and selective enrichment broths directly inoculated with fecal samples, thus representing a complementary tool for the detection and identification of ADS-causing bacteria.
Hectorina, Rodulfo; Marcos De, Donato; Jesús, Luiggi; Elvia, Michelli; Adriana, Millán; Miriam, Michelli.
Molecular characterization of Salmonella strains in individuals with acute diarrhea syndrome in the State of Sucre, Venezuela Caracterização molecular de cepas de Salmonella em indivíduos com síndrome da diarreia aguda no Estado de Sucre, Venezuela
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION:In Venezuela, acute diarrheic syndrome (ADS is a primary cause of morbi-mortality, often involving the Salmonella genus. Salmonella infections are associated with acute gastroenteritis, one of the most common alimentary intoxications, and caused by the consumption of contaminated water and food, especially meat. METHODS: Conventional and molecular methods were used to detect Salmonella strains from 330 fecal samples from individuals of different ages and both sexes with ADS. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used for the molecular characterization of Salmonella, using invA, sefA, and fliC genes for the identification of this genus and the serotypes Enteritidis and Typhimurium, respectively. RESULTS: The highest frequency of individuals with ADS was found in children 0-2 years old (39.4%, and the overall frequency of positive coprocultures was 76.9%. A total of 14 (4.2% strains were biochemically and immunologically identified as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, of which 7 were classified as belonging to the Enteritidis serotype, 4 to the Typhimurium serotype, and 3 to other serotypes. The S. enterica strains were distributed more frequently in the age groups 3-4 and 9-10 years old. CONCLUSIONS: The molecular characterization method used proved to be highly specific for the typing of S. enterica strains using DNA extracted from both the isolated colonies and selective enrichment broths directly inoculated with fecal samples, thus representing a complementary tool for the detection and identification of ADS-causing bacteria.INTRODUÇÃO: Na Venezuela, síndrome da diarreia aguda (SDA é a principal causa de mórbi-mortalidade, muitas vezes envolvem o gênero Salmonella. Infecções por Salmonella são associadas com gastroenterite aguda, uma das mais comuns intoxicações alimentares causada pelo consumo de água e alimentos contaminados, principalmente carne. MÉTODOS: Métodos convencionais e moleculares foram usados para detectar cepas de Salmonella em 330 amostras de fezes de indivíduos com SDA de diferentes idades e ambos os sexos. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR foi utilizada para a caracterização molecular de genes Salmonella invA, sefA e fliC para identificar o gênero e os sorotipos Enteritidis e Typhimurium, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: A maior frequência de indivíduos com SDA foi encontrada em crianças de 0-2 (39,4% anos, e a frequência total de culturas de fezes positiva foi de 76,9%. Um total de 14 (4,2% cepas foram bioquímica e imunologicamente identificados como Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, dos quais 7 foram classificados como pertencentes ao sorotipo Enteritidis, Typhimurium sorotipo 4 e 3 para outros sorotipos. Cepas S. enterica foram distribuídas mais frequentemente em grupos de 3-4 e 9-10 anos de idade. CONCLUSÕES: O método de caracterização molecular usada provou ser altamente específico para tipificar as estirpes dos S. enterica usando tanto DNA extraído de colônias isoladas e direta e caldos de enriquecimento seletivo inoculados com amostras fecais, o que representa uma ferramenta complementar para a detecção e identificação de bactérias que causam a SDA.
Foodborne illnesses caused by Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 are worldwide health concerns. Rapid, sensitive, and robust detection of these pathogens in foods and in clinical and environmental samples is essential for routine food quality testing, effective surveillance, and outbreak investigations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on PCR sensitivity of adding a short, AT-rich overhanging nucleotide sequence (flap) to the 5' end of PCR primers specific for the detection of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7. Primers targeting the invA gene of Salmonella and the rfbE gene of E. coli O157:H7 were synthesized with or without a 12-bp, AT-rich 5' flap (5'-AATAAATCATAA-3'). Singleplex PCR, multiplex PCR, and real-time PCR sensitivity assays were conducted using purified bacterial genomic DNA and crude cell lysates of bacterial cells. The effect of background flora on detection was evaluated by spiking tomato and jalapeno pepper surface washes with E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Saintpaul. When targeting individual pathogens, end-point PCR assays using flap-amended primers were more efficient than nonamended primers, with 20.4 and 23.5% increases in amplicon yield for Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7, respectively. In multiplex PCR assays, a 10- to 100-fold increase in detection sensitivity was observed when the primer flap sequence was incorporated. This improvement in both singleplex and multiplex PCR efficiency and sensitivity can lead to improved Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 detection. PMID:23575131
Timmons, Chris; Dobhal, Shefali; Fletcher, Jacqueline; Ma, Li Maria
In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and the distribution of some well known genetic determinants of virulence in clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica from New Mexico. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for various antimicrobials were determined by using the E-test strip method according to CLSI guidelines. Virulence genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers specific for known virulence genes of Salmonella enterica. Of 15 isolates belonging to 11 different serovars analyzed, one isolate of Salmonella Typhimurium was resistant to multiple drugs namely ampicillin, amoxicillin / clavulanic acid, chloramphenicol and tetracycline, that also harbored class 1 intergron, bla(TEM) encoding genes for ?-lactamase, chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (cat1), plus floR, tet(C) and tet(G). This strain was phage typed as DT104. PCR analysis revealed the presence of invA, hilA, stn, agfA and spvR virulence genes in all the isolates tested. The plasmid-borne pefA gene was absent in 11 isolates, while 5 isolates lacked sopE. One isolate belonging to serogroup E4 (Salmonella Sombre) was devoid of multiple virulence genes pefA, iroB, shdA and sopE. These results demonstrate that clinical Salmonella serotypes from New Mexico used here are predominantly sensitive to multiple antimicrobial agents, but vary in their virulence genotypes. Information on antimicrobial sensitivity and virulence genotypes will help in understanding the evolution and spread of epidemic strains of Salmonella enterica in the region of study. PMID:20514366
Smith, Kenneth P; George, Jeffy; Cadle, Kathleen M; Kumar, Sanath; Aragon, Steven J; Hernandez, Ricardo L; Jones, Suzanna E; Floyd, Jody L; Varela, Manuel F
Contamination of retail poultry by Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella enterica is a significant source of human diarrheal disease. Isolation and identification of these microorganisms require a series of biochemical and serological tests. In this study, Campylobacter ceuE and Salmonella invA genes were used to design probes in PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), as an alternative to conventional bacteriological methodology, for the rapid detection of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobac...
Salmonella can contaminate finished products of butcher shops, mainly through cross-contamination of utensils exposed to raw materials. To identify the main sources of contamination with this foodborne pathogen in four butcher shop environments, surface samples were obtained from employees' hands, cutting boards, knives, floor of the refrigeration room, meat grinders, and meat tenderizers (32 samples per area) and analyzed for Salmonella using the International Organization for Standardization method 6579, with modifications. Suspect isolates were identified by PCR (targeting ompC), and confirmed Salmonella isolates were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (after treatment with restriction enzyme XbaI), analyzed for the presence of virulence genes (invA, sefA, and spvC), and screened for resistance to 12 antimicrobials. Salmonella isolates was identified only on cutting boards (five samples) from three butcher shops. Fifteen isolates were confirmed as Salmonella belonging to four pulse types (similarity of 71.1 to 100%). The invA gene was detected in 13 isolates, and the sefA was found in 8 isolates; no isolate carried spvC. All tested isolates were resistant to clindamycin and sensitive to amikacin and cefotaxine, and all isolates were resistant to at least 3 of the 12 antimicrobials tested. The results indicate the importance of cutting boards as a source of Salmonella contamination in butcher shops. The presence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains possessing virulence genes highlights the health risks for consumers. PMID:23992511
Cossi, Marcus Vinícius Coutinho; Burin, Raquel Cristina Konrad; Lopes, Danilo Augusto; Dias, Mariane Rezende; Castilho, Natalia Parma Augusto de; de Arruda Pinto, Paulo Sérgiode; Nero, Luís Augusto
Development and evaluation of a novel nucleic acid sequence-based amplification method using one specific primer and one degenerate primer for simultaneous detection of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium.
Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium are the most widespread causes of salmonellosis and gastrointestinal diseases worldwide. Thus, their simple and sensitive detection is significantly important in biosafety and point-of-care diagnostics. In that regard, although present nucleic acid-based attempts are mainly focused on the detection methods encompassing all Salmonella enterica members in a single reaction, serotypes other than S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium are clinically and epidemiologically rare to humans. Therefore, regarding high ribosomal RNA (rRNA) copy numbers in a cell, isothermal nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) technique was employed for simple, sensitive and simultaneous detection of the bacteria. However, due to high sequence homology among 16S rRNA genes and consequently, very few specific regions, we developed a novel NASBA method called "single specific primer-NASBA or SSP-NASBA" in which the specificity of the antisense primer is sufficient to perform a specific NASBA reaction. Accordingly, we designed highly specific NASBA antisense and degenerate sense primers for a segment of 16S rRNA variable region by universal sequence alignment to simultaneously detect S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium. Meanwhile, the approach was successfully evaluated for various Salmonella as well as closely related non-Salmonella serovars. Specific and simultaneous detection of both bacteria was achieved with the designed primer set in a single reaction environment with a detection limit of less than 10 CFUs mL(-1). The developed NASBA assay should facilitate the overall process and provide a simple, fast, specific and sensitive approach for molecular diagnostics of pathogens under various circumstances, e.g. outbreaks. PMID:23498700
Mollasalehi, Hamidreza; Yazdanparast, Razieh
A multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction procedure was developed to identify the most prevalent clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. Genes from the rfb, fliC, fljB, and viaB groups that encode the O, H, and Vi antigens were used to design 15 primer pairs and TaqMan probes specific for the genes rfbJ, wzx, fliC, fljB, wcdB, the sdf-l sequence, and invA, which was used as an internal amplification control. The primers and probes were variously combined into six sets. The first round of reactions used two of these sets to detect Salmonella O:4, O:9, O:7, O:8, and O:3,10 serogroups. Once the serogroups were identified, the results of a second round of reactions that used primers and probes for the flagellar antigen l genes, 1,2; e,h; g,m; d; e,n,x; and z(10), and the Vi gene were used to identify individual serovars. The procedure was standardized using 18 Salmonella reference strains and other enterobacteria. The procedure's reliability and sensitivity was evaluated using 267 randomly chosen serotyped Salmonella clinical isolates. The procedure had a sensitivity of 95.5% and was 100% specific. Thus, our technique is a quick, sensitive, reliable, and specific means of identifying S. enterica serovars and can be used in conjunction with traditional serotyping. Other primer and probe combinations could be used to increase the number of identifiable serovars. PMID:20110454
Muñoz, Nélida; Diaz-Osorio, Miguel; Moreno, Jaime; Sánchez-Jiménez, Miryan; Cardona-Castro, Nora
The use of bacteriophages, instead of antibodies, in the ELISA-based detection of bacterial strains was tested. This procedure appeared to be efficient, and specific strains of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli could be detected. The sensitivity of the assay was about 10(5) bacterial cells/well (10(6)/ml), which is comparable with or outperforms other ELISA tests detecting intact bacterial cells without an enrichment step. The specificity of the assay depends on the kind of bacteriophage used. We conclude that the use of bacteriophages in the detection and identification of bacteria by an ELISA-based method can be an alternative to the use of specific antibodies. The advantages of the use of bacteriophages are their environmental abundance (and, thus, a possibility to isolate various phages with different specificities) and the availability of methods for obtaining large amounts of phage lysates, which are simple, rapid, cheap, and easy. PMID:21318732
Galikowska, E; Kunikowska, D; Tokarska-Pietrzak, E; Dziadziuszko, H; Lo?, J M; Golec, P; W?grzyn, G; Lo?, M
A PCR procedure has been developed for routine analysis of viable Salmonella spp. in feed samples. The objective was to develop a simple PCR-compatible enrichment procedure to enable DNA amplification without any sample pretreatment such as DNA extraction or cell lysis. PCR inhibition by 14 different feed samples and natural background flora was circumvented by the use of the DNA polymerase Tth. This DNA polymerase was found to exhibit a high level of resistance to PCR inhibitors present in t...
Lo?fstro?m, Charlotta; Knutsson, Rickard; Axelsson, Ce; Ra?dstro?m, Peter
A PCR procedure has been developed for routine analysis of viable Salmonella spp. in feed samples. The objective was to develop a simple PCR-compatible enrichment procedure to enable DNA amplification without any sample pretreatment such as DNA extraction or cell lysis. PCR inhibition by 14 different feed samples and natural background flora was circumvented by the use of the DNA polymerase Tth. This DNA polymerase was found to exhibit a high level of resistance to PCR inhibitors present in t...
Lo?fstro?m, Charlotta; Knutsson, Rickard; Axelsson, Charlotta Engdahl; Ra?dstro?m, Peter
Salmonella is among the most commonly known bacterial pathogens to cause human illness. Often Salmonellosis is associated with the consumption of contaminated foods like meat, eggs or egg products. However, during the last decades an increase of outbreaks is recognized to be caused by human pathogenic bacteria in association with fresh produce. The use of manure for production of vegetables, e.g. lettuce, contributes significantly to the risk of contamination of fresh produce. Enteric pathoge...
Full Text Available The anti-Salmonella specific antibodies could be used in food and feedstuffs for thecontrol of the salmonellosis, with large applications. The emphasize of the ”in vitro”effect of the specific anti-Salmonella antibodies on the development of Salmonellagallinarum culture was the aim of our paper. The use of the specific anti-Salmonellaantibodies reduces the bacterial development. Due to the agglutination on theantibodies from the culture media, the bacteria have lower mobility and lowopportunitry to rach the nutrients. It determines the inhibation or reducing thebacteria multiplication. The addition of the specific antibodies inhibates thedevelopment of the salmonella and reduces the risk of salmonellosis, if they are usedas food or feed additives.
The Suwannee River spans the Florida/Georgia border to the Gulf of Mexico, and contributes to regional irrigation and recreational activities. Association of Salmonella enterica with these resources may result in the contamination of produce and disease outbreaks. Therefore, surface water was examined for the distribution of S. enterica at multiple time points from 4 sites on the upper Suwannee River. Isolates were confirmed by detection of the invA gene, and 96% of all samples were positive ...
Feed components have low water activity, making bacterial survival difficult. The mechanisms of Salmonella survival in feed and subsequent colonization of poultry are unknown. The purpose of this research was to compare the ability of Salmonella serovars and strains to survive in broiler feed and to evaluate molecular mechanisms associated with survival and colonization by measuring the expression of genes associated with colonization (hilA, invA) and survival via fatty acid synthesis (cfa, fabA, fabB, fabD). Feed was inoculated with 1 of 15 strains of Salmonella enterica consisting of 11 serovars (Typhimurium, Enteriditis, Kentucky, Seftenburg, Heidelberg, Mbandanka, Newport, Bairely, Javiana, Montevideo, and Infantis). To inoculate feed, cultures were suspended in PBS and survival was evaluated by plating samples onto XLT4 agar plates at specific time points (0 h, 4 h, 8 h, 24 h, 4 d, and 7 d). To evaluate gene expression, RNA was extracted from the samples at the specific time points (0, 4, 8, and 24 h) and gene expression measured with real-time PCR. The largest reduction in Salmonella occurred at the first and third sampling time points (4 h and 4 d) with the average reductions being 1.9 and 1.6 log cfu per g, respectively. For the remaining time points (8 h, 24 h, and 7 d), the average reduction was less than 1 log cfu per g (0.6, 0.4, and 0.6, respectively). Most strains upregulated cfa (cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis) within 8 h, which would modify the fluidity of the cell wall to aid in survival. There was a weak negative correlation between survival and virulence gene expression indicating downregulation to focus energy on other gene expression efforts such as survival-related genes. These data indicate the ability of strains to survive over time in poultry feed was strain dependent and that upregulation of cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis and downregulation of virulence genes were associated with a response to desiccation stress. PMID:24570467
Andino, Ana; Pendleton, Sean; Zhang, Nan; Chen, Wei; Critzer, Faith; Hanning, Irene
Aim: To study the incidence of S.enteritidis in poultry and meat samples by cultural and PCR methods. Materials and Methods: A total of 130 samples (25 each of chicken, mutton, poultry faeces, cloacal samples and 10 each of liver, spleen and kidney) collected from different sources were subjected to cultural and PCR methods for the presence of Salmonella and Salmonella enteritidis. Primers for invA and sefA gene were used for Salmonella and S.enteritidis respectively. Results: Out of 130 samp...
Full Text Available Bacteria Enterobacteriaceae Salmonella choleraesuis Salmonella choleraesuis (species (AL), heter onella cholerae-suis (synonym) NCBI 591 Salmonella choleraesuis (scientific name) NCBI 591 Salmonella choleraesuis n 1927 (synonym) NCBI 591 Salmonella enterica ser. choleraesuis (synonym) NCBI 591
This study explores the possibility of simultaneous and specific detection ofSalmonella serovars by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The PlasmonicÃ‚Â® SPR device wasused to develop this rapid assay. The sandwich immunoassay involves the use of apolyclonal anti-Salmonella antibody to simultaneous capture multiple Salmonella serovarspresent in a sample. This is followed by specific detection of the captured serovars usingO-specific anti-Salmonella antibodies. Milk spiked with Salmonella Ty...
Benjamin Barlen; Saikat Datta Mazumdar; Olga Lezrich; Peter KÃƒÂ¤mpfer; Michael Keusgen
Full Text Available The aims of this study were to isolation of Salmonella from poultry farms of Shiraz province of Iran and determination of their susceptibility against common antibiotics. One hundred and ninety two samples were harvested from intestine and liver of chickens and were aseptically cultured in enrichment and selective media. Out of 192 samples, 30 Salmonella were isolated. Four different serogroups were found among 30 Salmonella isolates. Strains of serogroup D1, which accounted for 70% of total isolates, were the most common isolates. PCR products of all isolated Salmonella showed a predicted 284 bp amplified DNA fragment of invA gene. All of 30 Salmonella strains were susceptible to the antimicrobial effect of Cephalothin, Tylosin, Colistin, Ciprofloxacin, Enrofloxacin, Gentamicin, Chloramphenicol, Cephalotin and Cefotaxime. But 20.7% of Salmonella strains were resistant to Trimethoprim, Nalidixic acid, Flumequine, Tetracycline and Neomycin, 24.2% to Streptomycin, 34.5% to Kanamycin and 13.8% to Amikacin.
T. Zahraei Salehi
A gene cassette incorporating the crs-rsd site-specific recombination system from the Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin virulence plasmid improved the inheritance in S. enterica serotype Typhi strain CVD908-htrA of a multicopy plasmid expression vector. Use of this recombination cassette may improve expression of heterologous antigens from multicopy plasmid expression vectors in attenuated bacterial vaccine strains.
Species belonging to the genus Salmonella are an important cause of enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and septicemia, and the pathogens are commonly transmitted through contaminated food. In this study, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a 287-bp region of the invA gene was compared to a microbiological technique to determine the presence of Salmonella in retail beef and in cantaloupe rinse samples. Both methods showed the same level of sensitivity, detecting 1 CFU/25 g of meat after enrichment for 24 h at 42 degrees C. The presence of Salmonella was determined in 50 commercial top sirloin beef samples that were not artificially inoculated. Three samples were positive by the microbiological method, and these samples and an additional sample were positive by the PCR. Both methods were also used to test surface rinses of cantaloupes collected from 4 farms in Nayarit, Mexico. Salmonella was detected by the microbiological method in 9 of 20 samples (45%), whereas the pathogen was detected by the PCR in 11 samples (55%). This study demonstrates the utility of the PCR targeting the invA gene to determine the presence of Salmonella spp. in beef and cantaloupe samples. PMID:19200105
Gallegos-Robles, M A; Morales-Loredo, A; Alvarez-Ojeda, G; Osuna-García, J A; Martínez, I O; Morales-Ramos, L H; Fratamico, P
The consequences of a sudden demographic change on the seroprevalence pattern, virulence genes, identification and characterisation of integron-mediated antibiotic resistance in the Salmonella enterica isolated from clinically diarrhoeic humans in Egypt.
The present study was undertaken to identify and characterise integrons and integrated resistance gene cassettes among eight multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella serovars isolated from humans in Egypt. Virulotyping by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the detection of the presence of virulence genes. Integron PCR was used to detect the presence of class 1 in the MDR strains. The associated individual resistance gene cassettes were identified using specific PCRs. The isolated serovars were Salmonella Grampian (C1; 2/5), Larose (C1; 1/5), Hato (B; 1/5) and Texas (B; 1/5). Among the Salmonella serovars, five Salmonella isolates showed the highest resistance to amoxicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, lincomycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin and trimethoprim (100 %), followed by neomycin, norfloxacin and tetracycline (80 %), while the lowest resistance was recorded to colistin sulphate and ciprofloxacin in percentages of 20 and 40 %, respectively. The invA, avrA, ssaQ, mgtC, siiD and sopB genes were detected in all isolates (100 %), while the spvC and gipA genes were totally (100 %) absent from all isolates. The remaining three virulence genes were diversely distributed as follows: the bcfC gene was detected in all isolates except Salmonella Hato (80 %); the sodC1 gene was detected only in Salmonella Grampian and Salmonella Texas (60 %); and the sopE1 gene was detected only in Salmonella Grampian, Hato and Texas (60 %). Class 1 integrons were detected in 90 % of the MDR isolates, comprising serovars Muenster, Florian, Noya, Grampian, Larose, Hato and Texas. Of the class 1 integron-positive isolates, 45 % harboured Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) either right junction or right and left junction having an A-C-S-T phenotype. Of the class 1 integron-positive isolates, 44 % harboured integron gene cassette aadA2, while 11 % harboured the floR gene present in multidrug resistance flanked by two integrons of SGI1. The results of the present study indicate that class 1 integrons carrying gene cassettes conferring resistance mainly to aminoglycosides are widespread among the MDR Salmonella serovars isolated from humans in Egypt, indicating the important role of these genetic elements in the dissemination of multidrug resistance. PMID:24535570
Osman, K M; Hassan, W M M; Mohamed, R A H
The two-component system PhoP/PhoQ controls a large number of genes responsible for a variety of physiological and virulence functions in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Here we describe a mechanism whereby the transcriptional activator PhoP elicits expression of dissimilar gene sets when its cognate sensor PhoQ is activated by different signals in the periplasm. We determine that full transcription of over half of the genes directly activated by PhoP requires the Mg(2+) transporter MgtA when the PhoQ inducing signal is low Mg(2+) , but not when PhoQ is activated by mildly acidic pH or the antimicrobial peptide C18G. MgtA promotes the active (i.e. phosphorylated) form of PhoP by removing Mg(2+) from the periplasm, where it functions as a repressing signal for PhoQ. MgtA-dependent expression enhances resistance to the cationic antibiotic polymyxin B. Production of the MgtA protein requires cytoplasmic Mg(2+) levels to drop below a certain threshold, thereby creating a two-tiered temporal response among PhoP-dependent genes. PMID:24256574
Park, Sun-Yang; Groisman, Eduardo A
The objective of this study was to analyze the antibiotic resistance phenotype and genotype of Salmonella isolated from broiler production facilities. A total of 193 Salmonella isolates recovered from commercial farms in British Columbia, Canada, were evaluated. Susceptibility to antibiotics was determined with the Sensititre system. Virulence and antibiotic resistance genes were detected by PCR assay. Genetic diversity was determined by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing. Seventeen serovars of Salmonella were identified. The most prevalent Salmonella serovars were Kentucky (29.0% of isolates), Typhimurium (23.8%), Enteritidis (13.5%), and Hadar (11.9%); serovars Heidelberg, Brandenburg, and Thompson were identified in 7.7, 4.1, and 3.6% of isolates, respectively. More than 43% of the isolates were simultaneously resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, cefoxitim, and ceftriaxone. This ?-lactam resistance pattern was observed in 33 (58.9%) of the Salmonella Kentucky isolates; 2 of these isolates were also resistant to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline. Genes associated with resistance to aminoglycosides (aadA1, aadA2, and strA), ?-lactams (blaCMY-2, blaSHV, and blaTEM), tetracycline (tetA and tetB), and sulfonamide (sul1) were detected among corresponding resistant isolates. The invasin gene (invA) and the Salmonella plasmid virulence gene (spvC) were found in 97.9 and 25.9% of the isolates, respectively, with 33 (71.7%) of the 46 Salmonella Typhimurium isolates and 17 (65.4%) of the 26 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates carrying both invA and spvC. PGFE typing revealed that the antibiotic-resistant serovars were genetically diverse. These data confirm that broiler chickens can be colonized by genetically diverse antibiotic-resistant Salmonella isolates harboring virulence determinants. The presence of such strains is highly relevant to food safety and public health. PMID:24405997
Diarra, Moussa Sory; Delaquis, Pascal; Rempel, Heidi; Bach, Susan; Harlton, Colleen; Aslam, Mueen; Pritchard, Jane; Topp, Edward
The accurate and economical diagnosis of pathogenic bacteria is necessary for the microbiological control of laboratory animals. In this study, we developed a triplex PCR method for the direct detection of three common gastroenteric bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Helicobacter hepaticus, and Salmonella typhimurium. Targets were specifically amplified by conventional PCR assay using a genomic fragment from P. aeruginosa, 16S ribosomal RNA from H. hepaticus, and the invA gene from S. typhimurium. To investigate the specificity of our primers, they were tested against purified DNA from many other bacterial species. There were no amplification products from other bacteria. Under optimized conditions, the triplex assay simultaneously yielded a 726-bp product from P. aeruginosa, a 417-bp product from H. hepaticus, and a 246-bp product from S. typhimurium. The detection limits of this assay in pure culture were 10 pg for P. aeruginosa, and 0.1 pg for H. hepaticus and S. typhimurium. All three bacteria were successfully detected in the liver, cecum, and feces of experimentally infected mice. This method is a useful and convenient assay that allows the simultaneous identification of bacterial pathogens in mice. Our triplex method will be used to improve quality control in the detection of pathogenic bacterial infections in laboratory animal facilities. PMID:21325753
Jeong, Eui-Suk; Lee, Kyoung-Sun; Heo, Seung-Ho; Seo, Jin-Hee; Choi, Yang-Kyu
Monoclonal antibodies specific for phase 1 ("i" antigen), phase 2 ("1,2" antigen) and common epitopes of the flagellins of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium were raised. Having confirmed their specificity, the monoclonal antibodies were used to develop semi-quantitative ELISAs in order to assess the relative expression of the two phases by strains of Typhimurium. The majority of Typhimurium strains representative of a wide cross-section of definitive types from animal and environmental sources preferentially expressed phase 1 antigen in vitro. DT40 strains were unique in expressing phase 2 preferentially. The ratio of phase 1 to phase 2 expressed by strains tended to be constant for any one strain when strains were grown on a number of conventional laboratory media. However, the ratio of phases was shown to be modulated by incubation at 42 degrees C and buffering media at pH values, notably 4.5, other than neutral. Selenite broth and Rambach media repressed flagellation. PMID:11118742
Sojka, M; Sayers, A R; Woodward, M J
Members of Salmonella enterica are important foodborne pathogens of significant public health concern worldwide. This study aimed to determine a range of virulence genes among typhoidal (S. typhi) and non-typhoidal (S. enteritidis) strains isolated from different geographical regions and different years. A total of 87 S. typhi and 94 S. enteritidis strains were tested for presence of 22 virulence genes by employing multiplex PCR and the genetic relatedness of these strains was further characterized by REP-PCR. In S. typhi, invA, prgH, sifA, spiC, sopB, iroN, sitC, misL, pipD, cdtB, and orfL were present in all the strains, while sopE, agfC, agfA, sefC, mgtC, and sefD were present in 98.8, 97.7, 90.8, 87.4, 87.4 and 17.2 %, of the strains, respectively. No lpfA, lpfC, pefA, spvB, or spvC was detected. Meanwhile, in S. enteritidis, 15 genes, agfA, agfC, invA, lpfA, lpfC, sefD, prgH, spiC, sopB, sopE, iroN, sitC, misL, pipD, and orfL were found in all S. enteritidis strains 100 %, followed by sifA and spvC 98.9 %, pefA, spvB and mgtC 97.8 %, and sefC 90.4 %. cdtB was absent from all S. enteritidis strains tested. REP-PCR subtyped S. typhi strains into 18 REP-types and concurred with the virulotyping results in grouping the strains, while in S. enteritidis, REP-PCR subtyped the strains into eight profiles and they were poorly distinguishable between human and animal origins. The study showed that S. typhi and S. enteritidis contain a range of virulence factors associated with pathogenesis. Virulotyping is a rapid screening method to identify and profile virulence genes in Salmonella strains, and improve an understanding of potential risk for human and animal infections. PMID:24426144
Elemfareji, Omar Ismail; Thong, Kwai Lin
A Multiplex PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus in Korean Ready-to-Eat Food.
Abstract A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for simultaneous detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus in various Korean ready-to-eat foods. The six specific primer pairs for multiplex PCR were selected based on the O157 antigen (rfbE) gene of E. coli O157:H7, the DNA gyrase subunit B (gyrB) gene of B. cereus, the toxin regulatory protein (toxR) gene of V. parahaemolyticus, the invasion protein A (invA) gene of Salmonella spp., the hemolysin (hly) gene of L. monocytogenes, and the thermonuclease (nuc) gene of S. aureus. The 16S rRNA gene was targeted as an internal control gene in the presence of bacterial DNA. The specificity and sensitivity assays for multiplex primer pairs were investigated by testing different strains. When this multiplex PCR assay was applied to evaluate the validity of detecting six foodborne pathogens in artificially inoculated several ready-to-eat food samples, the assay was able to specifically simultaneously detect as few as 1 colony-forming unit/mL of each pathogen after enrichment for 12?h. Their presence in naturally contaminated samples also indicates that the developed multiplex PCR assay is an effective and informative supplement for practical use. PMID:24796416
Lee, Nari; Kwon, Kyung Yoon; Oh, Su Kyung; Chang, Hyun-Joo; Chun, Hyang Sook; Choi, Sung-Wook
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis is a major causative agent of gastroenteritis with contaminated eggs and chicken meat being the major source of infection. Phages are seriously being considered as a safe and cheaper alternative to antibiotics. The intestinal content of chicken was used as source for isolating phages. Phage designated as ?SP-1 was selected for the study. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of phage ?SP-1 revealed that it belonged to family Podoviridae. The optimal multiplicity of infection (MOI) was 5 phages/cell. Latent and rise period were calculated to be 30 and 55 minutes respectively, while burst size was 44 phages/bacterial cell. The genome size of ?SP-1 was estimated to be 86?kb from pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis (PFGE). The effect of different physical and chemical parameters like temperature, pH, salinity and CaCl? were analyzed to optimize the conditions for large scale production of phages and to check the viability of ?SP-1 under different physiochemical conditions. A temperature of 40?°C, pH 8 and 0.25?M NaCl were found to be optimum for phage adsorption and it was able to survive up to a temperature of 50?°C for 3?min. Capability to survive under hostile environmental conditions, absence of virulence genes in genome and genus specificity suggest suitability of ?SP-1 to be used as a biocontrol agent. PMID:22733367
Augustine, Jeena; Louis, Linda; Varghese, Siju M; Bhat, Sarita G; Kishore, Archana
Many currently available diagnostic tests for typhoid fever lack sensitivity and/or specificity, especially in areas of the world where the disease is endemic. In order to identify a diagnostic test that better correlates with typhoid fever, we evaluated immune responses to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (serovar Typhi) in individuals with suspected typhoid fever in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We enrolled 112 individuals with suspected typhoid fever, cultured day 0 blood for serovar Typhi organisms...
Sheikh, Alaullah; Bhuiyan, M. Saruar; Khanam, Farhana; Chowdhury, Fahima; Saha, Amit; Ahmed, Dilruba; Jamil, K. M. A.; Larocque, Regina C.; Harris, Jason B.; Ahmad, Mian Mashhud; Charles, Richelle; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Cravioto, Alejandro; Ryan, Edward T.
Salmonella typhimurium possesses two outer membrane receptor proteins, IroN and FepA, which have been implicated in the uptake of enterobactin. To determine whether both receptors have identical substrate specificities, fepA and iroN mutants and a double mutant were characterized. While both receptors transported enterobactin, the uptake of corynebactin and myxochelin C was selectively mediated by IroN and FepA, respectively.
