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Sample records for salmonella specific inva

  1. Detection of Salmonella in Shellfish Using SYBR Green™ I-Based Real-Time Multiplexed PCR Assay Targeting invA and spvB

    KAUST Repository

    Gangwar, Maulshree

    2012-09-23

    A SYBR Green™ I-based real-time multiplexed PCR assay was developed targeting invA and spvB for the detection of Salmonella strains in shellfish after both hns and invA genes were identified in all Salmonella strains. Simultaneously, the 16S rRNA gene was used as a PCR internal amplification control (IAC). All 89 Salmonella strains tested in this study exhibited amplification of invA, whereas only 21 (23. 6 %) were PCR positive for spvB. The sensitivity of detection of all three targeted genes was 1 ng, which is equivalent to approximately 105 colony-forming unit (CFU) of Salmonella enterica. The analysis showed specific PCR products that were identified by reproducible melt temperature profiles (invA, 84. 27 ± 1. 7 °C; spvB, 88. 76 ± 1. 0 °C; and 16S rRNA gene, 87. 16 ± 0. 8 °C). The sensitivity of detection was 10 pg purified DNA (invA) or 105 CFU in 1 mL pure culture of S. enterica ATCC 14028. The above molecular detection method for Salmonella strains was successfully applied to the oyster homogenates (food matrix). An initial inoculum of 106 and 102 CFU Salmonella in 1 ml seeded oyster tissue homogenate was detected by multiplexed PCR for all three genes after 5 and 24 h of enrichment, respectively. Natural oysters isolated from Gulf of Mexico during the winter months exhibited negative PCR amplification results suggesting the absence of Salmonella. In contrast to conventional PCR, real-time multiplex PCR assay developed in this study is rapid and sensitive and will help Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference undertake appropriate measures to monitor Salmonella in oysters, thereby preventing disease outbreaks and consequently protecting consumer health. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  2. Reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para la identificación de Salmonella spp. usando el gen invA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita Luigi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A PCR protocol was developed to identify strains of Salmonella from different sources using a set of “primers” PCR specific to Salmonella , for the recognition of 119 bp invA gene sequence. The results met the maxims of selectivity: inclusiveness, all strains of Salmonella presented positive signal for the gene, exclusivity since no strain Salmonella ( Shigella, E. coli, E. coli O157: H7 showed no signal positive robustness because in the 14 strains of Salmonella expected signal was obtained in a total of four repetitions with equal working conditions in four non-consecutive days. Also it was reproducible, results were identical by modifying the reaction conditions. Comparing PCR with conventional culture, using non- selective pre-enrichment in peptone water and selective enrichment in selenite-cystine broth, it was found that the PCR was 100% sensitive and specific, with 100% of inclusiveness, 100% exclusive and 100% of both positive and negative predictive value.

  3. Determination of the invA gene of Salmonella using surface plasmon resonance along with streptavidin aptamer amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a sensitive method for the determination of Salmonella by integrating a streptavidinylated aptamer (SA-aptamer) as a signal amplification unit along with a modified asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique into the surface of an SPR sensor chip. The gold film of the sensor was first modified with a thiolated probe, and the target sequence and SA-aptamer were then induced to form a sandwich structure. If SA is added, the SA-aptamer forms a complex with SA which will amplify the signal. Under optimal conditions, this sensing scheme has a linear response in the 50 pM to 200 nM range, and the lower detection limit is 20 pM (for a synthetic target sequence). This strategy was successfully applied to the determination of Salmonella bacteria at levels as low as 60 CFU mL−1. This biosensor is sensitive, selective and highly stable. These features make this strategy a promising and powerful screening tool to detect pathogens in food, and in clinical and environmental samples. (author)

  4. Molecular diagnosis of Salmonella species in captive psittacine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgayer, M C; Lima-Rosa, C A V; Weimer, T A; Rodenbusch, C R; Pereira, R A; Streck, A F; Oliveira, S D; Canal, C W

    2008-06-21

    Cloacal swabs were collected from 280 captive psittacine birds belonging to 13 species. Samples of dna were tested by PCR using a pair of primers that amplify a 284 base pair fragment of the Salmonella genus invA gene, and the PCR-positive samples were tested by standard microbiological techniques. Thirteen per cent of the samples were positive by PCR, but negative by microbiological techniques. The infection rates were significantly different among the 13 species, the most commonly infected being Amazona amazonica (28 per cent) and Amazona pretrei (20 per cent). Specific tests for Salmonella Typhimurium Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Pullorum and Salmonella Gallinarum did not produce positive results. PMID:18567929

  5. Rapid Detection of Salmonella in Food and Beverage Samples by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Radji, M.; Malik, A.; Widyasmara, A.

    2010-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay had been used to detect Salmonella in food and beverage samples using suitable primers which are based on specific invA gene of Salmonella. Twenty nine samples were collected from street food counters and some canteens in Margonda Street, Depok, West Java, Indonesia. It was found that five of twenty nine samples were detected to contain Salmonella and showed the presence of the amplified product of the size 244 bp. The method of PCR demonstrated the spec...

  6. Psoralen photomutagenic specificity in Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytotoxic and mutagenic specificity of two therapeutically employed psoralens was examined in several Ames Salmonella typhimurium strains with near ultraviolet light activation. Photomutagenic activity of 8-methoxypsoralen (8MOP) and 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (TMP) was found to be sequence-specific, and additionally was dependent on the level of DNA-repair proficiency. Phototoxicity was essentially identical in hisC3076, hisD3052 and hisG46 strains; uvrB- excision-repair-deficient bacteria were considerably more susceptible to lethal effects than wild-type parental strains. Finally, the data show that psoralens are potent frameshift photomutagens in Salmonella hisC3076 strains and demonstrate the potential utility of these strains in evaluating photomutagenic and phototoxic activity of new furocoumarin derivatives. (Auth.)

  7. Rapid Detection of Salmonella in Food and Beverage Samples by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radji, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay had been used to detect Salmonella in food and beverage samples using suitable primers which are based on specific invA gene of Salmonella. Twenty nine samples were collected from street food counters and some canteens in Margonda Street, Depok, West Java, Indonesia. It was found that five of twenty nine samples were detected to contain Salmonella and showed the presence of the amplified product of the size 244 bp. The method of PCR demonstrated the specificity of invA primers for detection of Salmonella as confirmed by biochemical and serological assay. The results of this study revealed that PCR was a rapid and useful tool for detection of Salmonella in food and beverage samples.

  8. Virulence genes detection of Salmonella serovars isolated from pork and slaughterhouse environment in Ahmedabad, Gujarat

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    J. H. Chaudhary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to detect virulence gene associated with the Salmonella serovars isolated from pork and Slaughterhouse environment. Materials and Methods: Salmonella isolates (n=37 used in this study were isolated from 270 pork and slaughter house environmental samples collected from the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation Slaughter House, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Salmonella serovars were isolated and identified as per BAM USFDA method and serotyped at National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre, Central Research Institute, Kasauli (Himachal Pradesh, India. Polymerase chain reaction technique was used for detection of five genes, namely invA, spvR, spvC, fimA and stn among different serovars of Salmonella. Results: Out of a total of 270 samples, 37 (13.70% Salmonella were isolated with two serovars, namely Enteritidis and Typhimurium. All Salmonella serovars produced 284 bp invA gene, 84 bp fimA and 260 bp amplicon for enterotoxin (stn gene whereas 30 isolates possessed 310 bp spvR gene, but no isolate possessed spvC gene. Conclusion: Presence of invA, fimA and stn gene in all isolates shows that they are the specific targets for Salmonella identification and are capable of producing gastroenteric illness to humans, whereas 20 Typhimurium serovars and 10 Enteritidis serovars can able to produce systemic infection.

  9. A novel multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of Salmonella enterica and Shigella species

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika, M.; Majumder Saugata; Murali, H. S.; Batra, H.V.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica and Shigella species are commonly associated with food and water borne infections leading to gastrointestinal diseases. The present work was undertaken to develop a sensitive and reliable PCR based detection system for simultaneous detection of Salmonella enterica and Shigella at species level. For this the conserved regions of specific genes namely ipaH1, ipaH, wbgZ, wzy and invA were targeted for detection of Shigella genus, S. flexneri, S. sonnei, S. boydii and Salmonel...

  10. A multiplex real-time PCR for simultaneous detection of Salmonella spp., E. coli O157 and L. monocytogenes in meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    To achieve multipathogen detection in a single platform assay, a multiplex real-time PCR assay was developed for simultaneous detection of Salmonella spp., E. coli O157 and L. monocytogenes in food. Pathogen specific DNA sequences in the invA, rfbE and hlyA genes were employed to design primers and ...

  11. In vitro selection of RNA aptamer specific to Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Ryul; Lee, Seong-Wook

    2013-06-28

    Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen that causes a variety of human diseases. Development of ligands directly and specifically binding to the Salmonella will be crucial for the rapid detection of, and thus for efficient protection from, the virulent bacteria. In this study, we identified a RNA aptamer-based ligand that can specifically recognize Salmonella Typhimurium through SELEX technology. To this end, we isolated and characterized an RNase-resistant RNA aptamer that bound to the OmpC protein of Salmonella Typhimurium with high specificity and affinity (Kd ~ 20 nM). Of note, the selected aptamer was found to specifically bind to Salmonella Typhimurium, but neither to Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) nor to other Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7). This was evinced by aptamer-immobilized ELISA and aptamer-linked precipitation experiments. This Salmonella species-specific aptamer could be useful as a diagnostic ligand against pathogen-caused foodborne sickness. PMID:23676911

  12. Evaluation of different analysis and identification methods for Salmonella detection in surface drinking water sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard method for detecting Salmonella generally analyzes food or fecal samples. Salmonella often occur in relatively low concentrations in environmental waters. Therefore, some form of concentration and proliferation may be needed. This study compares three Salmonella analysis methods and develops a new Salmonella detection procedure for use in environmental water samples. The new procedure for Salmonella detection include water concentration, nutrient broth enrichment, selection of Salmonella containing broth by PCR, isolation of Salmonella strains by selective culture plates, detection of possible Salmonella isolate by PCR, and biochemical testing. Serological assay and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) can be used to identify Salmonella serotype and genotype, respectively. This study analyzed 116 raw water samples taken from 18 water plants and belonging to 5 watersheds. Of these 116, 10 water samples (8.6%) taken from 7 water plants and belonging to 4 watersheds were positive for a Salmonella-specific polymerase chain reaction targeting the invA gene. Guided by serological assay results, this study identified 7 cultured Salmonella isolates as Salmonella enterica serovar: Alnaby, Enteritidis, Houten, Montevideo, Newport, Paratyphi B var. Java, and Victoria. These seven Salmonella serovars were identified in clinical cases for the same geographical areas, but only one of them was 100% homologous with clinical cases in the PFGE pattern. - Research highlights: ? A new Salmonella detecting procedure for environmental water is developed. ? Salmonella isolates are identified by serological assay and PFGE. ? A total of seven Salmonella serovars is isolated from environmental water.

  13. Strain-Specific Survival of Salmonella enterica in Peanut Oil, Peanut Shell, and Chia Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Karen; Wang, Siyun

    2016-03-01

    In North America, outbreaks of Salmonella have been linked to low-water activity (aw) foods, such as nuts and seeds. These outbreaks have implicated an assortment of Salmonella serotypes. Some Salmonella serotypes (e.g., Enteritidis and Typhimurium) cause high proportions of salmonellosis. Nevertheless, there has recently been an emergence of uncommon Salmonella serotypes and strains (e.g., Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson) in low-aw foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival characteristics of Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson in three low-aw food ingredients with varying aw: peanut oil (aw = 0.521 ± 0.003), peanut shell (aw = 0.321 ± 0.20), and chia seeds (aw = 0.585 ± 0.003). The survival of individual Salmonella strains on each food matrix was monitored for a maximum of 150 days by spreading the bacterial cells onto Luria-Bertani and/or xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Overall, Salmonella survived for the longest periods of time in peanut oil (96 ± 8 days), followed by chia seeds (94 ± 46 days). The survival period was substantially reduced on the surface of peanut shell (42 ± 49 h), although PCR after 70 days of incubation revealed the presence of Salmonella cells. In addition, Salmonella exhibited a strain-specific response in the three low-aw foods tested. Salmonella Hartford was identified as highly persistent in all low-aw food matrices, whereas Salmonella Typhimurium was the least persistent. The current research emphasizes the adaptable nature of Salmonella to low-aw food ingredients. This may pose additional problems owing to the downstream production of various end products. Additionally, unique survival characteristics among Salmonella strains highlight the need for tailored mitigation strategies regarding high-risk Salmonella strains in the food industry. PMID:26939645

  14. Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella are facultative anaerobic Gram-negative non-spore forming rods belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Salmonellosis is a zoonotic and foodborne illness that is usually transmitted by the fecal-oral route estimated to be responsible for 1.4 million cases of human infections in 2009 in...

  15. Identification by Subtractive Hybridization of Sequences Specific for Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis

    OpenAIRE

    Agron, Peter G.; Walker, Richard L.; Kinde, Hailu; Sawyer, Sherilyn J.; Hayes, Dawn C.; Wollard, Jessica; Andersen, Gary L.

    2001-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, a major cause of food poisoning, can be transmitted to humans through intact chicken eggs when the contents have not been thoroughly cooked. Infection in chickens is asymptomatic; therefore, simple, sensitive, and specific detection methods are crucial for efforts to limit human exposure. Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to isolate DNA restriction fragments present in Salmonella serovar Enteritidis but absent in other bacteria found in po...

  16. A conserved domain in type III secretion links the cytoplasmic domain of InvA to elements of the basal body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytoplasmic domain of Salmonella InvA shares homology to a recurring scaffold in the membrane-spanning components of the type II and type III secretion systems. Protein type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are organic nanosyringes that achieve an energy-dependent translocation of bacterial proteins through the two membranes of Gram-negative organisms. Examples include the pathogenic systems of animals, plants and symbiotic bacteria that inject factors into eukaryotic cells, and the flagellar export system that secretes flagellin. T3SSs possess a core of several membrane-associated proteins that are conserved across all known bacterial species that use this system. The Salmonella protein InvA is one of the most highly conserved proteins of this core of critical T3SS components. The crystal structure of a C-terminal domain of InvA reveals an unexpected homology to domains that have been repeatedly found as building blocks of other elements of the T3SS apparatus. This suggests the surprising hypothesis that evolution has produced a significant component of the apparatus structure through a series of gene-duplication and gene-rearrangement events

  17. A conserved domain in type III secretion links the cytoplasmic domain of InvA to elements of the basal body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilic, Mirjana; Quezada, Cindy M.; Stebbins, C. Erec, E-mail: stebbins@rockefeller.edu [Laboratory of Structural Microbiology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The cytoplasmic domain of Salmonella InvA shares homology to a recurring scaffold in the membrane-spanning components of the type II and type III secretion systems. Protein type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are organic nanosyringes that achieve an energy-dependent translocation of bacterial proteins through the two membranes of Gram-negative organisms. Examples include the pathogenic systems of animals, plants and symbiotic bacteria that inject factors into eukaryotic cells, and the flagellar export system that secretes flagellin. T3SSs possess a core of several membrane-associated proteins that are conserved across all known bacterial species that use this system. The Salmonella protein InvA is one of the most highly conserved proteins of this core of critical T3SS components. The crystal structure of a C-terminal domain of InvA reveals an unexpected homology to domains that have been repeatedly found as building blocks of other elements of the T3SS apparatus. This suggests the surprising hypothesis that evolution has produced a significant component of the apparatus structure through a series of gene-duplication and gene-rearrangement events.

  18. Characterization and specificity of probiotics to prevent salmonella infection in mice

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    Ana Andino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Probiotic strains of bacteria can prevent Salmonella from causing disease by preventing the pathogen from colonizing the intestines. Two strains of probiotics, Lactobacillus acidophilius and Pediococcus spp, that were obtained from poultry fecal samples have been shown to be efficacious in poultry. The objective of this study was to determine if these strains of probiotics could prevent salmonellosis in a mouse model. Methods: First, both strains of probiotics were evaluated for in vitro efficacy to inhibit the growth of and interfere with virulence gene regulation in Salmonella enterica. For in vivo efficacy, mice was used which models Typhoid illness. Mice were divided into 2 groups: Control and treatment, Lactobacillus and Pediococcus (LP; 108 Log CFU. Two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, the mice were treated with LP in water for the first two days of the experiment and challenged with Salmonella at day three. In the second experiment, the LP treatment was given in the water for 10 days and challenge was performed on day 11. In both experiments, at day 20 post-challenge, all mice were sacrificed, intestinal tracts and organs removed and cultured for Salmonella. Results: The probiotic strains inhibited the growth of Salmonella and down-regulation of virulence genes was noted, but dependent on the strain of Salmonella being evaluated. For the in vivo experiment, the probiotics did not afford the mice protection from infection and increasing the length of time the probiotics were administered did not improve the efficacy of the probiotics. Conclusions: It appears that these strains of probiotic bacteria are effective against Salmonella in vitro. However, these isolates did not afford protection from Salmonella infection to mice which may be due to host specifity as these isolates were obtained from poultry

  19. Comparison of multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for Salmonella spp. identification in surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chun Wei; Hao Huang, Kuan; Hsu, Bing Mu; Tsai, Hsien Lung; Tseng, Shao Feng; Kao, Po Min; Shen, Shu Min; Chou Chiu, Yi; Chen, Jung Sheng

    2013-04-01

    Salmonella is one of the most important pathogens of waterborne diseases with outbreaks from contaminated water reported worldwide. In addition, Salmonella spp. can survive for long periods in aquatic environments. To realize genotypes and serovars of Salmonella in aquatic environments, we isolated the Salmonella strains by selective culture plates to identify the serovars of Salmonella by serological assay, and identify the genotypes by Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) based on the sequence data from University College Cork (UCC), respectively. The results show that 36 stream water samples (30.1%) and 18 drinking water samples (23.3%) were confirmed the existence of Salmonella using culture method combined PCR specific invA gene amplification. In this study, 24 cultured isolates of Salmonella from water samples were classified to fifteen Salmonella enterica serovars. In addition, we construct phylogenetic analysis using phylogenetic tree and Minimum spanning tree (MST) method to analyze the relationship of clinical, environmental, and geographical data. Phylogenetic tree showed that four main clusters and our strains can be distributed in all. The genotypes of isolates from stream water are more biodiversity while comparing the Salmonella strains genotypes from drinking water sources. According to MST data, we can found the positive correlation between serovars and genotypes of Salmonella. Previous studies revealed that the result of Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method can predict the serovars of Salmonella strain. Hence, we used the MLST data combined phylogenetic analysis to identify the serovars of Salmonella strain and achieved effectiveness. While using the geographical data combined phylogenetic analysis, the result showed that the dominant strains were existed in whole stream area in rainy season. Keywords: Salmonella spp., MLST, phylogenetic analysis, PFGE

  20. Comparison of methods for specific depletion of ATP in Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, M. S.; Taylor, B L

    1993-01-01

    Three methods of ATP depletion in Salmonella typhimurium were compared. ATP concentrations were lowest after arsenate treatment. Arsenate or alpha-methylglucoside-plus-azide treatment nonspecifically lowered all nucleotide triphosphate levels. Histidine starvation in a hisF mutant was relatively specific for ATP depletion and therefore has potential in distinguishing ATP-dependent processes from processes dependent on other nucleotides.

  1. Recombinant plasmid-based quantitative Real-Time PCR analysis of Salmonella enterica serotypes and its application to milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokduman, Kurtulus; Dilek Avsaroglu, M; Cakiris, Aris; Ustek, Duran; Candan Gurakan, G

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to develop, a new, rapid, sensitive and quantitative Salmonella detection method using a Real-Time PCR technique based on an inexpensive, easy to produce, convenient and standardized recombinant plasmid positive control. To achieve this, two recombinant plasmids were constructed as reference molecules by cloning the two most commonly used Salmonella-specific target gene regions, invA and ttrRSBC. The more rapid detection enabled by the developed method (21h) compared to the traditional culture method (90h) allows the quantitative evaluation of Salmonella (quantification limits of 10(1)CFU/ml and 10(0)CFU/ml for the invA target and the ttrRSBC target, respectively), as illustrated using milk samples. Three advantages illustrated by the current study demonstrate the potential of the newly developed method to be used in routine analyses in the medical, veterinary, food and water/environmental sectors: I - The method provides fast analyses including the simultaneous detection and determination of correct pathogen counts; II - The method is applicable to challenging samples, such as milk; III - The method's positive controls (recombinant plasmids) are reproducible in large quantities without the need to construct new calibration curves. PMID:26820062

  2. Isolation and identification of Salmonella spp. in drinking water, streams, and swine wastewater by molecular techniques in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C.; Hsu, B.; Shen, T.; Tseng, S.; Tsai, J.; Huang, K.; Kao, P.; Chen, J.

    2013-12-01

    Salmonella spp. is a common water-borne pathogens and its genus comprises more than 2,500 serotypes. Major pathogenic genotypes which cause typhoid fever, enteritis and other intestinal-type diseases are S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Stanley, S. Agona, S.Albany, S. Schwarzengrund, S. Newport, S. Choleraesuis, and S. Derby. Hence, the identification of the serotypes of Salmonella spp. is important. In the present study, the analytical procedures include direct concentration method, non-selective pre-enrichment method and selective enrichment method of Salmonella spp.. Both selective enrichment method and cultured bacteria were detected with specific primers of Salmonella spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). At last, the serotypes of Salmonella were confirmed by using MLST (multilocus sequence typing) with aroC, dnaN, hemD, hisD, purE, sucA, thrA housekeeping genes to identify the strains of positive samples. This study contains 121 samples from three different types of water sources including the drinking water (51), streams (45), and swine wastewater (25). Thirteen samples with positive invA gene are separated from culture method. The strains of these positive samples which identified from MLST method are S. Albany, S. Typhimurium, S. Newport, S. Bareilly, and S. Derby. Some of the serotypes, S. Albany, S. Typhimurium and S. Newport, are highly pathogenic which correlated to human diarrhea. In our results, MLST is a useful method to identify the strains of Salmonella spp.. Keywords: Salmonella, PCR, MLST.

  3. Determination of specific antibodies titre to salmonella enteritidis by elisa technique in several selected flocks of laying hens

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    Velhner Maja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the antibody titre to Salmonella enteritidis (SE was examined by the ELISA method in two flocks of laying hens, where during routine bacteriological investigations Salmonellae was never isolated, and in one flock where Colysepticemia was diagnosed and Salmonella isolated accidentally. In the flocks were Salmonellae were not isolated, a titre with a high level of specific antibodies to SE was discovered (15 and 45%, while the flock with accidental findings of SE was poorly positive (5%. These results point to the necessity of introducing serological monitoring to SE so that the infection of salmonella may be discovered early and the prevalence in the flock determined, and also for the purpose of applying adequate measures that could reduce the possibility of secretion of SE through eggs.

  4. A novel multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of Salmonella enterica and Shigella species

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Radhika; Majumder, Saugata; H.S., Murali; H.V., Batra.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica and Shigella species are commonly associated with food and water borne infections leading to gastrointestinal diseases. The present work was undertaken to develop a sensitive and reliable PCR based detection system for simultaneous detection of Salmonella enterica and Shigella at [...] species level. For this the conserved regions of specific genes namely ipaH1, ipaH, wbgZ, wzy and invA were targeted for detection of Shigella genus, S. flexneri, S. sonnei, S. boydii and Salmonella enterica respectively along with an internal amplification control (IAC). The results showed that twenty Salmonella and eleven Shigella spp., were accurately identified by the assay without showing non-specificity against closely related other Enterobacteriaceae organisms and also against other pathogens. Further evaluation of multiplex PCR was undertaken on 50 natural samples of chicken, eggs and poultry litter and results compared with conventional culture isolation and identification procedure. The multiplex PCR identified the presence of Salmonella and Shigella strains with a short pre-enrichment step of 5 h in peptone water and the same samples were processed by conventional procedures for comparison. Therefore, this reported multiplex PCR can serve as an alternative to the tedious time-consuming procedure of culture and identification in food safety laboratories.

  5. A novel multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of Salmonella enterica and Shigella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhika, M; Saugata, Majumder; Murali, H S; Batra, H V

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica and Shigella species are commonly associated with food and water borne infections leading to gastrointestinal diseases. The present work was undertaken to develop a sensitive and reliable PCR based detection system for simultaneous detection of Salmonella enterica and Shigella at species level. For this the conserved regions of specific genes namely ipaH1, ipaH, wbgZ, wzy and invA were targeted for detection of Shigella genus, S. flexneri, S. sonnei, S. boydii and Salmonella enterica respectively along with an internal amplification control (IAC). The results showed that twenty Salmonella and eleven Shigella spp., were accurately identified by the assay without showing non-specificity against closely related other Enterobacteriaceae organisms and also against other pathogens. Further evaluation of multiplex PCR was undertaken on 50 natural samples of chicken, eggs and poultry litter and results compared with conventional culture isolation and identification procedure. The multiplex PCR identified the presence of Salmonella and Shigella strains with a short pre-enrichment step of 5 h in peptone water and the same samples were processed by conventional procedures for comparison. Therefore, this reported multiplex PCR can serve as an alternative to the tedious time-consuming procedure of culture and identification in food safety laboratories. PMID:25242957

  6. A novel multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of Salmonella enterica and Shigella species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Radhika

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica and Shigella species are commonly associated with food and water borne infections leading to gastrointestinal diseases. The present work was undertaken to develop a sensitive and reliable PCR based detection system for simultaneous detection of Salmonella enterica and Shigella at species level. For this the conserved regions of specific genes namely ipaH1, ipaH, wbgZ, wzy and invA were targeted for detection of Shigella genus, S. flexneri, S. sonnei, S. boydii and Salmonella enterica respectively along with an internal amplification control (IAC. The results showed that twenty Salmonella and eleven Shigella spp., were accurately identified by the assay without showing non-specificity against closely related other Enterobacteriaceae organisms and also against other pathogens. Further evaluation of multiplex PCR was undertaken on 50 natural samples of chicken, eggs and poultry litter and results compared with conventional culture isolation and identification procedure. The multiplex PCR identified the presence of Salmonella and Shigella strains with a short pre-enrichment step of 5 h in peptone water and the same samples were processed by conventional procedures for comparison. Therefore, this reported multiplex PCR can serve as an alternative to the tedious time-consuming procedure of culture and identification in food safety laboratories.

  7. Highly Specific and Cost-Efficient Detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A Combining Aptamers with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Le Deng; Qin Zhou; Yongzhe Chen; Zhihui Peng; Yi Ning; Ming Yang

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a panel of single-stranded DNA aptamers with high affinity and specificity against Salmonella Paratyphi A was selected from an enriched oligonucleotide pool by a whole-cell-Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) procedure, during which four other Salmonella serovars were used as counter-selection targets. It was determined through a fluorescence assay that the selected aptamers had high binding ability and specificity to this pathogen. The dissociatio...

  8. Specific Discrimination of Three Pathogenic Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serotypes by carB-Based Oligonucleotide Microarray

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Hwa Hui; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2014-01-01

    It is important to rapidly and selectively detect and analyze pathogenic Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica in contaminated food to reduce the morbidity and mortality of Salmonella infection and to guarantee food safety. In the present work, we developed an oligonucleotide microarray containing duplicate specific capture probes based on the carB gene, which encodes the carbamoyl phosphate synthetase large subunit, as a competent biomarker evaluated by genetic analysis to selectively and effi...

  9. Isolation and identification of Salmonella from diarrheagenic infants and young animals, sewage waste and fresh vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Amruta Nair; T. Balasaravanan; MALIK, S V S; Vysakh Mohan; Manesh Kumar; Jess Vergis; Rawool, Deepak B.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence, distribution, and identification of Salmonella serotypes in diarrheagenic infants and young animals, including sewage waste and fresh vegetables. Materials and Methods: A total of 550 samples were processed for the isolation of Salmonella spp., using standard microbiological and biochemical tests. Further polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of Salmonella genus was carried out using self-designed primers targeting invA gene ...

  10. Salmonella Typhimurium-specific bacteriophage ?SH19 and the origins of species specificity in the Vi01-like phage family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Whole genome sequencing of bacteriophages suitable for biocontrol of pathogens in food products is a pre-requisite to any phage-based intervention procedure. Trials involving the biosanitization of Salmonella Typhimurium in the pig production environment identified one such candidate, ?SH19. Results This phage was sequenced and analysis of its 157,785 bp circular dsDNA genome revealed a number of interesting features. ?SH19 constitutes another member of the recently-proposed Myoviridae Vi01-like family of phages, containing S. Typhi-specific Vi01 and Shigella-specific SboM-AG3. At the nucleotide level ?SH19 is highly similar to phage Vi01 (80-98% pairwise identity over the length of the genome), with the major differences lying in the region associated with host-range determination. Analyses of the proteins encoded within this region by ?SH19 revealed a cluster of three putative tail spikes. Of the three tail spikes, two have protein domains associated with the pectate lyase family of proteins (Tsp2) and P22 tail spike family (Tsp3) with the prospect that these enable Salmonella O antigen degradation. Tail spike proteins of Vi01 and SboM-AG3 are predicted to contain conserved right-handed parallel ?-helical structures but the internal protein domains are varied allowing different host specificities. Conclusions The addition or exchange of tail spike protein modules is a major contributor to host range determination in the Vi01-like phage family. PMID:22047448

  11. Designing of primers for detection of salmonella typhimirium and enteritidis by heminested PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmonella are the main responsible agent for the frequent food borne gastrointestinal diseases. In Tunisia, this pathogen is considered one of the most important causes of toxiinfections and its detection using classical methods is laborious and requires a large amount of time for revelation. To solve this problem, we developed a rapid molecular technique for the detection of the invA virulence gene sequence which is found in the majority of Salmonella spp. This technique is a hemi nested PCR amplification using specific primers designed and by bioinformatics tools. The detection method consisted of pre-enrichment of the sample in buffered peptone water (BPW), followed by a total DNA extraction step prior to single tube hemi nested PCR amplification. This method was found highly specific and sensitive to detect low levels of salmonella typhimurium and salmonella enteritidis (1cfu/ 25g) in naturally contaminated spicy sausage (merguez) samples. These results can benefit the public health agencies concerning microbiological and quality aspects of the commercial and traditional merguez meat production in Tunisia. (Author)

  12. Salmonella serovar specific upregulation of porcine defensins 1 and 2 in a jejunal epithelial cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Veldhuizen, E.J.A.; Koomen, I.; Ultee, A.; van Dijk, A.; Haagsman, H P

    2009-01-01

    Defensins are important antimicrobial effector peptides of the innate immune system, which provides protection against bacterial infections in the intestine. Salmonella Choleraesuis and Salmonella Typhimurium are the most commonly isolated serovars in pig, but disease outcome is dependent on the Salmonella serovar. These infections are a serious problem for the swine industry and are also posing a major threat to public health because of Salmonella-related food-borne illnesses in human. To un...

  13. Interlaboratory diagnostic accuracy of a Salmonella specific PCR-based method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malorny, B.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Hugas, M.; Heuvelink, A.; Fach, P.; Ellerbroek, L.; Bunge, C.; Dorn, C.; Helmuth, R.

    A collaborative study involving four European laboratories was conducted to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of a Salmonella specific PCR-based method, which was evaluated within the European FOOD-PCR project (http://www.pcr.dk). Each laboratory analysed by the PCR a set of independent obtained...... presumably naturally contaminated samples and compared the results with the microbiological culture method. The PCR-based method comprised a preenrichment step in buffered peptone water followed by a thermal cell lysis using a closed tube resin-based method. Artificially contaminated minced beef and whole...... investigated. The interlaboratory diagnostic accuracy, i.e. diagnostic specificity and sensitivity, was shown to be 97.5%. The co-amplification of an internal amplification control indicated possible inhibitory substances derived from the sample. This work can contribute to the quality assurance of PCR...

  14. SMM-system: A mining tool to identify specific markers in Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuijing; Liu, Weibing; Shi, Chunlei; Wang, Dapeng; Dan, Xianlong; Li, Xiao; Shi, Xianming

    2011-03-01

    This report presents SMM-system, a software package that implements various personalized pre- and post-BLASTN tasks for mining specific markers of microbial pathogens. The main functionalities of SMM-system are summarized as follows: (i) converting multi-FASTA file, (ii) cutting interesting genomic sequence, (iii) automatic high-throughput BLASTN searches, and (iv) screening target sequences. The utility of SMM-system was demonstrated by using it to identify 214 Salmonella enterica-specific protein-coding sequences (CDSs). Eighteen primer pairs were designed based on eighteen S. enterica-specific CDSs, respectively. Seven of these primer pairs were validated with PCR assay, which showed 100% inclusivity for the 101 S. enterica genomes and 100% exclusivity of 30 non-S. enterica genomes. Three specific primer pairs were chosen to develop a multiplex PCR assay, which generated specific amplicons with a size of 180bp (SC1286), 238bp (SC1598) and 405bp (SC4361), respectively. This study demonstrates that SMM-system is a high-throughput specific marker generation tool that can be used to identify genus-, species-, serogroup- and even serovar-specific DNA sequences of microbial pathogens, which has a potential to be applied in food industries, diagnostics and taxonomic studies. SMM-system is freely available and can be downloaded from http://foodsafety.sjtu.edu.cn/SMM-system.html. PMID:21256892

  15. A rapid screen of broth enrichments for Salmonella enterica serovars enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, and Typhimurium by Using an allelotyping multiplex PCR that targets O- and H-antigen alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yang; Liu, Tongrui; Lee, Margie D; Hofacre, Charles L; Maier, Marie; White, David G; Ayers, Sherry; Wang, Lihua; Berghaus, Roy; Maurer, John

    2009-10-01

    Salmonella continues to cause significant foodborne outbreaks, best illustrated with recent outbreaks associated with peanut butter, raw tomatoes, and serrano peppers. To ascertain the likely source of the outbreak, bacterial typing is essential to this process. While PCR has become an important detection tool for pathogens in foods, PCR can also identify strain differences by targeting gene(s) or sequences exhibiting polymorphisms or variability in its distribution within the bacterial population. Over 2,500 Salmonella enterica serovars identified based on antigenic differences in lipopolysaccharide and flagellin have been identified to date. We developed an allelotyping PCR scheme that identifies the O and H alleles associated with S. enterica serovars Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, Typhimurium, and others, with the same antigen alleles but in different O- and H-allele combinations (e.g., S. enterica Kentucky), and validated it as a screen to identify samples contaminated with these Salmonella serovars. We correctly identified poultry samples containing S. enterica serovars Enteritidis, Kentucky, and Typhimurium from our multiplex screen of primary enrichments of environmental drag swabs. PCR agreed well (kappa values = 0.81 to 1.0) with conventional serotyping methods used to type salmonellae isolated from primary enrichment. Coupled with Salmonella-specific PCR, such as invA, this allelotyping PCR could prove useful in the identification of Salmonella and specific S. enterica serovars present in foods or the environment and could decrease the time and cost associated with conventional serotyping methods. PMID:19833046

  16. Tissue-Specific Salmonella Typhimurium Gene Expression during Persistence in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Van Parys, Alexander; Boyen, Filip; Leyman, Bregje; Verbrugghe, Elin; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the most important bacterial zoonotic diseases. The bacterium persists in pigs resulting in asymptomatic 'carrier pigs', generating a major source for Salmonella contamination of pork. Until now, very little is known concerning the mechanisms used by Salmonella Typhimurium during persistence in pigs. Using in vivo expression technology (IVET), a promoter-trap method based on Delta purA attenuation of the parent strain, we identified 37 ...

  17. Highly Specific and Cost-Efficient Detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A Combining Aptamers with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Deng

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a panel of single-stranded DNA aptamers with high affinity and specificity against Salmonella Paratyphi A was selected from an enriched oligonucleotide pool by a whole-cell-Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX procedure, during which four other Salmonella serovars were used as counter-selection targets. It was determined through a fluorescence assay that the selected aptamers had high binding ability and specificity to this pathogen. The dissociation constant of these aptamers were up to nanomolar range, and aptamer Apt22 with the lowest Kd (47 ± 3 nM was used in cell imaging experiments. To detect this bacteria with high specificity and cost-efficiently, a novel useful detection method was also constructed based on the noncovalent self-assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs and DNAzyme-labeled aptamer detection probes. The amounts of target bacteria could be quantified by exploiting chemoluminescence intensity changes at 420 nm and the detection limit of the method was 103 cfu/mL. This study demonstrated the applicability of Salmonella specific aptamers and their potential for use in the detection of Salmonella in food, clinical and environmental samples.

  18. Occurrence of Salmonella-specific bacteriophages in swine feces collected from commercial farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella is one of the primary foodborne pathogens associated with swine production and represents a significant threat to human health. Bacteriophage are naturally-occurring viruses that prey on bacteria and have been suggested as a potential intervention strategy to reduce Salmonella in food an...

  19. Structural and enzymatic characterization of a host-specificity determinant from Salmonella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Salmonella effector protein GtgE functions as a cysteine protease to cleave a subset of the Rab-family GTPases and to prevent delivery of antimicrobial agents to the Salmonella-containing vacuole. GtgE is an effector protein from Salmonella Typhimurium that modulates trafficking of the Salmonella-containing vacuole. It exerts its function by cleaving the Rab-family GTPases Rab29, Rab32 and Rab38, thereby preventing the delivery of antimicrobial factors to the bacteria-containing vacuole. Here, the crystal structure of GtgE at 1.65 Å resolution is presented, and structure-based mutagenesis and in vivo infection assays are used to identify its catalytic triad. A panel of cysteine protease inhibitors were examined and it was determined that N-ethylmaleimide, antipain and chymostatin inhibit GtgE activity in vitro. These findings provide the basis for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat Salmonella infections

  20. Structural and enzymatic characterization of a host-specificity determinant from Salmonella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Amanda C. [Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Spanò, Stefania; Galán, Jorge E. [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06536 (United States); Stebbins, C. Erec, E-mail: stebbins@rockefeller.edu [Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The Salmonella effector protein GtgE functions as a cysteine protease to cleave a subset of the Rab-family GTPases and to prevent delivery of antimicrobial agents to the Salmonella-containing vacuole. GtgE is an effector protein from Salmonella Typhimurium that modulates trafficking of the Salmonella-containing vacuole. It exerts its function by cleaving the Rab-family GTPases Rab29, Rab32 and Rab38, thereby preventing the delivery of antimicrobial factors to the bacteria-containing vacuole. Here, the crystal structure of GtgE at 1.65 Å resolution is presented, and structure-based mutagenesis and in vivo infection assays are used to identify its catalytic triad. A panel of cysteine protease inhibitors were examined and it was determined that N-ethylmaleimide, antipain and chymostatin inhibit GtgE activity in vitro. These findings provide the basis for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat Salmonella infections.

  1. CRISPR Is an Optimal Target for the Design of Specific PCR Assays for Salmonella enterica Serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A

    OpenAIRE

    Fabre, Laetitia; Le Hello, Simon; Roux, Chrystelle; Issenhuth-Jeanjean, Sylvie; Weill, François-Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Background Serotype-specific PCR assays targeting Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A, the causal agents of typhoid and paratyphoid fevers, are required to accelerate formal diagnosis and to overcome the lack of typing sera and, in some situations, the need for culture. However, the sensitivity and specificity of such assays must be demonstrated on large collections of strains representative of the targeted serotypes and all other bacterial populations producing similar clinic...

  2. Improving tumor targeting and therapeutic potential of Salmonella VNP20009 by displaying cell surface CEA-specific antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Bereta, Michal; Hayhurst, Andrew; Gajda, Mariusz; Chorobik, Paulina; Targosz, Marta; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz; Kaufman, Howard L.

    2007-01-01

    Genetically modified Salmonella typhimurium VNP20009 (VNP) is a useful vehicle for cancer therapy and vaccine development but exhibits limited tumor targeting in vivo. We engineered a novel VNP derivative that expressed carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-specific single chain antibody fragments (scFv) on the cell surface to increase tumor-specific targeting. There was significant scFv cell surface display visualized by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy when cells were probed with fluorescent...

  3. Isolation of scFv fragments specific to OmpD of Salmonella Typhimurium

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Pork meat is one of the major sources for human infections with Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovars. Further, zoonoses caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovars. are responsible for substantial economical losses in industrial countries. Quick and reliable detection of this infection is urgently needed to improve consumer security. Due to its capability to identify infections independent of the species, a competitive ELISA is the preferable met...

  4. The opsonizing ligand on Salmonella typhimurium influences incorporation of specific, but not azurophil, granule constituents into neutrophil phagosomes

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Phagosomes were purified from human neutrophils ingesting Salmonella typhimurium opsonized with adsorbed normal human serum or with rabbit IgG. Constituents within the phagosome were endogenously labeled by supplying the cells with 125INa during phagocytosis. Lactoferrin and vitamin B12 binding protein (TC1 and TC3), markers for specific granules, were present in the phagosomes from neutrophils ingesting S. typhimurium opsonized with IgG but were 3.5- to 5-fold less prominent in phagosomes fr...

  5. Desarrollo y validacin de una reaccin en cadena de la polimerasa mltiple para la identificacin de los serogrupos B, C2, D y E de Salmonella enterica Development and validation of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for molecular identification of Salmonella enterica serogroups B, C2, D and E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Moreno

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduccin. El esquema Kaufmann-White para la serotipificacin de Salmonella, reconoce 46 antgenos O y 119 antgenos H, los cuales han permitido la caracterizacin de 2.541 serovares. La serotipificacin es una herramienta epidemiolgica til en la identificacin de serovares circulantes y estudio de brotes, sin embargo, presenta limitaciones tcnicas, de interpretacin de resultados y alto costo.
    Objetivo. Desarrollar una prueba de reaccin en cadena de la polimerasa mltiple (PCR-M como alternativa para identificar los serogrupos B, C2, D y E de Salmonella enterica.
    Materiales y mtodos. Se desarroll una PCR-M para detectar los genes rfbJ de los serogrupos B y C2 y wzx de los serogrupos D y E. Para estandarizar la PCR-M se probaron cepas de referencia de Salmonella pertenecientes a los serogrupos de estudio. Se incluy el gen invA especfico del gnero Salmonella como control interno de amplificacin. La tcnica fue validada con un estudio ciego que incluy 400 aislamientos de Salmonella previamente serotipificados.
    Resultados. La PCR-M permiti identificar los serogrupos de Salmonella con resultados reproducibles (ndice kappa=0,95. La sensibilidad de la prueba estuvo entre 98% y 100% y la especificidad entre 96% y 100%.
    Conclusiones. El polimorfismo de los genes rfbJ y wzx permiti desarrollar un mtodo de tipificacin molecular sensible, especfico y reproducible, que podra servir de apoyo a la serotipificacin para identificar serogrupos de Salmonella.

    Introduction. The scheme Kauffman-White (KW for serotyping of Salmonella recognizes 46 O antigens, and 119 H antigens, thereby permitting the characterization of 2,541 serotypes. The serotyping is a useful epidemiological tool in identifying circulating serotypes and to characterize outbreaks. However, the method presents technical limitations, difficulty in interpretation of results and high costs.
    Objective. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction test (M-PCR was developed as an alternative method for the identification of serogroups B, C2, D, and E of Salmonella enterica.
    Materials and methods. The M-PCR detected Salmonella genes rfbJ of serogroups B and C2 and wzx of serogroups D and E. To standardize the M-PCR, reference strains of Salmonella serogroups were compared. Amplification of invA gender-specific gene of Salmonella was included as internal control of amplification. To validate the test, a blind study was conducted to identify by M-PCR 400 isolates that had been previously characterized by serology.
    Results. The M-PCR detected Salmonella serogroups with reproducible results (Kappa index=0.95. The sensitivity of the test was between 98% to 100% and specificity between 96% to 100%.
    Conclusions. The polymorphisms in the Salmonella genes rfbJ and wzx permitted the development of a method for molecular typing of Salmonella serogroups that was sensitive, specific and reproducible.

  6. Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Live Vector Vaccines Delivered Intranasally Elicit Regional and Systemic Specific CD8+ Major Histocompatibility Class I-Restricted Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Pasetti, Marcela F; Salerno-Gonçalves, Rosangela; Sztein, Marcelo B.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the ability of live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strains delivered to mice intranasally to induce specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses at regional and systemic levels. Mice immunized with two doses (28 days apart) of Salmonella serovar Typhi strain Ty21a, the licensed oral typhoid vaccine, and genetically attenuated mutants CVD 908 (ΔaroC ΔaroD), CVD 915 (ΔguaBA), and CVD 908-htrA (ΔaroC ΔaroD ΔhtrA) induced CTL specific for Salmonella serovar Typhi-...

  7. THE MUTATION SPECTRA OF DRINKING WATER SAMPLES USING THE BASE-SPECIFIC TA7000 STRAINS OF SALMONELLA IN THE MICROSUSPENSION ASSAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies showed that disinfected drinking water samples gave mutagenic spectra typical of halogenated furanones. In this study, we used the TA7000 base-specific Salmonella typhimurium tester strains to characterize water samples from two drinking water treatment plants (...

  8. Detection of Salmonella strain by rapid-cycle multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Pourali

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Salmonellosis is responsible for large numbers of infections in both humans and animals. Conventional methods of isolation of Salmonella strains take 4-7 days to complete and are therefore laborious and require substantial manpower. Our main objective was to develop a rapid detection method using shortened PCR cycles in a conventional thermal cyclers and fast electrophoresis for Salmonella.Materials and methods: The PCR primers for tyv (rfbE, prt (rfbS and invA, genes were used for the rapid identification of S. enterica serovars typhi and paratyphi A, with rapid and short cycles of multiplex PCR. By using very fast and simple DNA extraction method in 10mins, rapid PCR cycles with total times of 35mins and rapid electrophoresis procedure with simple and very cheap buffer in 15mins we were able to separate the PCR products. Results: All references and clinical isolates of Salmonella serovars typhi and paratyphi were accurately identified. Specificity analysis revealed no cross reaction with other enterobacterial strains. The sensitivity of the assay was 1-10 cells. The total time of multiplex PCR from sample preparation to final result is 45 to 50mins.Conclusion: These data indicate that the specificity and sensitivity of optimized rapid cycle multiplex PCR is a potentially valuable tool for rapid diagnosis of S. typhi using a conventional thermal cycler. This method cut the time of a PCR reaction from 3.5h to less than 60mins. These findings could also be applied to other PCR programs detecting various genes allowing researchers to significantly shorten their PCR reaction times.

  9. Application of an Impedimetric Technique for the Detection of Lytic Infection of Salmonella spp. by Specific Phages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula C. Teixeira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the adaption of the impedimetric method to detect the lytic infection by Salmonella-specific bacteriophages and to provide a higher selectivity to this rapid method in detecting Salmonella spp. by using specific agents. Three bacteriophages and twelve strains of Salmonella spp. were tested. Each of the twelve strains was used separately to inoculate TSB together with each one of the phages. The inoculum concentration was between 106 and 107?cfu/mL, at a cell: phage ratio of 1 : 100. From the sample analysis, based on conductance (G measurements (37C, the infection could be detected, by observation of both detection-time delay and distinct curve trends. The main conclusions were that kinetic detection by impedance microbiology with phage typing constitutes a method of determining whether a test microorganism is sensitive to the bacteriophage and a method to evaluate whether a lytic bacteriophage is present in a sample, by affecting bacterial growth rate/metabolic change.

  10. Molecular Detection of Salmonella Serovar Isolated from Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monadi, M. (MSc

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Salmonellosis is the most common type of food poisoning in developed and developing countries that is caused by Salmonella serotype. Hence, we aimed to identify the Salmonella serovars in eggs obtained from Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad province and to evaluate antibiotic resistance of the isolated strains. Material and Methods: In this study, 210 eggs were collected from Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad Province. The bacteria were isolated and identified using biochemical tests. After extraction of genomic DNA, Salmonella gender, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium were investigated by invA, fliC and sefA primers, respectively, using Multiplex PCR method. Results: Of 210, 14 (6.66% were contaminated with Salmonella. Of these, 12 (5.71% were Salmonella typhimurium and 2 (0.95% were related to Salmonella spp. None of the samples were contaminated with Salmonella enteritidis. The highest resistance was related to penicillin (100% and neomycin (78.57%. Conclusion: Salmonella typhimurium is the predominant serovar causing contamination in the eggs of this Province. Given the wide spread of antibiotic resistance in different serotypes of Salmonella, we recommend avoiding of indiscriminate use of antibiotics in livestock and poultry

  11. Detection of virulence genes in Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from different sources Deteco de genes de virulncia in Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de diferentes fontes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slvia Dias de Oliveira

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of three virulence genes, invA, spvR, and spvC, was determined in Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from poultry, pigs, humans and food. All isolates were positive for the invA gene, with 91.2% being positive for spvR and 90.2% for spvC. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of the virulence genes between isolates from different sources. The results indicate that there is a putative high virulence potential for the S. Enteritidis isolates characterized.A presena de trs genes de virulncia (invA, spvR e spvC foi determinada em Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de aves, sunos, humanos e alimentos. Todos os isolados foram positivos para o gene invA, 91,2% tambm foram positivos para o spvR e 90,2% para o spvC. No existiu diferena significativa na prevalncia dos genes de virulncia entre isolados de diferentes origens. Os resultados indicaram que, provavelmente, exista um alto potencial de virulncia nos isolados de S. Enteritidis caracterizados.

  12. Salmonella flagellin is a potent carrier-adjuvant for peptide conjugate to induce peptide-specific antibody response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Feng; Guo, Aihua; Li, Mengmeng; Liu, Wei; Pan, Zhiming; Jiang, Lei; Wu, Xin; Xu, Huji

    2015-04-21

    As an agonist to innate immune system, Salmonella flagellin has been proven to be a potent adjuvant either admixed or genetically fused with antigens and applied to a variety of vaccines against infectious diseases. However, relatively little is known about its carrier-adjuvant effect for conjugate vaccine. Conjugation is an effective approach often used to make haptens such as some peptides and polysaccharides immunogenic and in some cases used to make poor immunogens more immunogenic. In the current study, Salmonella flagellin was tested for its carrier-adjuvant effect in a peptide conjugation. The recombinant Salmonella flagellin (rFliC) purified from Escherichia coli was firstly modified by maleimide groups, then coupled with a synthetic peptide (EXP153:CDNNLVSGP) that is a B-cell epitope derived from Plasmodium falciparum exported protein-1 to generate the conjugate of EXP153-rFliC. Bioactivity assay showed that both chemical modification and conjugation did not apparently impair the TLR5-ligand activity of rFliC. EXP153-rFliC was used to immunize BALB/c mice via subcutaneous route, and the sera obtained from immunized mice were examined by ELISA and IFA. While no detectable antibody responses were induced by the peptide admixed with rFliC, the robust peptide-specific antibody responses were observed in mice immunized with the peptide conjugated to rFliC in the absence of any additional adjuvant. The immune sera induced by the conjugate recognized the native protein of malaria parasite. The data obtained from this study demonstrate the carrier-adjuvant activity of Salmonella flagellin in peptide conjugate immunization and indicate its promising application for conjugate vaccine research and development. PMID:25765964

  13. Refining the LPS-Antigen in Salmonella Antibody Elisa for Poultry Enhanced Specificity without Impairing Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøl; Lind, Peter; Klausen, Joan; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2014-01-01

    In the Danish serological surveillance for Salmonella in poultry (serum and egg yolk) a mix-ELISA is used, based on S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis antigens (Feld et al., 2000). When we evaluated results of the test retrospectively, over the years an unacceptably large fraction of seropositive...

  14. Biomagnetic separation of Salmonella Typhimurium with high affine and specific ligand peptides isolated by phage display technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingroewer, Juliane; Bley, Thomas; Bergemann, Christian; Boschke, Elke

    2007-04-01

    Analyses of food-borne pathogens are of great importance in order to minimize the health risk for customers. Thus, very sensitive and rapid detection methods are required. Current conventional culture techniques are very time consuming. Modern immunoassays and biochemical analysis also require pre-enrichment steps resulting in a turnaround time of at least 24 h. Biomagnetic separation (BMS) is a promising more rapid method. In this study we describe the isolation of high affine and specific peptides from a phage-peptide library, which combined with BMS allows the detection of Salmonella spp. with a similar sensitivity as that of immunomagnetic separation using antibodies.

  15. Biomagnetic separation of Salmonella Typhimurium with high affine and specific ligand peptides isolated by phage display technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steingroewer, Juliane [Institute of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)]. E-mail: juliane.steingroewer@tu-dresden.de; Bley, Thomas [Institute of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Bergemann, Christian [Chemicell GmbH, D-10823, Berlin (Germany); Boschke, Elke [Institute of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    Analyses of food-borne pathogens are of great importance in order to minimize the health risk for customers. Thus, very sensitive and rapid detection methods are required. Current conventional culture techniques are very time consuming. Modern immunoassays and biochemical analysis also require pre-enrichment steps resulting in a turnaround time of at least 24 h. Biomagnetic separation (BMS) is a promising more rapid method. In this study we describe the isolation of high affine and specific peptides from a phage-peptide library, which combined with BMS allows the detection of Salmonella spp. with a similar sensitivity as that of immunomagnetic separation using antibodies.

  16. Biomagnetic separation of Salmonella Typhimurium with high affine and specific ligand peptides isolated by phage display technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyses of food-borne pathogens are of great importance in order to minimize the health risk for customers. Thus, very sensitive and rapid detection methods are required. Current conventional culture techniques are very time consuming. Modern immunoassays and biochemical analysis also require pre-enrichment steps resulting in a turnaround time of at least 24 h. Biomagnetic separation (BMS) is a promising more rapid method. In this study we describe the isolation of high affine and specific peptides from a phage-peptide library, which combined with BMS allows the detection of Salmonella spp. with a similar sensitivity as that of immunomagnetic separation using antibodies

  17. Quantitative detection of Salmonella enterica and the specific interaction with Lactuca sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Klerks, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella is among the most commonly known bacterial pathogens to cause human illness. Often Salmonellosis is associated with the consumption of contaminated foods like meat, eggs or egg products. However, during the last decades an increase of outbreaks is recognized to be caused by human pathogenic bacteria in association with fresh produce. The use of manure for production of vegetables, e.g. lettuce, contributes significantly to the risk of contamination of fresh produce. Enteric pathoge...

  18. AN ORAL-SALMONELLA CANCER IMMUNOTHERAPY INDUCES A TUMOR-SPECIFIC IMMUNE RESPONSE IN LIVER AND LIVER DRAINING LYMPH NODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandrina Vendrell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we showed that oral administration of the Salmonella Typhi vaccine strain CVD 915 before tumor challenge decreases the development of liver metastasis in a mouse model of breast cancer (LM3 mammary adenocarcinoma. The aim of the present work was to elucidate the immune mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effect of CVD 915 and characterize the antitumor immune response in the liver and liver draining lymph nodes (LDLN. For this purpose, one group of BALB/c mice was inoculated with 1e9 UFC of CVD 915 via o.g. while another received PBS as a control. After 24 h, mice were injected with 1e5 LM3 cells into the spleen to mimic hematogenous spread of tumor cells into the liver, and subjected to splenectomy. To further characterize antitumor mechanisms, livers and its main draining nodes were sampled 20 days after tumor challenge and phenotypical and functional analyses on these organs were performed. As we demonstrated previously for the intrahepatic immune cells (IHIC, LDLN cells from treated mice produced large amount of Th1 cytokines, such as IFN-?, TNF-? and IL-2 ex vivo, while control mice produced low amounts of TNF-? and no detectable levels of IFN-? and IL-2. IFN-? and TNF-? levels generated by LDLN cells from treated animals increased in the presence of tumor cell antigens (p<0.05, showing a tumor-specific immune response in these lymph nodes. Furthermore, treated mice showed increased numbers of intrahepatic dendritic cells (p<0.05 and augmented expression of MHC II molecules (p<0.05, as compared with control animals. In fact, the number of all the MHC II+ cells was enhanced in Salmonella-treated livers. To determine whether tumor-specific IFN-?-producing cytotoxic T cells elicited by oral-Salmonella cancer immunotherapy, were able to reach the hepatic environment, we searched for cytotoxic T cells in the liver and its LDLN. We found an increased number of CD8+IFN-?+ cells inside the livers as well as in the LDLN from Salmonella-treated mice (p<0.05. Moreover, microscopic analysis revealed tumor nodules surrounded by leukocyte infiltration in livers from most treated mice, which were not found in control animals. These results indicate that oral immunization with CVD 915 achieves an antitumor effect by reducing the development of metastasis through a tumor-specific immune response, which breaks natural immunosuppression within the liver and allows antitumor effector T cells to reach the hepatic tumor microenvironment. The use of this vaccine as an adjunct therapy to surgery in the treatment of liver metastatic cancer should be assessed in the future.

  19. Improving tumor targeting and therapeutic potential of Salmonella VNP20009 by displaying cell surface CEA-specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereta, Michal; Hayhurst, Andrew; Gajda, Mariusz; Chorobik, Paulina; Targosz, Marta; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz; Kaufman, Howard L

    2007-05-22

    Genetically modified Salmonella typhimurium VNP20009 (VNP) is a useful vehicle for cancer therapy and vaccine development but exhibits limited tumor targeting in vivo. We engineered a novel VNP derivative that expressed carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-specific single chain antibody fragments (scFv) on the cell surface to increase tumor-specific targeting. There was significant scFv cell surface display visualized by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy when cells were probed with fluorescently labeled CEA. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on whole bacteria confirmed binding of unlabeled CEA to the displayed scFv. The modified VNP strain exhibited increased localization in the upper gastrointestinal tract of CEA transgenic mice and accumulated in CEA-expressing tumors. Furthermore, treatment with a single dose of the VNP derivative inhibited growth of MC38CEA tumors and was associated with local accumulation of CD3(+) T cells and CD11b(+) macrophages. The display of antibody fragments on the surface of VNP represents a novel strategy for both targeting CEA-expressing tumors and increasing the immunogenicity of Salmonella-based vaccines for cancer. PMID:17399861

  20. Physiological effects of Crl in Salmonella are modulated by sigmaS level and promoter specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbe-Saule, Véronique; Lopes, Miguel Dias; Kolb, Annie; Norel, Françoise

    2007-04-01

    The small regulatory protein Crl activates sigma(S) (RpoS), the stationary-phase and general stress response sigma factor. Crl has been reported to bind sigma(S) in vitro and to facilitate the formation of RNA polymerase holoenzyme. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Crl is required for the development of the rdar morphotype and transcription initiation of the sigma(S)-dependent genes csgD and adrA, involved in curli and cellulose production. Here, we examined the expression of other sigma(S)-dependent phenotypes and genes in a Deltacrl mutant of Salmonella. Gene fusion analyses and in vitro transcription assays indicate that the magnitude of Crl activation differs between promoters and is highly dependent on sigma(S) levels. We replaced the wild-type rpoS allele in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain ATCC 14028 with the rpoS(LT2) allele that shows reduced expression of sigma(S); the result was an increased Crl activation ratio and larger physiological effects of Crl on oxidative, thermal, and acid stress resistance levels during stationary phase. We also found that crl, rpoS, and crl rpoS strains grew better on succinate than did the wild type and expressed the succinate dehydrogenase sdhCDBA operon more strongly. The crl and rpoS(LT2) mutations also increased the competitive fitness of Salmonella in stationary phase. These results show that Crl contributes to negative regulation by sigma(S), a finding consistent with a role for Crl in sigma factor competition via the facilitation of sigma(S) binding to core RNA polymerase. PMID:17293430

  1. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. by Multiple Endonuclease Restriction Real-Time Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi; WANG, Yan; LUO, LIJUAN; Liu, Dongxin; Luo, Xia; Xu, Yanmei; Hu, Shoukui; Niu, Lina; Xu, Jianguo; Ye, Changyun

    2015-01-01

    Shigella and Salmonella are frequently isolated from various food samples and can cause human gastroenteritis. Here, a novel multiple endonuclease restriction real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification technology (MERT-LAMP) were successfully established and validated for simultaneous detection of Shigella strains and Salmonella strains in only a single reaction. Two sets of MERT-LAMP primers for 2 kinds of pathogens were designed from ipaH gene of Shigella spp. and invA gene of Salmone...

  2. Visualization of specific gene expression in individual Salmonella typhimurium cells by in situ PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Holmstrm, Kim; Molin, Sren

    1997-01-01

    An in situ PCR protocol by which we can monitor the presence or absence of lac mRNA in individual cells of a Salmonella typhimurium F' lac(+) strain has been developed. In this protocol, fixed cells are permeabilized with lysozyme and subjected to a seminested reverse transcriptase PCR using...... lac mRNA in suboptimally isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside-induced cells was investigated. By use of a single-cell beta-galactosidase assay, it was confirmed that homogeneous suboptimally induced cultures of S. typhimurium F' lacY cells could be established, and the number of functional lac m...

