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Sample records for salmonella specific inva

  1. Presencia del gen de invasividad inv A en cepas de Salmonella spp: aisladas de alimentos del Caribe Colombiano / Presence of the invasive gene invA in Salmonella spp: strains isolated from food in several cities of the Colombian Caribbean area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paula, Espinal Marin; Edgar, Prieto Suárez; Vanessa, Otero Jiménez; Salim, Máttar Velilla.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: establecer la presencia del gen de invasividad invA en aislamientos de Salmonella spp. obtenidos de alimentos en la región Caribe Colombiana. Métodos: se realizó un estudio microbiológico de control de alimentos en 4 ciudades de la región Caribe entre enero de 2002 y marzo de 2003. Se anal [...] izaron 1 300 muestras de alimentos provenientes de mercados y ventas callejeras. Resultados: se recuperaron 74 aislamientos de Salmonella spp. , en carne de res 30 (40,5 %), embutidos 13 (17,6 %), pollo 12 (16,2 %), queso 9 (12,2 %), cerdo 6 (8,1 %) y otros 4 (5,5 %). Los serotipos más frecuentes fueron: S. anatum 14 (18,9 %), S. uganda 13 (17,6 %), S. newport 9 (12,2 %) y S. typhimurium 7 (9,5 %). El cebador invA amplificó un fragmento de 378 pb, el gen invA se detectó en 72 (97,3 %) aislamientos de Salmonella. Conclusiones: se detectó la presencia del gen invA en los serotipos de Salmonella circulantes en alimentos en la región Caribe Colombiana. Las implicaciones epidemiológicas de estos resultados permiten sugerir a las autoridades sanitarias tomar medidas estrictas en el control, prevención y diagnóstico de la infección por Salmonella en esta región Abstract in english Objective: to establish the presence of invasive gene invA in Salmonella spp. strains obtained from food in several cities of the Colombian Caribbean area. Methods: from January 2002 to March 2003, a microbiological study of quality control of food was carried out in four cities of the Colombian Car [...] ibbean area. One thousand and three hundred food samples were analyzed in fast food outlets located in city squares or markets. Results: seventy four isolates of Salmonella were recovered: 30 (40.5) in meat; 13 (17.6 %) in sausage; 12 (16.2 %) in chicken; 9 (12.2 %) in cheese; 6 (8.1 %) in pork and 4 (5.5 %) in other types of food. The most frequently isolated serotypes were S.anatum in 14 (18.9 %), S.uganda in 13 (17.6 %), S. newport in 9 (12.2 %) y S. typhimurium in 7 (9.5 %). The invA primer amplified 378 pb fragment, invA gene was detected in 72 (97.3 %) Salmonella isolates. Conclusions: it was possible to detect the invA gene in circulating serotypes of Salmonella isolates obtained from food in the Colombian Caribbean area, the epidemiological implications allow the health authorities to take measure for the prevention, control and diagnosis of Salmonella infection in the Colombian Caribbean area