Bacterial fimbriae can accept foreign peptides and display them on the cell surface. A highly efficient gene replacement method was used to generate peptide vaccines based on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL3261. The T-cell epitopes (NY-ESO-1 p157-165 and p157-167) from NY-ESO-1, which is a promising target antigen in patients for the specific immune recognition of cancer, were incorporated into the gene encoding AgfA (the major subunit protein of thin aggregative fimbriae of Salmonella) by replacing an equal length of the DNA segment. To improve cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognition, both termini of the peptide were flanked by double alanine (AA) residues. Immunofluorescence microscopy with AgfA-specific antiserum verified the expression of chimeric AgfA, which was also proved by a Congo red binding assay. Oral immunizations of HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice with recombinant SL3261 strains encoding NY-ESO-1 p157-165 or p157-167 induced NY-ESO-1 p157-165-specific CD8(+) T cells, detected by an HLA-A*0201 pentamer, and induced a T-cell response detected by an enzyme-linked immunospot assay. The Salmonella fimbrial display system was efficient at the induction of an antitumor cellular immune response in vivo, providing a new strategy for the development of efficient cancer vaccinations. PMID:20375244
Meng, Jia-Zi; Dong, Yu-Jun; Huang, He; Li, Shuang; Zhong, Yi; Liu, Shu-Lin; Wang, Yue-Dan
Mutagenicity of 15 nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro PAHs), which were detected in ambient air particles and/or combustion source emissions, were examined using a set of six Salmonella typhimurium tester strains (TA7001 to TA7006), and the mutational specificity was characterized by the comparison of the mutagenic potencies of nitro-PAHs in the tester strains. Each strain carries a unique missense mutation in the histidine operon and is reverted by only one specific base-substitution out of six possible changes. All nitro-PAHs tested were mutagenic in multiple strains, and were classified into four categories based on the strains predominantly reverted. 1-Nitropyrene (1-NPy), 2,7-dinitrofluoren-9-one and 1,3-, 1,6- and 1,8-dinitropyrene isomers exerted the highest mutagenicity in strain TA7005 (C.G-->A.T transversion) followed by strain TA7006 (C.G-->G.C transversion). 2- And 3-nitrofluoren-9-one isomers, 2-NPy and 2,7-dinitrophenanthrene were also markedly mutagenic in strain TA7005 but not in strain TA7006. For 2-, 3- and 9-nitrophenanthrene isomers, 2-nitrofluoranthene (2-NFT) and 4-NPy, TA7004 (G.C-->A.T transition) was the most responsive strain. 3-NFT was unique, showing the highest mutagenicity in strain TA7002 (T.A-->A.T transversion). All nitro-PAHs tested induced C.G-->A.T transversion, which is observed as the most frequent base-substitution mutation of p53 tumor suppressor gene in human lung cancer. PMID:9434849
Watanabe, T; Takashima, M; Kasai, T; Hirayama, T
There is conflicting data regarding whether commercial chilling has any effect on persistence of Salmonella serovars, including antibiotic resistant variants, on chicken carcasses. A total of 309 Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Kentucky isolates recovered from pre- and post-chill whole broiler carcasses were characterized for genetic relatedness using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and for the presence of virulence factors (invA, pagC, spvC) by PCR and for aerobactin and colicin production by bioassays. A subset of these isolates (n = 218) displaying resistance to either sulfisoxazole and/or ceftiofur [S. Typhimurium (n = 66) and S. Kentucky (n = 152)] were further tested for the presence of associated antibiotic resistance elements (class-I integrons and blaCMY genes) by PCR. All 145 ceftiofur resistant S. Kentucky and S. Typhimurium isolates possessed blaCMY genes. Class-I integrons were only detected in 6.1% (n = 4/66) of sulfisoxazole resistant S. Typhimurium isolates. The PFGE analysis revealed the presence of genetically diverse populations within the recovered isolates but clusters were generally concordant with serotypes and antimicrobial resistance profiles. At a 100% pattern similarity index, thirty-six percent of the undistinguishable S. Typhimurium and 22% of the undistinguishable S. Kentucky isolates were recovered from the same chilling step. All isolates possessed the invA and pagC genes, but only 1.4%possessed spvC. Irrespective of the chilling step, there was a significant difference (P Salmonella clonal groups but had no effect on the presence of class-I integrons, blaCMY genes, and tested virulence factors. PMID:24290620
Mohamed, Tagelsir; Zhao, Shaohua; White, David G; Parveen, Salina
The diversity and distribution of salmonellae in freshwater biofilms were analyzed at a fine scale (i.e. in 20 locations from a 324 cm(2) area) for two sites in San Marcos, TX. A concrete storm water overflow channel (City Park) was sampled 4 times and a concrete surface in the spring-fed headwaters of the San Marcos River (Spring Lake) 5 times between April and September 2009, and each biofilm sample analyzed by a combination of traditional enrichment methods and molecular techniques. PCR detection of the invA gene, that encodes a protein of a type III secretion system present in salmonellae, after semi-selective enrichment of salmonellae was achieved in biofilms from all 20 locations at the City Park site, with locations generally being positive 2-3 times out of 4 sampling times for a total of 59% positive samples. InvA gene fragment detection in biofilms was less frequent for the 5 sampling times and 20 locations from the Spring Lake site (18% of all samples), with 1 sampling time being entirely negative and 8 locations remaining negative throughout the study. Rep-PCR fingerprinting of 491 Salmonella isolates obtained from both sites resulted in 30 distinct profiles, with 26 and 7 profiles retrieved from City Park and Spring Lake samples, respectively, and thus with 3 profiles present at both sites, and multiple strains frequently obtained from single locations at both sites. The composition of Salmonella strains in the area analyzed changed in time with large differences between early (April, June) and late sampling times (September) within and among sites, except for one strain (S12) that was present at almost all sampling times at both sites, though often at different locations within the area analyzed. These results demonstrate the presence of salmonellae in natural biofilms and a significant micro-heterogeneity with differences in diversity and persistence of salmonellae. PMID:21536398
Sha, Qiong; Gunathilake, Anuradha; Forstner, Michael R J; Hahn, Dittmar
Salmonella is a major cause of food-borne disease, and Salmonella enterica subspecies I includes the most clinically relevant serotypes. Salmonella serotype determination is important for the disease etiology assessment and contamination source tracking. This task will be facilitated by the disclosure of Salmonella serotype sequence polymorphisms, here annotated in seven genes (sefA, safA, safC, bigA, invA, fimA, and phsB) from 139 S. enterica strains, of which 109 belonging to 44 serotypes of subsp. I. One hundred nineteen polymorphic sites were scored and associated to single serotypes or to serotype groups belonging to S. enterica subsp. I. A diagnostic tool was constructed based on the Ligation Detection Reaction-Universal Array (LDR-UA) for the detection of polymorphic sites uniquely associated to serotypes of primary interest (Salmonella Hadar, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Gallinarum, Salmonella Virchow, and Salmonella Paratyphi B). The implementation of promiscuous probes allowed the diagnosis of ten further serotypes that could be associated to a unique hybridization pattern. Finally, the sensitivity and applicability of the tool was tested on target DNA dilutions and with controlled meat contamination, allowing the detection of one Salmonella CFU in 25 g of meat. PMID:21611799
Lauri, Andrea; Castiglioni, Bianca; Mariani, Paola
Full Text Available The administration of increased doses of antibodies in groups experimentallyinfected with Salmonella gallinarum, in order to record the efficiency of theiradministration in salmonellosis prophylaxis was the aim of our research. When alow infection dose, 1x107 CFU Salmonella gallinarum, was used theadministration of IgY polyclonal antibodies as immunoglobulin extract, or evenyolk administration had a protective effect against germs invasion. This effect wasnot recorded when a 10 folds higher dose was administered (1x108 CFU. Theprophylactic effect of the administration of polyclonal antibodies is demonstrated.
AIM: To identify and understand the regular distribution pattern for Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis) in the internal organs of mice after an oral challenge over a 3 wk period.METHODS: Assays based on the serovar-specific DNA sequence of S. enteritidis from GenBank, and a serovar-specific real-time, fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) were developed for the detection of S. enteritidis. We used this assay to detect genomic DNA of S. enteritidis in the bloo...
Shu-xuan Deng, An-chun Cheng
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study aims at developing an indirect ELISA to quantify yolk antibodies specific to all surface proteins of the invasive Salmonella Enteritidis (SE), which acquired the 1.8, 14.1, and ~ 50 Kb plasmids. An ELISA checkerboard was used in four different experiments to account for the differe [...] nt parameters included in the preliminary ELISA procedure, and consequently to maximize the difference in Optical Density (OD) values between control positive and negative yolk samples. The first experiment aimed at studying the impact of 5% Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) dissolved in distilled water as a blocking reagent on a 28 µg/well SE antigen-coated plate, while applying the positive and negative control yolk samples to different concentrations of Phosphate-Buffered Saline (PBS).Conjugate application was maintained constant at a dilution of 1:500 in PBS. The second experiment was similar to the first one, but the positive and negative control yolk samples were diluted in PBS-Tween 20, and the conjugate dilution was changed to 1:1500 in PBS-Tween 20. In the third experiment, the conjugate was diluted at 1:1500 in 5% BSA/PBS-Tween 20 diluent or PBS-Tween 20 diluent with no 5% BSA. The objective of the fourth experiment was to study the impact of four different concentrations of SE-coated antigen levels (28µg/well, 56µg/well, 84µg/well, and 112µg/well), while fixing the blocking step with 5% BSA in distilled water, and the conjugate dilution set at 1:1000 in 5% BSA/PBSTween 20, and fixing the control yolk samples dilution at 1% in PBS-Tween 20. This last experimental procedure allowed the highest difference in mean absorbance OD values of the positive control minus the negative control samples, which was equivalent to 0.381. In addition, the final protocol for this ELISA was applied on individual egg yolk samples of two groups of chicken layers: one challenged in the esophagus at 11 days with 5.4 x 10(10) CFU/ml/bird of SE, and the second group was not challenged. The mean OD values of the egg yolk of antibodies specific against SE of the two groups were significantly different (0.8578 versus 0.5250; p
IT, Tayeb; P, Nehme; L, Jaber; EK, Barbour.
Three pathogens, Riemerella anatipestifer, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella enterica, are leading causes of bacterial fibrinous pericarditis and perihepatitis in ducks in China and worldwide. It is difficult to differentiate these pathogens when obtaining a diagnosis on clinical signs and pathological changes. The aim of this research was to develop a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) that could discriminate R. anatipestifer, E. coli, and S. enterica rapidly in field isolates, or detect the three bacteria in clinical samples from diseased ducks. We selected the DnaB helicase (dnaB) gene of R. anatipestifer, alkaline phosphatase (phoA) gene of E. coli and invasion protein (invA) gene of S. enterica as target genes. In optimized conditions, the limitation of detection was approximately 10(3) colony forming units (CFU) of each of these three bacterial pathogens per PCR reaction tube. The m-PCR method showed specific amplification of respective genes from R. anatipestifer, E. coli, and S. enterica. Using the m-PCR system, bacterial strains isolated from diseased ducks in our laboratory were categorized successfully, and the pathogens could also be detected in clinical samples from diseased ducks. Therefore, the m-PCR system could distinguish the three pathogens simultaneously, for identification, routine molecular diagnosis and epidemiology, in a single reaction. PMID:21791228
Hu, Qinghai; Tu, Jing; Han, Xiangan; Zhu, Yinyu; Ding, Chan; Yu, Shengqing
A study was undertaken to investigate Salmonella in pigs at each step from birth to carcass. Environmental and/or pig samples were taken at birth, farrowing, 1st weaning, 2nd weaning, finishing, transport, lairage, bleeding and chilling of carcasses and tested for Salmonella. All isolates were characterised in terms of serotype, phage type (where relevant) and subtyping with pulsed field gel electrophosesis (PFGE). Isolates were tested for antibiotic resistance, resistance (intI1, bla(CIT), bla(Tem), bla(PSE-1), bla(OXA-1), floR, catA1, aadA1, aadA2, tetA, tetB, tetG, sul1and aphA1) and virulence (invA, rck, spvC and pefA) genes. PCR was also performed to test for the presence of the left junction, thdF-S001 and the right junction, S004-int2 or S004-yidY of Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1). Overall 4.3%, 27.5% and 5% of environmental, throat/rectal and carcass samples were Salmonella positive, respectively. S. Typhimurium DT193 was detected during production, while S. Typhimurium DT17 and U311 were present in lairage at the abattoir, where strain characterisation suggested cross contamination of the live animals occurred. The carcasses were also cross contaminated with S. Brandenburg during processing. PFGE grouped the isolates by serotype and/or phage type. The DT193 isolates displayed the ACSSuTTmMn/Gm resistance phenotype and carried the invA, spvC, rck, bla-tem, aadA2, tetA, strA virulence/antibiotic resistance markers; U311 showed an ASSuTMn resistance pattern and carried invA and tetB; DT17 was sensitive to all antibiotics tested but invA, spv and rck positive while S. Brandenburg displayed neither resistance nor virulence gene carriage. None of the isolates possessed class 1 integrons and all isolates were negative for the left and right junctions of SGI1. It was concluded that control activities should target improved biosecurity at farm level and better sanitation in lairage. This study also provides further evidence that multiple drug resistance may be associated with non-SGI1 Salmonella strains. The continued emergence of non-DT104 S. Typhimurium isolates exhibiting multidrug resistance is a cause for concern as is the persistence of highly virulent Salmonella strains in the abattoir environment. PMID:23290238
Bolton, Declan J; Ivory, Claire; McDowell, David
To achieve an effective detection of Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157, and Listeria monocytogenes in meat products, a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with a multipathogen enrichment strategy was developed in this study. Pathogen-specific DNA sequences in the invA, rfbE, and hlyA genes were employed to design primers and TaqMan probes for identifying Salmonella spp., E. coli O157, and L. monocytogenes, respectively. An internal amplification control (IAC) utilizing a novel DNA sequence from human adenovirus was incorporated into the multiplex PCR assay to indicate false-negative results. Concurrent amplifications of multiple targets and IAC were thoroughly evaluated and optimized to minimize PCR competitions. Combined with a multipathogen enrichment in a selective enrichment broth for Salmonella, Escherichia, and Listeria (SEL), the multiplex real-time PCR assay was able to simultaneously detect all of the three organisms in artificially contaminated ground beef at a detection sensitivity of <18 CFU/10 g ground beef. Applying the assay to 26 retail meat samples including beef, chicken, turkey, and pork revealed that 12 samples were positive for one of the organisms and 3 samples were positive for two of the organisms after a 20-h enrichment in SEL. The remaining meat samples tested negative for all of the organisms by only showing amplification of the IAC. These results were confirmed by traditional culture methods testing for each individual species. Taken together, the multiplex real-time PCR assay combined with multipathogen enrichment is a rapid and reliable method for effectively screening single or multiple pathogen occurrences in various meat products. PMID:20113204
Suo, Biao; He, Yiping; Tu, Shu-I; Shi, Xianming
Development of antibiotic resistance may alter the virulence properties of bacterial organisms. In this study, nine clinical ceftriaxone-susceptible Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium strains were subjected to stepwise selection with increasing concentrations of ceftriaxone in culture media. Mutations in virulence-associated genes and antibiotic efflux genes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The expression levels of virulence genes invA and stn as well as efflux pump genes tolC, arcA, and arcB before and after the selection were measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The stepwise selection resulted in the development of Salmonella strains that were highly resistant to ceftriaxone. Sequence analysis did not reveal any mutations or deletions in the examined virulence genes and regulatory gene, but a silent mutation (T423C) in acrR (encoding a repressor for the efflux pump) was detected in most of the ceftriaxone-resistant strains. The qRT-PCR revealed increased expression of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump and decreased expression of invA and stn in the ceftriaxone-resistant strains. Moreover, decreased invasion into cultured epithelial cells and reduced growth rates were observed with the resistant strains. These results suggest that acquisition of ceftriaxone resistance is associated with the overexpression of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump and leads to reduced virulence in Salmonella Typhimurium. PMID:23320420
Li, Liang; Yang, Yu-Rong; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Lei, Chun-Yin; Sun, Jian; Li, Lu-Lu; Liu, Bao-Tao; Yang, Shou-Shen; Liu, Ya-Hong
Infectious diarrhea can be classified based on its clinical presentation as noninflammatory or inflammatory disease. In developing countries, among inflammatory diarrhea cases, Shigella is the most common cause, followed by Campylobacter and Salmonella. Because the time frame in which treatment choices must be made is short and conventional stool cultures lack good sensitivity, there is a need for a rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive detection technique. The purpose of our study was to develop a multiplex real-time PCR procedure to simultaneously identify Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp. Primers were designed to amplify the invA, ipaH, and 16S rRNA genes simultaneously in a single reaction to detect Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter, respectively. Using this approach, we correctly identified 102 of 103 strains of the targeted enteropathogens and 34 of 34 other pathogens. The melting temperatures were 82.96 ± 0.05 °C for invA, 85.56 ± 0.28 °C for ipaH, and 89.21 ± 0.24 °C for 16S rRNA. The limit of accurate quantification for the assay in stool samples was 10(4) CFU g(-1); however, the limit of detection was 10(3) CFU g(-1). This assay is a simple, rapid, inexpensive, and reliable system for the practical detection of these three enteropathogens in clinical specimens. PMID:23761159
Barletta, F; Mercado, E H; Lluque, A; Ruiz, J; Cleary, T G; Ochoa, T J
Salmonella typhimurium strains harboring independent, defined mutations in aroA, invA, ssrA, or msbB were assessed for their ability to induce fluid accumulation, tissue damage, and local inflammation in rabbit ileal loops. Three wild-type strains of S. typhimurium, TML, HWSH, and SL1344, and two mutant strains, S. typhimurium SL1344 ssrA and S. typhimurium SL1344 msbB, consistently induced fluid accumulation in the lumen of loops and inflammation of loop-associated tissues. In contrast, thre...
Bacterial fimbriae can accept foreign peptides and display them on the cell surface. A highly efficient gene replacement method was used to generate peptide vaccines based on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL3261. The T-cell epitopes (NY-ESO-1 p157-165 and p157-167) from NY-ESO-1, which is a promising target antigen in patients for the specific immune recognition of cancer, were incorporated into the gene encoding AgfA (the major subunit protein of thin aggregative fimbriae of Salmon...
Meng, Jia-zi; Dong, Yu-jun; Huang, He; Li, Shuang; Zhong, Yi; Liu, Shu-lin; Wang, Yue-dan
Three out of five rabbits subjected to successive irradiations and immunized against Salmonella abortus-equi produced IgG which, transiently, were not precipitated by anti-a3 anti-allotypic sera, although they carried all the determinants of the a3 allotypic pattern. As a3 IgG from normal rabbits are precipitated by anti-a3 sera, it appeared that the molecular distribution of the a3 allotypic determinants was different on the IgG produced by these irradiated rabbits compared to IgG produced by normal rabbits. After a second irradiation, one of these rabbits produced a high level (50 mg per ml) of anti-Salmonella antibodies of restricted heterogeneity. An anti-idiotypic serum prepared against anti-Salmonella antibodies produced by this rabbit after the first irradiation precipitated the idiotypes it recognised in the serum collected after the first irradiation, while it did not precipitate the idiotypes it recognised in the serum collected after the second irradiation, although they carried all the determinants of the idiotypes of the serum collected after the first irradiation. That probably means that there is a different molecular distribution of the idiotypic determinants between antibodies produced after the first irradiation and antibodies produced after the second irradiation. An antiidiotypic serum prepared against anti-Salmonella antibodies produced after the second irradiation did not distinguish by precipitation in gel medium or by radioimmunoassay between the idiotypes it recognised in antibodies produced after the first irradiation and those in antibodies produced after the second irradiation. The idiotypic similarity thus detected, and the fact that unexpected allotypes were not detected, is in better agreement with the expression of the potentiality of radiation-resistant cells than with the expression of new antibody producing cell clones arising from virgin stem cells. (author)
Pathogenic bacteria possess genes responsible for virulence, that when expressed, determine not only bacterial invasion and persistence and destruction of host cells but also survival capacity under inappropriate culture conditions. This study utilized 100 samples of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica Serotype Enteritidis (SE) isolated from avian material, detected the virulence genes InvA and SpvC by medium of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and compared them...
Full Text Available Salmonella enteritidis (SE has always been related to subclinical infection in the chickens infected after 2 weeks of hatching. However, few pathogenic phage types were proven for their ability to manifest systemic infection and cause the organism to be shed into the surrounding environment. It was the objective of the study to determine the pathogenicity of SE Phage Type (PT 1 in Specific-Pathogen-Free (SPF chickens. About 93, 21 day old SPF chickens where divided into 3 groups namely the Control, SE and Mortality groups. The chickens were raised separately in caging system and given free access to antibiotic-free ration and water. The SE and Mortality groups were inoculated orally (1.0 mL with SE PT 1 (1x108 cfu mL-1. The chickens in the SE and Control groups were sacrificed at various intervals throughout the trial. Samples were collected for bacterial isolation and histological examination. The mortality percentage of the chickens in the Mortality group was recorded. The study showed that no mortality was recorded throughout the trial in the mortality as well as the SE group. Body weight was lower in the SE group when compared to the Control group throughout the trial except at days 2, 3 and 5 post inoculation (pi reaching its peak at day 14 pi when the SE group body weight was 26% lower than the controls. Clinical signs observed in the SE and Mortality group were represented by diarrhoea, inappetance, ruffled feather and stunted chickens while no abnormal clinical signs where recorded in the Control group. Grossly mild airsacculitis, mild peritonitis and hepatic congestion where recorded in the SE group at day 2 pi until day 5 pi while no gross lesions where recorded in the Control group. SE was first isolated in the caecum (66% at 12 h pi. At day 1 pi SE was isolated from the caecum and spleen (33% whilst at day 2, SE was isolated from the caecum (100% and caecal tonsil (66%. No SE was isolated from the cloacal swabs throughout the trial. The villi height was generally lower in the SE group when compared to the Controls, however it was significantly lower (p<0.05 in the duodenum at 12 h, days 1, 3, 5, 10, 14 and 21 pi; in the jejunum at 6 h, days 2, 14 and 21 pi while in the ileum at days 1, 3 and 5 pi. The crypts depth measurement was fluctuating however it ended up by being higher in the SE group, nevertheless it was significantly lower (p<0.05 in the SE group when compared to the Control group in the duodenum at 6 h and day 14 pi in the jejunum at day 10 pi; in the ileum at 12 h pi. Histopathological changes recorded included hepatitis, congestion and focal areas of necrosis; splenitis, congestion and oedema in the adenoid sheathed arteries; congestion and areas of necrosis in the lymphoi follicles of the bursa of Fabricius; enteritis, congestion and sloughing of necrotic enterocytes in the intestinal villi with presence of bacterial clusters in the villi surface and intestinal lumen. SE rods present in the caecal tonsils were seen to be engulfed by macrophages at days 1 and 2 pi, necrosis of the enterocytes on the villi surface and infiltration of the bacteria was recorded at day 2 pi while at days 5 pi the bacteria multiplication were seen and often located upon the M-like M cells however, no actual engulfment was recorded.
Salmonella serotype Enteritidis General Information Frequently Asked Questions Salmonella serotype Enteritidis infection Egg and chicken contamination Who ... Pages in this Report General Information Additional Information Salmonella serotype Enteritidis infection Salmonella serotype Enteritidis (SE) is ...
Some of the mechanisms underlying the invasion and intracellular survival of B. melitensis are still unknown, including the role of a subfamily of NUDIX enzymes, which have been described in other bacterial species as invasins and are present in Brucella spp. We have generated a mutation in the coding gene of one of these proteins, the invA gene (BMEI0215) of B. melitensis strain 133, to understand its role in virulence. HeLa cell invasion results showed that mutant strain survival was decreased 5-fold compared with that of the parental strain at 2 h pi (P<0.001). In a goat macrophage infection assay, mutant strain replication was 8-fold less than in the parental strain at 24 h pi (P<0.001); yet, at 48 h pi, no significant differences in intracellular replication were observed. Additionally, colocalization of the invA mutant with calregulin was significantly lower at 24 h pi compared with that of the parental strain. Furthermore, the mutant strain exhibited a low level of colocalization with cathepsin D, which was similar to the parental strain colocalization at 24 h pi. In vivo infection results demonstrated that spleen colonization was significantly lower with the mutant than with the parental strain. The immune response, measured in terms of antibody switching and IFN-? transcription, was similar for Rev1 and infection with the mutant, although it was lower than the immune response elicited by the parental strain. Consequently, these results indicate that the invA gene is important during invasion but not for intracellular replication. Additionally, mutation of the invA gene results in in vivo attenuation. PMID:24667775
Alva-Pérez, Jorge; Arellano-Reynoso, Beatriz; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Suárez-Güemes, Francisco
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe a fatal salmonellosis case in a non-human female primate (Callithrix jacchus, found in the illegal pet trade in Brazil. The marmoset was sent to the quarantine section of the Guarulhos City Zoo and died in the sequence of an episode of profuse diarrhea. Necropsy findings included mucous enteritis, and liver enlargement and necrosis. Feces and liver fragments were collected for bacteriological tests, which indicated the presence of Salmonella sp.; it was subsequently characterized as pertaining to the Yoruba serotype. The susceptibility profile demonstrated resistance to tetracycline only. The strain was positive for genes that encoded the virulence factors investigated (invA, sefC, pefA and spvC. The results indicated the risk of introduction of Salmonella pathogenic serotypes in primates in captivity.O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever um caso fatal de salmonelose em uma fêmea primata não humana (Callithrix jacchus, originária de tráfico ilegal no Brasil. O sagui foi enviado para seção de quarentena do Zoológico Municipal de Guarulhos e morreu após um episódio de diarréia profusa. Achados de necropsia incluíram enterite mucosa, hepatomegalia e necrose do fígado. Fezes e fragmentos do fígado foram coletados para testes bacteriológicos e indicaram a presença de Salmonella sp.; subsequentemente caracterizada como sorotipo Yoruba. O perfil de suscetibilidade mostrou resistência somente à tetraciclina. A cepa foi positiva para os genes que codificam os fatores de virulência investigados (invA, sefC, pefA and spvC. Os resultados indicaram o risco de introdução de sorotipos patogênicos de Salmonella por primatas em cativeiro.
One hundred sixty Salmonella enterica isolates from clinically healthy dairy cows were assayed for antibiotic susceptibilities, the presence of class 1 integrons, antimicrobial resistance genes and virulence genes, and conjugal transfer of antimicrobial resistance determinants. One hundred nine (68%) of the Salmonella isolates were resistant to at least 1 antibiotic, and 14 isolates (9%) were multiresistant. The most prevalent resistance observed was to streptomycin (64%). Class 1 integrons were detected in only two Salmonella isolates (serovar Singapore and Derby), and both integrons harbored the same cassette content aadA2. The Derby class 1 integrons were associated with Salmonella genomic island 1-A. Most commonly found resistance genes were strA and strB (9.2%). None of class 1 integrons were horizontally transferred, and the resistance genes were successfully transferred from six (5.5%) Salmonella strains. One hundred fifty-nine isolates (98.8%) were positive to the invasion gene invA, whereas the virulence plasmid-associated genes spvC and pefA were found in only two (1.3%) and one (0.6%) Salmonella isolates, respectively. PMID:19821743
Chuanchuen, Rungtip; Ajariyakhajorn, Kittisak; Koowatananukul, Chailai; Wannaprasat, Wechsiri; Khemtong, Sirintip; Samngamnim, Sukuma
Salmonella is one of the most important foodborne pathogens, which causes a huge economic burden worldwide. To detect Salmonella rapidly is very meaningful in preventing salmonellosis and decreasing economic losses. Currently, isolation of Salmonella is confirmed by biochemical and serobased serotyping methods, which are time consuming, labor intensive, and complicated. To solve this problem, a hexa-plex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed using comparative genomics analysis and multiplex PCR technology to detect Salmonella and Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Agona, Salmonella Choleraesuis, and Salmonella Pullorum simultaneously. The accuracy of this method was tested by a collection of 142 Salmonella. Furthermore, the strategy described in this article to mine serovar-specific fragments for Salmonella could be used to find specific fragments for other Salmonella serotypes and bacteria. The combination of this strategy and multiplex PCR is promising in the rapid identification of foodborne pathogens. PMID:24066904
Li, Ruichao; Wang, Yang; Shen, Jianzhong; Wu, Congming
Detección de Salmonella y coliformes fecales en agua de uso agrícola para la producción de melón "Cantaloupe" / Detection of Salmonella and fecal coliforms in water for agricultural use destined to melon"Cantaloupe"
Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El agua que se utiliza en la producción de cultivos hortofrutícolas representa una fuente potencial de microorganismos que ocasionan enfermedades de transmisión alimentaria. Con el objetivo de evaluar la calidad sanitaria de diferentes fuentes de agua empleadas en la producción de melón Cantaloupe ( [...] Cucumis melo L. [grupo reticulatus] cv. Ovación y Caminos), en Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero, se analizaron 71 muestras de agua provenientes de dos unidades de campo (23) y de una unidad de empaque (48) mediante métodos bacteriológicos convencionales para la detección deSalmonella spp, y por el método de filtración en membrana y el crecimiento en medios selectivos, para la detección de coliformes fecales, como indicadores de contaminación fecal. Del total de muestras de agua analizadas sólo tres muestras de campo resultaron positivas a la presencia de Salmonella spp. y nueve muestras, siete de campo y dos de la unidad de empaque, resultaron positivas a coliformes fecales. Salmonella spp. y coliformes fecales se detectaron principalmente en muestras de agua no clorada a 29 °C y 7.5 de pH, en promedio. En pruebas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR), dos de cuatro cepas presuntivas de Salmonella ssp. dieron amplificaciones positivas con los iniciadores Sal-3 y Sal-4, y invA-1 e invA-2; de las otras dos, sólo dieron amplificación positiva con Sal-3 y Sal-4. Aparentemente se tiene más de una raza o serovar de Salmonella en la región. Estos resultados sugieren que algunas de las fuentes de agua empleadas en la producción de melón Cantaloupe en Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero, no cumplen con la normatividad sanitaria por lo que estas fuentes deben establecerse como puntos prerequisitos de control para evitar la contaminación de melones frescos con patógenos de humanos. Abstract in english Water used in the production of horticultural crops represents a potential source of microorganisms that cause food-transmitted diseases. In order to evaluate the sanitary quality of different agricultural water sources used in the production of Cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo L. [group reticulatus] [...] cv. Ovacion and Caminos), in Zirandaro Chavez, Guerrero, 71 water samples were analyzed from two field units (23) and one packaging house unit (48) through traditional bacteriological methods, to detect Salmonella spp, and the filtering membrane method and growth selective media, to detect fecal coliforms, as fecal contamination indicators. Of the total analyzed water samples only three field samples were positive to Salmonella spp. and nine samples, seven coming from the field and two from the packaging house, were positive to fecal coliforms. Salmonella spp. and fecal coliforms were detected mainly in non-chlorinated water samples at 29 °C and pH of 7.5, on average. Two out of four presumptive Salmonella spp. isolates were confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers Sal-3 and Sal-4, and invA-1 and invA-2; the other two were only confirmed with Sal-3 y Sal-4. Apparently more than one race or serovar of Salmonella spp. are present in this region. Results suggest that some water sources used in the Cantaloupe melon production in Zirandaro Chavez, Guerrero, do not meet sanitary standards therefore these sources should be considered as critical control points to prevent fresh melon contamination with human pathogens.
Carmela, Hernández-Domínguez; Ana María, Hernández-Anguiano; Cristóbal, Cháidez-Quiroz; Gilberto, Rendón-Sánchez; Trevor, Suslow.
In this study, the host-specificity and -sensitivity of human- and bovine-specific adenoviruses (HS-AVs and BS-AVs) were evaluated by testing wastewater/fecal samples from various animal species in Southeast, Queensland, Australia. The overall specificity and sensitivity of the HS-AVs marker were 1.0 and 0.78, respectively. These figures for the BS-AVs were 1.0 and 0.73, respectively. Twenty environmental water samples were collected during wet conditions and 20 samples were colleted during dry conditions from the Maroochy Coastal River and tested for the presence of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), host-specific viral markers, zoonotic bacterial and protozoan pathogens using PCR/qPCR. The concentrations of FIB in water samples collected after wet conditions were generally higher compared to dry conditions. HS-AVs was detected in 20% water samples collected during wet conditions and whereas BS-AVs was detected in both wet (i.e., 10%) and dry (i.e., 10%) conditions. Both Campylobacter jejuni mapA and Salmonella invA genes detected in 10% samples collected during dry conditions. The concentrations of Salmonella invA ranged between 3.5 × 10(2) and 4.3 × 10(2) genomic copies per 500 ml of water Giardia lamblia ?-giardin gene was detected only in one sample (5%) collected during the dry conditions. Weak or significant correlations were observed between FIB with viral markers and zoonotic pathogens. However, during dry conditions, no significant correlations were observed between FIB concentrations with viral markers and zoonotic pathogens. The prevalence of HS-AVs in samples collected from the study river suggests that the quality of water is affected by human fecal pollution and as well as bovine fecal pollution. The results suggest that HS-AVs and BS-AVs detection using PCR could be a useful tool for the identification of human sourced fecal pollution in coastal waters. PMID:20891037
Ahmed, W; Goonetilleke, A; Gardner, T
The ultimate specificity in molecular-based assays for pathogen detection relies on the design of the primers and probes. Their ability to hybridize to DNA sequences found only in pathogens can be realized by designing primers and probes that are complementary to pathogen-specific virulence genes. This study evaluates the detection and enumeration strengths of real-time PCR (qPCR) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for selected waterborne pathogens and their ultimate applicability within a monitoring framework. Detection limits calculated in the qPCR assay were 150 tir (intimin protein receptor) gene copies for Escherichia coli O157:H7 and 2 x 103 invA (inner membrane invasive protein) gene copies for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Detection limits were, however, at least 100-fold less sensitive in wastewater extracts, partly because of the inhibitory effect of the wastewater itself. Fluorescent signals from hybridized whole target cells were below the detection limit of the FISH assay. While this research demonstrates the potential detection strength of qPCR, it highlights the need for strong dependable primer and probe sets among PCR and FISH methodologies as well as the need for further signal amplification with DNA-targeted FISH for single-copy gene targets within environmental samples. PMID:20453912
Haffar, Merriam; Gilbride, Kimberley A
Full Text Available This study explores the possibility of simultaneous and specific detection ofSalmonella serovars by surface plasmon resonance (SPR. The PlasmonicÃ‚Â® SPR device wasused to develop this rapid assay. The sandwich immunoassay involves the use of apolyclonal anti-Salmonella antibody to simultaneous capture multiple Salmonella serovarspresent in a sample. This is followed by specific detection of the captured serovars usingO-specific anti-Salmonella antibodies. Milk spiked with Salmonella Typhimurium andSalmonella Enteritidis was used as a model system to establish the assay. The assay wasfurther extended to sequentially differentiate between the two Salmonella serovars on asingle SPR chip in a single channel. The assay was proved to work without any additionaldilution or clean-up steps. The sample volume requirement for the assay is only 10 ÃŽÂ¼L. Thelower limits of detection for Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis were2.50ÃƒÂ—105 cells mL-1 and 2.50ÃƒÂ—108 cells mL-1, respectively.
Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) are a group of enteric bacteria can lead to life-threatening bacteremia in those with weakened immune systems. MacLennan et al. identify an immune response that may have important implications for the development of a vaccine against NTS.
Susan Moir (National Institutes of Health;); Anthony Fauci (National Institutes of Health;)
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During the period from 2006 to 2007, a total of 32 clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica were isolated from diarrheagenic stool samples and further examined for their susceptibility to various antibiotics. Sixteen of the human isolates were from the capital Tunis, 11 were from Sousse, four were from Nabeul and one was from Mahdia, Tunisia. The isolates were serotyped and identified at the National Centre of Enteropathogenic Bacteria, Pasteur Institute, Tunis (Centre National de Salmonella, Shigella et Vibrio - Institut pasteur de Tunis); nine distinct serovars were identified: Enteritidis (n=20), Typhimurium (n=4), Zanzibar (n=2), Manhattan (n=1), Bovismorbificans (n=1), Amsterdam (n=1), Saint Paul (n=1), Kentucky (n=1) and Muenster (n=1). Our results showed that 25 Salmonella isolates (78.1 %) were resistant to antibiotics with 20 isolates (62.5 %) displayed resistance to ampicillin. Isolates sharing invA gene, as shown by PCR amplification, were further characterized by the techniques of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using the restriction enzyme XbaI and plasmid analysis to determine possible genetic relationships among Salmonella enterica clinical isolates and to assess genetic diversity. Plasmid profiling identified seven plasmid profiles (with 1-5 plasmids) among the isolates; four isolates (Salmonella Kentucky, Salmonella Muenster, Salmonella Bovismorbificans and Salmonella Zanzibar) did not carry any plasmid. The isolates were differentiated into 10 distinct XbaI-pulsotypes. Our findings show genetic diversity among the different serovars and cluster analysis of compiled serotyping, PFGE, plasmid profiling and antibiotic resistance data provided additional discrimination. PMID:20685046
Abbassi-Ghozzi, I; Jaouani, A; Aissa, R B; Martinez-Urtaza, J; Boudabous, A; Gtari, M
In the present study the relative sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of a Real-Time PCR assay for Salmonella detection in naturally contaminated pork cuts were evaluated in comparison with the ISO 6579:2004 reference culture method. Meat samples were collected from packaging up to the end of shelf life from 10 different lots over a year. The PCR method included an 18 h pre-enrichment step in buffered peptone water, a DNA extraction step, and a final 5' nuclease Real-Time PCR assay, including an Internal Amplification Control (IAC) and targeting the ttrRSBCA locus. Based on the analysis of 480 sub-units (three sub-units for each sample), the relative sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the Real-Time PCR assay were 90, 78.7, and 82.9% respectively, corresponding to a Cohen's kappa value of 0.81 (very good agreement). These results suggest the PCR method as a rapid and accurate method for the quick check of meat lots before distribution. The ISO reference method might be applied only on positive Real-Time PCR samples for confirmatory and isolation purposes, mandatory in epidemiological investigations. PMID:24341992
Pasquali, Frédérique; De Cesare, Alessandra; Bovo, Federica; Serraino, Andrea; Manfreda, Gerardo
In this study, 13% of fresh lettuce (Lactuca sativa) samples collected from markets and supermarkets in two cities of Mexico were contaminated with Salmonella spp. From those samples, amplicons of ?300 base pairs (bp) were amplified, corresponding to the expected size of the invasion (invA) and internal transcribed spacer regions of the 16S and 23S rRNA genes of Salmonella spp. Additionally, Salmonella strains were isolated and harbored plasmids ranging from ?9 to 16 kbp. From these strains, 91% were resistant to ampicillin and nitrofurantoin, whereas 55% were resistant to cephalothin and chloramphenicol. No resistance was detected to amikacin, carbenicillin, cefotaxime, gentamicin, netilmicin, norfloxacin, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. When Salmonella isolates were tested against novel bacteriocins (morricin 269, kurstacin 287, kenyacin 404, entomocin 420, and tolworthcin 524) produced by five Mexican strains of Bacillus thuringiensis, 50% were susceptible to these antimicrobial peptides. This is the first report showing that Salmonella strains isolated from lettuce are susceptible to bacteriocins produced by the most important bioinsecticide worldwide, suggesting the potential use of these antibacterial peptides as therapeutic agents or food preservatives to reduce or destroy populations of Salmonella spp. PMID:21333148
Castañeda-Ramírez, Cristobal; Cortes-Rodríguez, Viridiana; de la Fuente-Salcido, Norma; Bideshi, Dennis K; del Rincón-Castro, M Cristina; Barboza-Corona, J Eleazar
Inoculation of newly hatched broiler chicks with two Brazilian isolates of Salmonella Heidelberg strains with different virulence gene profiles, antimicrobial resistance, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns to intestinal changes evaluation.