  3. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles of Salmonella isolated from butcher shops in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossi, Marcus Vinícius Coutinho; Burin, Raquel Cristina Konrad; Lopes, Danilo Augusto; Dias, Mariane Rezende; Castilho, Natalia Parma Augusto de; de Arruda Pinto, Paulo Sérgiode; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2013-09-01

    Salmonella can contaminate finished products of butcher shops, mainly through cross-contamination of utensils exposed to raw materials. To identify the main sources of contamination with this foodborne pathogen in four butcher shop environments, surface samples were obtained from employees' hands, cutting boards, knives, floor of the refrigeration room, meat grinders, and meat tenderizers (32 samples per area) and analyzed for Salmonella using the International Organization for Standardization method 6579, with modifications. Suspect isolates were identified by PCR (targeting ompC), and confirmed Salmonella isolates were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (after treatment with restriction enzyme XbaI), analyzed for the presence of virulence genes (invA, sefA, and spvC), and screened for resistance to 12 antimicrobials. Salmonella isolates was identified only on cutting boards (five samples) from three butcher shops. Fifteen isolates were confirmed as Salmonella belonging to four pulse types (similarity of 71.1 to 100%). The invA gene was detected in 13 isolates, and the sefA was found in 8 isolates; no isolate carried spvC. All tested isolates were resistant to clindamycin and sensitive to amikacin and cefotaxine, and all isolates were resistant to at least 3 of the 12 antimicrobials tested. The results indicate the importance of cutting boards as a source of Salmonella contamination in butcher shops. The presence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains possessing virulence genes highlights the health risks for consumers. PMID:23992511

  4. Detection of Salmonella by Surface Plasmon Resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Keusgen; Peter Kämpfer; Olga Lezrich; Saikat Datta Mazumdar; Benjamin Barlen

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the possibility of simultaneous and specific detection ofSalmonella serovars by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The Plasmonic® SPR device wasused to develop this rapid assay. The sandwich immunoassay involves the use of apolyclonal anti-Salmonella antibody to simultaneous capture multiple Salmonella serovarspresent in a sample. This is followed by specific detection of the captured serovars usingO-specific anti-Salmonella antibodies. Milk spiked with Salmonella Typhimu...

  5. An oral recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mutant elicits systemic antigen-specific CD8+ T cell cytokine responses in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin'ombe Nyasha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The induction of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell cytokine responses against an attenuated, oral recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP model antigen was investigated. A GFP expression plasmid was constructed in which the gfp gene was fused in-frame with the 5' domain of the Escherichia coli β-galactosidase α-gene fragment with expression under the lac promoter. Groups of mice were orally immunized three times with the bacteria and systemic CD8+ T cell cytokine responses were evaluated. Results High level of the GFP model antigen was expressed by the recombinant Salmonella vaccine vector. Systemic GFP-specific CD8+ T cell cytokine (IFN-γ and IL-4 immune responses were detected after mice were orally vaccinated with the bacteria. It was shown that 226 net IFN-γ and 132 net IL-4 GFP-specific SFUs/10e6 splenocytes were formed in an ELISPOT assay. The level of IFN-γ produced by GFP peptide-stimulated cells was 65.2-fold above background (p Conclusion These results suggested that a high expressing recombinant Salmonella vaccine given orally to mice would elicit antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the spleen. Salmonella bacteria may, therefore, be used as potential mucosal vaccine vectors.

  6. Salmonella Typhimurium-specific bacteriophage ΦSH19 and the origins of species specificity in the Vi01-like phage family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Ray

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole genome sequencing of bacteriophages suitable for biocontrol of pathogens in food products is a pre-requisite to any phage-based intervention procedure. Trials involving the biosanitization of Salmonella Typhimurium in the pig production environment identified one such candidate, ΦSH19. Results This phage was sequenced and analysis of its 157,785 bp circular dsDNA genome revealed a number of interesting features. ΦSH19 constitutes another member of the recently-proposed Myoviridae Vi01-like family of phages, containing S. Typhi-specific Vi01 and Shigella-specific SboM-AG3. At the nucleotide level ΦSH19 is highly similar to phage Vi01 (80-98% pairwise identity over the length of the genome, with the major differences lying in the region associated with host-range determination. Analyses of the proteins encoded within this region by ΦSH19 revealed a cluster of three putative tail spikes. Of the three tail spikes, two have protein domains associated with the pectate lyase family of proteins (Tsp2 and P22 tail spike family (Tsp3 with the prospect that these enable Salmonella O antigen degradation. Tail spike proteins of Vi01 and SboM-AG3 are predicted to contain conserved right-handed parallel β-helical structures but the internal protein domains are varied allowing different host specificities. Conclusions The addition or exchange of tail spike protein modules is a major contributor to host range determination in the Vi01-like phage family.

  7. Identification of cognate host targets and specific ubiquitylation sites on the Salmonella SPI-1 effector SopB/SigD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogers, Lindsay D; Kristensen, Anders R; Boyle, Erin C; Robinson, Dale P; Ly, Richard T; Finlay, B Brett; Foster, Leonard J

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a bacterial pathogen responsible for enteritis and typhoid fever. Virulence is linked to two Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI-1 and SPI-2) on the bacterial chromosome, each of which encodes a type III secretion system. While both the SPI-1 and SPI-2 systems secrete an...

  8. Induction of specific immune responses in the genital tract of women after oral or rectal immunization and rectal boosting with Salmonella typhi Ty 21a vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutteh, W H; Kantele, A; Moldoveanu, Z; Crowley-Nowick, P A; Mestecky, J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of intestinal tract immunization in the induction of specific antibodies in human female genital tract secretions. Live attenuated typhoid vaccine Ty 21a was administered to three groups of healthy female volunteers, who were not using hormonal contraceptives. Group 1 included 15 women vaccinated orally. Group 2 included seven of the same women, who were vaccinated rectally 6 months later. Group 3 included 11 volunteers, who were vaccinated rectally. Salmonella-specific antibodies of IgG and IgA were measured in vaginal lavage and cervical mucus after oral or rectal primary vaccination. Salmonella-specific antibodies measured 1 month after rectal booster vaccination demonstrated significant increases in vaginal fluids and cervical mucus and were dominated by IgA. These results indicate that specific antibodies in the human female genital tract induced by primary vaccination can be enhanced by subsequent rectal administration of vaccines. PMID:11600178

  9. Phage-Based Fluorescent Biosensor Prototypes to Specifically Detect Enteric Bacteria Such as E. coli and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinay, Manon; Franche, Nathalie; Grégori, Gérald; Fantino, Jean-Raphaël; Pouillot, Flavie; Ansaldi, Mireille

    2015-01-01

    Water safety is a major concern for public health and for natural environment preservation. We propose to use bacteriophages to develop biosensor tools able to detect human and animal pathogens present in water. For this purpose, we take advantage of the highly discriminating properties of the bacteriophages, which specifically infect their bacterial hosts. The challenge is to use a fluorescent reporter protein that will be synthesized, and thus detected, only once the specific recognition step between a genetically modified temperate bacteriophage and its bacterial host has occurred. To ensure the accuracy and the execution speed of our system, we developed a test that does not require bacterial growth, since a simple 1-hour infection step is required. To ensure a high sensitivity of our tool and in order to detect up to a single bacterium, fluorescence is measured using a portable flow cytometer, also allowing on-site detection. In this study, we have constructed and characterized several "phagosensor" prototypes using the HK620 bacteriophage and its host Escherichia coli TD2158 and we successfully adapted this method to Salmonella detection. We show that the method is fast, robust and sensitive, allowing the detection of as few as 10 bacteria per ml with no concentration nor enrichment step. Moreover, the test is functional in sea water and allows the detection of alive bacteria. Further development will aim to develop phagosensors adapted on demand to the detection of any human or animal pathogen that may be present in water. PMID:26186207

  10. An Oral Salmonella-Based Vaccine Inhibits Liver Metastases by Promoting Tumor-Specific T-Cell-Mediated Immunity in Celiac and Portal Lymph Nodes: A Preclinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrell, Alejandrina; Mongini, Claudia; Gravisaco, María José; Canellada, Andrea; Tesone, Agustina Inés; Goin, Juan Carlos; Waldner, Claudia Inés

    2016-01-01

    Primary tumor excision is one of the most widely used therapies of cancer. However, the risk of metastases development still exists following tumor resection. The liver is a common site of metastatic disease for numerous cancers. Breast cancer is one of the most frequent sources of metastases to the liver. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of the orally administered Salmonella Typhi vaccine strain CVD 915 on the development of liver metastases in a mouse model of breast cancer. To this end, one group of BALB/c mice was orogastrically immunized with CVD 915, while another received PBS as a control. After 24 h, mice were injected with LM3 mammary adenocarcinoma cells into the spleen and subjected to splenectomy. This oral Salmonella-based vaccine produced an antitumor effect, leading to a decrease in the number and volume of liver metastases. Immunization with Salmonella induced an early cellular immune response in mice. This innate stimulation rendered a large production of IFN-γ by intrahepatic immune cells (IHIC) detected within 24 h. An antitumor adaptive immunity was found in the liver and celiac and portal lymph nodes (LDLN) 21 days after oral bacterial inoculation. The antitumor immune response inside the liver was associated with increased CD4+ and dendritic cell populations as well as with an inflammatory infiltrate located around liver metastatic nodules. Enlarged levels of inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and TNF) were also detected in IHIC. Furthermore, a tumor-specific production of IFN-γ and TNF as well as tumor-specific IFN-γ-producing CD8 T cells (CD8+IFN-γ+) were found in the celiac and portal lymph nodes of Salmonella-treated mice. This study provides first evidence for the involvement of LDLN in the development of an efficient cellular immune response against hepatic tumors, which resulted in the elimination of liver metastases after oral Salmonella-based vaccination. PMID:26973649

  11. Invasion of murine intestinal M cells by Salmonella typhimurium inv mutants severely deficient for invasion of cultured cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, M. A.; Reed, K A; Lodge, J; Stephen, J.; Hirst, B H; Jepson, M A

    1996-01-01

    We have examined the role of the Salmonella typhimurium inv locus in invasion of the murine intestine. Previous studies have demonstrated that M cells within the lymphoid-follicle-associated epithelia are the primary site of intestinal invasion by S. typhimurium. In this study, we show that mutants possessing defects in one of two inv genes, invA or invG, which render them severely deficient for invasion of polarized epithelial MDCK cells, retain their ability to actively invade mouse Peyer's...

  12. Identification of cognate host targets and specific ubiquitylation sites on the Salmonella SPI-1 effector SopB/SigD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogers, Lindsay D; Kristensen, Anders R; Boyle, Erin C; Robinson, Dale P; Ly, Richard T; Finlay, B Brett; Foster, Leonard J

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a bacterial pathogen responsible for enteritis and typhoid fever. Virulence is linked to two Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI-1 and SPI-2) on the bacterial chromosome, each of which encodes a type III secretion system. While both the SPI-1 and SPI-2 systems secrete an......B alone can alter Cdc42 activity. This approach is also widely applicable to identify binding partners to other bacterial effectors....

  13. Deciphering the function of an ORF: Salmonella enterica DeoM protein is a new mutarotase specific for deoxyribose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assairi, Liliane; Bertrand, Thomas; Ferdinand, Joëlle; Slavova-Azmanova, Neli; Christensen, Mette; Briozzo, Pierre; Schaeffer, Francis; Craescu, Constantin T.; Neuhard, Jan; Bârzu, Octavian; Gilles, Anne-Marie

    2004-01-01

    We identified in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi a cluster of four genes encoding a deoxyribokinase (DeoK), a putative permease (DeoP), a repressor (DeoQ), and an open reading frame encoding a 337 amino acid residues protein of unknown function. We show that the latter protein, called DeoM, is a hexamer whose synthesis is increased by a factor over 5 after induction with deoxyribose. The CD spectrum of the purified recombinant protein indicated a dominant contribution of βtype secondary structure and a small content of α-helix. Temperature and guanidinium hydrochloride induced denaturation of DeoM indicated that the hexamer dissociation and monomer unfolding are coupled processes. DeoM exhibits 12.5% and 15% sequence identity with galactose mutarotase from Lactococcus lactis and respectively Escherichia coli, which suggested that these three proteins share similar functions. Polarimetric experiments demonstrated that DeoM is a mutarotase with high specificity for deoxyribose. Site-directed mutagenesis of His183 in DeoM, corresponding to a catalytically active residue in GalM, yielded an almost inactive deoxyribose mutarotase. DeoM was crystallized and diffraction data collected for two crystal systems, confirmed its hexameric state. The possible role of the protein and of the entire gene cluster is discussed in connection with the energy metabolism of S. enterica under particular growth conditions. PMID:15075407

  14. Salmonella typhimurium IroN and FepA Proteins Mediate Uptake of Enterobactin but Differ in Their Specificity for Other Siderophores

    OpenAIRE

    Rabsch, Wolfgang; Voigt, Wolfgang; Reissbrodt, Rolf; Tsolis, Renée M.; Bäumler, Andreas J.

    1999-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium possesses two outer membrane receptor proteins, IroN and FepA, which have been implicated in the uptake of enterobactin. To determine whether both receptors have identical substrate specificities, fepA and iroN mutants and a double mutant were characterized. While both receptors transported enterobactin, the uptake of corynebactin and myxochelin C was selectively mediated by IroN and FepA, respectively.

  15. Oral Immunization with a Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Vaccine Induces Specific Circulating Mucosa-Homing CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Lundin, B. Samuel; Johansson, Camilla; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2002-01-01

    The kinetics and homing characteristics of T-cell responses in humans after mucosal immunizations have not been well characterized. Therefore, we have investigated the magnitude and duration of such responses as well as the homing receptor expression of antigen-specific peripheral blood T cells by using an oral model vaccine, i.e., the live, attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi vaccine (Ty21a). Eight volunteers were each given three doses of the vaccine 2 days apart, and blood samples...

  16. Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi-Specific Immunoglobulin A Antibody Responses in Plasma and Antibody in Lymphocyte Supernatant Specimens in Bangladeshi Patients with Suspected Typhoid Fever▿

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh, Alaullah; Bhuiyan, M. Saruar; Khanam, Farhana; Chowdhury, Fahima; Saha, Amit; Ahmed, Dilruba; Jamil, K. M. A.; LaRocque, Regina C; Harris, Jason B; Ahmad, Mian Mashhud; Charles, Richelle; Brooks, W Abdullah; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Cravioto, Alejandro; Ryan, Edward T.

    2009-01-01

    Many currently available diagnostic tests for typhoid fever lack sensitivity and/or specificity, especially in areas of the world where the disease is endemic. In order to identify a diagnostic test that better correlates with typhoid fever, we evaluated immune responses to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (serovar Typhi) in individuals with suspected typhoid fever in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We enrolled 112 individuals with suspected typhoid fever, cultured day 0 blood for serovar Typhi organisms...

  17. Prevalence of Salmonella Serovars Isolated from Turkey Carcasses and Giblets in Meknès-Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. El Allaoui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and the serotypes involved the virulence gene (InvA and SpvC of Salmonella isolates recovered from the raw meat and giblets (liver and gizzard of the turkey in various outlets in the Moroccan market. From November 2011 to November 2012 a total of 192 samples of turkey meat (included 48 breasts, 48 legs, 48 gizzards and 48 livers were collected every ten days from retail outlets in Meknès. Of these, 48 were from popular market, 48 from artisanal slaughterhouses, 48 from poulterers’shops and 48 from a supermarket at Meknes, Morocco. Of the total of 192 samples examined, 24.5% (47/192 were contaminated with Salmonella. Out of the total 48 samples analysed from popular market, 19 (40.42% proved to be Salmonella positive whereas from 48 samples obtained from traditional slaughterhouses and 48 from poulterers’shops 14 (29.87% and 8 (17% contained Salmonella, respectively. Compared to other outlets, a low level of Salmonella contamination was found in samples obtained from Supermarket 6 (12.7%. Among the 47 Salmonella isolates, 6 different serotypes were identified of which S. Saintpaul (46.8% was the most frequent, followed by S. Agona (17% and S. Kentucky (17%, S. Typhimurium (8.5%, S. Infantis (6.3% and S. Bredeney (4.2%.The high level of contamination, especially in popular market and artisanal slaughterhouses of turkey meat and giblets with Salmonella observed in this paper indicates the need for an improvement in the microbiological quality of retail turkey. Examination of Salmonella for invA gene was detected in all the strains (n=47, only three isolates were positive for the gene SpvC: S. Agona, S. Kentucky and S. Infantis.

  18. Salmonella: Salmonellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Trine; Maurischat, Sven; Malorny, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella remains one of the most important zoonotic pathogenic bacteria and is the causative agents of salmonellosis. The aim of this article is to give an overview of Salmonella and salmonellosis, starting by describing the characteristics of the microorganism Salmonella, including biochemical...

  19. THE USE OF THE SPECIFIC ANTI-SALMONELLA POLYCLONAL ANTIBODIES ISOLATED FROM HEN EGGS, IN SALMONELLOSIS PROPHYLAXIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA CRISTE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The administration of increased doses of antibodies in groups experimentallyinfected with Salmonella gallinarum, in order to record the efficiency of theiradministration in salmonellosis prophylaxis was the aim of our research. When alow infection dose, 1x107 CFU Salmonella gallinarum, was used theadministration of IgY polyclonal antibodies as immunoglobulin extract, or evenyolk administration had a protective effect against germs invasion. This effect wasnot recorded when a 10 folds higher dose was administered (1x108 CFU. Theprophylactic effect of the administration of polyclonal antibodies is demonstrated.

  20. Genes de virulência e diversidade genética em Salmonella spp. isoladas de amostras de origem suína

    OpenAIRE

    M.S. Moura; R.P. de Oliveira; R.T. Melo; E.P. Mendonça; Fonseca, B.B.; D.A. Rossi

    2014-01-01

    A diversificação da produção industrial de alimentos de origem suína e o intercâmbio comercial de animais e seus derivados destinados ao consumo humano podem ser importantes disseminadores de sorovares de Salmonella spp. na cadeia alimentar. Objetivou-se avaliar em 86 cepas de Salmonella spp., isoladas em granja de terminação e no abate de suínos, a ocorrência de três genes de virulência (invA, agfA e lpfA), bem como a similaridade genética entre elas. A ocorrência do gene invA foi verificada...

  1. Isolation and molecular characterization of Salmonella spp. from chevon and chicken meat collected from different districts of Chhattisgarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Naik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the prevalence of Salmonella in raw chevon and chicken meat sold in the retail meat shops situated in and around Durg, Rajnandgaon, Dhamtari, Raipur, and Bilaspur districts of Chhattisgarh. Studies were also conducted to find out the antibiotic resistance in Salmonella isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 samples comprising of 200 chevon meat and 200 chicken meat samples were processed for isolation of Salmonella and all isolates were further confirmed on the basis of cultural and biochemical characters and by targeting invA gene of Salmonella. All Salmonella isolates were also examined for their antimicrobial drug susceptibility/resistance pattern against commonly used antibiotics. Results: Out of 400 samples, the prevalence of Salmonella in chevon and chicken meat was found 9% and 7% respectively, with an overall prevalence of 8%. Polymerase chain reaction targeting invA gene of Salmonella showed positive result with 31 isolates. All 32 Salmonella isolates were found to be highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin while 96.87%, 96.87% and 93.75% were sensitive to gentamicin, imipenem, and ceftazidime, respectively. 93.75% and 59.37% isolates were resistant to erythromycin and oxytetracycline, respectively. Out of 32, 14 isolates had multiple antibiotic resistance index equal to or more than 0.2. Conclusion: Salmonella in chevon and chicken meat samples is prevailing in the areas of sampling due to poor hygienic conditions and also demonstrated the varied spectrum of antimicrobial resistance, including several multiple drug resistance phenotypes. Therefore, the present study emphasizes the need for continued surveillance of zoonotic foodborne pathogens including antimicrobial-resistant variants throughout the food production chain.

  2. Interaction Mediated by the Putative Tip Regions of MdsA and MdsC in the Formation of a Salmonella-Specific Tripartite Efflux Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Saemee; Hwang, Soonhye; Lee, SeungHwa; Ha, Nam-Chul; Lee, Kangseok

    2014-01-01

    To survive in the presence of a wide range of toxic compounds, gram-negative bacteria expel such compounds via tripartite efflux pumps that span both the inner and outer membranes. The Salmonella-specific MdsAB pump consists of MdsB, a resistance-nodulation-division (RND)-type inner membrane transporter (IMT) that requires the membrane fusion protein (MFP) MdsA, and an outer membrane protein (OMP; MdsC or TolC) to form a tripartite efflux complex. In this study, we investigated the role of th...

  3. Epidemiology of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS in Humans and Animals in the Gambia and Senegal

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    Dione, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS species are important food-borne pathogens. Although acute gastroenteritis is the most common clinical symptom, complications can occur resulting in bacteraemia with or without focal infections. Food products, especially food of animal origin such as poultry are associated with the transmission to humans. In Africa, NTS are among the most common cause of bloodstream infections in children younger than 5 years. Epidemiological data on NTS are lacking in Africa both for human and animal infections. Therefore, a study providing a better understanding of the factors that lead to the emergence of NTS is a prerequisite for the design of improved intervention strategies to control these pathogens. The aim of this thesis was to study the epidemiology of NTS pathogens in humans and animals in The Gambia and Senegal. Chapter 1 reviews the current status of knowledge on NTS infections in Africa with focus on The Gambia and Senegal. It also provides the background against which these studies were conducted. Chapter 2 describes the prevalence of NTS along the poultry production chain in Casamance, Senegal. Fifty seven randomly selected broiler farms, 42 street restaurants and 285 chicken carcasses were studied. The following farm prevalences were reported: 35.1, 38.6 and 29.8% in chicken faeces, on carcass skin, and in muscles, respectively. NTS were found in chicken meat servings of 14.3% of the 42 street restaurants and in 40.4% of the 285 chicken carcasses examined. The most prevalent serotypes among the eighteen identified were Salmonella Brancaster (57.9%, Salmonella Goelzau (10.7%, Salmonella Kentucky (8.4%, and Salmonella Hadar (7.3%. The following serotypes were for the first time identified in Senegal: Salmonella Bandia, Salmonella Bessi, Salmonella Brunei, Salmonella Hull, Salmonella Istanbul, Salmonella Javiana, Salmonella Magherafelt, Salmonella Molade, Salmonella oxford, Salmonella Poona, Salmonella Rubislaw, Salmonella Tamale, Salmonella Zanzibar and Salmonella Goelzau. The prevalence of NTS on skin and in muscle was significantly associated with the detection of Salmonella in feces (P≤ 0.001. The high levels of contamination of skin and muscle can be attributed to poor hygiene at the farm level and the non-hygienic handling of chicken carcass meat during and after slaughtering. This conclusion is supported by the fact that some serotypes are present both on the farm (as found in feces and in carcasses (on skin and meat. Food can also become contaminated through environmental contact, because hygienic measures applied in the restaurants are poor. A large proportion of our isolates (77.7% were resistant to two or more antibiotics commonly used in Senegalese veterinary practices and in human medicine (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, trimethoprim, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and spectinomycin. The high prevalence of Salmonella in broilers in Casamance and the level of antibiotic resistance are of concern and constitute a real threat to public health. Chapter 3 reports on the molecular characterization of 261 NTS serotypes isolated in poultry and poultry products in Senegal using consecutively RAPD and MLST. These techniques have provided details on the genetic diversity among the serotypes. Twenty distinct profiles were generated by the RAPD assay, the latter corresponding to the eighteen strains obtained after serotyping. Salmonella Kentucky showed two distinct profiles; this distinction was later confirmed by MLST. The MLST assay revealed genetic diversity resulting in 19 clones of which 16 were new and have never been reported anywhere in the world. The three known clones, namely Salmonella Kentucky ST198 previously reported in Senegal, Salmonella Agona ST13 and Salmonella Istanbul ST33 were isolated in many countries from both human and animal sources. This shows that these clones are geographically widely distributed and are circulating in a wide range of hosts. However, one new clone of multi-resistant Salmonella Kentucky was found. This study provided us with new insights into the genetic diversity on NTS in Senegal. Molecular tools remain essential to study the epidemiology of NTS by tracking the sources of infection and/or contamination. These same techniques were used to study the animal to human transmission in The Gambia in the next chapter. In chapter 4, eight diarrheic children with confirmed salmonellosis and 6 healthy carriers were traced back to their compounds and Salmonella identified from the domestic animals (poultry, sheep and goat living in close contact in the same compound. The most common serotypes identified were Salmonella Colindale in humans (21.42% and Salmonella Poona in animals (14.28%. Among the animals, poultry carried the highest proportion of Salmonella (66.7%. In fact, poultry are considered as the most common asymptomatic carriers of Salmonella. However, serotypes in humans were different from those in animals except in one case where Salmonella Moualine was simultaneously found in chicken and a diarrheic child but in different compounds. After proceeding MLST on all isolates, we found that those two Salmonella Moualine were distinct but genetically very close because they differed at only one locus sucA. The similarity matrix of the strains revealed close genetic relatedness among Salmonella serotypes. There was at least 80% similarity and the majority varied between 98% and 100%. This showed the stability of Salmonella clones which are not subject to high genetic variability. There was therefore no indication of clonal groups which are adapted to a specific host because the genetic tree did reveal that all lineages contained isolates of mixed origin (human and animal. The association between salmonellosis and other diseases, most often malaria, in our study shows the role of opportunistic infections and malaria in NTS infections. Almost all serotypes were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. This is due to the fact that antibiotics are not yet commonly used by of the rural population in The Gambia for treatment of NTS infections as well in humans as in the animal production system. Our results do not support the hypothesis that humans and animals in close contact in the same household carry genotypically similar Salmonella serotypes. Nevertheless these findings have stirred up the problem of the transmission of NTS in Africa and have highlighted the poultry population as playing a pivotal role of healthy carriers in the epidemiology of NTS. Based on this study, we suggest other areas to be investigated such as the environment and human-to-human transmission. Little is known on the molecular epidemiology of NTS particularly with respect to their virulence genes. Therefore, to assess their occurrence and contribution to disease in humans and animals in The Gambia and Senegal, we screened all serotypes isolated from humans, animals and food in both countries (chapter 5. A total number of 185 NTS was tested by PCR for the presence of 12 virulence genes. Among these genes, 10 belong to the five described Salmonella Pathogenicity islands thought to be implicated in Salmonella pathogenesis; and the other two genes are carried by plasmids. All genes were present at a level of more than 70% except sopE and pefA which were observed in 33% and 44% of the isolates, respectively. The most prevalent gene was invA (95.5% which is an invasion gene conserved within the Salmonella genus. It has been widely used to diagnose Salmonella in humans and animals. However, the sopE gene associated with outbreaks in human and animals was present in all serotypes isolated in humans with diarrhoea except one. Interestingly, Salmonella Istanbul and Salmonella Javiana isolated from chicken serving restaurants carried all the virulence genes of the five pathogenicity islands. There was a significant association between some virulence genes (sopB, sopE and pipD and resistance to certain antibiotics namely amoxicillin, ticarcillin, trimethoprim plus sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, trimethoprim, spectinomycin, streptomycin, sulfonamides and nitrofurantoin. This association shows that resistance might increase the virulence of NTS during infection. These findings showed that all strains of Salmonella isolated from humans and animals are potentially pathogenic. This is very worrying because the most virulent serotypes were also the most frequently detected in food and in animals, and caused diarrhoea in immuno-compromised children. Furthermore, virulence and resistance are intrinsically linked and the presence of the virulence genes sopB and pefA is likely to increase the resistance to a series of antibiotics (trimethoprim plus sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulfonamides.

  4. Allotypic and idiotypic specificities of anti-Salmonella abortus-equi antibodies produced by rabbits subjected to successive irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three out of five rabbits subjected to successive irradiations and immunized against Salmonella abortus-equi produced IgG which, transiently, were not precipitated by anti-a3 anti-allotypic sera, although they carried all the determinants of the a3 allotypic pattern. As a3 IgG from normal rabbits are precipitated by anti-a3 sera, it appeared that the molecular distribution of the a3 allotypic determinants was different on the IgG produced by these irradiated rabbits compared to IgG produced by normal rabbits. After a second irradiation, one of these rabbits produced a high level (50 mg per ml) of anti-Salmonella antibodies of restricted heterogeneity. An anti-idiotypic serum prepared against anti-Salmonella antibodies produced by this rabbit after the first irradiation precipitated the idiotypes it recognised in the serum collected after the first irradiation, while it did not precipitate the idiotypes it recognised in the serum collected after the second irradiation, although they carried all the determinants of the idiotypes of the serum collected after the first irradiation. That probably means that there is a different molecular distribution of the idiotypic determinants between antibodies produced after the first irradiation and antibodies produced after the second irradiation. An antiidiotypic serum prepared against anti-Salmonella antibodies produced after the second irradiation did not distinguish by precipitation in gel medium or by radioimmunoassay between the idiotypes it recognised in antibodies produced after the first irradiation and those in antibodies produced after the second irradiation. The idiotypic similarity thus detected, and the fact that unexpected allotypes were not detected, is in better agreement with the expression of the potentiality of radiation-resistant cells than with the expression of new antibody producing cell clones arising from virgin stem cells. (author)

  5. Detection of Salmonella spp. in oysters by PCR.

    OpenAIRE

    Bej, A K; Mahbubani, M H; Boyce, M. J.; Atlas, R M

    1994-01-01

    PCR DNA amplification of a region of the himA gene of Salmonella typhimurium specifically detected Salmonella spp. In oysters, 1 to 10 cells of Salmonella spp. were rapidly detected by the PCR following a pre-enrichment step to increase sensitivity and to ensure that detection was based on the presence of viable Salmonella spp.

  6. Salmonella Typhimurium-specific bacteriophage ΦSH19 and the origins of species specificity in the Vi01-like phage family

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Ray; Rowsell Joanna; Timms Andrew R; Hooton Steven PT; Connerton Ian F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Whole genome sequencing of bacteriophages suitable for biocontrol of pathogens in food products is a pre-requisite to any phage-based intervention procedure. Trials involving the biosanitization of Salmonella Typhimurium in the pig production environment identified one such candidate, ΦSH19. Results This phage was sequenced and analysis of its 157,785 bp circular dsDNA genome revealed a number of interesting features. ΦSH19 constitutes another member of the recently-propos...

  7. Comparison of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium LT2 and Non-LT2 Salmonella Genomic Sequences, and Genotyping of Salmonellae by Using PCR†

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Joong; Park, Si-Hong; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2006-01-01

    Genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 expected to be specifically present in Salmonella were selected using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) program. The 152 selected genes were compared with 11 genomic sequences of Salmonella serovars, including Salmonella enterica subsp. I and IIIb and Salmonella bongori (V), and were clustered into 17 groups by their comparison patterns. A total of 38 primer pairs were constructed to represent each of the 17 groups, and PCR was ...

  8. A multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for simultaneous detection of Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157, and Listeria monocytogenes in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Biao; He, Yiping; Tu, Shu-I; Shi, Xianming

    2010-06-01

    To achieve an effective detection of Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157, and Listeria monocytogenes in meat products, a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with a multipathogen enrichment strategy was developed in this study. Pathogen-specific DNA sequences in the invA, rfbE, and hlyA genes were employed to design primers and TaqMan probes for identifying Salmonella spp., E. coli O157, and L. monocytogenes, respectively. An internal amplification control (IAC) utilizing a novel DNA sequence from human adenovirus was incorporated into the multiplex PCR assay to indicate false-negative results. Concurrent amplifications of multiple targets and IAC were thoroughly evaluated and optimized to minimize PCR competitions. Combined with a multipathogen enrichment in a selective enrichment broth for Salmonella, Escherichia, and Listeria (SEL), the multiplex real-time PCR assay was able to simultaneously detect all of the three organisms in artificially contaminated ground beef at a detection sensitivity of retail meat samples including beef, chicken, turkey, and pork revealed that 12 samples were positive for one of the organisms and 3 samples were positive for two of the organisms after a 20-h enrichment in SEL. The remaining meat samples tested negative for all of the organisms by only showing amplification of the IAC. These results were confirmed by traditional culture methods testing for each individual species. Taken together, the multiplex real-time PCR assay combined with multipathogen enrichment is a rapid and reliable method for effectively screening single or multiple pathogen occurrences in various meat products. PMID:20113204

  9. Pathogenicity of Salmonella enteritidis Phage Type 1 Isolate of Malaysia in 21 Day Old Specific-Pathogen Free Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khairani-Bejo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enteritidis (SE has always been related to subclinical infection in the chickens infected after 2 weeks of hatching. However, few pathogenic phage types were proven for their ability to manifest systemic infection and cause the organism to be shed into the surrounding environment. It was the objective of the study to determine the pathogenicity of SE Phage Type (PT 1 in Specific-Pathogen-Free (SPF chickens. About 93, 21 day old SPF chickens where divided into 3 groups namely the Control, SE and Mortality groups. The chickens were raised separately in caging system and given free access to antibiotic-free ration and water. The SE and Mortality groups were inoculated orally (1.0 mL with SE PT 1 (1x108 cfu mL-1. The chickens in the SE and Control groups were sacrificed at various intervals throughout the trial. Samples were collected for bacterial isolation and histological examination. The mortality percentage of the chickens in the Mortality group was recorded. The study showed that no mortality was recorded throughout the trial in the mortality as well as the SE group. Body weight was lower in the SE group when compared to the Control group throughout the trial except at days 2, 3 and 5 post inoculation (pi reaching its peak at day 14 pi when the SE group body weight was 26% lower than the controls. Clinical signs observed in the SE and Mortality group were represented by diarrhoea, inappetance, ruffled feather and stunted chickens while no abnormal clinical signs where recorded in the Control group. Grossly mild airsacculitis, mild peritonitis and hepatic congestion where recorded in the SE group at day 2 pi until day 5 pi while no gross lesions where recorded in the Control group. SE was first isolated in the caecum (66% at 12 h pi. At day 1 pi SE was isolated from the caecum and spleen (33% whilst at day 2, SE was isolated from the caecum (100% and caecal tonsil (66%. No SE was isolated from the cloacal swabs throughout the trial. The villi height was generally lower in the SE group when compared to the Controls, however it was significantly lower (p<0.05 in the duodenum at 12 h, days 1, 3, 5, 10, 14 and 21 pi; in the jejunum at 6 h, days 2, 14 and 21 pi while in the ileum at days 1, 3 and 5 pi. The crypts depth measurement was fluctuating however it ended up by being higher in the SE group, nevertheless it was significantly lower (p<0.05 in the SE group when compared to the Control group in the duodenum at 6 h and day 14 pi in the jejunum at day 10 pi; in the ileum at 12 h pi. Histopathological changes recorded included hepatitis, congestion and focal areas of necrosis; splenitis, congestion and oedema in the adenoid sheathed arteries; congestion and areas of necrosis in the lymphoi follicles of the bursa of Fabricius; enteritis, congestion and sloughing of necrotic enterocytes in the intestinal villi with presence of bacterial clusters in the villi surface and intestinal lumen. SE rods present in the caecal tonsils were seen to be engulfed by macrophages at days 1 and 2 pi, necrosis of the enterocytes on the villi surface and infiltration of the bacteria was recorded at day 2 pi while at days 5 pi the bacteria multiplication were seen and often located upon the M-like M cells however, no actual engulfment was recorded.

  10. Salmonella Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it is a common cause of foodborne illness. Salmonella occurs in raw poultry, eggs, beef, and sometimes on unwashed fruit and vegetables. ... Typhoid fever, a more serious disease caused by Salmonella, is not common in the United States. It ... National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  11. Establishment of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with a coated deflagellated Salmonella enteritidis antigen for detection of a specific chicken antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Y; Awamura, N; Fujii, H; Ohta, H; Toyota, Y; Otsuki, K; Inoue, T

    2000-01-01

    We attempted to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for field monitoring/profiling purposes for Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infection of poultry flocks. Serotyping rabbit sera, commercially obtained, specific for Salmonella identification sera to O2, O4, O7, O8, S. Vi, S. Hm, and O9, showed negative ELISA (E)-values ( 0.5). Similar negative E-value results were obtained for antisera to Echerichia coli (E. O antigen). Field serum samples originating from SE-isolated flocks yielded similar positive ratios on both ELISAs including the present coated deflagellated SE antigen and a commercially obtained flagellated SE antigen and that of rapid plate aggregation with a pullorum antigen (PD-RPA). About 100 days after the first monitoring, no SE isolation in the same flock was observed resulting in a carrier state of SE infection. Although both the monitoring results with commercially obtained ELISA and PD-RPA showed lower positive or negative ratios, the present ELISA showed a higher positive ratio than that of the first monitoring. The present ELISA is suggested to be a suitable method to do accurate profiling on the carrier state of infection. PMID:10879908

  12. Tissue-specific gene expression identifies a gene in the lysogenic phage Gifsy-1 that affects Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium survival in Peyer's patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, T L; Ellermeier, C D; Slauch, J M

    2000-08-01

    In vivo expression technology was used to identify Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genes that are transcriptionally induced when the bacteria colonize the small intestines of mice. These genes were subsequently screened for those that are transcriptionally inactive during the systemic stages of disease. This procedure identified gipA, a gene that is specifically induced in the small intestine of the animal. The gipA gene is carried on the lambdoid phage Gifsy-1. Consistent with the expression profile, the sole defect conferred by a gipA null mutation is in growth or survival in a Peyer's patch. The gipA strain is wild type in its ability to initially colonize the small intestine and invade the intestinal epithelium. The mutant also survives and propagates at wild-type levels during the systemic stages of disease. The gipA open reading frame is homologous to a family of putative insertion sequence elements, although our evidence shows that transposition is not required for gipA function in the Peyer's patch. These results suggest that the bacteria sense and respond to the particular environment of the Peyer's patch, a critical site for the replication of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium. PMID:10913072

  13. Mangrove Ecosystems: An Adopted Habitat for Pathogenic Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poharkar, Krupali V; Kerkar, Savita; D'Costa, Dilecta; Doijad, Swapnil; Barbuddhe, S B

    2016-03-01

    Mangroves are affected by industrial and anthropogenic factors. Although mangroves have been widely studied, investigations of pathogens that may affect public health significance are largely lacking even while incidences of diseases linked with the consumption of mangrove-associated food have increased. A total of 150 samples of water, sediment, and biota were collected from ten mangrove ecosystems in Goa, India. Total viable counts of pathogens such as E. coli, Listeria, Salmonella, and Vibrio spp. ranged from 1.25 to 3.9 × 10(3) cfu/ mL, which were above the relevant standards. Salmonella counts were the highest at 3.1 to 3.9 × 10(3)cfu/mL, with a prevalence of 40%. Considering its high prevalence, the virulence of Salmonella spp. was studied. The invA gene was detected in 35% of the Salmonella isolates by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The findings suggested that pathogens adapt to this habitat, resulting in contamination of the indigenous fauna. PMID:26931537

  14. Salmonella Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Salmonella Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Salmonella Infections Print A ... bathroom and before handling food in any way. Salmonella Basics Not everyone who ingests Salmonella bacteria will ...

  15. Especialização esportiva precoce e o ensino dos jogos coletivos de invasão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pombo Menezes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer una relación entre los dif erentes principios metodológicos de la enseñanza de los deportes de equipo de invas ión (DEI y los proc esos de especialización deportiva precoz (EDP. EDP es un fenómeno de imposición, a los niños, de los planes de competición y entrenamiento adecuados para los adultos y la es pecificidad y limitación de las experiencias motoras. Basado en la literatura, se concluyó que la enseñanza de los DEI, a pesar de no estar directamente influenciada por los procesos competitivos en la iniciación, puede ser basada en métodos diversificados y en diferentes deportes, dificultando el EEP.

  16. A comparison of cecal colonization of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in white leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomolnaya Lydia M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial food borne illnesses worldwide. A major source of infection for humans is consumption of chicken or egg products that have been contaminated with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, however our knowledge regarding colonization and persistence factors in the chicken is small. Results We compared intestinal and systemic colonization of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant CBA/J mice during infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028, one of the most commonly studied isolates. We also studied the distribution of wild type serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028 and an isogenic invA mutant during competitive infection in the cecum of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and 8-week-old CBA/J mice. We found that although the systemic levels of serotype Typhimurium in both infected animal models are low, infected mice have significant splenomegaly beginning at 15 days post infection. In the intestinal tract itself, the cecal contents are the major site for recovery of serotype Typhimurium in the cecum of 1-week-old chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice. Additionally we show that only a small minority of Salmonellae are intracellular in the cecal epithelium of both infected animal models, and while SPI-1 is important for successful infection in the murine model, it is important for association with the cecal epithelium of 1-week-old chicks. Finally, we show that in chicks infected with serotype Typhimurium at 1 week of age, the level of fecal shedding of this organism does not reflect the level of cecal colonization as it does in murine models. Conclusion In our study, we highlight important differences in systemic and intestinal colonization levels between chick and murine serotype Typhimurium infections, and provide evidence that suggests that the role of SPI-1 may not be the same during colonization of both animal models.

  17. A critical review of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Wales, Andrew; Davies, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Salmonella Typhimurium has been reported to contaminate egg production across the World, but where Salmonella Enteritidis is endemic it is this latter serovar that dominates egg-borne salmonellosis. However, Salmonella Typhimurium is a major foodborne pathogen so it is important to understand how it can impact the microbiological safety of eggs and what serovar-specific control strategies may be appropriate in the future as control over Salmonella Enteritidis continues to ...

  18. Specific lung mucosal and systemic immune responses after oral immunization of mice with Salmonella typhimurium aroA, Salmonella typhi Ty21a, and invasive Escherichia coli expressing recombinant pertussis toxin S1 subunit.

    OpenAIRE

    M. J. Walker; Rohde, M.; Timmis, K. N.; Guzmán, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Pertussis toxin (PT) is considered an essential protective component for incorporation into new generation vaccines against Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. Traditionally, antipertussis vaccination has employed an intramuscular route. An alternative to this approach is to stimulate mucosal and systemic immune responses by oral immunization with live vaccine carrier strains of Salmonella spp. or Escherichia coli. Recombinant S1 subunit of pertussis toxin was express...

  19. Oral vaccination with a recombinant Salmonella vaccine vector provokes systemic HIV-1 subtype C Gag-specific CD4+ Th1 and Th2 cell immune responses in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williamson Anna-Lise

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant Salmonella vaccine vectors may potentially be used to induce specific CD4+ T cell responses against foreign viral antigens. Such immune responses are required features of vaccines against pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1. The aim of this study was to investigate the induction of systemic HIV-1-specific CD4+ T helper (Th responses in mice after oral immunization with a live attenuated Salmonella vaccine vector that expressed HIV-1 subtype C Gag. Groups of BALB/c mice were vaccinated orally three times (4 weeks apart with this recombinant Salmonella. At sacrifice, 28 days after the last immunization, systemic CD4+ Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunospot assay and cytometric bead array. HIV-1 Gag-specific IgG1 and IgG2a humoral responses in the serum were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Mice vaccinated with the recombinant Salmonella elicited both HIV-1-specific Th1 (interferon-gamma (IFN-γ and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and Th2 (interleukin-4 (IL-4 and interleukin-5 (IL-5 cytokine responses. The vaccine induced 70 (IFN-γ spot-forming units (SFUs/10e6 splenocytes and 238 IL-4 SFUs/10e6 splenocytes. Splenocytes from vaccinated mice also produced high levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines upon stimulation with a Gag CD4 peptide. The levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-5 were 7.5-, 29.1-, 26.2- and 89.3-fold above the background, respectively. Both HIV-1 Gag-specific IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies were detected in the sera of vaccinated mice. Conclusion The study highlights the potential of orally-delivered attenuated Salmonella as mucosal vaccine vectors for HIV-1 Subtype C Gag to induce Gag-specific CD4+ Th1 and Th2 cellular immune responses and antibodies which may be important characteristics required for protection against HIV-1 infection.

  20. Salmonella enterica in imported and domestic day-old turkey poults in Egypt: repertoire of virulence genes and their antimicrobial resistance profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, K M; Marouf, S H; Erfan, A M; AlAtfeehy, N

    2014-12-01

    Globalisation and international trade facilitate the rapid spread and transmission of foodborne pathogens. This study was designed to determine the serovars, distribution of virulence genes (invA, avrA, ssaQ, mgtC, siiD, sopB, gipA, sodC1, sopE1, spvC, bcfC) and antibiotic resistance profiles in salmonellae recovered from imported and domestic day-old turkey poults in Egypt. The prevalence of salmonellae in the imported poults was 4% (6/150): S. Enteritidis was the most frequent isolate (1.3%; 2/150), followed by Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle and a non-typeable strain, each with 0.7% (1/150) prevalence. The prevalence of salmonellae in the domestic poults was < 2% (2/150) and serotyping indicated a prevalence of 1.3% (1/150) for both Typhimurium and Altona. In polymerase chain reaction screening, the genes invA, sopB and bcfC were detected in all the Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle, Altona and non-typeable isolates (100%); the gene gipA was absent from all isolates. Carriage of invA, sopB and bcfC among the Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle, Altona and non-typeable isolates was associated with a core pattern of resistance to three antibiotics: streptomycin, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol. The detection of S. Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle, and Altona in turkey poults has important implications because these serovars are a significant cause of foodborne illness and enteric fever in humans. PMID:25812224

  1. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella in peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Zhang, Guodong; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Mantripragada, Vijaya; Ezeoke, Ifeoma; Doyle, Michael P

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the rates of thermal inactivation of three Salmonella Tennessee strains in peanut butter associated with an outbreak and to compare them to the rates of inactivation of Salmonella strains of other serotypes (Enteritidis, Typhimurium, and Heidelberg) (SSOS) and of clinical isolates of Salmonella Tennessee from sporadic cases (STSC). Commercial peanut butter was inoculated with Salmonella isolates and heated at 71, 77, 83, and 90 degrees C. The thermal inactivation curves were upwardly concave, indicating rapid death at the beginning (20 min) of heating followed by lower death rates thereafter. The first-order kinetics approach and nonlinear Weibull model were used to fit the inactivation curves and describe the rates of thermal inactivation of Salmonella in peanut butter. The calculated minimum times needed to obtain a 7-log reduction at 90 degrees C for the composited three outbreak-associated strains were significantly greater (P Salmonella Tennessee by 7 log, whereas 86 and 55 min were needed for SSOS and STSC, respectively. These results indicate that the outbreak-associated Salmonella strains were more thermotolerant than the other Salmonella strains tested, and this greater thermal resistance was not serotype specific. Thermal treatments of peanut butter at 90 degrees C for less than 30 min are not sufficient to kill large populations (5 log CFU/g) of Salmonella in highly contaminated peanut butter. PMID:19722389

  2. RAPID'Salmonella chromogenic medium. Performance Tested Method 050701.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Wendy F; Martinez, Frederic L

    2009-01-01

    RAPID'Salmonella is a chromogenic medium for isolation and detection of Salmonella spp. in food, based on two enzymatic activities. All presumptive Salmonella-positive colonies are magenta, including lactose-positive Salmonella. S. Typhi, and S. Paratyphi serotypes, due to detection of C8 esterase activity. In order to differentiate Salmonella from other Enterobacteriaceae, the medium includes a second chromogenic substrate. As part of an Emergency Response Validation due to a massive outbreak and subsequent recall, peanut butter was tested to compare the performance of RAPID'Salmonella to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference method for detection of Salmonella. Sensitivity and specificity for RAPID'Salmonella were 100%. PMID:20166610

  3. İmmunomanyetik Ayırma Yöntem ile Gıdalardan Salmonella spp. İzolasyonu

    OpenAIRE

    Mercanoğlu, Birce; Aytaç, S. Aykut

    2005-01-01

    In this study, firstly the specificity of Dynabeads® antiâ€'Salmonella has been examined and then (immunomagnetic separation) IMS method has been investigated in order to isolate Salmonella spp. from 50 food samples assumed that having the contamination of Salmonella risk in parallel with the traditional cultural method that is ISO 6579 reference method. Also Salmonella enteritidis, antiâ€'Salmonella beads and the S. enteritidis +Dynabeads® antiâ€'Salmonella complex...

  4. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi-specific immunoglobulin A antibody responses in plasma and antibody in lymphocyte supernatant specimens in Bangladeshi patients with suspected typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Alaullah; Bhuiyan, M Saruar; Khanam, Farhana; Chowdhury, Fahima; Saha, Amit; Ahmed, Dilruba; Jamil, K M A; LaRocque, Regina C; Harris, Jason B; Ahmad, Mian Mashhud; Charles, Richelle; Brooks, W Abdullah; Calderwood, Stephen B; Cravioto, Alejandro; Ryan, Edward T; Qadri, Firdausi

    2009-11-01

    Many currently available diagnostic tests for typhoid fever lack sensitivity and/or specificity, especially in areas of the world where the disease is endemic. In order to identify a diagnostic test that better correlates with typhoid fever, we evaluated immune responses to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (serovar Typhi) in individuals with suspected typhoid fever in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We enrolled 112 individuals with suspected typhoid fever, cultured day 0 blood for serovar Typhi organisms, and performed Widal assays on days 0, 5, and 20. We harvested peripheral blood lymphocytes and analyzed antibody levels in supernatants collected on days 0, 5, and 20 (using an antibody-in-lymphocyte-supernatant [ALS] assay), as well as in plasma on these days. We measured ALS reactivity to a serovar Typhi membrane preparation (MP), a formalin-inactivated whole-cell preparation, and serovar Typhi lipopolysaccharide. We measured responses in healthy Bangladeshi, as well as in Bangladeshi febrile patients with confirmed dengue fever or leptospirosis. We categorized suspected typhoid fever individuals into different groups (groups I to V) based on blood culture results, Widal titer, and clinical features. Responses to MP antigen in the immunoglobulin A isotype were detectable at the time of presentation in the plasma of 81% of patients. The ALS assay, however, tested positive in all patients with documented or highly suspicious typhoid, suggesting that such a response could be the basis of improved diagnostic point-of-care-assay for serovar Typhi infection. It can be important for use in epidemiological studies, as well as in difficult cases involving fevers of unknown origin. PMID:19741090

  5. Detection of Salmonella spp. from chevon, mutton and its environment in retail meat shops in Anand city (Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Makwana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was (i To attempt isolation and identification of Salmonella species from samples. (ii Serotyping of Salmonella isolates. (iii Detection of virulence factor associated genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and Methods: A total of 284 samples comprised of chevon and mutton (112 samples each as well as 60 samples (20 each of retail meat shops environment samples viz. Butchers hands, knives and log swabs were collected from the retail meat shops in and around Anand City under aseptic precautions. Rappaport-vassiliadis soy bean meal broth and tetrathionate broth was used for the enrichment of all the samples and inoculation was done on brilliant green agar and xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. This was followed by the confirmation of isolates using biochemical tests. For the serotyping, isolates were sent to the National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre, Central Research Institute, Kasauli, Himachal Pradesh. Detection of virulence genes was performed by PCR technique using previously reported primer. Result: Of 284 meats and retail meat shops environment samples, 13 (4.58% samples were found positive for Salmonella. It was interesting to know that incidence of Salmonella was more in mutton (6.25% than chevon (3.57%. In case of meat shop environmental samples 1 (5.00% sample observed positive for Salmonella separately among the butchers hands and knives swabs (Each of 20 samples examined. Out of 13, eleven isolates detected as Salmonella Typhimurium, whereas only two isolates were detected as Salmonella Enteritidis. All Salmonella isolates possess invA and stn genes, whereas nine isolates had a presence of spvR gene while only five of the isolates revealed the presence of spvC gene as shown by in vitro detection of virulence genes by PCR. Conclusion: Therefore, might be suggested that the good hygiene practices and effective control measures should be taken to encourage clean meat production with prolonged shelf-life.

  6. PREVALENCE OF DRUG RESISTANCE AND VIRULENCE FEATURES IN Salmonella spp. ISOLATED FROM FOODS ASSOCIATED OR NOT WITH SALMONELLOSIS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Estela Gravato Rowlands

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is the most common etiological agent of cases and outbreaks of foodborne diarrheal illnesses. The emergence and spread of Salmonella spp., which has become multi-drug resistant and potentially more pathogenic, have increased the concern with this pathogen. In this study, 237 Salmonella spp., associated or not with foodborne salmonellosis in Brazil, belonging mainly to serotype Enteritidis, were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of the virulence genes spvC, invA, sefA and pefA. Of the isolates, 46.8% were sensitive to all antimicrobials and 51.9% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent was observed in 10.5% of the strains. The highest rates of resistance were observed for streptomycin (35.9% and nalidixic acid (16.9%. No strain was resistant to cefoxitin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, amikacin, ciprofloxacin and imipenem. The invA gene was detected in all strains. Genes spvC and pefA were found in 48.1% and 44.3% of strains, respectively. The gene sefA was detected in 31.6% of the strains and only among S. Enteritidis. Resistance and virulence determinants were detected in Salmonella strains belonging to several serotypes. The high rates of antibiotic-resistance in strains isolated from poultry products demonstrate the potential risk associated with the consumption of these products and the need to ensure good food hygiene practices from farm to table to reduce the spread of pathogens relevant to public health.

  7. PREVALENCE OF DRUG RESISTANCE AND VIRULENCE FEATURES IN Salmonella spp. ISOLATED FROM FOODS ASSOCIATED OR NOT WITH SALMONELLOSIS IN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Ikuno, Alice A.; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Jakabi, Miyoko; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella is the most common etiological agent of cases and outbreaks of foodborne diarrheal illnesses. The emergence and spread of Salmonella spp., which has become multi-drug resistant and potentially more pathogenic, have increased the concern with this pathogen. In this study, 237 Salmonella spp., associated or not with foodborne salmonellosis in Brazil, belonging mainly to serotype Enteritidis, were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of the virulence genes spvC, invA, sefA and pefA. Of the isolates, 46.8% were sensitive to all antimicrobials and 51.9% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent was observed in 10.5% of the strains. The highest rates of resistance were observed for streptomycin (35.9%) and nalidixic acid (16.9%). No strain was resistant to cefoxitin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, amikacin, ciprofloxacin and imipenem. The invA gene was detected in all strains. Genes spvC and pefA were found in 48.1% and 44.3% of strains, respectively. The gene sefA was detected in 31.6% of the strains and only among S. Enteritidis. Resistance and virulence determinants were detected in Salmonella strains belonging to several serotypes. The high rates of antibiotic-resistance in strains isolated from poultry products demonstrate the potential risk associated with the consumption of these products and the need to ensure good food hygiene practices from farm to table to reduce the spread of pathogens relevant to public health. PMID:25351537

  8. Multiplex real-time PCR assay for the specific detection and quantification of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground pork samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 are food borne-pathogens capable of causing serious gastrointestinal illness. We previously described simultaneous detection of these pathogens by multiplex PCR in 44 types of spiked food samples, including meat, produce, fish, an...

  9. USING BASE-SPECIFIC SALMONELLA TESTER STRAINS TO CHARACTERIZE THE TYPES OF MUTATION INDUCED BY BENZIDINE AND BENZIDINE CONGENERS AFTER REDUCTIVE METABOLISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine HCl, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine, 3,3'- dimethoxybenzidine and benzidine congener-based dye trypan blue were mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TAl 00 only with metabolic activation. It was found that a hamster liver 89 ...

  10. PERFIL SOROLGICO E DE ISOLAMENTO DE Salmonella sp. EM SUNOS NO INCIO DA TERMINAO E AO ABATE SEROLOGY AND ISOLATION OF SALMONELLA SP. IN PIGS AT THE FINISHING SITE AND AT SLAUGHTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Mller

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudos que elucidem a cadeia de transmisso de Salmonella enterica nos sistemas de produo de sunos so importantes para que seja possvel implementar programas de controle da infeco. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o ndice de animais positivos para Salmonella sp. no incio da fase de terminao e ao abate e identificar possveis fontes de contaminao no perodo. Em trs granjas terminadoras, coletaram-se: suabes de superfcie nas baias e nos silos durante o vazio sanitrio; amostras de fezes e sangue dos animais no dia do alojamento; alquotas de todos os lotes de rao e amostras de sangue, linfonodos mesentricos (LM e contedo intestinal (CI ao abate. As amostras de sangue foram submetidas a teste de ELISA-LPS para Salmonella Typhimurium. Nas demais amostras, pesquisou-se a presena de Salmonella sp. As amostras de rao foram adicionalmente submetidas tcnica da Reao em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR amplificando o gene invA. Todos os animais foram negativos para presena de Salmonella sp. nas fezes no incio da terminao; entretanto, em duas granjas havia animais soropositivos (12% e 28%, respectivamente. Em duas granjas havia contaminao residual no ambiente e na terceira granja, em um dos lotes de rao, detectou-se a presena de Salmonella sp. pela PCR. Ao abate, acima de 90% dos animais foram positivos no teste de ELISA-LPS, sendo que em todos os lotes encontrou-se um nmero varivel (12-92% de portadores em LM e CI. A partir disso, concluiu-se que a terminao foi a fase crtica para a amplificao da infeco por Salmonella sp., sendo a presena residual do microrganismo na granja e o fornecimento de rao contaminada fontes provveis de infeco.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Abate, isolamento, Salmonella, sorologia, suno, terminao.
    Studies assessing the Salmonella transmission chain in pig herds are the first step to start a control program. The aims of this study were to compare the prevalence of Salmonella positive pigs at the beginning of the finishing phase and at slaughter, and to identify the possible sources of contamination in the farms. In three finishing farms, environmental swabs from the barns and from the feed silos were collected during the sanitary emptiness. Furthermore, samples of feces and blood from the animals on the day of housing; and aliquots from all feed lots were taken. At slaughter, blood, mesenteric lymph nodes (LM and intestinal content (CI were sampled. Blood samples were submitted to a S. Typhimurium ELISA-LPS test. All other samples were submitted to a Salmonella isolation protocol. Feed samples were also submitted to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR targeting the invA gene. Feces samples from all pigs were Salmonella negative at the beginning of the finishing phase, in two farms seropositive animals were found. In two farms, residual environmental contamination was detected, and, in the third farm, one of the feed batches was Salmonella positive on the PCR assay. At slaughter, over 90% of the animals were positive on the ELISA-LPS test and, in all cohorts, a variable number (12%-92% of carriers in LM and CI was detected. From this on, it was concluded that the finishing phase was critical for the amplification of Salmonella infection, and the residual environmental contamination in the farms as well as Salmonella positive feed batches were the probable infection sources.

    KEY WORDS: Isolation, finishing and slaughter, Salmonella, serology, swine.

  11. Multiplex T-RFLP Allows for Increased Target Number and Specificity: Detection of Salmonella enterica and Six Species of Listeria in a Single Test

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Geoffrey N.; Thomas, Nadine; MacRae, Marion; Campbell, Colin D.; Ogden, Iain D.; Singh, Brajesh K.

    2012-01-01

    A multiplex T-RFLP test was developed to detect and identify Salmonella enterica and all six species of Listeria inoculated into milk at minimal levels. Extensive in silico analysis was used to design a fifteen-primer, six-amplimer methodology and in vitro application showed target organism DNA, when amplified individually, yielded the predicted terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) following digestion. Non-target organisms were either not-amplified or yielded TRFs which did not interfere wit...

  12. Reptiles, Amphibians, and Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Reptiles, Amphibians, and Salmonella Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... aquariums where they live. How do people get Salmonella infections from reptiles and amphibians? Reptiles and amphibians ...

  13. 78 FR 42526 - Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food; Withdrawal of...) entitled ``Sec. 690.700 Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food.'' This CPG is obsolete. DATES: The.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: FDA issued the CGP entitled ``Sec. 690.700 Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog...

  14. Multiplicity of Salmonella entry mechanisms, a new paradigm for Salmonella pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velge, P; Wiedemann, A; Rosselin, M; Abed, N; Boumart, Z; Chauss, A M; Grpinet, O; Namdari, F; Roche, S M; Rossignol, A; Virlogeux-Payant, I

    2012-01-01

    The Salmonella enterica species includes about 2600 diverse serotypes, most of which cause a wide range of food- and water-borne diseases ranging from self-limiting gastroenteritis to typhoid fever in both humans and animals. Moreover, some serotypes are restricted to a few animal species, whereas other serotypes are able to infect plants as well as cold- and warm-blooded animals. An essential feature of the pathogenicity of Salmonella is its capacity to cross a number of barriers requiring invasion of a large variety of phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells. The aim of this review is to describe the different entry pathways used by Salmonella serotypes to enter different nonphagocytic cell types. Until recently, it was accepted that Salmonella invasion of eukaryotic cells required only the type III secretion system (T3SS) encoded by the Salmonella pathogenicity island-1. However, recent evidence shows that Salmonella can cause infection in a T3SS-1-independent manner. Currently, two outer membrane proteins Rck and PagN have been clearly identified as Salmonella invasins. As Rck mediates a Zipper-like entry mechanism, Salmonella is therefore the first bacterium shown to be able to induce both Zipper and Trigger mechanisms to invade host cells. In addition to these known entry pathways, recent data have shown that unknown entry routes could be used according to the serotype, the host and the cell type considered, inducing either Zipper-like or Trigger-like entry processes. The new paradigm presented here should change our classic view of Salmonella pathogenicity. It could also modify our understanding of the mechanisms leading to the different Salmonella-induced diseases and to Salmonella-host specificity. PMID:23170225

  15. A rapid and direct real time PCR-based method for identification of Salmonella spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Lazaro, D.; Hernández, Marta; Esteve, T.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Pla, M.