Salmonella Heidelberg is one of the 3 most frequently isolated serovars from human Salmonella cases in Canada, and the fourth most commonly reported Salmonella serovar in human foodborne disease cases in the United States. Since 1962, Salmonella Heidelberg has been isolated and reported in poultry and poultry products in Brazil. The poultry industry has focused efforts on reducing salmonellae incidence in live production in an effort to reduce Salmonella in the processing plant. A better understanding of the initial infection in chicks could provide approaches to control Salmonella contamination. The objective of the present study was to evaluate 2 Salmonella Heidelberg strains that differed in the presence of virulence genes invA, agfA, and lpfA; antimicrobial resistance profiles; and epidemiologic profiles on aspects of pathogenicity and intestinal morphology. Newly hatched broiler chicks were inoculated with 2 strains (SH23 and SH35) of Salmonella Heidelberg and cecal morphometry, histopathology, electron microscopy, and bacterial counts in the liver and cecum were assessed. The SH23 and SH35 strains resulted in different changes in villi height and crypt depth and inflammatory cell infiltration in the cecum. The SH35 group had higher liver and cecum bacterial cell counts when compared with SH23 strains. PMID:19276418
Borsoi, A; Santin, E; Santos, L R; Salle, C T P; Moraes, H L S; Nascimento, V P
In this study, 47 antibiotic-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) were characterised, including 15 monophasic variants 1, 4, , 12:i:-, (STm) isolated from different matrices. They were all selected from 389 Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica strains isolated during 2008-2010 in Abruzzo region (Italy). Thirty-seven strains showed to be resistant to more than 1 antibiotic. Among 47 isolates, phage type U311 and DT104 were identified. The ASSuT resistance pattern was predominant in mST strains and ACSSuT in ST DT104 and U302. A multiplex Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method was used to investigate 4 genes: fluorfenicol (floSt), virulence (spvC), invasine (invA) and integrase (int). All ST the strain were positive for invA gene and 28,32% of strains were positive for spvC gene. PFGE analysis revealed a large number of small clonal populations, however not ascrivable to outbreaks. PMID:24715591
Alessiani, Alessandra; Sacchini, Lorena; Pontieri, Eugenio; Gavini, Jacopo; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta
Attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine strain SL3261 was used as an antigen delivery system for the oral immunization of mice against two Cryptosporidium parvum antigens, Cp23 and Cp40. Each antigen was subcloned into the pTECH1 vector system, which allows them to be expressed as fusion proteins with highly immunogenic fragment C of tetanus toxin under the control of the anaerobically inducible nirB promoter. The recombinant vector was introduced into Salmonella Typhimuriu...
Benitez, Alvaro J.; Mcnair, Nina; Mead, Jan R.
Human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 is strongly associated with spondyloarthropathies, including reactive arthritis. Several Gram-negative bacteria, such as Salmonella typhimurium, can trigger this disease. It has been suggested that peptides derived from bacterial proteins and presented by HLA-B27 to cytotoxic T lymphocytes might show molecular mimicry with autologous peptides, leading to T-cell cross-reaction and autoimmunity. Antigen presentation in Salmonella-infected cells could be modulat...
Marcilla Goldaracena, Miguel; Lo?pez Castro A?lvarez, Jose? Antonio; Castan?o, Jose? G.; A?lvarez, In?aki
To survive in the presence of a wide range of toxic compounds, gram-negative bacteria expel such compounds via tripartite efflux pumps that span both the inner and outer membranes. The Salmonella-specific MdsAB pump consists of MdsB, a resistance-nodulation-division (RND)-type inner membrane transporter (IMT) that requires the membrane fusion protein (MFP) MdsA, and an outer membrane protein (OMP; MdsC or TolC) to form a tripartite efflux complex. In this study, we investigated the role of the putative tip regions of MdsA and its OMPs, MdsC and TolC, in the formation of a functional MdsAB-mediated efflux pump. Comparative analysis indicated that although sequence homologies of MdsA and MdsC with other MFPs and OMPs, respectively, are extremely low, key residues in the putative tip regions of these proteins are well conserved. Mutagenesis studies on these conserved sites demonstrated their importance for the physical and functional interactions required to form an MdsAB-mediated pump. Our studies suggest that, despite differences in the primary amino acid sequences and functions of various OMPs and MFPs, interactions mediated by the conserved tip regions of OMP and MFP are required for the formation of functional tripartite efflux pumps in gram-negative bacteria. PMID:24960027
Song, Saemee; Hwang, Soonhye; Lee, Seunghwa; Ha, Nam-Chul; Lee, Kangseok
To survive in the presence of a wide range of toxic compounds, gram-negative bacteria expel such compounds via tripartite efflux pumps that span both the inner and outer membranes. The Salmonella-specific MdsAB pump consists of MdsB, a resistance-nodulation-division (RND)-type inner membrane transporter (IMT) that requires the membrane fusion protein (MFP) MdsA, and an outer membrane protein (OMP; MdsC or TolC) to form a tripartite efflux complex. In this study, we investigated the role of the putative tip regions of MdsA and its OMPs, MdsC and TolC, in the formation of a functional MdsAB-mediated efflux pump. Comparative analysis indicated that although sequence homologies of MdsA and MdsC with other MFPs and OMPs, respectively, are extremely low, key residues in the putative tip regions of these proteins are well conserved. Mutagenesis studies on these conserved sites demonstrated their importance for the physical and functional interactions required to form an MdsAB-mediated pump. Our studies suggest that, despite differences in the primary amino acid sequences and functions of various OMPs and MFPs, interactions mediated by the conserved tip regions of OMP and MFP are required for the formation of functional tripartite efflux pumps in gram-negative bacteria.
Song, Saemee; Hwang, Soonhye; Lee, Seunghwa; Ha, Nam-Chul; Lee, Kangseok
Contamination of lettuce by Salmonella has caused serious public health problems. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria in food, but it is inaccurate as it might amplify DNA from dead target cells as well. This study aimed to investigate the stability of DNA of dead Salmonella cells in lettuce and to develop an approach to detecting viable Salmonella in lettuce. Salmonella-free lettuce was inoculated with heat-killed Salmonella Typhimurium cells and stored at 4 °C. Bacterial DNA extracted from the sample was amplified by real-time PCR targeting the invA gene. Our results indicate that DNA from the dead cells remained stable in lettuce for at least 8 d. To overcome this limitation, propidium monoazide (PMA), a dye that can selectively penetrate dead bacterial cells and cross-link their DNA upon light exposure, was combined with real-time PCR. Lettuce samples inoculated with different levels of dead or viable S. Typhimurium cells were treated or untreated with PMA before DNA extraction. Real-time PCR suggests that PMA treatment effectively prevented PCR amplification from as high as 10(8) CFU/g dead S. Typhimurium cells in lettuce. The PMA real-time PCR assay could detect viable Salmonella at as low as 10(2) CFU/mL in pure culture and 10(3) CFU/g in lettuce. With 12-h enrichment, S. Typhimurium of 10(1) CFU/g in lettuce was detectable. In conclusion, the PMA real-time PCR assay provides an alternative to real-time PCR assay for accurate detection of Salmonella in food. PMID:22417362
Liang, Ningjian; Dong, Jin; Luo, Laixin; Li, Yong
Avian salmonellosis is a disease caused by bacteria of the genus Salmonella that can cause three distinct diseases in birds: pullorum diseases, fowl typhoid, and paratyphoid infection. Various wildlife species are susceptible to infections by Salmonella, regardless of whether they live in captivity or freely in the wild. The present study verified the presence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in three captive specimens of Amazona aestiva. The study involved a total of 103 birds undergoing rehabilitation to prepare for living in the wild, after having been captured from animal traffickers and delivered to the Centrofauna Project of the Floravida Institute in Sao Paulo, Brazil. This is the first report of Salmonella Enteritidis isolation in A. aestiva that originated from capture associated with animal trafficking; Salmonella was detected during the study by the serologic method of rapid serum agglutination on a plate with bacterial isolate. The antimicrobial profile exam of the isolated samples demonstrated sensitivity to ampicillin, cefaclor, ciprofloxacin, and cloranfenicol. The three samples also presented resistance to more than four antibiotics. The presence of the genes invA and spvC was verified by PCR technique and was associated with virulence and absence of class 1 integron, a gene related to antimicrobial resistance. The commercial antigen for pullorum disease was shown to be a useful tool for rapid detection in the screening of Salmonella of serogroup D1 in Psittaciformes. New studies on Salmonella carriage in birds involved in trafficking must be performed to better understand their participation in the epidemiologic cycle of salmonellosis in humans and other animals. PMID:20408416
Marietto-Gonçalves, Guilherme Augusto; de Almeida, Sílvia Maria; de Lima, Edna Tereza; Okamoto, Adriano Sakai; Pinczowski, Pedro; Andreatti Filho, Raphael Lucio
Salmonella is among the most important food borne pathogens worldwide contaminating a wide range of animal products including meat products. Human illnesses due to this pathogen are attributed to poor biosecurity in production, improper processing and handling of meat and meat products. This is more likely where surveillance and regulatory control is weak. There is however limited information on the occurrence of these pathogens in foods in Nigeria. The extent of contamination of retail-beef and related meat products with Salmonellae in Zaria was evaluated. A total of 435 retailed beef and related meat products consisting of muscle meat, offal and processed meat products were tested for the presence of Salmonella species. Sample types included raw meat, â??suyaâ?? (roasted meat), â??balanguâ?? (barbequed meat), â??Kilishiâ?? (spiced sun dried meat) and â??dambuâ?? (shredded fried meat). Samples were derived from four major markets and Zango abattoir in Zaria, Nigeria and cultured using selective isolation method with prior enrichment. Suspected isolates were identified and characterised using conventional biochemical methods and Microbact 12E (Oxoid, UK) identification kit. The isolates were serotyped. Confirmed isolates were evaluated in vitro for susceptibilities to 18 commonly used antimicrobial agents. Ten samples (2.3%) were positive for Salmonella. Raw beef samples had the highest isolation rates (2.43%). All the 10 Salmonella isolates were found to carry the invA gene. All the isolates exhibited multiple drug resistance. Simultaneous resistance to up to 8 antibiotics was found amongst the Salmonellae. The isolates exhibited more commonly resistance to members of Î²-lactam family and other antibiotic classes including lincosamides, macrolides, aminoglycosides and nitrofurans. Meat and meat products including ready-to-eat meat in Zaria were contaminated with multidrug and virulent Salmonella species. Meat and meat products in Nigeria are thus a hazardous group of foods that can potentially transmit this pathogen to humans.
Hendriksen, Rene S.
Specific lung mucosal and systemic immune responses after oral immunization of mice with Salmonella typhimurium aroA, Salmonella typhi Ty21a, and invasive Escherichia coli expressing recombinant pertussis toxin S1 subunit.
Pertussis toxin (PT) is considered an essential protective component for incorporation into new generation vaccines against Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. Traditionally, antipertussis vaccination has employed an intramuscular route. An alternative to this approach is to stimulate mucosal and systemic immune responses by oral immunization with live vaccine carrier strains of Salmonella spp. or Escherichia coli. Recombinant S1 subunit of pertussis toxin was express...
In this study, 183 Salmonella enterica isolates were characterised for integrons and virulence genes. Among the isolates, 46% were positive for intI1, but no isolates carried intI2 or intI3. Eighteen class 1 integrons (21%) contained resistance gene cassettes (i.e. dfrA1-orfC, dfrA12-aadA2, bla(PSE-1) and aadA2) and five class 1 integrons with the dfrA12-aadA2 array were conjugally transferable. Two Salmonella pork isolates of serotypes Albany and Kedougou possessed Salmonella genomic island 1 variants SGI1-G and SGI1-F, respectively. Four class 1 integrons contained an atypical 3'-CS linked to the qacH-sul3 domain, and three were not a sul type. Two novel GyrA mutations (Pro-45?Ser and Met-48?Ile) and three novel ParC mutations (Ser-5?Arg, Thr-31?Met and Leu-77?Arg) were identified in ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates. At least 90% of the Salmonella isolates contained pagC, prgH, sitC, sipB or spaN, whereas all isolates harboured invA, msgA, spiA and tolC. PMID:21295950
Wannaprasat, Wechsiri; Padungtod, Pawin; Chuanchuen, Rungtip
Food-borne Salmonella infections can produce symptoms from mild gastroenteritis to severe systemic disease and death, representing an important public health issue in U.S. livestock and livestock products, which have been implicated as frequent sources of Salmonella contamination. Concerns have been raised about the spread of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella strains, particularly those that originate from food animal sources, as a result of prophylactic and therapeutic antimicrobial use in these species. Longitudinal comparisons of Salmonella serovars isolated from porcine tissues submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory in 2003 and 2008 were conducted to evaluate changes in serovar dynamics and antimicrobial resistance. Incidence of recovered group C Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis var. Kunzendorf decreased between 2003 and 2008, while recovery of group B strains Salmonella Typhimurium var. 5-(formerly, Copenhagen), Salmonella Agona, Salmonella Derby, Salmonella Heidelberg, and Salmonella Typhimurium increased. Significant changes in resistance interpretation were seen in Salmonella Derby with regard to spectinomycin and sulfadimethoxine; in Salmonella Heidelberg with regard to florfenicol, spectinomycin, and sulfadimethoxine; and in Salmonella Choleraesuis var. Kunzendorf, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Typhimurium var. 5-, and Salmonella Agona with regard to spectinomycin. Only 2 of 293 isolates in 2003 and 5 of 395 isolates in 2008 were resistant to enrofloxacin. Utilizing antibiotics approved for use in food animals to evaluate antimicrobial resistance provides more specific information on the selection pressure exerted on Salmonella populations through the use of these drugs. PMID:20622228
Clothier, Kristin A; Kinyon, Joann M; Frana, Timothy S
Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis is a major cause of egg-borne human salmonellosis. The ability to survive in egg albumen at chicken body temperature was hypothesized to be an important factor involved in the predominant contamination of eggs by this specific serotype. Eighty-nine Salmonella strains from different serotypes, belonging to 5 serogroups, were incubated for 24 h in egg white at 42°C. The number of Salmonella Enteritidis strains that were able to survive in egg white was significantly higher compared with strains belonging to other serotypes and serogroups that were tested in this study. These data add evidence to the hypothesis that egg white survival is one of the reasons why Salmonella Enteritidis is more predominantly isolated from contaminated eggs, and helps explaining why most reported egg-borne Salmonella outbreaks in humans are caused by Salmonella Enteritidis. PMID:23436537
De Vylder, J; Raspoet, R; Dewulf, J; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Van Immerseel, F
Full Text Available Estudos que elucidem a cadeia de transmissão de Salmonella enterica nos sistemas de produção de suínos são importantes para que seja possível implementar programas de controle da infecção. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o índice de animais positivos para Salmonella sp. no início da fase de terminação e ao abate e identificar possíveis fontes de contaminação no período. Em três granjas terminadoras, coletaram-se: suabes de superfície nas baias e nos silos durante o vazio sanitário; amostras de fezes e sangue dos animais no dia do alojamento; alíquotas de todos os lotes de ração e amostras de sangue, linfonodos mesentéricos (LM e conteúdo intestinal (CI ao abate. As amostras de sangue foram submetidas a teste de ELISA-LPS para Salmonella Typhimurium. Nas demais amostras, pesquisou-se a presença de Salmonella sp. As amostras de ração foram adicionalmente submetidas à técnica da Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR amplificando o gene invA. Todos os animais foram negativos para presença de Salmonella sp. nas fezes no início da terminação; entretanto, em duas granjas havia animais soropositivos (12% e 28%, respectivamente. Em duas granjas havia contaminação residual no ambiente e na terceira granja, em um dos lotes de ração, detectou-se a presença de Salmonella sp. pela PCR. Ao abate, acima de 90% dos animais foram positivos no teste de ELISA-LPS, sendo que em todos os lotes encontrou-se um número variável (12-92% de portadores em LM e CI. A partir disso, concluiu-se que a terminação foi a fase crítica para a amplificação da infecção por Salmonella sp., sendo a presença residual do microrganismo na granja e o fornecimento de ração contaminada fontes prováveis de infecção.
PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Abate, isolamento, Salmonella, sorologia, suíno, terminação.
Studies assessing the Salmonella transmission chain in pig herds are the first step to start a control program. The aims of this study were to compare the prevalence of Salmonella positive pigs at the beginning of the finishing phase and at slaughter, and to identify the possible sources of contamination in the farms. In three finishing farms, environmental swabs from the barns and from the feed silos were collected during the sanitary emptiness. Furthermore, samples of feces and blood from the animals on the day of housing; and aliquots from all feed lots were taken. At slaughter, blood, mesenteric lymph nodes (LM and intestinal content (CI were sampled. Blood samples were submitted to a S. Typhimurium ELISA-LPS test. All other samples were submitted to a Salmonella isolation protocol. Feed samples were also submitted to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR targeting the invA gene. Feces samples from all pigs were Salmonella negative at the beginning of the finishing phase, in two farms seropositive animals were found. In two farms, residual environmental contamination was detected, and, in the third farm, one of the feed batches was Salmonella positive on the PCR assay. At slaughter, over 90% of the animals were positive on the ELISA-LPS test and, in all cohorts, a variable number (12%-92% of carriers in LM and CI was detected. From this on, it was concluded that the finishing phase was critical for the amplification of Salmonella infection, and the residual environmental contamination in the farms as well as Salmonella positive feed batches were the probable infection sources.
KEY WORDS: Isolation, finishing and slaughter, Salmonella, serology, swine.
The propensity of Salmonella to persist in water environments under unfavourable conditions is of concern as these water environments serve as contamination reservoirs. The role of contaminated water in the transmission of Salmonella in developing countries is largely unknown. The fate and persistence of non-typhoidal Salmonella in water environments and the specific influence of the indigenous microbiota on the survival and growth of Salmonella is poorly understood. A tagged Salmonella strai...
An inactivated Salmonella vaccine was prepared from 5 x 107 cells of Salmonella gallinarum to assess the potential protective efficacy of Salmonella gallinarum vaccine. Specific pathogen free(SPF) hens were vaccinated at 6 weeks and 10 weeks of age and challenged orally at 14 weeks of age with 107 cells of homologous Salmonella gallinarum strain. The nonvaccinated chickens were also challenged with same number of Salmonella gallinarum cells. The antibody titers of the vaccinated hens were det...
Three compounds, capsaicin, thymol and borneol, were initially screened for mutagenic activity using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97, TA98 and TA100, with and without S9 metabolic activation, and 20 min standard preincubation time. Three other compounds, allyl isothiocyanate, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, were screened for mutagenic activity as above, but with a prolonged, nonstandard preincubation time of up to 120 minutes. All six test compounds used in the assays are associated with the pungent properties of some specific spices in which the test compounds can be found to exist naturally. The first objective of this study was to observe if mutagenic activity can be correlated to the pungent properties of these six test compounds. However, due to toxicity and the observation that only capsaicin was mutagenic, using strain TA100 in the presence of S9 metabolic activation, it was not possible to deduce any relationship between mutagenicity and the test chemicals' pungent properties. Naturally occurring capsaicin, found in the spice Capsicum annum, was detected and quantified using thin layer and gas chromatographic techniques. The final objective was to detect the presence of antimutagenic factor(s) in C. annum that would suppress the mutagenicity of capsaicin. When the mutagenic capsaicin and 2-aminoanthracene were assayed in the presence of C. annum acetone extract, using strain TA100 with S9 metabolic activation, the mutagenic response of both the mutagens were reduced by approximately 50%. Assaying capsaicin and 2-aminoanthracene in the presence of chlorophyll, the mutagenic response of the two mutagens was reduced by less than 40%. From this observation it was inferred that chlorophyll can successfully suppress the mutagenicity activities of capsaicin and 2-aminoanthracene, together with other antimutagenic factors that were present in the acetone extract of C. annum. PMID:7710293
Azizan, A; Blevins, R D
The aims of this study were to investigate the incidence of Salmonella, verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC)/Escherichia coli O157 and Campylobacter on four mixed farms and to characterize the isolates in terms of a range of virulence factors. Eighty-nine composite (five different samples from the same animal species combined) faecal [cattle (24), pigs (14), sheep (4), poultry (4), horses (7), deer (4), dogs (9), rodents (2) and wild birds (20)] samples, 16 composite soil samples plus 35 individual water samples were screened using culture-based, immunomagnetic separation and molecular methods. Salmonella was detected in bovine faeces, cattle and poultry house water. Salmonella serotypes/phage types included Dublin, Kiel and Typhimurium DT193, and most isolates were spvC, invA and rck positive. The pefA and rck genes were found exclusively in the non-Typhimurium strains, while Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Kiel strains carried Salmonella genomic island I marker(s). VTEC/E. coli O157 were found in deer and dog faeces only. The E. coli O157 isolate was an enteroinvasive E. coli, while the VTEC isolate was untypable but carried the vt1, eaeA, hlyA, tir and eptD genes. This article reports the first confirmed carriage of E. coli O157 in Irish deer. Campylobacter species were not detected over the course of this study. It was concluded that  Salmonella, VTEC and Campylobacter have low (Salmonella strains. This study highlights the need to control water as a source of pathogens and suggests that the domestic pets and deer should be considered in any farm risk assessment. PMID:21951421
Bolton, D J; O'Neill, C J; Fanning, S
Full Text Available Los serotipos de Salmonella especie enterica son los responsables del 99% de las salmonelosis en humanos y animales, en particular, Salmonella enterica serovariedad Albany se ha identificado en canales de pollo, por lo que representa un riesgo para la salud humana y animal. Se aisló Salmonella enterica serovariedad Albany a partir de heces de un ocelote macho (Leopardus pardalis, cautivo en el zoológico de Culiacán, Sinaloa, México, y de pollo crudo (alimento del felino. El patrón por electroforesis en campo pulsado (PFGE con la enzima Xba I fue idéntico en ambos aislados, lo que indica que la fuente de infección fue el pollo crudo. Cinco meses después de haber aislado las bacterias de las heces, se realizó estudio post mortem del felino anteriormente mencionado, y se observó macroscópicamente: enterocolitis hemorrágica severa y fibrosis renal; y microscópicamente: necrosis de vellosidades y de criptas e infiltrado mononuclear linfocitario severo en íleon, además nefritis intersticial severa multifocal y fibrosis en riñón. A partir de muestras intestinales se amplificó el gen invA que confirma la infección por Salmonella. Los diagnósticos microbiológico, molecular e histopatológico sugieren que la muerte del felino se debió a la infección causada por la ingesta de pollo crudo contaminado con Salmonella enterica serovariedad Albany. Este caso clínico confirma la importancia que tienen los animales que excretan Salmonella vía fecal y describe la relación epidemiológica-molecular de los aislamientos obtenidos de heces y alimento, lo que permitió esclarecer la fuente primaria de infección.
One hundred chicken carcasses purchased from three markets selling poultry in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, between June 2010 and October 2010 were examined for their microbiological quality. The presence of Salmonella was investigated using standard bacteriological procedures, and the isolates obtained were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. The presence of virulence-associated genes of the five main pathogroups of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli-Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli, and enteroinvasive E. coli-was investigated using 16-plex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on the mixed bacterial cultures from the poultry samples. Of the 100 chicken carcasses studied, 57 were contaminated by Salmonella; 16 different serotypes were identified, the most frequent being Salmonella Derby, found in 28 samples. Four Salmonella strains were resistant to tetracycline, and two were resistant to streptomycin. Based on the PCR detection of the virulence genes, in total, 45 carcasses were contaminated by three pathogroups of E. coli: STEC, EPEC, or EAEC. The STEC and EPEC virulence genes were detected on six and 39 carcasses, respectively. EAEC virulence genes were only detected in combination with those of EPEC (on 11 carcasses) or STEC (on two carcasses). The STEC-positive carcasses contained the genes stx(1), stx(2), eaeA, escV, and ent in different combinations. None of the EPEC-positive carcasses contained the bfp gene, indicating that only atypical EPEC was present. EAEC virulence genes detected were aggR and/or pic. The high proportion of chicken carcasses contaminated by Salmonella and diarrheagenic E. coli indicates a potential food safety risk for consumers and highlights the necessity of public awareness of these pathogens. PMID:22551070
Kagambèga, Assèta; Barro, Nicolas; Traoré, Alfred S; Siitonen, Anja; Haukka, Kaisa
The important role of plasmid genes in assessing virulence for BALB/c mice in salmonella, and the difficulty of using standard techniques to detect them, led us to develop a detection method by gene amplification. One hundred and forty-three strains (71 serovars) of salmonella and 35 strains of other species were tested using specific oligonucleotide primers. The amplification products were identified by a specific oligonucleotide probe. Forty-nine salmonella strains from ten serovars (S. abo...
Rexach, L.; Dilasser, F.; Fach, P.
... this? Submit Button CDC Features Reptiles, Amphibians, and Salmonella Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir Reptiles, Amphibians, ... aquariums where they live. How do people get Salmonella infections from reptiles and amphibians? Reptiles and amphibians ...
During 2005-2008, a longitudinal study was conducted in southern Japan to detect and characterize multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovars recovered from cattle diagnostic specimens. Determination of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and genotypes, identification of Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1), detection of virulence genes, plasmid analysis, conjugal transfer experiments, and sequencing of class 1 integrons were conducted. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella detected were serovars Stanley, Typhimurium, and O4:d. Salmonella Stanley isolates exhibited resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, oxytetracycline, trimethoprim, and kanamycin (ACSSuT+) encoded by bla(TEM), catA, aadA2, tetA, sul1, dfrA12, and aphA1 genes, respectively. Sequencing analysis revealed that aadA2 and dfrA12 were integrated as gene cassettes within the class 1 integrons of 1.5kb size. Importantly, the isolates harboured easily transferable plasmids of ca. 210kb with the potential of transmitting resistance phenotype and genotype detected in the donor isolates. Moreover, Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 isolates with typical SGI1 were detected and presented ACSSuT+ resistance phenotype encoded by bla(PSE-1) and bla(TEM); floR; aadA1; sul1; and tetA and tetG, respectively. Salmonella Typhimurium isolates carried plasmids of variable sizes ranging from 3.5 to 100 kb with DT104 isolates harbouring plasmids of ca. 90 kb. Salmonella serovar O4:d had ACSSuT+ resistance phenotype mediated by bla(TEM), catA, aadA1, sul1, tetA, and aphA1 genes. A virulence gene invA was found in all multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium, Stanley and O4:d clinical isolates. In conclusion, this is the first report describing the occurrence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Stanley from bovine species. The emergence of Salmonella Stanley isolates exhibiting plasmid-encoded high-level multidrug resistance is an important health concern because this new pathogenecity was associated with mortality in cattle. PMID:20338699
Dahshan, Hesham; Shahada, Francis; Chuma, Takehisa; Moriki, Hiraku; Okamoto, Karoku
Low numbers (15-100CFU) of Salmonella in food or water may pose a public health risk. The management of infections caused by Salmonella spp. during outbreaks or forecasting of contamination of aquatic resources largely depends on rapid, sensitive and accurate diagnostic in few hours. In this study, a real-time PCR assay in Molecular-Beacon format was developed and culture-independent quantitative enumeration of Salmonella spp. in surface and potable water is being reported for the first time from northern part of India. Molecular Beacon was designed in highly conserved region of invA gene (present in wide range of Salmonella serotypes including all subspecies) encoding an essential component of the invasion associated specialized type Ø protein secretion apparatus for detection of Salmonella spp. in water. The assay could detect directly 10 and 1 genomic equivalent of Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 per PCR with detection probability of 100 and 20%, respectively. Further, the assay could detect 10CFU/PCR or more of reference strain (S. typhimurium ATCC 14028) without any enrichment in the presence of 10(8)CFUml(-1) of non-pathogenic E. coli (E. coli DH5alpha) with 100% detection probability. The assay could enumerate Salmonella spp. in surface (n=40) and potable waters (n=10) directly (without enrichment). Results indicate that northern India is at high risk of developing Salmonella borne infections. Further, real-time PCR assay in Molecular Beacon format can be used for identification of critical contamination points in natural water resources and potable water distribution systems, necessary to implement vaccination plan timely for prevention of waterborne outbreaks caused by Salmonella spp. PMID:20035972
Jyoti, Anurag; Ram, Siya; Vajpayee, Poornima; Singh, Gulshan; Dwivedi, Premendra D; Jain, Swatantra K; Shanker, Rishi
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a model organism used to explore the virulence strategies underlying Salmonella pathogenesis. Although intestinal mucus is the first line of defense in the intestine, its role in protection against Salmonella is still unclear. The intestinal mucus layer is composed primarily of the Muc2 mucin, a heavily O-glycosylated glycoprotein. The core 3-derived O-glycans of Muc2 are synthesized by core 3 ?1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (C3GnT). Mice lacking these glycans still produce Muc2 but display a thinner intestinal mucus barrier. We began our investigations by comparing Salmonella-induced colitis and mucus dynamics in Muc2-deficient (Muc2(-/-)) mice, C3GnT(-/-) mice, and wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) mice. Salmonella infection led to increases in luminal Muc2 secretion in WT and C3GnT(-/-) mice. When Muc2(-/-) mice were infected with Salmonella, they showed dramatic susceptibility to infection, carrying significantly higher cecal and liver pathogen burdens, and developing significantly higher barrier disruption and higher mortality rates, than WT mice. We found that the exaggerated barrier disruption in infected Muc2(-/-) mice was invA dependent. We also tested the susceptibility of C3GnT(-/-) mice and found that they carried pathogen burdens similar to those of WT mice but developed exaggerated barrier disruption. Moreover, we found that Muc2(-/-) mice were impaired in intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) expression and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) detoxification activity in their ceca, potentially explaining their high mortality rates during infection. Our data suggest that the intestinal mucus layer (Muc2) and core 3 O-glycosylation play critical roles in controlling Salmonella intestinal burdens and intestinal epithelial barrier function, respectively. PMID:23876803
Zarepour, Maryam; Bhullar, Kirandeep; Montero, Marinieve; Ma, Caixia; Huang, Tina; Velcich, Anna; Xia, Lijun; Vallance, Bruce A
Bacteria utilize phosphorelay systems to respond to environmental or intracellular stimuli. Salmonella enterica encodes a four-step phosphorelay system that involves two sensor kinase proteins, RcsC and RcsD, and a response regulator, RcsB. The physiological stimulus for Rcs phosphorelay activation is unknown; however, Rcs-regulated genes can be induced in vitro by osmotic shock, low temperature and antimicrobial peptide exposure. In this report we investigate the role of the Rcs pathway usin...
We compared a set of commercial Salmonella somatic and flagellar serotyping antisera to in-house-prepared antisera from the Microbial Diseases Laboratory, California Department of Public Health, using 327 Salmonella enterica strains belonging to subgroups I, II, IIIa, IIIb, and IV. The sensitivities of Denka Seiken (Tokyo, Japan) somatic and flagellar antisera (using a tube agglutination assay) were 94.0% and 99.2%, respectively, and the specificity was 100% for both sets of sera. Polyvalent ...
MyD88 signaling is not essential for induction of antigen-specific B cell responses but is indispensable for protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection following oral vaccination with attenuated Salmonella expressing PspA antigen
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) directly induce innate host defense responses, but the mechanisms of TLR-mediated adaptive immunity remain subject to debate. In this study, we clarified a role of TLR-mediated innate immunity for induction of adaptive immunity by oral vaccination with a live recombinant attenuated Salmonella enteric serovar typhimurium vaccine (RASV) strain expressing Streptococcus pneumoniae surface protein A (PspA) antigen. Of note, oral or intranasal vaccination with RASV expressing PspA resulted in identical or even significantly higher levels of PspA-specific IgG and IgA responses in the systemic and mucosal compartments of MyD88?/? mice of either BALB/c or C57BL/6 background when compared with those of wild-type mice. Although PspA-specific CD4+ T cell proliferation in the MyD88?/? mice was minimal, depletion of CD4+ T cells abolished PspA-specific IgG and IgA responses in the MyD88?/? mice of BALB/c background. Of most interest, MyD88?/? mice that possessed high levels of PspA-specific IgG and IgA responses but minimal levels of CD4+ T cell responses died earlier than non-vaccinated and vaccinated wild-type mice following intravenous or intranasal challenge with virulent S. pneumoniae. Taken together, these results suggest that innate immunity activated by MyD88 signals might not be necessary for antigen-specific antibody induction in both systemic and mucosal sites but is critical for protection following oral vaccination with attenuated Salmonella expressing PspA.
Park, Sung-Moo; Ko, Hyun-Jung; Shim, Doo-Hee; Yang, Jin-Young; Park, Yong-Ho; Curtiss, Roy; Kweon, Mi-Na
Acute diarrhea associated with Salmonella enterica in Belo Horizonte-MG: prevalence and characterization of isolates Diarreia aguda associada a Salmonella enterica em Belo Horizonte-MG: prevalência e caracterização das amostras isoladas
Full Text Available Introduction: Acute infectious diarrhea is still regarded as a public health problem associated with a wide range of etiologic agents, from which Salmonella enterica is particularly worth mentioning inasmuch as it is a major cause of inflammatory diarrhea in both developed and developing countries. Objective: To assess the distribution of S. enterica among children with acute diarrhea in Belo Horizonte and to characterize bacterium isolates. Material and methods: The study group comprised a total of 157 children from low socioeconomic background. Stool samples were collected for leukocyte analysis and Salmonella bacterial culture. The isolates were serotyped and evaluated as to antimicrobial susceptibility profile, extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBL production, and presence of virulence markers (invA, iroB, and spvC. RESULTS: A total of 5/3.2% children were infected by S. enterica, 3/60% by S. enterica Typhimurium, 1/20% by S. enterica Enteritidis and 1/20% S. enterica subsp. enterica serotype 8.20:z4,z23:-. Fecal leucocytes were detected in two out of five fecal specimens positive for S. enterica. Isolates from three children were resistant to nalidixic acid, nalidixic acid + chloramphenicol, and nalidixic acid + chloramphenicol + ampicillin. ESBL production was not detected. All samples presented invA and iroB genes. spvC marker was observed in isolates from two children infected by S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that S. enterica infection is uncommon among children from our region. Furthermore, they indicate the need for periodic monitoring of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility profile in order to establish suitable antimicrobial therapy when required.INTRODUÇÃO: A diarreia infecciosa aguda é considerada um problema de saúde pública associado a uma ampla gama de agentes etiológicos, entre os quais destaca-se Salmonella enterica, causa importante de diarreia inflamatória em países desenvolvidos e em desenvolvimento. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a distribuição de S. enterica em crianças com diarreia aguda em Belo Horizonte e caracterizar as amostras isoladas. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: O grupo de estudo consistiu de 157 crianças de nível socioeconômico baixo. Espécimes fecais foram empregados para pesquisa de leucóc itos e cultivo de Salmonella. As amostras isoladas foram sorotipadas e submetidas à avaliação do perfil de suscetibilidade a antimicrobianos, da produção de betalactamases de amplo espectro (ESBL e da presença de marcadores de virulência (invA, iroB e spvC. RESULTADOS: Cinco/3,2% crianças apresentaram-se infectadas por S. enterica; três/60%, por S. enterica Typhimurium; uma/20%, por S. enterica Enteritidis; e uma/20%, por S. enterica subsp. enterica sorotipo 8,20:z4,z23:-. Leucócitos fecais foram detectados em dois dos cinco espécimes positivos para S. enterica. As amostras isoladas de três crianças apresentaram resistência a ácido nalidíxico, ácido nalidíxico + cloranfenicol e ácido nalidíxico + cloranfenicol + ampicilina. Nenhuma amostra produziu ESBL. Todas as amostras albergavam os genes invA e iroB. O marcador spvC foi observado em amostras isoladas de duas crianças infectadas por S. Typhimurium e S. Enteritidis. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados demonstram que diarreia associada a S. enterica é raramente observada entre crianças da nossa região e indicam a necessidade de avaliação periódica do perfil de suscetibilidade a antimicrobianos da bactéria para orientar o estabelecimento de antibioticoterapia, quando indicada.
Mireille Ângela Bernardes Sousa
The aim of this study was to characterize the physiological and molecular changes of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in deionized water (DIW) and nisin solutions (100 IU/g) during high pressure processing (HPP). Strains of Salmonella Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes in DIW or nisin solutions were subjected to 200, 300, and 400 MPa for 20 min. The Weibull model adequately described the HPP inactivation of Salmonella Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes. Salmonella Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes populations were reduced to less than 1 CFU/ml in DIW and nisin solutions under 400 MPa. The highest b value was 5.75 for Salmonella Typhimurium in nisin solution under 400 MPa. L. monocytogenes was more sensitive to pressure change when suspended in DIW than when suspended in nisin. The pressure sensitivity of both Salmonella Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes was higher in DIW solution (141 to 243 MPa) than in nisin solution (608 to 872 MPa). No recovery of HPP-injured cells in DIW and nisin solutions treated at 400 MPa was observed after 7 days of refrigerated storage. The heterogeneity of HPP-treated cells was revealed in flow cytometry dot plots. The transcripts of stn, invA, prfA, and inlA were relatively down-regulated in HPP-treated nisin solution. The combination of high pressure and nisin could noticeably suppress the expression of virulence-associated genes. These results provide useful information for understanding the physiological and molecular characteristics of foodborne pathogens under high-pressure stress. PMID:21219737
Gou, Jingyu; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Ahn, Juhee
We have determined the genetic structure of the Salmonella enterica centisome 7 genomic island (SCI) located at the aspV loci in S. enterica subspecies I strains. The 47-kb long genomic island encodes 37 putative proteins, including the previously described saf fimbrial operon and the sinR transcriptional regulator. Other open reading frames (designated sci A to Z) in the island encode putative proteins with homologies to virulence-associated proteins in a number of Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Yersinia pestis and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, bacteria that have the ability to interact with and manipulate eukaryotic cells. The Sci proteins have putative cytoplasmic, periplasmic and outer membrane localizations pointing to a role in extracellular processes such as secretion or organelle biosynthesis. The genes encoding Sci-like proteins are clustered in all sequenced bacterial genomes available in the databases and a core set can be defined by the presence of genes encoding proteins with similarity to the SciB, C, G, H, I, O proteins. The SCI genomic island DNA sequences are restricted to Salmonella strains belonging to S. enterica subspecies I and deletion of the entire island affects the ability of the organisms to enter eukaryotic cells.
Folkesson, Anders; LÃ¶fdahl, Sven
Nontyphoidal Salmonella species cause gastrointestinal disease worldwide. The prevailing theory of Salmonella enteropathogenesis is that bacterial invasion of the intestinal epithelium is essential for virulence and that this requires the virulence-associated genomic region Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1). Recent studies of Salmonella enterica infection models have demonstrated that enterocolitis and diarrhea in mice and cows can occur independently of SPI-1. In this study, we sought to confirm whether two S. enterica serovar Senftenberg clinical isolates lacked genes essential for SPI-1 function. Two clinical strains were isolated and identified as being S. enterica serovar Senftenberg from four stool samples from a food-borne disease outbreak affecting seven individuals in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China, using conventional methods, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. The possibility of coinfection with other potential bacteria or usual viruses was excluded. Two isolates were analyzed for the presence of invA, sipA, ssaR, sifA, and sopE2 by PCR and Southern blotting and were then assayed for the presence of SPI-1 by PCR and long-range PCR for fhlA-hilA, hilA-spaP, and spaP-invH and Southern blot analysis. A long-range PCR fragment from fhlA to mutS covering the 5? and 3? flanks of SPI-1 was also amplified from the two clinical isolates and sequenced. In addition, the two clinical isolates were assayed for enteroinvasiveness in vitro. Murine infection models were also examined. Biochemical tests and serotyping confirmed that the two clinical isolates are S. enterica serovar Senftenberg. However, they lacked genes critical for SPI-1 function but contained SPI-2 genes and were attenuated for the invasion of cultured intestinal epithelial cells. In conclusion, clinical S. enterica serovar Senftenberg strains isolated from a food-borne disease outbreak lack the invasion-associated locus SPI-1, indicating that SPI-1 is not essential for human gastroenteritis.
Hu, Qinghua; Coburn, Bryan; Deng, Wanyin; Li, Yuling; Shi, Xiaolu; Lan, Quanxue; Wang, Bing; Coombes, Brian K.; Finlay, B. Brett
We compared a set of commercial Salmonella somatic and flagellar serotyping antisera to in-house-prepared antisera from the Microbial Diseases Laboratory, California Department of Public Health, using 327 Salmonella enterica strains belonging to subgroups I, II, IIIa, IIIb, and IV. The sensitivities of Denka Seiken (Tokyo, Japan) somatic and flagellar antisera (using a tube agglutination assay) were 94.0% and 99.2%, respectively, and the specificity was 100% for both sets of sera. Polyvalent O and O1 antiserum sensitivity and specificity were >90%, with the exception of polyvalent O1 antiserum, for which sensitivity was 88.9%. When Denka Seiken flagellar antisera were used in a slide agglutination assay, the sensitivity and accuracy dropped to 88.9% and the specificity fell to 91%. Overall, Denka Seiken commercial antisera performed very well and, together with the comprehensive range of factors available, offer laboratories quality reagents suitable for serotyping strains of salmonellae. PMID:18094130
Schrader, Kimmi N; Fernandez-Castro, Ali; Cheung, Wendy K W; Crandall, Claudia M; Abbott, Sharon L
A robust 5? nuclease (TaqMan) real-time PCR was developed and validated in-house for the specific detection of Salmonella in food. The assay used specifically designed primers and a probe target within the ttrRSBCA locus, which is located near the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 at centisome 30.5. It is required for tetrathionate respiration in Salmonella. The assay correctly identified all 110 Salmonella strains and 87 non-Salmonella strains tested. An internal amplification control, whi...
Malorny, Burkhard; Paccassoni, Elisa; Fach, Patrick; Bunge, Cornelia; Martin, Annett; Helmuth, Reiner
Overuse of antibiotics in the medical and animal industries is one of the major causes for the development of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) food pathogens that are often difficult to treat. In the past few years, higher incidences of outbreaks caused by MDR Salmonella have been increasingly documented. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for simultaneous detection of pathogenic and MDR Salmonella spp. A multiplex TaqMan®real-time PCR was designed by targeting the invasin virulence gene (invA), and four commonly found antibiotic resistance genes, viz. ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin and tetracycline. To avoid false negative results and to increase the reliability of the assay, an internal amplification control (IAC) was added which was detected using a locked nucleic acid (LNA) probe. In serially diluted (5 ng-50 fg) DNA samples, the assay was able to detect 100 genomic equivalents of Salmonella, while in a multiplex format, the sensitivity was 1000 genomic equivalents. The assay performed equally well on artificially contaminated samples of beef trim, ground beef of different fat contents (73:27, 80:20, 85:15 and 93:7), chicken rinse, ground chicken, ground turkey, egg, spinach and tomato. While the detection limit for un-enriched inoculated food samples was 10(4) CFU/g, this was improved to 10 CFU/g after a 12-h enrichment in buffered peptone water, with 100% reproducibility. The multiplex real-time assay developed in this study can be used as a valuable tool to detect MDR virulent Salmonella, thus enhancing the safety of food. PMID:23973830
Singh, Prashant; Mustapha, Azlin
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella) is one of the most significant food-borne pathogens affecting both humans and agriculture. We have determined that Salmonella encodes an uptake and utilization pathway specific for a novel nutrient, fructose-asparagine (F-Asn), which is essential for Salmonella fitness in the inflamed intestine (modeled using germ-free, streptomycin-treated, ex-germ-free with human microbiota, and IL10?/? mice). The locus encoding F-Asn utilization, fra, provides an advantage only if Salmonella can initiate inflammation and use tetrathionate as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration (the fra phenotype is lost in Salmonella SPI1? SPI2? or ttrA mutants, respectively). The severe fitness defect of a Salmonella fra mutant suggests that F-Asn is the primary nutrient utilized by Salmonella in the inflamed intestine and that this system provides a valuable target for novel therapies.
Ali, Mohamed M.; Newsom, David L.; Gonzalez, Juan F.; Sabag-Daigle, Anice; Stahl, Christopher; Steidley, Brandi; Dubena, Judith; Dyszel, Jessica L.; Smith, Jenee N.; Dieye, Yakhya; Arsenescu, Razvan; Boyaka, Prosper N.; Krakowka, Steven; Romeo, Tony; Behrman, Edward J.; White, Peter; Ahmer, Brian M. M.
In this work, a three-level Salmonella detection system based on a combination of seven SYBR®Green qPCR was developed. This detection system discriminates Salmonella at the genus, species and subspecies levels using a single 96-well plate. The SYBR®Green qPCR assays target the invA, rpoD, iroB and safC genes, as well as the STM0296 locus, putatively coding for a cytoplasmic protein. This study includes the design of primer pairs, in silico and in situ selectivity, sensitivity, repeatability and reproducibility evaluations of the seven SYBR®Green qPCR assays. Each detection level displayed a selectivity of 100 %. This combinatory SYBR®Green qPCR system was also compared with three commercially available Salmonella qPCR detection kits. This comparison highlighted the importance of using a multi-gene detection system to be able to detect every target strain, even those with deletion or mutation of important genes. PMID:24113820
Barbau-Piednoir, Elodie; Bertrand, Sophie; Mahillon, Jacques; Roosens, Nancy H; Botteldoorn, Nadine
MÉTODOS DE EXTRAÇÃO DE DNA PARA A DETECÇÃO DE Salmonella EM OVOS DE GALINHAS, COM E SEM CASCA, ATRAVÉS DA REAÇÃO EM CADEIA PELA POLIMERASE DNA EXTRACTION METHODS FOR Salmonella DETECTION IN CHICKEN EGGS, INSHELL AND OUTSHELL, BY POLIMERASE CHAIN REACTION
Full Text Available O diagnóstico microbiológico de Salmonella sp em amostras de alimentos é demorado, com cinco diferentes etapas, levando cerca de 120 horas até o resultado final. A utilização da técnica da Reação em Cadeia pela Polimerase (PCR pode diminuir esse período, porém sofre influência de substâncias presentes na amostra que afetam a reação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar dois métodos de extração de DNA, a extração por tratamento térmico e a pelo fenol-clorofórmio, em amostras de 100 ovos de galinhas domésticas artificialmente contaminados com uma cepa de Salmonella enterica sorovar typhimurium em fase estacionária. O material obtido com as extrações foi submetido à PCR, utilizando-se um par de iniciadores que amplificam um fragmento de 284pb do gene InvA de Salmonella sp. Comparando os métodos de extração, observou-se uma diferença na capacidade de detecção de 12% a favor do método do fenol-clorofórmio, quando a extração foi realizada a partir do ovo com casca. No momento em que a mesma metodologia foi usada apenas com a parte interna dos ovos, essa diferença subiu para 26% o que foi significativo (PThe Salmonella sp detection in feed samples is time consuming, it has five stages and requires 120 hours for final results. The use of polimerase chain reaction technique can reduce this time considerably, however it can be affected by substances from the sample. This study had the objective of comparing two methods of DNA extraction, by heating process and by phenol-chloroform in samples of 100 chicken eggs experimentally infected with a sample of Salmonella enterica sorovar typhimurium in stationary phase. After the two extraction methods a PCR was done using a pair of oligonucleotides that amplifies a fragment of 284pb in the InvA gene de Salmonella sp. Comparing the extraction methods it was noted a difference of 12% favorably to the phenol-chloroform method when the extraction was done from eggs with shell. The same method using just the egg internal part resulted in a difference of 26% with high significance (P<0.003, showing that the method used was determinant to improve the technique efficiency. However, comparing the positive percentage independent of the DNA extraction method a significant difference (P<0.047 was noted for outshell eggs. This fact suggests that for Salmonella egg analysis, only the egg internal part should be used because the shell can determine interference in technique.
Maristela Lovato Flôres
The presence of Salmonella in the intestinal tract, on the chickens skin and among their feathers, may cause carcasses contamination during slaughtering and processing and possibly it is responsible by the introduction of this microorganism in the slaughterhouses. A rapid method to identify and monitor Salmonella and their sorovars in farm is becoming necessary. A pre-enriched multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) assay employing specific primers was developed and used to detect Salmonella at the genus level and to identify the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) in broiler chicken swab samples. The method was validated by testing DNA extract from 90 fresh culture cloacal swab samples from poultry chicken cultured in phosphate buffer peptone water at 37 °C for 18 h. The final results showed the presence of Salmonella spp. in 25% of samples, S. Enteritidis was present in 12% of the Salmonella-positive samples and S. Typhimurium in 3% of the samples. The m-PCR assay developed in this study is a specific and rapid alternative method for the identification of Salmonella spp. and allowed the observation of specific serovar contamination in the field conditions within the locations where these chickens are typically raised. PMID:24159281
Paião, F G; Arisitides, L G A; Murate, L S; Vilas-Bôas, G T; Vilas-Boas, L A; Shimokomaki, M
Full Text Available The presence of Salmonella in the intestinal tract, on the chickens skin and among their feathers, may cause carcasses contamination during slaughtering and processing and possibly it is responsible by the introduction of this microorganism in the slaughterhouses. A rapid method to identify and monitor Salmonella and their sorovars in farm is becoming necessary. A pre-enriched multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR assay employing specific primers was developed and used to detect Salmonella at the genus level and to identify the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium in broiler chicken swab samples. The method was validated by testing DNA extract from 90 fresh culture cloacal swab samples from poultry chicken cultured in phosphate buffer peptone water at 37 ºC for 18 h. The final results showed the presence of Salmonella spp. in 25% of samples, S. Enteritidis was present in 12% of the Salmonella-positive samples and S. Typhimurium in 3% of the samples. The m-PCR assay developed in this study is a specific and rapid alternative method for the identification of Salmonella spp. and allowed the observation of specific serovar contamination in the field conditions within the locations where these chickens are typically raised.
Salmonella enterica is an important enteric pathogen consisting of many serovars that can cause severe clinical diseases in animals and humans. Rapid identification of Salmonella isolates is especially important for epidemiologic monitoring and controlling outbreaks of disease. Although immunologic and DNA-based serovar identification methods are available for rapid identification of isolates, they are time consuming or costly or both. In the current study, 2 molecular methods for identification of Salmonella serovars were developed and validated. A 70-mer oligonucleotide spotted microarray was developed that consisted of probes that detected genes responsible for genetic variation among isolates of Salmonella that can be used for serotyping. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was also developed, which is capable of identifying 42 serovars, thus providing a valuable prediction of the pathogenicity of the isolates by detecting the presence of virulence genes sseL, invA, and spvC. The gene spvC was the best predictor of pathogenicity. In a blind study, traditional serologic methods were correlated at 93.3% with the microarray-based method and 100% with the multiplex PCR-based serovar determination. PMID:20622226
Peterson, Greg; Gerdes, Bryan; Berges, Jami; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Frye, Jonathan G; Boyle, David S; Narayanan, Sanjeev
Full Text Available Aim: To study the incidence of S.enteritidis in poultry and meat samples by cultural and PCR methods. Materials and Methods: A total of 130 samples (25 each of chicken, mutton, poultry faeces, cloacal samples and 10 each of liver, spleen and kidney collected from different sources were subjected to cultural and PCR methods for the presence of Salmonella and Salmonella enteritidis. Primers for invA and sefA gene were used for Salmonella and S.enteritidis respectively. Results: Out of 130 samples, 87 were positive for Salmonella spp. i.e. chicken-16(64%, mutton-12(48%, faeces-23(92%, cloacal swabs-23(92%, liver-5(50%, spleen and kidney samples-4(40% each by PCR methods, whereas 77 were positive by cultural method i.e. chicken-14(56%, mutton-10(40%, faeces-22(88%, cloacal swabs-21(84%, liver-4(40%, spleen and kidney-3(30% each. Out of 87 positive for Salmonella by PCR method, 59(chicken-12, mutton-7, faeces-17, cloacal swabs-15, liver-3, spleen-2, kidney-3 were positive for S.enteritidis. High incidence of S.enteritidis (68% in all the above samples are indicative of unhygienic conditions in poultry farms. Selective enrichment with Rappaport-Vassilidias (RV broths and Tetrathionate (TT broths were superior over Selenite-F (SF and Selenite cysteine (SC broths. Conclusions: High incidence of S.enteritidis was seen in most of poultry samples like chicken, kidney, liver and it's faeces than mutton, which was indicative of contamination of S.enteritidis is more prevalent in poultry farms. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 541-545
Outbreaks of Salmonella linked to fresh produce emphasize the need for rapid detection methods to curb the spread of foodborne pathogens. Reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detects the presence of mRNA (shorter half-life than DNA), with greater potential of detecting viable pathogens. Real-time RT-PCR eliminates the need for gel electrophoresis and significantly enhances the speed of detection (5 days). The objectives of this research were to apply real-time SYBR Green I-based RT-PCR to detect Salmonella from jalapeño and serrano peppers spiked with low and high inocula of Salmonella. Inoculated and uninoculated peppers were rinsed with water and dried under ultraviolet light for 10 min. Approximately 25 g peppers was inoculated with 10(8) to 10(1) colony forming units (CFU) of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in a stomacher bag and hand massaged in sterile 0.05 M glycine-0.14 M saline buffer (0.05% Tween, 3% beef extract) for optimal recovery of bacteria. A short preenrichment step of 6 h in buffered peptone water was needed for the detection of low inocula (10(4) CFU/25 g). One-milliliter portions of the extracts were serially diluted, plated on XLT4 agar, and used for RNA extraction with the Qiagen RNeasy Mini Kit. RT-PCR was carried out using SYBR Green I one-step RT-PCR with previously described invA gene primers and an internal amplification control. Detection limits were 10(4) CFU/25 g (approximately 10(2) CFU/g) and 10(7) CFU/25 g (approximately 10(5) CFU/g) Salmonella from enriched and unenriched inoculated peppers, respectively. Even though this method included a 6-h incubation period, the results were still obtainable in 1 day. This method shows promise for applications in routine surveillance and during outbreaks. PMID:19911882
Miller, Nathan D; Draughon, Frances Ann; D'Souza, Doris H
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, um ELISA indireto baseado em um anticorpo monoclonal (MAb) especifico para proteína de membrane externa de Salmonellaenterica serovar Enteritidis foi usado para detecção de Salmonella em 154 amostras de carne de frango. Sua eficiência foi determinada através de comparação com os resu [...] ltados obtidos pela metodologia convencional. A prevalência de amostras contaminadas com Salmonella foi de 23% pelo método de cultivo convencional, e 26% pelo ELISA. De 35 amostras positivas para Salmonella pela metodologia convencional, 32 também foram positivas no ELISA. Outras sete amostras foram positivas somente no ELISA. Comparando os resultados obtidos nos dois métodos, o ELISA demonstrou sensibilidade e especificidade de 94%, e valor preditivo positivo e negativo de 82% e 98% respectivamente. A sorotipagem dos isolados revelou 31 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, 2 Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg, 1 Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis e 1 Salmonella enterica sorovar 6,7:-:-. Abstract in english In this work, an indirect ELISA based on a monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific for an outer membrane protein of Salmonellaenterica serovar Enteritidis was used for detection of Salmonella in 154 samples of chicken meat. Its efficiency was determined through comparison with the results obtained from t [...] he conventional method. The prevalence of samples contaminated with Salmonella was 23% with the conventional culture method, and 26% with the ELISA. From thirty-five samples positive for Salmonella by the conventional method, 33 were also positive by ELISA. Seven other samples were only positive in the ELISA. Comparison of the results obtained in the two methods showed an ELISA sensitivity and specificity of 94%, and positive and negative predictive values of 82% and 98% respectively. The serotyping of the isolates revealed 31 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, 2 Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg, 1 Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis and 1 Salmonella enterica sorovar 6,7:-:-.
Schneid, Andréa dos Santos; Rodrigues, Kelly Lameiro; Chemello, Davi; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar; Ayub, Marco Antônio Zacchia; Aleixo, José Antonio Guimarães.
Full Text Available In this work, an indirect ELISA based on a monoclonal antibody (MAb specific for an outer membrane protein of Salmonellaenterica serovar Enteritidis was used for detection of Salmonella in 154 samples of chicken meat. Its efficiency was determined through comparison with the results obtained from the conventional method. The prevalence of samples contaminated with Salmonella was 23% with the conventional culture method, and 26% with the ELISA. From thirty-five samples positive for Salmonella by the conventional method, 33 were also positive by ELISA. Seven other samples were only positive in the ELISA. Comparison of the results obtained in the two methods showed an ELISA sensitivity and specificity of 94%, and positive and negative predictive values of 82% and 98% respectively. The serotyping of the isolates revealed 31 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, 2 Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg, 1 Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis and 1 Salmonella enterica sorovar 6,7:-:-.Neste trabalho, um ELISA indireto baseado em um anticorpo monoclonal (MAb especifico para proteína de membrane externa de Salmonellaenterica serovar Enteritidis foi usado para detecção de Salmonella em 154 amostras de carne de frango. Sua eficiência foi determinada através de comparação com os resultados obtidos pela metodologia convencional. A prevalência de amostras contaminadas com Salmonella foi de 23% pelo método de cultivo convencional, e 26% pelo ELISA. De 35 amostras positivas para Salmonella pela metodologia convencional, 32 também foram positivas no ELISA. Outras sete amostras foram positivas somente no ELISA. Comparando os resultados obtidos nos dois métodos, o ELISA demonstrou sensibilidade e especificidade de 94%, e valor preditivo positivo e negativo de 82% e 98% respectivamente. A sorotipagem dos isolados revelou 31 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, 2 Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg, 1 Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis e 1 Salmonella enterica sorovar 6,7:-:-.
Andréa dos Santos Schneid
Full Text Available The infectious intracellular lifestyle of Salmonella enterica relies on the adaptation to nutritional conditions within the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV in host cells. We summarize latest results on metabolic requirements for Salmonella during infection. This includes intracellular phenotypes of mutant strains based on metabolic modeling and experimental tests, isotopologue profiling using 13C-compounds in intracellular Salmonella, and complementation of metabolic defects for attenuated mutant strains towards a comprehensive understanding of the metabolic requirements of the intracellular lifestyle of Salmonella. Helpful for this are also genomic comparisons. We outline further recent studies and which analyses of intracellular phenotypes and improved metabolic simulations were done and comment on technical required steps as well as progress involved in the iterative refinement of metabolic flux models, analyses of mutant phenotypes and isotopologue analyses. Salmonella lifestyle is well adapted to the SCV and its specific metabolic requirements. Salmonella metabolism adapts rapidly to SCV conditions, the metabolic generalist Salmonella is quite successful in host infection.
MÉTODOS DE EXTRAÇÃO DE DNA PARA A DETECÇÃO DE Salmonella EM OVOS DE GALINHAS, COM E SEM CASCA, ATRAVÉS DA REAÇÃO EM CADEIA PELA POLIMERASE / DNA EXTRACTION METHODS FOR Salmonella DETECTION IN CHICKEN EGGS, INSHELL AND OUTSHELL, BY POLIMERASE CHAIN REACTION
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O diagnóstico microbiológico de Salmonella sp em amostras de alimentos é demorado, com cinco diferentes etapas, levando cerca de 120 horas até o resultado final. A utilização da técnica da Reação em Cadeia pela Polimerase (PCR) pode diminuir esse período, porém sofre influência de substâncias presen [...] tes na amostra que afetam a reação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar dois métodos de extração de DNA, a extração por tratamento térmico e a pelo fenol-clorofórmio, em amostras de 100 ovos de galinhas domésticas artificialmente contaminados com uma cepa de Salmonella enterica sorovar typhimurium em fase estacionária. O material obtido com as extrações foi submetido à PCR, utilizando-se um par de iniciadores que amplificam um fragmento de 284pb do gene InvA de Salmonella sp. Comparando os métodos de extração, observou-se uma diferença na capacidade de detecção de 12% a favor do método do fenol-clorofórmio, quando a extração foi realizada a partir do ovo com casca. No momento em que a mesma metodologia foi usada apenas com a parte interna dos ovos, essa diferença subiu para 26% o que foi significativo (P Abstract in english The Salmonella sp detection in feed samples is time consuming, it has five stages and requires 120 hours for final results. The use of polimerase chain reaction technique can reduce this time considerably, however it can be affected by substances from the sample. This study had the objective of comp [...] aring two methods of DNA extraction, by heating process and by phenol-chloroform in samples of 100 chicken eggs experimentally infected with a sample of Salmonella enterica sorovar typhimurium in stationary phase. After the two extraction methods a PCR was done using a pair of oligonucleotides that amplifies a fragment of 284pb in the InvA gene de Salmonella sp. Comparing the extraction methods it was noted a difference of 12% favorably to the phenol-chloroform method when the extraction was done from eggs with shell. The same method using just the egg internal part resulted in a difference of 26% with high significance (P
Maristela Lovato, Flôres; Vladimir Pinheiro do, Nascimento; Ivonyr Irene Troglio Abdel, Kader; Luciana Ruschel dos, Santos; Alexandre Pontes, Pontes; Carlos Tadeu Pippi, Salle; Rui Fernando Felix, Lopes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken meat and eggs can be a source of human zoonotic pathogens, especially Salmonella species. These food items contain a potential hazard for humans. Chickens lines differ in susceptibility for Salmonella and can harbor Salmonella pathogens without showing clinical signs of illness. Many investigations including genomic studies have examined the mechanisms how chickens react to infection. Apart from the innate immune response, many physiological mechanisms and pathways are reported to be involved in the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of diverse experiments to identify general and host specific mechanisms to the Salmonella challenge. Results Diverse chicken lines differing in susceptibility to Salmonella infection were challenged with different Salmonella serovars at several time points. Various tissues were sampled at different time points post-infection, and resulting host transcriptional differences investigated using different microarray platforms. The meta-analysis was performed with the R-package metaMA to create lists of differentially regulated genes. These gene lists showed many similarities for different chicken breeds and tissues, and also for different Salmonella serovars measured at different times post infection. Functional biological analysis of these differentially expressed gene lists revealed several common mechanisms for the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The meta-analysis-specific genes (i.e. genes found differentially expressed only in the meta-analysis confirmed and expanded the biological functional mechanisms. Conclusions The meta-analysis combination of heterogeneous expression profiling data provided useful insights into the common metabolic pathways and functions of different chicken lines infected with different Salmonella serovars.
te Pas Marinus FW
The Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phospho-rylase/2-fluoro-2-deoxyadenosine (ePNP/F-dAdo) suicide system has demonstrated a powerful killing and bystander effects on tumor cells. However, several drawbacks to this approach remain to be resolved, such as the side-effects and the low efficiency of ePNP-targeted expression. A human telo-merase reverse transcriptase promoter-driven Semliki Forest virus-based DNA vector (pShT-ePNP) with high expression of the ePNP gene was constructed. Live attenuated Salmonella typhimurium 7207 (SL7207) was used initially as a vehicle to targetly transfer the large alphavirus vector into tumor cells. The in vitro quantitative analysis showed ~2-fold higher green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression for pShT-GFP than for conventional cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter-mediated eukaryotic expression plasmids such as pIRES-GFP and the targeted expression of the ePNP gene in tumor cells was also detected by RT-PCR. After F-dAdo addition, the enzymatic conversion of F-Ado into 2-fluoroadmine (F-Ade) was tested by HPLC. Cell cytotoxicity assays showed that the significant inhibitory effect of the SL/pShT-ePNP system on tumor cells was dose- and time-dependent. Following oral administration, recombinant bacteria targetly allocated within the solid tumor and the expression of ePNP and GFP genes in vivo were detected by RT-PCR or observed by fluorescence microscopy. SL/pShT-ePNP and F-dAdo were also found to exert powerful therapeutic effects in combination against tumor growth and for prolonging the lifespan of tumor-bearing mice. These findings suggest that the SL/pShT-ePNP system may serve as a powerful strategy for tumor therapy. PMID:23588611
Chen, Zhi-Hao; Huang, Ge-Ling; Tu, Ya-Qin; Jiang, Yu; Dai, Wu-Xing
Bacteria utilize phosphorelay systems to respond to environmental or intracellular stimuli. Salmonella enterica encodes a four-step phosphorelay system that involves two sensor kinase proteins, RcsC and RcsD, and a response regulator, RcsB. The physiological stimulus for Rcs phosphorelay activation is unknown; however, Rcs-regulated genes can be induced in vitro by osmotic shock, low temperature and antimicrobial peptide exposure. In this report we investigate the role of the Rcs pathway using phylogenetic analysis and experimental techniques. Phylogenetic analysis determined that full-length RcsC- and RcsD-like proteins are generally restricted to Enterobacteriaceae species that have an enteric pathogenic or commensal relationship with the host. Experimental data show that RcsD and RcsB, in addition to RcsC, are important for systemic infection in mice and polymyxin B resistance in vitro. To identify Rcs-regulated genes that confer these phenotypes, we took advantage of our observation that RcsA, a transcription factor and binding partner of RcsB, is not required for polymyxin B resistance or survival in mice. S. enterica serovar Typhimurium oligonucleotide microarrays were used to identify 18 loci that are activated by RcsC, RcsD and RcsB but not RcsA. Five of the 18 loci encode genes that contribute to polymyxin B resistance. One of these genes, ydeI, was shown by quantitative real-time PCR to be regulated by the Rcs pathway independently of RcsA. Additionally, the stationary-phase sigma factor, RpoS (sigmaS), regulates ydeI transcription. In vivo infections show that ydeI mutants are out-competed by wild type 10- to 100-fold after oral inoculation, but are only modestly attenuated after intraperitoneal inoculation. These data indicate that ydeI is an Rcs-activated gene that plays an important role in persistent infection of mice, possibly by increasing bacterial resistance to antimicrobial peptides. PMID:17010160
Erickson, Kimberly D; Detweiler, Corrella S
In this work, an indirect ELISA based on a monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific for an outer membrane protein of Salmonellaenterica serovar Enteritidis was used for detection of Salmonella in 154 samples of chicken meat. Its efficiency was determined through comparison with the results obtained from the conventional method. The prevalence of samples contaminated with Salmonella was 23% with the conventional culture method, and 26% with the ELISA. From thirty-five samples positive for Salmonella...
Andréa dos Santos Schneid; Kelly Lameiro Rodrigues; Davi Chemello; Eduardo Cesar Tondo; Marco Antônio Zacchia Ayub; José Antonio Guimarães Aleixo
Excreción fecal de Salmonella Albany, su aislamiento en la ración alimenticia y repercusión en el estado de salud de un ocelote (Leopardus pardalis) en cautiverio / Fecal excretion of Salmonella Albany, its isolation in the diet and health repercussion on an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in captivity
Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los serotipos de Salmonella especie enterica son los responsables del 99% de las salmonelosis en humanos y animales, en particular, Salmonella enterica serovariedad Albany se ha identificado en canales de pollo, por lo que representa un riesgo para la salud humana y animal. Se aisló Salmonella enter [...] ica serovariedad Albany a partir de heces de un ocelote macho (Leopardus pardalis), cautivo en el zoológico de Culiacán, Sinaloa, México, y de pollo crudo (alimento del felino). El patrón por electroforesis en campo pulsado (PFGE) con la enzima Xba I fue idéntico en ambos aislados, lo que indica que la fuente de infección fue el pollo crudo. Cinco meses después de haber aislado las bacterias de las heces, se realizó estudio post mortem del felino anteriormente mencionado, y se observó macroscópicamente: enterocolitis hemorrágica severa y fibrosis renal; y microscópicamente: necrosis de vellosidades y de criptas e infiltrado mononuclear linfocitario severo en íleon, además nefritis intersticial severa multifocal y fibrosis en riñón. A partir de muestras intestinales se amplificó el gen invA que confirma la infección por Salmonella. Los diagnósticos microbiológico, molecular e histopatológico sugieren que la muerte del felino se debió a la infección causada por la ingesta de pollo crudo contaminado con Salmonella enterica serovariedad Albany. Este caso clínico confirma la importancia que tienen los animales que excretan Salmonella vía fecal y describe la relación epidemiológica-molecular de los aislamientos obtenidos de heces y alimento, lo que permitió esclarecer la fuente primaria de infección. Abstract in english Salmonella enterica serotypes are 99% responsible for salmonellosis in human and animals, especially Salmonella enterica serovar Albany that has been identified in chicken carcass representing a risk for human and animal health. Salmonella enterica serovar Albany was isolated from the feces of a mal [...] e ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), at the zoo in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico, and from raw chicken (feline's diet). The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern (PFGE) generated by Xba I enzyme was identical in both isolates, indicating that the source of infection was the raw chicken. Five months after having isolated the bacteria from the feces, a post mortem study was carried out on the feline. Macroscopically, severe hemorrhagic enterocolitis and renal fibrosis was observed and microscopically, there was evidence of severe mononuclear lymphocytic infiltration in the ileum, as well as necrosis of intestinal villi and crypts, besides severe multifocal interstitial nephritis and fibrosis in both kidneys. The invA gene was amplified from intestinal samples confirming an infection by Salmonella. The microbiologic, molecular and histopathology diagnoses suggest that death of the feline was caused by ingestion of raw chicken contaminated with Salmonella enterica serovar Albany. This clinical case highlights the importance of persistent fecal Salmonella shedding animals and describes the molecular epidemiological relationships of isolates from feces and food, which allowed to find the primary source of infection.
Silva-Hidalgo, Gabriela; López-Moreno, Héctor Samuel; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney F.; Juárez-Barranco, Felipe; López-Valenzuela, Martín.
In the context of an international outbreak of multiresistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 that was correlated to the consumption of halvah ("helva," an Asian candy made from sesame seed), we examined several sesame seed products for the occurrence of Salmonella. Of 117 ready-to-eat food items containing sesame, we isolated salmonellae from 11 (9.4%) samples. In addition to finding Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 in the halvah involved in the outbreak, we also isolated different Salmonella Typhimurium strains out of halvah from other manufacturers and countries of origin, as well as Salmonella Offa, Salmonella Tennessee, and Salmonella Poona from sesame paste (tahini) and sesame seed, which is sold for raw consumption in cereals. PMID:14717370
Brockmann, Stefan O; Piechotowski, Isolde; Kimmig, Peter
CONTEXT: Salmonella has been identified as a causative agent of acute pancreatitis. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively evaluated the frequency of acute pancreatitis, pancreatic enzyme elevation and morphological pancreatic abnormalities in patients with Salmonella infection. SUBJECTS: Thirty consecutive patients with salmonellosis (Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis: n=25; Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium: n=5) and 30 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects were studied. MAIN OUTCOME MEASU...