    2003-01-01

    especially convenient because the pre-mix containing all PCR reagents except for the bacterial cells could be kept at -20 degreesC for at least I month before its use. The optimized TaqMan((R)) real-time PCR assay is a useful, simple and rapid method for routine identification of Salmonella spp......The aim of this work was the validation of a rapid, real-time PCR assay based on TaqMan((R)) technology for the unequivocal identification of Salmonella spp. to be used directly on an agar-grown colony. A real-time PCR system targeting at the Salmonella spp. invA gene was optimized and validated......, allowing the establishment of cut-off DeltaR(n) and C-T values based on 95% confidence intervals that allowed the correct identification of all strains tested in each independent experiment. The accuracy of this assay in terms of inclusivity and exclusivity was 100%. Moreover, the PCR system proved to be...

  16. Recovery of Salmonella group B from blood and Salmonella group C2 from feces and serological evidence of dual infection in one patient.

    OpenAIRE

    Papasian, C J; Bartholomew, W R; Neter, E.; Amsterdam, D

    1984-01-01

    A patient with a dual Salmonella infection is described. Salmonella group B was recovered from three blood culture sets but was not detected in seven stool cultures. Salmonella group C2 was isolated from three of seven stool cultures but was not recovered from blood cultures. Specific, non-cross-reactive antibodies to Salmonella groups B and C2 were detected in the sera of the patient by passive hemagglutination assays.

  17. Evaluation of two colored latex kits, the Wellcolex Colour Salmonella Test and the Wellcolex Colour Shigella Test, for serological grouping of Salmonella and Shigella species.

    OpenAIRE

    Bouvet, P J; Jeanjean, S

    1992-01-01

    Two colored latex kits (the Wellcolex Colour Salmonella Test [WCT-Salmonella] and the Wellcolex Colour Shigella Test [WCT-Shigella]; Division Diagnostics, Laboratories Wellcome S.A., Paris, France), which allow identification of the most frequently encountered Salmonella serogroups and Shigella species, respectively, were evaluated. WCT-Salmonella and WCT-Shigella yielded sensitivities of 98.4 and 98%, respectively, and a specificity of 100% when they were tested on pure cultures received at ...

  18. Salmonella may offer contraceptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    A reversible, inexpensive birth control vaccine for men and women may come from an unlikely source--genetically altered salmonella bacteria. The bacteria cause food poisoning, typhoid and diarrhea. But with some genes removed and others spliced in, an altered form produces proteins that make the immune system reject sperm and does not cause disease, says Dr. Roy Curtiss, a biology professor at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, US. The approach was announced in November at a US meeting of the Council for the Advancement of Science Writing. "Salmonella act as the factory, making specific antigens. It is a slow-release system," he says. The altered bacteria produce sperm antigens, and both male and female immune systems make antibodies against them. To sustain immunity, a booster vaccine might be necessary every 6 to 12 months. Numerous concerns, however, have been raised over the use of such live vaccines. A live vaccine, for example, could accidentally immunize people through fecal contamination of water or food. Researchers are testing the vaccine approach in mice and are scheduled to begin experiments soon with macaque monkeys and baboons. Experiments among humans are not yet scheduled and would not begin until ethical and health issues are resolved. The contraceptive vaccine could be inexpensive to produce and would require no refrigeration, making it easy to store. It would probably be administered orally, eliminating costs and risks associated with injections, Dr. Curtiss says. PMID:12287506

  19. Seroincidence of non-typhoid Salmonella infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, H-D; Simonsen, J; Jørgensen, C S; Harritshøj, L H; Krogfelt, K A; Linneberg, A; Mølbak, K

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of reported infections of non-typhoid Salmonella is affected by biases inherent to passive laboratory surveillance, whereas analysis of blood sera may provide a less biased alternative to estimate the force of Salmonella transmission in humans. We developed a mathematical model that...... enabled a back-calculation of the annual seroincidence of Salmonella based on measurements of specific antibodies. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroincidence in two convenience samples from 2012 (Danish blood donors, n = 500, and pregnant women, n = 637) and a community-based sample...... of healthy individuals from 2006 to 2007 (n = 1780). The lowest antibody levels were measured in the samples from the community cohort and the highest in pregnant women. The annual Salmonella seroincidences were 319 infections/1000 pregnant women [90% credibility interval (CrI) 210-441], 182/1000 in...

  20. PREVALENCE OF DRUG RESISTANCE AND VIRULENCE FEATURES IN Salmonella spp. ISOLATED FROM FOODS ASSOCIATED OR NOT WITH SALMONELLOSIS IN BRAZIL / Prevalncia de resistncia antimicrobiana e caractersticas de virulncia em Salmonella spp. isoladas de alimentos associados ou no com salmonelose no Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ruth Estela Gravato, Rowlands; Christiane Asturiano, Ristori; Alice A., Ikuno; Maria Luisa, Barbosa; Miyoko, Jakabi; Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo, Franco.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella o agente etiolgico mais comumente envolvido em casos e surtos de doenas diarricas de origem alimentar. A preocupao com este patgeno , ainda, maior quando se verifica o surgimento e a disseminao de cepas multirresistentes e potencialmente mais patognicas. Neste estudo, 237 cepa [...] s Salmonella spp., associadas ou no com casos ou surtos de salmonelose e pertencentes, principalmente, ao sorovar Enteritidis, foram avaliadas quanto ao perfil de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana e presena dos genes de virulncia spvC, invA, sefA e pefA. Entre as cepas avaliadas, 46,8% foram sensveis a todos os agentes antimicrobianos e 51,9% foram resistentes a pelo menos uma droga. Multirresistncia foi observada em 10,5% das cepas. As maiores taxas de resistncia foram observadas para estreptomicina (35,9%) e cido nalidxico (16,9%). No foram detectadas cepas resistentes cefoxitina, cefalotina, cefotaxima, amicacina, ciprofloxaxina e imipenem. O gene invA foi detectado em todas as cepas de Salmonella. Os genes spvC e pefA foram encontrados em 48,1% e 44,3% das cepas, respectivamente. O gene sefA foi detectado em 31,6% das cepas, estando presente somente entre as cepas de S. Enteritidis. Resistncia antimicrobiana e marcadores de virulncia foram detectados em cepas de Salmonella pertencentes a diversos sorovares. A alta taxa de resistncia antimicrobiana verificada em cepas isoladas de frangos e derivados demonstra o potencial risco associado ao consumo destes produtos e a necessidade de se assegurar boas prticas de higiene em toda cadeia produtiva para reduzir a disseminao de patgenos relevantes para a sade pblica. Abstract in english Salmonella is the most common etiological agent of cases and outbreaks of foodborne diarrheal illnesses. The emergence and spread of Salmonella spp., which has become multi-drug resistant and potentially more pathogenic, have increased the concern with this pathogen. In this study, 237 Salmonella sp [...] p., associated or not with foodborne salmonellosis in Brazil, belonging mainly to serotype Enteritidis, were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of the virulence genes spvC, invA, sefA and pefA. Of the isolates, 46.8% were sensitive to all antimicrobials and 51.9% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent was observed in 10.5% of the strains. The highest rates of resistance were observed for streptomycin (35.9%) and nalidixic acid (16.9%). No strain was resistant to cefoxitin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, amikacin, ciprofloxacin and imipenem. The invA gene was detected in all strains. Genes spvC and pefA were found in 48.1% and 44.3% of strains, respectively. The gene sefA was detected in 31.6% of the strains and only among S. Enteritidis. Resistance and virulence determinants were detected in Salmonella strains belonging to several serotypes. The high rates of antibiotic-resistance in strains isolated from poultry products demonstrate the potential risk associated with the consumption of these products and the need to ensure good food hygiene practices from farm to table to reduce the spread of pathogens relevant to public health.

  1. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella spp. in pork burger patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, P M; Ross, T; Holds, G L; Jarrett, R G; Kiermeier, A

    2016-02-16

    Predictive models, to estimate the reduction in Escherichia coli O157:H7 concentration in beef burgers, have been developed to inform risk management decisions; no analogous model exists for Salmonella spp. in pork burgers. In this study, "Extra Lean" and "Regular" fat pork minces were inoculated with Salmonella spp. (Salmonella 4,[5],12,i:-, Salmonella Senftenberg and Salmonella Typhimurium) and formed into pork burger patties. Patties were cooked on an electric skillet (to imitate home cooking) to one of seven internal temperatures (46, 49, 52, 55, 58, 61, 64 °C) and Salmonella enumerated. A generalised linear logistic regression model was used to develop a predictive model for the Salmonella concentration based on the internal endpoint temperature. It was estimated that in pork mince with a fat content of 6.1%, Salmonella survival will be decreased by -0.2407log10 CFU/g for a 1 °C increase in internal endpoint temperature, with a 5-log10 reduction in Salmonella concentration estimated to occur when the geometric centre temperature reaches 63 °C. The fat content influenced the rate of Salmonella inactivation (P=0.043), with Salmonella survival increasing as fat content increased, though this effect became negligible as the temperature approached 62 °C. Fat content increased the time required for patties to achieve a specified internal temperature (P=0.0106 and 0.0309 for linear and quadratic terms respectively), indicating that reduced fat pork mince may reduce the risk of salmonellosis from consumption of pork burgers. Salmonella serovar did not significantly affect the model intercepts (P=0.86) or slopes (P=0.10) of the fitted logistic curve. This predictive model can be applied to estimate the reduction in Salmonella in pork burgers after cooking to a specific endpoint temperature and hence to assess food safety risk. PMID:26686598

  2. Produo e purificao de anticorpos policlonais para Salmonella Enteritidis (Enterobacteriaceae Production and purification of polyclonal antibodies for Salmonella Enteritidis (Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Augusto Ono

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir e purificar anticorpos policlonais especficos para Salmonella Enteritidis (Enterobacteriaceae. O anti-soro foi produzido em coelhos, empregando-se flagelina purificada. O ttulo e a especificidade foram determinados atravs do ensaio imunoenzimtico - ELISA e a purificao por cromatografia de afinidade com sepharose Protena A. As suspenses bacterianas foram cultivadas em cinco diferentes meios de cultura (infuso de crebro corao - BHI, caldo tripticase soja, caldo lactosado, caldo nutriente - CN e gua peptonada. Observou-se que dependendo do meio o ttulo do anti-soro pode variar e os melhores resultados foram obtidos com BHI e CN. O anti-soro foi especfico para Salmonella Enteritidis, apresentando porcentagens de reaes cruzadas com Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Infantis e Salmonella Newport de 16,0, 11,9 e 6,4%, respectivamente. Menores porcentagens foram obtidas com outras enterobactrias testadas. Esses resultados indicam a possibilidade da utilizao desses anticorpos na padronizao de ensaios imunolgicos para a deteco de Salmonella EnteritidisThe purpose of this study was to produce and to purify specific polyclonal antibodies for Salmonella Enteritidis (Enterobacteriaceae. The anti-serum was raised in rabbits using purified flagelin. Anti-serum titer and specificity were determined by an immunoassay - ELISA and its purification was performed by sepharose protein A affinity chromatography. The bacteria suspensions were cultivated in five different media (brain heart infusion - BHI, tripticase soy broth, nutrient broth - NB, peptone water. Results have showed that anti-serum titers varied depending on which media type was used and BHI and NB media yielded the most significant results. The anti-serum produced was specific for Salmonella Enteritidis. Its cross-reactivity with Salmonella Thyphimurium, Salmonella Infantis and Salmonella Newport were 16.0, 11.9 and 6.4% respectively and lower percentages than those were observed in other Enterobacteriaceae species tested. Results indicate that these polyclonal antibodies may be used in standardization of immunological assays for Salmonella Enteritidis detection

  3. Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Sofia: Growth in and Persistence on Eggs under Production and Retail Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    McAuley, Catherine M; Lesley L. Duffy; Nela Subasinghe; Geoff Hogg; John Coventry; Narelle Fegan

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis in Australia has been linked to eggs and egg products with specific serotypes associated with outbreaks. We compared attachment to and survival on egg shells and growth in eggs of two Salmonella serotypes, an egg outbreak associated Salmonella Typhimurium and a non-egg-associated Salmonella enterica ssp. II 1,4,12,27:b:[e,n,x] (S. Sofia). Experiments were conducted at combinations of 4, 15, 22, 37 and 42°C. No significant differences occurred between the serotypes in maximum gro...

  4. Germinoma localizado nos núcleos da base e tálamo com invasão do tronco cerebral: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    NOGUEIRA ROBERTO GOMES; TOSCANO VANESSA GRANATO; ABDALA NITAMAR; STÁVALE JOÃO NORBERTO; MALHEIROS SUZANA M. FLEURY; GABBAI ALBERTO ALAIN

    1998-01-01

    Descrevemos o caso de um paciente com diagnóstico de germinoma nos núcleos da base e tálamo, com invasão do tronco cerebral, ressaltando as características observadas nos exames de tomografia computadorizada e de ressonância magnética, os possíveis diagnósticos diferenciais, e a necessidade da comprovação anátomo-patológica, por tratar-se de localização pouco frequente de um tumor com possibilidade de evolução favorável após tratamento com quimio e radioterapia.

  5. Assessment of various treatments to reduce carriage of Salmonella in swine.

    OpenAIRE

    Letellier, A.; Messier, S.; Lessard, L; Quessy, S.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, different strategies to reduce carriage of Salmonella spp. in pigs were evaluated. Probiotics, prebiotics, vaccination, and acidification of drinking water were assessed as means of reducing Salmonella. Acidification of water, use of egg yolk-specific immunoglobulins, and vaccination with an endotoxin vaccine did not reduce Salmonella excretion in experimentally infected pigs. A reduction of Salmonella in the colonization of mesenteric lymph nodes was observed with the use of b...

  6. Salmonella Infections in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bula-Rudas, Fernando J; Rathore, Mobeen H; Maraqa, Nizar F

    2015-08-01

    Salmonella are gram-negative bacilli within the family Enterobacteriaceae. They are the cause of significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Animals (pets) are an important reservoir for nontyphoidal Salmonella, whereas humans are the only natural host and reservoir for Salmonella Typhi. Salmonella infections are a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. They account for an estimated 2.8 billion cases of diarrheal disease each year. The transmission of Salmonella is frequently associated with the consumption of contaminated water and food of animal origin, and it is facilitated by conditions of poor hygiene. Nontyphoidal Salmonella infections have a worldwide distribution, whereas most typhoidal Salmonella infections in the United States are acquired abroad. In the United States, Salmonella is a common agent for food-borne–associated infections. Several outbreaks have been identified and are most commonly associated with agricultural products. Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection is usually characterized by a self-limited gastroenteritis in immunocompetent hosts in industrialized countries, but it may also cause invasive disease in vulnerable individuals (eg, children less than 1 year of age, immunocompromised). Antibiotic treatment is not recommended for treatment of mild to moderate gastroenteritis by nontyphoidal Salmonella in immunocompetent adults or children more than 1 year of age. Antibiotic treatment is recommended for nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in infants less than 3 months of age, because they are at higher risk for bacteremia and extraintestinal complications. Typhoid (enteric) fever and its potential complications have a significant impact on children, especially those who live in developing countries. Antibiotic treatment of typhoid fever has become challenging because of the emergence of Salmonella Typhi strains that are resistant to classically used first-line agents: ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and chloramphenicol. The choice of antibiotics for the management of typhoid fever should be guided by the local resistance pattern. Recommendations include using an extended spectrum cephalosporin, azithromycin, or a fluoroquinolone. Fecal carriage of Salmonella is an important factor in the spread of the organism to healthy individuals. The most important measures to prevent the spread and outbreaks of Salmonella infections and typhoid fever are adequate sanitation protocols for food processing and handling as well as hand hygiene. In the United States, 2 vaccines are commercially available against Salmonella Typhi. The WHO recommends the use of these vaccines in endemic areas and for outbreak control. PMID:26205108

  7. Fructose-Asparagine Is a Primary Nutrient during Growth of Salmonella in the Inflamed Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohamed M.; Newsom, David L.; González, Juan F.; Sabag-Daigle, Anice; Stahl, Christopher; Steidley, Brandi; Dubena, Judith; Dyszel, Jessica L.; Smith, Jenee N.; Dieye, Yakhya; Arsenescu, Razvan; Boyaka, Prosper N.; Krakowka, Steven; Romeo, Tony; Behrman, Edward J.; White, Peter; Ahmer, Brian M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella) is one of the most significant food-borne pathogens affecting both humans and agriculture. We have determined that Salmonella encodes an uptake and utilization pathway specific for a novel nutrient, fructose-asparagine (F-Asn), which is essential for Salmonella fitness in the inflamed intestine (modeled using germ-free, streptomycin-treated, ex-germ-free with human microbiota, and IL10−/− mice). The locus encoding F-Asn utilization, fra, provides an advantage only if Salmonella can initiate inflammation and use tetrathionate as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration (the fra phenotype is lost in Salmonella SPI1− SPI2− or ttrA mutants, respectively). The severe fitness defect of a Salmonella fra mutant suggests that F-Asn is the primary nutrient utilized by Salmonella in the inflamed intestine and that this system provides a valuable target for novel therapies. PMID:24967579

  8. Salmonella Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as stool or blood) from an infected person to distinguish it from other illnesses that can cause diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps. Once Salmonella is identified in the specimen, additional testing can be done to further characterize the Salmonella . Steps in Laboratory Testing and Reporting ...

  9. Prevalence of Nontyphoidal Salmonella and Salmonella Strains with Conjugative Antimicrobial-Resistant Serovars Contaminating Animal Feed in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Cheng; Poole, Toni L; Runyon, Mick; Hume, Michael; Herrman, Timothy J

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize 365 nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica isolates from animal feed. Among the 365 isolates, 78 serovars were identified. Twenty-four isolates (7.0%) were recovered from three of six medicated feed types. Three of these isolates derived from the medicated feed, Salmonella Newport, Salmonella Typhimurium var. O 5- (Copenhagen), and Salmonella Lexington var. 15+ (Manila), displayed antimicrobial resistance. Susceptibility testing revealed that only 3.0% (12) of the 365 isolates displayed resistance to any of the antimicrobial agents. These 12 isolates were recovered from unmedicated dry beef feed (n = 3), medicated dry beef feed (n = 3), cabbage culls (n = 2), animal protein products (n = 2), dry dairy cattle feed (n = 1), and fish meal (n = 1). Only Salmonella Newport and Salmonella Typhimurium var. O 5- (Copenhagen) were multidrug resistant. Both isolates possessed the IncA/C replicon and the blaCMY-2 gene associated with cephalosporin resistance. Plasmid replicons were amplified from 4 of 12 resistant isolates. Plasmids (40 kb) were Salmonella Montevideo and Salmonella Kentucky. Conjugation experiments were done using 7 of the 12 resistant isolates as donors. Only Salmonella Montevideo, possessing a plasmid and amplifying IncN, produced transconjugants. Transconjugants displayed the same antimicrobial resistance profile as did the donor isolate. Three isolates that amplified replicons corresponding to IncA/C or IncHI2 did not produce transconjugants at 30 or 37C. The results of this study suggest that the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella contaminating animal feed is low in Texas. However, Salmonella was more prevalent in feed by-products; fish meal had the highest prevalence (84%) followed by animal protein products (48%). Ten of the 35 feed types had no Salmonella contamination. Further investigation is needed to understand the possible role of specific feed types in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant bacteria. PMID:26818979

  10. Three new serotypes of Salmonella.

    OpenAIRE

    Sutch, K E; Blackburn, B O

    1980-01-01

    Three new Salmonella serotypes belonging to Kauffmann's subgenus I (F. Kauffmann, The Bacteriology of Enterobacteriaceae, 1966) were identified. These serotypes were Salmonella brazos 6,14,18:a:e,n,z15, Salmonella midway 6,14,24:d:1,7, and Salmonella balboa 48a, 48b:z41:monophasic.

  11. Specific proteolysis of native alanine racemases from Salmonella typhimurium: identification of the cleavage site and characterization of the clipped two-domain proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Native DadB and Alr alanine racemases (M/sub r/ 39,000) from Salmonella typhimurium are proteolyzed at homologous positions by α-chymotrypsin, trypsin, and subtilisin to generate in all cases two nonoverlapping polypeptides of M/sub r/ 28,000 and 11,000. Under nondenaturing conditions, chymotryptic digest results in an associated form of the two fragments which possesses 3% of the original catalytic activity, incorporates 0.76 equiv of the mechanism-based inactivator β-chloro-[14C]-D-alanine, and exhibits a UV circular dichroism profile identical with that of native enzyme. Protein sequence analysis of the denatured chymotryptic fragments indicates the presence of a tetrapeptide interdomain hinge (DadB, residues 254-257; Alr, residues 256-259) that is attacked at both ends during proteolysis. Under the previously employed digest conditions, NaB3H4-reduced DadB holoenzyme is resistant to α-chymotrypsin and trypsin and is labile only toward subtilisin. These data suggest that the hinge structure is essential for a catalytically efficient enzyme species and is sensitive to active site geometry. The sequence at the hinge region is also conserved in alanine racemases from Gram-positive bacteria

  12. Detection of Salmonella spp, Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium in naturally infected broiler chickens by a multiplex PCR-based assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Paio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Salmonella in the intestinal tract, on the chickens skin and among their feathers, may cause carcasses contamination during slaughtering and processing and possibly it is responsible by the introduction of this microorganism in the slaughterhouses. A rapid method to identify and monitor Salmonella and their sorovars in farm is becoming necessary. A pre-enriched multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR assay employing specific primers was developed and used to detect Salmonella at the genus level and to identify the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium in broiler chicken swab samples. The method was validated by testing DNA extract from 90 fresh culture cloacal swab samples from poultry chicken cultured in phosphate buffer peptone water at 37 C for 18 h. The final results showed the presence of Salmonella spp. in 25% of samples, S. Enteritidis was present in 12% of the Salmonella-positive samples and S. Typhimurium in 3% of the samples. The m-PCR assay developed in this study is a specific and rapid alternative method for the identification of Salmonella spp. and allowed the observation of specific serovar contamination in the field conditions within the locations where these chickens are typically raised.

  13. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. by Multiple Endonuclease Restriction Real-Time Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Yan; Luo, Lijuan; Liu, Dongxin; Luo, Xia; Xu, Yanmei; Hu, Shoukui; Niu, Lina; Xu, Jianguo; Ye, Changyun

    2015-01-01

    Shigella and Salmonella are frequently isolated from various food samples and can cause human gastroenteritis. Here, a novel multiple endonuclease restriction real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification technology (MERT-LAMP) were successfully established and validated for simultaneous detection of Shigella strains and Salmonella strains in only a single reaction. Two sets of MERT-LAMP primers for 2 kinds of pathogens were designed from ipaH gene of Shigella spp. and invA gene of Salmonella spp., respectively. Under the constant condition at 63°C, the positive results were yielded in as short as 12 min with the genomic DNA extracted from the 19 Shigella strains and 14 Salmonella strains, and the target pathogens present in a sample could be simultaneously identified based on distinct fluorescence curves in real-time format. Accordingly, the multiplex detection assay significantly reduced effort, materials and reagents used, and amplification and differentiation were conducted at the same time, obviating the use of postdetection procedures. The analytical sensitivity of MERT-LAMP was found to be 62.5 and 125 fg DNA/reaction with genomic templates of Shigella strains and Salmonella strains, which was consist with normal LAMP assay, and at least 10- and 100-fold more sensitive than that of qPCR and conventional PCR approaches. The limit of detection of MERT-LAMP for Shigella strains and Salmonella strains detection in artificially contaminated milk samples was 5.8 and 6.4 CFU per vessel. In conclusion, the MERT-LAMP methodology described here demonstrated a potential and valuable means for simultaneous screening of Shigella and Salmonella in a wide variety of samples. PMID:26697000

  14. Bacteriophage Therapy To Reduce Salmonella Colonization of Broiler Chickens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atterbury, R. J.; Van Bergen, M. A. P.; Ortiz, F.; Lovell, M. A.; Harris, J. A.; De Boer, A.; Wagenaar, J. A.; Allen, V. M.; Barrow, P. A.

    2007-01-01

    Acute enteric infections caused by salmonellas remain a major public health burden worldwide. Poultry, particularly chickens, are known to be the main reservoir for this zoonotic pathogen. Although some progress has been made in reducing Salmonella colonization of broiler chickens by using biosecurity and antimicrobials, it still remains a considerable problem. The use of host-specific bacteriophages as a biocontrol is one possible intervention by which Salmonella colonization could be reduced. A total of 232 Salmonella bacteriophages were isolated from poultry farms, abattoirs, and wastewater in 2004 and 2005. Three phages exhibiting the broadest host ranges against Salmonella enterica serotypes Enteritidis, Hadar, and Typhimurium were characterized further by determining their morphology and lytic activity in vitro. These phages were then administered in antacid suspension to birds experimentally colonized with specific Salmonella host strains. The first phage reduced S. enterica serotype Enteritidis cecal colonization by ?4.2 log10 CFU within 24 h compared with controls. Administration of the second phage reduced S. enterica serotype Typhimurium by ?2.19 log10 CFU within 24 h. The third bacteriophage was ineffective at reducing S. enterica serotype Hadar colonization. Bacteriophage resistance occurred at a frequency commensurate with the titer of phage being administered, with larger phage titers resulting in a greater proportion of resistant salmonellas. The selection of appropriate bacteriophages and optimization of both the timing and method of phage delivery are key factors in the successful phage-mediated control of salmonellas in broiler chickens. PMID:17526794

  15. Serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella spp. isolated from farm animals in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Xiuhua; Hao, Haihong; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Yulian; Ahmad, Ijaz; Liu, Zhenli; Zonghui, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella spp. can indirectly infect humans via transfer from animals and animal-derived food products, and thereby cause potentially fatal diseases. Therefore, gaining an understanding of Salmonella infection in farm animals is increasingly important. The aim of this study was to identify the distribution of serotypes in Salmonella samples isolated from chickens (n = 837), pigs (n = 930), and dairy cows (n = 418) in central China (Henan, Hubei, and Hunan provinces) in 2010-2011, and investigate the susceptibility of strains to antimicrobial agents. Salmonella isolates were identified by PCR amplification of the invA gene, serotypes were determined by using a slide agglutination test for O and H antigens, and susceptibility to 24 antimicrobials was tested using the agar dilution method. In total, 248 Salmonella strains were identified: 105, 105, and 38 from chickens, dairy cows, and pigs, respectively. Additionally, 209 strains were identified in diseased pigs from the Huazhong Agricultural University veterinary hospital. Among these 457 strains, the dominant serotypes were Typhimurium in serogroup B, IIIb in serogroup C, and Enteritidis in serogroup D. In antimicrobial susceptibility tests, 41.14% of Salmonella spp. were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents, 48.14% were resistant to at least one, and 34.72% were resistant to more than three classes. Strains were highly resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (39.61%), nalidixic acid (39.17%), doxycycline (28.22%), and tetracycline (27.58%). Resistance to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones ranged from 5.25 to 7.44% and 19.04 to 24.51%, respectively. Among penicillin-resistant and cephalosporin-resistant strains, 25 isolates produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). The multidrug-resistant and ESBL-producing Salmonella strains identified in healthy animals here will present a challenge for veterinary medicine and farm animal husbandry, and could also pose a threat to public health. The level of antibiotic resistance observed in this study further highlights the need for careful and selective use of antibiotics. PMID:26157426

  16. Evaluation of VIDAS Salmonella (SLM) easy Salmonella method for the detection of Salmonella in a variety of foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Erin; Bird, Patrick; Fisher, Kiel; Goetz, Katherine; Benzinger, M Joseph; Agin, James; Goins, David; Johnson, Ronald L

    2011-01-01

    The VIDAS Salmonella (SLM) Easy Salmonella method is a specific enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay performed in the automated VIDAS instrument. The VIDAS Easy Salmonella method is a simple 2-step enrichment procedure, using pre-enrichment followed by selective enrichment in a newly formulated broth, SX2 broth. This new method was compared in a multilaboratory collaborative study to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual, Chapter 5 method for five food matrixes (liquid egg, vanilla ice cream, spinach, raw shrimp, and peanut butter) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook 4.04 method for deli turkey. Each food type was artificially contaminated with Salmonella at three inoculation levels. A total of 15 laboratories representing government, academia, and industry, throughout the United States, participated. In this study, 1583 samples were analyzed, of which 792 were paired replicates and 791 were unpaired replicates. Of the 792 paired replicates, 285 were positive by both the VIDAS and reference methods. Of the 791 unpaired replicates, 341 were positive by the VIDAS method and 325 were positive by the cultural reference method. A Chi-square analysis of each of the six food types was performed at the three inoculation levels tested. For all foods evaluated, the VIDAS Easy SLM method demonstrated results comparable to those of the reference methods for the detection of Salmonella. PMID:22320090

  17. Study on the incidence of Salmonella enteritidis in Poultry and meat Samples by Cultural and PCR Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putturu Ramya

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the incidence of S.enteritidis in poultry and meat samples by cultural and PCR methods. Materials and Methods: A total of 130 samples (25 each of chicken, mutton, poultry faeces, cloacal samples and 10 each of liver, spleen and kidney collected from different sources were subjected to cultural and PCR methods for the presence of Salmonella and Salmonella enteritidis. Primers for invA and sefA gene were used for Salmonella and S.enteritidis respectively. Results: Out of 130 samples, 87 were positive for Salmonella spp. i.e. chicken-16(64%, mutton-12(48%, faeces-23(92%, cloacal swabs-23(92%, liver-5(50%, spleen and kidney samples-4(40% each by PCR methods, whereas 77 were positive by cultural method i.e. chicken-14(56%, mutton-10(40%, faeces-22(88%, cloacal swabs-21(84%, liver-4(40%, spleen and kidney-3(30% each. Out of 87 positive for Salmonella by PCR method, 59(chicken-12, mutton-7, faeces-17, cloacal swabs-15, liver-3, spleen-2, kidney-3 were positive for S.enteritidis. High incidence of S.enteritidis (68% in all the above samples are indicative of unhygienic conditions in poultry farms. Selective enrichment with Rappaport-Vassilidias (RV broths and Tetrathionate (TT broths were superior over Selenite-F (SF and Selenite cysteine (SC broths. Conclusions: High incidence of S.enteritidis was seen in most of poultry samples like chicken, kidney, liver and it's faeces than mutton, which was indicative of contamination of S.enteritidis is more prevalent in poultry farms. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 541-545

  18. Salmonella: a continuing problem

    OpenAIRE

    HARDY A.

    2004-01-01

    Salmonella was the archetypal food poisoning organism of the 20th century. It achieved a high public profile following the salmonella-in-eggs crisis of 1988–89, but by then had been the subject of public health concern and scientific interest for over a century. Early associated with animal foods, the advent of phage typing in the 1940s began to reveal the complexity of its environmental associations. This paper explores the story of salmonella as a continuing problem in epidemiology, microbi...

  19. Meta-analysis of Chicken – Salmonella infection experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    te Pas Marinus FW

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken meat and eggs can be a source of human zoonotic pathogens, especially Salmonella species. These food items contain a potential hazard for humans. Chickens lines differ in susceptibility for Salmonella and can harbor Salmonella pathogens without showing clinical signs of illness. Many investigations including genomic studies have examined the mechanisms how chickens react to infection. Apart from the innate immune response, many physiological mechanisms and pathways are reported to be involved in the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of diverse experiments to identify general and host specific mechanisms to the Salmonella challenge. Results Diverse chicken lines differing in susceptibility to Salmonella infection were challenged with different Salmonella serovars at several time points. Various tissues were sampled at different time points post-infection, and resulting host transcriptional differences investigated using different microarray platforms. The meta-analysis was performed with the R-package metaMA to create lists of differentially regulated genes. These gene lists showed many similarities for different chicken breeds and tissues, and also for different Salmonella serovars measured at different times post infection. Functional biological analysis of these differentially expressed gene lists revealed several common mechanisms for the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The meta-analysis-specific genes (i.e. genes found differentially expressed only in the meta-analysis confirmed and expanded the biological functional mechanisms. Conclusions The meta-analysis combination of heterogeneous expression profiling data provided useful insights into the common metabolic pathways and functions of different chicken lines infected with different Salmonella serovars.

  20. The Salmonella enterica Pan-genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Annika; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Ussery, David; Friis, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is divided into four subspecies containing a large number of different serovars, several of which are important zoonotic pathogens and some show a high degree of host specificity or host preference. We compare 45 sequenced S. enterica genomes that are publicly available (22...... complete and 23 draft genome sequences). Of these, 35 were found to be of sufficiently good quality to allow a detailed analysis, along with two Escherichia coli strains (K-12 substr. DH10B and the avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC O1) strain). All genomes were subjected to standardized gene finding, and the...... core and pan-genome of Salmonella were estimated to be around 2,800 and 10,000 gene families, respectively. The constructed pan-genomic dendrograms suggest that gene content is often, but not uniformly correlated to serotype. Any given Salmonella strain has a large stable core, whilst there is an...

  1. Development of Recombinant Flagellar Antigens for Serological Detection of Salmonella enterica Serotypes Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, and Typhimurium in Poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Charles L. Hofacre; Peter S. Holt; Margie D. Lee; Susan Sanchez; Joseph Minicozzi; John J. Maurer

    2013-01-01

    Accurate and fast detection of harmful Salmonella is a major concern of food safety. Common Salmonella serotypes responsible for human associated foodborne outbreaks are S. Enteritidis, S. Hadar, S. Heidelberg, and S. Typhimurium are also commonly isolated from poultry. Serology is commonly used to monitor disease in poultry, therefore application of Salmonella serotype-specific test will have added value in Salmonella surveillance or monitoring vaccine efficacy. Recombinant flagellins were p...

  2. Improvement of bacterial clearance and relief of clinical signs of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in pigs through upregulation of Th 1-specific responses by administration of a combination of two silicate minerals, biotite and bentonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-A; Jung, Bock-Gie; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Yun-Mi; Koh, Hong-Bum; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2015-09-01

    Biotite and bentonite are phyllosilicate minerals that were originally used in industrial applications. Several beneficial activities of them have recently been reported, especially regulation of the immune system and antimicrobial effects. Therefore, we investigated the immune-enhancing and bacterial clearance effects of a biotite and bentonite mixture (BBM) on experimental infection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) to determine whether the BBM could be used as an alternative antibiotic. We administered 1% or 2% BBM as a feed supplement. We then evaluated the bacterial clearance effects of the BBM against S. Typhimurium. We also evaluated the immune-enhancing effect of the BBM through several immunological experiments that included examination of the lysozyme activity, CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio and the T-helper type 1 (Th 1) cytokine profile. The clinical signs of S. Typhimurium and the number of viable bacteria in feces and tissues were significantly decreased in both BBM groups, especially in the 2% BBM group. The BBM also markedly enhanced the lysozyme activity, CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio and expression levels of IFN-? and IL-12 in S. Typhimurium-challenged pigs. Therefore, the BBM could be a good candidate as an alternative antibiotic that improves Th 1-specific immune responses and the bacterial clearance effect. PMID:25947887

  3. Tiny Turtles Carry Salmonella Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156378.html Tiny Turtles Carry Salmonella Threat Though banned as pets in ... pets in the United States since 1975, small turtles are still causing salmonella infections, mostly in children, ...

  4. Oral priming with Salmonella Typhi vaccine strain CVD 909 followed by parenteral boost with the S. Typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine induces CD27+ IgD−S. Typhi specific IgA and IgG B memory cells in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Wahid, Rezwanul; Pasetti, Marcela F; Maciel, Milton; Simon, Jakub K.; Tacket, Carol O.; Levine, Myron M.; Sztein, Marcelo B.

    2010-01-01

    Attenuated live oral typhoid vaccine candidate CVD 909 constitutively expresses Salmonella Typhi capsular polysaccharide antigen (Vi). A randomized, double-blind, heterologous prime-boost clinical study was conducted to determine whether immunity to licensed parenteral Vi vaccine could be enhanced by priming with CVD 909. Priming with CVD 909 elicited higher and persistent, albeit not significant, anti-Vi IgG and IgA following immunization with Vi, than placebo-primed recipients. Vi-specific ...

  5. Phagocyte roulette in Salmonella killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenlon, Luke A; Slauch, James M

    2014-01-15

    Salmonella propagates in macrophages to cause life-threatening infections, but the role of neutrophils in combating Salmonella has been controversial. In this issue, Burton et al. (2014) use single cell analyses and modeling to explain the ability of Salmonella to survive in macrophages while being killed by neutrophils. PMID:24439894

  6. Phagocyte Roulette in Salmonella Killing

    OpenAIRE

    Fenlon, Luke A.; Slauch, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella propagate in macrophages to cause life-threatening infections, but the role of neutrophils in combating Salmonella has been controversial. In this issue, Burton et al. (2013) use single cell analyses and modeling to explain the ability of Salmonella to survive in macrophages, while being killed by neutrophils.

  7. Salmonella enteritidis in Quail Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Erdoğrul, Özlem Turgay

    2002-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella enteritidis was investigated in 123 liquid whole quail eggs. Salmonella strains were identified and sero-grouped by coagglutination test and slide agglutination test. Seven (5.69%) of 123 whole quail eggs were in group D1 and were sero-typed as Salmonella enteritidis. It was found that in phage-typing of Salmonella enteritidis, three of 7 strains were Salmonella enteritidis PT4 , two of them were PT1, one of them was PT7, and one of them was indefinite.

  8. The risk of salmonellae shedding by dogs fed Salmonella-contaminated commercial raw food diets

    OpenAIRE

    Finley, Rita; Ribble, Carl; Aramini, Jeff; Vandermeer, Meredith; Popa, Maria; Litman, Marcus; Reid-Smith, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-eight research dogs were enrolled to determine the prevalence of salmonellae shedding after consumption of 1 Salmonella-contaminated commercial raw food diet meal. Sixteen dogs were exposed to Salmonella-contaminated commercial raw food diets and 12 to Salmonella-free commercial raw food diets. Seven of the exposed dogs shed salmonellae 1–7 days after consumption of Salmonella-contaminated raw food diets. None of the dogs fed Salmonella-free diets shed salmonellae. No clinical signs we...

  9. In vivo inhibition of plasma protein leakage and Salmonella enteritidis-induced mortality in the rat by a specific paf-acether antagonist: BN 52021.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, A; Hecquet, F; Soulard, C; Spinnewyn, B; Clostre, F; Braquet, P

    1986-01-01

    The effects of BN 52021, a new specific paf-acether receptor antagonist and the total Ginkgo Biloba extract (GBE 761) from which this product was isolated, were studied in the rat on paf-acether-induced permeability and cell number changes and on endotoxin-induced lethality. Their activities were compared to those of cyclooxygenase, 5-lipoxygenase and phospholipase A2 inhibitors. BN 52021 given s.c. or orally exerted a dose-related inhibition of paf-acether deleterious effects as well as of endotoxin lethality whereas the other drugs tested were poorly effective. These results strongly suggest paf-acether involvement in endotoxic and septic shock. PMID:3515870

  10. Detection of Salmonella spp, Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium in naturally infected broiler chickens by a multiplex PCR-based assay

    OpenAIRE

    F.G. Paio; Arisitides, L.G.A.; Murate, L.S.; Vilas-Bas, G.T.; L.A. Vilas-Boas; M. SHIMOKOMAKI

    2013-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella in the intestinal tract, on the chickens skin and among their feathers, may cause carcasses contamination during slaughtering and processing and possibly it is responsible by the introduction of this microorganism in the slaughterhouses. A rapid method to identify and monitor Salmonella and their sorovars in farm is becoming necessary. A pre-enriched multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) assay employing specific primers was developed and used to detect Salmone...

  11. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis reports investigations using gamma-radiation to decontaminate poultry carcasses. The application to foods of doses of ionizing radiation sufficient to reduce the number of viable specific non-sporeforming pathogenic microorganisms so that none is detectable in the treated food by any standard method is termed radicidation. The doses used in this study were at such a level that no undesirable or unfavourable side-effects occurred. The effects of these doses were studied on salmonellae and other microorganisms present in, or associated with poultry carcasses and in liquid and on solid culture media as well. Decimal reduction (D10) values were estimated. These represent the dose (kGy) required to achieve a reduction in initial colony count from N0 to 0.1 N0. Together with the estimation of the numbers of Salmonella present per carcass the data were used to predict the effect of an ionizing radiation treatment of poultry. Data on the effect of ionizing radiation on the total microflora of poultry carcasses were also collected. (Auth.)

  12. Identification of Genes Associated with Survival of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis in Chicken Egg Albumen

    OpenAIRE

    Clavijo, Raul I; Loui, Cindy; Andersen, Gary L.; Riley, Lee W.; Lu, Sangwei

    2006-01-01

    Salmonella enterica consists of over 2,000 serovars that are major causes of morbidity and mortality associated with contaminated food. Despite similarities among serovars of Salmonella enterica, many demonstrate unique host specificities, epidemiological characteristics, and clinical manifestations. One of the unique epidemiological characteristics of the serovar Enteritidis is that it is the only bacterium routinely transmitted to humans through intact chicken eggs. Therefore, Salmonella en...

  13. Development of a DNA Microarray for Molecular Identification of All 46 Salmonella O Serogroups

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Dan; Liu, Bin; Liu, Fenxia; Cao, Boyang; Chen, Min; Hao, Xiyan; Feng, Lu; Wang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella is a major cause of food-borne disease in many countries. Serotype determination of Salmonella is important for disease assessment, infection control, and epidemiological surveillance. In this study, a microarray system that targets the O antigen-specific genes was developed for simultaneously detecting and identifying all 46 Salmonella O serogroups. Of these, 40 serogroups can be confidently identified, and the remaining 6, in three pairs (serogroups O67 and B, E1 and E4, and A an...

  14. Interaction of Salmonella enterica with Fresh Produce Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attachment and colonization of Salmonella enterica serovars to fresh produce leaves was investigated. Biofilm assay and attachment of Salmonella serovars to intact and cut leaves were determined. Salmonella Tennessee and Salmonella Thompson produced stronger biofilms compared to Salmonella Newpor...

  15. Salmonella burden in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaeb, M; Bizri, A R; Ghosn, N; Berry, A; Musharrafieh, U

    2016-06-01

    Salmonellosis is a disease that represents a major public health concern in both developing and developed countries. The aim of this article is to evaluate the public health burden of Salmonella illness in Lebanon. The current scope of the Salmonella infection problem was assessed in relation to disease incidence and distribution with respect to age, gender and district. Factors that provide a better understanding of the magnitude of the problem were explored and highlighted. Data reported to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Department at the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health between 2001 and 2013 was reviewed. Information obtained was compared to information reported regionally and globally. The estimated true incidence was derived using multipliers from the CDC and Jordan. A literature review of all published data from Lebanon about Salmonella susceptibility/resistance patterns and its serious clinical complications was conducted. The estimated incidence was 13·34 cases/100 000 individuals, most cases occurred in the 20-39 years age group with no significant gender variation. Poor and less developed districts of Lebanon had the highest number of cases and the peak incidence was in summer. Reflecting on the projected incidence derived from the use of multipliers indicates a major discrepancy between what is reported and what is estimated. We conclude that data about Salmonella infection in Lebanon and many Middle Eastern and developing countries lack crucial information and are not necessarily representative of the true incidence, prevalence and burden of illness. PMID:26743045

  16. Thermal inactivation of eight Salmonella serotypes on dry corn flour.

    OpenAIRE

    VanCauwenberge, J E; Bothast, R J; Kwolek, W F

    1981-01-01

    Dry heat was used to inactivate Salmonella newington, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella anatum, Salmonella kentucky, Salmonella cubana, Salmonella seftenberg, Salmonella thompson, and Salmonella tennessee in corn flour at 10 and 15% moisture. The flour was spray inoculated at 10(5) Salmonella cells per g and then stored at 49 degrees C (120 degrees F); viable Salmonella cells were counted on Trypticase (BBL Microbiology Systems) soy agar plates every 30 min for the first 4 h and then at 4-h ...

  17. Mieloma múltiplo: invasão leptomeníngea difusa Diffuse leptomeningeal involvement in multiple myelomatosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Facure

    1971-03-01

    Full Text Available Registro de caso de paciente com infiltração leptomeníngea por metás-tase de mieloma múltiplo. A infiltração neoplásica ocorria nas leptomeninges da base do encéfalo e, em especial, nas do canal raqueano. O tecido tumoral formava manguito no espaço sub-aracnóideo que envolvia os segmentos cervical e torácico da medula espinhal. A partir dos segmentos lombares a medula se achava infiltrada pelo tumor; as raízes da cauda equina achavam-se também invadidas pelo tecido neoplásico. Não foi feito o diagnóstico em vida. O quadro clínico caracterizava-se por sinais de irritação meníngea e de sofrimento radículo-medular a partir dos segmentos lombares altos e o quadro liquórico, por reação inflamatória de tipo sub-agudo que determinava bloqueio do canal raqueano. Os autores chamam a atenção para a raridade da invasão leptomeníngea por mieloma múltiplo e para a dificuldade diagnostica do caso. Neste último sentido discutem os dados do quadro liquórico bem como salientam não ter sido possível completar o estudo histoquímico das células plasmocitárias.A case of a patient with multiple myelomatosis that presented diffuse leptomeningeal involvement by metastatic tissue is reported. The diagnosis was based upon necroscopic examination. The leptomeninges were infiltrated by neoplastic cells, the infiltration being more evident in the leptomeninges of the spinal canal. In this region the subarachnoid space was filled by neoplastic tissue that surrounded the spinal cord and cauda equina. The lumbal and sacral portions of spinal cord were invaded by tumor cells. Fever, congestion of left eye and signs of leptomeningeal irritation appeared at first and were followed by crural paraplegia about two months later. At this occasion a CSF examination showed changes proper to subacute inflammatory process and the manometric test of Stookey suggested the occurence of blockage in the spinal canal. The unusual leptomeningeal involvement in multiple myelomatosis is emphasized and CSF changes are discussed. It was not possible to conclude the histochemical studies of plasma cells in the necropsy material.

  18. Salmonella Typhimurium induces SPI-1 and SPI-2 regulated and strain dependent downregulation of MHC II expression on porcine alveolar macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Parys Alexander

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Foodborne salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial zoonotic diseases worldwide. Salmonella Typhimurium is the serovar most frequently isolated from persistently infected slaughter pigs in Europe. Circumvention of the hosts immune system by Salmonella might contribute to persistent infection of pigs. In the present study, we found that Salmonella Typhimurium strain 112910a specifically downregulated MHC II, but not MHC I, expression on porcine alveolar macrophages in a Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI-1 and SPI-2 dependent way. Salmonella induced downregulation of MHC II expression and intracellular proliferation of Salmonella in macrophages were significantly impaired after opsonization with Salmonella specific antibodies prior to inoculation. Furthermore, the capacity to downregulate MHC II expression on macrophages differed significantly among Salmonella strains, independently of strain specific differences in invasion capacity, Salmonella induced cytotoxicity and altered macrophage activation status. The fact that strain specific differences in MHC II downregulation did not correlate with the extent of in vitro SPI-1 or SPI-2 gene expression indicates that other factors are involved in MHC II downregulation as well. Since Salmonella strain dependent interference with the pigs immune response through downregulation of MHC II expression might indicate that certain Salmonella strains are more likely to escape serological detection, our findings are of major interest for Salmonella monitoring programs primarily based on serology.

  19. Salmonella – A Brief Summary

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmi Esko

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Salmonellosis is the main cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in most European countries. Infections with Salmonella is usually subclinical, whereas clinical cases show symptoms with a wide range of severity. Infection is most commonly associated with the consumption of meat, especially poultry or pork, and eggs and their products. Salmonella can enter the food chain at any point throughout its length. The principal reservoir of Salmonellae is the gastrointestinal tract of mamma...

  20. Pancreatic Involvement in Salmonella Infection

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    Pezzilli R

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Salmonella has been identified as a causative agent of acute pancreatitis. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively evaluated the frequency of acute pancreatitis, pancreatic enzyme elevation and morphological pancreatic abnormalities in patients with Salmonella infection. SUBJECTS: Thirty consecutive patients with salmonellosis (Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis: n=25; Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium: n=5 and 30 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects were studied. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All subjects underwent serum amylase and lipase determination and ultrasonography. RESULTS: None of the subjects developed acute pancreatitis. Two patients (6.7% and two controls showed serum amylase activity above the upper reference limit whereas, in five patients (16.7% and one control subject (3.3%, the serum lipase activity appeared above the upper reference limit. Salmonella infection significantly increased serum activity of lipase (P less than 0.001 while it did not significantly affect serum amylase levels (P=0.204. Serum lipase activity was significantly higher in patients infected by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium than in those infected by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (P=0.012. Ultrasonography did not show pancreatic abnormalities in any of the subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated an elevation of serum lipase activity in gastroenteritis due to Salmonella infection, but this elevation does not seem to have clinical significance. The elevation of serum lipase seems to be particularly related to infection from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

  1. Excreción fecal de Salmonella Albany, su aislamiento en la ración alimenticia y repercusión en el estado de salud de un ocelote (Leopardus pardalis en cautiverio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Silva-Hidalgo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los serotipos de Salmonella especie enterica son los responsables del 99% de las salmonelosis en humanos y animales, en particular, Salmonella enterica serovariedad Albany se ha identificado en canales de pollo, por lo que representa un riesgo para la salud humana y animal. Se aisló Salmonella enterica serovariedad Albany a partir de heces de un ocelote macho (Leopardus pardalis, cautivo en el zoológico de Culiacán, Sinaloa, México, y de pollo crudo (alimento del felino. El patrón por electroforesis en campo pulsado (PFGE con la enzima Xba I fue idéntico en ambos aislados, lo que indica que la fuente de infección fue el pollo crudo. Cinco meses después de haber aislado las bacterias de las heces, se realizó estudio post mortem del felino anteriormente mencionado, y se observó macroscópicamente: enterocolitis hemorrágica severa y fibrosis renal; y microscópicamente: necrosis de vellosidades y de criptas e infiltrado mononuclear linfocitario severo en íleon, además nefritis intersticial severa multifocal y fibrosis en riñón. A partir de muestras intestinales se amplificó el gen invA que confirma la infección por Salmonella. Los diagnósticos microbiológico, molecular e histopatológico sugieren que la muerte del felino se debió a la infección causada por la ingesta de pollo crudo contaminado con Salmonella enterica serovariedad Albany. Este caso clínico confirma la importancia que tienen los animales que excretan Salmonella vía fecal y describe la relación epidemiológica-molecular de los aislamientos obtenidos de heces y alimento, lo que permitió esclarecer la fuente primaria de infección.

  2. Immunomagnetic nanoparticle based quantitative PCR for rapid detection of Salmonella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a rapid and sensitive method for immunomagnetic separation (IMS) of Salmonella along with their real time detection via PCR. Silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles were functionalized with carboxy groups to which anti-Salmonella antibody raised against heat-inactivated whole cells of Salmonella were covalently attached. The immuno-captured target cells were detected in beverages like milk and lemon juice by multiplex PCR and real time PCR with a detection limit of 104 cfu.mL−1 and 103 cfu.mL−1, respectively. We demonstrate that IMS can be used for selective concentration of target bacteria from beverages for subsequent use in PCR detection. PCR also enables differentiation of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A using a set of four specific primers. In addition, IMS—PCR can be used as a screening tool in the food and beverage industry for the detection of Salmonella within 3–4 h which compares favorably to the time of several days that is needed in case of conventional detection based on culture and biochemical methods. (author)

  3. Evanescent Wave Fiber Optic Biosensor for Salmonella Detection in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K. Bhunia

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica is a major food-borne pathogen of world-wide concern. Sensitive and rapid detection methods to assess product safety before retail distribution are highly desirable. Since Salmonella is most commonly associated with poultry products, an evanescent wave fiber-optic assay was developed to detect Salmonella in shell egg and chicken breast and data were compared with a time-resolved fluorescence (TRF assay. Anti-Salmonella polyclonal antibody was immobilized onto the surface of an optical fiber using biotin-avidin interactions to capture Salmonella. Alexa Fluor 647-conjugated antibody (MAb 2F-11 was used as the reporter. Detection occurred when an evanescent wave from a laser (635 nm excited the Alexa Fluor and the fluorescence was measured by a laser-spectrofluorometer at 710 nm. The biosensor was specific for Salmonella and the limit of detection was established to be 103 cfu/mL in pure culture and 104 cfu/mL with egg and chicken breast samples when spiked with 102 cfu/mL after 2–6 h of enrichment. The results indicate that the performance of the fiber-optic sensor is comparable to TRF, and can be completed in less than 8 h, providing an alternative to the current detection methods.

  4. Molecular Characterisation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Isolated from Typhoidial Humans

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    Arunava Das

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is the major causative agent for typhoidial fever around the globe among human population reported till date. Present research work was carried out for detection and molecular characterisation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolated from humans with Typhoidial fever by biochemical, phenotypical and virulence gene based polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. The isolated strains were also investigated for antibiotic susceptibility patterns as a control measure. Methodology and Results: A total of 16 clinical samples were collected from the same numbers of patients (7 males and 9 females from Coimbatore, Erode and Salem districts of Tamil Nadu and were processed via broth enrichment methods for isolation and identification of the causative agent S. enterica serovar Typhi. Microbiological and biochemical investigations revealed the presence of S. Typhi from 16 samples. The biotyping of the isolates showed that all the isolates belonged to biotype IV. The PCR analysis confirmed the presence of invA (Invasion gene, 244bp, tyv (Tyveloseepimerase gene, 615 bp, fliC-d (Phage-1 flagellin gene for d-antigen, 750 bp and viaB (Vi antigen gene, 439bp in all 16 clinical samples. The antibiotic susceptibility test that was carried out among the isolates against 12 antimicrobial agents, showed 100 % resistance to only ampicillin and 100 % sensitivity to carbenicillin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, gentamycin, kanamycin and tetracycline.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This study confirmed the association of virulent strains of S. enterica serovar Typhi from Typhoidial fever among human population and suggested that PCR based diagnostic could be very useful for the rapid detection of S. Typhi isolates. Present study emphasized the use of antibiotic like chloramphenicol or in combination with other antibiotics for the effective control of S. Typhi.

  5. Application of bioinformatics on the detection of pathogens by Pcr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmonellas are the main responsible agent for the frequent food-borne gastrointestinal diseases. Their detection using classical methods are laborious and their results take a lot of time to be revealed. In this context, we tried to set up a revealing technique of the invA virulence gene, found in the majority of Salmonella species. After amplification with PCR using specific primers created and verified by bioinformatics programs, two couples of primers were set up and they appeared to be very specific and sensitive for the detection of invA gene. (Author)

  6. FECAL EXCRETION OF Salmonella Enteritidis IN BROILER LINES ROSS AND ISA LABEL EXCREÇÃO FECAL de Salmonella Enteritidis EM DUAS LINHAGENS DE FRANGOS DE CORTE

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    Adson Santa Cruz Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The invasive capacity and persistence of this pathogen, crop and ceca in apparently healthy birds of two broiler lines raised without growth promoter antibiotics in ration and originated from eggs inoculated eggshell and in allantoidal cavity with Salmonella Enteritidis. Histological and bacteriological exams from cecal and crop were performed with one, seven, 14 and 21 days of age after hatch in broilers of fast and slow growing rate. Bacterio-logical exams were performed fecal excretion with one, eigth, 22 and 35 days. The Salmonella Enteritidis invaded and colonizated the gastrointestinal tract of the two lines tested, but the the infection reduced with age, and was more persistant in Ross broilers. The results were different for two lines. The pathogen was excreted from just one chick of ISA Label at 22 days of age and four Ross chicks until 35 days of age. In order, Salmonella was detected in 87.5% (14/16 and 38,1% (5/16 of ceca; in 81.2% (13/16 and 12.5% (2/16 of crops; in fast and slow growing rate lines, respectively. In apparent healthy organs, excepted the crop, an inflammatory process with predominance of macrophage and lymphocytes. The slow growing rate line was effective to eliminate bacteria in the organism.

    Key-words: Ceca, crop, fecal excretion, inflammation.

    Avaliaram-se, neste estudo, a capacidade inva-siva, a persistência e a freqüência de excreção fecal da Salmonella Enteritidis em aves aparentemente saudáveis de duas linhagens de frango de corte, criadas sem antibióticos promotores de crescimento na ração e oriundas de ovos inoculados na casca ou na cavidade alantóide com Salmonella Enteritidis fagotipo 4. Realizaram-se exames bacteriológicos das excretas com um, oito, 22 e 35 dias, e histológicos e bacteriológicos do inglúvio e ceco, com um, sete, quatorze e 21 dias pós-eclosão em frangos de crescimento rápido e lento. Salmonella Enteritidis invadiu e colonizou o trato gastrintestinal das duas linhagens, mas a infecção declinou com a idade, sendo mais persistente na linhagem Ross. O patógeno foi excretado de uma única ave ISA Label até 22 dias de vida e em quatro aves da linhagem Ross até 35 dias. Constatou a Salmonella em ordem de colonização, em 87,5% (14/16 e 38,1% (5/16 dos cecos; em 81,2% (13/16 e 12,5% (2/16 dos inglúvios das linhagens Ross e ISA Label, respectivamente. Nos cecos aparentemente saudáveis, evidenciou-se um processo inflamatório com predominância de macrófagos e ou linfócitos, enquanto no inglúvio não se detectaram alterações microscópicas. A linhagem de ISA Label foi mais hábil em eliminar a bactéria do seu organismo.

    Palavras-chaves: Ceco, excreção fecal, inflamação, inglúvio.

  7. Antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella spp.: a comparison of two surveys with a 5 years interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Mijovi?

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella infections are one of the major global public health problems. During the last decade, antibiotic resistance and multiresistance of Salmonella spp. have increased a great deal, especially in developing countries with an increased and indiscriminate use of antibiotics in the treatment of humans and animals. This study aims to investigate and compare antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella during 2005 and 2010.A total of 186 Salmonella strain during 2005 and 140 Salmonella strain during 2010 were isolated from stool specimens using standard methods. The isolates were confirmed as Salmonella by using a battery of biochemical reactions. Specific antisera were used for serologic characterization of Salmonella strain. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by standard disk diffusion method using ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxasole, ceftriaxon, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin.One hundred eighty (96.8% of 186 isolated Salmonella strains in 2005, and 133 (95% of 140 isolated Salmonella strain in 2010 are recognized as Salmonella Enteritidis. Sensitivity of Salmonella isolates during 2005 and 2010 were 91.9% and 92.9% to ampicillin, 95.7% and 97.1% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxasole, 99.5% and 100% to chloramphenicol, 99.5% and 100% to ciprofloxacin, 98.9% and 97.1% to ceftriaxon, 73.1% and 95.7% to nalidixic acid, respectively.Sensitivity of Salmonella isolates to all tested antimicrobial agents except to ceftriaxon was been slightly improved over testing period. Resistance rate to ceftriaxon was higher in 2010 than in 2005, and this fact deserves attention. Significantly increase susceptibility rate to nalidixic acid was observed between the two surveys

  8. Molecular tracking of Salmonella spp. in chicken meat chain: from slaughterhouse reception to end cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Mariane Rezende; Cavicchioli, Valéria Quintana; Camargo, Anderson Carlos; Lanna, Frederico Germano Piscitelli Alvarenga; Pinto, Paulo Sérgio de Arruda; Bersot, Luciano Dos Santos; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2016-02-01

    Due to the importance of Salmonella spp. in poultry products, this study aimed to track its main contamination routes since slaughtering reception to processing of chicken end cuts. Samples from different steps of slaughtering and processing (n = 277) were collected from two chicken slaughterhouses (Sl1 and Sl2) located in Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and subjected to Salmonella spp. detection. The obtained isolates were subjected to serological identification and tested by PCR for specific Salmonella spp. genes (ompC and sifB). Also, Salmonella spp. isolates were subjected to XbaI macrorestriction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Sixty-eight samples were positive for Salmonella spp. and 172 isolates were obtained. Sl1 and Sl2 presented similar frequencies of Salmonella spp. positive samples during reception, slaughtering and processing (p > 0.05), except for higher frequencies in Sl1 for chicken carcasses after de-feathering and evisceration (p < 0.05). PFGE allowed the identification of cross contamination and persistence of Salmonella spp. strains in Sl1. The results highlighted the relevance of the initial steps of chicken slaughtering for Salmonella spp. contamination, and the pre-chilling of carcasses as an important controlling tool. In addition, the presence of Salmonella spp. in chicken end cuts samples represents a public health concern. PMID:27162388

  9. Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Sofia: Growth in and Persistence on Eggs under Production and Retail Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Catherine M; Duffy, Lesley L; Subasinghe, Nela; Hogg, Geoff; Coventry, John; Fegan, Narelle

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis in Australia has been linked to eggs and egg products with specific serotypes associated with outbreaks. We compared attachment to and survival on egg shells and growth in eggs of two Salmonella serotypes, an egg outbreak associated Salmonella Typhimurium and a non-egg-associated Salmonella enterica ssp. II 1,4,12,27:b:[e,n,x] (S. Sofia). Experiments were conducted at combinations of 4, 15, 22, 37 and 42 °C. No significant differences occurred between the serotypes in maximum growth rates, which were significantly greater (P egg yolk (0.427 log10 CFU/mL/h) compared to whole egg (0.312 log10 CFU/mL/h) and egg white (0.029 log10 CFU/mL/h). Attachment to egg shells varied by time (1 or 20 min) and temperature (4, 22 and 42 °C), with S. Typhimurium isolates attaching at higher levels (P egg shells was not significantly different across isolates. Salmonella serotypes behaved similarly regarding growth in egg contents, attachment to egg shells and survival on eggs, indicating that other factors more likely contributed to reasons for S. Typhimurium being implicated in multiple egg-associated outbreaks. PMID:26539536

  10. A novel Salmonella serovar isolated from Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in Sweden: Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Pajala (Salmonella Pajala)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Jorge; Lindberg, Peter; Waldenström, Jonas; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Björn

    2012-01-01

    A novel Salmonella serovar was isolated from Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in northern Sweden in 2006. Three isolates of the same clone was retrieved from three falcon siblings and characterized as Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica: O-phase 13, 23:-: e, n, z 15 and the H-phase was not present. We propose the geographical name Salmonella enterica, sub-species entericaserovar Pajala to this novel Salmonella.Keywords: Salmonella; epidemiology; ecology; peregrine falcon; no...