The Salmonella type III secretion system (T3SS) efficiently translocates heterologous proteins into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. This leads to an antigen-specific CD8 T-cell induction in mice orally immunized with recombinant Salmonella. Recently, we have used Salmonella's T3SS as a prophylactic and therapeutic intervention against a murine fibrosarcoma. In this study, we constructed a recombinant Salmonella strain translocating the immunogenic H-2Db-specific CD8 T-cell epitope VILTNPISM ...
Jellbauer, Stefan; Panthel, Klaus; Hetrodt, Justin H.; Ru?ssmann, Holger
The Salmonella type III secretion system (T3SS) efficiently translocates heterologous proteins into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. This leads to an antigen-specific CD8 T-cell induction in mice orally immunized with recombinant Salmonella. Recently, we have used Salmonella's T3SS as a prophylactic and therapeutic intervention against a murine fibrosarcoma. In this study, we constructed a recombinant Salmonella strain translocating the immunogenic H-2D(b)-specific CD8 T-cell epitope VILTNPIS...
Jellbauer, Stefan; Panthel, Klaus; Hetrodt, Justin H.; Ru?ssmann, Holger
The presence of Salmonella in the intestinal tract, on the chickens skin and among their feathers, may cause carcasses contamination during slaughtering and processing and possibly it is responsible by the introduction of this microorganism in the slaughterhouses. A rapid method to identify and monitor Salmonella and their sorovars in farm is becoming necessary. A pre-enriched multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) assay employing specific primers was developed and used to detect Salmone...
Paia?o, F. G.; Arisitides, L. G. A.; Murate, L. S.; Vilas-bo?as, G. T.; Vilas-boas, L. A.; Shimokomaki, M.
This thesis reports investigations using gamma-radiation to decontaminate poultry carcasses. The application to foods of doses of ionizing radiation sufficient to reduce the number of viable specific non-sporeforming pathogenic microorganisms so that none is detectable in the treated food by any standard method is termed radicidation. The doses used in this study were at such a level that no undesirable or unfavourable side-effects occurred. The effects of these doses were studied on salmonellae and other microorganisms present in, or associated with poultry carcasses and in liquid and on solid culture media as well. Decimal reduction (D_1_0) values were estimated. These represent the dose (kGy) required to achieve a reduction in initial colony count from N_0 to 0.1 N_0. Together with the estimation of the numbers of Salmonella present per carcass the data were used to predict the effect of an ionizing radiation treatment of poultry. Data on the effect of ionizing radiation on the total microflora of poultry carcasses were also collected. (Auth.)
Salmonella enterica consists of over 2,000 serovars that are major causes of morbidity and mortality associated with contaminated food. Despite similarities among serovars of Salmonella enterica, many demonstrate unique host specificities, epidemiological characteristics, and clinical manifestations. One of the unique epidemiological characteristics of the serovar Enteritidis is that it is the only bacterium routinely transmitted to humans through intact chicken eggs. Therefore, Salmonella en...
Clavijo, Raul I.; Loui, Cindy; Andersen, Gary L.; Riley, Lee W.; Lu, Sangwei
Recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccines have been extensively studied, with a focus on eliciting specific immune responses against foreign antigens. However, very little is known about the innate immune responses, particularly the role of flagellin, in the induction of innate immunity triggered by recombinant attenuated Salmonella in chickens. In the present report, we describe two Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine strains, wild-type (WT) or flagellin-deficient (flhD) Salmone...
PCR methodology was developed to identify Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, and Paratyphi B. One multiplex PCR identifies serogroup D, A, and B and Vi-positive strains; another confirms flagellar antigen “d,” “a,” or “b.” Blinded testing of 664 Malian and Chilean Salmonella blood isolates demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity.
The hormone hepcidin promotes iron sequestration by macrophages. A recent study by Kim et al. (2014) implicates the orphan receptor ERR? (estrogen-related receptor ?) in the regulation of hepcidin production and suggests that targeting the ERR?-hepcidin axis may be beneficial during infection with the facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella. PMID:24832443
Fang, Ferric C; Weiss, Günter
In this study, we constructed strain KR21 (chi 4550 delta cya delta crp delta asd/pYA292asd(+)-toxC+) and compared it with BRD847 (aroA aroD/pnirB-toxC) for the ability to induce humoral and cellular immunity after a single oral or intravenous immunization in 3- to 4-week-old BALB/c mice. ToxC-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) was detectable in animals orally immunized with either BRD847 or KR21. However, after intravenous immunization, IgG was detected only in BRD847-immunized animals. M...
Karem, K. L.; Chatfield, S.; Kuklin, N.; Rouse, B. T.
Upon completion of the flagellar hook-basal body (HBB) structure, the flagellar type III secretion system switches from secreting rod/hook-type to filament-type substrates. The secretion specificity switch has been reported to occur prematurely (prior to HBB completion) in flk-null mutants (P. Aldridge, J. E. Karlinsey, E. Becker, F. F. Chevance, and K. T. Hughes, Mol. Microbiol. 60:630-643, 2006) and in distal rod gene gain-of-function mutants (flgG* mutants) that produce filamentous rod str...
Hirano, Takanori; Mizuno, Shino; Aizawa, Shin-ichi; Hughes, Kelly T.
In this study, we examined the antimicrobial susceptibility of 16 Salmonella Typhimurium isolates obtained from horses, and applied several genetic methods, namely polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting class 1 integrons, multiplex PCR for detecting multidrug resistant S. Typhimurium definitive phage type 104 (MR-DT104), and fluorescent amplified-fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP). Seven isolates with an ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and tetracycline (ACSSuT) type resistance pattern, harbored two class 1 integrons with sizes of 1.2 and 1.0 kb, and were identified as DT104 by bacteriophage typing. These isolates also showed a typical MR-DT104 amplification pattern, which was positive for flo(st), spvC, invA and int, in multiplex PCR. In the FAFLP analysis, the equine DT104 isolates and the previously reported ACSSuT-type resistant bovine isolates, which were also isolated in Hokkaido were included in the same genetic cluster. Our results retrospectively indicate that MR-DT104 infection has existed in horses in Japan at least since 1996, and it was suggested that there is a highly epidemiological relationship between the equine MR-DT104 isolates and certain multidrug resistant bovine isolates in the same area. PMID:19721370
Niwa, Hidekazu; Anzai, Toru; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Morita-Ishihara, Tomoko; Watanabe, Haruo; Uchida, Ikuo; Tozaki, Teruaki; Hobo, Seiji
The Suwannee River spans the Florida/Georgia border to the Gulf of Mexico, and contributes to regional irrigation and recreational activities. Association of Salmonella enterica with these resources may result in the contamination of produce and disease outbreaks. Therefore, surface water was examined for the distribution of S. enterica at multiple time points from 4 sites on the upper Suwannee River. Isolates were confirmed by detection of the invA gene, and 96% of all samples were positive for the bacterium. Most probable number enumeration ranged from 60% similarity and distributed into 16 rep-PCR genogroups. Most (74%) of the Suwannee River isolates were clustered into two genogroups that were comprised almost exclusively (97%) of just these isolates. Conversely, 85% of the clinical reference strains clustered into other genogroups. However, some Suwannee River isolates (12%) were clustered with these primarily clinically-associated genogroups, supporting the hypothesis that river water can serve as a disease reservoir and that pathogenic strains may persist or possibly originate from environmental sources. PMID:22347228
Rajabi, Masoumeh; Jones, Melissa; Hubbard, Michael; Rodrick, Gary; Wright, Anita C
Rapid detection of Salmonella in foods using a combination of SPRINT TM,MSRV TM and Salmonella Latex TestTM Detecção rápida de Salmonella em alimentos empregando uma combinação de SPRINT®, MSRV® e Salmonella Latex Test®
Full Text Available A new procedure for rapid detection of Salmonella in foods, based on the combination of SPRINT TM, MSRV TM and Salmonella Latex TestTM, was evaluated. SPRINT TM is a system to reduce the preenrichment and selective enrichment steps to 24 hours. MSRV TM is a semi-solid selective media for detection of motile Salmonella. Salmonella Latex TestTM is a rapid latex agglutination test for Salmonella. Using the three systems in combination, the total time for detection of Salmonella in a food sample is 48h. Evaluations were performed in artificially contaminated ready-to-eat baby-foods and raw Brazilian sausages (lingüiça containing no added microorganisms. The BAM conventional culture procedure was used as reference method. The study with baby foods indicated that the new procedure had good sensitivity (89% and specificity (100%, without cross-reactions with Enterobacteriaceae. However, when applied to naturally contaminated foods, the performance was poor: chi square (x² = 5.062, ?> 0. 05 and Kappa-Cohen agreement (K = 0.171, p=0.089 indexes indicated that the differences between results given by the two procedures were significant and the correlation between them was low.Avaliou-se um novo procedimento para detecção rápida de Salmonella em alimentos, baseado na combinação entre SPRINT®, MSRV® e Salmonella Latex Test® . SPRINT® é um sistema para reduzir as etapas de pré-enriquecimento e enriquecimento seletivo para 24 h. MSRV® é um meio seletivo semi-sólido para detecção de salmonelas móveis. Salmonella Latex Test® é um teste rápido de aglutinação de látex. A combinação dos três sistemas permite que a detecção de Salmonella em alimentos possa ser feita em apenas 48 h. O procedimento foi avaliado em alimentos infantis prontos para consumo, experimentalmente contaminados com Salmonella exclusivamente e com uma mistura de Salmonella e várias espécies de Enterobacteriaceae e também em cem amostras de lingüiças de porco e de frango sem adição artificial de microrganismos. O método convencional de cultura foi empregado como método de referência. A avaliação em alimentos infantis indicou que o procedimento proposto apresentava boa sensibilidade (80% e especificidade (100%, sem reação cruzada com outras Enterobacteriaceae. Entretanto, quando aplicado a lingüiças, seu desempenho não foi adequado: os valores de x² (5,062, ? > 0,05 e do índice de concordância de Kappa (0,171, p=0,089 indicaram que as diferenças entre os resultados obtidos pelos dois métodos foram estatisticamente significantes e a correlação entre eles foi baixa.
Jane Maria Lafayette Neves Gelinski
Full Text Available In the Salmonella antigenic pattern, more than one phase of flagellar antigen is observed. The phase of flagellar antigen depends of the gene which encodes the protein building the filament of flagella. The fliC gene encodes the 1st phase of flagellar antigen and the fljB gene encodes the 2nd phase of flagellar antigen. The third phase of flagellar antigen is encoded by one of the genes localized on the plasmid. Expression of the fljB gene (part of the hinfljBA operon is regulated by a mechanism of DNA fragment sequence inversion. The hin gene, which encodes Hin invertase, flanked by two regions – hixL and hixR – is inverted by Hin invertase together with Fis protein. This process turns on or turns off of the hinfljBA operon. When this operon is turned on, FljB protein is produced (structural protein of flagella filament, and also FljA protein, which is a transcriptional repressor of the fliC gene. This means that one Salmonella cell could have only one phase flagellar antigen – 1st or 2nd phase. Sometimes, due to mutation in one of the mentioned genes, naturally diphasic Salmonella strains have the ability to produce only one phase of flagellar antigen. Mostly monophasic Salmonella with an active fliC gene are observed. In recent years such a strain, Salmonella enterica with the antigenic formula 1,4,,12: i: -, is one of the most often isolated strains from human cases in many European countries.
In this study, we constructed strain KR21 (chi 4550 delta cya delta crp delta asd/pYA292asd(+)-toxC+) and compared it with BRD847 (aroA aroD/pnirB-toxC) for the ability to induce humoral and cellular immunity after a single oral or intravenous immunization in 3- to 4-week-old BALB/c mice. ToxC-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) was detectable in animals orally immunized with either BRD847 or KR21. However, after intravenous immunization, IgG was detected only in BRD847-immunized animals. Measurement of immunoglobin types IgG1 and IgG2a suggests that a Th1 cellular response is prominent after immunizations with either system. ToxC-specific IgA was detected in fecal and vaginal samples of animals immunized orally and intravenously with BRD847, while those immunized with KR21 failed to show fecal or vaginal IgA responses. Delayed-type hypersensitivity was used as a measure of induction of T-cell responses in vivo. Mice immunized either orally or intravenously with BRD847 showed significant ear swelling responses after ToxC injections, while KR21-immunized animals failed to show a cellular response. These data indicate that the aroA aroD/pnirB system holds greater potential for inducing global immunity after a single dose when directly compared with the balanced lethal system (delta cya delta crp delta asd/pYA292asd+). PMID:7591105
Karem, K L; Chatfield, S; Kuklin, N; Rouse, B T
Salmonellas are the main responsible agent for the frequent food-borne gastrointestinal diseases. Their detection using classical methods are laborious and their results take a lot of time to be revealed. In this context, we tried to set up a revealing technique of the invA virulence gene, found in the majority of Salmonella species. After amplification with PCR using specific primers created and verified by bioinformatics programs, two couples of primers were set up and they appeared to be very specific and sensitive for the detection of invA gene. (Author)
Foodborne salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial zoonotic diseases worldwide. Salmonella Typhimurium is the serovar most frequently isolated from persistently infected slaughter pigs in Europe. Circumvention of the host’s immune system by Salmonella might contribute to persistent infection of pigs. In the present study, we found that Salmonella Typhimurium strain 112910a specifically downregulated MHC II, but not MHC I, expression on porcine alveolar macrophages in a Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-1 and SPI-2 dependent way. Salmonella induced downregulation of MHC II expression and intracellular proliferation of Salmonella in macrophages were significantly impaired after opsonization with Salmonella specific antibodies prior to inoculation. Furthermore, the capacity to downregulate MHC II expression on macrophages differed significantly among Salmonella strains, independently of strain specific differences in invasion capacity, Salmonella induced cytotoxicity and altered macrophage activation status. The fact that strain specific differences in MHC II downregulation did not correlate with the extent of in vitro SPI-1 or SPI-2 gene expression indicates that other factors are involved in MHC II downregulation as well. Since Salmonella strain dependent interference with the pig’s immune response through downregulation of MHC II expression might indicate that certain Salmonella strains are more likely to escape serological detection, our findings are of major interest for Salmonella monitoring programs primarily based on serology.
Foodborne salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial zoonotic diseases worldwide. Salmonella Typhimurium is the serovar most frequently isolated from persistently infected slaughter pigs in Europe. Circumvention of the host's immune system by Salmonella might contribute to persistent infection of pigs. In the present study, we found that Salmonella Typhimurium strain 112910a specifically downregulated MHC II, but not MHC I, expression on porcine alveolar macrophages in a Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-1 and SPI-2 dependent way. Salmonella induced downregulation of MHC II expression and intracellular proliferation of Salmonella in macrophages were significantly impaired after opsonization with Salmonella specific antibodies prior to inoculation. Furthermore, the capacity to downregulate MHC II expression on macrophages differed significantly among Salmonella strains, independently of strain specific differences in invasion capacity, Salmonella induced cytotoxicity and altered macrophage activation status. The fact that strain specific differences in MHC II downregulation did not correlate with the extent of in vitro SPI-1 or SPI-2 gene expression indicates that other factors are involved in MHC II downregulation as well. Since Salmonella strain dependent interference with the pig's immune response through downregulation of MHC II expression might indicate that certain Salmonella strains are more likely to escape serological detection, our findings are of major interest for Salmonella monitoring programs primarily based on serology. PMID:22694285
Van Parys, Alexander; Boyen, Filip; Verbrugghe, Elin; Leyman, Bregje; Bram, Flahou; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank
Full Text Available Aims: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is the major causative agent for typhoidial fever around the globe among human population reported till date. Present research work was carried out for detection and molecular characterisation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolated from humans with Typhoidial fever by biochemical, phenotypical and virulence gene based polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. The isolated strains were also investigated for antibiotic susceptibility patterns as a control measure. Methodology and Results: A total of 16 clinical samples were collected from the same numbers of patients (7 males and 9 females from Coimbatore, Erode and Salem districts of Tamil Nadu and were processed via broth enrichment methods for isolation and identification of the causative agent S. enterica serovar Typhi. Microbiological and biochemical investigations revealed the presence of S. Typhi from 16 samples. The biotyping of the isolates showed that all the isolates belonged to biotype IV. The PCR analysis confirmed the presence of invA (Invasion gene, 244bp, tyv (Tyveloseepimerase gene, 615 bp, fliC-d (Phage-1 flagellin gene for d-antigen, 750 bp and viaB (Vi antigen gene, 439bp in all 16 clinical samples. The antibiotic susceptibility test that was carried out among the isolates against 12 antimicrobial agents, showed 100 % resistance to only ampicillin and 100 % sensitivity to carbenicillin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, gentamycin, kanamycin and tetracycline.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This study confirmed the association of virulent strains of S. enterica serovar Typhi from Typhoidial fever among human population and suggested that PCR based diagnostic could be very useful for the rapid detection of S. Typhi isolates. Present study emphasized the use of antibiotic like chloramphenicol or in combination with other antibiotics for the effective control of S. Typhi.
Two patients with Reiter's syndrome, after Salmonella infection were treated on the Infections disease ward at Clinical hospital center in Kragujevac. In the first patient, ten days after the onset of Salmonella infection, signs of edema and pain in the right ankle occurred, accompanied by expressed conjunctivitis. Within next two months consecutive metatarsophalanges changes joint of the right foot have appeared. In the second patient, two weeks after the onset of Salmonella infection, edema...
Foodborne salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial zoonotic diseases worldwide. Salmonella Typhimurium is the serovar most frequently isolated from persistently infected slaughter pigs in Europe. Circumvention of the host’s immune system by Salmonella might contribute to persistent infection of pigs. In the present study, we found that Salmonella Typhimurium strain 112910a specifically downregulated MHC II, but not MHC I, expression on porcine macrophages in a Salmonella pathoge...
Parys, Alexander; Boyen, Filip; Verbrugghe, Elin; Leyman, Bregje; Flahou, Bram; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank
Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to standardize and compare rapid methods for the detection of Salmonella in meat samples using Immuno-Magnetic Separation (IMS followed by culturing in CHROMagar Plus media, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR. Ten-fold dilutions of bacterial suspension (S. typhymurium, ATCC13311 were prepared from the original concentration of 1.6 x 106cfu/ml. Chicken wing samples of 25 g each negative for Salmonella were spiked with six different concentrations of bacteria ranging from 106 to 101. These samples were incubated in buffered peptone water for 4 h as pre-enrichment step and were tested repeatedly. The IMS technique involved the use of paramagnetic polystyrene microscopic beads coated with purified antibodies against Salmonella. The CHROMagar Plus media containing chromomeric substrate facilitated detection of Salmonella species from other flora. The Assurance EIA Salmonella Kit with polyclonal antibodies directed against Salmonella facilitated easy and rapid detection. In the RT-PCR primers targeting invA gene was used which amplified a 378 bp fragment. Comparing to conventional culture method (4 days, CHROMagar plate culture following IMS showed light mauve to mauve-colored colonies of Salmonella in 23 h with high sensitivity (99% at 1.6 cfu/ml. IMS-ELISA combination also showed high sensitivity (75% at 1.6 x 103 cfu/ml in 8 h and minimized cross-reactivity with many Enterobacteraceae. The combination of IMS with RT-PCR took less than 7 h and was even more sensitive (100% at 1.6 cfu/ml. Sensitivities of IMS-RT-PCR and IMS-CHROMagar were higher compared to IMS-ELISA. IMS-CHROMagar was easier to perform and detects only living Salmonella. These methods will be highly suitable for routine detection and may significantly assist the processing industry in avoiding costly recalls and the timely investigation of outbreaks.
Salmonellae are important causes of enteric diseases in all vertebrates. Characterization of the molecular mechanisms that underpin the interactions of salmonellae with their animal hosts has advanced greatly over the past decade, mainly through the study of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in tissue culture and animal models of infection. Knowledge of these bacterial processes and host responses has painted a dynamic and complex picture of the interaction between salmonellae and animal cells. This Review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of these host-pathogen interactions, in terms of their context, significance and future perspectives. PMID:18026123
Haraga, Andrea; Ohlson, Maikke B; Miller, Samuel I
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Salmonella has been identified as a causative agent of acute pancreatitis. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively evaluated the frequency of acute pancreatitis, pancreatic enzyme elevation and morphological pancreatic abnormalities in patients with Salmonella infection. SUBJECTS: Thirty consecutive patients with salmonellosis (Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis: n=25; Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium: n=5 and 30 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects were studied. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All subjects underwent serum amylase and lipase determination and ultrasonography. RESULTS: None of the subjects developed acute pancreatitis. Two patients (6.7% and two controls showed serum amylase activity above the upper reference limit whereas, in five patients (16.7% and one control subject (3.3%, the serum lipase activity appeared above the upper reference limit. Salmonella infection significantly increased serum activity of lipase (P less than 0.001 while it did not significantly affect serum amylase levels (P=0.204. Serum lipase activity was significantly higher in patients infected by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium than in those infected by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (P=0.012. Ultrasonography did not show pancreatic abnormalities in any of the subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated an elevation of serum lipase activity in gastroenteritis due to Salmonella infection, but this elevation does not seem to have clinical significance. The elevation of serum lipase seems to be particularly related to infection from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.
A simple and ready-to-go test based on a 5' nuclease (TaqMan) PCR technique was developed for identification of presumptive Salmonella enterica isolates. The results were compared with those of conventional methods. The TaqMan assay was evaluated for its ability to accurately detect 210 S. enterica isolates, including 100 problematic "rough" isolates. An internal positive control was designed to use the same Salmonella primers for amplification of a spiked nonrelevant template (116 bp) in the sample tube. The PCR test correctly identified all the Salmonella strains by resulting in positive end-point fluorescence (FAM) signals for the samples and positive control (TET) signals (relative sensitivity [Delta Rn], >0.6). The diagnostic specificity of the method was assessed using 120 non-Salmonella strains, which all resulted in negative FAM signals (Delta Rn, less than or equal to 0.5). All 100 rough Salmonella strains tested resulted in positive FAM and TET signals. In addition, it was found that the complete PCR mixture, predispensed in microwell plates, could be stored for up to 3 months at -20 degrees C, Thus, the diagnostic TaqMan assay developed can be a useful and simple alternative method for identification of Salmonella, particularly in Large reference laboratories.
Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Ahrens, Peter
Full Text Available Salmonella enterica is a major food-borne pathogen of world-wide concern. Sensitive and rapid detection methods to assess product safety before retail distribution are highly desirable. Since Salmonella is most commonly associated with poultry products, an evanescent wave fiber-optic assay was developed to detect Salmonella in shell egg and chicken breast and data were compared with a time-resolved fluorescence (TRF assay. Anti-Salmonella polyclonal antibody was immobilized onto the surface of an optical fiber using biotin-avidin interactions to capture Salmonella. Alexa Fluor 647-conjugated antibody (MAb 2F-11 was used as the reporter. Detection occurred when an evanescent wave from a laser (635 nm excited the Alexa Fluor and the fluorescence was measured by a laser-spectrofluorometer at 710 nm. The biosensor was specific for Salmonella and the limit of detection was established to be 103 cfu/mL in pure culture and 104 cfu/mL with egg and chicken breast samples when spiked with 102 cfu/mL after 2–6 h of enrichment. The results indicate that the performance of the fiber-optic sensor is comparable to TRF, and can be completed in less than 8 h, providing an alternative to the current detection methods.
Arun K. Bhunia
In human gastrointestinal disease caused by Salmonella, transepithelial migration of neutrophils follows the attachment of bacteria to epithelial tissue. This migration of neutrophils is stimulated by the release of chemokines, including interleukin-8 (Il -8), from the epithelial cells. We have developed an in vitro model system (human epithelial monolayers, among which Caco-2 cells grown on microtiter multiwell plates) for studying host-pathogen interactions. After infecti...
Jonge R de; Hendriks H; Garssen J
A Dynal core method has been established using Dynabeads anti-Salmonella to detect Salmonella from all categories of food samples. The protocol consists of the standard pre-enrichment of samples in buffered peptone water followed by immunomagnetic separation and subsequent selective enrichment of the bead-bacteria complexes in Rappaport-Vassiliadis Soya Peptone broth before plating onto Salmonella selective media. This modified IMS cultural method is intended to replace or augment traditional cultural methods used for Salmonella detection due to its specificity and increased sensitivity. The optional direct plating of bead-bacteria complexes onto solid media using a swab-streak technique is suitable for processed foods or samples known to have a history of very low resident flora. In an evaluation using 100 naturally contaminated samples, this IMS core method detected 39 of the 44 positive samples detected by all the methods combined, compared to 31 detected by the conventional ISO 6579 reference method. Furthermore, in ten different food matrices inoculated with low levels (1-5 cells/25 g) of twenty Salmonella serovariants, frozen for one month before being examined, the IMS core method, showed a 90% concordance with the ISO method and isolated two more Salmonella positive samples than the conventional ISO method. PMID:9237122
Cudjoe, K S; Krona, R
Full Text Available Salmonella infections are one of the major global public health problems. During the last decade, antibiotic resistance and multiresistance of Salmonella spp. have increased a great deal, especially in developing countries with an increased and indiscriminate use of antibiotics in the treatment of humans and animals. This study aims to investigate and compare antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella during 2005 and 2010.A total of 186 Salmonella strain during 2005 and 140 Salmonella strain during 2010 were isolated from stool specimens using standard methods. The isolates were confirmed as Salmonella by using a battery of biochemical reactions. Specific antisera were used for serologic characterization of Salmonella strain. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by standard disk diffusion method using ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxasole, ceftriaxon, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin.One hundred eighty (96.8% of 186 isolated Salmonella strains in 2005, and 133 (95% of 140 isolated Salmonella strain in 2010 are recognized as Salmonella Enteritidis. Sensitivity of Salmonella isolates during 2005 and 2010 were 91.9% and 92.9% to ampicillin, 95.7% and 97.1% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxasole, 99.5% and 100% to chloramphenicol, 99.5% and 100% to ciprofloxacin, 98.9% and 97.1% to ceftriaxon, 73.1% and 95.7% to nalidixic acid, respectively.Sensitivity of Salmonella isolates to all tested antimicrobial agents except to ceftriaxon was been slightly improved over testing period. Resistance rate to ceftriaxon was higher in 2010 than in 2005, and this fact deserves attention. Significantly increase susceptibility rate to nalidixic acid was observed between the two surveys
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the application of ready-to-go Salmonella PCR tests, based on dry chemistry, for final identification of rough presumptive Salmonella isolates. The results were compared with two different biotyping methods performed at two different laboratories. The sensitivity of the BAX Salmonella PCR test was assessed by testing a total of 80 Salmonella isolates, covering most serogroups, which correctly identified all the Salmonella strains by resulting in one 800-bp band in the sample tubes. The specificity of the PCR was assessed using 20 non-Salmonella strains, which did not result in any DNA band. A total of 32 out of the 36 rough presumptive isolates were positive in the PCR. All but one isolate were also identified as Salmonella by the two biochemical methods. All 80 Salmonella strains were also tested in the two multiplex serogroup tests based on PCR beads. All strains belonging to the serogroups B, C-1, C-2-C-3, and D were grouped correctly. Among the 32 rough presumptive isolates identified, 19 isolates resulted in a band of 882 bp (serogroup B), 11 isolates resulted in a band of 471 bp (serogroup C-1), and two isolates showed a band of 720 bp (serogroup D). In conclusion, rough presumptive Salmonella isolates can be conveniently confirmed to the serogroup-revel, using the pre-mixed PCR tests. The system can be easily implemented in accredited laboratories with limited experience in molecular biology.
Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Baggesen, Dorte Lau
Full Text Available Blood stream Salmonella infections range from self-limiting infections to life-threatening sepsis causing significant mortality and morbidity worldwide and require rapid and aggressive anti-microbial treatment. The antibiotic resistance pattern of Salmonella is ever changing over time. Rational and correct use of antibiotics requires understanding of the pathogen and drug resistance patterns in a community. This study was conducted to determine the status of bloodstream Salmonella infection and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns in a tertiary care hospital at Dhaka, Bangladesh. Six hundred and fifty six blood samples collected from clinically diagnosed enteric fever patients from Dhaka Medical college Hospital, Dhaka during January 2012 to December 2012 were processed. Salmonella enterica serovar typhi and paratyphi isolates were identified by standard microbiological and biochemical procedures. Ninty four isolates of Salmonella typhi and 59 isolates of S. paratyphi were isolated. Average prevalence rate of Salmonella in blood was 24.8%. Young, neonates and elderly persons are more prone to Salmonella infection and males are more susceptible to Salmonella septicemia than females. Most of the isolates Salmonella spp. were Multi-drug Resistance (MDR and showed high resistance against cefixime, ceftriaxone, cefipime, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and meropenem. Nalidixic acid was found to be effective against them. Specific antibiotic utilization strategies like antibiotic restriction, combination therapy and usage according to the standard antimicrobial susceptibility testing may help to decrease or prevent the emergence of resistance and incidence of blood stream infections.
Zahed Uddin Mahmood Khan
Whereas the majority of pathogenic Salmonella serovars are capable of infecting many different animal species, typically producing a self-limited gastroenteritis, serovars with narrow host-specificity exhibit increased virulence and their infections frequently result in fatal systemic diseases. In our study, a genetic and functional analysis of the mannose-specific type 1 fimbrial adhesin FimH from a variety of serovars of Salmonella enterica revealed that specific mutant variants of FimH are...
Kisiela, Dagmara I.; Chattopadhyay, Sujay; Libby, Stephen J.; Karlinsey, Joyce E.; Fang, Ferric C.; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Kramer, Jeremy J.; Beskhlebnaya, Viktoriya; Samadpour, Mansour; Grzymajlo, Krzysztof; Ugorski, Maciej; Lankau, Emily W.; Mackie, Roderick I.; Clegg, Steven; Sokurenko, Evgeni V.
Salmonella enterica serotypes have been linked to outbreaks associated with low water activity foods. While the biofilm-forming abilities of Salmonella improve its survival during thermal processing and sanitation it is unclear whether biofilms enhance survival to desiccation and gastric stresses. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of physiological state (planktonic versus biofilm) and prior exposure to desiccation and storage in dry milk powder on Salmonella survival and gene expression after passage through an in vitro digestion model. Planktonic cells of Salmonella enterica serotype Tennessee were deposited onto membranes while biofilms were formed on glass beads. The cells were subsequently dried at room temperature and stored in dried milk powder (a(w)=0.3) for up to 30 days. Salmonella survival was quantified by serial dilution onto Brilliant Green Agar before desiccation, after desiccation, after 1-day storage and after 30-day storage. At each sampling period both physiological states were tested for survival through a simulated gastrointestinal system. RNA was extracted at the identical time points and Quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to determine relative expression for genes associated with stress response (rpoS, otsB), virulence (hilA, invA, sipC) and a housekeeping gene 16S rRNA. The physiological state and length of storage affected the survival and gene expression of Salmonella within the desiccated milk powder environment and after passage through an in vitro digestion system (pbiofilms compared to planktonic, however, the numbers of Salmonella genomes detected by qPCR were not significantly different suggesting entry of the planktonic cells of S. Tennessee into a viable but non-culturable state. The increased expression of stress response genes rpoS and otsB correlated with survival, indicating cross-protection to low water activity and acid stress. Increased expression of virulence-associated genes was seen in cells exposed to dry storage for short periods, however the largest amount of expression occurred in biofilm cells stored for 30 days at aw 0.3, suggesting increased virulence potential. PMID:23454816
Aviles, Bryan; Klotz, Courtney; Eifert, Joseph; Williams, Robert; Ponder, Monica
A robust 5' nuclease (TaqMan) real-time PCR was developed and validated in-house for the specific detection of Salmonella in food. The assay used specifically designed primers and a probe target within the ttrRSBCA locus, which is located near the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 at centisome 30.5. It is required for tetrathionate respiration in Salmonella. The assay correctly identified all 110 Salmonella strains and 87 non-Salmonella strains tested. An internal amplification control, which is coamplified with the same primers as the Salmonella DNA, was also included in the assay. The detection probabilities were 70% when a Salmonella cell suspension containing 10(3) CFU/ml was used as a template in the PCR (5 CFU per reaction) and 100% when a suspension of 10(4) CFU/ml was used. A pre-PCR sample preparation protocol including a preenrichment step in buffered peptone water followed by DNA extraction-purification was applied when 110 various food samples (chicken rinses, minced meat, fish, and raw milk) were investigated for Salmonella. The diagnostic accuracy was shown to be 100% compared to the traditional culture method. The overall analysis time of the PCR method was approximately 24 h, in contrast to 4 to 5 days of analysis time for the traditional culture method. This methodology can contribute to meeting the increasing demand of quality assurance laboratories for standard diagnostic methods. Studies are planned to assess the interlaboratory performance of this diagnostic PCR method. PMID:15574899
Malorny, Burkhard; Paccassoni, Elisa; Fach, Patrick; Bunge, Cornelia; Martin, Annett; Helmuth, Reiner
The ability of bivalent Salmonella typhi-Shigella sonnei vaccine strain 5076-1C to stimulate an intestinal immunoglobulin A response in humans was evaluated by detecting gut-derived, trafficking antibody-secreting cells (ASC) in peripheral blood. Following vaccination, an immunoglobulin A-ASC response to O antigens of S. typhi and S. sonnei was observed in 10 of 13 and 13 of 13 vaccine recipients, respectively. Experimental challenge with pathogenic S. sonnei stimulated an ASC response to the...
Verg, L.; Herrington, D. A.; Murphy, J. R.; Wasserman, S. S.; Formal, S. B.; Levine, M. M.
In an earlier study with Salmonella typhimurium L1388 (ST) and Salmonella enteritidis L1225 (SE) isolated from diseased chickens, we found that SE formed more biofilm than ST on abiotic surfaces in a time-dependent manner. Since the ability of salmonellae to survive extreme environment is related to their virulence, the present study examined the survival of Salmonella typhimurium L1388 and Salmonella nteritidis L1225 under the usual stresses that salmonellae encounter during their life cycle...
Full Text Available Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, with poultry and poultry products being a primary source of infection to humans. Poultry may carry some Salmonella serovars without any signs or symptoms of disease and without causing any adverse effects to the health of the bird. Salmonella may be introduced to a flock by multiple environmental sources, but poultry feed is suspected to be a leading source. Detecting Salmonella in feed can be challenging because low levels of the bacteria may not be recovered using traditional culturing techniques. Numerous detection methodologies have been examined over the years for quantifying Salmonella in feeds and many have proven to be effective for Salmonella isolation and detection in a variety of feeds. However, given the potential need for increased detection sensitivity, molecular detection technologies may the best candidate for developing rapid sensitive methods for identifying small numbers of Salmonella in the background of large volumes of feed. Several studies have been done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays and commercial kits to detect Salmonella spp. in a wide variety of feed sources. In addition, DNA array technology has recently been utilized to track the dissemination of a specific Salmonella serotype in feed mills. This review will discuss the processing of feeds and potential points in the process that may introduce Salmonella contamination to the feed. Detection methods currently used and the need for advances in these methods also will be discussed. Finally, implementation of rapid detection for optimizing control methods to prevent and remove any Salmonella contamination of feeds will be considered.
Steven C. Ricke
Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) is one of the major causes of bacterial food-borne illness in humans. During the course of infection, Salmonella Enteritidis uses 2 type III secretion systems (T3SS), one of which is encoded on Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1). SPI-1 plays a major role in the invasion process. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of sera against the SPI-1 T3SS components on invasion in vitro using polarized human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2). Antisera to SipD protected Caco-2 cells against entry of wild-type Salmonella Enteritidis. On the other hand, sera against InvG, PrgI, SipA, SipC, SopB, SopE, and SopE2 did not affect Salmonella Enteritidis entry. To illustrate the specificity of anti-SipD mediated inhibition, SipD-specific antibodies were depleted from the serum. Antiserum depleted of SipD-specific antibodies lost its capacity to inhibit Salmonella Enteritidis entry. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time that antibodies against the SPI-1 needle tip protein (SipD) inhibit Salmonella Enteritidis invasion and that the SipD protein may be an important target in blocking SPI-1 mediated virulence of Salmonella Enteritidis. PMID:20657623
Desin, Taseen S; Mickael, Claudia S; Lam, Po-King S; Potter, Andrew A; Köster, Wolfgang
The avirulent Salmonella typhimurium chi3985 was used to vaccinate white leghorn chickens at 16 and 18 weeks of age, and the effect of maternal antibody on Salmonella colonization of progeny of vaccinated hens was assessed with S. typhimurium F98 or chi3985. Progeny of hens that had been vaccinated at 1 and 3 or 2 and 4 weeks of age with chi3985 were used to determine the effect of maternal immunity on vaccine efficacy. Vaccination of hens induced long-lasting Salmonella-specific antibodies w...
Hassan, J. O.; Curtiss, R.
Salmonella infections can cause a range of intestinal and systemic disease in human and animal hosts. While some Salmonella serovars initiate a localized intestinal inflammatory response, others use the intestine as a portal of entry to initiate a systemic infection. Considerable progress has been made in understanding bacterial invasion and dissemination strategies and the nature of the Salmonella-specific immune response to oral infection. Innate and adaptive immunity are rapidly initiated after oral infection but these effector responses can also be hindered by bacterial evasion strategies. Furthermore, although Salmonella resides within intramacrophage phagosomes, recent studies highlight a surprising collaboration of CD4 Th1, Th17, and B cell responses in mediating resistance to Salmonella infection.
Griffin, Amanda J.; McSorley, Stephen J.
Full Text Available Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-7 (SPI-7 is a large, mosaic, genetic island, found in several serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica associated with systemic disease. As well as encoding genes which may aid its own transmission, it carries genes for potential virulence factors such as Vi antigen, SopE effector and type IVB pili. The stability of SPI-7 is of interest with respect to typhoid fever and related vaccines.
Helena M. B. Seth-Smith
The innate immune system provides the first line of defense against invading microorganisms by inducing a variety of inflammatory and antimicrobial responses. These responses are particularly important in the gastrointestinal tract, where the needs for efficient nutrient uptake and host defense collide. Many pathogens have evolved to specifically colonize the intestine, causing millions of cases of enteric infections a year. A paradigm of an enteric pathogen is Salmonella enterica, a gram-negative bacterium that causes a wide range of gastrointestinal and systemic diseases. Infections with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) lead to an acute intestinal inflammation in human and animal hosts, as a result of the bacterium invading the mucosa. A distinctive feature of Salmonella is that it has not only adapted to survive in a strong inflammatory environment, but it also uses this adaptation as a strategy to gain a growth advantage over the intestinal microbiota. We will use the model organism S. typhimurium to discuss the innate immune mechanisms employed by the mammalian gastrointestinal system and how the pathogen responds and subverts these mechanisms. In particular, we focus on the recognition of extra- and intra-cellular Salmonellae by germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors of the TLR and NLR families, and how Salmonella might profit from the activation of these receptors. PMID:22198618
Broz, Petr; Ohlson, Maikke B; Monack, Denise M
Pathogenicity islands are chromosomal clusters of pathogen-specific virulence genes often found at tRNA loci. We have determined the molecular genetic structure of SPI-3, a 17-kb pathogenicity island located at the selC tRNA locus of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The G+C content of SPI-3 (47.5%) differs from that of the Salmonella genome (52%), consistent with the notion that these sequences have been horizontally acquired. SPI-3 harbors 10 open reading frames organized in six tran...
Blanc-potard, Anne-be?atrice; Solomon, Felix; Kayser, Jayson; Groisman, Eduardo A.
Salmonella species are enterobacterial pathogens that have been exceptionally well investigated with respect to virulence mechanisms, microbial pathogenesis, genome evolution and many fundamental pathways of gene expression and metabolism. While these studies have traditionally focused on protein functions, Salmonella has also become a model organism for RNA-mediated regulation. The present review is dedicated to the non-coding RNA world of Salmonella: it covers small RNAs (sRNAs) that act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, novel Salmonella cis-regulatory RNA elements that sense metabolite and metal ion concentrations (or temperature), and globally acting RNA-binding proteins such as CsrA or Hfq (inactivation of which cause drastic phenotypes and virulence defects). Owing to mosaic genome structure, some of the Salmonella sRNAs are widely conserved in bacteria whereas others are very specific to Salmonella species. Intriguingly, sRNAs of either type (CsrB/C, InvR, SgrS) facilitate cross-talk between the Salmonella core genome and its laterally acquired virulence regions. Work in Salmonella also identified physiological functions (and mechanisms thereof) of RNA that had remained unknown in Escherichia coli, and pioneered the use of high-throughput sequencing technology to identify the sRNA and mRNA targets of bacterial RNA-binding proteins. PMID:19007416
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Salmonellosis is one of the most important food-borne bacterial zoonotic diseases worldwide, and poultry and its products are the major sources for salmonella transmission to human. Isolation of Salmonella enterica from poultry needs bacteriologic enrichment and selected cultures of fecal samples. In this study, different culture methods for the isolation of salmonella from fecal samples were compared. Material and Methods: Forty- five positive samples from infected farms and 45 negative samples from normal farms were processed using enrichment media including tetrathionate broth, selenite cistine and Rappaport-Vassiliadis. Then the samples were incubated in selective cultures, and after 24 h, their results were compared with standard method. Results: Specificity of all methods for salmonella isolation was 100%, and salmonella was not isolated from the negative samples. The highest susceptibility was related to the method in which the sample first in Selenite cistine and later in Rappaport-Vassiliadis was enriched (100%. Enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis could isolate 41 salmonella from 45 positive samples (91% while the result of enrichment in tetrathionate was 6 isolates (13.3%. Conclusion: This study shows that enrichment in selenite cistine and then in Rappaport-Vassiliadis is currently the best method for isolating salmonella from fecal samples of poultry. Key words: Salmonella; Bacteriologic Culture; Diagnosis; Isolation; Enrichment; Poultry
Morshed, R. (PhD
The present study is an overview of the role of vegetables as a transmission vehicle of Salmonella in Mexico. One hundred samples of each of 17 different vegetables were analyzed during a period of 18 months. Salmonella was isolated from 98 samples. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was isolated from the highest percentage of samples with typeable Salmonella isolates (23.9%), followed by S. enterica subsp. arizonae and Salmonella Choleraesuis each from 16.9%, Salmonella Gallinarum from 11.1%, Salmonella Anatum and S. enterica subsp. houtenae each from 9.7%, Salmonella Agona and Salmonella Edinburg each from 4.22%, Salmonella Enteritidis and S. enterica subsp. salamae each from 2.81%, and Salmonella Bongor, Salmonella Pullorum, Salmonella Typhi, and Salmonella C1 flagellar b each from 1.4%. Of the isolated bacteria, 27.6% were nontypeable strains. Salmonella was isolated from 12% of parsley samples, 11% of cilantro samples, 9% of broccoli samples, 9% of cauliflower samples, 9% of "papaloquelite" (Porophyllum ruderale) samples, 9% of purslane (Portulaca oleracea) samples, 7% of long lettuce samples, 7% of spinach samples, 7% of watercress samples, 6% of Chinese parsley samples, 4% of beet samples, 3% of celery samples, 3% of Romaine lettuce samples, 1% of cabbage samples, and 1% of potato samples. The presence of Salmonella Typhi in parsley is noteworthy. No Salmonella isolates were obtained from zucchini and onion. These results indicate that raw or minimally processed vegetables can be contaminated with Salmonella, leading to direct infection of consumers or cross-contamination of other foodstuffs. These contaminated vegetables can represent a severe health risk for the Mexican consumer. PMID:19610340
Quiroz-Santiago, Carolina; Rodas-Suárez, Oscar R; Carlos R, Vázquez; Fernández, Francisco J; Quiñones-Ramírez, Elsa Irma; Vázquez-Salinas, Carlos
Selective autophagy can be mediated via receptor molecules that link specific cargoes to the autophagosomal membranes decorated by ubiquitin-like microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) modifiers. Although several autophagy receptors have been identified, little is known about mechanisms controlling their functions in vivo. In this work, we found that phosphorylation of an autophagy receptor, optineurin, promoted selective autophagy of ubiquitin-coated cytosolic Salmonella enterica. The protein kinase TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1) phosphorylated optineurin on serine-177, enhancing LC3 binding affinity and autophagic clearance of cytosolic Salmonella. Conversely, ubiquitin- or LC3-binding optineurin mutants and silencing of optineurin or TBK1 impaired Salmonella autophagy, resulting in increased intracellular bacterial proliferation. We propose that phosphorylation of autophagy receptors might be a general mechanism for regulation of cargo-selective autophagy.
Wild, Philipp; Farhan, Hesso
Selective autophagy can be mediated via receptor molecules that link specific cargoes to the autophagosomal membranes decorated by ubiquitin-like microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) modifiers. Although several autophagy receptors have been identified, little is known about mechanisms controlling their functions in vivo. In this work, we found that phosphorylation of an autophagy receptor, optineurin, promoted selective autophagy of ubiquitin-coated cytosolic Salmonella enterica. The protein kinase TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1) phosphorylated optineurin on serine-177, enhancing LC3 binding affinity and autophagic clearance of cytosolic Salmonella. Conversely, ubiquitin- or LC3-binding optineurin mutants and silencing of optineurin or TBK1 impaired Salmonella autophagy, resulting in increased intracellular bacterial proliferation. We propose that phosphorylation of autophagy receptors might be a general mechanism for regulation of cargo-selective autophagy. PMID:21617041
Wild, Philipp; Farhan, Hesso; McEwan, David G; Wagner, Sebastian; Rogov, Vladimir V; Brady, Nathan R; Richter, Benjamin; Korac, Jelena; Waidmann, Oliver; Choudhary, Chunaram; Dötsch, Volker; Bumann, Dirk; Dikic, Ivan
We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk. In 2001, the Danish society saved U.S.$25.5 million by controlling Salmonella. The total annual Salmonella control costs in year 2001 were U.S.$14.1 million (U.S.$0.075/kg of pork and U.S.$0.02/kg of broiler or egg). These costs are paid almost exclusively by the industry. The control principles described are applicable to most industrialized countries with modern intensive farming systems.
Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Hald, Tine
We describe a genotyping scheme for Salmonella panama. Defined probes specific for the 16S rRNA gene and the DNA insertion element IS200 were generated by PCR from S. panama and were used to probe genomic Southern blots made with enzymes selected to cut within and outside the probed sequences. Plasmid profiles were determined. The typeability and discriminatory power of the individual methods were compared. Ribotyping with 16S rRNA gene probe alone was slightly more discriminatory than phage ...
Stanley, J.; Baquar, N.; Burnens, A.
In 1995 several outbreaks of food poisoning in humans occurred in Iceland, that were traced to salmonella contamination of singed sheep heads. This prompted us to study the prevalence of salmonella infection in sheep and to trace where and how infection might have occurred. Faecal, intestinal contents and tonsillar samples were collected in the spring and autumn from sheep on 50 farms in the southwestern part of the country, where salmonellosis had been detected and from 5 farms in th...
Hjartardóttir S; Gunnarsson E; Sigvaldadóttir J
We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk....
Wegener, Henrik C.; Hald, Tine; Wong, Lo Fo; Madsen, Mogens; Korsgaard, Helle; Bager, Flemming; Gerner-smidt, Peter; Mølbak, Ka?re
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure the effects of chronic exposure to fumonisins via the ingestion of feed containing naturally contaminated corn in growing pigs infected or not with Salmonella spp. This exposure to a moderate dietary concentration of fumonisins (11.8 ppm was sufficient to induce a biological effect in pigs (Sa/So ratio, but no mortality or pathology was observed over 63 days of exposure. No mortality or related clinical signs, even in cases of inoculation with Salmonella (5 × 104 CFU, were observed either. Fumonisins, at these concentrations, did not affect the ability of lymphocytes to proliferate in the presence of mitogens, but after seven days post-inoculation they led to inhibition of the ability of specific Salmonella lymphocytes to proliferate following exposure to a specific Salmonella antigen. However, the ingestion of fumonisins had no impact on Salmonella translocation or seroconversion in inoculated pigs. The inoculation of Salmonella did not affect faecal microbiota profiles, but exposure to moderate concentrations of fumonisins transiently affected the digestive microbiota balance. In cases of co-infection with fumonisins and Salmonella, the microbiota profiles were rapidly and clearly modified as early as 48 h post-Salmonella inoculation. Therefore under these experimental conditions, exposure to an average concentration of fumonisins in naturally contaminated feed had no effect on pig health but did affect the digestive microbiota balance, with Salmonella exposure amplifying this phenomenon.
Salmonella (S.) Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis are the major causative agents of food-borne illnesses worldwide. Currently, a rapid detection system using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been applied for other food-borne pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp. A multiplex real-time PCR was developed for the simultaneous detection of Salmonella spp., especially S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis, in beef and pork. For the specific...
Lee, Su Hwa; Jung, Byeong Yeal; Rayamahji, Nabin; Lee, Hee Soo; Jeon, Woo Jin; Choi, Kang Seuk; Kweon, Chang Hee; Yoo, Han Sang
Full Text Available La meningoencefalitis por bacilos gramnegativos ha ido incrementándose desde la década de los 70, con una mayor incidencia en niños pequeños, aunque existe una tendencia a aumentar en pacientes de la 3ra. edad. Dentro de este grupo de microorganismos, la causada por Salmonella sp, por su poca frecuencia, resulta una rareza. En este caso se presenta a una paciente de 80 años de edad con cuadro clínico de meningoencefalitis, que en el estudio del líquido cefalorraquídeo se aisló Salmonella grupo B serotipo typhimurium; la paciente fallece a los 5 días de su ingreso. La meningoencefalitis por Salmonella sp debe tenerse en cuenta en pacientes menores de 2 años de edad y ancianos, por la severidad del cuadro clínico y elevada mortalidad.Meningoencephalitis caused by gram-negative bacilli has increased since the 1970s, with a higher incidence in little children , although there is a a trend to rise in the elderly. Within this group of micororganisms, the meningoencephalitis caused by Salmonella sp is rare, since it is not very common. The case of an 80-year-old female patient with a clinical picture of meningoencephalitis is reported. Salmonella typhimurium serogroup B was isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid. The patient died 5 days after being admitted in the hospital. The meningoencephalitis caused by Salmonella sp should be taken into consideration in children under 2 and in the elederly because of the severity of the clinical picture and the elevated mortality.
Nilda E. Herrera Valdés
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of bacteriophage P22 on the susceptibility, swimming motility, invasion gene expression, invasive ability, and intracellular survival of Salmonella Typhimurium exposed to the simulated intestinal conditions. S. Typhimurium cells were inoculated at 37 °C for 4 h in the simulated intestinal conditions with or without bacteriophage P22, including control (0 % bile salts, pH 7.2), SN (0 % bile salts, pH 5.0), SL (0.5 % bile salts, pH 5.0), SH (2.0 % bile salts, pH 5.0), SNp (0 % bile salts + P22, pH 5.0), SLp (0.5 % bile salts + P22, pH 5.0), and SHp (2.0 % bile salts + P22, pH 5.0). The numbers of Typhimurium cells were significantly reduced by 3.30, 3.56, and 3.75 log units, respectively, at SNp, SLp, and SHp. Considerable reduction in the swimming motility was observed at SNp (23 %), SLp (22 %), and SHp (20 %). The transcriptional regulator genes, hilA, hilC, hilD, invA, invE, and invF, were significantly down-regulated with SHp, showing 4.07-fold, 2.87-fold, 3.43-fold, 2.07-fold, 1.44-fold, and 4.83-fold, respectively. The decrease in invasive ability was most significant at SHp (45 %), followed by SLp (49 %). These results suggest that bacteriophage P22 can be used as an alternative to control Salmonella invasion of epithelial cells. PMID:24500522
Ryu, Kanghee; Biswas, Debabrata; Ahn, Juhee
Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is a leading cause of salmonellosis throughout the world and is most commonly associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry and egg products. Salmonella Enteritidis has enhanced ability to colonize and persist in extraintestinal sites within chickens. In this study, 54 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from human patients (n=28), retail chicken (n=9), broiler farms (n=9), and egg production facilities (n=8) were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, plasmid analysis, genetic relatedness using XbaI and AvrII pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the presence of putative virulence genes. Nine isolates were evaluated for their abilities to invade and survive in intestinal epithelial and macrophage cell lines. Overall, 56% (n=30) of isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent tested, yet no isolates showed resistance to more than three antimicrobials. All isolates carried a common ?55-kb plasmid, with some strains containing additional plasmids ranging from 3 to 50?kb. PFGE analysis revealed five XbaI and AvrII clusters. There were significant overlaps in the PFGE patterns of the isolates from human, chicken, and egg houses. All isolates tested PCR positive for iacP, purR, ttrB, spi4H, rmbA, sopE, invA, sopB, spvB, pagC, msgA, spaN, orgA, tolC, and sifA, and negative for iss, virB4, and sipB. Of the isolates selected for virulence testing, those containing the iron acquisition genes, iutA, sitA, and iucA, and ?50-kb plasmids demonstrated among the highest levels of macrophage and epithelial cell invasion, which may indicate their importance in pathogenesis. PMID:24102082
Han, Jing; Gokulan, Kuppan; Barnette, Dustyn; Khare, Sangeeta; Rooney, Anthony W; Deck, Joanna; Nayak, Rajesh; Stefanova, Rossina; Hart, Mark E; Foley, Steven L
A novel Salmonella serovar was isolated from Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in northern Sweden in 2006. Three isolates of the same clone was retrieved from three falcon siblings and characterized as Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica: O-phase 13, 23:-: e, n, z 15 and the H-phase was not present. We propose the geographical name Salmonella enterica, sub-species enterica serovar Pajala to this novel Salmonella.
... en Espanol Pet Turtles: Cute But Contaminated with Salmonella Search the Consumer Updates Section Because young children are more vulnerable to the effects of Salmonella, since 1975, FDA has banned the sale of ...
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The significant rise in food borne infections is mainly caused by Campylobacter spp., Salmonella serovars and Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli. As the emerging food borne pathogens cause disease, more studies have been conducted for rapid detection of these pathogens. The combination of immunomagnetic separation and polymerase chain reaction (IMS-PCR is the most accurate and rapid test preferred by almost every researcher. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR is preferred for being a new, user friendly and rapid technique in microbiological analyses. The main aim of this study is to detect application of IMS-FTIR for Salmonella identification from foods in a short time with a higher sensitivity.Materials and Methods: Conventional Culture Technique (CC, IMS-CC, IMS-PCR and IMS-FTIR techniques were compared with each other for rapid detection in artificially contaminated minced beef with Salmonella Typhimurium, as of the 2nd, 4th and 8th hours of contamination. The method was evaluated in different food matrices and sensitivity, specifity and overall recovery was calculated.Results: The results indicate that IMS-FTIR can detect S. Typhimurium as of the 8th hour with sensitivity of 95.6667, accuracy of 91.69329, false positive ratio of 0.04333 and overall recovery of 95.66%.Conclusion: It can be suggested that the IMS-FTIR method is capable of detecting S.Typhimurium in a short time with lower cost.
A total of 39 Salmonella enterica serovar Saintpaul strains from imported seafood, pepper and from environmental and clinical samples were analyzed for the presence of virulence genes, antibiotic resistance, plasmid and plasmid replicon types. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) fingerprinting using the XbaI restriction enzyme and plasmid profiling were performed to assess genetic diversity. None of the isolates showed resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline. Seventeen virulence genes were screened for by PCR. All strains were positive for 14 genes (spiA, sifA, invA, spaN, sopE, sipB, iroN, msgA, pagC, orgA, prgH, lpfC, sitC, and tolC) and negative for three genes (spvB, pefA, and cdtB). Twelve strains, including six from clinical samples and six from seafood, carried one or more plasmids. Large plasmids, sized greater than 50 kb were detected in one clinical and three food isolates. One plasmid was able to be typed as IncI1 by PCR-based replicon typing. There were 25 distinct PFGE-XbaI patterns, clustered to two groups. Cluster A, with 68.5% similarity mainly consists of clinical isolates, while Cluster C, with 67.6% similarity, mainly consisted of shrimp isolates from India. Our findings indicated the genetic diversity of S. Saintpaul in clinical samples, imported seafood, and the environment and that this serotype possesses several virulent genes and plasmids which can cause salmonellosis. PMID:21645810
Akiyama, Tatsuya; Khan, Ashraf A; Cheng, Chorng-Ming; Stefanova, Rossina
Salmonella is an important pathogen for both humans andanimals. Although the organism has been intensively studiedduring the last century, much remains to be learned about thispathogen. The complicated nomenclature system of Salmonellahas long been a subject of discussion. In 2005, “Salmonellaenterica” finally gained official approval as the type species ofthe genus Salmonella. The genus Salmonella also contains thespecies “Salmonella bongori” in addition to a new species,“Salmonell...
The MgtC is a virulence factor in Salmonella Typhimurium that is required for growth at low-Mg2+ concentrations and intramacrophage survival. This gene is codified in a conserved region of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 3 (SPI-3), and is also present in the chromosome of other Salmonella serovars. In this study we characterized the MgtC factor in S. Typhi, a human specific pathogen, by using mgtC and SPI-3 mutant strains. We found that MgtC is the most important factor codified in the SP...
As part of a major international project for the validation and standardization of PCR for detection of five major food-borne pathogens, four primer sets specific for Salmonella species were evaluated in-house for their analytical accuracy (selectivity and detection limit) in identifying 43 Salmonella spp. and 47 non-Salmonella strains. The most selective primer set was found to be 139-141 (K. Rahn, S. A. De Grandis, R. C. Clarke, S. A. McEwen, J. E. Galán, C. Ginocchio, R. Curtiss III, and ...
Mixed infection with multiple Salmonella serotypes in the same patient is an unusual finding. We present a case of enteric fever in which the blood culture was sterile and Widal test was negative. The culture of the bone marrow yielded Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A.
An ultrasensitive, simple, and fast lateral flow immunoassay for Salmonella detection using gold nanoparticles conjugated with a DNA probe, which is complementary to the 16S ribosomal RNA and DNA of Salmonella, has been developed. The detection limit is 5 fmol for the synthetic single-stranded DNA. For the Salmonella cultured samples, the nucleic acids from 10(7) bacteria were rapidly detected in 30 min. After silver enhancement, the detection limit was as low as 10(4) cells which is lower than 10(5) bacteria cells, the human infective dose of food-borne Salmonella. Furthermore, the probes used in this study are specific to Salmonella compared to several other Enterobacteriaceae. This approach would be a useful tool for microbial detection regarding food safety or clinical diagnosis. It is also suitable for large-scale screening in developing countries because it is low-cost, sensitive, specific and convenient. PMID:23870991
Liu, Cheng-Che; Yeung, Chun-Yan; Chen, Po-Hao; Yeh, Ming-Kung; Hou, Shao-Yi
Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is still an important cause of Salmonella infections in humans and there is a need for control methods that protect broilers from day-of-hatch until slaughter age against infection with Salmonella. Colonisation-inhibition, a concept in which a live Salmonella strain is orally administered to day-old chickens and protects against subsequent challenge, can potentially be used as control method. In this study, the efficacy of a Salmonella Typhimurium ?hilAssrAfliG strain as a colonisation-inhibition strain for protection of broilers against Salmonella Typhimurium was evaluated. Administration of a Salmonella Typhimurium ?hilAssrAfliG strain to day-old broiler chickens decreased faecal shedding and strongly reduced caecal and internal organ colonisation of a Salmonella Typhimurium challenge strain administered one day later using a seeder bird model. In addition, it was verified whether a colonisation-inhibition culture could be developed that protects against both Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium. Therefore, the Salmonella Typhimurium ?hilAssrAfliG strain was orally administered simultaneously with a Salmonella Enteritidis ?hilAssrAfliG strain to day-old broiler chickens, which resulted in a decreased caecal and internal organ colonisation for both a Salmonella Enteritidis and a Salmonella Typhimurium challenge strain short after hatching, using a seeder bird model. The combined culture was not protective against Salmonella Paratyphi B varietas Java challenge, indicating serotype-specific protection mechanisms. The data suggest that colonisation-inhibition can potentially be used as a versatile control method to protect poultry against several Salmonella serotypes. PMID:24975814
De Cort, W; Mot, D; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Van Immerseel, F
Nutritional strategies to minimize Salmonella in food animal production are one of the key components in producing safer food. The current European approach is to use a farm-to-fork strategy, where each sector must implement measures to minimize and reduce Salmonella contamination. In the pre-harvest phase, this means that all available tools need to be used such as implementation of biosecurity measures, control of Salmonella infections in animals at the farm as well as in transport and trade, optimal housing and management including cleaning, disinfection procedures as well as efforts to achieve Salmonella-free feed production. This paper describes some nutritional strategies that could be used in farm control programmes in the major mono-gastric food production animals: poultry and pigs. Initially, it is important to prevent the introduction of Salmonella onto the farm through Salmonella-contaminated feed and this risk is reduced through heat treatment and the use of organic acids and their salts and formaldehyde. Microbiological sampling and monitoring for Salmonella in the feed mills is required to minimize the introduction of Salmonella via feed onto the farm. In addition, feed withdrawal may create a stressful situation in animals, resulting in an increase in Salmonella shedding. Physical feed characteristics such as coarse-ground meal to pigs can delay gastric emptying, thereby increasing the acidity of the gut and thus reducing the possible prevalence of Salmonella. Coarse-ground grains and access to litter have also been shown to decrease Salmonella shedding in poultry. The feed can also modify the gastro-intestinal tract microflora and influence the immune system, which can minimize Salmonella colonization and shedding. Feed additives, such as organic acids, short- and medium-chain fatty acids, probiotics, including competitive exclusion cultures, prebiotics and certain specific carbohydrates, such as mannan-based compounds, egg proteins, essential oils and bacteriophages, have the potential to reduce Salmonella levels when added to the feed. These nutritional strategies could be evaluated and used in farm control programmes. PMID:22436270
Berge, A C; Wierup, M
Full Text Available A serological survey on the prevalence of antibodies against Salmonella and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG was carried out in layer chickens in Rajshahi and surrounding districts of Bangladesh. A total of 605 sera samples were examined by rapid plate agglutination (RPA test using commercial Salmonella and MG antigens to determine the Salmonella and MG specific antibodies. Out of 605 sera samples 14.05% had single Salmonella, 45.12% had single MG and 11.24% had their concurrent infection. Prevalence of Salmonella was recorded the highest (37.60% in adult compared to young (16.66%. On the contrary, MG and their concurrent infections were recorded the highest (71.66% and 13.33% in young compared to adult (50.40% and 10.40%. The prevalence of Salmonella, MG and their concurrent infections were recorded the highest (34.28%, 68.57% and 17.14% in large flocks compared to small flocks (21.25%, 50% and 8.75%. The prevalence of Salmonella infection was the highest (30.37% in summer followed by winter (23.69%, rainy (25% and autumn (23.33%. The prevalence of MG infection was the highest (61.58% in winter followed by autumn (56.88%, rainy (55% and summer (49.63%. Whereas, their concurrent infection was the highest (12.11% in winter followed by summer (11.85%, rainy (10.83% and autumn (10%.
Khandoker Mohammad Mozaffor Hossain
Two previously reported PCR methods were evaluated to determine whether they are as sensitive and specific as conventional culture methods in detecting Salmonella spp. from feces. Bovine and equine feces were enriched overnight in brain heart infusion broth and assayed using PCR methods and primer sets described by other investigators. A total of 774 fecal specimens were tested using a primer set (invE-A primer set) that amplifies a region spanning the invasin E and A genes of Salmonella ente...
Gentry-weeks, Claudia; Hutcheson, H. Joel; Kim, Lisa Marie; Bolte, Denise; Traub-dargatz, Josie; Morley, Paul; Powers, Barbara; Jessen, Michael
This article addresses the legal approach to the risk of salmonella infections on the complex interaction between EU Law and international law. It is examined how the latitude of individual states to adopt national food safety measures is restricted by both EU Law and WTO Law. The specific issue of protection against salmonella also serves as illustration of the difficult balancing of the interests of high level of food safety and the free movement of goods.
Edinger, Wieke Huizing; Andersen, Lars Bracht
Forty-two Salmonella isolates obtained from diseased swine were genetically characterized for the presence of specific antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Twenty of these isolates were characterized as S. Typhimurium DT104 strains. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to determine genetic relatedness and revealed 20 distinct genetic patterns among the 42 isolates. However, all DT104 isolates fell within 2 closely related genetic clusters. Other Salmonella isolates were genetically group...
Salmonellae are of major importance as causes of food borne disease. Classical diagnostic methods that rely on cultivation, Widal slide agglutination tests and biochemical tests for detecting Salmonella are time-consuming. More rapid identification is highly desirable for clinical and epidemiological reasons. This obstacle can be overcome by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH). FISH uses fluorescently labelled probes that hybridize specifically to complementary target sequences on the b...
We investigated the influence of Salmonella typhimurium load and specific antibodies on phagocytosis in schistosomiasis. Macrophages from Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice showed depressed capacity to increase the phagocytosis in the presence of a high bacterial load, due to a reduced involvement of these cells in phagocytosis and to a deficient ability to increase the number of phagocytosed bacteria. Normal and Salmonella-infected mice increased their phagocytic capacity when exposed to a hi...
Maria Imaculada Muniz-Junqueira; Aluízio Prata; Carlos Eduardo Tosta
From January 2007 until June 2008, 504 reptiles of four families and 57 species were examined for Salmonella by using cloacal or intestinal swabs. Salmonella was identified in 139 (28%) of the 504 animals tested. Of the 504 reptiles examined, 210 were captive and 294 were wild. Ninety-eight (47%) of the captive reptiles were shedding Salmonella at the time of sampling. In contrast, only 41 (14%) of the wild reptiles were shedding Salmonella. The higher prevalence of Salmonella in captive reptiles was statistically significant (Pchelonians or 48 wild southern water skinks (Eulamprus heatwolei). Our results suggest that some species of wild reptiles in Australia are not natural carriers of Salmonella and that diet and captivity may influence Salmonella excretion in other species. PMID:21269991
Scheelings, T Franciscus; Lightfoot, Dianne; Holz, Peter
A total of 50 Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana isolates, isolated from food, environmental and clinical samples, were analyzed for antibiotic resistance, presence of virulence genes, plasmids and plasmid replicon types. To assess the genetic diversity, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) fingerprinting and plasmid profiles were performed. All of the isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, and sulfisoxazole, and four isolates showed intermediate resistance to gentamicin or kanamycin. Eleven isolates, including representatives from each of the source types, were resistant to ampicillin. Four isolates from either clinical or environmental sources were resistant to tetracycline, while an additional 20 isolates showed intermediate resistance to this drug. Fourteen isolates, primarily from food sources, showed intermediate resistance to streptomycin. The S. Javiana isolates were screened by PCR for 17 virulence genes (spvB, spiA, pagC, msgA, invA, sipB, prgH, spaN, orgA, tolC, iroN, sitC, IpfC, sifA, sopB, cdtB, and pefA). All isolates were positive for nine to fourteen of these genes, but none were positive for pefA, spvB and lpfC, which are typically present on the Salmonella virulence plasmid. Seven of the virulence genes including cdtB were found in all 50 isolates, suggesting that S. Javiana from food and environmental sources had virulence similar to clinical isolates. Four clinical isolates and two food isolates carried one or more plasmids of approximately 30, 38, and 58 kb, with the 58 kb plasmids belonging to incompatibility group IncFIIA. Two clinical isolates carried IncI1 type mega plasmid (80 kb), and one clinical isolate carried plasmids of 4.5 and 7 kb. The PFGE profiles resulted 34 patterns in five clusters at a 90% similarity threshold. Our results indicate that S. Javiana isolates have a diverse clonal population among the clinical, food and environmental samples and this serotype possesses several virulent genes and plasmids that can contribute to the development of salmonellosis in human. This study provides data that support the potential transmission of S. Javiana virulence factors from food and environmental sources to cause infections in humans. PMID:23628778
Mezal, Ezat H; Stefanova, Rossina; Khan, Ashraf A
Foodborne salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial zoonotic diseases worldwide. Salmonella Typhimurium is the serovar most frequently isolated from persistently infected slaughter pigs in Europe. Circumvention of the host’s immune system by Salmonella might contribute to persistent infection of pigs. In the present study, we found that Salmonella Typhimurium strain 112910a specifically downregulated MHC II, but not MHC I, expression on porcine alveolar macrophages in a Salmonell...
Parys, Alexander; Boyen, Filip; Verbrugghe, Elin; Leyman, Bregje; Bram, Flahou; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank
Many of the most virulent strains of Salmonella enterica produce two distinct Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutases (SodCI and SodCII). The bacteriophage-encoded SodCI enzyme makes the greater contribution to Salmonella virulence. We have performed a detailed comparison of the functional, structural, and regulatory properties of the Salmonella SodC enzymes. Here we demonstrate that SodCI and SodCII differ with regard to specific activity, protease resistance, metal affinity, and peroxidative activity, ...
Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is an important food-borne pathogen, and chickens are a primary reservoir of human infection. While most knowledge about Salmonella pathogenesis is based on research conducted on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis is known to have pathobiology specific to chickens that impacts epidemiology in humans. Therefore, more information is needed about S. Enteritidis pathobiology in comparison to that of S. Typhimurium. We used transposon mu...
Shah, Devendra H.; Zhou, Xiaohui; Kim, Hye-young; Call, Douglas R.; Guard, Jean
Salmonella Gallinarum is a pathogen with a host range specific to poultry, while Salmonella Enteritidis is a broad host range pathogen that colonizes poultry sub-clinically but is a leading cause of gastrointestinal salmonellosis in humans and many other species. Despite recent advances in our understanding of the complex interplay between Salmonella and their hosts, the molecular basis of host range restriction and unique pathobiology of Gallinarum remain largely unknown. Type VI Secretion S...
Blondel, Carlos J.; Yang, Hee-jeong; Castro, Benjami?n; Chiang, Sebastia?n; Toro, Cecilia S.; Zaldi?var, Mercedes; Contreras, Ine?s; Andrews-polymenis, Helene L.; Santiviago, Carlos A.