  11. Host Stress Drives Salmonella Recrudescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugghe, Elin; Dhaenens, Maarten; Leyman, Bregje; Boyen, Filip; Shearer, Neil; Van Parys, Alexander; Haesendonck, Roel; Bert, Wim; Favoreel, Herman; Deforce, Dieter; Thompson, Arthur; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Host stress is well known to result in flare-ups of many bacterial, viral and parasitic infections. The mechanism by which host stress is exploited to increase pathogen loads, is poorly understood. Here we show that Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium employs a dedicated mechanism, driven by the scsA gene, to respond to the host stress hormone cortisol. Through this mechanism, cortisol increases Salmonella proliferation inside macrophages, resulting in increased intestinal infection loads in DBA/2J mice. ScsA directs overall Salmonella virulence gene expression under conditions that mimic the intramacrophagic environment of Salmonella, and stimulates the host cytoskeletal alterations that are required for increased Salmonella proliferation inside cortisol exposed macrophages. We thus provide evidence that in a stressed host, the complex interplay between a pathogen and its host endocrine and innate immune system increases intestinal pathogen loads to facilitate pathogen dispersal. PMID:26857846

  12. Intestinal epithelial responses to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis: effects on intestinal permeability and ion transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, W A; Aschenbach, J R; Khayal, B; Hess, C; Hess, M

    2012-11-01

    Salmonella infection of chickens that leads to potential human foodborne salmonellosis continues to be a major concern. Chickens serve as carriers but, in contrast to humans, rarely show any clinical signs including diarrhea. The present investigations aimed to elucidate whether the absence of diarrhea during acute Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) infection may be linked to specific changes in the electrophysiological properties of the chicken gut. Immediately after slaughter, intestinal pieces of the mid-jejunum and cecum of either commercial broiler or specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were mounted in Ussing chambers in 2 separate experimental series. Living Salmonella Enteritidis (3 × 10(9)) or Salmonella Enteritidis endotoxin (20 mg/L), or both, were added to the mucosal side for 1 h. In both experimental series, the Salmonella infection decreased the trans-epithelial ion conductance G(t) (P < 0.05). In the jejunum of SPF chickens, there was also a marked decrease in net charge transfer across the epithelium, evidenced by decreased short-circuit current (I(sc), P < 0.05). Interestingly, the mucosal application of Salmonella endotoxin to the epithelial preparations from jejunum and cecum of SPF chicken had an effect similar to living bacteria. However, the endotoxin had no additional effect on the intestinal function in the presence of bacteria. The decreasing effect of Salmonella and or its endotoxin on G(t) could be partly reversed by serosal addition of histamine. To our knowledge, this is the first study to address the functional response of native intestinal epithelium of chicken to an in vitro Salmonella infection. For the first time, it can be reported that intestinal ion permeability of chicken decreases acutely by the presence of Salmonella. This type of response could counteract ion and fluid secretion and may thus, at least in part, explain why chickens do not develop overt diarrhea after Salmonella infection. PMID:23091155

  13. Genes de virulência e diversidade genética em Salmonella spp. isoladas de amostras de origem suína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Moura

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A diversificação da produção industrial de alimentos de origem suína e o intercâmbio comercial de animais e seus derivados destinados ao consumo humano podem ser importantes disseminadores de sorovares de Salmonella spp. na cadeia alimentar. Objetivou-se avaliar em 86 cepas de Salmonella spp., isoladas em granja de terminação e no abate de suínos, a ocorrência de três genes de virulência (invA, agfA e lpfA, bem como a similaridade genética entre elas. A ocorrência do gene invA foi verificada em 100% das amostras. O gene lpfA foi detectado em 80,23% (69/86 das cepas, não foi detectado em S. Panama e estava presente em todas as cepas de S. Infantis. O gene agfA foi detectado em 63,95% (55/86 das amostras. S. Agona apresentou positividade para todos os genes de virulência estudados. A análise de homologia entre as cepas agrupou os diferentes sorovares em clusters. A similaridade foi independente do local de isolamento, o que demonstra a presença de clones ao longo da cadeia de produção e a existência de multiplicidade de fontes para a infecção dos animais, como a ração, e a contaminação cruzada das carcaças. A pesquisa de genes de virulência e a avaliação da proximidade gênica permitem a caracterização e um maior entendimento sobre cepas de Salmonella circulantes na cadeia produtiva de suínos e, assim, podem subsidiar medidas de controle durante o processo produtivo com o objetivo de garantir a saúde do consumidor.

  14. Regulatory principles governing Salmonella and Yersinia virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Marc; Dersch, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Enteric pathogens such as Salmonella and Yersinia evolved numerous strategies to survive and proliferate in different environmental reservoirs and mammalian hosts. Deciphering common and pathogen-specific principles for how these bacteria adjust and coordinate spatiotemporal expression of virulence determinants, stress adaptation, and metabolic functions is fundamental to understand microbial pathogenesis. In order to manage sudden environmental changes, attacks by the host immune systems and microbial competition, the pathogens employ a plethora of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control elements, including transcription factors, sensory and regulatory RNAs, RNAses, and proteases, to fine-tune and control complex gene regulatory networks. Many of the contributing global regulators and the molecular mechanisms of regulation are frequently conserved between Yersinia and Salmonella. However, the interplay, arrangement, and composition of the control elements vary between these closely related enteric pathogens, which generate phenotypic differences leading to distinct pathogenic properties. In this overview we present common and different regulatory networks used by Salmonella and Yersinia to coordinate the expression of crucial motility, cell adhesion and invasion determinants, immune defense strategies, and metabolic adaptation processes. We highlight evolutionary changes of the gene regulatory circuits that result in different properties of the regulatory elements and how this influences the overall outcome of the infection process. PMID:26441883

  15. High-throughput Universal Probe Salmonella Serotyping (UPSS) by nanoPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertes, Florian; Biens, Katja; Lehrach, Hans; Wagner, Martin; Dahl, Andreas

    2010-11-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar identification is of great importance with respect to outbreak monitoring and case verification. Therefore rapid, sensitive and cost efficient detection of Salmonella spp. is indispensable within microbiology labs. To amalgamate single tube isolate identification with Salmonella typing, we developed the high-throughput Universal Probe Salmonella Serotyping (UPSS) technique based on nano liter PCR. In comparison to the classical approach, where O- and H-antisera are applied, the UPSS relies on specific gene content amplification of Salmonella spp. by a universal TaqMan assay for all markers and identification of the specific amplicon pattern. To enable high-throughput technology we employed a chip format containing 1024 wells loaded by an automated liquid-handling system which allowed us to perform TaqMan PCR reactions in volumes of 100nL per well. Herein we present proof of principle of the UPSS method by the use of a test panel of 100 previously serotyped Salmonella isolates to successfully verify the usability, accuracy and feasibility of the newly developed UPSS approach. We found that the methodology of the UPSS technology is capable of unequivocally identifying 30 Salmonella serotypes on a single chip within 3 hours but can be highly parallelized by the use of multiple PCR machines. Therefore the UPSS method offers a robust and straightforward molecular alternative for Salmonella detection and typing that saves expensive chemistry and can be easily automated. PMID:20869995

  16. Salmonella, Shigella, and yersinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, John P; Frank, Karen M

    2015-06-01

    Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia cause a well-characterized spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from asymptomatic carriage to hemorrhagic colitis and fatal typhoidal fever. These pathogens are responsible for millions of cases of food-borne illness in the United States each year, with substantial costs measured in hospitalizations and lost productivity. In the developing world, illness caused by these pathogens is not only more prevalent but also associated with a greater case-fatality rate. Classic methods for identification rely on selective media and serology, but newer methods based on mass spectrometry and polymerase chain reaction show great promise for routine clinical testing. PMID:26004640

  17. Germinoma localizado nos núcleos da base e tálamo com invasão do tronco cerebral: relato de caso Germinoma involving the basal ganglia and thalamus with brain stem invasion: case report

    OpenAIRE

    ROBERTO GOMES NOGUEIRA; VANESSA GRANATO TOSCANO; NITAMAR ABDALA; JOÃO NORBERTO STÁVALE; Suzana M. Fleury Malheiros; ALBERTO ALAIN GABBAI

    1998-01-01

    Descrevemos o caso de um paciente com diagnóstico de germinoma nos núcleos da base e tálamo, com invasão do tronco cerebral, ressaltando as características observadas nos exames de tomografia computadorizada e de ressonância magnética, os possíveis diagnósticos diferenciais, e a necessidade da comprovação anátomo-patológica, por tratar-se de localização pouco frequente de um tumor com possibilidade de evolução favorável após tratamento com quimio e radioterapia.We report an unusual case of ge...

  18. Development of Rapid Detection and Genetic Characterization of Salmonella in Poultry Breeder Feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C. Ricke

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, with poultry and poultry products being a primary source of infection to humans. Poultry may carry some Salmonella serovars without any signs or symptoms of disease and without causing any adverse effects to the health of the bird. Salmonella may be introduced to a flock by multiple environmental sources, but poultry feed is suspected to be a leading source. Detecting Salmonella in feed can be challenging because low levels of the bacteria may not be recovered using traditional culturing techniques. Numerous detection methodologies have been examined over the years for quantifying Salmonella in feeds and many have proven to be effective for Salmonella isolation and detection in a variety of feeds. However, given the potential need for increased detection sensitivity, molecular detection technologies may the best candidate for developing rapid sensitive methods for identifying small numbers of Salmonella in the background of large volumes of feed. Several studies have been done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays and commercial kits to detect Salmonella spp. in a wide variety of feed sources. In addition, DNA array technology has recently been utilized to track the dissemination of a specific Salmonella serotype in feed mills. This review will discuss the processing of feeds and potential points in the process that may introduce Salmonella contamination to the feed. Detection methods currently used and the need for advances in these methods also will be discussed. Finally, implementation of rapid detection for optimizing control methods to prevent and remove any Salmonella contamination of feeds will be considered.

  19. Salmonella Control Programs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Hald, Tine; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Madsen, M.; Korsgaard, Helle; Bager, Flemming; Gerner-Smidt, P.; Mølbak, K.

    2003-01-01

    We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds and...... flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk. In 2001, the Danish society saved U.S.$25.5 million by controlling Salmonella. The total annual...

  20. Effect of vaccination of hens with an avirulent strain of Salmonella typhimurium on immunity of progeny challenged with wild-Type Salmonella strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, J O; Curtiss, R

    1996-01-01

    The avirulent Salmonella typhimurium chi3985 was used to vaccinate white leghorn chickens at 16 and 18 weeks of age, and the effect of maternal antibody on Salmonella colonization of progeny of vaccinated hens was assessed with S. typhimurium F98 or chi3985. Progeny of hens that had been vaccinated at 1 and 3 or 2 and 4 weeks of age with chi3985 were used to determine the effect of maternal immunity on vaccine efficacy. Vaccination of hens induced long-lasting Salmonella-specific antibodies w...

  1. The detection of Salmonella typhimurium on shell eggs using a phage-based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yating; Li, Suiqiong; Horikawa, Shin; Shen, Wen; Park, Mi-Kyung; Vodyanoy, Vitaly J.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the direct detection of Salmonella typhimurium on shell eggs using a phage-based magnetoelastic (ME) biosensor. The ME biosensor consists of a ME resonator as the sensor platform and E2 phage as the biorecognition element that is genetically engineered to specifically bind with Salmonella typhimurium. The ME biosensor, which is a wireless sensor, vibrates with a characteristic resonant frequency under an externally applied magnetic field. Multiple sensors can easily be remotely monitored. Multiple measurement and control sensors were placed on the shell eggs contaminated by Salmonella typhimurium solutions with different known concentrations. The resonant frequency of sensors before and after the exposure to the spiked shell eggs was measured. The frequency shift of the measurement sensors was significantly different than the control sensors indicating Salmonella contamination. Scanning electron microscopy was used to confirm binding of Salmonella to the sensor surface and the resulting frequency shift results.

  2. Protein Chips for Detection of Salmonella spp. from Enrichment Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltronieri, Palmiro; Cimaglia, Fabio; De Lorenzis, Enrico; Chiesa, Maurizio; Mezzolla, Valeria; Reca, Ida Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Food pathogens are the cause of foodborne epidemics, therefore there is a need to detect the pathogens in food productions rapidly. A pre-enrichment culture followed by selective agar plating are standard detection methods. Molecular methods such as qPCR have provided a first rapid protocol for detection of pathogens within 24 h of enrichment culture. Biosensors also may provide a rapid tool to individuate a source of Salmonella contamination at early times of pre-enrichment culture. Forty mL of Salmonella spp. enrichment culture were processed by immunoseparation using the Pathatrix, as in AFNOR validated qPCR protocols. The Salmonella biosensor combined with immunoseparation showed a limit of detection of 100 bacteria/40 mL, with a 400 fold increase to previous results. qPCR analysis requires processing of bead-bound bacteria with lysis buffer and DNA clean up, with a limit of detection of 2 cfu/50 μL. Finally, a protein chip was developed and tested in screening and identification of 5 common pathogen species, Salmonella spp., E. coli, S. aureus, Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. The protein chip, with high specificity in species identification, is proposed to be integrated into a Lab-on-Chip system, for rapid and reproducible screening of Salmonella spp. and other pathogen species contaminating food productions. PMID:27110786

  3. Protein Chips for Detection of Salmonella spp. from Enrichment Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmiro Poltronieri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food pathogens are the cause of foodborne epidemics, therefore there is a need to detect the pathogens in food productions rapidly. A pre-enrichment culture followed by selective agar plating are standard detection methods. Molecular methods such as qPCR have provided a first rapid protocol for detection of pathogens within 24 h of enrichment culture. Biosensors also may provide a rapid tool to individuate a source of Salmonella contamination at early times of pre-enrichment culture. Forty mL of Salmonella spp. enrichment culture were processed by immunoseparation using the Pathatrix, as in AFNOR validated qPCR protocols. The Salmonella biosensor combined with immunoseparation showed a limit of detection of 100 bacteria/40 mL, with a 400 fold increase to previous results. qPCR analysis requires processing of bead-bound bacteria with lysis buffer and DNA clean up, with a limit of detection of 2 cfu/50 μL. Finally, a protein chip was developed and tested in screening and identification of 5 common pathogen species, Salmonella spp., E. coli, S. aureus, Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. The protein chip, with high specificity in species identification, is proposed to be integrated into a Lab-on-Chip system, for rapid and reproducible screening of Salmonella spp. and other pathogen species contaminating food productions.

  4. Salmonella Typhimurium infection primes a nutriprive mechanism in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miarelli, Maria; Drumo, Rosanna; Signorelli, Federica; Marchitelli, Cinzia; Pavone, Silvia; Pesciaroli, Michele; Ruggieri, Jessica; Chirullo, Barbara; Ammendola, Serena; Battistoni, Andrea; Alborali, Giovanni L; Manuali, Elisabetta; Pasquali, Paolo

    2016-04-15

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is an important cause of acute food- borne zoonoses worldwide, typically carried by pigs. It is well known that Salmonella has evolved a wide array of strategies enabling it to invade the host, but little information is available on the specific host responses to Salmonella infections. In the present study, we used an in vivo approach (involving piglets infected with a virulent or an attenuated S. Typhimurium strain) coupled to histological and proteomic analysis of the cecum mucosa, to highlight the host pathways activated during S. Typhimurium infection. We confirm the complex host-pathogen interaction. Our data showed that the metabolic and the cytoskeleton organization functions were the most significantly altered. In particular, the modifications of energy metabolic pathway could suggest a "nutriprive" mechanism, in which the host reduce its metabolic and energetic status to limit Salmonella infection. This study could represent a preliminary approach, providing information useful to better understand the host-Salmonella interaction. PMID:27016766

  5. Serum Bactericidal Assay: New Role in Salmonella Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wu, Da; Sun, Min; Deng, Mingjun; Cui, Shuhua; Liang, Chengzhu; Geng, Juan; Sun, Tao; Long, Ling; Xiao, Xizhi

    2016-01-01

    While inspecting animal feed for Salmonella contamination, we routinely observed bacterial colonies on selective agars that were similar in appearance to those formed by Salmonella. These were identified as Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, and Serratia fonticola using biochemical and serological techniques. Because the presence of these bacterial species confounds identification of Salmonella, we refer to them as "interference bacteria." Polyvalent antisera against these interference bacteria were prepared by immunizing rabbits with a mixture of all three organisms. To minimize or eliminate interference by these bacteria, the polyvalent antisera were introduced between the steps of selective enrichment and Salmonella-selective plating. The antisera raised against the interference bacteria, when combined with neonatal rabbit complement, exhibited specific bactericidal activity against C. freundii, P. mirabilis, and S. fonticola. The respective serum bactericidal assay titers were 2(9), 2(8), and 2(10). In selective broth, polyvalent antisera could also kill the target bacterial cells effectively. We tested 526 samples (186 white fishmeal, 97 red fishmeal, and 243 cattle bone powder) using the polyvalent antisera and found that the rates of contamination of each species of the three respective foods decreased by 58.8, 100, and 83%. Our data indicates that polyvalent sera against C. freundii, P. mirabilis, and S. fonticola can be used as inhibitors to increase the accuracy of Salmonella detection. PMID:26822285

  6. Multiple-serotype Salmonella gastroenteritis outbreak after a reception --- Connecticut, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    In September 2009, the Connecticut Department of Public Health (DPH) identified an outbreak of Salmonella gastroenteritis among attendees at a reception. A case-control study and environmental and laboratory investigations were conducted. Nine case-patients and 14 control subjects were identified. Potato salad consumption was strongly associated with illness (odds ratio [OR] = 84.0). During the investigation, food service workers were observed to have bare-handed contact with ready-to-eat food. Five case-patients and one asymptomatic food service worker had stool samples positive for Salmonella species. Two Salmonella serotypes were identified, Salmonella enterica serovar Schwarzengrund and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium variant O:5--, including coinfection in one case-patient and one food service worker. The isolates of each respective serotype (S. Schwarzengrund and S. Typhimurium variant O:5--) had indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. Potato salad was the likely source of the outbreak but the contamination mechanism is unclear. Control measures included exclusion of the food service worker with Salmonella-positive stool from the restaurant until two consecutive stool samples yielded no bacterial growth. Standard public health laboratory practices in Connecticut and testing techniques used specifically during this investigation led to the rapid identification of the two serotypes. Multiple-serotype Salmonella outbreaks might occur more frequently than recognized; knowledge of all Salmonella serotypes involved in an outbreak might help implicate the outbreak source, define the scope of the outbreak, and determine the selection of appropriate control measures. PMID:20814404

  7. 40 CFR 79.68 - Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recommendations as specified under 40 CFR 79.60, the following specific information shall be reported: (i... consulted. (1) 40 CFR 798.5265, The Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation asay. (2) Ames, B.N., McCann, J... mutation assay. 79.68 Section 79.68 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  8. Phosphorylation of the autophagy receptor optineurin restricts Salmonella growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wild, Philipp; Farhan, Hesso; McEwan, David G; Wagner, Sebastian; Rogov, Vladimir V; Brady, Nathan R; Richter, Benjamin; Korac, Jelena; Waidmann, Oliver; Choudhary, Chunaram; Dötsch, Volker; Bumann, Dirk; Dikic, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Selective autophagy can be mediated via receptor molecules that link specific cargoes to the autophagosomal membranes decorated by ubiquitin-like microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) modifiers. Although several autophagy receptors have been identified, little is known about mechanisms...... controlling their functions in vivo. In this work, we found that phosphorylation of an autophagy receptor, optineurin, promoted selective autophagy of ubiquitin-coated cytosolic Salmonella enterica. The protein kinase TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1) phosphorylated optineurin on serine-177, enhancing LC3 binding...... affinity and autophagic clearance of cytosolic Salmonella. Conversely, ubiquitin- or LC3-binding optineurin mutants and silencing of optineurin or TBK1 impaired Salmonella autophagy, resulting in increased intracellular bacterial proliferation. We propose that phosphorylation of autophagy receptors might...

  9. Acute diarrhea associated with Salmonella enterica in Belo Horizonte-MG: prevalence and characterization of isolates Diarreia aguda associada a Salmonella enterica em Belo Horizonte-MG: prevalência e caracterização das amostras isoladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Ângela Bernardes Sousa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute infectious diarrhea is still regarded as a public health problem associated with a wide range of etiologic agents, from which Salmonella enterica is particularly worth mentioning inasmuch as it is a major cause of inflammatory diarrhea in both developed and developing countries. Objective: To assess the distribution of S. enterica among children with acute diarrhea in Belo Horizonte and to characterize bacterium isolates. Material and methods: The study group comprised a total of 157 children from low socioeconomic background. Stool samples were collected for leukocyte analysis and Salmonella bacterial culture. The isolates were serotyped and evaluated as to antimicrobial susceptibility profile, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL production, and presence of virulence markers (invA, iroB, and spvC. RESULTS: A total of 5/3.2% children were infected by S. enterica, 3/60% by S. enterica Typhimurium, 1/20% by S. enterica Enteritidis and 1/20% S. enterica subsp. enterica serotype 8.20:z4,z23:-. Fecal leucocytes were detected in two out of five fecal specimens positive for S. enterica. Isolates from three children were resistant to nalidixic acid, nalidixic acid + chloramphenicol, and nalidixic acid + chloramphenicol + ampicillin. ESBL production was not detected. All samples presented invA and iroB genes. spvC marker was observed in isolates from two children infected by S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that S. enterica infection is uncommon among children from our region. Furthermore, they indicate the need for periodic monitoring of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility profile in order to establish suitable antimicrobial therapy when required.INTRODUÇÃO: A diarreia infecciosa aguda é considerada um problema de saúde pública associado a uma ampla gama de agentes etiológicos, entre os quais destaca-se Salmonella enterica, causa importante de diarreia inflamatória em países desenvolvidos e em desenvolvimento. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a distribuição de S. enterica em crianças com diarreia aguda em Belo Horizonte e caracterizar as amostras isoladas. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: O grupo de estudo consistiu de 157 crianças de nível socioeconômico baixo. Espécimes fecais foram empregados para pesquisa de leucóc itos e cultivo de Salmonella. As amostras isoladas foram sorotipadas e submetidas à avaliação do perfil de suscetibilidade a antimicrobianos, da produção de betalactamases de amplo espectro (ESBL e da presença de marcadores de virulência (invA, iroB e spvC. RESULTADOS: Cinco/3,2% crianças apresentaram-se infectadas por S. enterica; três/60%, por S. enterica Typhimurium; uma/20%, por S. enterica Enteritidis; e uma/20%, por S. enterica subsp. enterica sorotipo 8,20:z4,z23:-. Leucócitos fecais foram detectados em dois dos cinco espécimes positivos para S. enterica. As amostras isoladas de três crianças apresentaram resistência a ácido nalidíxico, ácido nalidíxico + cloranfenicol e ácido nalidíxico + cloranfenicol + ampicilina. Nenhuma amostra produziu ESBL. Todas as amostras albergavam os genes invA e iroB. O marcador spvC foi observado em amostras isoladas de duas crianças infectadas por S. Typhimurium e S. Enteritidis. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados demonstram que diarreia associada a S. enterica é raramente observada entre crianças da nossa região e indicam a necessidade de avaliação periódica do perfil de suscetibilidade a antimicrobianos da bactéria para orientar o estabelecimento de antibioticoterapia, quando indicada.

  10. Animal salmonelloses: a brief review of “host adaptation and host specificity” of Salmonella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grammato Evangelopoulou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica, the most pathogenic species of the genusSalmonella, includes more than 2,500 serovars, many of which are of great veterinary and medical significance. The emergence of food-borne pathogens, such as Salmonella spp., has increased knowledge about the mechanisms helping microorganisms to persist and spread within new host populations. It has also increased information about the properties they acquire for adapting in the biological environment of a new host. Thedifferences observed between serovars in their host preference and clinical manifestations are referred to as “serovar-host specificity” or “serovar-host adaptation”. The genus Salmonella, highly adaptive to vertebrate hosts, has many pathogenic serovars showing host specificity. Serovar Salmonella Typhi, causing disease to man and higher primates, is a good example of host specificity. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that Salmonella serovars use to overcome animal species' barriers or adapt to new hosts is also important for understanding the origins of any other infectious diseases or the emergence of new pathogens. In addition, molecular methods used to study the virulence determinants of Salmonella serovars, could also be used to model ways of studying the virulence determinants used by bacteria in general, when causing disease to a specific animal species

  11. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease

    OpenAIRE

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effe...

  12. Effect of Low Dose of Fumonisins on Pig Health: Immune Status, Intestinal Microbiota and Sensitivity to Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burel, Christine; Tanguy, Mael; Guerre, Philippe; Boilletot, Eric; Cariolet, Roland; Queguiner, Marilyne; Postollec, Gilbert; Pinton, Philippe; Salvat, Gilles; Oswald, Isabelle P.; Fravalo, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the effects of chronic exposure to fumonisins via the ingestion of feed containing naturally contaminated corn in growing pigs infected or not with Salmonella spp. This exposure to a moderate dietary concentration of fumonisins (11.8 ppm) was sufficient to induce a biological effect in pigs (Sa/So ratio), but no mortality or pathology was observed over 63 days of exposure. No mortality or related clinical signs, even in cases of inoculation with Salmonella (5 × 104 CFU), were observed either. Fumonisins, at these concentrations, did not affect the ability of lymphocytes to proliferate in the presence of mitogens, but after seven days post-inoculation they led to inhibition of the ability of specific Salmonella lymphocytes to proliferate following exposure to a specific Salmonella antigen. However, the ingestion of fumonisins had no impact on Salmonella translocation or seroconversion in inoculated pigs. The inoculation of Salmonella did not affect faecal microbiota profiles, but exposure to moderate concentrations of fumonisins transiently affected the digestive microbiota balance. In cases of co-infection with fumonisins and Salmonella, the microbiota profiles were rapidly and clearly modified as early as 48 h post-Salmonella inoculation. Therefore under these experimental conditions, exposure to an average concentration of fumonisins in naturally contaminated feed had no effect on pig health but did affect the digestive microbiota balance, with Salmonella exposure amplifying this phenomenon. PMID:23612754

  13. Effect of Low Dose of Fumonisins on Pig Health: Immune Status, Intestinal Microbiota and Sensitivity to Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Fravalo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure the effects of chronic exposure to fumonisins via the ingestion of feed containing naturally contaminated corn in growing pigs infected or not with Salmonella spp. This exposure to a moderate dietary concentration of fumonisins (11.8 ppm was sufficient to induce a biological effect in pigs (Sa/So ratio, but no mortality or pathology was observed over 63 days of exposure. No mortality or related clinical signs, even in cases of inoculation with Salmonella (5 104 CFU, were observed either. Fumonisins, at these concentrations, did not affect the ability of lymphocytes to proliferate in the presence of mitogens, but after seven days post-inoculation they led to inhibition of the ability of specific Salmonella lymphocytes to proliferate following exposure to a specific Salmonella antigen. However, the ingestion of fumonisins had no impact on Salmonella translocation or seroconversion in inoculated pigs. The inoculation of Salmonella did not affect faecal microbiota profiles, but exposure to moderate concentrations of fumonisins transiently affected the digestive microbiota balance. In cases of co-infection with fumonisins and Salmonella, the microbiota profiles were rapidly and clearly modified as early as 48 h post-Salmonella inoculation. Therefore under these experimental conditions, exposure to an average concentration of fumonisins in naturally contaminated feed had no effect on pig health but did affect the digestive microbiota balance, with Salmonella exposure amplifying this phenomenon.

  14. Live Oral Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Vaccines Ty21a and CVD 909 Induce Opsonophagocytic Functional Antibodies in Humans That Cross-React with S. Paratyphi A and S. Paratyphi B

    OpenAIRE

    Wahid, Rezwanul; Zafar, Shah J.; McArthur, Monica A.; Pasetti, Marcela F; Levine, Myron M.; Sztein, Marcelo B.

    2014-01-01

    Live oral Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi vaccine Ty21a induces specific antibodies that cross-react against Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A and Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B, although their functional role in clearance remains unknown. We utilized an in vitro assay with THP-1 macrophages to compare the phagocytosis and survival of Salmonella opsonized with heat-inactivated human sera obtained before and after vaccination with Ty21a or a live oral S. Typhi vaccine, CVD 909...

  15. Evaluation of 3M molecular detection assay (MDA) Salmonella for the detection of Salmonella in selected foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Patrick; Fisher, Kiel; Boyle, Megan; Huffman, Travis; Benzinger, M Joseph; Bedinghaus, Paige; Flannery, Jonathan; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James; Goins, David; Benesh, DeAnn; David, John

    2013-01-01

    The 3M Molecular Detection Assay (MDA) Salmonella is used with the 3M Molecular Detection System for the detection of Salmonella spp. in food, food-related, and environmental samples after enrichment. The assay utilizes loop-mediated isothermal amplification to rapidly amplify Salmonella target DNA with high specificity and sensitivity, combined with bioluminescence to detect the amplification. The 3M MDA Salmonella method was compared using an unpaired study design in a multilaboratory collaborative study to the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Food Safety and Inspection Service-Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (USDA/FSIS-MLG 4.05), Isolation and Identification of Salmonella from Meat, Poultry, Pasteurized Egg and Catfish Products for raw ground beef and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration/Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA/BAM) Chapter 5 Salmonella reference method for wet dog food following the current AOAC guidelines. A total of 20 laboratories participated. For the 3M MDA Salmonella method, raw ground beef was analyzed using 25 g test portions, and wet dog food was analyzed using 375 g test portions. For the reference methods, 25 g test portions of each matrix were analyzed. Each matrix was artificially contaminated with Salmonella at three inoculation levels: an uninoculated control level (0 CFU/test portion), a low inoculum level (0.2-2 CFU/test portion), and a high inoculum level (2-5 CFU/test portion). In this study, 1512 unpaired replicate samples were analyzed. Statistical analysis was conducted according to the probability of detection (POD). For the low-level raw ground beef test portions, the following dLPOD (difference between the POD of the reference and candidate method) values with 95% confidence intervals were obtained: -0.01 (-0.14, +0.12). For the low-level wet dog food test portions, the following dLPOD with 95% confidence intervals were obtained: -0.04 (-0.16, +0.09). No significant differences were observed in the number of positive samples detected by the 3M MDA Salmonella method versus either the USDA/FSIS-MLG or FDA/BAM methods. PMID:24645511

  16. A novel Salmonella serovar isolated from Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in Sweden: Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Pajala (Salmonella Pajala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernndez, Jorge; Lindberg, Peter; Waldenstrm, Jonas; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Bjrn

    2012-01-01

    A novel Salmonella serovar was isolated from Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in northern Sweden in 2006. Three isolates of the same clone was retrieved from three falcon siblings and characterized as Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica: O-phase 13, 23:-: e, n, z 15 and the H-phase was not present. We propose the geographical name Salmonella enterica, sub-species enterica serovar Pajala to this novel Salmonella. PMID:22957136

  17. A novel Salmonella serovar isolated from Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus nestlings in Sweden: Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Pajala (Salmonella Pajala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Hernndez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel Salmonella serovar was isolated from Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus nestlings in northern Sweden in 2006. Three isolates of the same clone was retrieved from three falcon siblings and characterized as Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica: O-phase 13, 23:-: e, n, z 15 and the H-phase was not present. We propose the geographical name Salmonella enterica, sub-species enterica serovar Pajala to this novel Salmonella.

  18. Inhibitory Effects of Several Essential Oils towards Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella paratyphi B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Mazhar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant essential oils are natural products extracted from plants and because of their antimicrobial properties can be used as natural additives in foods. They are also useful for decontamination of food-borne pathogens and can be a safe additive in foods. The antimicrobial activities of essential oils belonging to Saturiea hortensis, Thymus vulgaris, Mentha polegium, Cuminum cyminum, Lavandula officinalis and Mentha viridis L. (spearmint were investigated at different concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10%v/v against Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella paratyphi B by using the agar well diffusion method. Essential oils showed inhibitory effect on Salmonella spp. in the agar well diffusion assay. In addition, the capability of essential oils for decontamination of minced row beef, ground beef, minced raw chicken and minced raw fish inoculated with Salmonella spp. at 0.1 and 0.5%v/v were assessed. Reduction of the Salmonella spp. population was observed following the inoculation of the cultures with 0.1 and 0.5%v/v essential oils.

  19. Diagnostic Accuracy of Rectoanal Mucosal Swab of Feedlot Cattle for Detection and Enumeration of Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agga, Getahun E; Arthur, Terrance M; Schmidt, John W; Wang, Rong; Brichta-Harhay, Dayna M

    2016-04-01

    Cattle are noted carriers of the foodborne pathogen Salmonella enterica. The perceived need to decrease the potential human health risk posed by excretion of this pathogen has resulted in numerous studies examining the factors that influence Salmonella shedding in cattle. Fecal grab (FG) samples have been the predominant method used to identify cattle colonized or infected with Salmonella; however, FG sampling can be impractical in certain situations, and rectoanal mucosal swabs (RAMS) are a more convenient sample type to collect. Despite a lack of studies comparing FG and RAMS for the detection and enumeration of Salmonella fecal shedding, RAMS is perceived as less sensitive because a smaller amount of feces is cultured. In a cross-sectional study to address these concerns, paired RAMS and FG samples were collected from 403 adult feedlot cattle approximately 90 days prior to harvest. Samples were processed for Salmonella enumeration (direct plating) and detection (enrichment and immunomagnetic separation). In all, 89.6% of RAMS and 98.8% of FG samples were positive for Salmonella, and concordant prevalence outcomes were observed for 90.8% of samples. Mean enumeration values were 3.01 and 3.12 log CFU/ml for RAMS and FG, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of RAMS were 91% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 87.5 to 93%) and 100% (95% CI: 48 to 100%), respectively, for Salmonella detection. Furthermore, RAMS Salmonella enumeration was substantially concordant (ρc = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.86 to 0.91) with FG values. We conclude that RAMS are a reliable alternative to FG for assessing cattle Salmonella fecal shedding status, especially for cattle shedding high levels of Salmonella. PMID:27052855

  20. Duplex PCR for detection of Salmonella and Shigella spp in cockle samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senachai, Pachara; Chomvarin, Chariya; Wongboot, Warawan; Boonyanugomol, Wongwarut; Tangkanakul, Waraluk

    2013-09-01

    Salmonella and Shigella spp are important causative agents of foodborne diseases. A sensitive, specific and rapid method is essential for detection of these pathogens. In this study, a duplex PCR method was developed for simultaneous detection of Salmonella and Shigella spp in cockle samples and compared with the traditional culture method. Enrichment broths for Salmonella spp recovery were also compared. Sensitivity of the duplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Salmonella and Shigella spp from pure culture was 10(3) CFU/ml (40 CFU/PCR reaction), and that of sterile cockle samples spiked with these two pathogens was 1 CFU/10 g of cockle tissue after 9 hours enrichment [3 hours in buffered peptone water (BPW), followed by 6 hours in Rappaport Vasiliadis (RV) broth or tetrathionate (TT) broth for Salmonella spp and 6 hours enrichment in Shigella broth (SB) for Shigella spp]. There was no significant difference in detection sensitivity between enrichment in RV and TT broths. Salmonella spp detected in cockles in Khon Kaen, Thailand by duplex PCR and culture method was 17% and 13%, respectively but Shigella spp was not detected. The duplex PCR technique developed for simultaneous detection of Salmonella and Shigella spp in cockle samples was highly sensitive, specific and rapid and could serve as a suitable method for food safety assessment. PMID:24437322

  1. Development of a DNA microarray for molecular identification of all 46 Salmonella O serogroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dan; Liu, Bin; Liu, Fenxia; Cao, Boyang; Chen, Min; Hao, Xiyan; Feng, Lu; Wang, Lei

    2013-06-01

    Salmonella is a major cause of food-borne disease in many countries. Serotype determination of Salmonella is important for disease assessment, infection control, and epidemiological surveillance. In this study, a microarray system that targets the O antigen-specific genes was developed for simultaneously detecting and identifying all 46 Salmonella O serogroups. Of these, 40 serogroups can be confidently identified, and the remaining 6, in three pairs (serogroups O67 and B, E1 and E4, and A and D1), need to be further distinguished from each other using PCR methods or conventional serotyping methods. The microarray was shown to be highly specific when evaluated against 293 Salmonella strains, 186 Shigella strains, representative Escherichia coli strains, and 10 strains of other bacterial species. The assay correctly identified 288 (98%) of the Salmonella strains. The detection sensitivity was determined to be 50 ng genomic DNA per sample. By testing simulated samples in a tomato background, 2 to 8 CFU per gram inoculated could be detected after enrichment. This newly developed microarray assay is the first molecular protocol that can be used for the comprehensive detection and identification of all 46 Salmonella O serogroups. Compared to the traditional serogrouping method, the microarray provides a reliable, high-throughput, and sensitive approach that can be used for rapid identification of multiple Salmonella O serogroups simultaneously. PMID:23524674

  2. Reveal for Salmonella test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, C B; Miller, R L; Miller, B M

    1999-01-01

    The Reveal for Salmonella (RSS) test system is a presumptive qualitative test that detects the presence of Salmonella organisms in foods within 21 h total testing time, allowing the user to release negative products 24 h earlier than when using other rapid test kits. Foods are enriched with a proprietary resuscitation medium called Revive and then selectively enriched with either Selenite Cystine or Rappaport-Vassiliadis selective media. The enriched culture is used to inoculate the RSS detection device, which initiates a lateral flow through a reagent zone containing anti-Salmonella antibodies conjugated to colloidal gold particles that capture antigens present in the culture. The antigen-antibody complex migrates farther and is captured by an additional anti-Salmonella antibody, causing the colloidal gold to precipitate and form a visual line, indicating a positive result. A procedural control line also will form regardless of the presence of Salmonella organisms to indicate the test is working properly. Existing AOAC Official Methods for Salmonella organisms require a 48 h enrichment before testing. Hence, a food product has to be held before release, adding extra cost to the company and the consumer. The RSS test system was evaluated by quantitative spiking studies. Although AOAC encourages inclusion of naturally contaminated foods, almost all microbiological AOAC validation studies have been performed with artificially contaminated foods for absolute control over the study. The RSS test system is designed to test many food types for Salmonella organisms and has a limit of detection of 5-10 colony-forming units (cfu)/25 g with a false-negative rate of < 1% and a false-positive rate of < 5.0%. It showed an 81% overall agreement with the traditional procedure of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety Inspection Service. PMID:10367381

  3. Salmonella identification from foods in eight hours: A prototype study with Salmonella Typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koluman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The significant rise in food borne infections is mainly caused by Campylobacter spp., Salmonella serovars and Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli. As the emerging food borne pathogens cause disease, more studies have been conducted for rapid detection of these pathogens. The combination of immunomagnetic separation and polymerase chain reaction (IMS-PCR is the most accurate and rapid test preferred by almost every researcher. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR is preferred for being a new, user friendly and rapid technique in microbiological analyses. The main aim of this study is to detect application of IMS-FTIR for Salmonella identification from foods in a short time with a higher sensitivity.Materials and Methods: Conventional Culture Technique (CC, IMS-CC, IMS-PCR and IMS-FTIR techniques were compared with each other for rapid detection in artificially contaminated minced beef with Salmonella Typhimurium, as of the 2nd, 4th and 8th hours of contamination. The method was evaluated in different food matrices and sensitivity, specifity and overall recovery was calculated.Results: The results indicate that IMS-FTIR can detect S. Typhimurium as of the 8th hour with sensitivity of 95.6667, accuracy of 91.69329, false positive ratio of 0.04333 and overall recovery of 95.66%.Conclusion: It can be suggested that the IMS-FTIR method is capable of detecting S.Typhimurium in a short time with lower cost.

  4. Glyceraldehyde phosphate at the reducing terminus of Salmonella Q haptens. Salmonella montevideo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmeiner, J

    1975-02-21

    The O antigen polysaccharide of Salmonella montevideo was isolated from a core-defective mutant by the phenol/water procedure, and was suspected to contain phosphomonester and cyclic phosphodiester at its reducing end in anology to the O hapten from Salmonella typhimurium (Kent and Obsborn, 1968. Therefore, it was chromatographed on a DEAE-cellulose column. Whereas one part eluted with water the other part of the polysaccharide could only be eluted with buffer. Both fractions were further purified on Sephadex G100 and contained mannose, glucose, N-acetylglucosamine and phosphate in a molar ratio of 4:1:1: less than 0.1. In order to specifically label the reducing end phosphate was removed enzymatically, or the presumed cyclic diester was cleaved by mild hydrolysis, and the fractions were reduced with sodium horo[3H]hydride. Both fractions yield mainly [3H]glycerol after hydrolysis and paper chromatogaphy. In addition, [3H]mannitol and [H]monohydroxyacetone could be identified by paper chromatography and were concluded to be the result of phosphate migration and beta-elimination reactions taking place during the isolation procedure and the various treatments prior to sodium boro[3H]hydride reduction. These findings in addition to periodate oxidation studies indicated that the O antigen polysaccharide of Salmonella montevideo had glyceraldehyde phosphate at its reducing end. From the incorporation of 3H into the polysaccharide the O antigen was calculated to consist of about 19 repeating units of 6 sugar residues each. PMID:1097244

  5. Mixed salmonella infection - A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi S.; Wattal C; Sharma A.; Prasad K.

    2002-01-01

    Mixed infection with multiple Salmonella serotypes in the same patient is an unusual finding. We present a case of enteric fever in which the blood culture was sterile and Widal test was negative. The culture of the bone marrow yielded Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A.

  6. Mixed salmonella infection - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi S

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed infection with multiple Salmonella serotypes in the same patient is an unusual finding. We present a case of enteric fever in which the blood culture was sterile and Widal test was negative. The culture of the bone marrow yielded Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A.

  7. Invasão de áreas de savana intra-amazônicas por Digitonthophagus gazella (Fabricius, 1787 (Insecta: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae Invasion of intra-Amazonian savannas by the dung beetle Digintonthophagus gazella (Fabricius, 1787 (Insecta: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Augusto Matavelli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, foi avaliada a invasão da comunidade de Scarabaeinae detritívoros de uma savana amazônica pela espécie africana Digitonthophagus gazella (Fabricius 1787. O estudo foi realizado nas proximidades da vila de Alter do Chão (2º 31' S e 55º 00' W, localizada a aproximadamente 36 km a sudoeste de Santarém, Pará, Brasil. Vinte e duas áreas de savanas de 3,75 ha (250 x 150 m distribuídas em 30.000 ha foram amostradas, no período de 21 de julho a 13 de agosto de 2003, utilizando 66 armadilhas de queda com três tipos de iscas (fezes bovinas, fezes humanas e carcaças. Foram encontrados indivíduos de D. gazella em quatro das vinte e duas áreas amostradas. Procurou-se explicar a presença da espécie nas áreas de savana através de análises de regressão logística, onde as variáveis explicativas foram: ocorrência de queimada nos últimos seis anos, diversidade e abundância total de Scarabaeidae nativos presentes na área, abundância de Canthon sp.1, (espécie de Scarabaeidae mais abundante na região. Exceto pela abundância total de indivíduos de Scarabaeidae nativos, nenhuma das variáveis bióticas e abióticas tiveram efeito estatisticamente significativo na presença do D. gazella. Estes resultados podem ser explicados por: (a algum fator ainda não analisado, relacionado à invasão da área pelo D. gazella; (b Não houve tempo para a dispersão e estabelecimento da espécie em todas as áreas; (c A comunidade nativa de Scarabaeinae apresenta resistência à invasão pelo D. gazella.This work aimed to verify the invasion of the dung beetles community from intra-Amazonian savanna by the African species Digitonthophagus gazella (Fabricius 1787. The research was carried out near Alter do Chão village (2º 31' S; 55º 00' W, 36 Km Southwest of Santarém, Pará, Brazil. Twenty two areas were sampled, from 21 July to 13 August 2003, using 66 baited pitfall traps (cattle dung, human faeces and carcass bait. D. gazella individuals were found in four of twenty two sampled areas. The presence of the species in the savanna was analysed by a logistic regression, using the occurrence of burnings in the last six years, species richness and abundance of native Scarabaeinae, and abundance of Canthon sp1, (the most abundant species in the region, as explanatory variables. Except for the total abundance of native Scarabaeinae, none of the variables were statistically significant for the presence of D. gazella. Hypothetically, these results were probably due to a non-analysed factor related to the invasibility of the area by D. gazella, or lack of time for the species to disperse and establish in all the areas, or a resistance of native dung beetle community to D. gazella invasion. Nevertheless, there must be a competitive mechanism of invasion resistance bounding the abundance of native species and D. gazella invasibility.

  8. Influência da invasão tumoral da linha de anastomose na sobrevivência de pacientes com câncer de coto gástrico The influence of tumor invasion in anastomotic line on survival of patient with gastric stump cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Lúcia Granja Scarabel Nogueira Carrasco; Cláudio José Caldas Bresciani; Rodrigo Oliva Perez; Bruno Zilberstein; Ivan Cecconello

    2008-01-01

    RACIONAL: O câncer do coto gástrico desenvolve- se no remanescente gástrico de gastrectomia realizada há pelo menos 5 anos por doença benigna e os sítios mais comuns de acometimento são próximo à anastomose e na pequena curvatura. Considera-se que o coto gástrico é estado pré-canceroso. OBJETIVOS: Identificar o padrão de disseminação de linfonodos acometidos, quantificar a invasão tumoral da linha de anastomose e correlacionar: a invasão da linha de anastomose com o comprometimento linfonodal...

  9. Research and identification of pathogenic bacteria 'Salmonella and Listeria' in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sums propose to evaluate the bacterial contamination of certain food taken randomly by two pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella and Listeria) considering the evolution of the diseases of food oignon. For that 78 food samples of different origins were analysed. 2 stocks of the Listeria kind and 3 stocks of the salmonella kind were insulated and identified by biochemical and molecular tests. The pathogenic isolates were identified by coloration gram, test catalase, insulation on specific culture media and Api (20 E for Salmonella and Api listeria. At the end, the PCR were realized to amplify the gene iap which codes for the protein p60 at listeria as well as a sequence clonee randomly specific of Salmonella.

  10. Recovery of Salmonella from Incubated Eggs, Newly Hatched Chicks and Contaminated Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N.M. Rahman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 400 hatchery samples comprised of yolk interior (100, paper pad (100, shell membrane (100 and fecal swab of newly hatched chicks (100 were tested to detect the presence of Salmonella organism by bacteriological agar plate test. Positive cases recorded in this study were 37 (37, 12 (12, 3 (3 and 19 (19% from each sample (100 of yolk interior, paper pad, shell membrane and fecal swab of newly hatched chicks, respectively. A representative numbers of 50 isolates were used for the identification of serogoups of Salmonella prevailing in selected area by using polyvalent antisera. The result indicated that the test isolates 45(90% were typed to a specific serogroup of "O". All 45 isolated Salmonella serogroup ?O? were then characterized by different specific biochemical media. Based on these tests, the selective isolates were identified as Salmonella gallinarum.

  11. Outbreak-associated Salmonella enterica Serotypes and Food Commodities, United States, 1998–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Brendan R.; Griffin, Patricia M.; Cole, Dana; Walsh, Kelly A.; Chai, Shua J.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica infections are transmitted not only by animal-derived foods but also by vegetables, fruits, and other plant products. To clarify links between Salmonella serotypes and specific foods, we examined the diversity and predominance of food commodities implicated in outbreaks of salmonellosis during 1998–2008. More than 80% of outbreaks caused by serotypes Enteritidis, Heidelberg, and Hadar were attributed to eggs or poultry, whereas >50% of outbreaks caused by serotypes Javiana...

  12. Biogenesis of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Membrane Vesicles Provoked by Induction of PagC▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kitagawa, Ryo; Takaya, Akiko; Ohya, Mai; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu; Takade, Akemi; Yoshida, Shin-ichi; Isogai, Emiko; Yamamoto, Tomoko

    2010-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria ubiquitously release membrane vesicles (MVs) into the extracellular milieu. Although MVs are the product of growing bacteria, not of cell lysis or death, the regulatory mechanisms underlying MV formation remained unknown. We have found that MV biogenesis is provoked by the induction of PagC, a Salmonella-specific protein whose expression is activated by conditions that mimic acidified macrophage phagosomes. PagC is a major constituent of Salmonella MVs, and increased ex...

  13. Salmonella enteritidis induced myocarditis in a 16-year-old girl

    OpenAIRE

    Childs, Lucy; Gupta, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    Myocarditis typically presents with non-specific clinical symptoms, and can easily be missed in the absence of a high index of clinical suspicion. Myocarditis caused by bacterial pathogens is rare in immunocompetent individuals, more commonly seen following viral infection. Although more classically associated with typhoid fever and gastroenteritis, Salmonella species are a rare cause of myocarditis. We report a case of Salmonella enteritidis-induced myocarditis after gastrointestinal infecti...

  14. Molecular modelling, docking and interaction studies of human-plasmogen and salmonella enolase with enolase inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Digvijay Singh; Chandra, Sharat; Gupta, Arun; Singh, Tiratha Raj

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enteric serovar Typhi Ty2 is a human specific pathogen and an etiological agent for typhoid fever. Most of Salmonella serotypes produce glycogen which has a comparatively minor role in virulence and colonization, but has a more significant role in survival. Enzymes present in glycolytic pathway of bacteria help bacteria to survive by activating other factors inside host. Numerous pathogenic bacteria species intervene with the plasminogen system, and this plasminogenenolas...

  15. Detection of Salmonella in Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Flemming; Mansdal, Susanne; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Cost-effective and rapid monitoring of Salmonella in the meat production chain can contribute to food safety. The objective of this study was to validate an easy-to-use pre-PCR sample preparation method based on a simple boiling protocol for screening of Salmonella in meat and carcass swab samples...... deviating results were obtained (SP, SE, and AC were 100, 95, and 97%, respectively). This test is under implementation by the Danish meat industry, and can be useful for screening of large number of samples in the meat production, especially for fast release of minced meat with a short shelf life....

  16. Comparison of bacterial enriched-broth culture, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and broth culture-polymerase chain reaction techniques for identifying asymptomatic infections with Salmonella in swine

    OpenAIRE

    Sibley, Jennifer; Yue, Binbin; Huang, Fei; Harding, John; Kingdon, Jill; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel; Appleyard, Greg D.

    2003-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was combined with a broth-culture enrichment system to detect Salmonella shed in feces from subclinically infected swine. The effectiveness of the broth culture-polymerase chain reaction (BC-PCR) assay to identify pigs shedding Salmonella in feces was compared with a microbiological culture and a commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit to detect Salmonella-specific serum antibody. A total of 67 pigs were tested by each of the 3 methodol...

  17. Salmonella Typhimurium induces SPI-1 and SPI-2 regulated and strain dependent downregulation of MHC II expression on porcine alveolar macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Van Parys Alexander; Boyen Filip; Verbrugghe Elin; Leyman Bregje; Bram Flahou; Haesebrouck Freddy; Pasmans Frank

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Foodborne salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial zoonotic diseases worldwide. Salmonella Typhimurium is the serovar most frequently isolated from persistently infected slaughter pigs in Europe. Circumvention of the hosts immune system by Salmonella might contribute to persistent infection of pigs. In the present study, we found that Salmonella Typhimurium strain 112910a specifically downregulated MHC II, but not MHC I, expression on porcine alveolar macrophages in a Sa...

  18. CLINICAL AND ANATOMOHISTOPATOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF TWO BROILER ORIGINATED FROM EXPERIMENTALLY INOCULATED EGGS WITH Salmonella Enteritidis FAGOTIPO 4 ASPECTOS CLÍNICOS E ANATOMOHISTOPATOLÓGICOS DE PINTOS DE CORTE ORIUNDOS DE OVOS INOCULADOS EXPERIMENTALMENTE COM Salmonella Enteritidis FAGOTIPO 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Andrade

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to evaluate the invasive capacity of Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis phagotipe 4 of avian origin, in two broiler lines, two experiments were carried out. The experiment 1 was done with Ross line (fast growing rate and experiment 2 was done with ISA Label (slow growing rate. In two experiments the same 1.5 X 102 UFC/0,1mL de Salmonella Enteritidis phagotipe 4 was inoculated in egg through the eggshell or albume at the incubation to averiguate the clinical signs, the macro and microscopical lesions and mortality rate until three weeks of age. The Salmonella Enteritidis invaded and colonizated the gastrointestinal tract of the two lines tested general clinical signs allied to intestinal disfunction were more pronounced in Ross broilers. The mortality observed was 25.0% (15/60 in Ross and just 1.7% (1/60 ISA Label broilers during three weeks. Onphalitis, enteritis, pericarditis, perihepatitis constituted the main macroscopic lesions in Ross. At histological exam, inflamatory process observed with infiltrates of mononuclear cells with predominance of macrophage and lymphocytes in heart, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ceca and liver. It is possible to conclude the gastrointestinal tract, invaded organs of both genetic lines, but ISA Label was resistant to infection compared to Ross lines.

    KEY WORDS: Chickens, colonization, infection, invasion, genetic resistance, organs.

    Desenvolveram-se dois experimentos para avaliar a capacidade invasiva e os efeitos da Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis fagotipo 4 de origem aviária, inoculada in ovo de linhagens de frango de corte. O experimento 1 foi realizado com a linhagem Ross (crescimento rápido e o experimento 2 com a linhagem ISA Label (crescimento lento. Nos dois experimentos, 1,5 X 102 UFC/0,1mL de Salmonella Enteritidis fagotipo 4 foram inoculadas na casca e no albume de ovos férteis no momento da incubação, para averiguar os sinais clínicos, as lesões macro e microscópicas e a mortalidade até a terceira semana de vida dos pintos. A Salmonella Enteritidis invadiu e colonizou o trato gastrintestinal das duas linhagens determinando alterações clínicas aliadas à disfunção intestinal, as quais foram mais pronunciadas nas aves Ross. A mortalidade observada foi de 25,0% (15/60 na linhagem Ross, e de apenas 1,7% (1/60 nas aves de crescimento lento até 21 dias de idade. Onfalite, enterite, pericardite e peri-hepatite constituíram as principais lesões macroscópicas da linhagem de crescimento rápido. No exame histopatológico observou-se processo inflamatório com infiltrados de células mononucleares com predominância de macrófagos e linfócitos no coração, fígado, duodeno, jejuno, íleo e ceco. Salmonella Enteritidis colonizou o trato gastrintestinal, invadiu os órgãos de ambas as linhagens, porém aves ISA Label foram mais resistentes à infecção do que aves da linhagem Ross.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Colonização intestinal, infecção, invasão, órgãos, resistência genética.

  19. Germinoma localizado nos núcleos da base e tálamo com invasão do tronco cerebral: relato de caso Germinoma involving the basal ganglia and thalamus with brain stem invasion: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO GOMES NOGUEIRA

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos o caso de um paciente com diagnóstico de germinoma nos núcleos da base e tálamo, com invasão do tronco cerebral, ressaltando as características observadas nos exames de tomografia computadorizada e de ressonância magnética, os possíveis diagnósticos diferenciais, e a necessidade da comprovação anátomo-patológica, por tratar-se de localização pouco frequente de um tumor com possibilidade de evolução favorável após tratamento com quimio e radioterapia.We report an unusual case of germinoma arising from the basal ganglia and thalamus with brain stem invasion, with emphasis on computed tomography and magnetic resonance findings. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic examination. Early detection of this tumor is important due to its potential response to treatment.

  20. Salmonella attribution and clonal dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The bacterial species Salmonella enterica is one of the major causes of gastroenteritis in humans and has over 1,500 serotypes. Serotyping is the most common tool used to identify isolates from diseased patients. However, the serotyping method can takes several weeks and sometimes can...

  1. Cellulitis Due to Salmonella infantis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish R Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Salmonella are highly adapted for the growth in both humans and animals and cause a wide spectrum of disease. The growth of Serotypes S. typhi and S. paratyphi is restricted to human hosts, in whom these organisms cause enteric (typhoid fever. The remaining Serotypes (non typhoidal Salmonella or NTS can colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of the broad range of animals, including mammals, reptiles, birds and insects. The usual clinical presentation of non-typhoidal salmonellae (NTS infection is self limited gastroenteritis; however bacteremia and focal extra intestinal infection may occur. However salmonella localization to the skin presenting as cutaneous ulceration is regarded as a rare event. Rates of morbidity and mortality associated with NTS are highest among the elderly, infants, and immunocompromised individuals, including those with hemoglobinopathies, HIV infection, or infections that cause blockade of the reticuloendothelial system. We isolated S.infantis in 50 years old man with left leg cellulitis. The serotype was confirmed at Central Research Institute, Kasauli.

  2. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE TRENDS IN SALMONELLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Since the early 1990’s there has been increasing awareness and concern regarding the development of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria of public health significance. Reports targeting zoonotic bacteria, and in particular Salmonella species, suggest that resistance is trending upwar...

  3. Salmonella Infection and Water Frogs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-01-12

    This podcast, featuring lead investigator Shauna Mettee, discusses the first known outbreak of Salmonella in people due to contact with water frogs.  Created: 1/12/2010 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 1/12/2010.

  4. Salmonella-secreted Virulence Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffron, Fred; Niemann, George; Yoon, Hyunjin; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Brown, Roslyn N.; McDermott, Jason E.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2011-05-01

    In this short review we discuss secreted virulence factors of Salmonella, which directly affect Salmonella interaction with its host. Salmonella secretes protein to subvert host defenses but also, as discussed, to reduce virulence thereby permitting the bacteria to persist longer and more successfully disperse. The type III secretion system (TTSS) is the best known and well studied of the mechanisms that enable secretion from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm. Other secretion systems include outer membrane vesicles, which are present in all Gram-negative bacteria examined to date, two-partner secretion, and type VI secretion will also be addressed. Excellent reviews of Salmonella secreted effectors have focused on themes such as actin rearrangements, vesicular trafficking, ubiquitination, and the activities of the virulence factors themselves. This short review is based on S. Typhimurium infection of mice because it is a model of typhoid like disease in humans. We have organized effectors in terms of events that happen during the infection cycle and how secreted effectors may be involved.

  5. Strain differences among Salmonella serotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne pathogens are constantly adapting to circumvent intervention strategies. The ability to detect and overcome these adaptations are critical to ensure a safe food supply. We determined genotypic and/or phenotypic differences between Salmonella recovered from broiler chicks after comingling w...

  6. Same species, different diseases: how and why typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars differ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GuntramA.Grassl

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Human infections by the bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica represent major disease burdens worldwide. This highly ubiquitous species consists of more than 2600 different serovars that can be divided into typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS serovars. Despite their genetic similarity, these two groups elicit very different diseases and distinct immune responses in humans. Comparative analyses of the genomes of multiple Salmonella serovars have begun to explain the basis of the variation in disease manifestations. Recent advances in modeling both enteric fever and intestinal gastroenteritis in mice will facilitate investigation into both the bacterial- and host-mediated mechanisms involved in salmonelloses. Understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms responsible for differences in disease outcome will augment our understanding of Salmonella pathogenesis, host immunity, and the molecular basis of host specificity. This review outlines the differences in epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and the human immune response to typhoidal and NTS infections and summarizes the current thinking on why these differences might exist.