Salmonella spp. are important zoonotic pathogens in humans and animals. A longitudinal study was conducted at the Iowa State University's campus (at the Dairy/Animal Science Education and Discovery Facility) to observe change in Enterobacteriaceae (specifically Salmonella) before and after the placement of dairy livestock. To our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluated environmental changes of Gram-negative organisms in a new dairy farm environment. Environmental samples were taken using drag swabs and immediately processed in the laboratory using phenotypic methods (replica plating, the BBL Crystal Identification System for enteric/nonfermenter organisms™, and plating on specialized media/broths). Genotypic methods were also used (BAX PCR™ and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis). Organisms identified as Salmonella were sent to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (Ames, IA) for confirmatory serotyping. Resistance to antibiotics (ampicillin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline) was determined by replica plating of Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella isolates using the guidelines of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System and Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The microflora of Enterobacteriaceae changed as cattle were introduced and as time progressed. Additionally, multidrug-resistant isolates began to appear immediately after cattle were introduced (multidrug-resistant isolates were rare prior to introduction of livestock). Variables such as temperature and humidity did not affect the proliferation of bacterial organisms. Seventeen Salmonella isolates were identified as Salmonella London and three isolates as Salmonella Montevideo. Based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-generated dendrograms, it is likely that 17 Salmonella London isolates and 3 Salmonella Montevideo isolates are clonal. PMID:21117985
Shipp, Ginger M; Dickson, James S
Poultry have been identified as one of the major sources of salmonellosis, with estimates ranging from 10 to 22% of total cases. Despite several advances in the industry and new performance standards, the incidence of salmonellosis in the population has not declined over the last 15 years. Salmonella is pervasive in a wide variety of foods, and thus, estimating its burden resulting from specific food categories has been challenging and plagued with uncertainty due to critical data gaps. The objective of this study was to conduct a year-long market survey (1,322 samples) to help bridge the data gaps on the contamination rates and levels of Salmonella on raw poultry by product type (i.e., breast, thighs, drums, wings, and split breast) and production method (conventional versus organic). The isolates recovered were serotyped and tested for antibiotic sensitivities. A PCR method was utilized for initial screening of samples after an overnight enrichment in tryptic soy broth. Three-tube most-probable-number (MPN) assays and anti-Salmonella immunomagnetic separation methods were utilized to determine the levels of Salmonella and aid with the recovery of Salmonella species, respectively. Eleven percent of the samples were positive for Salmonella. Significant differences in percent positive rates by product type included up to a 4-fold difference in percent positive rates between establishments, ranging from 7 to 31%. Of the samples positive for Salmonella species, 94% had <30 MPN/100 g. Production methods identified as organic or as not using antibiotics had significantly higher rates of recovery of Salmonella. On the other hand, all of the Salmonella isolates that were resistant to two or more antibiotics originated from conventional processing establishments where antibiotics were utilized. In addition, a significant proportion of isolates from conventionally processed products were serotypes clinically relevant to humans. PMID:24853509
Mazengia, E; Samadpour, M; Hill, H W; Greeson, K; Tenney, K; Liao, G; Huang, X; Meschke, J S
Full Text Available Food-borne human Salmonellosis caused by Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis has given a rise to many of economic losses in terms of both poultry and food industries. Salmonella has a great importance among the major bacterial pathogens of poultry. In Turkey as well as all over the world prevention of Salmonella infection can be achieved by good monitoring and screening programs. More recently immunological test systems are used for diagnosis based on the detection of surface antigens such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS, flagellin etc. As to its production some different methods are used practically. In this work, the lab-scale production of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis was achieved both in shake-flask and vibrofermentor cultures and a comparative optimization of the process yield and production kinetics was carried out. The microorganisms were cultivated in brain heart infusion broth, at 37°C for 5 h. Specific growth rates and doubling times for both vibrofermentör and shake-flask were estimated as 0.509 and 0.709 h-1 and 75.0 and 58.6 min, respectively. LPS and flagella were extracted from lyophilized cultures.
Pathogenicity islands are chromosomal clusters of pathogen-specific virulence genes often found at tRNA loci. We have determined the molecular genetic structure of SPI-3, a 17-kb pathogenicity island located at the selC tRNA locus of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The G+C content of SPI-3 (47.5%) differs from that of the Salmonella genome (52%), consistent with the notion that these sequences have been horizontally acquired. SPI-3 harbors 10 open reading frames organized in six transcriptional units, which include the previously described mgtCB operon encoding the macrophage survival protein MgtC and the Mg2+ transporter MgtB. Among the newly identified open reading frames, one exhibits sequence similarity to the ToxR regulatory protein of Vibrio cholerae and one is similar to the AIDA-I adhesin of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. The distribution of SPI-3 sequences varies among the salmonellae: the right end of the island, which harbors the virulence gene mgtC, is present in all eight subspecies of Salmonella; however, a four-gene cluster at the center of SPI-3 is found in only some of the subspecies and is bracketed by remnants of insertion sequences, suggesting a multistep process in the evolution of SPI-3 sequences. PMID:9922266
Blanc-Potard, A B; Solomon, F; Kayser, J; Groisman, E A
Salmonella are a common source of food- or water-borne infection and cause a wide range of clinical disease in human and animal hosts. Salmonella are relatively easy to culture and manipulate in a laboratory setting, and the infection of laboratory animals induces robust innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, immunologists have frequently turned to Salmonella infection models to expand understanding of host immunity to intestinal pathogens. In this review, I summarize current knowledge of innate and adaptive immunity to Salmonella and highlight features of this response that have emerged from recent studies. These include the heterogeneity of the antigen-specific T-cell response to intestinal infection, the prominence of microbial mechanisms to impede T- and B-cell responses, and the contribution of non-cognate pathways for elicitation of T-cell effector functions. Together, these different issues challenge an overly simplistic view of host-pathogen interaction during mucosal infection, but also allow deeper insight into the real-world dynamic of protective immunity to intestinal pathogens. PMID:24942689
McSorley, Stephen J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Salmonella AvrA gene is present in 80% of Salmonella enterica serovar strains. AvrA protein mimics the activities of some eukaryotic proteins and uses these activities to the pathogen's advantage by debilitating the target cells, such as intestinal epithelial cells. Therefore, it is important to understand how AvrA works in targeting eukaryotic signaling pathways in intestinal infection in vivo. In this study, we hypothesized that AvrA interacts with multiple stress pathways in eukaryotic cells to manipulate the host defense system. A whole genome approach combined with bioinformatics assays was used to investigate the in vivo genetic responses of the mouse colon to Salmonella with or without AvrA protein expression in the early stage (8 hours and late stage (4 days. Specifically, we examined the gene expression profiles in mouse colon as it responded to pathogenic Salmonella stain SL1344 (with AvrA expression or SB1117 (without AvrA expression. Results We identified the eukaryotic targets of AvrA and the cell signaling pathways regulated by AvrA in vivo. We found that pathways, such as mTOR, NF-kappaB, platelet-derived growth factors, vascular endothelial growth factor, oxidative phosphorylation, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling are specifically regulated by AvrA in vivo and are associated with inflammation, anti-apoptosis, and proliferation. At the early stage of Salmonella infection, AvrA mainly targeted pathways related to nuclear receptor signaling and oxidative phosphorylation. At the late stage of Salmonella infection, AvrA is associated with interferon-gamma responses. Conclusion Both early and late phases of the host response exhibit remarkable specificity for the AvrA+ Salmonella. Our studies provide new insights into the eukaryotic molecular cascade that combats Salmonella-associated intestinal infection in vivo.
Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to know the seroprevalence of Salmonella and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG infection in six model breeder poultry farms (MBPFs located at kalapara Upazilla under Patuakhali district, Bangladesh. A total of 364 sera samples were collected from chickens belonging to six MBPFs. All sera samples were examined by rapid serum plate agglutination (SPA test using commercial Salmonella (SP and MG antigens to determine the presence of Salmonella and MG specific antibodies in different age and sex of birds belonging to MBPFs. In addition to that prevalence of Salmonella and Mycoplasma infection in MBPFs during rainy and winter seasons were also recorded. The results of serological tests were analyzed statistically. The overall prevalence of Salmonella and Mycoplasma infection in six MBPFs were recorded as 23.46% and 46.88% respectively. Prevalence of salmonella was recorded highest in rainy season (25.00% than the winter season (21.88. On the contrary, Mycoplasma infection was recorded highest in winter season (61.45% than the rainy season (51.74%. Both Salmonella and Mycoplasma infections were recorded highest in female birds (24.10% than the male birds (15.62%. The prevalence of MG infection decreased with the increase of age. MG infection recorded highest 71.42% at 18 weeks of age and lowest 50% at 22 weeks of age. On the other hand, the prevalence Salmonella infection was increased with the increase age. Salmonella infection was found highest 30.76% at 39 weeks of age and lowest 13.33% at 32 weeks of age. It was concluded from the present study that both Salmonella and MG infection were significantly present in all six MBPFs and SPA test could be used as a tool for quick detection of Salmonella and MG infection.
Little is known about the causes of enteric fever in Asia. Most cases are believed to be caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and the remainder by S. Paratyphi A. We compared their incidences by using standardized methods from population-based studies in China, Indonesia, India, and Pakistan.
The Ames/Salmonella assay, developed by Professor Bruce Ames at the University of California, Berkeley, is a rapid and sensitive assay for detecting mutagenicity of various chemical compounds (Maron and Ames, 1983). It is a widely accepted short-term assay for detecting chemicals that induce mutations in the histidine (his) gene of Salmonella typhimurium. This is a reverse mutation assay that detects the mutational reversion of his-dependent Salmonella to the his-independent counterpart. Thereby, mutagenic compounds will increase the frequency of occurrence of his-independent bacterial colonies. The assay utilizes the specific genetically constructed strains of bacteria either with or without mammalian metabolic activation enzymes (S9), Aroclor induced rat liver homogenate to assess the mutagenicity of different compounds. In this study, we will use the Ames/Salmonella assay to investigate the mutagenicity of Hexanitrostilbene (HNS) from both Bofors and Pantex, and Dipicryethane (DPE).
Wu, R; Felton, J
The identification of Salmonella spp. from poultry meat was studied by comparing bacterial detection using the Gene-Trak colorimetric hybridization method, a PCR amplification kit and an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and these methods were compared with the conventional methodology proposed by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) for detection of Salmonella in food samples. Forty positive and negative samples were studied. The three methods yielded similar results with levels of Salmonella greater than 10 CFU per sample, even when the samples were highly contaminated with competing bacteria. In contrast, 20 CFU of seed inoculum per sample was the lowest level of Salmonella detectable with all three methods and the standard culture method. The detection limits of the PCR and ELISA assays were 5 CFU/g after enrichment at 37 deg. C for 6 and 9 hours, respectively. Compared with conventional bacteriology, all three methods here demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for Salmonella. (author)
Antipathogenic activity of probiotics against Salmonella Typhimurium and Clostridium difficile in anaerobic batch culture systems: is it due to synergies in probiotic mixtures or the specificity of single strains?
Probiotics are currently being investigated for prevention of infections caused by enteric pathogens. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of three single probiotics: Lactobacillus casei NCIMB 30185 (PXN 37), Lactobacillus acidophilus NCIMB 30184 (PXN 35), Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 30180 (PXN 25) and a probiotic mixture containing the above strains plus twelve other strains belonging to the Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Lactococcus, Streptococcus and Bacillus genera on the survival of Salmonella Typhimurium and Clostridium difficile using pH-controlled anaerobic batch cultures containing mixed faecal bacteria. Changes in relevant bacterial groups and effects of probiotic addition on survival of the two pathogens were assessed over 24 h. Quantitative analysis of bacterial populations revealed that there was a significant increase in lactobacilli and/or bifidobacteria numbers, depending on probiotic addition, compared with the control (no added probiotic). There was also a significant reduction in S. Typhimurium and C. difficile numbers in the presence of certain probiotics compared with controls. Of the probiotic treatments, two single strains namely L. casei NCIMB 30185 (PXN 37), and B. breve NCIMB 30180 (PXN 25) were the most potent in reducing the numbers of S. Typhimurium and C. difficile. In addition, the supplementation with probiotics into the systems influenced some fermentations parameters. Acetate was found in the largest concentrations in all vessels and lactate and formate were generally detected in higher amounts in vessels with probiotic addition compared to controls. PMID:24091275
Tejero-Sariñena, Sandra; Barlow, Janine; Costabile, Adele; Gibson, Glenn R; Rowland, Ian
...Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0253] Animal Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella Microorganisms...Agency) is revoking an advisory opinion on animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms...guide (CPG) on Salmonella in food for animals. DATES: This rule is effective...
...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Salmonella Choleraesuis Bacterin. 113.122 Section 113.122...Bacterial Products Â§ 113.122 Salmonella Choleraesuis Bacterin. Salmonella Choleraesuis Bacterin shall be prepared from a...
...Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production...guidance entitled ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production...FDA's final rule ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During...
...Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production...industry entitled ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production...FDA's final rule ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During...
The spontaneous rate of G·C?A·T mutations and a hotspot T·A?G·C transversion are known to increase with the frequency of transcription—increases that have been ascribed primarily to processes that affect only these specific mutations. To investigate how transcription induces other spontaneous point mutations, we tested for its effects in repair-proficient Salmonella enterica using reversion assays of chromosomally inserted alleles. Our results indicate that transcription increases r...
Ellis Hudson, Richard; Bergthorsson, Ulfar; Ochman, Howard
We describe the development of a spotted array for the delineation of the most common 14 disease causing Salmonella serovars in the United States. Our array consists of 414 70mers targeting core genes of S. enterica, subspecies I specific genes, fimbrial genes, pathogenicity islands, Gifsy elements and other variable genes. Using this array we were able to identify a unique gene presence/absence profile for each of the targeted serovar which was used as the serovar differentiating criteria. B...
The innate immune system provides the first line of defense against invading microorganisms by inducing a variety of inflammatory and antimicrobial responses. These responses are particularly important in the gastrointestinal tract, where the needs for efficient nutrient uptake and host defense collide. Many pathogens have evolved to specifically colonize the intestine, causing millions of cases of enteric infections a year. A paradigm of an enteric pathogen is Salmonella enterica, a gram-neg...
Broz, Petr; Ohlson, Maikke B.; Monack, Denise M.
Selective autophagy can be mediated via receptor molecules that link specific cargoes to the autophagosomal membranes decorated by ubiquitin-like microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) modifiers. Although several autophagy receptors have been identified, little is known about mechanisms controlling their functions in vivo. In this work, we found that phosphorylation of an autophagy receptor, optineurin, promoted selective autophagy of ubiquitin-coated cytosolic Salmonella enterica...
The Mrr protein of Escherichia coli K12 is a cryptic type IV restriction endonuclease with specificity for methylated DNA. Recently it was discovered that endogenous activation of E. coli Mrr could be triggered by high pressure stress, resulting in the generation of double strand breaks in the host chromosome and concomitant induction of the SOS response. In this report we focused on Mrr activity of Salmonella Typhimurium LT2, and although we surprisingly found no evidence of high pressure induced activation, a large number of constitutively activated Mrr mutants could be isolated when the mrr gene was routinely cloned in an expression vector. Analysis of several spontaneous mutants revealed different single mutations that rendered the Mrr protein constitutively active. Moreover, a spontaneous S. Typhimurium mutant could be isolated that displayed an increased basal SOS induction because of a point mutation in the chromosomal mrr gene. Based on these findings the physiological role of Mrr in the cell is discussed. PMID:18178154
Aertsen, Abram; Tesfazgi Mebrhatu, Mehari; Michiels, Chris W
The aim of this study was to follow contamination of ready to eat milk and meat products with Salmonella spp. by using the StepOne real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Classical microbiological methods for detection of foodborne bacteria involve the use of pre-enrichment and/or specific enrichment, following isolation of bacteria in solid media and the final confirmation by biochemical and/or serological tests. We used the PrepSEQ Rapid Spin Sample Preparation Kit for isolation of DNA and MicroSEQ® Salmonella spp. Detection Kit for pursuance of the real-time PCR (Applied Biosystems). In samples without incubation we detected strain of Salmonella sp. in 5 out of 25 samples (swabs), as well as in the internal positive control (IPC), which was positive in all samples. This StepOne real-time PCR assay is extremely useful for any laboratory equipped by real-time PCR. It is a fast, reproducible, simple, specific and sensitive way to detect nucleic acids, which could be used in clinical diagnostic tests in the future. Our results indicated that real-time PCR assay developed in this study could sensitively detect Salmonella spp. in ready-to-eat food. This could prevent infection caused by Salmonella, and also could benefit food manufacturing companies by extending their product's shelf-life as well as saving the cost of warehousing their food products while awaiting pathogen testing results. PMID:21879831
Pochop, Jaroslav; Ka?ániová, Miroslava; Hleba, Lukáš; Lejková, Jadža; Fikselová, Martina; Kunová, Simona; Kluz, Maciej
Chronic infections caused by persistent pathogens represent an important health problem. Here, we establish a simple practical mouse Salmonella infection model for identifying bacterial maintenance functions that are essential for persistency. In this model, a substantial fraction of Salmonella survived even several days of treatment with a potent fluoroquinolone antibiotic indicating stringency of the model. Evaluation of twelve metabolic defects revealed dramatically different requirements for Salmonella during persistency as compared to acute infections. Disrupted synthesis of unsaturated/cyclopropane fatty acids was the only defect that resulted in rapid Salmonella clearance suggesting that this pathway might contain suitable targets for antimicrobial chemotherapy of chronic infection. PMID:22911873
Barat, Somedutta; Steeb, Benjamin; Mazé, Alain; Bumann, Dirk
Full Text Available Salmonella is an important pathogen for both humans andanimals. Although the organism has been intensively studiedduring the last century, much remains to be learned about thispathogen. The complicated nomenclature system of Salmonellahas long been a subject of discussion. In 2005, “Salmonellaenterica” finally gained official approval as the type species ofthe genus Salmonella. The genus Salmonella also contains thespecies “Salmonella bongori” in addition to a new species,“Salmonella subterranean”, which was recognized in 2005.Unlike other bacterial genera, Salmonella organisms are differentiatedby serotyping analysis. Presently, new serotypes(serovars are still being discovered each year, adding to thecomplexity of this large bacterial population. Despite the conservedgenetic background, molecular analysis has indicatedsuccessful evolution of the Salmonella genome in response tothe environment, particularly to the selective pressure from antimicrobial agents.Mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella are similar to the complex systemreported for other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. On the other hand, resistanceto extended-spectrum cephalosporins is more likely to be mediated by blaCTX-M or ampCgenes that are carried on plasmids. Plasmid-borne genes have increased efficacy in the disseminationof resistance determinants, resulting in increased antimicrobial resistance. Toprovide clinicians with up-to-date information on this important pathogen, the evolvingnomenclature and clinical importance of Salmonella are reviewed.
Current commercial PCRs tests for identifying Salmonella target genes unique to this genus. However, there are two species, six subspecies, and over 2,500 different Salmonella serovars, and not all are equal in their significance to public health. For example, finding S. enterica subspecies IIIa Arizona on a table egg layer farm is insignificant compared to the isolation of S. enterica subspecies I serovar Enteritidis, the leading cause of salmonellosis linked to the consumption of table eggs. Serovars are identified based on antigenic differences in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)(O antigen) and flagellin (H1 and H2 antigens). These antigenic differences are the outward appearance of the diversity of genes and gene alleles associated with this phenotype. We have developed an allelotyping, multiplex PCR that keys on genetic differences between four major S. enterica subspecies I serovars found in poultry and associated with significant human disease in the US. The PCR primer pairs were targeted to key genes or sequences unique to a specific Salmonella serovar and designed to produce an amplicon with size specific for that gene or allele. Salmonella serovar is assigned to an isolate based on the combination of PCR test results for specific LPS and flagellin gene alleles. The multiplex PCRs described in this article are specific for the detection of S. enterica subspecies I serovars Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, and Typhimurium. Here we demonstrate how to use the multiplex PCRs to identify serovar for a Salmonella isolate.
Maurer, John J.; Lee, Margie D.; Cheng, Ying; Pedroso, Adriana
Recently a chromosomal locus possibly specific for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 has been reported that contains a multiple antibiotic resistance gene cluster. Evidence is provided that Salmonella enterica serovar Agona strains isolated from poultry harbor a similar gene cluster including the newly described floR gene, conferring cross-resistance to chloramphenicol and florfenicol.
Cloeckaert, Axel; Sidi Boumedine, Karim; Flaujac, Geraldine; Imberechts, Hein; D Hooghe, Inge; Chaslus-dancla, Elisabeth
Purpose: Rapid development of nanotechnology has recently brought significant attention to the extraordinary biological features of nanomaterials. The objective of the present Âinvestigation was to evaluate morphological characteristics of the assembles of gold and platinum nanoparticles (nano-Au and nano-Pt respectively), with Salmonella Enteritidis (Gram-negative) and Listeria monocytogenes (Gram-positive), to reveal possibilities of constructing bacteria-nanoparticle vehicles. Methods: Hydrocolloids of nano-Au or nano-Pt were added to two bacteria suspensions in the following order: nano-Au + Salmonella Enteritidis; nano-Au + Listeria monocytogenes; nano-Pt + Salmonella Enteritidis; nano-Pt + Listeria monocytogenes. Samples were inspected by transmission electron microscope. Results: Visualization of morphological interaction between nano-Au and Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes, showed that nano-Au were aggregated within flagella or biofilm network and did not penetrate the bacterialcell. The analysis of morphological effects of interaction of nano-Pt with bacteria revealed that nano-Pt entered cells of Listeria monocytogenes and were removed from the cells. In the case of Salmonella Enteritidis, nano-Pt were seen inside bacteria cells, probably bound to DNA and partly left bacterial cells. After washing and centrifugation, some of the nano-Pt-DNA complexes were observed within Salmonella Enteritidis. Conclusion: The results indicate that the bacteria could be used as a vehicle to deliver nano-Pt to specific points in the body.
Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, AndrÃ©
Determination of Salmonella enterica serotypes is crucial for epidemiological studies. Salmonella serotypes are defined on the basis of somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens, both of which are present in the cell wall of Salmonella. The aim of this study was to compare the results of molecular serotyping obtained by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) with conventional serotyping results. Conventional serotyping has been performed in Ministry of Health Refik Saydam Hygiene Center as part of the National Laboratory of Enteric Pathogenes Surveillance Network (UEPLA). A total of 100 Salmonella strains, thay comprise 14 different serotypes by the reference laboratory have been investigated by using specific primers for Salmonella serogroups (A, B, C1, D and E) and Vi antigen gene clusters via mPCR method. Serotypes have been determined by applying four sequential mPCR targeting the fliC and fliB genes encoding the H1 antigens (H1: a, -b, -d, -g,m, -i, -r, -z10) and H2 antigen complexes (H2: 1,2, -1,5, -1,6, -1,7 and H: enx, enz15). The results of mPCR showed 100% consistency with the serogroups determined by the conventional method. Both sensitivity and specificity of mPCR according to each serogroups were found to be 100%. Results of serotyping that have been determined with the molecular antigenic formula showed accurate results for 2 (2%), probable results for 91 (91%) and incomplete formula for 7 (7%) isolates. Molecular serotyping results of the most common isolated Salmonella serotypes of which S.Enteritidis, S.Typhimurium and S.Paratyphi from clinical microbiology laboratories have been determined as probable results. Antigenic formula of these serotypes that detected using mPCR were considered to be consistent with the results of conventional serotyping when interpreted with epidemiologic data. The sensitivity of mPCR to identify S.Typhi which have been determined as accurate result with molecular serotyping was 100% for serogrouping and serotyping. Multiplex PCR is cheaper and faster for the serotyping of strains isolated in clinical laboratories, compared to the conventional methods. However since it is not possible to detect all serotypes by using molecular typing, this technique can not be currently considered as an alternative for conventional serotyping. Nevertheless molecular typing could be beneficial in providing the preliminary results earlier. PMID:24237438
Dalyan Cilo, Burcu; Karakeçili, Faruk; Güle?en, Revasiye; Levent, Belk?s; Ozak?n, Cüneyt; Gediko?lu, Suna
Full Text Available Accurate and fast detection of harmful Salmonella is a major concern of food safety. Common Salmonella serotypes responsible for human associated foodborne outbreaks are S. Enteritidis, S. Hadar, S. Heidelberg, and S. Typhimurium are also commonly isolated from poultry. Serology is commonly used to monitor disease in poultry, therefore application of Salmonella serotype-specific test will have added value in Salmonella surveillance or monitoring vaccine efficacy. Recombinant flagellins were purified to be used as antigens in an ELISA. In this study, an ELISA was developed for the serological detection of S. Enteritidis. Once optimized, 500 ng of purified recombinant S. Enteritidis flagellin and a 1:64 dilution were determined to be optimal for testing sera. A negative baseline cutoff was calculated to be an optical density (OD of 0.35. All sera from birds with history of S. Enteritidis exposure tested positive and all sera from chickens with no exposure tested negative to this Salmonella serotype. Current ELISA for serological detection of Salmonella suffers from cross reactivity inherent in lipopolysaccharide (LPS or whole cell antigen based serological tests. This new ELISA eliminates common cross reactivity by focusing specifically on the flagellins of the Salmonella serotypes common in poultry and associated with foodborne outbreaks.
Charles L. Hofacre
For microbial pathogens, phylogeographic differentiation seems to be relatively common. However, the neutral population structure of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi reflects the continued existence of ubiquitous haplotypes over millennia. In contrast, clinical use of fluoroquinolones has yielded at least 15 independent gyrA mutations within a decade and stimulated clonal expansion of haplotype H58 in Asia and Africa. Yet, antibiotic-sensitive strains and haplotypes other than H58 still pers...
For microbial pathogens, phylogeographic differentiation seems to be relatively common. However, the neutral population structure of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi reflects the continued existence of ubiquitous haplotypes over millennia. In contrast, clinical use of fluoroquinolones has yielded at least 15 independent gyrA mutations within a decade and stimulated clonal expansion of haplotype H58 in Asia and Africa. Yet, antibiotic-sensitive strains and haplotypes other than H58 still pers...
Flagella are cell surface appendages involved in a number of bacterial behaviors, such as motility, biofilm formation, and chemotaxis. Despite these important functions, flagella can pose a liability to a bacterium when serving as potent immunogens resulting in the stimulation of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Previous work showing appendage overexpression, referred to as attenuating gene expression (AGE), was found to enfeeble wild-type Salmonella. Thus, this approach was adapted to...
This study evaluates the usefulness of spatio-temporal statistical tools to detect outbreaks using routine surveillance data where limited epidemiological information is available. A dataset from 2002 to 2007 containing information regarding date, origin, source and serotype of 29 586 Salmonella isolates from Thailand was analysed. Data was grouped into human and non-human categories and the analysis was performed for the top five occurring serovars for each year of the study period. A total 91 human and 39 non-human significant spatio-temporal clusters were observed, accounting for 11% and 16% of the isolates, respectively. Serovar-specific associations between human and non-human clusters were also evaluated. Results show that these statistical tools can provide information for use in outbreak prevention and detection, in countries where only limited data is available. Moreover, it is suggested that monitoring non-human reservoirs can be relevant in predicting future Salmonella human cases.
Coutinho Calado Domingues, Ana Rita; Vieira, Antonio
This study evaluates the usefulness of spatio-temporal statistical tools to detect outbreaks using routine surveillance data where limited epidemiological information is available. A dataset from 2002 to 2007 containing information regarding date, origin, source and serotype of 29,586 Salmonella isolates from Thailand was analysed. Data was grouped into human and non-human categories and the analysis was performed for the top five occurring serovars for each year of the study period. A total 91 human and 39 non-human significant spatio-temporal clusters were observed, accounting for 11% and 16% of the isolates, respectively. Serovar-specific associations between human and non-human clusters were also evaluated. Results show that these statistical tools can provide information for use in outbreak prevention and detection, in countries where only limited data is available. Moreover, it is suggested that monitoring non-human reservoirs can be relevant in predicting future Salmonella human cases. PMID:24103334
Domingues, A R; Vieira, A R; Hendriksen, R S; Pulsrikarn, C; Aarestrup, F M
Hemagglutinating properties of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolated from different sources Propriedades hemaglutinantes de Salmonella enterica sorotipo Enteritidis isoladas de diferentes fontes
Full Text Available Twenty-five strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolated from different sources were examined for hemagglutinating activity. Bacteria cultured in different media induced hemagglutination of human erythrocytes, but no reaction was observed with erythrocytes from other animal species. The hemagglutinating expression activity was better for cultures on CFA agar at 37ºC than other conditions examined. The hemagglutination was inhibited by D-mannose, D-mannitol, melibiose, D-raffinose, L-rhamnose and sucrose. The absence of cell-surface appendages in electron microscope examinations suggested a nonfimbrial hemagglutinin. The data suggest that Salmonella Enteritidis produces nonfimbrial mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin, specific for human erythrocytes, which could be extracted in soluble form.Foram estudadas 25 amostras de Salmonella enterica sorotipo Enteritidis isoladas de diferentes fontes, em testes de hemaglutinação. Amostras bacterianas cultivadas em diferentes meios de cultura causavam hemaglutinação na presença de hemácias humanas, entretanto, não foi observada reação com hemácias de outras espécies. A expressão da atividade hemaglutinante foi melhor em ágar CFA a 37ºC. A hemaglutinação foi inibida por D-manose, D-manitol, melibiose, D-rafinose, L-ramnose e sacarose. A análise ultraestrutural não revelou a presença de estruturas filamentosas na superfície bacteriana, sugerindo que a hemaglutinina de Salmonella Enteritidis seja de natureza não fimbrial. Os dados sugerem que Salmonella Enteritidis produz uma hemaglutinina não fimbrial manose-sensível, específica para hemácias humanas, que pode ser extraída na forma solúvel.
Jane M.G. Mikcha
In Taiwan, despite a substantial decline of Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis infections, strains resistant to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone persist. A self-transferable blaCMY-2-harboring IncI1 plasmid was identified in S. enterica serotypes Choleraesuis, Typhimurium, Agona, and Enteritidis and contributed to the overall increase of ceftriaxone resistance in salmonellae.
Su, Lin-hui; Teng, Wen-shin; Chen, Chyi-liang; Lee, Hao-yuan; Li, Hsin-chieh; Wu, Tsu-lan; Chiu, Cheng-hsun
We report the prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella strains resistant to ciprofloxacin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Taiwan from January to May 2004. All isolates resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins carried blaCMY-2, and all ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis isolates were genetically related.
Yan, Jing-jou; Chiou, Chien-shun; Lauderdale, Tsai-ling Yang; Tsai, Shu-huei; Wu, Jiunn-jong
In Taiwan, despite a substantial decline of Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis infections, strains resistant to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone persist. A self-transferable bla(CMY-2)-harboring IncI1 plasmid was identified in S. enterica serotypes Choleraesuis, Typhimurium, Agona, and Enteritidis and contributed to the overall increase of ceftriaxone resistance in salmonellae. PMID:21749777
Su, Lin-Hui; Teng, Wen-Shin; Chen, Chyi-Liang; Lee, Hao-Yuan; Li, Hsin-Chieh; Wu, Tsu-Lan; Chiu, Chen-Hsun
Salmonella bacteria cause millions of infections and thousands of deaths every year. This pathogen has an unusually broad host range including humans, animals, and even plants. During infection, Salmonella expresses a variety of virulence factors and effectors that are delivered into the host cell triggering cellular responses through protein–protein interactions (PPIs) with host cell proteins which make the pathogen’s invasion and replication possible. To speed up proteomic efforts in elucidating Salmonella–host interactomes, we carried out a survey of the currently published Salmonella–host PPI. Such a list can serve as the gold standard for computational models aimed at predicting Salmonella–host interactomes through integration of large-scale biological data sources. Manual literature and database search of >2200 journal articles and >100 databases resulted in a gold standard list of currently 62 PPI, including primarily interactions of Salmonella proteins with human and mouse proteins. Only six of these interactions were directly retrievable from PPI databases and 16 were highlighted in databases featuring literature extracts. Thus, the literature survey resulted in the most complete interactome available to date for Salmonella. Pathway analysis using Ingenuity and Broad Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) software revealed among general pathways such as MAPK signaling in particular those related to cell death as well as cell morphology, turnover, and interactions, in addition to response to not only Salmonella but also other pathogenic – viral and bacterial – infections. The list of interactions is available at http://www.shiprec.org/indicationslist.htm
Schleker, Sylvia; Sun, Jingchun; Raghavan, Balachandran; Srnec, Matthew; Muller, Nicole; Koepfinger, Mary; Murthy, Leelavati; Zhao, Zhongming; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith
Chronic infections caused by persistent pathogens represent an important health problem. Here, we establish a simple practical mouse Salmonella infection model for identifying bacterial maintenance functions that are essential for persistency. In this model, a substantial fraction of Salmonella survived even several days of treatment with a potent fluoroquinolone antibiotic indicating stringency of the model. Evaluation of twelve metabolic defects revealed dramatically different requirements ...
Barat, Somedutta; Steeb, Benjamin; Maze?, Alain; Bumann, Dirk
Salmonella serovars contain a wide variety of putative fimbrial systems that may contribute to colonization of specific niches. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is the etiologic agent of typhoid fever and is a pathogen specific to humans. In a previous study, we identified a gene, STY3920 (stgC), encoding the predicted usher of the stg fimbrial operon, that was expressed by serovar Typhi during infection of human macrophages. The stg genes are located in the glmS-pstS intergenic region in se...
Forest, Chantal; Faucher, Se?bastien P.; Poirier, Katherine; Houle, Se?bastien; Dozois, Charles M.; Daigle, France
Salmonella infections continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality throughout the world. However, recent discoveries and new paradigms promise to lead to novel strategies to diagnose, treat, and prevent Salmonella infections. This review provides an update of the Salmonella field based on oral presentations given at the recent 3rd ASM Conference on Salmonella: Biology, Pathogenesis and Prevention.
Andrews-polymenis, Helene L.; Ba?umler, Andreas J.; Mccormick, Beth A.; Fang, Ferric C.
Non-typhoidal salmonella bacteremia may result in extra gastrointestinallocalization of infection. Aortitis due to non-typhoidal salmonella wasreported to be the cause of 38-42% of all infected abdominal aortitis.Underlying atherosclerosis is a frequent site for salmonella aortitis. Wedescribe here a case of possible salmonella aortitis in a renal transplantpatient. (author)
Full Text Available Animals, feed, meat and meat products are often transported across long distances, being an important part of international trade, which enables a dissemination of salmonella, including even of some resistant strains. Pigs are animals which are difficult to manipulate because of their temperament, build, sharp teeth, irritability, good sense of smell, bad sight and their sensitivity to stress. Animals coming from different farms should be separated in stock yards to prevent both contamination with pathogens such as salmonella and their irritation and aggressiveness caused by contacts with other pigs. These animals are usually a significant reservoir of salmonella which are 'inside' the gastrointestinal tract and gut associated lymph tissue. In contrast to our country, in the EU, even countries which have always had low salmonella prevalence, e.g. Finland, have a control program. The program has to be based on a guarantee that all relevant factors will participate in the prevention of salmonella contamination.
Whereas the majority of pathogenic Salmonella serovars are capable of infecting many different animal species, typically producing a self-limited gastroenteritis, serovars with narrow host-specificity exhibit increased virulence and their infections frequently result in fatal systemic diseases. In our study, a genetic and functional analysis of the mannose-specific type 1 fimbrial adhesin FimH from a variety of serovars of Salmonella enterica revealed that specific mutant variants of FimH are common in host-adapted (systemically invasive) serovars. We have found that while the low-binding shear-dependent phenotype of the adhesin is preserved in broad host-range (usually systemically non-invasive) Salmonella, the majority of host-adapted serovars express FimH variants with one of two alternative phenotypes: a significantly increased binding to mannose (as in S. Typhi, S. Paratyphi C, S. Dublin and some isolates of S. Choleraesuis), or complete loss of the mannose-binding activity (as in S. Paratyphi B, S. Choleraesuis and S. Gallinarum). The functional diversification of FimH in host-adapted Salmonella results from recently acquired structural mutations. Many of the mutations are of a convergent nature indicative of strong positive selection. The high-binding phenotype of FimH that leads to increased bacterial adhesiveness to and invasiveness of epithelial cells and macrophages usually precedes acquisition of the non-binding phenotype. Collectively these observations suggest that activation or inactivation of mannose-specific adhesive properties in different systemically invasive serovars of Salmonella reflects their dynamic trajectories of adaptation to a life style in specific hosts. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that point mutations are the target of positive selection and, in addition to horizontal gene transfer and genome degradation events, can contribute to the differential pathoadaptive evolution of Salmonella.
Kisiela, Dagmara I.; Chattopadhyay, Sujay; Libby, Stephen J.; Karlinsey, Joyce E.; Fang, Ferric C.; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Kramer, Jeremy J.; Beskhlebnaya, Viktoriya; Samadpour, Mansour; Grzymajlo, Krzysztof; Ugorski, Maciej; Lankau, Emily W.; Mackie, Roderick I.; Clegg, Steven; Sokurenko, Evgeni V.
Whereas the majority of pathogenic Salmonella serovars are capable of infecting many different animal species, typically producing a self-limited gastroenteritis, serovars with narrow host-specificity exhibit increased virulence and their infections frequently result in fatal systemic diseases. In our study, a genetic and functional analysis of the mannose-specific type 1 fimbrial adhesin FimH from a variety of serovars of Salmonella enterica revealed that specific mutant variants of FimH are common in host-adapted (systemically invasive) serovars. We have found that while the low-binding shear-dependent phenotype of the adhesin is preserved in broad host-range (usually systemically non-invasive) Salmonella, the majority of host-adapted serovars express FimH variants with one of two alternative phenotypes: a significantly increased binding to mannose (as in S. Typhi, S. Paratyphi C, S. Dublin and some isolates of S. Choleraesuis), or complete loss of the mannose-binding activity (as in S. Paratyphi B, S. Choleraesuis and S. Gallinarum). The functional diversification of FimH in host-adapted Salmonella results from recently acquired structural mutations. Many of the mutations are of a convergent nature indicative of strong positive selection. The high-binding phenotype of FimH that leads to increased bacterial adhesiveness to and invasiveness of epithelial cells and macrophages usually precedes acquisition of the non-binding phenotype. Collectively these observations suggest that activation or inactivation of mannose-specific adhesive properties in different systemically invasive serovars of Salmonella reflects their dynamic trajectories of adaptation to a life style in specific hosts. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that point mutations are the target of positive selection and, in addition to horizontal gene transfer and genome degradation events, can contribute to the differential pathoadaptive evolution of Salmonella. PMID:22685400
Kisiela, Dagmara I; Chattopadhyay, Sujay; Libby, Stephen J; Karlinsey, Joyce E; Fang, Ferric C; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Kramer, Jeremy J; Beskhlebnaya, Viktoriya; Samadpour, Mansour; Grzymajlo, Krzysztof; Ugorski, Maciej; Lankau, Emily W; Mackie, Roderick I; Clegg, Steven; Sokurenko, Evgeni V
Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate assessment of probiotics with targeted anti-Salmonella activity requires suitable models accounting for both, microbe-microbe and host-microbe interactions in gut environments. Here we report the combination of two original in vitro intestinal models closely mimicking the complex in vivo conditions of the large intestine. Effluents from continuous in vitro three-stage fermentation colonic models of Salmonella Typhimurium infection inoculated with immobilized child microbiota and Salmonella were directly applied to confluent mucus-secreting HT29-MTX cell layers. The effects of Salmonella, addition of two bacteriocinogenic strains, Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67 (thermophilicin B67 and Escherichia coli L1000 (microcin B17, and inulin were tested on Salmonella growth and interactions with epithelial cell layers. Salmonella adhesion and invasion were investigated and epithelial integrity assessed by transepithelial electrical resistance (TER measurements and confocal microscopy observation. Data from complex effluents were compared with pure Salmonella cultures. Results Salmonella in effluents of all reactors of the colonic fermentation model stabilized at mean values of 5.3 ± 0.8 log10 cfu/ml effluent. Invasion of cell-associated Salmonella was up to 50-fold lower in complex reactor samples compared to pure Salmonella cultures. It further depended on environmental factors, with 0.2 ± 0.1% being measured with proximal, 0.6 ± 0.2% with transverse and 1.3 ± 0.7% with distal reactor effluents, accompanied by a similar high decrease of TER across cell monolayers (minus 45% and disruption of tight junctions. Subsequent addition of E. coli L1000 stimulated Salmonella growth (6.4 ± 0.6 log10 cfu/ml effluent of all 3 reactors and further decreased TER, but led to 10-fold decreased invasion efficiency when tested with distal reactor samples. In contrast, presence of B. thermophilum RBL67 revealed a protective effect on epithelial integrity compared to previous E. coli L1000 periods, as reflected by a significant mean increase of TER by 58% in all reactors. Inulin addition enhanced Salmonella growth and invasion when tested with distal and proximal reactor samples, respectively, but induced a limited decrease of TER (minus 18% in all reactors. Conclusions Our results highlight the benefits of combining suitable cellular and colonic fermentation models to assess strain-specific first-level host protection properties of probiotics during Salmonella infection, providing an efficient system biology tool for preclinical development of new antimicrobials.
Colanic acid (CA) is a common exopolysaccharide produced by many genera in the Enterobacteriaceae. It is critical for biofilm formation on HEp-2 cells and on chicken intestinal tissue by Salmonella. In this study, we generated different CA synthesis gene mutants and evaluated the immune responses induced by these mutants. One of these mutations, ?(wza-wcaM)8, which deleted the whole operon for CA synthesis, was introduced into two Salmonella vaccine strains attenuated by auxotrophic traits or by the regulated delayed attenuation strategy (RDAS). The mice immunized with the auxotrophic Salmonella vaccine strain with the deletion mutation ?(wza-wcaM)8 developed higher vaginal IgA titers against the heterologous protective antigen and higher levels of antigen-specific IgA secretion cells in lungs. In Salmonella vaccine strains with RDAS, the strain with the ?(wza-wcaM)8 mutation resulted in higher levels of protective antigen production during in vitro growth. Mice immunized with this strain developed higher serum IgG and mucosal IgA antibody responses at 2 weeks. This strain also resulted in better gamma interferon (IFN-?) responses than the strain without this deletion at doses of 10(8) and 10(9) CFU. Thus, the mutation ?(wza-wcaM)8 will be included in various recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine (RASV) strains with RDAS derived from Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi to induce protective immunity against bacterial pathogens. PMID:23774599
Wang, Shifeng; Shi, Huoying; Li, Yuhua; Shi, Zhaoxing; Zhang, Xin; Baek, Chang-Ho; Mothershead, Tabor; Curtiss, Roy
We report our investigation of the functions of PagN in Salmonella pathogenesis and its potential as a vaccine candidate. Further investigation conducted in this study indicates that the outer membrane protein PagN is important for Salmonella adhesion/invasion of epithelial cells as well as bacterial virulence. When pagN was deleted from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), the adhesion and invasion of HT-29 epithelial cells was significantly decreased compared with the wild type strain. Mice infected with the pagN mutant strain exhibited less pathological signs in the intestine and survived longer than the wild-type-infected mice. PagN is widely distributed and conserved among clinical isolates of different Salmonella serovars, making PagN a potential vaccine candidate for Salmonella infection. To elucidate the potential of PagN as a vaccine, we expressed and purified recombinant PagN (rPagN). When rPagN was tested in mice, it provided significant protection against Salmonella infection in vivo. In vitro, anti-PagN serum enhanced clearance of Salmonella, indicating a contribution of PagN-specific antibodies to the killing process. This correlates well with the observed protection of mice immunized with rPagN. Our preliminary results indicate more functions of PagN in S. Typhimurium virulence as well as its potential as a protective vaccine. PMID:23485513
Yang, Youjun; Wan, Cuixiang; Xu, Hengyi; Aguilar, Zoraida P; Tan, Qianglai; Xu, Feng; Lai, Weihua; Xiong, Yonghua; Wei, Hua
The peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunoassay was developed by using selected Salmonella serotypes to evaluate its potential for use in diagnostic bacteriology. S. choleraesuis var, kunzendorf, S. dublin, and S. typhimurium were the test organisms. Strong specific staining with corresponding antiserum was achieved with smears of each Salmonella serotype on microscope slides from formalinized cell suspensions, live broth cultures of clinical isolates, and tissue suspensions from the livers and spl...
Mcrill, C. M.; Kramer, T. T.; Griffith, R. W.
A dot blot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a monoclonal antibody specific to phase1-c Salmonella was developed for the direct detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis in blood cultures. This system was applied to the identification of serovar Choleraesuis, and the results were compared with those obtained by a conventional biochemical method. It was revealed that all 12 samples identified to be infected with serovar Choleraesuis were positive on testing by the ELIS...
Janyapoon, Kritsana; Korbsrisate, Sunee; Thamapa, Hatairat; Thongmin, Sittichai; Kanjanahareutai, Suwattana; Wongpredee, Niramol; Sarasombath, Suttipant
A novel peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe for the detection of Salmonella spp. has been developed. The probe was synthesized and the Alexa Fluor dye 594 was attached to the N-terminus in order to allow detection by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Specificity and sensitivity probe matching theoretical estimates were both of 100%. The PNA FISH method was optimized, and laboratory testing on representative strains from the Salmonella genus subspecies and several related bacterial speci...
Resource constrained countries identified as endemic zones for pathogenicity of Salmonella bear an economic burden due to recurring expenditure on medical treatment. qPCR used for Salmonella detection could not discriminate between viable and nonviable cells. Propidium monoazide (PMA) that selectively penetrates nonviable cells to cross-link their DNA, was coupled with ttr gene specific qPCR for quantifying viable salmonellae in source/potable waters collected from a north Indian city. Source water (raw water for urban potable water supply) and urban potable water exhibited viable salmonellae in the range of 2.1×10(4)-2.6×10(6) and 2-7160CFU/100mL, respectively. Potable water at water works exhibited DNA from dead cells but no viable cells were detected. PMA assisted qPCR could specifically detect low numbers of live salmonellae in Source and potable waters. This strategy can be used in surveillance of urban potable water distribution networks to map contamination points for better microbial risk management. PMID:23623706
Singh, Gulshan; Vajpayee, Poornima; Bhatti, Saurabh; Ronnie, Nirmala; Shah, Nimish; McClure, Peter; Shanker, Rishi
Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella are two major foodborne pathogens of significant concern. Two optical evanescent wave immunosensors were evaluated for detection: Antibody-coupled fiber-optic biosensor and a surface plasmon resonant (SPR) immunosensor. In the fiber-optic sensor, polyclonal antibodies for the test organisms were immobilized on polystyrene fiber wave -guides using streptavidin - biotin chemistry. Cyanine 5 -labeled monoclonal antibodies C11E9 (for L. monocytogenes) and SF-11 (for Salmonella Enteritidis) were used to generate a specific fluorescent signal. Signal acquisition was performed by launching a laser-light (635 nm) from an Analyte-2000. This immunosensor was able to detect 103 - 109 cfu/ml of L. monocytogenes or 106-109 cfu/ml of Salmonella Enteritidis and the assays were conducted at near real-time with results obtained within one hour of sampling. The assays were specific and showed signal even in the presence of other microorganisms such as E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis or Salmonella Typhimurium. In the SPR system, IAsys instrument (resonant mirror sensor) was used. Monoclonal antibody-C11E9 was directly immobilized onto a carboxylate cuvette. Whole Listeria cells at various concentrations did not yield any signal while surface protein extracts did. Crude protein extracts from L. monocytogenes and L. innocua had average binding responses of around 150 arc sec (0.25 ng/mm2), which was significantly different from L. grayi, L. ivanovii, or L. welshimeri with average responses of monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis.
Bhunia, Arun K.; Geng, Tao; Lathrop, Amanda; Valadez, Angela; Morgan, Mark T.
This review covers the structures and genetics of the 46 O antigens of Salmonella, a major pathogen of humans and domestic animals. The variation in structures underpins the serological specificity of the 46 recognized serogroups. The O antigen is important for the full function and virulence of many bacteria, and the considerable diversity of O antigens can confer selective advantage. Salmonella O antigens can be divided into two major groups: those which have N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) or N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) and those which have galactose (Gal) as the first sugar in the O unit. In recent years, we have determined 21 chemical structures and sequenced 28 gene clusters for GlcNAc-/GalNAc-initiated O antigens, thus completing the structure and DNA sequence data for the 46 Salmonella O antigens. The structures and gene clusters of the GlcNAc-/GalNAc-initiated O antigens were found to be highly diverse, and 24 of them were found to be identical or closely related to Escherichia coli O antigens. Sequence comparisons indicate that all or most of the shared gene clusters were probably present in the common ancestor, although alternative explanations are also possible. In contrast, the better-known eight Gal-initiated O antigens are closely related both in structures and gene cluster sequences. PMID:23848592
Liu, Bin; Knirel, Yuriy A; Feng, Lu; Perepelov, Andrei V; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Reeves, Peter R; Wang, Lei
Salmonellosis is one of the most significant zoonoses worldwide and also in Finland. The major serovars causing infections in humans are Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium. Salmonella Typhimurium definitive phage type (DT) 1 and Salmonella Infantis are considered endemic in Finland. These serovars have frequently caused outbreaks among humans, the source of which is often detected. For the sporadic cases they usually remain unknown. Salmonella Agona was not frequently encounter...
Objective: Salmonella enterica serovar Kedougou is among the top 10 serovars reported in northern Thailand. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella Kedougou infection in Thailand and to compare the molecular types and antimicrobial resistance with Salmonella Kedougou isolates of human origin from United States and of animal origin from the United Kingdom.Methods: Data from 13,976 Salmonella infections of which 253 were Salmonella Kedougou collected ...
The aim of this study was to identify the sources of sporadic domestic Salmonella cases in Sweden and to evaluate the usefulness of a source-attribution model in a country in which food animals are virtually free from Salmonella. The model allocates human sporadic domestic Salmonella cases to different sources according to distribution of Salmonella subtypes in the different sources. Sporadic domestic human Salmonella cases (n=1086) reported between July 2004 and June 2006 were...
Wahlstro?m, H.; Andersson, Y.; Plym-forshell, L.; Pires, Sara Monteiro
The ability of salmonellae to become internalized and to survive and replicate in amoebae was evaluated by using three separate serovars of Salmonella enterica and five different isolates of axenic Acanthamoeba spp. In gentamicin protection assays, Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin was internalized more efficiently than Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis or Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in all of the amoeba isolates tested. The bacteria appeared to be most efficiently internal...
Tezcan-merdol, Dilek; Ljungstro?m, Marianne; Winiecka-krusnell, Jadwiga; Linder, Ewert; Engstrand, Lars; Rhen, Mikael
Salmonella spp. in raw broiler parts: occurrence, antimicrobial resistance profile and phage typing of the Salmonella Enteritidis isolates Salmonella spp. em cortes de frango: ocorrência, resistência antimicrobiana e fagotipificação dos isolados de Salmonella Enteritidis
The present study was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonellae in raw broiler parts and to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolated strains. Twenty-four (39.3%) broiler parts samples were positive for Salmonella and twenty-five Salmonella strains were isolated, since two different serovars were detected in one single positive sample. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most prevalent serovar. Among Salmonella Enteritidis isolates, 95.2% belonged to Phage Type 4 (...
Aldemir Reginato Ribeiro; Aline Kellermann; Luciana Ruschel dos Santos; Marjo Cadó Bessa; Vladimir Pinheiro do Nascimento
Spleen abscesses are uncommon. We describe the case of a 56 year-old man who presented with diarrhea, fever, vomiting and weight loss. On physical examination, the main findings included jaundice, hepatomegaly and ascites. Diagnostic imaging showed the presence of spleen abscesses, due to Salmonella species. Considering the type of abscess, medical treatment was given without the need for interventional treatment, resulting in a satisfactory outcome. No other risk factor was found, other than the gastrointestinal focus as the precursor of the splenic abscess.
For microbial pathogens, phylogeographic differentiation seems to be relatively common. However, the neutral population structure of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi reflects the continued existence of ubiquitous haplotypes over millennia. In contrast, clinical use of fluoroquinolones has yielded at least 15 independent gyrA mutations within a decade and stimulated clonal expansion of haplotype H58 in Asia and Africa. Yet, antibiotic-sensitive strains and haplotypes other than H58 still persist despite selection for antibiotic resistance. Neutral evolution in Typhi appears to reflect the asymptomatic carrier state, and adaptive evolution depends on the rapid transmission of phenotypic changes through acute infections.
Roumagnac, Philippe; Weill, Francois-Xavier; Dolecek, Christiane; Baker, Stephen; Brisse, Sylvain; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Le, Thi Anh Hong; Acosta, Camilo J.; Farrar, Jeremy; Dougan, Gordon; Achtman, Mark
For microbial pathogens, phylogeographic differentiation seems to be relatively common. However, the neutral population structure of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi reflects the continued existence of ubiquitous haplotypes over millennia. In contrast, clinical use of fluoroquinolones has yielded at least 15 independent gyrA mutations within a decade and stimulated clonal expansion of haplotype H58 in Asia and Africa. Yet, antibiotic-sensitive strains and haplotypes other than H58 still persist despite selection for antibiotic resistance. Neutral evolution in Typhi appears to reflect the asymptomatic carrier state, and adaptive evolution depends on the rapid transmission of phenotypic changes through acute infections. PMID:17124322
Roumagnac, Philippe; Weill, François-Xavier; Dolecek, Christiane; Baker, Stephen; Brisse, Sylvain; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Le, Thi Anh Hong; Acosta, Camilo J; Farrar, Jeremy; Dougan, Gordon; Achtman, Mark
Full Text Available Los abscesos esplénicos son infrecuentes. Describimos el caso de un paciente de 56 años, quien consultó por diarrea, fiebre, vómito y pérdida de peso; al examen físico presentaba ictericia, hepatomegalia y ascitis. Se demostró por medio de imágenes diagnosticas la presencia de abscesos esplénicos, causados por Salmonella species. Considerando el tipo de abscesos se dio manejo medico sin necesidad de ser intervenido, presentando evolución adecuada. No se encontró ningún factor de riesgo diferente al foco gastrointestinal como precursor de la formación de los abscesos esplénicos.Spleen abscesses are uncommon. We describe the case of a 56 year-old man who presented with diarrhea, fever, vomiting and weight loss. On physical examination, the main findings included jaundice, hepatomegaly and ascites. Diagnostic imaging showed the presence of spleen abscesses, due to Salmonella species. Considering the type of abscess, medical treatment was given without the need for interventional treatment, resulting in a satisfactory outcome. No other risk factor was found, other than the gastrointestinal focus as the precursor of the splenic abscess.
Carmen Cecilia Gómez
The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenotypic and genotypic properties of nonlysogenic Salmonella Typhimurium (ST(P22-)) and lysogenic Salmonella Typhimurium (ST(P22+)) in the presence of sublethal concentrations (SLC2D) of citrus essential oils (CEOs), which were used to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility, cell surface hydrophobicity, autoaggregation ability, bacterial motility, lysogenic conversion, gene expression patterns, and antibiofilm formation. The SLC2D values of non-heat-treated (N-CEO) and heat-treated (H-CEO) CEO in an autoclave at 121°C for 20 min were 2.0 to 2.1 mg/ml against ST(P22-) and 1.7 to 1.9 mg/ml against STP(22+). The rates of injured ST(P22-) and ST(P22+) cells treated with SLC2D of N-CEO and H-CEO ranged from 67 to 83%. The hydrophobicity and autoaggregation were decreased to 2.5 and 19.5% for ST(P22-) and 4.7 and 21.7% for ST(P22+), respectively, in the presence of N-CEO. A noticeable reduction in the swarming motility was observed in ST(P22-) with N-CEO (14.5%) and H-CEO (13.3%). The numbers of CEO-induced P22 were 5.40 log PFU/ml for N-CEO and 5.65 log PFU/ml for H-CEO. The relative expression of hilA, hilC, hilD, invA, invC, invE, invF, sirA, and sirB was down-regulated in ST(P22-) and ST(P22+) with N-CEO and H-CEO. The numbers of adherent ST(P22-) and ST(P22+) were effectively reduced by more than 1 log in the presence of CEO. These results suggest that CEO has potential to be used to control bacterial attachment, colonization, and invasion. PMID:24780330
Ahn, Juhee; Almario, Jose Alejandro; Salaheen, Serajus; Biswas, Debabrata
Salmonellae are food borne pathogens, typically acquired by the oral ingestion of contaminated food or water, causing disease in both healthy and immunocompromised individuals. To gain insight into early immune regulation events caused by Salmonella as well as inflammatory signatures induced by Salmonella and other bacteria in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC), we examined these properties using in vivo and in vitro experimental settings. The outcome of infection with Salmonella depends on the host as well as the infecting serovar. Understanding the relative risks associated with and within different serovars is of major importance for public health. Using an established mouse model, we compared the pathogenicity of two S. Typhimurium strains (SL1344 and DT120) and found that the passage through and the ability to proliferate within the host gastrointestinal system determined the pathogenicity of these strains. Salmonella is a mucosal pathogen, gaining access to host systemic circulation by crossing the gut epithelial barrier and residing intracellularly in DC and MÏ?. Until recently focus has been centred on the involvement of MÏ? and the conventional antigen-presenting DC (mDC) in bacterial infections, whereas the other major dendritic cell subset, plasmacytoid DC (pDC), plays an important part in antiviral responses, and is less well characterised in regard to antibacterial immunity. Using multi-parametric flow cytometry, we were able to show for the first time that pDC accumulated in Peyerâ??s patches 24 hours after murine oral Salmonella challenge and while MÏ? and mDC exhibited dose-related cellular atrophy, pDC were less susceptible to bacteria-induced cell death, suggesting a role for pDC in early stage Salmonella containment. Furthermore, we identified a number of both DC and MÏ? subsets, two of which following infection, accumulated in Peyerâ??s patches and lamina propria, respectively. Generally, we tend to set apart pathogenic bacteria from opportunistic pathogens and commensal bacteria based on their abilities to induce disease in different hosts, however, the nature of the inflammatory response they induce in DC that set them apart from commensal bacteria remains largely unclear. In the present study, we developed a system by which we were able to compare the bacteria-induced imprint of important regulatory proteins in DC to bacterial-encoded ligands. We observed that DC responded to six different bacteria in a phyla-specific manner giving rise to similar inflammatory signatures within the groups of proteobacteria, firmicutes and actinobacteria, hence being independent on pathogenic versus non-pathogenic properties, and also on the bacteria-to-cell ratio for most bacteria. The results presented in this thesis add to the current knowledge about innate immunity to Salmonella, suggest new host immune cell subsets important for bacterial containment and provide a basic understanding of bacteria-induced DC inflammatory programs. The two latter could prove important in regard to treatment regimes, as targeted modulation of DC profiles for instance by probiotics, could lead to improved therapy for a number of gut related diseases.
SÃ¸rensen, Rikke Brandt; Pedersen, Susanne Brix
Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the presence of Salmonella sp in flocks of white laying hens. In different farms, the transport boxes of twelve flocks were inspected at arrival for the presence of Salmonella. Four positive (A, B, L and M and one negative (I flocks were monitored at each four weeks using bacteriological examination of cecal fresh feces up to 52 weeks. Birds were also evaluated at 52 weeks, when 500 eggs were taken randomly, and at 76 weeks, after forced molt. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica rough strain were isolated from the transport boxes of the four positive flocks (flocks A, B, L and M. Salmonella sp was not isolated from the transport boxes or from the feces after 76 weeks-old in flock I. Salmonella sp was isolated in the 1st, 11th, 34th, 42nd and 76th weeks from flock A; in the 1st, 4th, 11th and 76th weeks from flock B; in the first week and in the 17th to 52nd weeks from flock L; and in the 1st and 76th weeks from flock M. S. Enteritidis, S. enterica rough strain and Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis were isolated from the four positive flocks. Besides, Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana was isolated from flocks B and L, and Salmonella enterica serovar Mbandaka was isolated from flock L. Eggs produced by flock A and by flock L were contaminated with S. Enteritidis and S. enterica rough strain. According to these results, Salmonella-infected flocks may produce contaminated eggs.
A microtitration plate, antibody-capture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed for detection of Salmonella typhimurium. The assay utilizes a monoclonal detector antibody which shows no cross-reactions with non-Salmonella species and only a slight cross-reaction with one other Salmonella serotype. By using only one cultural stage (in a nonselective, chemically defined medium) prior to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, low numbers of cells in food (10 cells 25 g-1) were detected...
Lee, H. A.; Wyatt, G. M.; Bramham, S.; Morgan, M. R.
EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on a review on the European Union Summary reports on trends and sources zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2009 and 2010 â?? specifically for the data on Salmonella, Campylobacter, verotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and foodborne outbreaks
The European Union (EU) Summary Reports on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2009 and 2010 â?? specifically for the data on Salmonella, Campylobacter, verotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and foodborne outbreaks was reviewed. The main conclusions and recommendations are reported. Comparison between EU Member States (MSs) was found to be difficult due to the differences of the methods used, sampling schemes and reporting systems. Methods, sampling schemes and reporting systems among MSs should therefore be harmonised. When comparing MS-specific trends, the impact of sample sizes, weight of samples and methodologies should be considered, as these variables could otherwise lead to misinterpretation of the data. Incidence data alone do not provide a full picture of the public health burden of zoonotic diseases. Fatalities provide another important insight. Ultimately, summary measures of public health such as disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and cost-of-illness estimates should be presented. Travel information was found to be still incomplete in many MSs. For many pathogens this hampers source attribution. To better understand the public health problems related to food and animal sources in the EU, it is desirable to differentiate between travel within and outside the EU. This would also be useful to better evaluate the public health impact of EU-wide food safety measures. Whenever possible the data/results should be analysed using proper statistical tools. When data do not allow for this, the text should be kept to presenting the data without implying any patterns or trends.
Salmonella hold considerable promise as vaccine delivery vectors for heterologous antigens in chickens. Such vaccines have the potential additional benefit of also controlling Salmonella infection in immunized birds. As a way of selecting attenuated strains with optimal immunogenic potential as antigen delivery vectors, this study screened 20 novel Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strains, differing in mutations associated with delayed antigen synthesis and delayed attenuation, for their efficacy in controlling colonization by virulent Salmonella Typhimurium, as well as for their persistence in the intestine and the spleen. Marked differences were observed between strains in these characteristics, which provide the basis for selection for further study as vaccine vectors.
Pei, Yanlong; Parreira, Valeria R.; Roland, Kenneth L.; Curtiss, Roy; Prescott, John F.
Salmonella hold considerable promise as vaccine delivery vectors for heterologous antigens in chickens. Such vaccines have the potential additional benefit of also controlling Salmonella infection in immunized birds. As a way of selecting attenuated strains with optimal immunogenic potential as antigen delivery vectors, this study screened 20 novel Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strains, differing in mutations associated with delayed antigen synthesis and delayed attenuation, for their efficacy in controlling colonization by virulent Salmonella Typhimurium, as well as for their persistence in the intestine and the spleen. Marked differences were observed between strains in these characteristics, which provide the basis for selection for further study as vaccine vectors. PMID:24396177
Pei, Yanlong; Parreira, Valeria R; Roland, Kenneth L; Curtiss, Roy; Prescott, John F
Full Text Available Background & Objective: Molecular typing is an important tool in surveillance and outbreak investigations of human Salmonella infections. In this study, Subtyping of Salmonella Paratyphi B and C isolates derived from Iranian patients was carried out by RAPD-PCR to assess the extent of genetic diversity of these isolates. Materials & Methods: Fourteen Salmonella isolates including 6 strains of Salmonella paratyphi B and 8 strains of Salmonella paratyphi C were characterized using RAPD-PCR. Two arbitrary primers, namely OPP-16 and P1254 were used for RAPD analysis and the dendrograms were constructed with NTsys 2.0 computer software. Results: Both primers showed high discriminatory power in differentiating of the related strains of Salmonella. The dendrograms constructed based on RAPD-PCR profiles (with both primers involving 14 salmonella strains revealed 4 distinct patterns, indicating that these isolates are genetically heterogeneous. Furthermore, a good correlation was not observed between the serotype and the molecular profiles obtained from RAPD data of the Salmonella isolates. Conclusion: The findings of the present study verify the usefulness of RAPD-PCR in characterizing and comparing strains of Salmonella Paratyphi B and C.
Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium is an important agent isolated from cases of human food poisoning in Brazil. Animal-origin products are the main source of infection, and pork has been implicated in Salmonella transmission to humans. Programs to salmonella monitoring in swine have been carried out, using bacteriologicaland serological tests like ELISA. However, these tests are time-consuming and expensive. The rapid agglutination test (RAT is cheaper, faster and easier. Aiming to standardize RAT to detect anti-salmonella antibodies in swine serum, 60 samples of swine serum were tested. They had previously displayed positive (30 or negative (30 results in the ELISA test. The results showed that RAT had sensitivity, specificity, predictive positive value and predictive negative value equal to 96.7% when non-diluted serum was tested. Thus, this test can be applied to detect antibodies against S. Typhimurium in swine serum.
Rosecler Alves Pereirara
Foram caracterizados os sorotipos, o perfil de sensibilidade microbiana e os achados clínico-epidemiológicos em 53 linhagens do gênero Salmonella isoladas de 41 cães, nove equinos e três bovinos, acometidos por diferentes manifestações clínicas entre 1997 e 2007. Salmonella Typhimurium (45,3%), Salmonella enterica (22,6%), Salmonella Enteritidis (7,5%), Salmonella enterica subsp enterica 4,5,12i (5,7%), Salmonella Newport (5,7%), Salmonella Dublin (3,8%), Salmonella Agona (3,8%), Salm...
Full Text Available Abstract An experimental population (1216 lambs from 30 sires of the Inra401 sheep was created in an Inra flock to allow QTL detection for susceptibility to Salmonella infection, wool and carcass traits. The Inra401 is a sheep composite line developed from two breeds: Berrichon du Cher and Romanov. At 113 days of age on average, the lambs were inoculated intravenously with 108 Salmonella abortusovis Rv6 (vaccinal strain. They were slaughtered 10 days after the inoculation. Several traits were measured at inoculation and/or slaughtering to estimate the genetic resistance of the lambs to Salmonella infection: specific IgM and IgG1 antibody titres, body weight loss, spleen and pre-scapular node weights and counts of viable Salmonella persisting in these organs. This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the genetic variability of the traits related to salmonellosis susceptibility. The heritabilities of the traits varied between 0.10 and 0.64 (significantly different from zero. Thus, in sheep as well as in other species, the determinism of resistance to Salmonella infection is under genetic control. Moreover, the correlations between the traits are in agreement with the known immune mechanisms. The genetic variability observed should help QTL detection.
The VanX protein is a d-alanyl-d-alanine (d-Ala-d-Ala) dipeptidase essential for resistance to the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin. While this enzymatic activity has been typically associated with vancomycin- and teicoplainin-resistant enterococci, we now report the identification of a d-Ala-d-Ala dipeptidase in the gram-negative species Salmonella enterica. The Salmonella enzyme is only 36% identical to VanX but exhibits a similar substrate specificity: it hydrolyzes d-Ala-d-Ala, dl-Ala-d...
Hilbert, Friederike; Del Portillo, Francisco Garci?a; Groisman, Eduardo A.
Genetic screens based on the use of MudJ-generated lac fusions permitted the identification of novel genes regulated by the Rcs signal transduction system in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Besides genes that are also found in the Escherichia coli genome, our screens identified Salmonella-specific genes regulated by RcsB, including bapA, siiE, srfA, and srfB. Here we show that the srfABC operon is negatively regulated by RcsB and by PhoP. In vivo studies using mutants with constituti...
Promoter-lux fusions that showed rifampin-modulated transcription were identified from a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium 14028 reporter library. The transformation of a subset of fusions into mutants that lacked one of six global regulatory proteins or were rifampin resistant showed that transcription modulation was independent of the global regulators, promoter specific, and dependent on the interaction of rifampin with RNA polymerase.
Yim, Grace; La Cruz, Fernando; Spiegelman, George B.; Davies, Julian
Full Text Available Invasive salmonellosis is common in tropical areas. This study examines the performance of a clinical definition for its recognition among children ages 1 to 14 years admitting to a referral pediatric hospital in Tehran. 60 children were enrolled into the study during a period of 51 months. To facilitate analysis, cases were divided into 5 categories according to the likelihood of invasive salmonellosis with category A representing microbiologically confirmed salmonella bacteremia 17 (28.3% and 6 (10% with positive bone marrow cultures. And category D representing those cases in which an alternative diagnosis was firmly established. Salmonella serology supported invasive salmonellosis as the diagnosis in 17 (28% of the nonbacteremic children (category B and C. Salmonella serology suggested that invasive salmonellosis without detectable bacteremia was common. Blood culture proved and serologically diagnosed cases shows that the definition has a specificity of at least 60%.
Full Text Available Invasive salmonellosis is common in tropical areas. This study examines the performance of a clinical definition for its recognition among children ages 1 to 14 years admitting to a referral pediatric hospital in Tehran. 60 children were enrolled into the study during a period of 51 months. To facilitate analysis, cases were divided into 5 categories according to the likelihood of invasive salmonellosis with category A representing microbiologically confirmed salmonella bacteremia 17 (28.3% and 6 (10% with positive bone marrow cultures. And category D representing those cases in which an alternative diagnosis was firmly established. Salmonella serology supported invasive salmonellosis as the diagnosis in 17 (28% of the nonbacteremic children (category B and C. Salmonella serology suggested that invasive salmonellosis without detectable bacteremia was common. Blood culture proved and serologically diagnosed cases shows that the definition has a specificity of at least 60%.
The MgtC is a virulence factor in Salmonella Typhimurium that is required for growth at low-Mg2+ concentrations and intramacrophage survival. This gene is codified in a conserved region of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 3 (SPI-3), and is also present in the chromosome of other Salmonella serovars. In this study we characterized the MgtC factor in S. Typhi, a human specific pathogen, by using mgtC and SPI-3 mutant strains. We found that MgtC is the most important factor codified in the SPI-3 of S. Typhi for growth in low-Mg2+ media and survival within human cells. In addition, by using reporter genes we determined that the low-Mg2+ concentration, acidic media and PhoP regulator induce mgtC expression in S. Typhi. We suggest that MgtC is the most important virulence factor codified in the SPI-3 of S. Typhi. PMID:19436747
Retamal, Patricio; Castillo-Ruiz, Mario; Mora, Guido C
ABSTRACT The cytoplasmic helicase RIG-I is an established sensor for viral 5?-triphosphorylated RNA species. Recently, RIG-I was also implicated in the detection of intracellular bacteria. However, little is known about the host cell specificity of this process and the bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) that activates RIG-I. Here we show that RNA of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium activates production of beta interferon in a RIG-I-dependent fashion only in nonphagocytic cells. In phagocytic cells, RIG-I is obsolete for detection of Salmonella infection. We further demonstrate that Salmonella mRNA reaches the cytoplasm during infection and is thus accessible for RIG-I. The results from next-generation sequencing analysis of RIG-I-associated RNA suggest that coding bacterial mRNAs represent the activating PAMP.
Schmolke, Mirco; Patel, Jenish R.; de Castro, Elisa; Sanchez-Aparicio, Maria T.; Uccellini, Melissa B.; Miller, Jennifer C.; Manicassamy, Balaji; Satoh, Takashi; Kawai, Taro; Akira, Shizuo; Merad, Miriam; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo
Current federal regulations required monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Standard protocols designed to quantify these organisms in water or wastewater were identified and specified in these regulations. However, proto...
Full Text Available A male infant admitted with pyogenic meningitis with protein energy malnutrition developed fatal infection due to Salmonella enteritidis. The same organism was isolated from CSF and blood cultures.
Similar results were obtained when testing human sera for Salmonella antibodies by the tube agglutination test and by the microtiter plate agglutination test. The plate test was easier to perform and saved time, space, antigen, and serum. (Author)
I. S. Barsoum A. Y. Awad
One of the applications of ionizing radiations in food is the inactivation of vegetative phatogenic bacteria (radicidation) such as Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Vibro and Listeria. These bacteria are associated with the diseases transmitted by food (ETA). Fresh and frozen farmyard fowls can be contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms, between them Salmonella. In Argentine, between years 1987-1990, Salmonella enteritidis was the main cause of salmonellosis. In food irradiation, with the aim of improving and assuring its hygienic quality, it is important to know the radiosensitivity of microorganisms to be inactivated. Inactivation of a determined microorganism shall depend, between others factors, of the species, strain, number and of the irradiation conditions (temperature, media, etc.). D10 value is a very useful data in order to compare radiosensitivities between the microorganisms and the influence of different factors in their sensitivities. In this paper, it was determined the sensitivity to the gamma radiation of Salmonella enteritidis in fresh and frozen chickens
...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 118 [Docket No. FDA-2000-N-0190] Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation; Change of Registration Date, Address, and...