  7. Comparison of DNA probe, PCR amplification, ELISA and culture methods for the rapid detection of Salmonella in poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The identification of Salmonella spp. from poultry meat was studied by comparing bacterial detection using the Gene-Trak colorimetric hybridization method, a PCR amplification kit and an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and these methods were compared with the conventional methodology proposed by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) for detection of Salmonella in food samples. Forty positive and negative samples were studied. The three methods yielded similar results with levels of Salmonella greater than 10 CFU per sample, even when the samples were highly contaminated with competing bacteria. In contrast, 20 CFU of seed inoculum per sample was the lowest level of Salmonella detectable with all three methods and the standard culture method. The detection limits of the PCR and ELISA assays were 5 CFU/g after enrichment at 37 deg. C for 6 and 9 hours, respectively. Compared with conventional bacteriology, all three methods here demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for Salmonella. (author)

  8. Serologic reactions against Salmonella in samples from broiler parent stock with and without preceding colibacillosis: A case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Feld, Niels Christian; Andersen, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    In the Danish Salmonella Control Program, eggs from broiler parent flocks are surveyed by serologic analysis every 4 wk for antibodies against Salmonella lipopolysaccharide O-antigens 1, 4, 5, 9, and 12 (Mix-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) and 6 and 7 (Infantis-ELISA). The antibody...... response is measured in percentage optical density (OD%) of a strong positive reaction, and the cutoff value has been determined to be 40 OD%. Two or more reactors above 40 OD% will place the parent flock under suspicion. There has been concern about possible cross-reactions between Salmonella spp. and...... other Enterobacteriaceae, e.g., Escherichia coli, because a high specificity of a Salmonella antibody test is desirable. Moreover, false-positive Salmonella results have economic consequences and impede planning the production. A case-control study based on cases of clinical E. coli infections...

  9. Salmonella – A Brief Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurmi Esko

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Salmonellosis is the main cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in most European countries. Infections with Salmonella is usually subclinical, whereas clinical cases show symptoms with a wide range of severity. Infection is most commonly associated with the consumption of meat, especially poultry or pork, and eggs and their products. Salmonella can enter the food chain at any point throughout its length. The principal reservoir of Salmonellae is the gastrointestinal tract of mammals and birds, but Salmonellae are able to survive and even multiply in many external environments. In Norway, Sweden and Finland cost effective prevention methods have been used for several years to prevent and control Salmonellea infections. In addition, competitive exclusion (CE and vaccination might be relevant as biological methods to prevent colonisation of bird intestines by enteropathogens, especially Salmonella. Antibiotic drug resistance has been a problem since the start of the antibiotic era. The cause for anxiety is that more and more bacteria are becoming resistant, often to a whole range of antibiotics. The debate on the use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine and animal production dates back almost as long as the use itself. There is a clear evidence to show that antibacterial agents given to animals for growth promotion, prophylactic purposes or treatment induce a rise in the number of antibiotic resistant strains isolated from the animals. These bacteria may be transmitted to humans by several possible routes. There are thus strong arguments for preventive efforts which have to be directed towards identifying real critical control points (HACCP throughout the whole food chain, which starts from the farm and ends at the consumer's table.

  10. New Salmonella serotype: Salmonella enteritidis serotype Grandhaven (30(1):r:1,2).

    OpenAIRE

    McDougal, D L; Treleaven, B E; Renshaw, E C

    1982-01-01

    A new Salmonella serotype, Salmonella enteritidis serotype Grandhaven (30(1):r:1,2), was isolated from the stool of a 35-year-old man with mild gastroenteritis. He had just returned from Sudan, Africa.

  11. Contribution of Salmonella Enteritidis virulence factors to intestinal colonization and systemic dissemination in 1-day-old chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addwebi, Tarek M; Call, Douglas R; Shah, Devendra H

    2014-04-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is one of the most common serovars associated with poultry and poultry product contamination in the United States. We previously identified 14 mutant strains of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 (PT4) with significantly reduced invasiveness in human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2), chicken macrophages (HD-11), and chicken hepatocellular epithelial cells (LMH). These included Salmonella Enteritidis mutants with transposon insertions in 6 newly identified Salmonella Enteritidis-specific genes (pegD and SEN1393), and genes or genomic islands common to most other Salmonella serovars (SEN0803, SEN0034, SEN2278, and SEN3503) along with 8 genes previously known to contribute to enteric infection (hilA, pipA, fliH, fljB, csgB, spvR, and rfbMN). We hypothesized that Salmonella Enteritidis employs both common Salmonella enterica colonization factors and Salmonella Enteritidis-specific traits to establish infection in chickens. Four Salmonella Enteritidis mutants (SEN0034::Tn5, fliH::Tn5, SEN1393::Tn5, and spvR::Tn5) were indistinguishable from the isogenic wild-type strain when orally inoculated in 1-d-old chickens, whereas 2 mutants (CsgB::Tn5 and PegD::Tn5) were defective for intestinal colonization (P pipA::Tn5) showed significant in vivo attenuation in more than one organ (P < 0.05). Complementation studies confirmed the role of rfbN and SEN3503 during infection. This study should contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in Salmonella Enteritidis pathogenesis, and the target genes identified here could potentially serve as targets for the development of live-attenuated or subunit vaccine. PMID:24706964

  12. Identification of Salmonellae with the 4-methylumbelliferyl caprilate fluorescence test.

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, M.; Syk, A; Wollin, R

    1991-01-01

    We have tested 750 Salmonella strains and 130 strains of other species of the family Enterbacteriaceae with the 4-methylumbelliferyl caprilate reagent (MUCAP) test. The MUCAP test is a fluorescence test for rapid identification of Salmonella strains. The non-Salmonella strains were strains sent for identification as suspected Salmonella strains and thus have phenotypes similar to those of Salmonella strains. All 748 tested Salmonella strains of subgroups I, II, III, and IV were positive in th...

  13. Stress response and virulence in Salmonella Typhimurium: a genomics approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hermans, A.P.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1995 the number of human infections with Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104 increased in The Netherlands and abroad. The multi antibiotic resistance of this strain has been often proposed as plausible reason for this increase. Within his PhD research, Armand Hermans found novel DT104 specific DNA, that is most likely involved in virulence and might be an additional reason for the DT104 increase. In addition, the possibility for DT104 to survive certain process- and product conditions ...

  14. Enzyme immunoassay for detection of Salmonellae in foods.

    OpenAIRE

    Minnich, S. A.; Hartman, P A; Heimsch, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    An enzyme immunoassay was developed to detect Salmonella in foods. Indirect test protocols were developed for use with microtitration plates or Gilford microcuvettes. Samples from enrichment cultures were mixed with H-specific immunoglobulin G and allowed to react; unbound antibody was removed by three 5-min centrifugation washes; goat anti-rabbit antibody conjugated to alkaline phosphatase was added and allowed to react; and unbound conjugate was removed by centrifugation washing as before. ...

  15. Molecular insights into farm animal and zoonotic Salmonella infections

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Mark P.; Tom J. Humphrey; Maskell, Duncan J

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a facultative intracellular pathogen of worldwide importance. Infections may present in a variety of ways, from asymptomatic colonization to inflammatory diarrhoea or typhoid fever depending on serovar- and host-specific factors. Human diarrhoeal infections are frequently acquired via the food chain and farm environment by virtue of the ability of selected non-typhoidal serovars to colonize the intestines of food-producing animals and contaminate the avian reproductive ...

  16. Control of Salmonella infections in animals and prevention of human foodborne Salmonella infections. WHO Consultation.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    In many countries the incidence of human salmonella infections has markedly increased in recent years. To discuss recent developments and current understanding on the control of salmonella infections in animals, WHO organized a Consultation on the Control of Salmonella Infections in Animals: Prevention of Foodborne Salmonella Infections in Humans, held in Jena, Germany, on 21-26 November 1993. The present article summarizes the recommendations made by the participants on the pathoimmunogenesi...

  17. Control of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in laying hens by inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    de Freitas Neto, Oliveiro Caetano; Mesquita, Aline Lopes; de Paiva, Jaqueline Boldrin; Zotesso, Fábio; Berchieri Júnior, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is one of the agents that is responsible for outbreaks of human foodborne salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis and is generally associated with the consumption of poultry products. Inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis cell vaccine is one of the available methods to control Salmonella Enteritidis in breeders and laying hens, however results in terms of efficacy vary. This vaccine has never been tested in Brazil, therefore, the present work was carried out to asse...

  18. Isolation and Evaluation Virulence Factors of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis in Milk and Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Shaigan nia

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: To our best knowledge the present study is the first prevalence report of Salmonella spp., Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in raw sheep and goat samples in Iran. Consumption of pasteurized milk and dairy products can reduce the risk of salmonellosis.

  19. Multiplex PCR-Based Serogrouping and Serotyping of Salmonella enterica from Tonsil and Jejunum with Jejunal Lymph Nodes of Slaughtered Swine in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kamela Charmaine S; Rivera, Windell L

    2015-05-01

    Food poisoning outbreaks and livestock mortalities caused by Salmonella enterica are widespread in the Philippines, with hogs being the most commonly recognized carriers of the pathogen. To prevent and control the occurrence of S. enterica infection in the country, methods were used in this study to isolate and rapidly detect, differentiate, and characterize S. enterica in tonsils and jejuna with jejunal lymph nodes of swine slaughtered in four locally registered meat establishments (LRMEs) and four meat establishments accredited by the National Meat Inspection Services in Metro Manila. A total of 480 samples were collected from 240 animals (120 pigs from each type of meat establishment). A significantly higher proportion of pigs were positive for S. enterica in LRMEs (60 of 120) compared with meat establishments accredited by the National Meat Inspection Services (38 of 120). More S. enterica-positive samples were found in tonsils compared with jejuna with jejunal lymph nodes in LRMEs, but this difference was not significant. A PCR assay targeting the invA gene had sensitivity that was statistically similar to that of the culture method, detecting 93 of 98 culture-confirmed samples. Multiplex PCR-based O-serogrouping and H/Sdf I typing revealed four S. enterica serogroups (B, C1, D, and E) and six serotypes (Agona, Choleraesuis, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Typhimurium, and Weltevreden), respectively, which was confirmed by DNA sequencing of the PCR products. This study was the first to report detection of S. enterica serotype Agona in the country. PMID:25951380

  20. Prevalence of the bla CTX-M group and their transferability in resistant clinical isolates of Salmonella serogroups from several hospitals of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Salimian Rizi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Salmonella is an important food-borne pathogen in humans. Strains of Salmonella spp. That producing extended-spectrum β-Lactamases have become a concern in medicine regarding both antimicrobial treatment and infection control program. The objective of this study was to describe the antibiotic susceptibility, ESBL production and determining the prevalence of the blaCTX-M-1 group among clinical isolates of Salmonella spp.Materials and Methods: A total of 110 Salmonella isolates collected from four Tehran hospitals during May 2012 and April 2013. The specific monovalan Salmonella antisera were used for serogrouping of Salmonella isolates. Antibacterial susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion and ESBL phenotype was confirmed by combination disk method. The blaCTX-M-1 group was identified by PCR with specific primers. The transferability of the blaCTX-1 group was tested by conjugation with broth matting method.Results: The prevalence of Salmonella serogroups consist of 56.4% serogroup D, 13.6 % serogroup C, 10 % serogroup B, and 1.8 % serogroup A and 18.2% other serogroups. Maximal resistance in Salmonella isolates was noticed against trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (63.6% and nalidixic-acid (47/3%. All isolates were susceptible to imipenem and ciprofloxacin. Four isolates (3.6% showed ESBLs phenotype. All Salmonella spp. that produce ESBls have blaCTX-1 genes group. A conjugative plasmid containing blaCTX-1 group was found in one Salmonella isolate.Conclusion: This study demonstrates the predominant presence of the gene encoding CTX-M-1 group among ESBLs producing of Salmonella spp. They can transmit to bacteria of this genus or even other genera of enteric bacteria.Keywords: Salmonella spp., blaCTX-M-1 group, antibiotic resistance, conjugation, broth matting

  1. Bilateral Amaurosis Caused by Salmonella enteritidis Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Cerovski, Branimir; Barišić, Nina; Vidović, Tomislav; Petriček, Igor; Cerovski, Jasenka

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to show the potential of Salmonella enteritidis infection to eventually result in visual impairment. A case of salmonellosis in a 6-year-old boy, caused by intake of a cake made from eggs infected with Salmonella enteritidis, is presented. Prolonged duration of the disease was followed by complete remission of neurologic complications and persistent amaurosis with bilateral optic nerve atrophy. A severe form of Salmonella enterocolitis with neurologic involvement can...

  2. Interactions of Salmonella with animals and plants

    OpenAIRE

    Wiedemann, Agns; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Chauss, Anne-Marie; Schikora, Adam; Velge, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica species are Gram-negative bacteria, which are responsible for a wide range of food- and water-borne diseases in both humans and animals, thereby posing a major threat to public health. Recently, there has been an increasing number of reports, linking Salmonella contaminated raw vegetables and fruits with food poisoning. Many studies have shown that an essential feature of the pathogenicity of Salmonella is its capacity to cross a number of barriers requiring invasion of a ...

  3. Genetic diversity of Salmonella pathogenicity islands SPI-5 and SPI-6 in Salmonella Newport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guojie; Allard, Marc; Strain, Errol; Stones, Robert; Zhao, Shaohua; Brown, Eric; Meng, Jianghong

    2014-10-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Newport is one of the common serotypes causing foodborne salmonellosis outbreaks in the United States. Salmonella Newport consists of three lineages exhibiting extensive genetic diversity. Due to the importance of Salmonella pathogenicity islands 5 and 6 (SPI-5 and SPI-6) in virulence of pathogenic Salmonella, the genetic diversity of these two SPIs may relate to different potentials of Salmonella Newport pathogenicity. Most Salmonella Newport strains from North America belong to Salmonella Newport lineages II and III. A total 28 Salmonella Newport strains of lineages II and III from diverse sources and geographic locations were analyzed, and 11 additional Salmonella genomes were used as outgroup in phylogenetic analyses. SPI-5 was identified in all Salmonella Newport strains and 146 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected. Thirty-nine lineage-defining SNPs were identified, including 18 nonsynonymous SNPs. Two 40-kb genomic islands (SPI5-GI1 and SPI5-GI2) encoding bacteriophage genes were found between tRNA-ser and pipA. SPI5-GI1 was only present in Salmonella Newport multidrug-resistant strains of lineage II. SPI-6 was found in all strains but three Asian strains in Salmonella Newport lineage II, whereas the three Asian strains carried genomic island SPI6-GI1 at the same locus as SPI-6 in other Salmonella. SPI-6 exhibited 937 SNPs, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that clustering of Salmonella Newport isolates was a reflection of their geographic origins. The sequence diversity within SPI-5 and SPI-6 suggests possible recombination events and different virulence potentials of Salmonella Newport. The SNPs could be used as biomarkers during epidemiological investigations. PMID:25188010

  4. Concomitant uptake of antimicrobials and Salmonella in soil and into lettuce following wastewater irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of wastewater for irrigation may introduce antimicrobials and human pathogens into the food supply through vegetative uptake. The objective of this study was to investigate the uptake of three antimicrobials and Salmonella in two lettuce cultivars. After repeated subirrigation with synthetic wastewater, lettuce leaves and soil were collected at three sequential harvests. The internalization frequency of Salmonella in lettuce was low. A soil horizon-influenced Salmonella concentration gradient was determined with concentrations in bottom soil 2 log CFU/g higher than in top soil. Lincomycin and sulfamethoxazole were recovered from lettuce leaves at concentrations as high as 822 ng/g and 125 ng/g fresh weight, respectively. Antimicrobial concentrations in lettuce decreased from the first to the third harvest suggesting that the plant growth rate may exceed antimicrobial uptake rates. Accumulation of antimicrobials was significantly different between cultivars demonstrating a subspecies level variation in uptake of antibiotics in lettuce. - Highlights: • Antimicrobial uptake in lettuce is cultivar dependent. • Antimicrobial concentrations in lettuce decrease despite repeated exposure. • Lincomycin is better conserved in the soil-plant system than oxytetracycline or sulfamethoxazole. • Subirrigation resulted in more Salmonella in bottom soil than in top soil. • Internalization frequency of Salmonella in lettuce is low despite repeated exposure. - Cultivar-specific differences in lincomycin and sulfamethazine uptake were observed in lettuce, while uptake of Salmonella was low despite repeated exposure from wastewater

  5. Development of Recombinant Flagellar Antigens for Serological Detection of Salmonella enterica Serotypes Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, and Typhimurium in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L. Hofacre

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and fast detection of harmful Salmonella is a major concern of food safety. Common Salmonella serotypes responsible for human associated foodborne outbreaks are S. Enteritidis, S. Hadar, S. Heidelberg, and S. Typhimurium are also commonly isolated from poultry. Serology is commonly used to monitor disease in poultry, therefore application of Salmonella serotype-specific test will have added value in Salmonella surveillance or monitoring vaccine efficacy. Recombinant flagellins were purified to be used as antigens in an ELISA. In this study, an ELISA was developed for the serological detection of S. Enteritidis. Once optimized, 500 ng of purified recombinant S. Enteritidis flagellin and a 1:64 dilution were determined to be optimal for testing sera. A negative baseline cutoff was calculated to be an optical density (OD of 0.35. All sera from birds with history of S. Enteritidis exposure tested positive and all sera from chickens with no exposure tested negative to this Salmonella serotype. Current ELISA for serological detection of Salmonella suffers from cross reactivity inherent in lipopolysaccharide (LPS or whole cell antigen based serological tests. This new ELISA eliminates common cross reactivity by focusing specifically on the flagellins of the Salmonella serotypes common in poultry and associated with foodborne outbreaks.

  6. Salmonella Appendicitis in Renal Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    B. Malone; Kleyman, S.; Sanni, A.; Sumrani, N.; Distant, D.

    2013-01-01

    While appendicitis remains one of the commonest surgical diseases, there are relatively few reports following renal transplantation. A 33-year-old man was admitted with diarrhea, fever, and epigastric pain 7 years following a cadaveric renal transplant. CT scanning confirmed a diagnosis of appendicitis which was removed within 24 hours of admission. Histology and blood cultures following surgery confirmed Salmonella type b appendicitis. Patient was safely discharged home 5 days following hosp...

  7. Test results of Salmonella typing by the NRLs-Salmonella in the Member States of the EU and the EnterNet Laboratories - Collaborative study VI (2001) on typing of Salmonella

    OpenAIRE

    Korver H; Raes M; Maas HME; Ward LR; Wannet WJB; Henken AM; MGB; LIS

    2002-01-01

    Test resultaten van Salmonella sero- en faagtypering en antimicrobiele gevoeligheidsbepalingen door de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella in de Lidstaten van de Europese Unie en EnterNet Laboratoria: Ringonderzoek VI (2001) voor Salmonella. Een zesde ringonderzoek betreffende de typering van Salmonella werd georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) in samenwerking met Public Health Laboratory Services (PHLS...

  8. Reveal Salmonella 2.0 test for detection of Salmonella spp. in foods and environmental samples. Performance Tested Method 960801.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerner, Rebecca; Feldpausch, Jill; Gray, R Lucas; Curry, Stephanie; Islam, Zahidul; Goldy, Tim; Klein, Frank; Tadese, Theodros; Rice, Jennifer; Mozola, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Reveal Salmonella 2.0 is an improved version of the original Reveal Salmonella lateral flow immunoassay and is applicable to the detection of Salmonella enterica serogroups A-E in a variety of food and environmental samples. A Performance Tested Method validation study was conducted to compare performance of the Reveal 2.0 method with that of the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service or U.S. Food and Drug Administration/Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference culture methods for detection of Salmonella spp. in chicken carcass rinse, raw ground turkey, raw ground beef, hot dogs, raw shrimp, a ready-to-eat meal product, dry pet food, ice cream, spinach, cantaloupe, peanut butter, stainless steel surface, and sprout irrigation water. In a total of 17 trials performed internally and four trials performed in an independent laboratory, there were no statistically significant differences in performance of the Reveal 2.0 and reference culture procedures as determined by Chi-square analysis, with the exception of one trial with stainless steel surface and one trial with sprout irrigation water where there were significantly more positive results by the Reveal 2.0 method. Considering all data generated in testing food samples using enrichment procedures specifically designed for the Reveal method, overall sensitivity of the Reveal method relative to the reference culture methods was 99%. In testing environmental samples, sensitivity of the Reveal method relative to the reference culture method was 164%. For select foods, use of the Reveal test in conjunction with reference method enrichment resulted in overall sensitivity of 92%. There were no unconfirmed positive results on uninoculated control samples in any trials for specificity of 100%. In inclusivity testing, 102 different Salmonella serovars belonging to serogroups A-E were tested and 99 were consistently positive in the Reveal test. In exclusivity testing of 33 strains of non-salmonellae representing 14 genera, 32 were negative when tested with Reveal following nonselective enrichment, and the remaining strain was found to be substantially inhibited by the enrichment media used with the Reveal method. Results of ruggedness testing showed that the Reveal test produces accurate results even with substantial deviation in sample volume or device development time. PMID:22165011

  9. Oral Delivery of a Novel Attenuated Salmonella Vaccine Expressing Influenza A Virus Proteins Protects Mice against H5N1 and H1N1 Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zenglin; Jiang, Xiaohong; Yang, Zhu; Ren, Xiaoguang; Gong, Hao; Reeves, Michael; Sheng, Jingxue; Wang, Yu; Pan, Zishu; Liu, Fenyong; Wu, Jianguo; Lu, Sangwei

    2015-01-01

    Attenuated strains of invasive enteric bacteria, such as Salmonella, represent promising gene delivery agents for nucleic acid-based vaccines as they can be administrated orally. In this study, we constructed a novel attenuated strain of Salmonella for the delivery and expression of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of a highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus. We showed that the constructed Salmonella strain exhibited efficient gene transfer activity for HA and NA expression and little cytotoxicity and pathogenicity in mice. Using BALB/c mice as the model, we evaluated the immune responses and protection induced by the constructed Salmonella-based vaccine. Our study showed that the Salmonella-based vaccine induced significant production of anti-HA serum IgG and mucosal IgA, and of anti-HA interferon-? producing T cells in orally vaccinated mice. Furthermore, mice orally vaccinated with the Salmonella vaccine expressing viral HA and NA proteins were completely protected from lethal challenge of highly pathogenic H5N1 as well as H1N1 influenza viruses while none of the animals treated with the Salmonella vaccine carrying the empty expression vector with no viral antigen expression was protected. These results suggest that the Salmonella-based vaccine elicits strong antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses and provides effective immune protection against multiple strains of influenza viruses. Furthermore, our study demonstrates the feasibility of developing novel attenuated Salmonella strains as new oral vaccine vectors against influenza viruses. PMID:26083421

  10. Anaerobiosis induced virulence of Salmonella typhi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapoor, Sarika; Singh, R D; Sharma, P C; Khullar, Madhu

    2002-01-01

    , we examined the effect of anaerobiosis on the virulence of Salmonella Typhi, a Gram negative bacteria which invades through the gut mucosa and is responsible for typhoid fever. METHODS: Salmonella Typhi (ty2) was cultured in aerobic and anaerobic conditions to compare its virulence by rabbit ileal...

  11. Survival of Salmonella Heidelberg in hummus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella Heidelberg is the fourth-most commonly reported Salmonella serotype to cause human illness. There have been several outbreaks and recalls caused by S. Heidelberg in ready to eat foods. Recently, 700 people became ill from ingesting hummus shirazi contaminated with S. Heidelberg. This stud...

  12. Increasing Ceftriaxone Resistance in Salmonellae, Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Lin-Hui; Teng, Wen-Shin; Chen, Chyi-Liang; Lee, Hao-Yuan; Li, Hsin-Chieh; Wu, Tsu-Lan; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

    2011-01-01

    In Taiwan, despite a substantial decline of Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis infections, strains resistant to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone persist. A self-transferable blaCMY-2-harboring IncI1 plasmid was identified in S. enterica serotypes Choleraesuis, Typhimurium, Agona, and Enteritidis and contributed to the overall increase of ceftriaxone resistance in salmonellae.

  13. Cytokines in pathogenesis of salmonella infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Zheleznikova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The review examines the contemporary knowledge about immune protection mechanisms with Salmonella infection, and Salmonella ability to struggle against these mechanisms. Principal emphasis was made oncytokine system reactions of innate and adaptive immunity, described in experimental and clinical researches.

  14. Adaptation to bile in salmonella enterica

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Piñero, Sara Belén

    2013-01-01

    Las bacterias pertenecientes al género Salmonella son patógenos Gramnegativos capaces de infectar una gran variedad de animales. En humanos, la infección por Salmonella suele comenzar con la ingestión de agua o alimentos contaminados, y puede dar lugar a

  15. Salmonellae, salmonellosis, and dairy foods: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Gazzar, F E; Marth, E H

    1992-09-01

    Salmonellae continue to be a major concern for the dairy industry because these bacteria have caused recent outbreaks of illness and have been isolated from various dairy products in the market place. Salmonellae are generally not heat resistant and normally grow at 35 to 37 degrees C, but they can grow at much lower temperatures, provided that the incubation time is suitably extended. To minimize problems, foods should be held at or below 2 to 5 degrees C at all times. Both conventional and rapid methods are available to isolate salmonellae from dairy foods and to identify the bacteria. Salmonellae behave differently in different kinds of cheese: they survived in ripening Cheddar cheese for up to 7 mo at 13 degrees C and for 10 mo at 7 degrees C; in coldpack cheese food for several weeks, depending on the pH and preservative used; and in Domiati cheese 13 to 36 d, depending on the manufacturing process used. When Mozzarella cheese was made, temperatures of stretching and molding (60 degrees C) killed all salmonellae present, but, in cottage cheese, survival of the pathogen depended on the cooking temperature of curd. Spray drying of skim milk killed substantial numbers of salmonellae, but some survivors remained. Butter readily supported growth of salmonellae at room temperature, and neither freezing nor refrigeration for brief periods eliminated salmonellae from butter. Use of appropriate hygienic procedures, e.g., Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system, during processing should reduce the likelihood of salmonellosis outbreaks associated with dairy foods. PMID:1452840

  16. 9 CFR 113.120 - Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin. 113... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.120 Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin. Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin shall be prepared from a culture of Salmonella typhimurium which has been inactivated and...

  17. Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Aortitis in a transplant patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-typhoidal salmonella bacteremia may result in extra gastrointestinallocalization of infection. Aortitis due to non-typhoidal salmonella wasreported to be the cause of 38-42% of all infected abdominal aortitis.Underlying atherosclerosis is a frequent site for salmonella aortitis. Wedescribe here a case of possible salmonella aortitis in a renal transplantpatient. (author)

  18. Risiko for salmonella ved økologisk griseproduktion

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard

    2004-01-01

    Forsøg har vist at Salmonella bakterier kan overføres fra smittede økogrise til salmonella-frie grise holdt på udendørs arealer. Desuden kan salmonella bakterier overleve i foldmiljøet og under visse betingelser smitte salmonella-frie grise, som senere indsættes i folden.

  19. Dose Determination for Acute Salmonella Infection in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Loynachan, A. T.; Harris, D L

    2005-01-01

    Pigs were exposed to various levels of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium by either intranasal inoculation or by subjecting them to a contaminated environment. More than 103 salmonellae were required to induce acute Salmonella infection. These results indicate that intervention against acute Salmonella infection in lairage may be more readily achieved than previously thought.

  20. Detection of salmonella sp in chicken cuts using immunomagnetic separation Detecção de salmonella sp em cortes de frango usando separação imunomagnética

    OpenAIRE

    Rita de Cássia dos Santos da Conceição; Ângela Nunes Moreira; Roberta Juliano Ramos; Fabiana Lemos Goularte; José Beiro Carvalhal; José Antonio Guimarães Aleixo

    2008-01-01

    The immunomagnetic separation (IMS) is a technique that has been used to increase sensitivity and specificity and to decrease the time required for detection of Salmonella in foods through different methodologies. In this work we report on the development of a method for detection of Salmonella in chicken cuts using in house antibody-sensitized microspheres associated to conventional plating in selective agar (IMS-plating). First, protein A-coated microspheres were sensitized with polyclonal ...

  1. Role of the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI-1) Protein InvB in Type III Secretion of SopE and SopE2, Two Salmonella Effector Proteins Encoded Outside of SPI-1

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrbar, Kristin; Friebel, Andrea; Miller, Samuel I; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2003-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies 1 serovar Typhimurium encodes a type III secretion system (TTSS) within Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1). This TTSS injects effector proteins into host cells to trigger invasion and inflammatory responses. Effector proteins are recognized by the TTSS via signals encoded in their N termini. Specific chaperones can be involved in this process. The chaperones InvB, SicA, and SicP are encoded in SPI-1 and are required for transport of SPI-1-encoded effector...

  2. Significance of salmonella in pork production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabasil Ne?eljko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals, feed, meat and meat products are often transported across long distances, being an important part of international trade, which enables a dissemination of salmonella, including even of some resistant strains. Pigs are animals which are difficult to manipulate because of their temperament, build, sharp teeth, irritability, good sense of smell, bad sight and their sensitivity to stress. Animals coming from different farms should be separated in stock yards to prevent both contamination with pathogens such as salmonella and their irritation and aggressiveness caused by contacts with other pigs. These animals are usually a significant reservoir of salmonella which are 'inside' the gastrointestinal tract and gut associated lymph tissue. In contrast to our country, in the EU, even countries which have always had low salmonella prevalence, e.g. Finland, have a control program. The program has to be based on a guarantee that all relevant factors will participate in the prevention of salmonella contamination.

  3. Singlepath Salmonella. Performance Tested Method 060401.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhardt, Charlotte; Schönenbrücher, Holger; Slaghuis, Jörg; Bubert, Andreas; Ossmer, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    Singlepath Salmonella is an immunochromatographic (lateral flow) assay for the presumptive qualitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food. A previous AOAC Performance Tested Method study evaluated Singlepath Salmonella as an effective method for the detection of Salmonella spp. in the following selected foods: dried skimmed milk, black pepper, dried pet food, desiccated coconut, cooked peeled frozen prawns, raw ground beef, and raw ground turkey. In this Emergency Response Validation extension, creamy peanut butter was inoculated with S. enterica. ser. Typhimurium. For low contamination level (1.08 CFU/25 g), a Chi-square value of 0.5 indicated that there was no significant difference between Singlepath Salmonella and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) reference method. For high-level and uninoculated control there was 100% agreement between the methods. PMID:20166612

  4. Interactions of Salmonella with animals and plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Agns; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Chauss, Anne-Marie; Schikora, Adam; Velge, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica species are Gram-negative bacteria, which are responsible for a wide range of food- and water-borne diseases in both humans and animals, thereby posing a major threat to public health. Recently, there has been an increasing number of reports, linking Salmonella contaminated raw vegetables and fruits with food poisoning. Many studies have shown that an essential feature of the pathogenicity of Salmonella is its capacity to cross a number of barriers requiring invasion of a large variety of cells and that the extent of internalization may be influenced by numerous factors. However, it is poorly understood how Salmonella successfully infects hosts as diversified as animals or plants. The aim of this review is to describe the different stages required for Salmonella interaction with its hosts: (i) attachment to host surfaces; (ii) entry processes; (iii) multiplication; (iv) suppression of host defense mechanisms; and to point out similarities and differences between animal and plant infections. PMID:25653644

  5. Assessing risk profiles for Salmonella serotypes in breeding pig operations in Portugal using a Bayesian hierarchical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correia-Gomes Carla

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The EU Regulation No 2160/2003 imposes a reduction in the prevalence of Salmonella in pigs. The efficiency of control programmes for Salmonella in pigs, reported among the EU Member States, varies and definitive eradication seems very difficult. Control measures currently recommended for Salmonella are not serotype-specific. Is it possible that the risk factors for different Salmonella serotypes are different? The aim of this study was to investigate potential risk factors for two groups of Salmonella sp serotypes using pen faecal samples from breeding pig holdings representative of the Portuguese pig sector. Methods The data used come from the Baseline Survey for the Prevalence of Salmonella in breeding pigs in Portugal. A total of 1670 pen faecal samples from 167 herds were tested, and 170 samples were positive for Salmonella. The presence of Salmonella in each sample (outcome variable was classified in three categories: i no Salmonella, ii Salmonella Typhimurium or S. Typhimurium-like strains with the antigenic formula: 1,4,5,12:i:-, , and iii other serotypes. Along with the sample collection, a questionnaire concerning herd management and potential risk factors was utilised. The data have a natural hierarchical structure so a categorical multilevel analysis of the dataset was carried out using a Bayesian hierarchical model. The model was estimated using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, implemented in the software WinBUGS. Results The significant associations found (when compared to category no Salmonella, for category serotype Typhimurium or S. Typhimurium-like strains with the antigenic formula: 1,4,5,12:i:- were: age of breeding sows, size of the herd, number of pigs/pen and source of semen. For the category other serotypes the significant associations found were: control of rodents, region of the country, source of semen, breeding sector room and source of feed. Conclusions The risk factors significantly associated with Salmonella shedding from the category serotype Typhimurium or serotype 1,4,5,12:i:- were more related to animal factors, whereas those associated with other serotypes were more related to environmental factors. Our findings suggest that different control measures could be used to control different Salmonella serotypes in breeding pigs.

  6. AOAC Official MethodSM Matrix Extension Validation Study of Assurance GDSTM for the Detection of Salmonella in Selected Spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldsine, Philip; Kaur, Mandeep; Shah, Khyati; Immerman, Amy; Jucker, Markus; Lienau, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Assurance GDSTM for Salmonella Tq has been validated according to the AOAC INTERNATIONAL Methods Committee Guidelines for Validation of Microbiological Methods for Food and Environmental Surfaces for the detection of selected foods and environmental surfaces (Official Method of AnalysisSM 2009.03, Performance Tested MethodSM No. 050602). The method also completed AFNOR validation (following the ISO 16140 standard) compared to the reference method EN ISO 6579. For AFNOR, GDS was given a scope covering all human food, animal feed stuff, and environmental surfaces (Certificate No. TRA02/12-01/09). Results showed that Assurance GDS for Salmonella (GDS) has high sensitivity and is equivalent to the reference culture methods for the detection of motile and non-motile Salmonella. As part of the aforementioned validations, inclusivity and exclusivity studies, stability, and ruggedness studies were also conducted. Assurance GDS has 100% inclusivity and exclusivity among the 100 Salmonella serovars and 35 non-Salmonella organisms analyzed. To add to the scope of the Assurance GDS for Salmonella method, a matrix extension study was conducted, following the AOAC guidelines, to validate the application of the method for selected spices, specifically curry powder, cumin powder, and chili powder, for the detection of Salmonella. PMID:26268975

  7. Factors influencing phagocytosis of Salmonella typhimurium by macrophages in murine schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muniz-Junqueira Maria Imaculada

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of Salmonella typhimurium load and specific antibodies on phagocytosis in schistosomiasis. Macrophages from Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice showed depressed capacity to increase the phagocytosis in the presence of a high bacterial load, due to a reduced involvement of these cells in phagocytosis and to a deficient ability to increase the number of phagocytosed bacteria. Normal and Salmonella-infected mice increased their phagocytic capacity when exposed to a high bacterial load. Antibody to Salmonella increased the phagocytic capacity of macrophages from Schistosoma-infected mice due to an increase in the number of bacteria phagocytosed but caused no modification in the number of macrophages engaged in phagocytosis. Our data indicate that macrophages from Schistosoma-infected mice work close to their functional limit, since no increase in phagocytosis was observed after increasing the bacterial load. Specific antibodies can improve their phagocytic capacity and, therefore, could help clearing concurrent infection.

  8. Transovarian passage, visceral distribution, and pathogenicity of salmonella in snakes.

    OpenAIRE

    Chiodini, R J

    1982-01-01

    Transovarian passage of salmonella was evaluated in snakes by cesarean delivery and subsequent bacteriological examination of fetuses. In all cases, the same Salmonella serotype was isolated from the feces of gravid females and their fetuses. The visceral distribution of salmonella in normal snakes was found to involve almost all visceral organs. Of nonenteric organs examined, salmonella was recovered most often from the livers and ureters. Experimental infections with Salmonella typhimurium ...

  9. Foodborne outbreaks caused by Salmonella in Italy, 1991-4.

    OpenAIRE

    Scuderi, G; Fantasia, M; Filetici, E.; Anastasio, M P

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes studies on 1699 foodborne outbreaks, in Italy, reported to the Istituto Superior di Sanità (ISS) (the National Institute of Health of Italy, Rome) during the period 1991-4. The most frequently reported foodborne outbreaks were caused by salmonellae (81%), in particular by Salmonella enteritidis and non-serotyped group D salmonella (34% and 33% of the total salmonella outbreaks, respectively). A vehicle was implicated in 69% of the salmonella outbreaks; eggs were implica...

  10. Ulcerative Colitis and Its Association with Salmonella Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Manish Kumar; Pratap, Chandra Bhan; Dixit, Vinod K; Singh, Tej Bali; Shukla, Sunit K; Jain, Ashok K; Nath, Gopal

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by presence of ulcer in colon and bloody diarrhea. The present study explores the possibility of association between Salmonella and ulcerative colitis. The present study comprised 59 cases of UC, 28 of colon cancer (CC), 127 of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and 190 of healthy control. The serological study was done by Widal and Indirect Haemagglutination Assay (IHA) for ViAb. Nested PCR was performed targeting fliC, staA, and stkG gene for Typhi and Paratyphi A, respectively. A total of 15.3% patients were positive for Salmonella "O" antigen among them 18.6% UC, 35.5% CC, 12.6% IBS, and 15.3% healthy control. A total of 36.9% patients were positive for "H" antigen including 39.0%, 57.1%, and 67.7% UC, CC, and IBS, respectively. About 1.73% show positive agglutination for AH antigen including 3.4%, 3.6%, and 1.6%, UC, CC, and IBS. A total of 10.89% were positive for ViAb. While 6.8% of UC, 10.7% of CC, 11.0% of IBS, and 12.1% of healthy subjects were positive for the antibody, the PCR positivity rates for Salmonella specific sequences were 79.7% in UC, 53.6% in CC, 66.1% in IBS, and 16.3% in healthy controls. The present study suggested that higher prevalence of Salmonella might play important role in etiopathogenesis of UC, IBS, and CC. PMID:26904116

  11. IgG keeps virulent Salmonella from evading dendritic cell uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Sebastin A; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are phagocytic professional antigen-presenting cells that can prime naive T cells and initiate anti-bacterial immunity. However, several pathogenic bacteria have developed virulence mechanisms to impair DC function. For instance, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium can prevent DCs from activating antigen-specific T cells. In addition, it has been described that the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI-1), which promotes phagocytosis of bacteria in non-phagocytic cells, can suppress this process in DCs in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) -dependent manner. Both mechanisms allow Salmonella to evade host adaptive immunity. Recent studies have shown that IgG-opsonization of Salmonella can restore the capacity of DCs to present antigenic peptideMHC complexes and prime T cells. Interestingly, T-cell activation requires Fc? receptor III (Fc?RIII) expression over the DC surface, suggesting that this receptor could counteract both antigen presentation and phagocytosis evasion by bacteria. We show that, despite IgG-coated Salmonella retaining its capacity to secrete anti-capture proteins, DCs are efficiently capable of engulfing a large number of IgG-coated bacteria. These results suggest that DCs employ another mechanism to engulf IgG-coated Salmonella, different from that used for free bacteria. In this context, we noted that DCs do not employ PI3K, actin cytoskeleton or dynamin to capture IgG-coated bacteria. Likewise, we observed that the capture is an Fc?R-independent mechanism. Interestingly, these internalized bacteria were rapidly targeted for degradation within lysosomal compartments. Hence, our results suggest a novel mechanism in DCs that does not employ PI3K/actin cytoskeleton/dynamin/Fc?Rs to engulf IgG-coated Salmonella, is not affected by anti-capture SPI-1-derived effectors and enhances DC immunogenicity, bacterial degradation and antigen presentation. PMID:22352313

  12. Occurrence of Salmonella sp in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gama NMSQ

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the presence of Salmonella sp in flocks of white laying hens. In different farms, the transport boxes of twelve flocks were inspected at arrival for the presence of Salmonella. Four positive (A, B, L and M and one negative (I flocks were monitored at each four weeks using bacteriological examination of cecal fresh feces up to 52 weeks. Birds were also evaluated at 52 weeks, when 500 eggs were taken randomly, and at 76 weeks, after forced molt. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica rough strain were isolated from the transport boxes of the four positive flocks (flocks A, B, L and M. Salmonella sp was not isolated from the transport boxes or from the feces after 76 weeks-old in flock I. Salmonella sp was isolated in the 1st, 11th, 34th, 42nd and 76th weeks from flock A; in the 1st, 4th, 11th and 76th weeks from flock B; in the first week and in the 17th to 52nd weeks from flock L; and in the 1st and 76th weeks from flock M. S. Enteritidis, S. enterica rough strain and Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis were isolated from the four positive flocks. Besides, Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana was isolated from flocks B and L, and Salmonella enterica serovar Mbandaka was isolated from flock L. Eggs produced by flock A and by flock L were contaminated with S. Enteritidis and S. enterica rough strain. According to these results, Salmonella-infected flocks may produce contaminated eggs.

  13. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Salmonella typhimurium in food: feasibility of 1-day Salmonella detection.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, H. A.; Wyatt, G M; Bramham, S; Morgan, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    A microtitration plate, antibody-capture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed for detection of Salmonella typhimurium. The assay utilizes a monoclonal detector antibody which shows no cross-reactions with non-Salmonella species and only a slight cross-reaction with one other Salmonella serotype. By using only one cultural stage (in a nonselective, chemically defined medium) prior to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, low numbers of cells in food (10 cells 25 g-1) were detected...

  14. Examination of predictors of Salmonella enterica contamination in cattle feedlot environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To identify a predictor or environmental marker that can be used to estimate Salmonella prevalence in a given feedlot environment. Further, to examine the correlation between environmental Salmonella contamination, Salmonella fecal shedding status, and prevalence of Salmonella in per...

  15. Salmonella Typhimurium infection in the porcine intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauser, Kirsten; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Larsson, Lars-Inge

    2005-01-01

    The normal intestinal epithelium is renewed with a turnover rate of 3-5 days. During Salmonella infection increased cell loss is observed, possibly as a result of programmed cell death (PCD). We have, therefore, studied the effects of Salmonella Typhimurium infection on three elements involved in...... in scattered epithelial cells and the number of positive cells increased with increasing times of exposure to Salmonella (P<0.0001). An increase in phospho-c-Jun in epithelial cells was already detectable 5 min after infection and often occurred in cells that appeared not to be invaded by the...

  16. Trauma Associated Acute Navicular Salmonella Osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Sertan Kara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Akut osteomyelit tani ve tedavide gecikme olmasi durumunda yol acabilecegi olasi sekeller ve mortalite nedeniyle tahrip edici olabilecek bir hastaliktir. Navikula nadiren tutulur ve Salmonella turleri de saglikli cocuklarda akut osteomyelite neden olabilir. Burada 4 yasinda, daha once bilinen bir immun yetmezligi, orak hucreli anemisi, hic bir gastrointestinal yakinma ya da supheli besin tuketim oykusu olmayan, ancak ayak bilegi burkulma oykusu olan ve akut navikuler Salmonella osteomiyeliti tanisi konulan bir erkek cocuk olgusu sunulmustur. Hasta cerrahi gecirmeden ve komplikasyon gelismeden iyilesmistir. Travma, altta yatan hastaligi olmayan, saglikli cocuklarda Salmonella osteomyelitini kolaylastirabilmektedir. Uygun tani ve tedavi, akut osteomiyelitin komplikasyonlarini ve gerekebilecek bir cerrahi girisimi engelleyebilir.

  17. Diversity and Persistence of Salmonella enterica Strains in Rural Landscapes in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, John J; Martin, Gordon; Hernandez, Sonia; Cheng, Ying; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Hise, Kelley B; Tobin D'Angelo, Melissa; Cole, Dana; Sanchez, Susan; Madden, Marguerite; Valeika, Steven; Presotto, Andrea; Lipp, Erin K

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis cases in the in the United States show distinct geographical trends, with the southeast reporting among the highest rates of illness. In the state of Georgia, USA, non-outbreak associated salmonellosis is especially high in the southern low-lying coastal plain. Here we examined the distribution of Salmonella enterica in environmental waters and associated wildlife in two distinct watersheds, one in the Atlantic Coastal Plain (a high case rate rural area) physiographic province and one in the Piedmont (a lower case rate rural area). Salmonella were isolated from the two regions and compared for serovar and strain diversity, as well as distribution, between the two study areas, using both a retrospective and prospective design. Thirty-seven unique serovars and 204 unique strain types were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Salmonella serovars Braenderup, Give, Hartford, and Muenchen were dominant in both watersheds. Two serovars, specifically S. Muenchen and S. Rubislaw, were consistently isolated from both systems, including water and small mammals. Conversely, 24 serovars tended to be site-specific (64.8%, n = 37). Compared to the other Salmonella serovars isolated from these sites, S. Muenchen and S. Rubislaw exhibited significant genetic diversity. Among a subset of PFGE patterns, approximately half of the environmental strain types matched entries in the USA PulseNet database of human cases. Ninety percent of S. Muenchen strains from the Little River basin (the high case rate area) matched PFGE entries in PulseNet compared to 33.33% of S. Muenchen strains from the North Oconee River region (the lower case rate area). Underlying the diversity and turnover of Salmonella strains observed for these two watersheds is the persistence of specific Salmonella serovars and strain types that may be adapted to these watersheds and landscapes. PMID:26131552

  18. Division of the Salmonella-Containing Vacuole and Depletion of Acidic Lysosomes in Salmonella-Infected Host Cells Are Novel Strategies of Salmonella enterica To Avoid Lysosomes▿

    OpenAIRE

    Eswarappa, Sandeepa M.; Negi, Vidya Devi; Chakraborty, Sangeeta; Chandrasekhar Sagar, B. K.; Chakravortty, Dipshikha

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella has evolved several strategies to counteract intracellular microbicidal agents like reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. However, it is not yet clear how Salmonella escapes lysosomal degradation. Some studies have demonstrated that Salmonella can inhibit phagolysosomal fusion, whereas other reports have shown that the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV) fuses/interacts with lysosomes. Here, we have addressed this issue from a different perspective by investigating if the infected ...

  19. Identification of immunogenic proteins and generation of antibodies against Salmonella Typhimurium using phage display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Torsten

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solely in Europoe, Salmonella Typhimurium causes more than 100,000 infections per year. Improved detection of livestock colonised with S. Typhimurium is necessary to prevent foodborne diseases. Currently, commercially available ELISA assays are based on a mixture of O-antigens (LPS or total cell lysate of Salmonella and are hampered by cross-reaction. The identification of novel immunogenic proteins would be useful to develop ELISA based diagnostic assays with a higher specificity. Results A phage display library of the entire Salmonella Typhimurium genome was constructed and 47 immunogenic oligopeptides were identified using a pool of convalescent sera from pigs infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. The corresponding complete genes of seven of the identified oligopeptids were cloned. Five of them were produced in E. coli. The immunogenic character of these antigens was validated with sera from pigs infeced with S. Tyhimurium and control sera from non-infected animals. Finally, human antibody fragments (scFv against these five antigens were selected using antibody phage display and characterised. Conclusion In this work, we identified novel immunogenic proteins of Salmonella Typhimurium and generated antibody fragments against these antigens completely based on phage display. Five immunogenic proteins were validated using a panel of positive and negative sera for prospective applications in diagnostics of Salmonela Typhimurium.

  20. Transcriptome sequencing of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis under desiccation and starvation stress in peanut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiangyu; Li, Zengxin; Zhang, Wei

    2012-05-01

    It is well recognized that Salmonella can survive long-term starvation and desiccation stresses and contaminate foods that have intermediate to low water activities; however, little is known about the specific molecular mechanisms underlying its survival and persistence in low water activity foods. In this study, we used the RNA-seq approach to compare the transcriptomes (27-33 million 36-bp reads per sample) of a Salmonella enterica subsp. enteric serovar Enteritidis strain ATCC BAA-1045 after inoculation in peanut oil (water activity 0.30) for 72 h, 216 h and 528 h to those grown in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth for 12 h and 312 h. Our results showed that desiccated Salmonella cells in peanut oil were in a physiologically dormant state with peanut oil, genes involved in heat and cold shock response, DNA protection and regulatory functions likely play roles in cross protecting Salmonella from desiccation and starvation stresses. In addition, non-coding RNAs may also play roles in Salmonella desiccation stress response. This is the first report of using RNA-seq technology in characterizing bacterial transcriptomes in a food matrix. PMID:22265317

  1. Genetic parameters for resistance to the Salmonella abortusovis vaccinal strain Rv6 in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouix Jacques

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An experimental population (1216 lambs from 30 sires of the Inra401 sheep was created in an Inra flock to allow QTL detection for susceptibility to Salmonella infection, wool and carcass traits. The Inra401 is a sheep composite line developed from two breeds: Berrichon du Cher and Romanov. At 113 days of age on average, the lambs were inoculated intravenously with 108 Salmonella abortusovis Rv6 (vaccinal strain. They were slaughtered 10 days after the inoculation. Several traits were measured at inoculation and/or slaughtering to estimate the genetic resistance of the lambs to Salmonella infection: specific IgM and IgG1 antibody titres, body weight loss, spleen and pre-scapular node weights and counts of viable Salmonella persisting in these organs. This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the genetic variability of the traits related to salmonellosis susceptibility. The heritabilities of the traits varied between 0.10 and 0.64 (significantly different from zero. Thus, in sheep as well as in other species, the determinism of resistance to Salmonella infection is under genetic control. Moreover, the correlations between the traits are in agreement with the known immune mechanisms. The genetic variability observed should help QTL detection.

  2. Molecular modelling, docking and interaction studies of human-plasmogen and salmonella enolase with enolase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Digvijay Singh; Chandra, Sharat; Gupta, Arun; Singh, Tiratha Raj

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enteric serovar Typhi Ty2 is a human specific pathogen and an etiological agent for typhoid fever. Most of Salmonella serotypes produce glycogen which has a comparatively minor role in virulence and colonization, but has a more significant role in survival. Enzymes present in glycolytic pathway of bacteria help bacteria to survive by activating other factors inside host. Numerous pathogenic bacteria species intervene with the plasminogen system, and this plasminogen-enolase association may play a critical role in the virulence of S. Typhi by causing direct damage to the host cell extracellular matrix, possibly by enzymic degradation of extracellular matrix proteins or other protein constituents. In this study, molecular modelling of enolase of Salmonella has been accomplished in silico by comparative modelling; we have then analyzed Human alpha enolase which is a homodimer and serves on epithelial cells with our model. Both Structures were docked by D-tartronate semialdehyde phosphate (TSP) and 3-aminoenolpyruvate phosphate (AEP) enolase inhibitors. Our study shows that salmonella enolase and human enolase have different active sites in their structure. This will help in development of new ligands, more suitable for inhibiting bacterial survival inside host as vaccines for typhoid fever are not fully protective. The study also confirmed that enolase Salmonella and Human Plasminogen suggested direct physical interaction between both of them as the activation loop of plasminogen residues showed conformational changes similar to the tissue type plasminogen activator. Various computational biology tools were used for our present study such as Modeller, Molegro Virtual Docker, Grommacs. PMID:22419838

  3. Bacterial clearance reverses a skewed T-cell repertoire induced by Salmonella infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Rangel, Jessica P; de los Angeles Hernndez-Cueto, Maria; Galan-Enriquez, Carlos-Samuel; Lpez-Medina, Marcela; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium invades the spleen, liver, and peripheral lymph nodes and has recently been detected in the bone marrow and thymus, resulting in a reduced thymic size and a decline in the total number of thymic cells. A specific deletion of the double-positive cell subset has been characterized, yet the export of mature T cells to the periphery remains normal. We analyzed Salmonella pathogenesis regarding thymic structure and the T-cell maturation process. We demonstrate that, despite alterations in the thymic structure, T-cell development is maintained during Salmonella infection, allowing the selection of single-positive T-cell clones expressing particular T-cell receptor beta chains (TCR-V?). Moreover, the treatment of infected mice with an antibiotic restored the normal thymic architecture and thymocyte subset distribution. Additionally, the frequency of TCR-V? usage after treatment was comparable to that in non-infected mice. However, bacteria were still recovered from the thymus after 1 month of treatment. Our data reveal that a skewed T-cell developmental process is present in the Salmonella-infected thymus that alters the TCR-V? usage frequency. Likewise, the post-treatment persistence of Salmonella reveals a novel function of the thymus as a potential reservoir for this infectious agent. PMID:26417438

  4. The identification of Salmonella enteritidis-infected poultry flocks associated with an outbreak of human salmonellosis.

    OpenAIRE

    van de Giessen, A.W.; Dufrenne, J B; Ritmeester, W S; Berkers, P. A.; Leeuwen, W.J. van; Notermans, S H

    1992-01-01

    In the summer of 1991 a human outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis infection occurred following a barbecue in which about 100 persons were involved. Eggs, supplied by one or more of 10 different layer farms, were the most probable source of the infection. To identify the S. enteritidis-positive flocks, an immunoassay was used to detect salmonella serogroup D-specific antibodies in the yolk of hens eggs. Antibody titres in the eggs from two layer farms, farm A and B, clearly exceeded the titres ...

  5. Evaluation of a serological Salmonella Mix-ELISA for poultry used in a national surveillance programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feld, Niels Christian; Ekeroth, Lars; Gradel, K.O.; Kabell, Susanne; Madsen, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    bacteriological monitoring with negative results were used for calculating the flock and individual test specificities, which were 0.997 and 0.999, respectively. Layer flocks from the table egg sector were used for calculation of positive predictive values. In the survey, flocks were examined for salmonella by...... Mix-ELISA and by faecal culture, and in case of a positive result in either of these a repeated, serological testing was performed, and 60 animals were organ-cultured. If one of these samplings was positive, the flock was declared salmonella infected. In a period of 3 months, 35 flocks were found to...

  6. Inactivation of Salmonella Senftenberg, Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Tennessee in peanut butter by 915 MHz microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Jae; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 915 MHz microwave with 3 different levels to inactivate 3 serovars of Salmonella in peanut butter. Peanut butter inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were treated with a 915 MHz microwave with 2, 4 and 6 kW and acid and peroxide values and color changes were determined after 5 min of microwave heating. Salmonella populations were reduced with increasing treatment time and treatment power. Six kW 915 MHz microwave treatment for 5 min reduced these three Salmonella serovars by 3.24-4.26 log CFU/g. Four and two kW 915 MHz microwave processing for 5 min reduced these Salmonella serovars by 1.14-1.48 and 0.15-0.42 log CFU/g, respectively. Microwave treatment did not affect acid, peroxide, or color values of peanut butter. These results demonstrate that 915 MHz microwave processing can be used as a control method for reducing Salmonella in peanut butter without producing quality deterioration. PMID:26678129

  7. Visualization of gold and platinum nanoparticles interacting with Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André; Szeliga, Jacek; Sawosz, Filip; Grodzik, Marta; Rupiewicz, Marlena; Niemiec, Tomasz; Kacprzyk, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    -Au and nano-Pt respectively), with Salmonella Enteritidis (Gram-negative) and Listeria monocytogenes (Gram-positive), to reveal possibilities of constructing bacteria-nanoparticle vehicles. Methods: Hydrocolloids of nano-Au or nano-Pt were added to two bacteria suspensions in the following order: nano...... vehicle to deliver nano-Pt to specific points in the body....

  8. Yeast β-d-glucans induced antimicrobial peptide expressions against Salmonella infection in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yujing; Wang, Zhong; Tian, Xiangyu; Guo, Yuming; Zhang, Haibo

    2016-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of yeast β-d-glucans (YG) on gene expression of endogenous β-defensins (AvBDs), cathelicidins (Cath) and liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide-2 (LEAP-2) in broilers challenged with Salmonella enteritidis (SE). 240 day-old Cobb male broilers were randomly assigned to 2×2 factorial arrangements of treatments with two levels of dietary YG (0 or 200mg/kg in diet) and two levels of SE challenge (0 or 1×10(9) SE at 7-9 days of age). The results showed SE infection reduced growth performance,and increased salmonella cecal colonization and internal organs invasion, increased concentration of intestinal specific IgA and serum specific IgG antibody, as compared to uninfected birds. SE challenge differentially regulated AvBDs, Caths and LEAP-2 gene expression in the jejunum and spleen of broiler chickens during the infection period. However, YG supplementation inhibited the growth depression by SE challenge, and further increased level of serum specific IgG and intestinal specific IgA antibody. Higher level of salmonella colonization and internal organs invasion in the SE-infected birds were reduced by YG. SE-induced differentially expression patterns of AMPs genes was inhibited or changed by YG. Results indicated YG enhance chicken's resistance to salmonella infection. PMID:26794312

  9. One-Step Identification of Five Prominent Chicken Salmonella Serovars and Biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunhong; Yue, Min; Rankin, Shelley; Weill, François-Xavier; Frey, Joachim; Schifferli, Dieter M

    2015-12-01

    Based on bacterial genomic data, we developed a one-step multiplex PCR assay to identify Salmonella and simultaneously differentiate the two invasive avian-adapted S. enterica serovar Gallinarum biotypes Gallinarum and Pullorum, and the most frequent, specific, and asymptomatic colonizers of chickens, serovars Enteritidis, Heidelberg, and Kentucky. PMID:26378281

  10. DETECTION OF FRNA COLIPHAGES IN GROUNDWATER: INTERFERENCE WITH THE ASSAY BY SOMATIC SALMONELLA BACTERIOPHAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groundwater samples from two sites in Alabama, USA were plaque assayed for F-specific RNA (FRNA) coliphages using Salmonella typhimurium WG49 as the host bacterium. While numerous plaques were detected with WG49 (a strain possessing Escherichia coli F pili), plaques were also obs...

  11. Effect of natural microbiota on growth of Salmonella spp. in fresh pork A predictive microbiology approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mller, Cleide; Ilg, Y.; Aabo, Sren; Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Dalgaard, Paw; Hansen, Tina Beck

    2013-01-01

    lag time, max. specific growth rate and max. population density. Data from literature were used to develop growth models for the natural pork microbiota. Challenge tests at temperatures from 9.4 to 24.1 C and with Salmonella inoculated in ground pork were used for evaluation of interaction models....... The existing Jameson-effect and LotkaVolterra species interaction models and a new expanded Jameson-effect model were evaluated. F-test indicated lack-of-fit for the classical Jameson-effect model at all of the tested temperatures and at 14.120.2 C this was caused by continued growth of Salmonella...... after the natural microbiota had reached their max. population density. The new expanded Jameson-effect model and the LotkaVolterra model performed better and appropriately described the continued but reduced growth of Salmonella after the natural microbiota had reached their max. population density...

  12. Radiosensitivity study of salmonella enteritidis in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the applications of ionizing radiations in food is the inactivation of vegetative phatogenic bacteria (radicidation) such as Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Vibro and Listeria. These bacteria are associated with the diseases transmitted by food (ETA). Fresh and frozen farmyard fowls can be contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms, between them Salmonella. In Argentine, between years 1987-1990, Salmonella enteritidis was the main cause of salmonellosis. In food irradiation, with the aim of improving and assuring its hygienic quality, it is important to know the radiosensitivity of microorganisms to be inactivated. Inactivation of a determined microorganism shall depend, between others factors, of the species, strain, number and of the irradiation conditions (temperature, media, etc.). D10 value is a very useful data in order to compare radiosensitivities between the microorganisms and the influence of different factors in their sensitivities. In this paper, it was determined the sensitivity to the gamma radiation of Salmonella enteritidis in fresh and frozen chickens

  13. Effects of Climate Change on Salmonella Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Akil, Luma; Ahmad, H. Anwar; Reddy, Remata S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Climate change and global warming have been reported to increase spread of foodborne pathogens. To understand these effects on Salmonella infections, modeling approaches such as regression analysis and neural network (NN) were used.

  14. A real-time PCR method for the detection of Salmonella enterica from food using a target sequence identified by comparative genomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Lida; Paoli, George C; Shi, Chunlei; Tu, Shu-I; Shi, Xianming

    2010-02-28

    A 5'-nuclease real-time PCR assay using a minor groove binding probe was developed for the detection of Salmonella enterica from artificially contaminated foods. S. enterica-specific sequences were identified by a comparative genomic approach. Several species-specific target sequences were evaluated for specificity. A real-time PCR assay was developed targeting a nucleotide sequence within the putative type III secretion ATP synthase gene (ssaN). An internal amplification control (IAC) probe was designed by randomly shuffling the target probe sequence and a single-stranded oligonucleotide was synthesized to serve as an IAC. The assay demonstrated 100% inclusivity for the 40 Salmonella strains tested and 100% exclusivity for 24 non-Salmonella strains. The detection limit of the real-time PCR assay was 41.2 fg/PCR with Salmonella Typhimurium genomic DNA and 18.6 fg/PCR using Salmonella Enteritidis genomic DNA; 8 and 4 genome equivalents, respectively. In the presence of a natural background flora derived from chicken meat enrichment cultures, the sample preparation and PCR method were capable of detecting as few as 130 Salmonella cfu/mL. Using the developed real-time PCR method to detect Salmonella in artificially contaminated chicken, liquid egg and peanut butter samples, as few as 1 cfu/10 g of sample was detectable after a brief (6h) non-selective culture enrichment. PMID:20060189

  15. Tentative Colistin Epidemiological Cut-Off Value for Salmonella spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Torpdahl, Mia; Zachariasen, Camilla; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Hammerum, Anette M.; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2012-01-01

    . Interestingly, Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Enteritidis belong to the same O-group (O:1, 9,12), suggesting that surface lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of the cell (O-antigen) play a role in colistin susceptibility. The epidemiological cut-off value of >2 mg/L for colistin suggested by European Committee on...... Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) is placed inside the distribution for both Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Enteritidis. All tested Salmonella Dublin isolates, regardless of MIC colistin value, had identical pmrA and pmrB sequences. Missense mutations were found only in pmrA in one Salmonella...

  16. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    OpenAIRE

    Harriet Whiley; Kirstin Ross

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the prod...

  17. Salmonella dublin Septicemia in Two Puppies

    OpenAIRE

    Nation, P. N.

    1984-01-01

    Two eight week old purebred female Bull Terrier puppies died within 24 hours of each other as a result of a septicemia caused by Salmonella dublin. The salient clinical features were: temperature of 41°C; rapid breathing; fluid, blood-stained stools; prostration and death. Pathological findings included embolic pneumonia, splenitis, myocarditis, nephritis and meningoencephalitis. Salmonella dublin was isolated from the spleen, lung and kidneys of both puppies.

  18. Application of Real-time PCR for Rapid Petection of Salmonella spp., Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium and Enteritidis in Food Samples of Animal Origin without Pre-enrichment and with Pre-enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Pochop

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was follow the contamination of milk and meat products with Salmonella spp. by using the Step One real-time PCR. We used the PrepSEQ Rapid Spin Sample Preparation Kit for isolation of DNA and Power SYBR Green PCR Master Mix for pursuance the real-time PCR (Applied Biosystems. We were observing the presence of genes stn (Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium DT096, sef and pef (Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis SE7. We could detect strain of Salmonella spp. in the investigated samples without pre-enrichment and after pre-enrichment. Our results indicated that the Step One real-time PCR assay developed in this study could sensitively detect Salmonella spp. in food samples of animal origin (swabs. This Step One real-time PCR assay is extremely useful for any laboratory in possession of a real-time PCR. It is a fast, reproducible, simple, specific and sensitive way to detect nucleic acids, which could be used in clinical diagnostic tests in the future. Our results indicated that the Step One real-time PCR assay developed in this study could sensitively detect Salmonella spp. in ready to eat food. Thus, these results proved real-time PCR to be useful as a rapid diagnostic test for the direct detection of pathogens in food of animal origin, without the need of pre-enrichment steps.

  19. Diagnostics for invasive Salmonella infections: Current challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jason R; Ryan, Edward T

    2015-06-19

    Invasive Salmonellosis caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi or Paratyphi A, B, C, or invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes, is an immensely important disease cluster for which reliable, rapid diagnostic tests are not available. Blood culture remains the gold standard but is insensitive, slow, and resource-intensive. Existing molecular diagnostics have poor sensitivity due to the low organism burden in bodily fluids. Commercially available serologic tests for typhoidal Salmonella have had limited sensitivity and specificity. In high burden, resource-limited settings, reliance on clinical diagnosis or inaccurate tests often results in frequent, unnecessary treatment, which contributes selective pressure for the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. This practice also results in inadequate therapy for other etiologies of acute febrile illnesses, including leptospirosis and rickettsial infections. A number of novel serologic, molecular, transcriptomic and metabolomic approaches to diagnostics are under development. Target product profiles that outline specific needs may focus development and investment, and establish benchmarks for accuracy, cost, speed, and portability of new diagnostics. Of note, a critical barrier to diagnostic assay rollout will be the low cost and low perceived harm of empiric therapy on behalf of providers and patients, which leaves few perceived incentives to utilize diagnostics. Approaches that align incentives with societal goals of limiting inappropriate antimicrobial use, such as subsidizing diagnostics, may be essential for stimulating development and uptake of such assays in resource-limited settings. New diagnostics for invasive Salmonellosis should be developed and deployed alongside diagnostics for alternative etiologies of acute febrile illnesses to improve targeted use of antibiotics. PMID:25937611

  20. The sensitivity of real-time PCR amplification targeting invasive Salmonella serovars in biological specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau Tran

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCR amplification for the detection of pathogens in biological material is generally considered a rapid and informative diagnostic technique. Invasive Salmonella serovars, which cause enteric fever, can be commonly cultured from the blood of infected patients. Yet, the isolation of invasive Salmonella serovars from blood is protracted and potentially insensitive. Methods We developed and optimised a novel multiplex three colour real-time PCR assay to detect specific target sequences in the genomes of Salmonella serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. We performed the assay on DNA extracted from blood and bone marrow samples from culture positive and negative enteric fever patients. Results The assay was validated and demonstrated a high level of specificity and reproducibility under experimental conditions. All bone marrow samples tested positive for Salmonella, however, the sensitivity on blood samples was limited. The assay demonstrated an overall specificity of 100% (75/75 and sensitivity of 53.9% (69/128 on all biological samples. We then tested the PCR detection limit by performing bacterial counts after inoculation into blood culture bottles. Conclusions Our findings corroborate previous clinical findings, whereby the bacterial load of S. Typhi in peripheral blood is low, often below detection by culture and, consequently, below detection by PCR. Whilst the assay may be utilised for environmental sampling or on differing biological samples, our data suggest that PCR performed directly on blood samples may be an unsuitable methodology and a potentially unachievable target for the routine diagnosis of enteric fever.

  1. Sources and risk factors for contamination, survival, persistence, and heat resistance of Salmonella in low-moisture foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolak, Richard; Enache, Elena; Stone, Warren; Black, Darryl G; Elliott, Philip H

    2010-10-01

    Sources and risk factors for contamination, survival, persistence, and heat resistance of Salmonella in low-moisture foods are reviewed. Processed products such as peanut butter, infant formula, chocolate, cereal products, and dried milk are characteristically low-water-activity foods and do not support growth of vegetative pathogens such as Salmonella. Significant food safety risk might occur when contamination takes place after a lethal processing step. Salmonella cross-contamination in low-moisture foods has been traced to factors such as poor sanitation practices, poor equipment design, and poor ingredient control. It is well recognized that Salmonella can survive for long periods in low-moisture food products. Although some die-off occurs in low-moisture foods during storage, the degree of reduction depends on factors such as storage temperature and product formulation. The heat resistance of Salmonella is affected by many factors, mostly by strain and serotypes tested, previous growth and storage conditions, the physical and chemical food composition, test media, and the media used to recover heat-damaged cells. Salmonella heat resistance generally increases with reducing moisture. Care must be taken when applying published D- and z-values to a specific food process. The product composition and heating medium and conditions should not be significantly different from the product and process parameters used by the processors. PMID:21067682

  2. Evaluation of protective efficacy of a novel inactivated Salmonella Pullorum ghost vaccine against virulent challenge in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rongxian; Geng, Shizhong; Jiao, Hongmei; Pan, Zhiming; Chen, Xiang; Jiao, Xinan

    2016-05-01

    Salmonella Gallinarum biovar Pullorum is the causative agent of pullorum disease in poultry, an acute systemic disease that results in a high mortality rate in young chickens. Vaccines have been considered in many developing countries where levels of infection are high and eradication is not a realistic option. An attenuated strain combined with protein E-mediated cell lysis was used to generate a safety enhanced Salmonella Pullorum ghost vaccine. Immune responses and protection induced by ghost vaccine in chickens were investigated following a prime-boost immunization administered via intramuscular and oral routes. Chickens from vaccinated groups showed significant increases in antigen-specific IgG, especially after booster immunization. Lymphocyte proliferation responses were also significantly increased in all immunized groups at 2-weeks post-final vaccination. The Salmonella Pullorum ghost vaccine provided satisfactory protection against virulent Salmonella Pullorum infection, as shown by the robust stimulation of both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses as well as the reduction in the number of bacterial recovered post-challenge. Moreover, the immune effects and survival rates indicated intramuscular injection is more efficient than oral vaccination. In conclusion, our results suggest that Salmonella Pullorum ghosts may be used as a safe and effective novel inactivated vaccine candidate to protect against virulent Salmonella Pullorum infection. PMID:27090623

  3. Study on phenotypic characteristics of Salmonella gallinarum and Sallmonella pullorum isolates based on biochemical and antimicrobial susceptibility tests in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradi Bidhendi, S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is a very important disease of avian species because of its huge economic impact, worldwide distribution and difficulty posed in its control. Fowl typhoid and pullorum disease, is caused by Salmonella enterica subsp enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum and Pullorum. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biochemical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella gallinarum and Salmonella pullorum. A total of 13 Salmonella isolates, identified by biochemical tests and specific antisera including Salmonella gallinarum (n=10 and Salmonella pullorum (n=3. All were found to be susceptible to gentamicin. Also 7 (53.8 %, 6 (46.1% and 5 (38.4% isolates were resistant to streptomycin, cephalexin and nalidixic acid respectively. Multidrug resistance to three or more antibiotics was observed in 6 (46.1% isolates and overall 9 antibiotic resistance patterns were recorded. The results showed that poultries as a source of antimicrobial resistance could pose a serious risk to public health via food chain transfer. Hence more epidemiological surveillance programs and antibiotic susceptibility investigations are advised.

  4. Efficacy of a commercial polymerase chain reaction-based assay for detection of Salmonella spp. in animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciorowski, K G; Pillai, S D; Ricke, S C

    2000-10-01

    Salmonellosis is a cyclic problem in the food industry, to which animal feed has been contributory. Current conventional methods of Salmonella spp. detection require 96 h for detection and confirmation. With modern and just-in-time production schedules, a 96-h hold represents a significant expense in storage and decontamination. The commercially available assay, 'BAX for Screening/Salmonella' (BAX), is based on the principle of the polymerase chain reaction and may represent a significant decrease in assay time. Seven fresh feed formulations, two fresh feed ingredients, seven stored feeds and two stored feed ingredients were artificially contaminated with a primary poultry isolate of Salmonella typhimurium and analysed by conventional and BAX methodology. The results of BAX agreed with conventional plating results for 16 of 18 samples spiked with 1200 cfu 10 g(-1) of feed and 13 of 18 samples spiked with 40 cfu 10 g(-1) of feed. Indigenous Salmonella spp. were detected in five of eight samples of poultry diets by conventional methods. With BAX, Salmonella spp. could not be detected in any of the samples after only 7 h of enrichment but could be detected in two dietary samples after 13 h of enrichment and four dietary samples after 24 h of enrichment. Specific sequences of salmonella DNA that were extracted from poultry diets could be detected with BAX. PMID:11054177

  5. Visual detection technique for efficient screening and isolation of Salmonella based on a novel enrichment assay using chromatography membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, F; Xiong, Y; Zhang, H; Wu, K; Xiang, Y; Shao, J-B; Ai, H-W; Xiang, Y-P; Zheng, X-L; Lv, J-R; Sun, H; Bao, L-S; Zhang, Z; Hu, H-B; Zhang, J-Y; Chen, L; Lu, J; Liu, W-Y; Mei, H; Ma, Y; Xu, C-F; Fang, A-Y; Gu, M; Xu, C-Y; Chen, Y; Chen, Z; Sun, Z-Y

    2016-03-01

    To detect Salmonella more efficiently and isolate strains more easily, a novel and simple detection method that uses an enrichment assay and two chromogenic reactions on a chromatography membrane was developed. Grade 3 chromatography paper is used as functionalized solid phase support (SPS), which contains specially optimized medium. One reaction for screening is based on the sulfate-reducing capacity of Salmonella. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) generated by Salmonella reacts with ammonium ferric citrate to produce black colored ferrous sulfide. Another reaction is based on Salmonella C8 esterase that is unique for Enterobacteriaceae except Serratia and interacts with 4-methylumbelliferyl caprylate (MUCAP) to produce fluorescent umbelliferone, which is visible under ultraviolet light. A very low detection limit (10(1) CFU ml(-1)) for Salmonella was achieved on the background of 10(5) CFU ml(-1) Escherichia coli. More importantly, testing with more than 1,000 anal samples indicated that our method has a high positive detection rate and is relatively low cost, compared with the traditional culture-based method. It took only 1 day for the preliminary screening and 2 days to efficiently isolate the Salmonella cells, indicating that the new assay is specific, rapid, and simple for Salmonella detection. In contrast to the traditional culture-based method, this method can be easily used to screen and isolate targeted strains with the naked eye. The results of quantitative and comparative experiments showed that the visual detection technique is an efficient alternative method for the screening of Salmonella spp. in many applications of large-sized samples related to public health surveillance. PMID:26796551

  6. Tips to Reduce Your Risk of Salmonella from Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Features Tips to Reduce Your Risk of Salmonella from Eggs Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... can take to reduce my risk of a Salmonella infection from eggs? Like other foods, keep eggs ...

  7. Salmonella Is a Sneaky Germ: Seven Tips for Safer Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Salmonella is a Sneaky Germ: Seven Tips for Safer Eating Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Salmonella can contaminate more than poultry and eggs. It ...

  8. Enjoying Homemade Ice Cream without the Risk of Salmonella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enjoying Homemade Ice Cream without the Risk of Salmonella Infection Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... year homemade ice cream causes several outbreaks of Salmonella infection with up to several hundred victims at ...

  9. Complete Genome and Methylome Sequences of Two Salmonella enterica spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kuan; Muruvanda, Tim; Roberts, Richard J.; Payne, Justin; Allard, Marc W.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is responsible for major foodborne outbreaks worldwide. It can cause gastroenteritis characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, and fever. Salmonella infections raise public health concerns along with consequential economic impacts. In this report, we announce the first complete genome sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Choleraeuis (S. Choleraeuis) ATCC 10708 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Pullorum (S. Pullorum) ATCC 9120, isolated from patients with diarrhea. PMID:26798102

  10. Salmonella in pork on the island of Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    safefood

    2011-01-01

    A study was carried out on the occurrence of Salmonella on pork on the island of Ireland and an assessment of the risk factors contributing to its transmission. It included microbiological studies to track the Salmonella status of individual pigs through the pork chain from farm to primal cuts. Studies on the Salmonella status of pork cuts in boning hall, and on raw pork cuts at retail were also undertaken. A quantitative microbial risk assessment model was developed for Salmonella on por...

  11. Conservation of Salmonella Infection Mechanisms in Plants and Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Schikora, Adam; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Bueso, Edouardo; Garcia, Anna Victoria; Nilau, Theodora; Charrier, Amlie; Pelletier, Sandra; Menanteau, Pierrette; Baccarini, Manuela; Velge, Philippe; Hirt, Heribert

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella virulence in animals depends on effectors injected by Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs). In this report we demonstrate that Salmonella mutants that are unable to deliver effectors are also compromised in infection of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Transcriptome analysis revealed that in contrast to wild type bacteria, T3SS mutants of Salmonella are compromised in suppressing highly conserved Arabidopsis genes that play a prominent role during Salmonella infection of animals. We also...

  12. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium Infection in Laying Hens

    OpenAIRE

    Pande, Vivek V.; Devon, Rebecca L.; Sharma, Pardeep; McWhorter, Andrea R.; Chousalkar, Kapil K.

    2016-01-01

    Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonize reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well-described. However, there are few studi...

  13. Evanescent Wave Fiber Optic Biosensor for Salmonella Detection in Food

    OpenAIRE

    Arun K. Bhunia; Mark T. Morgan; Shu-I Tu; Angela M. Valadez; Lana, Carlos A.

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a major food-borne pathogen of world-wide concern. Sensitive and rapid detection methods to assess product safety before retail distribution are highly desirable. Since Salmonella is most commonly associated with poultry products, an evanescent wave fiber-optic assay was developed to detect Salmonella in shell egg and chicken breast and data were compared with a time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) assay. Anti-Salmonella polyclonal antibody was immobilized onto the surface ...

  14. Detección de Salmonella spp y Listeria monocytogenes en quesos frescos y semimadurados que se expenden en vía pública en la ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia D. Alcázar Montañez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la inocuidad bacteriológica de los quesos frescos y semimadurados que se venden en algunos “mercados sobre ruedas” en la ciudad de México, se realizó la detección simultánea de Salmonella spp y de Listeria monocytogenes, mediante la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR, así como con los métodos bacteriológicos convencionales, según la normatividad correspondiente para cada microorganismo; es decir, la NOM-114-SSA1-1994 mexicana, que constituye un método para la determinación de Salmonella en alimentos; de igual manera la NOM-143-SSA1-1995 mexicana, que representa un método de prueba microbiológica para alimentos y determinación de L. monocytogenes. Se analizaron 120 muestras seleccionadas al azar, provenientes de cuatro “mercados sobre ruedas” de una zona del sur de la ciudad de México. La metodología propuesta para la PCR múltiple se basó en la amplifi cación simultánea de los genes InvA e Iap procedentes de los genomas de Salmonella spp y de L. monocytogenes, respectivamente; de igual forma, la metodología para la extracción de ADN bacteriano a partir de las muestras se desarrolló con el fi n de eliminar o disminuir la posible interferencia de inhibidores propios del alimento mediante centrifugación previa de las muestras y se comprobó que la amplifi cación de ambos resultó positiva, aun cuando los patógenos se encuentren presentes en las muestras a una concentración de por lo menos 30 UFC/g. Del total de muestras analizadas con la técnica de PCR, sólo tres resultaron positivas a la presencia de Salmonella spp, en ninguna estuvo presente L. monocytogenes, en contraste con los resultados de los métodos bacteriológicos, por medio de los cuales no se obtuvo ningún resultado positivo.

  15. Test results of Salmonella typing by the NRLs-Salmonella in the Member States of the EU and the EnterNet Laboratories - Collaborative study VI (2001) on typing of Salmonella

    OpenAIRE

    Korver H; Raes M; Maas HME; Ward LR; Wannet WJB; Henken AM; PHLS-Colindale/London; MGB; LIS

    2002-01-01

    Test results of Salmonella sero- and phage typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing by the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella in the Member States of the European Union and the EnterNet Laboratories: Collaborative study VI (2001) for Salmonella. The sixth collaborative typing study for Salmonella was organised by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, The Netherlands) in collaboration with the Public Health Laboratory Services (PHLS), ...

  16. Functional Activity of Antibodies Directed towards Flagellin Proteins of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Mary A.; Wang, Jin Y.; Tulapurkar, Mohan E.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Levine, Myron M.; Simon, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis are major causes of invasive bacterial infections in children under 5 years old in sub-Saharan Africa, with case fatality rates of ~20%. There are no licensed NTS vaccines for humans. Vaccines that induce antibodies against a Salmonella Typhi surface antigen, Vi polysaccharide, significantly protect humans against typhoid fever, establishing that immune responses to Salmonella surface antigens can be protective. Flagella proteins, abundant surface antigens in Salmonella serovars that cause human disease, are also powerful immunogens, but the functional capacity of elicited anti-flagellar antibodies and their role in facilitating bacterial clearance has been unclear. We examined the ability of anti-flagellar antibodies to mediate microbial killing by immune system components in-vitro and assessed their role in protecting mice against invasive Salmonella infection. Polyclonal (hyperimmune sera) and monoclonal antibodies raised against phase 1 flagellin proteins of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium facilitated bacterial uptake and killing of the homologous serovar pathogen by phagocytes. Polyclonal anti-flagellar antibodies accompanied by complement also achieved direct bacterial killing. Serum bactericidal activity was restricted to Salmonella serovars expressing the same flagellin used as immunogen. Notably, individual anti-flagellin monoclonal antibodies with complement were not bactericidal, but this biological activity was restored when different monoclonal anti-flagellin antibodies were combined. Passive transfer immunization with a monoclonal IgG antibody specific for phase 1 flagellin from S. Typhimurium protected mice against lethal challenge with a representative African invasive S. Typhimurium strain. These findings have relevance for the use of flagellin proteins in NTS vaccines, and confirm the role of anti-flagellin antibodies as mediators of protective immunity. PMID:26998925

  17. Postharvest handling conditions affect internalization of Salmonella in baby spinach during washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-López, Vicente M; Marín, Alicia; Allende, Ana; Beuchat, Larry R; Gil, María I

    2013-07-01

    Internalization of foodborne pathogens in fruits and vegetables is an increasing safety concern. The aim of this research was to assess the potential for internalization of an enteric pathogen (Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium) in a leafy vegetable (baby spinach) during washing as influenced by three postharvest handling conditions: (i) illumination, (ii) negative temperature differential, and (iii) relative humidity (RH). To compare these potential postharvest handling conditions, leaves were exposed to different levels of illumination (0, 1,000, and 2,000 lx), temperature differential (5, 11, 14, 20, and 26°C), and RH (99, 85, and 74%) for a short time before or during washing. Washing of baby spinach was carried out in water containing green fluorescent protein-tagged Salmonella Typhimurium (6.5 log CFU/ml) at 5°C for 2 min, followed by surface disinfection with chlorine (10,000 μg/ml) for 1 min, two rinses in water for 10 s, and spin drying for 15 s. Internalization was assessed by enumerating the pathogen on Salmonella-Shigella agar and by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Illumination of spinach leaves before and during washing and a negative temperature differential during washing did not significantly (P > 0.05) increase the number of internalized bacteria. However, exposure of leaves to low-RH conditions before washing, which reduced the tissue water content, decreased internalization of Salmonella compared with internalization in baby spinach exposed to high RH (P ≤ 0.05). Green fluorescent protein-tagged Salmonella Typhimurium was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy at a depth of up to 30 m m beneath the surface of spinach leaves after exposure to a high inoculum level (8 log CFU/ml) for an extended time (2 h). Results show that internalization of Salmonella into baby spinach leaves can occur but can be minimized under specific postharvest handling conditions such as low RH. PMID:23834788

  18. Functional Activity of Antibodies Directed towards Flagellin Proteins of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Girish; Tennant, Sharon M; Boyd, Mary A; Wang, Jin Y; Tulapurkar, Mohan E; Pasetti, Marcela F; Levine, Myron M; Simon, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis are major causes of invasive bacterial infections in children under 5 years old in sub-Saharan Africa, with case fatality rates of ~20%. There are no licensed NTS vaccines for humans. Vaccines that induce antibodies against a Salmonella Typhi surface antigen, Vi polysaccharide, significantly protect humans against typhoid fever, establishing that immune responses to Salmonella surface antigens can be protective. Flagella proteins, abundant surface antigens in Salmonella serovars that cause human disease, are also powerful immunogens, but the functional capacity of elicited anti-flagellar antibodies and their role in facilitating bacterial clearance has been unclear. We examined the ability of anti-flagellar antibodies to mediate microbial killing by immune system components in-vitro and assessed their role in protecting mice against invasive Salmonella infection. Polyclonal (hyperimmune sera) and monoclonal antibodies raised against phase 1 flagellin proteins of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium facilitated bacterial uptake and killing of the homologous serovar pathogen by phagocytes. Polyclonal anti-flagellar antibodies accompanied by complement also achieved direct bacterial killing. Serum bactericidal activity was restricted to Salmonella serovars expressing the same flagellin used as immunogen. Notably, individual anti-flagellin monoclonal antibodies with complement were not bactericidal, but this biological activity was restored when different monoclonal anti-flagellin antibodies were combined. Passive transfer immunization with a monoclonal IgG antibody specific for phase 1 flagellin from S. Typhimurium protected mice against lethal challenge with a representative African invasive S. Typhimurium strain. These findings have relevance for the use of flagellin proteins in NTS vaccines, and confirm the role of anti-flagellin antibodies as mediators of protective immunity. PMID:26998925

  19. Visualization of gold and platinum nanoparticles interacting with Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sawosz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Ewa Sawosz1, André Chwalibog2, Jacek Szeliga3, Filip Sawosz2, Marta Grodzik1, Marlena Rupiewicz1, Tomasz Niemiec1, Katarzyna Kacprzyk11Division of Biotechnology and Biochemistry of Nutrition, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; 2Department of Basic Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Division of Microbiology of Analytical Centre, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, PolandPurpose: Rapid development of nanotechnology has recently brought significant attention to the extraordinary biological features of nanomaterials. The objective of the present ­investigation was to evaluate morphological characteristics of the assembles of gold and platinum nanoparticles (nano-Au and nano-Pt respectively, with Salmonella Enteritidis (Gram-negative and Listeria monocytogenes (Gram-positive, to reveal possibilities of constructing bacteria-nanoparticle vehicles.Methods: Hydrocolloids of nano-Au or nano-Pt were added to two bacteria suspensions in the following order: nano-Au + Salmonella Enteritidis; nano-Au + Listeria monocytogenes; nano-Pt + Salmonella Enteritidis; nano-Pt + Listeria monocytogenes. Samples were inspected by transmission electron microscope.Results: Visualization of morphological interaction between nano-Au and Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes, showed that nano-Au were aggregated within flagella or biofilm network and did not penetrate the bacterial cell. The analysis of morphological effects of interaction of nano-Pt with bacteria revealed that nano-Pt entered cells of Listeria monocytogenes and were removed from the cells. In the case of Salmonella Enteritidis, nano-Pt were seen inside bacteria cells, probably bound to DNA and partly left bacterial cells. After washing and centrifugation, some of the nano-Pt-DNA complexes were observed within Salmonella Enteritidis.Conclusion: The results indicate that the bacteria could be used as a vehicle to deliver nano-Pt to specific points in the body.Keywords: morphology, nanoparticles, gold, platinum, bacteria

  20. Prevalence of Salmonella on chicken carcasses from retail markets in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Yen T; Nguyen, Trung Thanh; To, Phuong Bich; Pham, Da Xuan; Le, Hao Thi Hong; Alali, Walid Q; Walls, Isabel; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo M A; Doyle, Michael P

    2012-10-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on chicken carcasses collected from six regions in Vietnam. A total of 1,000 whole, dressed chicken carcasses were collected from five cities and seven provinces across the six regions in Vietnam. Of these, 900 samples were collected from wet markets and 100 from supermarkets. All samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella according to a method recommended by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service. The overall Salmonella prevalence was 45.9%. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in Salmonella prevalence by (i) location (Ha Noi city, 51.1%; Hai Phong city, 45.6%; Da Nang and Can Tho cities, 45.5%; Bac Ninh province and Ho Chi Minh city, 44.7%; Dong Nai province, 44.6%; Ha Tinh province, 44.4%; Phu Tho province, 43.8%; Lao Cai province, 43.5%; Kien Giang province, 41.9%; and Lam Dong province, 40.9%), (ii) market type (wet market, 46.2%; supermarket samples, 43.0%), and (iii) storage temperature at retail (ambient storage, 46.4%; chilled storage, 45.1%). Hence, Salmonella presence on poultry meat in Vietnam was not associated with a specific city or province, market type, or storage temperature at retail. Strategies to reduce Salmonella levels on raw poultry in Vietnam should be undertaken to improve the safety of poultry products and reduce the incidence of human salmonellosis from poultry consumption. PMID:23043836

  1. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Salmonella spp. serological reagents are devices...

  2. Diffuse abdominal gallium-67 citrate uptake in salmonella infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two pediatric patients with salmonella infections (one with typhoid fever and the second with salmonella C2 gastroenteritis), had a diffuse abdominal uptake of Ga-67 citrate. The possible explanation for this finding is discussed. Salmonella infection should be included as a cause in the differential diagnosis of diffuse accumulation of Ga-67 citrate

  3. 9 CFR 113.30 - Detection of Salmonella contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of Salmonella contamination... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.30 Detection of Salmonella contamination. The test for detection of Salmonella contamination provided in this section shall be conducted when such a test is prescribed in...

  4. Diffuse abdominal gallium-67 citrate uptake in salmonella infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garty, I.; Koren, A.

    1987-11-01

    Two pediatric patients with salmonella infections (one with typhoid fever and the second with salmonella C2 gastroenteritis), had a diffuse abdominal uptake of Ga-67 citrate. The possible explanation for this finding is discussed. Salmonella infection should be included as a cause in the differential diagnosis of diffuse accumulation of Ga-67 citrate.

  5. Extended Spectrum Beta-lactam Resistance among Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella is an important food bourn pathogen capable of infecting both humans and animals. One of the most effective treatments for Salmonella infections is beta-lactam antibiotics, particularly extended spectrum beta-lactams; however, Salmonella resistant to these antibiotics have been recovered ...

  6. 76 FR 16425 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Testing for Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... for industry entitled ``Testing for Salmonella Species in Human Foods and Direct- Human-Contact Animal... testing procedures for Salmonella spp. in human foods (except shell eggs) and direct-human- contact animal... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Testing for Salmonella...

  7. Salmonella surrogate reduction using industrial peanut dry roasting parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of industrial peanut dry roasting parameters in Salmonella reduction using a Salmonella surrogate, Enterococcus faecium, which is slightly more heat tolerant than Salmonella. Runner-type peanuts were inoculated with E. faecium and roasted in a lab...

  8. Inactivation of Salmonella Enteriditis and Salmonella Senftenberg in liquid whole egg using generally recognized as safe additives, ionizing radiation and heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of combining irradiation followed by heat on Salmonella Enteriditis and Salmonella Senftenberg inoculated into liquid whole egg (LWE) with added nisin, EDTA, sorbic acid, carvacrol, or combinations of these GRAS additives was investigated. Synergistic reductions of Salmonella populations ...

  9. Salmonella capture using orbiting magnetic microbeads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Drew; Ballard, Matthew; Mills, Zachary; Hanasoge, Srinivas; Hesketh, Peter; Alexeev, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Using three-dimensional simulations and experiments, we examine capture of salmonella from a complex fluid sample flowing through a microfluidic channel. Capture is performed using orbiting magnetic microbeads, which can easily be extracted from the system for analysis after salmonella capture. Numerical simulations are used to model the dynamics of the system, which consists of a microchannel filled with a viscous fluid, model salmonella, magnetic microbeads and a series of angled parallel ridges lining the top of the microchannel. Simulations provide a statistical measure of the ability of the system to capture target salmonella. Our modeling findings guide the design of a lab-on-a-chip experimental device to be used for the detection of salmonella from complex food samples, allowing for the detection of the bacteria at the food source and preventing the consumption of contaminated food. Such a device can be used as a generic platform for the detection of a variety of biomaterials from complex fluids. This work is supported by a grant from the United States Department of Agriculture.

  10. Salmonella and eggs: from production to plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption. PMID:25730295

  11. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  12. Rapid detection of Salmonella in foods using a combination of SPRINT TM,MSRV TM and Salmonella Latex TestTM Detecção rápida de Salmonella em alimentos empregando uma combinação de SPRINT®, MSRV® e Salmonella Latex Test®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria Lafayette Neves Gelinski

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure for rapid detection of Salmonella in foods, based on the combination of SPRINT TM, MSRV TM and Salmonella Latex TestTM, was evaluated. SPRINT TM is a system to reduce the preenrichment and selective enrichment steps to 24 hours. MSRV TM is a semi-solid selective media for detection of motile Salmonella. Salmonella Latex TestTM is a rapid latex agglutination test for Salmonella. Using the three systems in combination, the total time for detection of Salmonella in a food sample is 48h. Evaluations were performed in artificially contaminated ready-to-eat baby-foods and raw Brazilian sausages (lingüiça containing no added microorganisms. The BAM conventional culture procedure was used as reference method. The study with baby foods indicated that the new procedure had good sensitivity (89% and specificity (100%, without cross-reactions with Enterobacteriaceae. However, when applied to naturally contaminated foods, the performance was poor: chi square (x² = 5.062, α> 0. 05 and Kappa-Cohen agreement (K = 0.171, p=0.089 indexes indicated that the differences between results given by the two procedures were significant and the correlation between them was low.Avaliou-se um novo procedimento para detecção rápida de Salmonella em alimentos, baseado na combinação entre SPRINT®, MSRV® e Salmonella Latex Test® . SPRINT® é um sistema para reduzir as etapas de pré-enriquecimento e enriquecimento seletivo para 24 h. MSRV® é um meio seletivo semi-sólido para detecção de salmonelas móveis. Salmonella Latex Test® é um teste rápido de aglutinação de látex. A combinação dos três sistemas permite que a detecção de Salmonella em alimentos possa ser feita em apenas 48 h. O procedimento foi avaliado em alimentos infantis prontos para consumo, experimentalmente contaminados com Salmonella exclusivamente e com uma mistura de Salmonella e várias espécies de Enterobacteriaceae e também em cem amostras de lingüiças de porco e de frango sem adição artificial de microrganismos. O método convencional de cultura foi empregado como método de referência. A avaliação em alimentos infantis indicou que o procedimento proposto apresentava boa sensibilidade (80% e especificidade (100%, sem reação cruzada com outras Enterobacteriaceae. Entretanto, quando aplicado a lingüiças, seu desempenho não foi adequado: os valores de x² (5,062, α > 0,05 e do índice de concordância de Kappa (0,171, p=0,089 indicaram que as diferenças entre os resultados obtidos pelos dois métodos foram estatisticamente significantes e a correlação entre eles foi baixa.

  13. Structural and immunochemical studies of the lipopolysaccharides of Salmonella strains with both antigen O4 and antigen O9.

    OpenAIRE

    Weintraub, A. (Andrej); Johnson, B N; Stocker, B. A.; Lindberg, A A

    1992-01-01

    Two Salmonella hybrid strains, SL5313 (Salmonella typhimurium with a D.rfb+ gene cluster) and SL5396 (S. enteritidis with a B.rfb+ gene cluster), each expressing both O-antigen 4 (of serogroup B) and O-antigen 9 (of serogroup D) were studied by immunofluorescence using a mixture of O4-specific mouse monoclonal and O9-specific rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Bound antibodies, detected by anti-mouse antibody labelled with fluorescein isothiocyanate and anti-rabbit antibody labelled with tetrameth...

  14. Profiling the gastrointestinal microbiota in response to Salmonella: low versus high Salmonella shedding in the porcine host

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the leading cause of bacterial foodborne disease in the U.S., Salmonella is a major food safety concern. Endeavors to control Salmonella in our food chain are hindered by the ability of Salmonella to sub-clinically colonize livestock, thereby serving as a significant reservoir for contamination ...

  15. Profiling the gastrointestinal microbiota in response to Salmonella: low versus high Salmonella shedding in the natural porcine host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling Salmonella in the food chain is complicated by the ability of Salmonella to sub-clinically colonize livestock. These Salmonella-carrier animals are a significant reservoir for contamination of nave animals, the environment, and our food supply. On the farm and in experimental infections...

  16. TaqMan Salmonella enterica Detection Kit. Performance Tested Method 020803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbs, Robert S; Cao, Yan Y; Balachandran, Priva; Petrauskene, Olga

    2009-01-01

    Peanut butter spiked with Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium was prepared by an independent laboratory and sent to Applied Biosystems to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the TaqMan Salmonella enterica Detection Kit for detecting Salmonella in peanut butter. The samples were spiked at three levels: five no-spike (0 CFU/25 g); 20 low-spike (0.2 CFU/25 g); and 20 high-spike (2 CFU/25 g). They were coded to create a blind set of 45 samples. The samples were processed based on an unpaired test design that included enrichment in buffered peptone water for the candidate method and lactose broth for the reference method. In the candidate method, a 1 mL aliquot of enriched sample was extracted using PrepMan Ultra Sample Preparation Reagent; the sample was amplified on the Applied Biosystems 7500 real-time PCR system, and analyzed for detection of Salmonella using RapidFinder Version 1.0 software. All samples processed by the candidate method were confirmed by culture according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual procedures. Sensitivity, specificity, and Chi-square analysis were calculated by combining candidate method results with those of the reference method that were collected by the independent laboratory. The TaqMan Salmonella enterica Detection Kit showed 40% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and a Chi-square value equal to 1.52. Chi-square analysis indicated the candidate method and the reference method were comparable. Although the candidate method sensitivity was only 40% when compared with the reference method (unpaired samples), the sensitivity was > 100% when the candidate method results were compared with those of the confirmation method (same sample enrichment). PMID:20166614

  17. Salmonella enteritidis and other Salmonella in laying hens and eggs from flocks with Salmonella in their environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Poppe, C.; Johnson, R. P.; Forsberg, C. M.; Irwin, R J

    1992-01-01

    Seven Canadian layer flocks with Salmonella enteritidis in their environment were investigated to determine the numbers of hens infected with S. enteritidis, the localization of S. enteritidis in organs of infected hens and the numbers of S. enteritidis-infected eggs produced by two affected flocks. By a microagglutination test (MAT) using S. pullorum antigens, these flocks had more seropositive hens (mean 51.9 +/- 16.9%) than two Salmonella-free flocks (mean 13.0 +/- 4.2%). Culture of tissue...

  18. Production of recombinant Salmonella flagellar protein, FlgK, and its uses in detection of anti-Salmonella antibodies in chickens by automated capillary immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Serrano, Katherine Vargas; Acosta, Aimee Silvestry; Buhr, Richard J

    2016-03-01

    Conventional immunoblot assays are a useful tool for specific protein identification, but tedious, labor-intensive and time-consuming. A capillary electrophoresis-based immunoblot assay so-called "Simple Western" was developed to enable the protein identification in an automatic manner. This communication describes the use of Simple Western for detecting anti-Salmonella FlgK antibodies from chicken sera. PMID:26784737

  19. PREVALENCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF SALMONELLA ISOLATED FROM CARCASSES, PROCESSING FACILITIES AND THE ENVIRONMENT SURROUNDING SMALL SCALE POULTRY SLAUGHTERHOUSES IN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotinun, Suwit; Rojanasthien, Suvichai; Unger, Fred; Tadee, Pakpoom; Patchanee, Prapas

    2014-11-01

    Salmonella is a major food-borne pathogen worldwide, including Thai- land, and poultry meat plays a role as a vehicle for the spread of the disease from animals to humans. The prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella isolated from 41 small scale poultry slaughterhouses in Chiang Mai, Thailand were determined during July 2011 through May 2012. Salmonella's prevalence in live poultry, car- casses, waste water, and soil around processing plants were 3.2%, 7.3%, 22.0% and 29.0%, respectively. Eighteen different serotypes were identified, the most common being Corvallis (15.2%), followed by Rissen (13.9%), Hadar (12.7%), Enteritidis (10.1%), [I. 4,5,12:i:-] (8.8%), Stanley (8.8%), and Weltevreden (8.8%). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests revealed that 68.4% of the Salmonella spp were resistant to at least one antimicrobial while 50.6% showed multiple drug resis- tance (MDR). Specifically, 44.3% of Salmonella were resistant to nalidixic acid, followed by streptomycin (41.8%), ampicillin (34.2%), tetracycline (34.2%), and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (20.3%). Salmonella contamination was found in processing lines, carcasses, and in the environment around the processing sta- tions. These findings indicate that improving hygiene management in small scale poultry slaughterhouses as well as prudent use of antimicrobial drugs is urgently needed if Salmonella contamination is to be reduced. PMID:26466425

  20. Muscle Abscess due to Salmonella Enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoyunlu, Yasemin; Ceylan, Bahadir; Iraz, Meryem; Elmadag, Nuh Mehmet; Aslan, Turan

    2013-07-01

    Non typhoidal Salmonellae spp. causes clinical symptoms especially in neonates, infants, aged and immunocompromised patients. Hematogenous dissemination may occur in complicated cases whereas the formation of abscess is rare. A 61-year old woman presented to our hospital with pain and a mass in her left arm, without fever and leukocytosis. She was using methotrexate, corticosteroids and quinine for rheumatoid arthritis. She had a history of cervix cancer and was given radiotherapy and chemotherapy 3 years ago. Upon physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging, the mass was considered as an abscess and was surgically drained. Salmonella enterica spp. enterica was yielded in the culture of the drainage material. Ceftriaxon 2g/day was started intramuscularly and continued for 4 weeks. Salmonellosis is usually a self-limited disease, generally restricted to gastrointestinal tract and acquired following food poisoning. Management of Salmonella abscess requires a combination of antibiotherapy, surgical drainage and eradication of primary foci. PMID:24396582

  1. Salmonella Typhi Vertebral Osteomyelitis and Epidural Abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Ying Ying; Chen, John L. T.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella vertebral osteomyelitis is an uncommon complication of Salmonella infection. We report a case of a 57-year-old transgender male who presented with lower back pain for a period of one month following a fall. Physical examination only revealed tenderness over the lower back with no neurological deficits. MRI of the thoracic and lumbar spine revealed a spondylodiscitis at T10-T11 and T12-L1 and right posterior epidural collection at the T9-T10 level. He underwent decompression laminectomy with segmental instrumentation and fusion of T8 to L3 vertebrae. Intraoperatively, he was found to have acute-on-chronic osteomyelitis in T10 and T11, epidural abscess, and discitis in T12-L1. Tissue and wound culture grew Salmonella Typhi and with antibiotics susceptibility guidance he was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone for a period of six weeks. He recovered well with no neurological deficits. PMID:27034871

  2. Septic arthritis of the ankle due to Salmonella enteritidis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dineen, Patrick F

    2011-06-01

    Salmonella septic arthritis in healthy, immunocompetent patients is extremely rare. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with a one-day history of painful swelling of his ankle from which was aspirated pus which subsequently grew Salmonella enteritidis. There was no history of trauma or symptoms consistent with Salmonella enterocolitis. Our patient recovered fully after two weeks on intravenous ceftriaxone and six weeks on oral ciprofloxacin. Salmonella is a notifiable disease in the European Union and the United States of America, and is associated with outbreaks as a result of food contamination. The nature of Salmonella arthritis and its appropriate management are outlined.

  3. Use of muscle fluid as a source of antibodies for serologic detection of Salmonella infection in slaughter pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B.; Ekeroth, Lars; Bager, F.; Lind, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Fluid drained from a muscle tissue sample was used as an alternative to serum for the detection of specific anti-Salmonella antibodies in an indirect LPS enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the first study, serum and muscle fluid from 3 pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella...... paired serum and muscle fluid samples from 103 pigs, a high degree of concordance between the serum ELISA and the muscle fluid ELISA was observed, Limits of agreement between the 2 methods were calculated as -8.9 to 12.3 OD%, which was considered acceptable. The muscle fluid ELISA had specificities of 0.......91-1.0 and sensitivities of 0.80-0.89 at various cutoff values as compared with the serum ELISA. Muscle fluid is a useful postmortem alternative to serum when used with an ELISA to detect anti-Salmonella antibodies....

  4. Salmonella in broiler flocks in the republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Montserrat; Fanning, June; Murphy, Anne; Murray, Gerardine; Griffin, Margaret; Flack, Alma; Leonard, Nola; Egan, John

    2009-01-01

    In order to obtain an estimation of the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in flocks of broilers in the Republic of Ireland, a study was conducted in 2006 in a total of 362 broiler flocks associated with four integrated companies. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 27.3% of flocks, and eight Salmonella serovars were identified, none of which were Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Typhimurium. The most prevalent serovar was Salmonella Mbandaka, followed by Salmonella Kentucky, which respectively accounted for 61.6% and 27.0% of positive samples. Notable differences were observed among the flocks associated with different integrated companies, both in the Salmonella spp. prevalence and in the serovar distribution. Results from routine official Salmonella testing in broiler production in 2006 showed similar serovar distribution within each integrated company from the associated hatchery and factory samples. In our study, differences in the prevalence of Salmonella at farm level did not correlate with differences in the percentages of positive chicken carcasses officially tested, which were low, for all the four companies investigated. Given the high prevalence of Salmonella Mbandaka, all human isolates obtained in the Republic of Ireland from 2003 to 2006 were compared to a subset of poultry isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, but an epidemiological link between the animal and the human strains could not be established. Finally the antimicrobial resistance analysis indicated a low proportion of resistant strains among the broiler flock isolates. PMID:19061369

  5. Salmonella outbreak from microwave cooked food.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, M R; Parry, S. M.; Ribeiro, C D

    1995-01-01

    Following a buffet meal served to six guests at a private domestic function, five of the guests and the host developed symptoms of food poisoning. Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 (PT4) was isolated from all four individuals who submitted faecal samples for investigation. Leftover samples of a savoury rice dish consumed by all six ill persons contained 6 x 10(3)/gm Salmonella enteritidis PT4. The rice salad comprised boiled rice, raw carrots, eggs, cheese and curry powder. The curry powder...

  6. Occurrence of Salmonella sp in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Gama NMSQ; Berchieri Jr A; Fernandes SA

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the presence of Salmonella sp in flocks of white laying hens. In different farms, the transport boxes of twelve flocks were inspected at arrival for the presence of Salmonella. Four positive (A, B, L and M) and one negative (I) flocks were monitored at each four weeks using bacteriological examination of cecal fresh feces up to 52 weeks. Birds were also evaluated at 52 weeks, when 500 eggs were taken randomly, and at 76 weeks, after forced molt. Salmo...

  7. Salmonellae in foods and animal feeding stuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the problem of Salmonella infections in foods and feeding stuffs is emphasized, an account is given of the current ways of manufacturing bone meal, meat meal, blood meal, fish meal, fish flour, egg products and coconut. The effectiveness in eliminating salmonellae and the chance and possible sources of recontamination are described for each production method. Besides heat treatment, fumigation by ethylene oxide and irradiation with gamma rays are considered. The bacteriological tests required to establish the effectiveness of treatment are also discussed, as well as the effect of the treatment on the nutritive value of the product. (author). 50 refs, 4 tabs

  8. Rapid radiometric method for detection of Salmonella in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiometric method for the detection of Salmonella in foods has been developed which is based on Salmonella poly H agglutinating serum preventing Salmonella from producing 14CO2 from [14C] dulcitol. The method will detect the presence or absence of Salmonella in a product within 30 h compared to 4 to 5 days by routine culture methods. The method has been evaluated against a routine culture method using 58 samples of food. The overall agreement was 91%. Five samples negative for Salmonella by the routine method were positive by the radiometric method. These may have been false positives. However, the routine method may have failed to detect Salmonella due to the presence of large numbers of lactose-fermenting bacteria which hindered isolation of Salmonella colonies on the selective agar plates

  9. Empiema causado por Salmonella typhimurium Pleural empyema caused by Salmonella typhimurium: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA DEL MAR TACCHINI A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El género Salmonella se caracteriza por causar infecciones en el tracto gastrointestinal, debido a la ingesta de alimentos o agua contaminada. También puede causar, con menor frecuencia, infecciones localizadas en diferentes órganos; esto se asocia con inmunodepresión. En este caso se describe un paciente con infección pleuropulmonar por Salmonella typhimurium, que no reportó antecedentes de diarrea previa. Evolucionó favorablemente con tratamiento adecuado.Salmonella species are commonly associated with acute gastroenteritis due to ingestion of contaminated food or water. Extraintestinal infections are less frequent, and most of them occur in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of pleural empyema caused by Salmonella typhimurium, without previous diarrhea or fever. The patient evolved favorably after receiving adequate treatment.

  10. Isolation and Evaluation Virulence Factors of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis in Milk and Dairy Products

    OpenAIRE

    Shima Shaigan nia; Fateme Rostami; Farhad Safarpour dehkordi; Ebrahim Rahimi; Emad Yahaghi; Ebrahim Khodaverdi Darian; Mahrokh Bagheri Moghadam

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Nutritional and economic importance of milk and dairy products is undeniable. In a day, Millions of people use from these products in their daily deals but unfortunately the hygienic quality of milk and dairy products can be changed due to presence of microbial pathogens. Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium are two important milk-borne pathogens. Their pathogenicity is occurred by several putative virulence genes. This study was carried out for investigate th...

  11. Salmonella Gene rma (ramA) and Multiple-Drug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    MarA and its homologue, RamA, have been implicated in multidrug resistance (MDR). RamA overexpression in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli conferred MDR independently of marA. Inactivation of ramA did not affect the antibiotic susceptibilities of wild-type S. enterica serovar Typhimurium or 15 unrelated clinical MDR isolates. Thus, ramA overexpression is not a common MDR mechanism in Salmonella.

  12. Salmonella-S. mansoni ASSOCIATION IN PATIENTS WITH ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Roberto LAMBERTUCCI

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Two young men with Salmonella bacteraemia, active schistosomiasis and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are reported. The clinical presentation comprised nonspecific signs and symptoms, such as fatigue, malaise, weight loss, diarrhoea, prolonged fever, and hepatosplenomegaly. In one patient, liver biopsy showed poorly formed granulomata around Schistosoma mansoni eggs and hepatitis. Treatment of schistosomiasis alone induced consistent clinical improvement with eventual cure of both Salmonella and S. mansoni infections. Recognition of the Salmonella-S. mansoni association in patients with AIDS is important because treatment of schistosomiasis makes a difference, improving the prognosis of this otherwise, recurrent, potentially fatal bacteraemia.Apresentam-se os casos de dois jovens com bacteriemia por Salmonella associada a esquistossomose mansoni ativa em pacientes com a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida. A apresentação clínica incluiu sintomas e sinais inespecíficos como fadiga, perda de peso, diarréia, febre prolongada e hepatoesplenomegalia. A biópsia hepática em um paciente revelou granulomas mal formados em torno de ovos de S. mansoni e hepatite de intensidade moderada. O tratamento da esquistossomose com a oxamniquine induziu melhora clínica progressiva culminando com a cura da salmonelose e da esquistossomose. O reconhecimento da associação Salmonella-S. mansoni em pacientes com AIDS mostra-se importante nesses casos pois o tratamento da esquistossomose melhora o prognóstico da bacteriemia por Salmonella que pode tornar-se recorrente e fatal nos pacientes com AIDS.

  13. Patogenia de Salmonella enteritidis FT 13a y Salmonella enteritidis biovar Issatschenko en pollos de engorda

    OpenAIRE

    Griselda Ruiz Flores; Fernando Constantino Casas; Jos Antonio Quintana Lpez; Carlos Cedillo Pelez; Odette Urquiza Bravo

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la patogenia de Salmonella enteritidis fagotipo 13a (SE FT 13a) y de Salmonella enteritidis biovar Issatschenko fagotipo 6a (SI) en pollitos de engorda de cuatro das de edad. Veintiocho aves por tratamiento fueron inoculadas con dosis de 1 108 (SE FT 13a) y 1 109 (SI), respectivamente, y 14 pollitos fueron inoculados con solucin salina fi siolgica (SSF), como testigos negativos. Se tomaron muestras de hgado, bazo, corazn, pulm...

  14. Deciphering why Salmonella Gallinarum is less invasive in vitro than Salmonella Enteritidis

    OpenAIRE

    Rossignol, Aurore; Roche, Sylvie; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Grpinet, Olivier; ABED, Nadia; Trotereau, Jrme; Wiedemann, Agnes; Fredlund, Jennifer; Qur, Pascale; Enninga, Jost; Velge, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella Gallinarum and Salmonella Enteritidis are genetically closely related however associated with different pathologies. Several studies have suggested that S. Gallinarum is less invasive in vitro than S. Enteritidis. In this study we confirm that the S. Gallinarum strains tested were much less invasive than the S. Enteritidis strains tested in cells of avian or human origin. In addition, the S. Gallinarum T3SS-1-dependent ability to invade host cells was delayed by two to three hours ...

  15. Multiplicity of Salmonella entry mechanisms, a new paradigm for Salmonella pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wiedemann, Agnes; Rosselin, Manon; ABED, Nadia; Boumart, Zineb; Chauss, Anne-Marie; Grpinet, Olivier; Namdari, Fatmeh; Roche S.M., Sylvie; Rossignol, Aurore; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The Salmonella enterica species includes about 2600 diverse serotypes, most of which cause a wide range of food- and water-borne diseases ranging from self-limiting gastroenteritis to typhoid fever in both humans and animals. Moreover, some serotypes are restricted to a few animal species, whereas other serotypes are able to infect plants as well as cold- and warm-blooded animals. An essential feature of the pathogenicity of Salmonella is its capacity to cross a number of barriers requiring i...

  16. Detection of salmonella sp in chicken cuts using immunomagnetic separation / Deteco de salmonella sp em cortes de frango usando separao imunomagntica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rita de Cssia dos Santos da, Conceio; ngela Nunes, Moreira; Roberta Juliano, Ramos; Fabiana Lemos, Goularte; Jos Beiro, Carvalhal; Jos Antonio Guimares, Aleixo.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A separao imunomagntica (IMS) uma tcnica que tem sido associada a diferentes mtodos de deteco de Salmonella em alimentos para aumentar a sensibilidade e a especificidade e diminuir o tempo de anlise. Neste trabalho comunicada a obteno de microesferas magnticas sensibilizadas com antic [...] orpos anti-Salmonella e seu uso em associao com a metodologia de cultivo convencional para desenvolver um mtodo de deteco de salmonelas em cortes de frango (IMS-plaqueamento). Inicialmente, microesferas cobertas com protena A foram sensibilizadas com anticorpos policlonais contra lipopolissacardeo e flagelo de salmonelas e usadas na padronizao de um procedimento que captura Salmonella Enteritidis em cultivo puro e faz posterior deteco em gar seletivo. A seguir, amostras de carne de frango experimentalmente contaminadas com S. Enteritidis foram analisadas imediatamente aps a contaminao e aps 24h de refrigerao utilizando trs protocolos de enriquecimento. O limite de deteco foi cerca de 2x10 UFC/mL. O protocolo que incluiu enriquecimento no-seletivo por 6-8h, enriquecimento seletivo por 16-18h e ps-enriquecimento por 4h foi o que proporcionou melhor resultado na deteco de S. Enteritidis em carne de frango experimentalmente contaminada. Este protocolo foi comparado metodologia convencional em estudo de deteco de salmonelas em cortes de frango naturalmente contaminados e obteve 100% de sensibilidade e 94% de especificidade. O mtodo desenvolvido foi capaz de diminuir em pelo menos um dia o tempo de deteco de salmonelas em cortes de frango pela metodologia convencional. Abstract in english The immunomagnetic separation (IMS) is a technique that has been used to increase sensitivity and specificity and to decrease the time required for detection of Salmonella in foods through different methodologies. In this work we report on the development of a method for detection of Salmonella in c [...] hicken cuts using in house antibody-sensitized microspheres associated to conventional plating in selective agar (IMS-plating). First, protein A-coated microspheres were sensitized with polyclonal antibodies against lipopolysacharide and flagella from salmonellae and used to standardize a procedure for capturing Salmonella Enteritidis from pure cultures and detection in selective agar. Subsequently, samples of chicken meat experimentally contaminated with S. Enteritidis were analyzed immediately after contamination and after 24h of refrigeration using three enrichment protocols. The detection limit of the IMS-plating procedure after standardization with pure culture was about 2x10 CFU/mL. The protocol using non-selective enrichment for 6-8h, selective enrichment for 16-18h and a post-enrichment for 4h gave the best results of S. Enteritidis detection by IMS-plating in experimentally contaminated meat. IMS-plating using this protocol was compared to the standard culture method for salmonellae detection in naturally contaminated chicken cuts and yielded 100% sensitivity and 94% specificity. The method developed using in house prepared magnetic microespheres for IMS and plating in selective agar was able to diminish by at least one day the time required for detection of Salmonella in chicken products by the conventional culture method.

  17. Comparative evaluation of Salmonella Enteritidis ghost vaccines with a commercial vaccine for protection against internal egg contamination with Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawale, Chetan V; Lee, John Hwa

    2014-10-14

    The study was conducted for the comparative evaluation of the vaccine potential of Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis, SE) ghost, SE ghost carrying Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) protein, and a commercial vaccine. Group A chickens were used as a non-vaccinated control, group B chickens were immunized with the ghost carrying LTB protein, group C chickens were immunized with the ghost and, group D chickens were immunized with a commercial vaccine. Group D chickens showed the swelling at the injection site, while no adverse reactions were observed at injection sites of the group B and C chickens. Chickens from the immunized groups B, C, and D demonstrated significant increases in plasma IgG, intestinal secretory IgA levels, and antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative responses. After challenge with a virulent SE strain via intravenous route, groups B, C, and D showed significantly higher egg production and lower internal egg contamination and lower recovery of the challenge strain from internal organs compared to non-immunized-challenged control group A. In conclusion, these data indicate that immunization of chickens with the ghost and ghost carrying LTB is safe, without causing any adverse reaction, and is effective as the commercial vaccine in terms of reduction in internal egg contamination and internal organ colonization of Salmonella. PMID:25218296

  18. Peanut Roaster Temperatures Relative to Salmonella Kill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARS, Market Quality and Handling Research Unit, Raleigh NC 27695 In response to the limited peanut butter contamination incident of 2006/7, studies were initiated to examine the effect of various time and temperature protocols on log kill levels for Salmonella on peanuts. The objective of the work ...

  19. Serovars of Salmonella from captive reptiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Lassen-Nielsen, Anne Marie; Nordentoft, Steen; Hammer, Anne Sofie

    2009-01-01

    The distribution on serovars of 60 Salmonella isolates from reptiles kept in captivity in Denmark during the period 1995–2006 was investigated. The isolates were all recovered from clinical specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Institute. A majority of the samples were from reptiles in...

  20. Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infection, Guangdong Province, China, 20121

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xi; Huang, Qiong; Dun, Zhongjun; Huang, Wei; Wu, Shuyu; Liang, Junhua; Deng, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    We used active and passive surveillance to estimate nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection during 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Under passive surveillance, for every reported NTS infection, an estimated 414.8 cases occurred annually. Under active surveillance, an estimated 35.8 cases occurred. Active surveillance provides remarkable advantages in incidence estimate. PMID:26982074

  1. 75 FR 18751 - Prevention of Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 118 Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During... part 118 to correct the following information: (1) The date by which egg producers must register their... address to which egg producers must send their CD-ROM. Publication of this document constitutes...

  2. Regulatory Citrate Lyase Mutants of Salmonella typhimurium

    OpenAIRE

    Kulla, Hans G.

    1983-01-01

    Citrate lyase, the key enzyme of anaerobic citrate catabolism, could not be deleted from Salmonella typhimurium. The only class of mutants found had a mode of covalent regulation that strongly resembled the Escherichia coli system: citrate lyase was only active, i.e., acetylated, when a cosubstrate was present.

  3. Regulatory citrate lyase mutants of Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulla, H G

    1983-01-01

    Citrate lyase, the key enzyme of anaerobic citrate catabolism, could not be deleted from Salmonella typhimurium. The only class of mutants found had a mode of covalent regulation that strongly resembled the Escherichia coli system: citrate lyase was only active, i.e., acetylated, when a cosubstrate was present. PMID:6336740

  4. Attachment of Salmonella spp. to pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine; Riber, Leise; Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    Five strains of Salmonella, one wildtype and four knock-out mutants (the prg, flhDC, yhjH and fliC genes) were investigated based on their probability to attach and subsequently detach from a surface of pork fillet. The attachment followed by detachment was measured and modelled for two different...

  5. Water Frogs, Aquariums, and Salmonella -- Oh My!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-09

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses how people can get Salmonella from water frogs and aquariums.  Created: 12/9/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 12/9/2009.

  6. Salmonella osteomyelitis by sickle cell anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case report of a 28 year old black sickle cell anemia patient with salmonella osteomyelitis of the radius. Aside from sickle cell anemia patients this skeletal complication of enteric salmonellosis is an extreme rarity. Description of the typical roentgenological features includes intracortical fissures and sequestration. (orig.)

  7. Colicinogeny in Salmonella serovars isolated in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Carvalho Campos

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of colicinogeny was made in 748 strains of Salmonella (97 serovars isolated from different sources; human (291, animal (119, environmental (141, food (102 and animal feed (95. Colicin production was detected in 64 strains (8.6%, particularly isolated from foods (30.4%. Col. E1 (53 and Ia (44 were the most frequently observed, especially in S. agona for environment and food sources. Col V production was identified in 5 strains of S. typhimurium within 8 producer cultures isolated from humans. Its relationship with the sources and serovars of Salmonella are discussed.Investigou-se a produção de colicina em 748 amostras de Salmonella (97 sorovares advindas de díferentes fontes: humana (291, animal (119, ambiental (141, de alimentos (102 e rações (95. Detectaram-se 64 amostras (8,6% colicinogênicas, particularmente isoladas de alimentos (30,4%. ColE1 (53 e Ia (44 foram as mais freqüentes, especialmente no sorovar S, agona, de origem ambiental e de alimentos. Identificou-se também a produção de col V em 5 amostras de S. typhimurium dentre 8 culturas produtoras de origem humana. Discute-se a relação entre a capacidade colicinogênica e as fontes e sorovares de Salmonella.

  8. Sexually acquired Salmonella Typhi urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielding, Sally; Scott, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    We report a case of isolated urinarySalmonella entericaserotype Typhi in an HIV-positive man who has sex with men. He was clinically well and blood and stool cultures were negative, indicating that this may have been a sexually acquired urinary tract infection. PMID:25953964

  9. Employment of Salmonella in Cancer Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Che-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    One of the primary limitations of cancer gene therapy is lack of selectivity of the therapeutic gene to tumor cells. Current efforts are focused on discovering and developing tumor-targeting vectors that selectively target only cancer cells but spare normal cells to improve the therapeutic index. The use of preferentially tumor-targeting bacteria as vectors is one of the innovative approaches for the treatment of cancer. This is based on the observation that some obligate or facultative-anaerobic bacteria are capable of multiplying selectively in tumors and inhibiting their growth. In this study, we exploited attenuated Salmonella as a tumoricidal agent and a vector to deliver genes for tumor-targeted gene therapy. Attenuated Salmonella, carrying a eukaryotic expression plasmid encoding an anti-angiogenic gene, was used to evaluate its' ability for tumor targeting and gene delivery in murine tumor models. We also investigated the use of a polymer to modify or shield Salmonella from the pre-existing immune response in the host in order to improve gene delivery to the tumor. These results suggest that tumor-targeted gene therapy using Salmonella carrying a therapeutic gene, which exerts tumoricidal and anti-angiogenic activities, represents a promising strategy for the treatment of tumors. PMID:26846804

  10. Bayesian estimation of true between-herd and within-herd prevalence of Salmonella in Danish veal calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Dahl; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Toft, Nils

    Specialised veal producers that purchase and raise calves from several dairy herds are potentially at high risk of delivering Salmonella-infected animals to slaughter. However, the true prevalence of Salmonella infected veal producing herds and the prevalence of infected calves delivered to...... slaughter from infected herds are unknown in Denmark. Due to uncertainties about test sensitivity and specificity, these prevalences are not straightforward to assess. The objective of this study was to estimate the within-herd- and between-herd prevalence of Salmonella in veal calves delivered for...... herds that delivered more than 100 calves to slaughter per year were used to estimate the prevalences and estimates of freedom from Salmonella. Serological test results of 7726 animals from 185 herds were used to compare the difference in prevalence estimates between serology alone vs. faecal culture...

  11. Diverse genome structures of Salmonella paratyphi C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Danni

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella paratyphi C, like S. typhi, is adapted to humans and causes typhoid fever. Previously we reported different genome structures between two strains of S. paratyphi C, which suggests that S. paratyphi C might have a plastic genome (large DNA segments being organized in different orders or orientations on the genome. As many but not all host-adapted Salmonella pathogens have large genomic insertions as well as the supposedly resultant genomic rearrangements, bacterial genome plasticity presents an extraordinary evolutionary phenomenon. Events contributing to genomic plasticity, especially large insertions, may be associated with the formation of particular Salmonella pathogens. Results We constructed a high resolution genome map in S. paratyphi C strain RKS4594 and located four insertions totaling 176 kb (including the 90 kb SPI7 and seven deletions totaling 165 kb relative to S. typhimurium LT2. Two rearrangements were revealed, including an inversion of 1602 kb covering the ter region and the translocation of the 43 kb I-CeuI F fragment. The 23 wild type strains analyzed in this study exhibited diverse genome structures, mostly as a result of recombination between rrn genes. In at least two cases, the rearrangements involved recombination between genomic sites other than the rrn genes, possibly homologous genes in prophages. Two strains had a 20 kb deletion between rrlA and rrlB, which is a highly conservative region and no deletion has been reported in this region in any other Salmonella lineages. Conclusion S. paratyphi C has diverse genome structures among different isolates, possibly as a result of large genomic insertions, e.g., SPI7. Although the Salmonella typhoid agents may not be more closely related among them than each of them to other Salmonella lineages, they may have evolved in similar ways, i.e., acquiring typhoid-associated genes followed by genome structure rearrangements. Comparison of multiple Salmonella typhoid agents at both single sequenced genome and population levels will facilitate the studies on the evolutionary process of typhoid pathogenesis, especially the identification of typhoid-associated genes.

  12. Assessing the potential impact of Salmonella vaccines in an endemically infected dairy herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella spp. in cattle are contributing to bacterial foodborne disease for humans. Reduction of Salmonella prevalence in herds is important to prevent human Salmonella infections. Typical control measures are culling of infectious animals, vaccination, and improved hygiene management. Vaccines ha...

  13. Differential Killing of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi by Antibodies Targeting Vi and Lipopolysaccharide O:9 Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Peter J; O'Shaughnessy, Colette M; Siggins, Matthew K; Bobat, Saeeda; Kingsley, Robert A; Goulding, David A; Crump, John A; Reyburn, Hugh; Micoli, Francesca; Dougan, Gordon; Cunningham, Adam F; MacLennan, Calman A

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi expresses a capsule of Vi polysaccharide, while most Salmonella serovars, including S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, do not. Both S. Typhi and S. Enteritidis express the lipopolysaccharide O:9 antigen, yet there is little evidence of cross-protection from anti-O:9 antibodies. Vaccines based on Vi polysaccharide have efficacy against typhoid fever, indicating that antibodies against Vi confer protection. Here we investigate the role of Vi capsule and antibodies against Vi and O:9 in antibody-dependent complement- and phagocyte-mediated killing of Salmonella. Using isogenic Vi-expressing and non-Vi-expressing derivatives of S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium, we show that S. Typhi is inherently more sensitive to serum and blood than S. Typhimurium. Vi expression confers increased resistance to both complement- and phagocyte-mediated modalities of antibody-dependent killing in human blood. The Vi capsule is associated with reduced C3 and C5b-9 deposition, and decreased overall antibody binding to S. Typhi. However, purified human anti-Vi antibodies in the presence of complement are able to kill Vi-expressing Salmonella, while killing by anti-O:9 antibodies is inversely related to Vi expression. Human serum depleted of antibodies to antigens other than Vi retains the ability to kill Vi-expressing bacteria. Our findings support a protective role for Vi capsule in preventing complement and phagocyte killing of Salmonella that can be overcome by specific anti-Vi antibodies, but only to a limited extent by anti-O:9 antibodies. PMID:26741681

  14. DksA-Dependent Transcriptional Regulation in Salmonella Experiencing Nitrosative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Matthew A.; Henard, Calvin A.; Tapscott, Timothy; Porwollik, Steffen; McClelland, Michael; Vázquez-Torres, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Redox-based signaling is fundamental to the capacity of bacteria to sense, and respond to, nitrosative and oxidative stress encountered in natural and host environments. The conserved RNA polymerase regulatory protein DksA is a thiol-based sensor of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species. DksA-dependent transcriptional control promotes antinitrosative and antioxidative defenses that contribute to Salmonella pathogenesis. The specific adaptive changes mediated by DksA in response to reactive species, however, have not been elucidated. Herein, we characterize DksA-dependent changes in gene expression in Salmonella enterica experiencing nitrosative stress. Genome-wide expression analysis of wild-type and ΔdksA Salmonella exposed to the nitric oxide (•NO) donor DETA NONOate demonstrated •NO- and DksA-dependent regulatory control of 427 target genes. Transcriptional changes centered primarily on genes encoding aspects of cellular metabolism. Several antioxidants and oxidoreductases important in redox buffering, •NO detoxification, and damage repair were also observed to be up-regulated in an •NO- and DksA-dependent manner. Compared to wild-type bacteria, •NO-treated ΔdksA Salmonella exhibited a de-repression of genes encoding components of iron homeostasis and failed to activate sulfur assimilation and cysteine biosynthetic operons. As cysteine is integral to efficient antinitrosative and antioxidative defense and repair programs, we further examined the redox-responsive transcriptional control of cysteine biosynthesis by DksA. These investigations revealed that the activation of genes comprising cysteine biosynthesis also occurs in response to hydrogen peroxide, is dependent upon the redox-sensing zinc finger motif of DksA, and requires the transcriptional regulator CysB. Our observations demonstrate that DksA mediates global adaptation to nitrosative stress in Salmonella and provide unique insight into a novel regulatory mechanism by which cysteine biosynthesis is controlled in response to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

  15. Validation of a same-day real-time PCR method for screening of meat and carcass swabs for Salmonella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Krause, Michael; Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Hansen, Flemming; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    -commercial real-time PCR method for detection of Salmonella in meat and carcass swabs. Results: The comparative trial was performed against a reference method (NMKL-71:5, 1999) using artificially and naturally contaminated samples (60 minced veal and pork meat samples, 60 poultry neck-skins, and 120 pig carcass...... swabs). The relative accuracy was 99%, relative detection level 100%, relative sensitivity 103% and relative specificity 100%. The collaborative trial included six laboratories testing minced meat, poultry neck-skins, and carcass swabs as un-inoculated samples and samples artificially contaminated with...... contaminated with Salmonella. There was no significant difference in the results obtained by the two methods. Conclusion: The real-time PCR method for detection of Salmonella in meat and carcass swabs was validated in comparative and collaborative trials according to NordVal recommendations. The PCR method was...

  16. The eleventh CRL-Salmonella workshop, 9 May 2006, Saint Malo, France

    OpenAIRE

    Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    The eleventh workshop organised by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella) was held in Saint Malo, France on 9 May 2006. Participants included representatives of the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) of the Member States of the European Union and of the European Commission. Presentations were given by representatives of the European Commission and the CRL-Salmonella. Subjects discussed were European legislation on Salmonella criteria f...

  17. Use of Rambach Propylene Glycol Containing Agar for identification of Salmonella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Gruenewald, R; Henderson, R. W.; Yappow, S

    1991-01-01

    When grown on Rambach Propylene Glycol Containing Agar (Rambach agar), 216 of 230 (93.9%) Salmonella organisms isolated from patients and 54 of 62 (87.1%) Salmonella stock cultures produced a crimson-colored growth. Of the 14 clinical Salmonella isolates which displayed colors other than crimson, 8 were Salmonella typhi, 2 were Salmonella paratyphi A, and 4 belonged to other commonly isolated serotypes. All eight Salmonella stock cultures which failed to produce a crimson color belonged to ra...

  18. A comparative study on the pathogenesis of egg contamination by different serotypes of Salmonella

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Salmonella Enteritidis is the predominant serovar associated with egg-borne salmonellosis in humans. Apparently this serotype possesses particular characteristics that increase its chance to contaminate eggs. To identify these characteristics, 2 Salmonella serotype Enteritidis strains as well as 1 Salmonella Typhimurium, 1 Salmonella Heidelberg, 1 Salmonella Virchow and 1 Salmonella Hadar strain were used to examine different aspects related to egg contamination. After an ...

  19. A comparative study on the pathogenesis of egg contamination by different serotypes of Salmonella

    OpenAIRE

    Gantois, Inne; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Pasmans, Frank; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is the predominant serovar associated with egg-borne salmonellosis in humans. Apparently this serotype possesses particular characteristics that increase its chance to contaminate eggs. To identify these characteristics, 2 Salmonella serotype Enteritidis strains as well as 1 Salmonella Typhimurium, 1 Salmonella Heidelberg, 1 Salmonella Virchow and 1 Salmonella Hadar strain were used to examine different aspects related to egg contamination. After an intravenous infectio...

  20. EU Interlaboratory comparison study IX (2005) on bacteriological detection of Salmonella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Berk PA; Veenman C; Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    In 2005 werd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) het negende bacteriologische ringonderzoek georganiseerd. Deelnemers van de studie waren de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella (NRL's-Salmonella) van de EU lidstaten (26), van Noorwegen en van Roemenie. Referentiematerialen in combinatie met of zonder de aanwezigheid van kippenfeces, evenals natuurlijk besmet stof (bevattende Salmonella Virchow en Salmonella Liv...

  1. Salmonella Bacteriophage Glycanases: Endorhamnosidase Activity of Bacteriophages P27, 9NA, and KB1

    OpenAIRE

    Wollin, Ralfh; Eriksson, Ulla; Lindberg, Alf A.

    1981-01-01

    Four bacteriophages, P22, P27, 9NA, and KB1, active on smooth Salmonella strains belonging to serogroups A, B, and D1 were investigated for endoglycosidase activity and specificity in enzyme hydrolysis assays. Purified phage was incubated with phenol-water-extracted lipopolysaccharide preparations which had been partially delipidated. Dialyzable oligosaccharides, released by phage glycosidase activity, were analyzed by sugar and methylation analyses. Phages P27, 9NA, and KB1, as well as P22 a...

  2. Effect of parenteral immunization on the intestinal immune response to Salmonella typhi Ty21a.

    OpenAIRE

    Forrest, B D; Labrooy, J T; Dearlove, C E; Shearman, D J

    1992-01-01

    The effects of parenteral administration of a killed typhoid vaccine on the intestinal immune response to live orally administered Salmonella typhi Ty21a in human subjects was evaluated. Priming with parenteral vaccination neither enhanced nor suppressed the subsequent specific serum and intestinal immunoglobulin A (IgA) immune responses to a booster course of live oral vaccine. Neither a single oral dose of live vaccine nor a single dose of parenteral vaccine had any measurable booster effec...

  3. Isolation and characterization Salmonella typhimurium mutants lacking a tripeptidase (peptidase T).

    OpenAIRE

    Strauch, K L; Miller, C G

    1983-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium contains an enzyme, peptidase T, that hydrolyzes a variety of tripeptides. Specificity studies with a peptidase activity stain after gel electrophoresis of crude cell extracts showed that peptidase T hydrolyzes tripeptides containing N-terminal methionine, leucine, or phenylalanine. Little or no activity could be detected against dipeptides, N-blocked or C-blocked tripeptides, and tetrapeptides. Analysis of reaction products by high-pressure liquid chromatography showed...

  4. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium in dairy products with flow cytometry and monoclonal antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    McClelland, R G; Pinder, A C

    1994-01-01

    Flow cytometry, combined with fluorescently labelled monoclonal antibodies, offers advantages of speed and sensitivity for the detection of specific pathogenic bacteria in foods. We investigated the detection of Salmonella typhimurium in eggs and milk. Using a sample clearing procedure, we determined that the detection limit was on the order of 10(3) cells per ml after a total analysis time of 40 min. After 6 h of nonselective enrichment, the detection limits were 10 cells per ml for milk and...

  5. Regulation of fucose and 1,2-propanediol utilization by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    OpenAIRE

    Staib, Lena; Fuchs, Thilo M.

    2015-01-01

    After ingestion, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) encounters a densely populated, competitive environment in the gastrointestinal tract. To escape nutrient limitation caused by the intestinal microbiota, this pathogen has acquired specific metabolic traits to use compounds that are not metabolized by the commensal bacteria. For example, the utilization of 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD), a product of the fermentation of L-fucose, which is present in foods of herbal origin and...

  6. Detection of clusters of Salmonella in animals in Ontario from 1991 to 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xi; McEwen, Beverly; Mann, Elroy; Martin, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    The temporal patterns of Salmonella serovars isolated from animals in Ontario by 2 major laboratories between 1991 and 2001 were identified. Overall, the number of isolates remained relatively stable and the more frequent isolates were dominant, as in earlier surveys. However, the temporal patterns of specific isolates and the serovars isolated differed depending on the laboratory, species of animal, and reason for obtaining the culture (monitoring versus diagnostic sample).

  7. Epidemiology and control measures for Salmonella in pigs and pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Hald, Tine; Wolf, P. J. van der; Swanenburg, M.

    2002-01-01

    chain. Two major factors of pre-harvest Salmonella epidemiology are the introduction and subsequent transmission of infection within and between herds. Stress imposed by transportation and the associated handling can significantly increase the number of pigs excreting Salmonella upon arrival at the...... abattoir and during lairage, exposing negative pigs to Salmonella. Positive pigs carry Salmonella on the skin, in the gastro-intestinal system or in the mouth. The (cross-)contamination of carcasses is basically a matter of redistributing the Salmonella bacteria from the positive pigs during the various......In order to effectively manage the problem of human salmonellosis attributable to pork and pork products, control measures should be taken simultaneously at all levels of production. These measures require an understanding of the epidemiology of Salmonella within and between links of the production...

  8. Prevalence of Salmonella serovars from captive reptiles from Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-01-01

    prevalence of Salmonella is considerable in captive reptiles in Croatia, indicating that these animals may harbor serovars not commonly seen in veterinary or human microbiologic practice. This should be addressed in the prevention and diagnostics of human reptile-transmitted infections.......Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples......% of the animals, among them 48.4% lizards, 8.9% snakes, and 3.8% turtles. Representatives of five of the six Salmonella enterica subspecies were identified with the following proportions in the total number of isolates: Salmonella enterica enterica 34.6%, Salmonella enterica houtenae 23.1%, Salmonella...

  9. Prevalence of salmonella in captive reptiles from Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-01-01

    prevalence of Salmonella is considerable in captive reptiles in Croatia, indicating that these animals may harbor serovars not commonly seen in veterinary or human microbiologic practice. This should be addressed in the prevention and diagnostics of human reptile-transmitted infections.......Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples......% of the animals, among them 48.4% lizards, 8.9% snakes, and 3.8% turtles. Representatives of five of the six Salmonella enterica subspecies were identified with the following proportions in the total number of isolates: Salmonella enterica enterica 34.6%, Salmonella enterica houtenae 23.1%, Salmonella...

  10. Conservation of Salmonella Infection Mechanisms in Plants and Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schikora, Adam; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Bueso, Eduardo; Garcia, Ana V.; Nilau, Theodora; Charrier, Amlie; Pelletier, Sandra; Menanteau, Pierrette; Baccarini, Manuela; Velge, Philippe; Hirt, Heribert

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella virulence in animals depends on effectors injected by Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs). In this report we demonstrate that Salmonella mutants that are unable to deliver effectors are also compromised in infection of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Transcriptome analysis revealed that in contrast to wild type bacteria, T3SS mutants of Salmonella are compromised in suppressing highly conserved Arabidopsis genes that play a prominent role during Salmonella infection of animals. We also found that Salmonella originating from infected plants are equally virulent for human cells and mice. These results indicate a high degree of conservation in the defense and infection mechanism of animal and plant hosts during Salmonella infection. PMID:21915285

  11. Ludwig′s angina by Salmonella Typhi: A clinical dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhi has rarely been associated with focal abscesses; and in literature, there is no evidence of its association with abscesses in the neck spaces. Ability of Salmonella Typhi to invade and localise in the neck spaces not only poses a diagnostic challenge but also underscores the necessity to understand the mechanisms that facilitate Salmonella Typhi to establish infections at sites completely non-traditional to the organism.

  12. Salmonella Typhi: from a Human Pathogen to a Vaccine Vector

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiao-Lian; Jeza, Victor Tunje; Pan, Qin

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella (S.) typhi is an important intracellular pathogen. Among the more than 2,300 closely-related Salmonella serovars bacteria recognized, S. typhi is the only one that is pathogenic exclusively for humans, in whom it causes typhoid or enteric fever. The pathogen has been around for many years and many studies have been done in an effort to combat it. Molecular and biologic features of S. typhi and host factors and immune responses involved in Salmonella invasion have been extensively s...

  13. Salmonella colonization in commercial pet turtles (Pseudemys scripta elegans).

    OpenAIRE

    Shane, S. M.; Gilbert, R; Harrington, K. S.

    1990-01-01

    An epidemiological survey was conducted on two commercial turtle farms in southern Louisiana to determine the reason for an apparent increase in the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in turtle hatchlings at the time of pre-export certification examination. Pond water was consistently found to be contaminated (6/36 samples) with either Salmonella newport, S. arizonae, or S. poona. Environmental specimens obtained from eggs and turtle hatcheries (204 specimens) failed to yield Salmonella spp. A sam...

  14. Meta-analysis of Chicken – Salmonella infection experiments

    OpenAIRE

    te Pas Marinus FW; Hulsegge Ina; Schokker Dirkjan; Smits Mari A; Fife Mark; Zoorob Rima; Endale Marie-Laure; Rebel Johanna MJ

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Chicken meat and eggs can be a source of human zoonotic pathogens, especially Salmonella species. These food items contain a potential hazard for humans. Chickens lines differ in susceptibility for Salmonella and can harbor Salmonella pathogens without showing clinical signs of illness. Many investigations including genomic studies have examined the mechanisms how chickens react to infection. Apart from the innate immune response, many physiological mechanisms and pathways...

  15. Meta-analysis of Chicken - Salmonella infection experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Pas, te, E.; Hulsegge, B.; Schokker, D.J.; Smits, M. A.; Fife, M.; Zoorob, R.; Endale, M.L.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chicken meat and eggs can be a source of human zoonotic pathogens, especially Salmonella species. These food items contain a potential hazard for humans. Chickens lines differ in susceptibility for Salmonella and can harbor Salmonella pathogens without showing clinical signs of illness. Many investigations including genomic studies have examined the mechanisms how chickens react to infection. Apart from the innate immune response, many physiological mechanisms and pathways are rep...

  16. Interaction of Salmonella spp. with the Intestinal Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmer, Brian M. M.; John S. Gunn

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella spp. are major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Upon entry into the human host, Salmonella spp. must overcome the resistance to colonization mediated by the gut microbiota and the innate immune system. They successfully accomplish this by inducing inflammation and mechanisms of innate immune defense. Many models have been developed to study Salmonella spp. interaction with the microbiota that have helped to identify factors necessary to overcome colonization resist...

  17. Salmonella Typhimurium interferes with the humoral immune response in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Van Parys, Alexander; Boyen, Filip; Verbrugghe, Elin; Leyman, Bregje; Flahou, Bram; Maes, Dominiek; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Foodborne salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial zoonotic diseases worldwide. Salmonella Typhimurium is the serovar most frequently isolated from slaughter pigs in Europe. Circumvention of the hosts immune system by Salmonella might contribute to persistent infection of pigs. We found that Salmonella Typhimurium strain 112910a, which is able to persist in pigs, was capable of downregulating the expression of major histocompatibility class II (MHC II) molecules on porcine alveol...

  18. Enterobacteriaceae populations during experimental Salmonella infection in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Guenther, Sebastian; Filter, Matthias; Tedin, Karsten; Szabo, Istvan; Wieler, Lothar H; Nckler, Karsten; Walk, Nicole; Schierack, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Salmonella infection might affect other intestinal Enterobacteriaceae populations and possible correlations between single Enterobacteriaceae populations would help to predict subclinical Salmonella infections in pigs. In one experimental setup, weaned piglets (n=40) were infected with Salmonella and sacrificed at 3h, 24h, 72h or 28 days post infection (p.i.). Dilutions of intestinal contents and mucosal tissues were plated on agar plates for determinations of Enterobacter...

  19. Salmonella enterica induces and subverts the plant immune system

    OpenAIRE

    AnaVictoriaGarcia; HeribertHirt

    2014-01-01

    Infections with Salmonella enterica belong to the most prominent causes of food poisoning and infected fruits and vegetables represent important vectors for salmonellosis. Whereas it was shown that plants raise defense responses against Salmonella, these bacteria persist and proliferate in various plant tissues. Recent reports shed light into the molecular interaction between plants and Salmonella, highlighting the defense pathways induced and the means used by the bacteria to escape the plan...

  20. Situações de desconforto vivenciadas pelo idoso hospitalizado com a invasão do espaço pessoal e territorial Situaciones de incomodidad vividas por el anciano hospitalizado con la invasión del espacio personal y territorial Uncomfortable situation experienced by the elderly hospitalized with the personal and territorial invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Prochet

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A comunicação é a essência da vida e inerente ao ser humano, pois ela traz a possibilidade de as pessoas se relacionarem, compartilhando suas idéias, pensamentos, vivências e sentimentos. Por meio dela somos capazes de nos relacionarmos e assim construirmos uma condição de atendimento e interação com o outro. Esse estudo teve como objetivo identificar as situações de desconforto vivenciadas pelo idoso hospitalizado com a invasão do espaço territorial e pessoal. Pesquisa realizada com 30 idosos hospitalizados em hospital público do interior de São Paulo. Verificou-se que as situações de invasão territorial de desagrado dos idosos foram aquelas relacionadas ao barulho provocado pela equipe e à negligência da preservação da privacidade e das limitações do espaço do idoso. Já as de invasão pessoal estão ligadas à manipulação da unidade do cliente sem seu consentimento e ao desrespeito à intimidade com a banalização da exposição do corpo.La comunicación es la esencia de la vida y es inherente al ser humano, pues trajo la posibilidad a la persona de se relacionaren, compartiendo sus ideas, pensamientos, experiencias y sentimientos. A través de la comunicación somos capaces de establecer relaciones con las personas y, así construir condiciones adecuadas de atención y interacción con los demás. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar las situaciones de incomodidad experimentados por el anciano hospitalizado ante la invasión del espacio territorial y personal. Investigación realizada con 30 ancianos hospitalizados en un hospital público de una ciudad del interior de São Paulo. Se encontró que, a los ancianos les desgustan las invasiones territoriales relacionadas con el ruido causado por el equipo profesional y por la negligencia con la preservación de la intimidad y de las limitaciones del espacio del anciano. Las incomodidades con la invasión personal están relacionados no sólo con el manejo de la cama del cliente sin su consentimiento sino también a la falta de respecto hacia su intimidad y a la sensación de trivialidad con que es tratada la exposición del cuerpo.Communication is essential for life and inherent to man. Communication brings opportunity for individuals to relate to each other, share ideas, thoughts, life experiences and feelings. It also enables us to exchange information and build an environment to better serve and interact with each other. This paper was aimed to identify personal uncomfor table experience among elderly inpatients regarding privacy and territorial invasion in a public hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil. 30 elderly patients were inter viewed with a standard questionnaire. The most common complaints among hospitalized elder patients were hospital ward noise level; negligence on maintaining privacy and invasion of personal space. Regarding invasion of personal space, many patients complained about being manipulated without previous consent and perceived being treated with disrespect during physical exam with banalization of the human body.

  1. Prevention of Salmonella contamination of finished soybean meal used for animal feed by a Norwegian production plant despite frequent Salmonella contamination of raw soy beans, 1994–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Wierup, Martin; Kristoffersen, Thor

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella contaminated animal feed is a major source for introducing Salmonella into the animal derived food chain. Because soybeans frequently are contaminated with Salmonella, soybean meal used as animal feed material, a by-product of a “crushing plant” which produces oil from soybeans, can be important source of Salmonella in the animal feed. We report the successful control of Salmonella from 1994 to 2012 in a Norwegian crushing plant producing soybean meal from imported soy b...

  2. Detection of Salmonella bacterium in drinking water using microring resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadoran, Mahdi; Noorden, Ahmad Fakhrurrazi Ahmad; Mohajer, Faeze Sadat; Abd Mubin, Mohamad Helmi; Chaudhary, Kashif; Jalil, Muhammad Arif; Ali, Jalil; Yupapin, Preecha

    2016-02-01

    A new microring resonator system is proposed for the detection of the Salmonella bacterium in drinking water, which is made up of SiO2-TiO2 waveguide embedded inside thin film layer of the flagellin. The change in refractive index due to the binding of the Salmonella bacterium with flagellin layer causes a shift in the output signal wavelength and the variation in through and drop port's intensities, which leads to the detection of Salmonella bacterium in drinking water. The sensitivity of proposed sensor for detecting of Salmonella bacterium in water solution is 149 nm/RIU and the limit of detection is 7 10(- 4)RIU. PMID:25133457

  3. Radiation Resistance of Salmonellae and their Occurrence in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have been undertaken to determine the salmonellae contamination of different food and feed products in Thailand. The radioresistance of different isolated strains was determined. Of the examined samples, 0.5% beef meat, 0.7% pork meat, 2.5% pork liver, 4% beef liver and 2% fish meal were contaminated with salmonellae. Salmonella derby and S. anatum were predominant. The D-values for different Salmonella serotypes in minced beef irradiated at 4 to 10C varied from 27 to 50 krads. (author)

  4. Salmonella enterica Induces And Subverts The Plant Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnaVictoriaGarcia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Infections with Salmonella enterica belong to the most prominent causes of food poisoning and infected fruits and vegetables represent important vectors for salmonellosis. Whereas it was shown that plants raise defense responses against Salmonella, these bacteria persist and proliferate in various plant tissues. Recent reports shed light into the molecular interaction between plants and Salmonella, highlighting the defense pathways induced and the means used by the bacteria to escape the plant immune system and accomplish colonization. It was recently shown that plants detect Salmonella pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs, such as the flagellin peptide flg22, and activate hallmarks of the defense program known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI. Interestingly, certain Salmonella strains carry mutations in the flg22 domain triggering PTI, suggesting that a strategy of Salmonella is to escape plant detection by mutating PAMP motifs. Another strategy may rely on the type III secretion system (T3SS as T3SS mutants were found to induce stronger plant defense responses than wild type bacteria. Although Salmonella effector delivery into plant cells has not been shown, expression of Salmonella effectors in plant tissues shows that these bacteria also possess powerful means to manipulate the plant immune system. Altogether, the data gathered suggest that Salmonella triggers PTI in plants and evolved strategies to avoid or subvert plant immunity.

  5. Salmonella enterica induces and subverts the plant immune system

    KAUST Repository

    García, Ana V.

    2014-04-04

    Infections with Salmonella enterica belong to the most prominent causes of food poisoning and infected fruits and vegetables represent important vectors for salmonellosis. Although it was shown that plants raise defense responses against Salmonella, these bacteria persist and proliferate in various plant tissues. Recent reports shed light into the molecular interaction between plants and Salmonella, highlighting the defense pathways induced and the means used by the bacteria to escape the plant immune system and accomplish colonization. It was recently shown that plants detect Salmonella pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as the flagellin peptide flg22, and activate hallmarks of the defense program known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Interestingly, certain Salmonella strains carry mutations in the flg22 domain triggering PTI, suggesting that a strategy of Salmonella is to escape plant detection by mutating PAMP motifs. Another strategy may rely on the type III secretion system (T3SS) as T3SS mutants were found to induce stronger plant defense responses than wild type bacteria. Although Salmonella effector delivery into plant cells has not been shown, expression of Salmonella effectors in plant tissues shows that these bacteria also possess powerful means to manipulate the plant immune system. Altogether, these data suggest that Salmonella triggers PTI in plants and evolved strategies to avoid or subvert plant immunity. 2014 Garca and Hirt.

  6. Salmonella and Campylobacter: Antimicrobial resistance and bacteriophage control in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ar'Quette; Hashem, Fawzy; Parveen, Salina

    2016-02-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are major causes of foodborne related illness and are traditionally associated with consuming undercooked poultry and/or consuming products that have been cross contaminated with raw poultry. Many of the isolated Salmonella and Campylobacter that can cause disease have displayed antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Although poultry producers have reduced on-the-farm overuse of antimicrobials, antimicrobial resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter strains still persist. One method of bio-control, that is producing promising results, is the use of lytic bacteriophages. This review will highlight the current emergence and persistence of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter recovered from poultry as well as bacteriophage research interventions and limitations. PMID:26678136

  7. Salmonellae in avian wildlife in Norway from 1969 to 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsum, T.; Handeland, K.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Holstad, G.; Kapperud, G.

    2002-01-01

    Postmortem records of wild-living birds in Norway with laboratory-confirmed findings of salmonella infection were summarized for the period from 1969 to 2000. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 470 birds belonging to 26 species. The salmonella-positive birds included 441 small passerines, 15 gulls......, 5 waterfowl, 4 birds of prey, 3 doves, and 2 crows. The bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) was by far the most frequently recorded species (54% of the cases). Salmonella enterica serover Typhimurium was recovered from all cases except from one hooded crow (Corpus corone), which yielded serovar Paratyphi...

  8. Nuevos Perfiles Genticos de Salmonella Enteritidis identificados en Lujn, Argentina / New Genetic Profiles of Salmonella Enteritidis identified in Lujan, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo J, Anselmo; Hebe A, Barrios.

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue aislar y seleccionar bacterifagos salvajes de aguas del ro Lujn en Argentina, contra Salmonella Enteritidis, fagotipificar 86 cepas de esta serovariedad y evaluar los perfiles genticos de representantes de los grupos de especificidad surgidos. La concentraci [...] n de bacterifagos de agua de ro se realiz mediante el hisopo de Moore con 60 minutos de exposicin a la corriente de agua. El aislamiento y purificacin se efectu por la tcnica de doble capa de agar. Al fagotipificar los 86 aislamientos por metodologa estandarizada surgieron cuatro grupos de especificidad. La subtipificacin por electroforesis en campo pulsado realizada a un representante de cada grupo, estableci que dos grupos correspondieron al fagotipo PT4, predominante en Latinoamrica. Los dos grupos restantes presentaron dos perfiles genticos que no se haban encontrado antes en la base de datos de la Red PulseNet de Amrica Latina y el Caribe. Abstract in english The aim of this study was isolating and selecting wild bacteriophages from waters of the Lujan river in Argentina, against Salmonella Enteritidis, phage typing 86 strains of this serovariety and evaluating the genetic profiles of samples from the emerged specific groups. Bacteriophages concentration [...] of river water was performed using the Moore swab with 60 minutes of exposure to water flow. Isolation and purification was carried out by the technique of double-layer agar. Eighty six isolates were phage-typed by standardized methodology and four groups of specificity appeared. Subtyping by pulsed field gel electrophoresis conducted on one sample of each group, establishing that two phage group corresponded to PT4 phagotype, which is the most common in Latin America. The other two groups had two genetic profiles that were not previously found in the database Latin America and the Caribbean PulseNet Network

  9. Salmonella Dublin kan give store tab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Dahl; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad; Østergaard, Søren; Krogh, Kaspar

    Store besætninger lider størst økonomisk tab ved infektion med Salmonella Dublin. Selv i en veldrevet besætning kan tabet løbe op i mellem 1,3 og 3,3 millioner kr. over en tiårs periode. Ved uhensigtsmæssige hygiejne- og managementrutiner kan tabet nemt blive meget højere.......Store besætninger lider størst økonomisk tab ved infektion med Salmonella Dublin. Selv i en veldrevet besætning kan tabet løbe op i mellem 1,3 og 3,3 millioner kr. over en tiårs periode. Ved uhensigtsmæssige hygiejne- og managementrutiner kan tabet nemt blive meget højere....

  10. Mechanisms of quinolone resistance in Salmonella

    OpenAIRE

    Cloeckaert, Axel; CHASLUS-DANCLA, Elisabeth

    2001-01-01

    Mécanismes de résistance aux quinolones chez Salmonella. Comme chez les autres bactéries Gram-négatives les mécanismes de résistance aux quinolones chez Salmonella comprennent les mutations dans les gènes cibles, l'efflux actif, et une diminution de la perméabilité de la membrane externe. Cependant la contribution exacte de ces mécanismes individuels, qui peuvent néanmoins interagir pour atteindre des niveaux de résistance élevés, n'a pas encore été clairement définie comme chez d'autres bact...

  11. lac Repressor Is an Antivirulence Factor of Salmonella enterica: Its Role in the Evolution of Virulence in Salmonella

    OpenAIRE

    Eswarappa, Sandeepa M.; Karnam, Guruswamy; Nagarajan, Arvindhan G.; Chakraborty, Sangeeta; Chakravortty, Dipshikha

    2009-01-01

    The genus Salmonella includes many pathogens of great medical and veterinary importance. Bacteria belonging to this genus are very closely related to those belonging to the genus Escherichia. lacZYA operon and lacI are present in Escherichia coli, but not in Salmonella enterica. It has been proposed that Salmonella has lost lacZYA operon and lacI during evolution. In this study, we have investigated the physiological and evolutionary significance of the absence of lacI in Salmonella e...

  12. Veterinary surgeons as vectors of Salmonella dublin.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, E.

    1980-01-01

    Salmonella dublin is an important bovine pathogen, causing dysentery, abortion, and death from septicaemia. S dublin dermatitis, a little-recognised occupational hazard for veterinary surgeons, does not cause serious disability or inconvenience. During a survey of brucellosis in south-west Wales four cases of S dublin dermatitis were seen in veterinary surgeons. One surgeon was reinfected three years later. On all five occasions the veterinary surgeons had not worn or had discarded polyethyle...

  13. Investigation of outbreaks of salmonella in hospitals.

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, S. R.; Rowe, B.

    1983-01-01

    In a two year prospective survey of outbreaks of salmonella infection in hospitals in England and Wales 55 outbreaks were identified. Reports of investigation of these outbreaks were reviewed for evidence of food borne infection and cross infection. Food borne infection probably accounted for only six outbreaks, but these made up 40% of the 15 outbreaks in which there were more than five patients and staff with symptoms. Person to person transmission was the probable mode of spread in most ou...

  14. Salmonella Infection in a Chinchilla Farm

    OpenAIRE

    MISIRLIOĞLU, Deniz

    2002-01-01

    This study describes a salmonella infection in a chinchilla farm of 40 families in the Yalova region. Twenty-four families were affected in a 10-day period after the outbreak of the disease and the clinical signs were apathy, anorexia, diarrhoea with or without hemorrhage, tremors, local paralysis, mucopurulent or hemorrhagic vaginal secretion in some females, abortions in 1 to 2 month-pregnant animals and death. The newborn and pregnant animals were affected more severely. Two live chinchi...

  15. Muscle Abscess due to Salmonella Enterica

    OpenAIRE

    Akkoyunlu, Yasemin; Ceylan, Bahadir; Iraz, Meryem; Elmadag, Nuh Mehmet; Aslan, Turan

    2013-01-01

    Non typhoidal Salmonellae spp. causes clinical symptoms especially in neonates, infants, aged and immunocompromised patients. Hematogenous dissemination may occur in complicated cases whereas the formation of abscess is rare. A 61-year old woman presented to our hospital with pain and a mass in her left arm, without fever and leukocytosis. She was using methotrexate, corticosteroids and quinine for rheumatoid arthritis. She had a history of cervix cancer and was given radiotherapy and chemoth...

  16. Salmonella Enteritidis em Aves: Retrospectiva no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva EN; Duarte A.

    2002-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) emergiu como um grande problema avcola e de sade pblica no Brasil a partir de 1993. Os estudos epidemiolgicos, incluindo a fagotipagem e sonda complementar de rRNA, sugerem a entrada de SE no Brasil via importao de material gentico avcola contaminado, provavelmente no final da dcada de 80. As taxas de crescimento da avicultura brasileira na dcada de 90 criaram condies favorveis para a manuteno e proliferao da SE nos plantis avcolas. Alm disso, o...

  17. Salmonella typhi and Pregnancy: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Brion Gluck; Ramin, Kirk D.; Ramin, Susan M

    1994-01-01

    Background: Salmonella typhi may be a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in both the mother and fetus. Febrile illness during pregnancy, especially that associated with hemolysis, is associated with chorioamnionitis, pyelonephritis, or viral syndrome. As such, S. typhi should be considered when a patient presents with a fever and hemolysis. We present a case of S. typhi complicating pregnancy.Case: A primigravida at 26 weeks gestation presented with persistent spiking temperature an...

  18. Fatal Salmonella septicemia after platelet transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heal, J M; Jones, M E; Forey, J; Chaudhry, A; Stricof, R L

    1987-01-01

    A thrombocytopenic, leukopenic patient with multiple myeloma who was given 7 units of platelets died 6 days later from complications of Salmonella heidelberg septicemia. A platelet donor who was asymptomatic at the time of donation had group B Salmonella on stool culture. His clinical history and the results of serologic studies and stool culture were consistent with a mild Salmonella gastroenteritis 5 days before donation. Antibiotic sensitivity patterns and plasmid profiles indicated that the organism (S. heidelberg) isolated from the donor's stool was identical to that isolated from the patient's blood and from the platelet bags. It is believed that low-grade, asymptomatic bacteremia in the donor was the source of infection in the recipient. Food and Drug Administration records contain reports of six septic deaths due to platelet transfusions since 1979, compared with none in the preceding 4 years. Increased use of platelet products and the standard practice of storage at room temperature may contribute to the risk of sepsis after platelet transfusion, particularly in immunocompromised patients. PMID:3810819

  19. Rapid identification of novel antigens of Salmonella Enteritidis by microarray-based immuno screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on an approach to rapidly screen thousands of Salmonella Enteritidis proteins with the goal of identifying novel immunodominant proteins. We used a microarray-based system that warrants high throughput and easy handling. Seven immunogenic candidates were selected after screening. Comparative analyses by ELISA and microarrays manifested their immunodominant character. The large repetitive protein (SEN4030) that plays a role as a putative adhesin in initial cell surface interaction and is highly specific to Salmonella is considered to be the most suitable protein for a diagnostic approach. The results further demonstrate that the strategy applied herein is convenient for specifically identifying immunogenic proteins of pathogenic microorganisms. Consequently, it enables a sound assessment of promising candidates for diagnostic applications and vaccine development. Moreover, the elucidation of immunogenic proteins may assist in unveiling unknown virulence-associated factors, thus furthering the understanding of the underlying pathogenicity of Salmonella in general, and of S. Enteritidis, one of the most frequently detected serovars of this pathogen, in particular. (author)

  20. A Real-Time PCR Detection of Genus Salmonella in Meat and Milk Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Pochop

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was follow the contamination of ready to eat milk and meat products with Salmonella spp. by using the Step One real-time PCR. Classical microbiological methods for detection of food-borne bacteria involve the use of pre-enrichment and/or specific enrichment, followed by the isolation of the bacteria in solid media and a final confirmation by biochemical and/or serological tests. We used the PrepSEQ Rapid Spin Sample Preparation Kit for isolation of DNA and SensiFAST SYBR Hi-ROX Kit for the real-time PCR performance. In the investigated samples without incubation we could detect strain of Salmonella sp. in five out of twenty three samples (swabs. This Step One real-time PCR assay is extremely useful for any laboratory in possession of a real-time PCR. It is a fast, reproducible, simple, specific and sensitive way to detect nucleic acids, which could be used in clinical diagnostic tests in the future. Our results indicated that the Step One real-time PCR assay developed in this study could sensitively detect Salmonella spp. in ready to eat food.

  1. Characterization of Salmonella enterica Serovar 4,[5],12:i:- Isolates from Korean Food Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Aeran; Lim, Suk-Kyung; Lee, Kichan; Jung, Suk-Chan; Cho, Yun Sang; Yun, Seon-Jong; Song, Chang-Seon; Jung, Byeong Yeal

    2015-09-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:-, a monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium, has emerged as one of the most common serotypes related to human salmonellosis. In this study, the 22 isolates of S. 4,[5],12:i:- from food animals were identified by a specific multiplex polymerase chain reaction between 2009 and 2012. The isolation rate of S. 4,[5],12:i:- accounted for 1.7% (22/1271) of Salmonella spp. isolates from food animal origins: more specifically, 7.6% (18/235) from pigs and 0.6% (4/686) from chickens. The predominant S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates in Korea belonged to phage type DT193 (12/22) with ampicillin-streptomycin-sulfonamide-tetracycline (ASSuT) resistance pattern (9/22). The XbaI-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis revealed 11 different pulsotypes, and the major X-1 pattern was shared by 8 isolates. The isolates belonging to pattern X-1 were further subdivided into three BlnI-PFGE patterns and four variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) allele combinations. The combining of MLVA and PFGE data could be valuable in characterizing highly clonal strains and discriminating their epidemiological relationship. PMID:26192872

  2. Biogenesis of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium membrane vesicles provoked by induction of PagC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Ryo; Takaya, Akiko; Ohya, Mai; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu; Takade, Akemi; Yoshida, Shin-ichi; Isogai, Emiko; Yamamoto, Tomoko

    2010-11-01

    Gram-negative bacteria ubiquitously release membrane vesicles (MVs) into the extracellular milieu. Although MVs are the product of growing bacteria, not of cell lysis or death, the regulatory mechanisms underlying MV formation remained unknown. We have found that MV biogenesis is provoked by the induction of PagC, a Salmonella-specific protein whose expression is activated by conditions that mimic acidified macrophage phagosomes. PagC is a major constituent of Salmonella MVs, and increased expression accelerates vesiculation. Expression of PagC is regulated at the posttranscriptional and/or posttranslational level in a sigmaS (RpoS)-dependent manner. Serial quantitative analysis has demonstrated that MV formation can accelerate when the quantity of the MV constituents, OmpX and PagC, rises. Overproduction of PagC dramatically impacts the difference in the relative amount of vesiculation, but the corresponding overproduction of OmpX was less pronounced. Quantitative examination of the ratios of PagC and OmpX in the periplasm, outer membrane, and MVs demonstrates that PagC is preferentially enriched in MVs released from Salmonella cells. This suggests that specific protein sorting mechanisms operate when MVs are formed. The possible role(s) of PagC-MV in host cells is discussed. PMID:20802043

  3. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium Infection in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Vivek V; Devon, Rebecca L; Sharma, Pardeep; McWhorter, Andrea R; Chousalkar, Kapil K

    2016-01-01

    Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonize reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well-described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonize the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post-infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid by infected hens were cultured independently for detection of Salmonella spp. The mean Salmonella load in feces ranged from 1.54 to 63.35 and 0.31 to 98.38 most probable number/g (MPN/g) in the S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka group, respectively. No correlation was found between mean fecal Salmonella load and frequency of egg shell contamination. Egg shell contamination was higher in S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka infected group (7.2% S. Typhimurium, 14.1% S. Mbandaka) compared to birds infected with S. Typhimurium (5.66%) however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S. Typhimurium. Throughout the study Salmonella was not recovered from internal contents of eggs laid by hens. Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. This study investigated Salmonella shedding for up to 15 weeks p.i which is a longer period of time compared to previously published studies. The findings of current study demonstrated intermittent but persistent fecal shedding of Salmonella after oral infection for up to 15 weeks p.i. Further, egg shell contamination, with lack of internal egg content contamination and the low frequency of reproductive organ infection suggested that horizontal infection through contaminated feces is the main route of egg contamination with S. Typhimurium in laying hens. PMID:26941727

  4. Risk assessment of Salmonella in Danish meatballs produced in the catering sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cleide Oliveira de Almeida; Nauta, Maarten; Schaffner, Donald W.; Dalgaard, Paw; Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Hansen, Tina Beck

    2015-01-01

    observational data and models that were specific for Salmonella spp. in meatballs produced in the catering sector. Danish meatballs are often pan-fried followed by baking in an oven before consumption, in order to reach the core temperature of 75 degrees C recommended by the Danish Food Safety Authority....... However, in practice this terminal heat treatment in the oven may be accidentally omitted. Eleven production scenarios were evaluated with the model, to test the impact of heat treatments and cooling rates at different room temperatures. The risk estimates revealed that a process comprising heat treatment...... of meatballs to core temperatures higher than 70 degrees C, and subsequent holding at room temperatures lower than 20 degrees C, for no longer than 3.5 h, were very effective in Salmonella control. The current Danish Food Safety Authority recommendation of cooking to an internal temperature of 75...

  5. Multicenter validation of PCR-based method for detection of Salmonella in chicken and pig samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malorny, B.; Cook, N.; D'Agostino, M.; De Medici, D.; Croci, L.; Abdulmawjood, A.; Fach, P.; Karpiskova, R.; Aymerich, T.; Kwaitek, K.; Kuchta, T.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    As part of a standardization project, an interlaboratory trial including 15 laboratories from 13 European countries was conducted to evaluate the performance of a noproprietary polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for the detection of Salmonella on artificially contaminated chicken rinse......) and PCR assay (gel electrophoresis detection) were performed by the receiving laboratories. Aliquots of BPW enrichment cultures were sent to the participants, who analyzed them using a thermal lysis procedure followed by a validated Salmonella-specific PCR assay. The results were reported as negative...... and pig swab samples. The 3 levels were 1-10, 10-100, and 100-1000 colony-forming units (CFU)/100 mL. Sample preparations, including inoculation and pre-enrichment in buffered peptone water (BPW), were performed centrally in a German laboratory; the pre-PCR sample preparation (by a resin-based method...

  6. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more. PMID:24680076

  7. Diversity of Salmonella Isolates from Central Florida Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEgan, Rachel; Chandler, Jeffrey C.; Goodridge, Lawrence D.

    2014-01-01

    Identification of Salmonella serotypes is important for understanding the environmental diversity of the genus Salmonella. This study evaluates the diversity of Salmonella isolates recovered from 165 of 202 Central Florida surface water samples and investigates whether the serotype of the environmental Salmonella isolates can be predicted by a previously published multiplex PCR assay (S. Kim, J. G. Frye, J. Hu, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, R. Gautom, and D. S. Boyle, J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:3608–3615, 2006, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00701-06). Multiplex PCR was performed on 562 Salmonella isolates (as many as 36 isolates per water sample) to predict serotypes. Kauffmann-White serogrouping was used to confirm multiplex PCR pattern groupings before isolates were serotyped, analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and assayed for antimicrobial susceptibility. In 41.2% of the Salmonella-positive water samples, all Salmonella isolates had identical multiplex PCR patterns; in the remaining 58.8%, two or more multiplex PCR patterns were identified. Within each sample, isolates with matching multiplex PCR patterns had matching serogroups. The multiplex patterns of 495 isolates (88.1%) did not match any previously reported pattern. The remaining 68 isolates matched reported patterns but did not match the serotypes for those patterns. The use of the multiplex PCR allowed the number of isolates requiring further analysis to be reduced to 223. Thirty-three Salmonella enterica serotypes were identified; the most frequent included serotypes Muenchen, Rubislaw, Anatum, Gaminara, and IV_50:z4,z23:−. A majority (141/223) of Salmonella isolates clustered into one genotypic group. Salmonella isolates in Central Florida surface waters are serotypically, genotypically, and phenotypically (in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility) diverse. While isolates could be grouped as different or potentially the same using multiplex PCR, the multiplex PCR pattern did not predict the Salmonella serotype. PMID:25172861

  8. Molecular detection of Salmonella spp. isolated from apparently healthy pigeon in Mymensingh, Bangladesh and their antibiotic resistance pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Khaled Saifullah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Here we determined the prevalence of Salmonella in cloacal swabs and pharyngeal swabs of apparently healthy pigeons sold in the live bird markets and villages in and around Bangladesh Agricultural University Campus, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Materials and methods: A total of 50 samples, comprised of cloacal swabs (n=24 and pharyngeal swabs (n=26 were collected. The samples were processed, and Salmonella was isolated through a series of conventional bacteriological techniques and biochemical tests followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: The prevalence rate of Salmonella was found to be 37.5% (n=9/24 in cloacal swabs and 30.77% (n=8/26 in pharyngeal swabs with an overall prevalence rate of 34% (n=17/50. The prevalence rate of Salmonella pigeon varied slightly among locations; 34.62% (n=9/26 in live bird markets, and 33.33% (n=8/24 in villages. Molecular detection of 17 Salmonella isolates obtained from biochemical test was performed by genus specific PCR, where all of them amplified a region of 496-bp segment of the histidine transport operon gene. Antibiogram study revealed multi-drug resistant traits in most of the isolates tested. The highest resistance was found against Ampicillin (88.23% followed by Cephalexin (82.35%. The rate of sensitivity of the isolates to Ciprofloxacin was 100% followed by Azithromycin (82.35%, Gentamicin (76.47% and Nalidixic acid (76.47%. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that pigeons carry multi-drug resistant Salmonella that may transfer to the humans and animals. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 51-55

  9. T-2 toxin induced Salmonella Typhimurium intoxication results in decreased Salmonella numbers in the cecum contents of pigs, despite marked effects on Salmonella-host cell interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbrugghe Elin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mycotoxin T-2 toxin and Salmonella Typhimurium infections pose a significant threat to human and animal health. Interactions between both agents may result in a different outcome of the infection. Therefore, the aim of the presented study was to investigate the effects of low and relevant concentrations of T-2 toxin on the course of a Salmonella Typhimurium infection in pigs. We showed that the presence of 15 and 83 μg T-2 toxin per kg feed significantly decreased the amount of Salmonella Typhimurium bacteria present in the cecum contents, and a tendency to a reduced colonization of the jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and colon contents was noticed. In vitro, proteomic analysis of porcine enterocytes revealed that a very low concentration of T-2 toxin (5 ng/mL affects the protein expression of mitochondrial, endoplasmatic reticulum and cytoskeleton associated proteins, proteins involved in protein synthesis and folding, RNA synthesis, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and regulatory processes. Similarly low concentrations (1-100 ng/mL promoted the susceptibility of porcine macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells to Salmonella Typhimurium invasion, in a SPI-1 independent manner. Furthermore, T-2 toxin (1-5 ng/mL promoted the translocation of Salmonella Typhimurium over an intestinal porcine epithelial cell monolayer. Although these findings may seem in favour of Salmonella Typhimurium, microarray analysis showed that T-2 toxin (5 ng/mL causes an intoxication of Salmonella Typhimurium, represented by a reduced motility and a downregulation of metabolic and Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 genes. This study demonstrates marked interactions of T-2 toxin with Salmonella Typhimurium pathogenesis, resulting in bacterial intoxication.

  10. Transmission and shedding patterns of Salmonella in naturally infected captive wild roof rats (Rattus rattus) from a Salmonella-contaminated layer farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umali, Dennis V; Lapuz, Randy Rhon Simoun P; Suzuki, Terumasa; Shirota, Kazutoshi; Katoh, Hiromitsu

    2012-06-01

    Rodents play a major role in the transmission and maintenance of Salmonella contamination cycles in poultry facilities. However, very limited field data are available regarding the transmission routes, infection cycle, and shedding patterns of Salmonella by naturally infected wild rodents from commercial layer farms. In this study, a total of 128 resident wild roof rats (Rattus ratus) were captured from a Salmonella-contaminated layer facility. All roof rats were divided into 51 laboratory cages, and weekly monitoring of Salmonella fecal shedding patterns was conducted for 53 wk. Seven roof rats from cages that were observed to frequently shed Salmonella were isolated in individual cages, and daily Salmonella monitoring was performed for 35 days. At the end of monitoring, each roof rat was euthanatized, and isolation of Salmonella from different organs was performed. Results of weekly monitoring of Salmonella showed that 21 of 51 cages (41.2%) were positive for Salmonella Infantis, while two cages (3.92%) were positive for Salmonella Enteritidis. Moreover, 11 cages were positive for Salmonella for at least two sampling weeks. Isolation of Salmonella from fecal droppings was mainly observed during the first 12 wk of captivity. The longest interval between two Salmonella-positive fecal dropping was 24 wk. In the daily Salmonella monitoring, only Salmonella Infantis was isolated from fecal droppings, in which the highest number of Salmonella Infantis organisms per fecal dropping was at 1 x 10(8) colony-forming units (cfu), while the lowest measured quantity was 1 x 10(3) cfu. It was noted that the frequency of Salmonella shedding in fecal droppings appeared to have a linear correlation (r = 0.85) with the number of Salmonella organisms (cfu) per fecal pellet (P poultry facilities through intermittent fecal shedding. Moreover, Salmonella Enteritidis in wild roof rats appears to be more of a systemic infection, in which isolation is most likely to occur in internal organs, whereas Salmonella Infantis is more likely an enteric type of infection, in which isolation is most likely to occur in the intestinal contents. It is very plausible that layer chickens could become infected with Salmonella through ingestion of Salmonella-positive fecal droppings or feeds contaminated with these fecal droppings from infected resident roof rats. This is likely one of the major reasons why layer houses can be persistently infected by Salmonella even if the facilities are thoroughly cleaned and disinfected and if replacement stocks are obtained from Salmonella-free breeders and rearing units. It is therefore a noteworthy suggestion that rodent control programs inside poultry premises comprise an essential and effective tool in the management and control of Salmonella contamination in layer flocks. PMID:22856184

  11. Prediction of Salmonella carcass contamination by a comparative quantitative analysis of E. coli and Salmonella during pig slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauta, Maarten; Barfod, Kristen; Hald, Tine; Sørensen, Anders Hay; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Aabo, Søren

    2013-09-01

    Faecal contamination of carcasses in the slaughterhouse is generally considered to be the source of Salmonella on pork. In this study the hygiene indicator Escherichia coli is used to quantify faecal contamination of carcasses and it is hypothesized that it can be used to predict the quantitative carcass contamination with Salmonella, when the distribution of Salmonella concentrations in faeces is known. Paired pig sample data (faecal samples and carcass swabs) were obtained from five slaughterhouses and analysed for prevalence and concentrations of E. coli and Salmonella. A simple model was developed to describe the faecal contamination of carcasses using the E. coli data. The E. coli results suggested different hygiene performances in different slaughterhouses, and showed that a model assuming that carcasses are predominantly contaminated by their own faeces was not appropriate. Observed Salmonella prevalences were low (on average 1.9% on carcasses) and between slaughterhouses the prevalences ranked differently than the hygiene performance based on the E. coli data suggested. Also, the Salmonella concentrations predicted using E. coli as a faecal indicator were lower than the observed Salmonella concentrations. It is concluded that the faecal carriage of Salmonella together with the faecal contamination of carcasses, as predicted from E. coli data in the animal faeces and hygiene performance of the slaughterhouse, is not sufficient to explain carcass contamination with Salmonella. Our extensive data set showed that other factors than the observed faecal carriage of Salmonella by the individual animals brought to slaughter, play a more important role in the Salmonella carcass contamination of pork. PMID:23973833

  12. Salmonella Enteritidis em Aves: Retrospectiva no Brasil Salmonella Enteritidis in Poultry: Retrospective in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EN Silva

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Enteritidis (SE emergiu como um grande problema avícola e de saúde pública no Brasil a partir de 1993. Os estudos epidemiológicos, incluindo a fagotipagem e sonda complementar de rRNA, sugerem a entrada de SE no Brasil via importação de material genético avícola contaminado, provavelmente no final da década de 80. As taxas de crescimento da avicultura brasileira na década de 90 criaram condições favoráveis para a manutenção e proliferação da SE nos plantéis avícolas. Além disso, o uso indiscriminado de antibióticos em aves, particularmente as quinolonas, encorajou a manutenção de lotes positivos para SE. As cepas de SE isoladas de aves têm mostrado alta sensibilidade aos antibióticos de uso comum em avicultura, incluindo as quinolonas. Entretanto, o aumento da resistência antimicrobiana e multirresistência tem sido observado em cepas de origem humana. Os últimos levantamentos realizados no ano de 2001 continuam a mostrar que a SE em materiais avícolas é o principal sorovar responsável pelas infecções humanas. Embora as carcaças de frangos apresentem altas taxas de contaminação por SE, são os ovos e seus derivados - principalmente a maionese caseira - os principais responsáveis pelos surtos humanos. O uso de vacinas específicas em poedeiras e reprodutoras tem se mostrado uma ferramenta auxiliar no controle de SE. O procedimento mais indicado para o controle de SE na avicultura está na aquisição e produção de lotes livres do agente. As rações e matérias primas de origem animal parecem não ser tão importantes na perpetuação do problema de SE, porém, os roedores parecem ser reservatórios ambientais importantes de SE em granjas contaminadas.In Brazil, Salmonella enteritidis (SE emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health as from 1993. Epidemiological studies, including fagotyping and complementary rRNA probe, suggest that SE entered Brazil via the importation of contaminated poultry genetic material, probably at the end of the eighties. The rate of growth of the Brazilian poultry industry in the nineties created favorable conditions for the maintenance and proliferation of SE in poultry production. Also, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in chickens, especially quinolones, encouraged the maintenance of SE positive flocks. SE strains isolated from chickens have shown great sensitivity to the antibiotics commonly used in poultry, including the quinolones. However, an increase in antimicrobial resistance and multiresistance has been observed in strains of human origin. The latest surveys carried out in 2001 continue showing the presence of SE in poultry materials as the main serovar responsible for human food infections. Although chicken carcasses show high levels of contamination by SE, it is eggs and egg products - mainly home made mayonnaise - which are the products mostly responsible for outbreaks in humans. The use of specific vaccines in layers and parent stock has been used as an auxiliary tool in the control of SE. However, the most indicated procedure for the control of SE in poultry is the acquisition and production of SE free flocks. Animal feed and raw materials of animal origin are apparently of lesser importance in the perpetuation of the SE problem, although rodents appear to be important environmental reservoirs of SE in contaminated farms.

  13. 21 CFR 118.4 - Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... National Poultry Improvement Plan's standards for “U.S. S. Enteritidis Clean” status (9 CFR 145.23(d)) or... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures....4 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. You must follow the SE prevention measures...

  14. Overview of USDA VetNet Salmonella Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA VetNet commenced in May 2004 with submission of Salmonella isolates and in December 2005, Campylobacter isolates were added to the program. The objectives of USDA VetNet are to determine PFGE patterns of Salmonella and Campylobacter isolates submitted to the National Antimicrobial Resistance Mo...

  15. 75 FR 48973 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ...-1493. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of July 9, 2009 (74 FR 33030... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella... availability of a draft guidance entitled ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs...

  16. Lactose fermenting Salmonella Paratyphi A: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahwish Latif

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There are more than 2500 antigenic types of the genus almonella. Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi A, B and C. Characteristically all four of these are non-fermenters of lactose. We report a case of lactose fermenting Salmonella Paratyphi A isolated from the blood sample of a 27 years old male with 12 days history of fever. Lactose fermenting colonies were isolated on Crystal MacConkey agar plate after 24 hours incubation at 35C. It was identified using colony orphology, Gram staining, Oxidase test, sugar sets (Indole, Urea, Citrate, Triple sugar iron tests and API 20E. It was confirmed as Salmonella Paratyphi A after positive agglutination reaction with Salmonella antisera polyvalent A-S and antiserum O2.The emergence of lactose fermenting strain of Salmonella Paratyphi A is important because it is likely to be missed or misdiagnosed. As Salmonella Paratyphi A is taking over Salmonella Typhi as cause of typhoid and is exhibiting high levels of drug resistance too. So in order to avoid incorrect identification it should be kept in mind that S. Paratyphi A can very rarely yield lactose fermenting colonies on Crystal MacConkey agar after 24 hours incubation. J Microbiol InfectDis 2014;4(1: 30-32

  17. Salmonella enterica Strains with Reduced Susceptibility to Quarternary Ammonium Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Salmonella spp. are responsible for 76 million illnesses per year in the U.S. Quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) are commonly used antimicrobial agents. Reduced susceptibility to these compounds by a broad spectrum of organisms is a concern. Methods: Salmonella enterica strains with r...

  18. Differences in attachment of Salmonella to fresh produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of fresh produce. The produce may be contaminated with Salmonella at any point throughout the food continuum. To develop effective strategies to minimize the risk of foodborne disease caused by this organism, it is essential to examine i...

  19. Development of bioluminescent Salmonella strains for use in food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey R Hartford

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella can reside in healthy animals without the manifestation of any adverse effects on the carrier. If raw products of animal origin are not handled properly during processing or cooked to a proper temperature during preparation, salmonellosis can occur. In this research, we developed bioluminescent Salmonella strains that can be used for real-time monitoring of the pathogen's growth on food products. To accomplish this, twelve Salmonella strains from the broiler production continuum were transformed with the broad host range plasmid pAKlux1, and a chicken skin attachment model was developed. Results Salmonella strains carrying pAKlux1 constitutively expressed the luxCDABE operon and were therefore detectable using bioluminescence. Strains were characterized in terms of bioluminescence properties and plasmid stability. To assess the usefulness of bioluminescent Salmonella strains in food safety studies, we developed an attachment model using chicken skin. The effect of washing on attachment of Salmonella strains to chicken skin was tested using bioluminescent strains, which revealed the attachment properties of each strain. Conclusion This study demonstrated that bioluminescence is a sensitive and effective tool to detect Salmonella on food products in real-time. Bioluminescence imaging is a promising technology that can be utilized to evaluate new food safety measures for reducing Salmonella contamination on food products.

  20. Survey on Salmonella prevalence in slaughter pigs from Saskatchewan

    OpenAIRE

    Mainar-Jaime, Ral C.; Atashparvar, Nemat; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel; Rahn, Kris

    2008-01-01

    A study on slaughter pigs from Saskatchewan detected Salmonella organisms in 12.5% and 5.2% of cecal content and ileocaecal lymph node samples, respectively. Cecal content prevalence was associated with larger farms and longer lairage periods. Antimicrobial resistance was detected in 41.5% of the isolates. Salmonella Enteritidis was the second most prevalent serotype.

  1. RapidChek SELECT Salmonella. Performance Tested Method 080601.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Mark T; Li, Jingkun; Sutzko, Meredith; Olsson-Allen, Ann Christine; Teaney, George; Gonzalez, Verapaz

    2009-01-01

    RapidChek SELECT Salmonella was previously validated in the Performance Tested Methods program for the detection of Salmonella spp. in raw ground chicken, chicken carcass rinse, sliced cooked turkey, and liquid eggs. The present matrix extension study conducted under the AOAC Research Institute Emergency Response Validation program compared the RapidChek SELECT Salmonella method to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) method for the detection of Salmonella Typhimurium in peanut butter. Overall, 27 samples were found positive by the RapidChek SELECT Salmonella method and 27 were found to be positive by the reference method. All RapidChek SELECT Salmonella presumptive positives were confirmed positive by the cultural reference method; additionally, all presumptive negative results were confirmed negative by the cultural reference method. Accordingly 0% false-negative rate and 0% false-positive rate were found. No significant difference between the RapidCheck SELECT Salmonella and FDA-BAM reference method was found; calculated Chi-square was 0. Results indicate that a low level of Salmonella in peanut butter can be successfully recovered and detected in the minimum 24 h enrichment protocol. PMID:20166613

  2. Orange peel products can reduce Salmonella populations in ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella can live undetected in the gut of food animals and be spread to humans directly and indirectly. Diet can impact intestinal populations of foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella spp. Orange juice production results in a waste product, orange peel and orange pulp, which has a high nutr...

  3. TOE ABSCESS WITH SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM IN SICKLE CELL ANEMIA PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rangaiahagari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella are a rare cause of toe abscess. We report a case of Salmonella typhimurium in sickle cell anemia in a pediatric patient. The isolate was sensitive to commonly used antibiotics and the patient was treated successfully with a course of amoxicillin.

  4. Epidemiological Investigation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Kedougou in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pornruangwong, Srirat; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat; Bangstrakulnonth, Aroon; Mikoleit, Matthew; Davies, Rob H.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Migura, Lourdes Garcia

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Salmonella enterica serovar Kedougou is among the top 10 serovars reported in northern Thailand. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella Kedougou infection in Thailand and to compare the molecular types and antimicrobial resistance with Salmo...

  5. Characterization of Salmonella species from pork meat in Tolima, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iang S Rondón-Barragán

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salmonella is a Gram-negative bacterium and the principal cause of human gastroenteritis that originates from the consumption of animal products.Objective: to determine serotype and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. isolated from pork meat and environmental samples in 6 slaughterhouses and 14 butcheries in Tolima, Colombia. Methods: slaughterhouses and butcheries were selected depending on their slaughter capacity and compliance with good manufacturing practices. Samples (n = 507 were taken from carcasses, the environment, and fomites (i.e., surfaces of knives, hooks, floor, siphons, work surfaces, and transport trucks, then cultured in Salmonella selective media. Following this, the isolated Salmonella spp. was identified using a conventional biochemical test and genus antiserum (Poli A + Vi. The Kauffman-Whyte scheme was used for serotyping and the agar diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer was used to determine antibiotic sensitivity. Results:Manhattan, Derby, Typhimurium, Javiana, Muenster, Hvittingfoss, Sinsfort, Kattbus, and Saint Paul serotypes of Salmonella were isolated from both pork meat and environmental samples, being Derby the most common serotype. Salmonella isolates showed antibiotic multiresistance mainly to tetracycline, lincomycin and nalidixic acid. Conclusion: several Salmonella serotypes are present in slaughterhouses and meat samples from butcheries, and they show similar antibiotic resistance patterns. This work represents the first report on Salmonella serotypes in slaughterhouses and pork meat from butcheries in Tolima, Colombia.

  6. Complete Genome of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Myophage Marshall

    OpenAIRE

    Luna, Adrian J.; Wood, Thammajun L.; Chamakura, Karthik R.; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is a food-borne pathogen that causes salmonellosis in the United States. Bacteriophages are emerging as viable biocontrol agents against this pathogen. Here, we present the complete annotated genome sequence of Salmonella Enteritidis T4-like myophage Marshall, which has potential as a phage therapy agent.

  7. Split marketing: A risk factor for Salmonella in market pigs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine if split marketing affects Salmonella prevalence in market pigs, by comparing the Salmonella prevalence in the first group of pigs selected for slaughter (i.e., “First pull”) versus the last group of pigs selected for slaughter (i.e., “Close out”) from typical co...

  8. Complete Genome of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Myophage Marshall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Adrian J.; Wood, Thammajun L.; Chamakura, Karthik R.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is a food-borne pathogen that causes salmonellosis in the United States. Bacteriophages are emerging as viable biocontrol agents against this pathogen. Here, we present the complete annotated genome sequence of Salmonella Enteritidis T4-like myophage Marshall, which has potential as a phage therapy agent. PMID:24309732

  9. Evaluation of gallium maltolate on fecal Salmonella shedding in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness in humans and causes over a third of all cases of gastroenteritis in the United States. Human foodborne outbreaks due to Salmonella have been traced to milk, beef, pork, and poultry. Fecal contamination of the carcass and hide is thought to be a maj...

  10. Organic acids for control of Salmonella in different feed materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyuncu, Sevinc; Andersson, Mats Gunnar; Löfström, Charlotta; Skandamis, Panagiotis N.; Gounadaki, Antonia; Zentek, Jürgen; Häggblom, Per

    2013-01-01

    Background Salmonella control in animal feed is important in order to protect animal and public health. Organic acids is one of the control measures used for treatment of Salmonella contaminated feed or feed ingredients. In the present study, the efficacy of formic acid (FA) and different blends of...

  11. Serotyping of Salmonella Isolates from Broiler Vertical Integrations in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study analyzed 106 Salmonella isolates from different points in broiler vertical integrations of two important poultry areas of Colombia. It was possible to identify the presence of Salmonella in five categories: breeder farm (17.9%), hatchery (6.6 %), broiler farm (38.7 %), processing plant (9...

  12. Salmonella Source Attribution in Japan by a Microbiological Subtyping Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyofuku, Hajime; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hald, Tine

    In order to estimate the number of human Salmonella infections attributable to each of major animal-food source, and help identifying the best Salmonella intervention strategies, a microbial subtyping approach for source attribution was applied. We adapted a Bayesian model that attributes illness...

  13. Distribution and Molecular Characterization of Salmonella enterica Hypermutators in Retail Food in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin; Liu, Chongyang; Zhang, Zengfeng; Hu, Yuanyuan; Cao, Chenyang; Wang, Xin; Xi, Meili; Xia, Xiaodong; Yang, Baowei; Meng, Jianghong

    2015-08-01

    Hypermutable pathogens can easily acquire mutation opportunities, as well as antimicrobial resistance, and are tremendous hazards to food safety and public health. In this study, a total of 96 (7.6%) hypermutators were identified from 1,264 Salmonella isolates recovered from retail foods. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that hypermutators were genetically diverse. Amino acid substitution of Val421Phe was detected in MutS in one hypermutator and Val246Ala in 56 other hypermutators, while no mutation in MutS was found among the remaining 39 hypermutators. Hypermutators in Salmonella isolates recovered in 2010 (9.3%) and 2008 (7.7%) were significantly more prevalent than those in 2007 (1.4%). The rate of hypermutators in mutton (22.2%) was significantly higher than that in chicken (7.9%) and pork (4.7%). In Salmonella Leimo isolates (60.0%), hypermutators were most frequently detected, followed by Salmonella Essen (50.0%), Salmonella Indiana (36.6%), Salmonella Kallo (25.0%), Salmonella Heidelberg (23.8%), Salmonella Typhimurium (14.0%), Salmonella Shubra (13.0%), Salmonella Albany (11.1%), Salmonella Agona (7.0%), Salmonella Gueuletapee (6.3%), and Salmonella Enteritidis (1.7%). Salmonella hypermutators in isolates recovered from retail food stored at ambient temperature (15.7%) were significantly more prevalent than those stored in chilled (3.1%) and frozen (5.4%) condition. The overall distributions of mutation frequencies of the 96 hypermutators (selected by rifampin) were from 2.16 10(-5) to 4.25 10(-1). Mutation frequencies of hypermutators of Salmonella Leimo, Salmonella Essen, Salmonella Kallo, and Salmonella Agona were relative low, while those of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Indiana, and Salmonella Shubra were extremely high. No significant correlation was found between mutation frequency and antimicrobial resistance of the hypermutators. PMID:26219361

  14. Comentario ao esquema de classificação das Salmonellas de Kauffmann-White

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genesio Pacheco

    1940-01-01

    Full Text Available The classification of salmonellae in accordance with the Kauffmann-White schema accepted by the presents various inconveniences and difficulties to application. Among these is the necessity of preparing, dosing and preserving a considerable number of specific sera whose validity as is well known, is limited. The criterion of Kauffmann’s classification is exclusively, for it abandoned cultural tests, leaving therefore only a unilateral criterion. By following it one might include Chromobacterium typhi-flavum in the Salmonella genus as well as other bacteria which differ completely from the Salmonella, as long as they are antigenically related. On the other hand, the chart approximates or separates in the different groups of antigen O species or types of salmonellae which are biologically close or almost indistinguishable. The chart has given rise to an excessive number of species and lypes of salmonellae which from 44 in the chart approved by the in 1934 rose ro 60 in Bergey’s Manual and everything leads one to believe that the end is not yet for every day new lypes or species are found. And perforce this must be so for new antigenic factors have been found which give rise to new structural combinations. Applying the formula of combinations (formule to the factors already known, there are probable possibilities of having 260 different antigenic combinations in group A, or 3260 lypes or species if all the flagellate antigens of the other groups should be found, in it combined 2 and 2. Futher applying the formula of combinations to the other groups there would be possibility of so many combinations that the number of salmonellae would exceed the number of known bacterian species or perhaps the number of those existing on earth. Undoubledly Kauffmann-White’s chart is an improvement, but the bacterian analysis made with it was exaggerated and exceeded the limit of the present possibilities of the realities of life. It revealed interesting aspects of the somatic complexity of bacteria but seems untenable because of its use in pratical sense.

  15. Evaluation of the Thermo Scientific SureTect Salmonella species assay. AOAC Performance Tested Method 051303.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloke, Jonathan; Clark, Dorn; Radcliff, Roy; Leon-Velarde, Carlos; Larson, Nathan; Dave, Keron; Evans, Katharine; Crabtree, David; Hughes, Annette; Simpson, Helen; Holopainen, Jani; Wickstrand, Nina; Kauppinen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    The Thermo Scientific SureTect Salmonella species Assay is a new real-time PCR assay for the detection of Salmonellae in food and environmental samples. This validation study was conducted using the AOAC Research Institute (RI) Performance Tested Methods program to validate the SureTect Salmonella species Assay in comparison to the reference method detailed in International Organization for Standardization 6579:2002 in a variety of food matrixes, namely, raw ground beef, raw chicken breast, raw ground pork, fresh bagged lettuce, pork frankfurters, nonfat dried milk powder, cooked peeled shrimp, pasteurized liquid whole egg, ready-to-eat meal containing beef, and stainless steel surface samples. With the exception of liquid whole egg and fresh bagged lettuce, which were tested in-house, all matrixes were tested by Marshfield Food Safety, Marshfield, WI, on behalf of Thermo Fisher Scientific. In addition, three matrixes (pork frankfurters, lettuce, and stainless steel surface samples) were analyzed independently as part of the AOAC-RI-controlled laboratory study by the University of Guelph, Canada. No significant difference by probability of detection or McNemars Chi-squared statistical analysis was found between the candidate or reference methods for any of the food matrixes or environmental surface samples tested during the validation study. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing was conducted with 117 and 36 isolates, respectively, which demonstrated that the SureTect Salmonella species Assay was able to detect all the major groups of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica (e.g., Typhimurium) and the less common subspecies of S. enterica (e.g., arizoniae) and the rarely encountered S. bongori. None of the exclusivity isolates analyzed were detected by the SureTect Salmonella species Assay. Ruggedness testing was conducted to evaluate the performance of the assay with specific method deviations outside of the recommended parameters open to variation (enrichment time and temperature, and lysis temperature), which demonstrated that the assay gave reliable performance. Accelerated stability testing was additionally conducted, validating the assay shelf life. PMID:24830166

  16. Transmission of Salmonella between wildlife and meat-production animals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M. N.; Madsen, J. J.; Rahbek, C.; Lodal, J.; Jespersen, J. B.; Jørgensen, J. C.; Dietz, H. H.; Chriél, Mariann; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2008-01-01

    pigs and cattle and surrounding wildlife. Salmonella was detected in wildlife on farms carrying Salmonella-positive production animals and only during the periods when Salmonella was detected in the production animals. The presence of Salmonella Typhimurium in wild birds significantly correlated to...

  17. A novel electrochemical sensing strategy for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of Salmonella by rolling circle amplification and DNA–AuNPs probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Dan; Yan, Yurong; Lei, Pinhua; Shen, Bo [Key Laboratory of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics (Ministry of Education), College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Cheng, Wei [Key Laboratory of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics (Ministry of Education), College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); The Center for Clinical Molecular Medical detection, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Ju, Huangxian [Key Laboratory of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics (Ministry of Education), College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ding, Shijia, E-mail: dingshijia@163.com [Key Laboratory of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics (Ministry of Education), College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China)

    2014-10-10

    A novel electrochemical sensing strategy was developed for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of Salmonella by combining the rolling circle amplification with DNA–AuNPs probe. - Highlights: • This paper presented a novel sensing strategy for the rapid and ultrasensitive detection for Salmonella. • Combination of rolling circle amplification and DNA–AuNPs probe is the first time for Salmonella electrochemical detection. • The method displayed excellent sensitivity and specificity for detection of Salmonella. • The fabricated biosensor was successfully applied to detect Salmonella in milk samples. - Abstract: A novel electrochemical sensing strategy was developed for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of Salmonella by combining the rolling circle amplification with DNA–AuNPs probe. The target DNA could be specifically captured by probe 1 on the sensing interface. Then the circularization mixture was added to form a typical sandwich structure. In the presence of dNTPs and phi29 DNA polymerase, the RCA was initiated to produce micrometer-long single-strand DNA. Finally, the detection probe (DNA–AuNPs) could recognize RCA product to produce enzymatic electrochemical signal. Under optimal conditions, the calibration curve of synthetic target DNA had good linearity from 10 aM to 10 pM with a detection limit of 6.76 aM (S/N = 3). The developed method had been successfully applied to detect Salmonella as low as 6 CFU mL{sup −1} in real milk sample. This proposed strategy showed great potential for clinical diagnosis, food safety and environmental monitoring.

  18. A novel electrochemical sensing strategy for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of Salmonella by rolling circle amplification and DNA–AuNPs probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel electrochemical sensing strategy was developed for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of Salmonella by combining the rolling circle amplification with DNA–AuNPs probe. - Highlights: • This paper presented a novel sensing strategy for the rapid and ultrasensitive detection for Salmonella. • Combination of rolling circle amplification and DNA–AuNPs probe is the first time for Salmonella electrochemical detection. • The method displayed excellent sensitivity and specificity for detection of Salmonella. • The fabricated biosensor was successfully applied to detect Salmonella in milk samples. - Abstract: A novel electrochemical sensing strategy was developed for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of Salmonella by combining the rolling circle amplification with DNA–AuNPs probe. The target DNA could be specifically captured by probe 1 on the sensing interface. Then the circularization mixture was added to form a typical sandwich structure. In the presence of dNTPs and phi29 DNA polymerase, the RCA was initiated to produce micrometer-long single-strand DNA. Finally, the detection probe (DNA–AuNPs) could recognize RCA product to produce enzymatic electrochemical signal. Under optimal conditions, the calibration curve of synthetic target DNA had good linearity from 10 aM to 10 pM with a detection limit of 6.76 aM (S/N = 3). The developed method had been successfully applied to detect Salmonella as low as 6 CFU mL−1 in real milk sample. This proposed strategy showed great potential for clinical diagnosis, food safety and environmental monitoring

  19. Occurrence of Salmonella spp. in consumption eggs in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radkowski, M

    2001-02-28

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonellae on egg shells in markets in Olsztyn, Poland. An investigation carried out by the Sanitary and Epidemiological Station into cases of food poisoning caused in Poland by Salmonella spp. in recent years showed that the largest number of outbreaks is connected with consuming foods containing hens eggs which had not undergone heat treatment, such as mayonnaise, creams, ice-cream and other products. The world egg production amounts to 400 billion, in Poland it reaches the level of around 8 billion per year. A total of 1200 eggs were purchased in 40 local markets in Olsztyn were examined for the presence of Salmonella between June 1997 and December 1998. Salmonella was not found on the shell or inside the eggs. From this study it would appear that the incidence of Salmonellae on eggs from Olsztyn shops is very low. PMID:11252502

  20. Effects of propolis from Brazil and Bulgaria on Salmonella serovars

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R. O., Orsi; J. M., Sforcin; S. R. C., Funari; A., Fernandes-JR.; P., Rodrigues; V., Bankova.

    Full Text Available Propolis shows biological properties such as antibacterial action. This bee product has a complex chemical composition, which depends on the local flora where it is produced. Salmonella serovars are responsible for human diseases that range from localized gastroenteritis to systemic infections. The [...] aim of the present study was to investigate the susceptibility of Salmonella strains, isolated from food and infectious processes, to the antibacterial action of Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis, as well as to determine the behavior of these bacteria, according to the incubation period, in medium plus propolis. Dilution of ethanolic extract of propolis in agar was the used method. Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis showed an antibacterial action against all Salmonella serovars. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of propolis were similar, although they were collected in different geographic regions. Salmonella typhimurium, isolated from human infection, was more resistant to propolis than Salmonella enteritidis.

  1. Effects of propolis from Brazil and Bulgaria on Salmonella serovars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. O. Orsi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis shows biological properties such as antibacterial action. This bee product has a complex chemical composition, which depends on the local flora where it is produced. Salmonella serovars are responsible for human diseases that range from localized gastroenteritis to systemic infections. The aim of the present study was to investigate the susceptibility of Salmonella strains, isolated from food and infectious processes, to the antibacterial action of Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis, as well as to determine the behavior of these bacteria, according to the incubation period, in medium plus propolis. Dilution of ethanolic extract of propolis in agar was the used method. Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis showed an antibacterial action against all Salmonella serovars. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of propolis were similar, although they were collected in different geographic regions. Salmonella typhimurium, isolated from human infection, was more resistant to propolis than Salmonella enteritidis.

  2. The immunological relationship between filtrable agent, Salmonella and murine leukosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamazaki,Yukio

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella typhimurium was invariably isolated from our J strain murine leukosis. Immunization of D103 mice with either inactivated Salmonella typhimurium or the cell-free extract of leukosis inhibited the transplantation of leukosis. The adoptive immunization of D103 mice with spleen cells of Strong A mice immunized with either Salmonella or the cell-free extract of leukosis inhibited the transplantation of leukosis. The addition of either Salmonella or the cell-free extract of leukosis inhibited the migration of macrophages of leukosis spleen in tissue culture. Strong A mice is non-susceptible to J strain leukosis. However, inoculation of neonatal Strong A mice with the cell-free extract of leukosis produced a susceptibility to the transplantation of leukosis. These results suggest that both a filtrable agent and Salmonella typhimurium are present in cells of this leukosis and might be etiologically related to the leukosis.

  3. Salmonellas, Poultry House Environments and Feeds: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The gram-negative bacteria and member of the family Enterobacteraceae is one of the most important causes of human food-borne illnesses in recent times. These pathogens may occur naturally in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry and sometimes in eggs through transovarian transmission. A number of factors have contributed to the spread of Salmonella in poultry. Among these are stocking densities of poultry farms, poultry feeds, farming activities, mice, wild animals, transportation of live birds to slaughter houses, slaughtering of live birds and processing of poultry carcasses into processed finished products. Lesser concerned area is the association between Salmonellas, poultry house environments and feeds and the significant role they may play to integrate other factors in contributing to the spread of Salmonella in poultry. Furthermore, techniques for isolating and identifying Salmonella species in poultry house environments and feeds are crucial for reliable reporting purposes to reduce the spread of Salmonella by poultry thus the objective of this study.

  4. Detection of Salmonella spp in commercial eggs in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir-Hassan Moosavy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Salmonellosis can be acquired through consumption of infected raw or undercooked eggs. The aim of this study was isolation and identification of Salmonella spp from the eggshells and the egg contents samples of Tabriz retails.Methods: A total number of 150 samples of eggs were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella spp. using conventional culture method and multiplex-PCR.Results: Two (1.33% out of 150 samples from eggshells were determined as contaminated with Salmonella spp. Salmonella spp was not isolated from the egg contents. Salmonella serovar was determined as enteritidis and typhimurium.Conclusion: The results of the present study provide the recent dataset of the prevalence of S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium in eggs at retail shops in the northwest of Iran. It is important to remember that control is required at all levels in the food chain and by separating cooked and raw.

  5. Salmonella-S. mansoni ASSOCIATION IN PATIENTS WITH ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    LAMBERTUCCI J. Roberto; Abdunnabi A.M. RAYES; GERSPACHER-LARA Rogério

    1998-01-01

    Two young men with Salmonella bacteraemia, active schistosomiasis and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are reported. The clinical presentation comprised nonspecific signs and symptoms, such as fatigue, malaise, weight loss, diarrhoea, prolonged fever, and hepatosplenomegaly. In one patient, liver biopsy showed poorly formed granulomata around Schistosoma mansoni eggs and hepatitis. Treatment of schistosomiasis alone induced consistent clinical improvement with eventual cure of both Salm...

  6. Faecal Salmonella shedding in fattening pigs in relation to the presence of Salmonella antibodies in three pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marianne Kjær; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2012-01-01

    Human salmonellosis originating from pork is an important zoonotic disease, and the production of outdoor pigs may increase the risk of contaminating the food chain with Salmonella from environmental sources. The prevalence of faecal Salmonella shedding has therefore been compared in organic...

  7. Presence of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Gallinarum in commercial laying hens diagnosed with Fowl Typhoid Disease in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    : A severe outbreak of salmonellosis in commercial brown table egg layers first occurred in Colombia in 2006. From 2008 to 2012, 35 samples collected from commercial layers farms in the states of Cundinamarca, Santander, Bolivar and San Andres, were positive to Salmonella enterica. Salmonella (S) wa...

  8. Salmonella infection and carriage in reptiles in a zoological collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Meredith M; Davis, Meghan; Valitutto, Marc T; Nelson, Kenrad; Sykes, John M

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify important subspecies and serovars of Salmonella enterica in a captive reptile population and clinically relevant risk factors for and signs of illness in Salmonella-positive reptiles. DESIGN Retrospective cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 11 crocodilians (4 samples), 78 snakes (91 samples), 59 lizards (57 samples), and 34 chelonians (23 samples) at the Bronx Zoo from 2000 through 2012. PROCEDURES Data pertaining to various types of biological samples obtained from reptiles with positive Salmonella culture results and the reptiles themselves were analyzed to determine period prevalence of and risk factors for various Salmonella-related outcomes. RESULTS Serovar distribution differences were identified for sample type, reptile phylogenetic family, and reptile origin and health. Salmonella enterica subsp enterica was the most common subspecies in Salmonella cultures (78/175 [45%]), identified across all reptilian taxa. Salmonella enterica subsp diarizonae was also common (42/175 [24%]) and was recovered almost exclusively from snakes (n = 33), many of which had been clinically ill (17). Clinically ill reptiles provided 37% (64) of Salmonella cultures. Factors associated with an increased risk of illness in reptiles with a positive culture result were carnivorous diet and prior confiscation. Snakes had a higher risk of illness than other reptile groups, whereas lizards had a lower risk. Bony changes, dermatitis, and anorexia were the most common clinical signs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study provided new information on Salmonella infection or carriage and associated clinical disease in reptiles. Associations identified between serovars or subspecies and reptile groups or clinical disease can guide management of Salmonella-positive captive reptiles. PMID:27074614

  9. CHROMagar Salmonella Detection Test Kit. Performance Tested Method 020502.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Katana; Ritter, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    BBL CHROMagar Salmonella was evaluated by an external food testing laboratory for the recovery of Salmonella in peanut butter using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) procedure. The peanut butter was found to be negative for the presence of Salmonella and, therefore, was seeded with heat-stressed Salmonella at target concentrations of 0.2 and 2 CFU/25 g. The Salmonella-seeded samples remained at room temperature for 14 days before analysis to stabilize the Salmonella in the food environment. Twenty 25 g test portions from each seeded level and five 25 g samples of uninoculated control samples were processed using enrichment broths as outlined in the FDA-BAM procedure. BBL CHROMagar Salmonella-prepared plates were evaluated with the FDA reference method media (bismuth sulfite, xylose lysine desoxycholate, and Hektoen enteric agars). Fractionally positive results were obtained from the lower inoculum level of peanut butter samples. Five positive cultures were recovered from both the BBL CHROMagar Salmonella and reference methods. The two methods gave identical results for all cultures resulting in a method agreement of 100%. McNemar's chi2 test, which assesses the evidence for difference in marginal proportions between two methods, could not be evaluated because it requires one or more discrepant cultures. However, because there were no discrepant cultures, the marginal proportions for the two methods were identical; therefore, there is no evidence of a difference between the methods. This study demonstrates that the results from BBL CHROMagar Salmonella are comparable to the three reference method media for the detection of Salmonella in peanut butter using the FDA-BAM procedures. PMID:20166616

  10. European outbreak of Salmonella Strathcona caused by small tomatoes, August – November 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Luise; Kjelsoe, Charlotte; Frank, Christina; Jensen, Tenna; Torpdahl, Mia; Søborg, Bolette; Dorleans, Frederique; Wingstrand, Anne; Prager, Rita; Grossner, Celine; Ethelberg, Steen

    2012-01-01

    cases of Salmonella Strathcona were reported in Denmark, 13 in Germany, two in Italy and one in Austria with the same PFGE. The comparative analyses of patients’ shopping lists showed that 8/10 cases had bought a specific type of Datterino tomatoes prior to disease onset. In a case-control study illness...... was associated with a specific supermarket chain, mOR=16.9 [2.2-130], and having consumed elongated small tomatoes, mOR=28, 95% CI [2,6-300]. Trace-back investigation showed that the tomatoes came from an Italian producer and had been sold both in Germany and Austria, although a detailed European...

  11. Association between Indoor Environmental Contamination by Salmonella enterica and Contamination of Eggs on Layer Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Gole, Vaibhav C.; Torok, Valeria; Sexton, Margaret; Caraguel, Charles G. B.; Chousalkar, Kapil K.

    2014-01-01

    This study involves longitudinal and point-in-time surveys of Salmonella carriage and environmental contamination on two commercial cage layer farms positive for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (flock A age, 32 weeks; flock B age, 34 weeks). Salmonella-positive fecal, egg belt, and dust samples were all unconditionally associated with eggshells testing positive for Salmonella. The odds of an eggshell testing positive for Salmonella were 91.8, 61.5, and 18.2 times highe...

  12. HtpG contributes to Salmonella Typhimurium intestinal persistence in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Verbrugghe, Elin; Van Parys, Alexander; Leyman, Bregje; Boyen, Filip; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium ( Salmonella Typhimurium) contamination of pork, is one of the major sources of human salmonellosis. The bacterium is able to persist and hide in asymptomatic carrier animals, generating a reservoir for Salmonella transmission to other animals and humans. Mechanisms involved in Salmonella persistence in pigs remain poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that the Salmonella htpG gene, encoding a homologue of the eukar...

  13. The eleventh CRL-Salmonella workshop, 9 May 2006, Saint Malo, France

    OpenAIRE

    Mooijman KA

    2006-01-01

    The eleventh workshop organised by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella) was held in Saint Malo, France on 9 May 2006. Participants included representatives of the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) of the Member States of the European Union and of the European Commission. Presentations were given by representatives of the European Commission and the CRL-Salmonella. Subjects discussed were European legislation on S...

  14. The eleventh CRL-Salmonella workshop, 9 May 2006, Saint Malo, France

    OpenAIRE

    Mooijman KA

    2006-01-01

    De elfde workshop georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella) werd gehouden op 9 mei 2006 in Saint Malo, Frankrijk. Deelnemers waren vertegenwoordigers van de nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) van de lidstaten van de Europese Unie alsmede van de Europese Commissie. Presentaties werden gegeven door vertegenwoordigers van de Europese Commissie en van CRL-Salmonella. Onderwerpen die bediscussieerd werden waren: ...

  15. Phenotypic and Molecular Typing of Salmonella Strains Reveals Different Contamination Sources in Two Commercial Pig Slaughterhouses

    OpenAIRE

    Botteldoorn, Nadine; Herman, Lieve; Rijpens, Nancy; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to define the origin of Salmonella contamination on swine carcasses and the distribution of Salmonella serotypes in two commercial slaughterhouses during normal activity. Salmonellae were isolated from carcasses, from colons and mesenteric lymph nodes of individual pigs, and from the slaughterhouse environment. All strains were serotyped; Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serotype Derby isolates were additionally typed beyond the serotype level ...

  16. EU Interlaboratory comparison study IX (2005) on bacteriological detection of Salmonella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Berk PA; Veenman C; Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    In 2005 the ninth interlaboratory comparison study on bacteriological detection of Salmonella spp. was organised by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, the Netherlands). National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) of the EU Member States (26) and the NRLs of Norway and of Romania participated in the study. Reference materials in combination with or without the presence of chicken faeces, as well as naturally contaminated dust (con...

  17. EU Interlaboratory comparison study VIII (2004) on bacteriological detection of Salmonella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Korver H; Heisterkamp SH; Veenman C; Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    In 2004 the eighth interlaboratory comparison study on bacteriological detection of Salmonella spp. was organized by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, the Netherlands). National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) of the EU Member States (26), the NRL of Norway and of Romania participated in the study. Reference materials in combination with or without the presence of chicken faeces, as well as naturally contaminated faecal sampl...

  18. EU Interlaboratory comparison study VIII (2004) on bacteriological detection of Salmonella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Korver H; Heisterkamp SH; Veenman C; Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    In 2004 werd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) het achtste bacteriologische ringonderzoek georganiseerd. Deelnemers van de studie waren de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella (NRL's-Salmonella) van de EU lidstaten (26), van Noorwegen en van Roemenie. Referentiematerialen in combinatie met of zonder de aanwezigheid van kippenfeces, evenals natuurlijk besmette feces (bevattende Salmonella Enteritidis) werden ge...

  19. Prevalence of Salmonella sp. Infections in Layer Flocks in East Azerbaijan Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Nazeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is an important cause of human disease with an estimated 80.3 million annual foodborne cases and significant economical losses in the poultry sector worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluation prevalence of Salmonella infections in layer flocks in East Azerbaijan province of Iran. For isolation of agent after autopsy of losses, liver surface was cauterized and swap from this area was obtained and added into the tetrathionate culture media and incubated at 37C for 15 h. Then agents obtained from previous stage were cultured in the macconkey agar culture media as five regional method and then incubated at 37C. After several times, lightly yellow colonies appeared that suggestive non-fermentative lactose bacteria. For differentiation of Salmonella from other non-fermentative lactose bacteria, specific Medias such as TST, urea, MR-VP, SIM, simmon citrate, lysine and Medias contain sucrose, lactose, maltose, manoz and arabinose used. Finally, the amounts of losses since week 31 until 67 was 5030 hens that by adding losses before week 31 which was about 1450, the sum of losses was 6480 or 27% of flock. This study revealed that contamination rate in East Azerbaijan province of Iran is higher than standard levels and because of zoonotical issues between poultries and human must be take measures in this field.

  20. Salmonella biofilm formation on Aspergillus niger involves cellulose--chitin interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Maria T; Carter, Michelle Q; Parker, Craig T; Chapman, Matthew R; Huynh, Steven; Zhou, Yaguang

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella cycles between host and nonhost environments, where it can become an active member of complex microbial communities. The role of fungi in the environmental adaptation of enteric pathogens remains relatively unexplored. We have discovered that S. enterica Typhimurium rapidly attaches to and forms biofilms on the hyphae of the common fungus, Aspergillus niger. Several Salmonella enterica serovars displayed a similar interaction, whereas other bacterial species were unable to bind to the fungus. Bacterial attachment to chitin, a major constituent of fungal cell walls, mirrored this specificity. Pre-incubation of S. Typhimurium with N-acetylglucosamine, the monomeric component of chitin, reduced binding to chitin beads by as much as 727-fold and inhibited attachment to A. niger hyphae considerably. A cellulose-deficient mutant of S. Typhimurium failed to attach to chitin beads and to the fungus. Complementation of this mutant with the cellulose operon restored binding to chitin beads to 79% of that of the parental strain and allowed for attachment and biofilm formation on A. niger, indicating that cellulose is involved in bacterial attachment to the fungus via the chitin component of its cell wall. In contrast to cellulose, S. Typhimurium curli fimbriae were not required for attachment and biofilm development on the hyphae but were critical for its stability. Our results suggest that cellulose-chitin interactions are required for the production of mixed Salmonella-A. niger biofilms, and support the hypothesis that encounters with chitinaceous alternate hosts may contribute to the ecological success of human pathogens. PMID:22003399

  1. Simultaneous Detection of <i>Salmonella</i> spp., <i>Salmonella</i> Enteritidis and <i>Salmonella</i> Typhimurium in Raw Salad Vegetables and Vegetarian Burger Patties

    OpenAIRE

    Elexson Nillian; Chai Lay Ching; Pui Chai Fung; Tunung Robin; Ubong Anyi; Tuan Zainazor Tuan Chilek; Son Radu; Mitsuaki Nishibuchi

    2011-01-01

    The health risks posed by Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium through the consumption of raw vegetables and vegetarian burger patties necessitates the needs for the optimization of analytical approach for their detection and enumeration in the raw vegetables, which served as potential vehicles for transmission of these pathogenic microorganisms. We sought to establish a rapid, economic and sensitive method to detect and determine the load of Salmonella spp., Sal...

  2. Laboratory Activity to Teach about the Proliferation of Salmonella in Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvasi, Massimiliano; Choudhury, Manika; Teplitski, Max

    2015-12-01

    We designed a three-week laboratory experience that can complement any microbiology teaching laboratory to expand students' knowledge of the ecology of human enteric pathogens outside of their animal hosts. Through their participation in this laboratory activity, students learned that vegetative and reproductive plant parts could be a natural habitat for enteric bacteria such as non-typhoidal strains of Salmonella enterica. This field was recently brought to the forefront of the scientific community and public interest by outbreaks of human illness linked to the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables. Students were encouraged to develop their own testable hypotheses to compare proliferation of Salmonella enterica sv Typhimurium LT2 in different vegetables: cherry and regular-size tomatoes, onions, lettuce, and yellow and red bell peppers (Escherichia coli can be substituted for BSL1 laboratories). Upon completion of the laboratory experience, students were able to: 1) Develop testable hypotheses addressing the ability of a human pathogen, Salmonella enterica, to colonize and proliferate in vegetables; 2) Determine that different vegetables support the growth of Salmonella to different extents; 3) Conduct statistical analysis and identify any significant differences. The teaching-learning process was assessed with a pre-/posttest, with an average increase in content understanding from ~15% to 85%. We also measured students' proficiency while conducting specific technical tasks, revealing no major difficulties while conducting the experiments. Students indicated satisfaction with the organization and content of the practices. All of the students (100%) agreed that the exercises improved their knowledge of this subject. PMID:26753031

  3. Flow cytometry for rapid detection of Salmonella spp. in seed sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bledar Bisha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed sprouts (alfalfa, mung bean, radish, etc. have been implicated in several recent national and international outbreaks of salmonellosis. Conditions used for sprouting are also conducive to the growth of Salmonella. As a result, this pathogen can quickly grow to very high cell densities during sprouting without any detectable organoleptic impact. Seed sprouts typically also support heavy growth (~108 CFU g−1 of a heterogeneous microbiota consisting of various bacterial, yeast, and mold species, often dominated by non-pathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. This heavy background may present challenges to the detection of Salmonella, especially if this pathogen is present in relatively low numbers. We combined DNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with flow cytometry (FCM for the rapid molecular detection of Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium in artificially contaminated alfalfa and other seed sprouts. Components of the assay included a set of cooperatively binding probes, a chemical blocking treatment intended to reduce non-specific background, and sample concentration via tangential flow filtration (TFF. We were able to detect S. Typhimurium in sprout wash at levels as low as 103 CFU ml−1 sprout wash (104 CFU g−1 sprouts against high microbial backgrounds (~108 CFU g−1 sprouts. Hybridization times were typically 30 min, with additional washing, but we ultimately found that S. Typhimurium could be readily detected using hybridization times as short as 2 min, without a wash step. These results clearly demonstrate the potential of combined DNA-FISH and FCM for rapid detection of Salmonella in this challenging food matrix and provide industry with a useful tool for compliance with sprout production standards proposed in the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA.

  4. [Distribution of immunoglobulin isotypes and Salmonella antibodies in blood serum and meat juice of pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Günter; Methner, Ullrich; Meyer, Horst

    2003-01-01

    Using the close linear regression between the logarithm of the dilution degree of a sample and the logarithm of the extinction measured in an ELISA both the relative concentrations of immunoglobulines of the isotypes IgG, IgM and IgA and of the LPS antibodies against S. Typhimurium of the different isotypes in blood sera and meat juice of 15 slaughtered pigs were detected and compared. Furthermore the total concentration of antibodies against LPS of S. Typhimurium according to the "meat juice ELISA" were compared. Distribution of immunoglobulines between serum and meat juice revealed individual differences between the animals as well as between the different immunoglobulin-isotypes. Within the same isotype the ratio of the concentrations of anti-LPS Salmonella Typhimurium antibodies between serum and meat juice was significantly closer than relating the whole of immunoglobulines of the referred isotype. In order to detect pig herds with a high level of Salmonella exposure a comparison of the 1:30 diluted meat juice samples with the 1:400 diluted blood sera is justified, however, for detailed epidemiological or scientific studies there is a need to consider the existing differences between the immunoglobuline-isotypes as well as between the specificity of antibodies and of total immunoglobulines. While the concentration of Salmonella antibodies of the isotypes IgG1, IgG2 and IgA showed a clear and statistically significant correlation between both one below the other and with the total amount of Salmonella antibodies, this connection could not be established for the total amount of immunoglobulines of different isotypes and the IgM-antibodies. PMID:12894680

  5. Characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates recovered from blood and stool specimens in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendriksen Rene S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteremia due to Salmonella spp. is a life-threatening condition and is commonly associated with immune compromise. A 2009 observational study estimated risk factors for the ten most common non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS serovars isolated from Thai patients between 20022007. In this study, 60.8% of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates (n?=?1517 were recovered from blood specimens and infection with Salmonella serovar Enteritidis was a statistically significant risk factor for bacteremia when compared to other NTS serovars. Based on this information, we characterized a subset of isolates collected in 2008 to determine if specific clones were recovered from blood or stool specimens at a higher rate. Twenty blood isolates and 20 stool isolates were selected for antimicrobial resistance testing (MIC, phage typing, PFGE, and MLVA. Result Eight antibiogrammes, seven MLVA types, 14 XbaI/BlnI PFGE pattern combinations, and 11 phage types were observed indicating considerable diversity among the 40 isolates characterized. Composite analysis based on PFGE and MLVA data revealed 22 genotypes. Seven of the genotypes containing two or more isolates were from both stool and blood specimens originating from various months and zones. Additionally, those genotypes were all further discriminated by phage type and/or antibiogramme. Ninety percent of the isolates were ciprofloxacin resistant. Conclusions The increased percentage of bloodstream infections as described in the 2009 observational study could not be attributed to a single clone. Future efforts should focus on assessing the immune status of bacteriaemic patients and identifying prevention and control measures, including attribution studies characterizing non-clinical (animal, food, and environmental isolates.

  6. Involvement of SPI-2-encoded SpiC in flagellum synthesis in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugita Asami

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SpiC encoded within Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 on the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium chromosome is required for survival within macrophages and systemic infection in mice. Additionally, SpiC contributes to Salmonella-induced activation of the signal transduction pathways in macrophages by affecting the expression of FliC, a component of flagella filaments. Here, we show the contribution of SpiC in flagellum synthesis. Results Quantitative RT-PCR shows that the expression levels of the class 3 fliD and motA genes that encode for the flagella cap and motor torque proteins, respectively, were lower for a spiC mutant strain than for the wild-type Salmonella. Further, this mutant had lower expression levels of the class 2 genes including the fliA gene encoding the flagellar-specific alternative sigma factor. We also found differences in flagella assembly between the wild-type strain and the spiC mutant. Many flagella filaments were observed on the bacterial surface of the wild-type strain, whereas the spiC mutant had only few flagella. The absence of spiC led to reduced expression of the FlhD protein, which functions as the master regulator in flagella gene expression, although no significant difference at the transcription level of the flhDC operon was observed between the wild-type strain and the spiC mutant. Conclusion The data show that SpiC is involved in flagella assembly by affecting the post-transcription expression of flhDC.

  7. Laboratory Activity to Teach about the Proliferation of Salmonella in Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Marvasi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We designed a three-week laboratory experience that can complement any microbiology teaching laboratory to expand students knowledge of the ecology of human enteric pathogens outside of their animal hosts. Through their participation in this laboratory activity, students learned that vegetative and reproductive plant parts could be a natural habitat for enteric bacteria such as non-typhoidal strains of Salmonella enterica. This field was recently brought to the forefront of the scientific community and public interest by outbreaks of human illness linked to the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables. Students were encouraged to develop their own testable hypotheses to compare proliferation of Salmonella enterica sv Typhimurium LT2 in different vegetables: cherry and regular-size tomatoes, onions, lettuce, and yellow and red bell peppers (Escherichia coli can be substituted for BSL1 laboratories. Upon completion of the laboratory experience, students were able to: 1 Develop testable hypotheses addressing the ability of a human pathogen, Salmonella enterica, to colonize and proliferate in vegetables; 2 Determine that different vegetables support the growth of Salmonella to different extents; 3 Conduct statistical analysis and identify any significant differences. The teaching-learning process was assessed with a pre-/posttest, with an average increase in content understanding from ~15% to 85%. We also measured students proficiency while conducting specific technical tasks, revealing no major difficulties while conducting the experiments. Students indicated satisfaction with the organization and content of the practices. All of the students (100% agreed that the exercises improved their knowledge of this subject.Editor's Note:The ASM advocates that students must successfully demonstrate the ability to explain and practice safe laboratory techniques. For more information, read the laboratory safety section of the ASM Curriculum Recommendations: Introductory Course in Microbiology and the Guidelines for Biosafety in Teaching Laboratories, available at www.asm.org. The Editors of JMBE recommend that adopters of the protocols included in this article follow a minimum of Biosafety Level 2 practices.

  8. Analysis of Macrophage-Induced Salmonella Persisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert A; Cheverton, Angela M; Helaine, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    A small subpopulation of non-replicating, multidrug-tolerant bacteria is present within clonal populations of many bacterial species. Known as persisters, these bacteria are probably the cause of relapsing infections such as typhoid fever. Formation of non-growing Salmonella persisters is stimulated by macrophage phagocytosis. This chapter outlines methods to identify and study persisters resulting from interactions between bacterial pathogens and their hosts. We use their antibiotic tolerance for isolation and enumeration and developed a method to study the heterogeneity of growth within clonal populations through single-cell analysis. PMID:26468109

  9. Salmonella typhi time to change empiric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, C.; Engberg, J.; Weis, N.

    2008-01-01

    In the present case series report we describe seven recent cases of typhoid fever. All the patients were travellers returning from Pakistan, where typhoid is endemic. Salmonella typhi isolated from the patients by blood culture were reported as intermediary susceptible to fluoroquinolones in six...... out of seven cases. We recommend that empiric treatment of suspected cases of typhoid fever includes a third generation cephalosporin such as ceftriaxon. Furthermore, the present report stresses the importance of typhoid vaccination of travellers to areas where typhoid is endemic Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/29...

  10. Applications of immunomagnetic capture and time-resolved fluorescence to detect outbreak Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella in alfalfa sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shu-I.; Gordon, Marsha; Fett, William F.; Gehring, Andrew G.; Irwin, Peter L.

    2004-03-01

    Commercially available alfalfa seeds were inoculated with low levels (~ 4 CFU/g) of pathogenic bacteria. The inoculated seeds were then allowed to sprout in sterile tap water at 22°C. After 48 hours, the irrigation water and sprouts were separately transferred to bovine heart infusion (BHI) media. The microbes in the BHI samples were allowed to grow for 4 hours at 37°C and 160 rpm. Specific immunomagnetic beads (IMB) were then applied to capture the E.coli O157 and/or Salmonella in the growth media. Separation and concentration of IMB-captured pathogens were achieved using magnetic separators. The captured E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp were further tagged with europium (Eu) labeled anti-E. coli O157 antibodies and samarium (Sm) labeled anti-Salmonella antibodies, respectively. After washing, the lanthanide labels were extracted out from the complexes by specific chelators to form strongly fluorescent chelates. The specific time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) associated with Eu or Sm was measured to estimate the extent of capture of the E. coli O157 and Salmonella, respectively. The results indicated that the approach could detect E. coli O157 and Salmonella enterica from the seeds inoculated with ~ 4 CFU/g of the pathogens. Non-targeted bacteria, e.g., Aeromonas and Citrobacter exhibited essentially no cross reactivity. Since the pathogen detection from the sprouts was achieved within 6 hours, the developed methodology could be use as a rapid, sensitive and specific screening process for E. coli O157 and Salmonella enterica in this popular salad food.

  11. Comparison of culture, ELISA and PCR techniques for salmonella detection in faecal samples for cattle, pig and poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspan Anna

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Performances of different salmonella detection methods were evaluated by applying them to of artificially contaminated faecal specimens from cattle, pigs and poultry. The NMKL71 method, being the standard reference method for detection of salmonella in the official Swedish control program, was compared with the proposed ISO method using MSRV-selective enrichment for culturing, and also with three commercial ELISA- based systems, Bioline Selecta, Bioline Optima and Vidas, a commercial PCR-based method, BAX system, and three different strategies using PCR detection using a non-commercial PCR system. Results Altogether, 391 samples were tested, and the overall results clearly indicate that, when faeces from all animal species and all serotypes were included, the MSRV performed best, with a calculated accuracy of 99% and a calculated sensitivity of 98%. The second most sensitive and specific method was the BAX system, using the modified enrichment protocol as recommended by the manufacturer for faecal samples. However, this protocol includes one additional day of work, as compared with the standard procedure for food sample analysis by the same method. The different strategies for salmonella detection using non-commercial PCR showed a sensitivity and specificity in the same range as the BAX method; furthermore, results were obtained more quickly. The various commercial ELISA methods and the NMKL method showed the poorest performance of the methods included in the study, and were closely dependent on the origin of the faeces used and on which salmonella strain was to be detected. Conclusion The study showed that the sensitivity of the different methods depended to a great extent on the origin of the faecal matrices and the salmonella strains used to "spike" the samples.

  12. Determination of selected veterinary antimicrobials in poultry excreta by UHPLC-MS/MS, for application in Salmonella control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorissen, Brecht; Reyns, Tim; Devreese, Mathias; De Backer, Patrick; Van Loco, Joris; Croubels, Siska

    2015-06-01

    The most important source of Salmonella spp. infection in humans is by the consumption of contaminated poultry products. Due to the risk of resistance development and its transfer from animals to humans, the Belgian Royal Decree concerning the eradication of Salmonella (C-2007/22784) prohibits treatment of poultry with antimicrobials against zoonotic Salmonella spp. To uncover illicit use, an analytical method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for the determination of antimicrobial residues in poultry excreta was developed and validated for classes having an active spectrum against Salmonella spp. in poultry: ?-lactams (amoxicillin and penicillin V), fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin, difloxacin, and flumequine), polymyxins (colistin), sulfonamides in combination with trimethoprim (sulfachloropyridazine, sulfadiazine, and sulfaclozine), and tetracyclines (chlortetracycline and doxycycline). A generic and high-throughput sample preparation was developed. Extraction of samples was performed by ultrasonication using a combination of acetonitrile and McIlvaine buffer, followed by centrifugation and filtration prior to analysis. The method was validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC for linearity, apparent recovery/trueness, repeatability, reproducibility, limit of quantification, limit of detection, specificity, matrix effect, and storage stability in matrix. To demonstrate the applicability of the method, an in vivo experiment was conducted. For each antimicrobial class, one registered drug was selected and administered in the drinking water to two laying hens. Excreta samples were collected every 12h during and until 2days after treatment and analyzed using the developed method. PMID:25633214

  13. iQ-Check Salmonella II: real-time polymerase chain reaction test kit. Performance Tested Method 010803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Wendy F; Sidi, Caroline D; Tourniaire, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-01

    iQ-Check Salmonella II is a real-time PCR kit for detection of Salmonella in foods. Specific oligonucleotide probes are used to detect target DNA during the amplification, by hybridizing to the amplicons. These probes are linked to a fluorophore, which fluoresces only when hybridized to the target sequence. As part of an Emergency Response Validation due to a massive outbreak and subsequent recall, peanut butter was tested to compare the performance of iQ-Check Salmonella II to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) reference method for detection of Salmonella. A single enrichment in buffered peptone water was used for a reduced enrichment time of 21 +/- 1 h over the 48 h reference method. There was no significant difference in the performance of the iQ-Check kit when compared to the FDA-BAM method, as determined by Chi-square analysis. All samples identified as positive by iQ-Check were confirmed by reference method protocol. PMID:20166609

  14. A fast and highly sensitive blood culture PCR method for clinical detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Liqing

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella Typhi causes an estimated 21 million new cases of typhoid fever and 216,000 deaths every year. Blood culture is currently the gold standard for diagnosis of typhoid fever, but it is time-consuming and takes several days for isolation and identification of causative organisms. It is then too late to initiate proper antibiotic therapy. Serological tests have very low sensitivity and specificity, and no practical value in endemic areas. As early diagnosis of the disease and prompt treatment are essential for optimal management, especially in children, a rapid sensitive detection method for typhoid fever is urgently needed. Although PCR is sensitive and rapid, initial research indicated similar sensitivity to blood culture and lower specificity. We developed a fast and highly sensitive blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Typhi, allowing same-day initiation of treatment after accurate diagnosis of typhoid. Methods An ox bile tryptone soy broth was optimized for blood culture, which allows the complete lysis of blood cells to release intracellular bacteria without inhibiting the growth of Salmonella Typhi. Using the optimised broth Salmonella Typhi bacteria in artificial blood samples were enriched in blood culture and then detected by a PCR targeting the fliC-d gene of Salmonella Typhi. Results Tests demonstrated that 2.4% ox bile in blood culture not only lyzes blood cells completely within 1.5 hours so that the intracellular bacteria could be released, but also has no inhibiting effect on the growth of Salmonella Typhi. Three hour enrichment of Salmonella Typhi in tryptone soya broth containing 2.4% ox bile could increase the bacterial number from 0.75 CFU per millilitre of blood which is similar to clinical typhoid samples to the level which regular PCR can detect. The whole blood culture PCR assay takes less than 8 hours to complete rather than several days for conventional blood culture. Conclusions This novel blood culture PCR method is superior in speed and sensitivity to both conventional blood culture and PCR assays. Its use in clinical diagnosis may allow early detection of the causative organism and facilitate initiation of prompt treatment among patients with typhoid fever.

  15. Genomic characterization of Salmonella bacteriophages isolated from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpe, Yogesh A; Kanade, Gayatri D; Pingale, Kunal D; Arankalle, Vidya A; Banerjee, Kalyan

    2016-02-01

    Salmonella are a medically important Gram-negative foodborne pathogen. Genomic diversity of Salmonella is increasingly studied but at the same time, we have limited knowledge of Salmonella phage diversity. In this study, we have isolated Salmonella phages from sewage and river water. Genomic characterization of 12 Salmonella phages was carried out using next-generation sequencing platform. Newly sequenced phages were classified based on amino acid sequence phylogenetic analysis. In newly sequenced phages, several virulence genes, DNA metabolism genes, tRNA genes, antibiotic resistance genes and genes not having known role in the life cycle of phages were identified. Annotations of newly sequenced phage genome showed the presence of polymyxin-b resistance gene and penicillin binding protein. Annotation identified number of genes which are involved in DNA metabolism. Results suggest that most of the phages having G + C content different than their host possess DNA metabolism genes. The presence of tRNAs in the genome of Salmonella_phage38-India was identified; however, we did not observe any correlation between tRNA genes and overall codon usage in the phage genome. It is suggested that the phage-encoded tRNAs may increase fitness of phages. In summary, we isolated novel Salmonella phages, determined full genome sequences and provided phylogenetic analysis-based classification. PMID:26757942

  16. Salmonella bacteraemia among healthcare workers and their dependents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To determine the incidence and resistance pattern of Salmonella infection in healthcare workers and their dependents. Methods: The retrospective analysis was conducted at Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, and comprised records of employees and their dependents with bacteraemia from January 2007 to December 2011. Person-years were calculated using data from the human resources department. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analyses. Results: Of the total 2532 records available, 82(3.23%) patients were identified with Salmonella bacteraemia. Of them, 34(41.5%) patients were in age group 1-10, 15(18.3%) in 11-20, 26(31.7%) in 21-30, and 7(8.5%) were above 30 years. Besides, 48(58.5%) were males. Salmonella typhi was found in 44(53.7%) patients, Salmonella paratyphi A in 35(42.7%) and Salmonella species in 3(3.7%) patients. The yearly incidence of Salmonella infection in the study population ranged from 206 to 596 per 100000 person-years. Ciprofloxacin resistance was noted to be 56 (68.2%) followed by Ampicillin 29 (35.3%) and Co-trimoxazole 24 (29.2%). No strains were resistant to Cefiximeor Ceftriaxone. Conclusion: The yearly incidence of Salmonella bacteraemia ranged from 200 to 600 per 100000 person years. There was significant quinolone resistance among the isolates. (author)

  17. Evidence supporting vertical transmission of Salmonella in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, D L; Loneragan, G H; Brown, T R; Nisbet, D J; Hume, M E; Edrington, T S

    2016-04-01

    We set out to investigate whether Salmonella enterica could be recovered from various tissues of viable neonatal calves immediately following parturition. Eleven samples were aseptically collected from each of 20 calves and consisted of both left and right subiliac and prescapular lymph nodes (LN), mesenteric LN, spleen and liver, as well as intestinal tissue (including luminal contents) from the small intestine, caecum, spiral colon and rectum. In addition, a faecal sample was collected from 19 of the dams. Salmonella was recovered from at least one sample from 10 of the 20 neonates. Across all calves, Salmonella was recovered from 12·7% of all samples and from LN in particular, Salmonella was recovered from 10·0%, 5·0%, and 5·0% of subiliac, prescapular, and mesenteric LN, respectively. Within calves, Salmonella was recovered from 0% to 73% of samples and across tissues, estimates of Salmonella prevalence were greatest in the caecum (30%) but was never recovered from the right pre-scapular LN. These data provide evidence of vertical transmission from a dam to her fetus such that viable calves are born already infected and thereby not requiring faecal-oral exposure for transmission. This new knowledge ought to challenge - or at least add to - existing paradigms of Salmonella transmission dynamics within cattle herds. PMID:26419321

  18. Minimum inhibitory concentration of carbapenems and tigecycline against Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capoor, Malini R; Nair, Deepthi; Posti, Jitendra; Singhal, Smita; Deb, Monorama; Aggarwal, Pushpa; Pillai, Parukutty

    2009-03-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella spp. is of grave concern, more so in quinolone-resistant and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates that cause complicated infections. The MIC of azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, cefixime, cefepime, ceftriaxone, gatifloxacin, imipenem, levofloxacin, meropenem and ofloxacin (E-test strip) and tigecycline and faropenem (agar dilution) against 210 Salmonella spp. was determined. MIC(90) (defined as the antimicrobial concentration that inhibited growth of 90 % of the strains) of the carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem) for Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A was 0.064 microg ml(-1). MIC(90) of faropenem was 0.25 microg ml(-1) for S. Typhi, S. Paratyphi A and Salmonella Typhimurium. The MIC(90) of azithromycin for all Salmonella spp. ranged from 8 to 16 microg ml(-1). Tigecycline showed an MIC(90) of 2 microg ml(-1) for S. Typhi, 1 microg ml(-1) for S. Paratyphi A and 4 microg ml(-1) for S. Typhimurium. We concluded that tigecycline and the carbapenems are likely to have roles in the final stage of treatment of quinolone-resistant and ESBL-producing multidrug-resistant salmonellae. PMID:19208884

  19. Salmonella detection in a microfluidic channel using orbiting magnetic beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Matt; Mills, Zachary; Owen, Drew; Hanasoge, Srinivas; Hesketh, Peter; Alexeev, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    We use three-dimensional simulations to model the detection of salmonella in a complex fluid sample in a microfluidic channel. Salmonella is captured using magnetic microbeads orbiting around soft ferromagnetic discs at the microchannel bottom subjected to a rotating external magnetic field. Numerical simulations are used to model the dynamics of salmonella and microbeads throughout the detection process. We examine the effect of the channel geometry on the salmonella capture, and the forces applied to the salmonella as it is dragged through the fluid after capture. Our findings guide the design of a lab-on-a-chip device to be used for detection of salmonella in food samples in a way that ensures that salmonella captured by orbiting microbeads are preserved until they can be extracted from the system for testing, and are not washed away by the fluid flow or damaged due to the experience of excessive stresses. Such a device is needed to detect bacteria at the food source and prevention of consumption of contaminated food, and also can be used for the detection of a variety of biomaterials of interest from complex fluid samples. Support from USDA and NSF is gratefully acknowledged.

  20. Quorum-sensing Salmonella selectively trigger protein expression within tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swofford, Charles A.; Van Dessel, Nele; Forbes, Neil S.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella that secrete anticancer proteins have the potential to eliminate tumors, but nonspecific expression causes damage to healthy tissue. We hypothesize that Salmonella, integrated with a density-dependent switch, would only express proteins in tightly packed colonies within tumors. To test this hypothesis, we cloned the lux quorum-sensing (QS) system and a GFP reporter into nonpathogenic Salmonella. Fluorescence and bacterial density were measured in culture and in a tumor-on-a-chip device to determine the critical density necessary to initiate expression. QS Salmonella were injected into 4T1 tumor-bearing mice to quantify GFP expression in vivo using immunofluorescence. At densities below 0.6 1010 cfu/g in tumors, less than 3% of QS Salmonella expressed GFP. Above densities of 4.2 1010 cfu/g, QS Salmonella had similar expression levels to constitutive controls. GFP expression by QS colonies was dependent upon the distance to neighboring bacteria. No colonies expressed GFP when the average distance to neighbors was greater than 155 m. Calculations of autoinducer concentrations showed that expression was sigmoidally dependent on density and inversely dependent on average radial distance. Based on bacterial counts from excised tissue, the liver density (0.0079 1010 cfu/g) was less than the critical density (0.11 1010 cfu/g) necessary to initiate expression. QS Salmonella are a promising tool for cancer treatment that will target drugs to tumors while preventing damage to healthy tissue. PMID:25737556