  2. Presencia del gen de invasividad inv A en cepas de Salmonella spp: aisladas de alimentos del Caribe Colombiano Presence of the invasive gene invA in Salmonella spp: strains isolated from food in several cities of the Colombian Caribbean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Espinal Marin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: establecer la presencia del gen de invasividad invA en aislamientos de Salmonella spp. obtenidos de alimentos en la región Caribe Colombiana. Métodos: se realizó un estudio microbiológico de control de alimentos en 4 ciudades de la región Caribe entre enero de 2002 y marzo de 2003. Se analizaron 1 300 muestras de alimentos provenientes de mercados y ventas callejeras. Resultados: se recuperaron 74 aislamientos de Salmonella spp. , en carne de res 30 (40,5 %, embutidos 13 (17,6 %, pollo 12 (16,2 %, queso 9 (12,2 %, cerdo 6 (8,1 % y otros 4 (5,5 %. Los serotipos más frecuentes fueron: S. anatum 14 (18,9 %, S. uganda 13 (17,6 %, S. newport 9 (12,2 % y S. typhimurium 7 (9,5 %. El cebador invA amplificó un fragmento de 378 pb, el gen invA se detectó en 72 (97,3 % aislamientos de Salmonella. Conclusiones: se detectó la presencia del gen invA en los serotipos de Salmonella circulantes en alimentos en la región Caribe Colombiana. Las implicaciones epidemiológicas de estos resultados permiten sugerir a las autoridades sanitarias tomar medidas estrictas en el control, prevención y diagnóstico de la infección por Salmonella en esta regiónObjective: to establish the presence of invasive gene invA in Salmonella spp. strains obtained from food in several cities of the Colombian Caribbean area. Methods: from January 2002 to March 2003, a microbiological study of quality control of food was carried out in four cities of the Colombian Caribbean area. One thousand and three hundred food samples were analyzed in fast food outlets located in city squares or markets. Results: seventy four isolates of Salmonella were recovered: 30 (40.5 in meat; 13 (17.6 % in sausage; 12 (16.2 % in chicken; 9 (12.2 % in cheese; 6 (8.1 % in pork and 4 (5.5 % in other types of food. The most frequently isolated serotypes were S.anatum in 14 (18.9 %, S.uganda in 13 (17.6 %, S. newport in 9 (12.2 % y S. typhimurium in 7 (9.5 %. The invA primer amplified 378 pb fragment, invA gene was detected in 72 (97.3 % Salmonella isolates. Conclusions: it was possible to detect the invA gene in circulating serotypes of Salmonella isolates obtained from food in the Colombian Caribbean area, the epidemiological implications allow the health authorities to take measure for the prevention, control and diagnosis of Salmonella infection in the Colombian Caribbean area

  3. Psoralen photomutagenic specificity in Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytotoxic and mutagenic specificity of two therapeutically employed psoralens was examined in several Ames Salmonella typhimurium strains with near ultraviolet light activation. Photomutagenic activity of 8-methoxypsoralen (8MOP) and 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (TMP) was found to be sequence-specific, and additionally was dependent on the level of DNA-repair proficiency. Phototoxicity was essentially identical in hisC3076, hisD3052 and hisG46 strains; uvrB- excision-repair-deficient bacteria were considerably more susceptible to lethal effects than wild-type parental strains. Finally, the data show that psoralens are potent frameshift photomutagens in Salmonella hisC3076 strains and demonstrate the potential utility of these strains in evaluating photomutagenic and phototoxic activity of new furocoumarin derivatives. (Auth.)

  4. Rapid Detection of Salmonella in Food and Beverage Samples by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Radji, M.; Malik, A; Widyasmara, A.

    2010-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay had been used to detect Salmonella in food and beverage samples using suitable primers which are based on specific invA gene of Salmonella. Twenty nine samples were collected from street food counters and some canteens in Margonda Street, Depok, West Java, Indonesia. It was found that five of twenty nine samples were detected to contain Salmonella and showed the presence of the amplified product of the size 244 bp. The method of PCR demonstrated the spec...

  5. TRANSCRIPTIONAL ANALYSIS OF RICKETTSIA PROWAZEKII INVASION GENE HOMOLOG (INVA) DURING HOST CELL INFECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    An invasion gene homolog, invA, of Rickettsia prowazekii has recently been identified to encode a member of Nudix hydrolase subfamily which acts specifically on dinucleoside oligophosphates (NpnN, n³ 5), a group of cellular signaling molecules known as "alarmones". InvA is thought to enhance intrace...

  6. Rapid Detection of Salmonella in Food and Beverage Samples by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radji, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay had been used to detect Salmonella in food and beverage samples using suitable primers which are based on specific invA gene of Salmonella. Twenty nine samples were collected from street food counters and some canteens in Margonda Street, Depok, West Java, Indonesia. It was found that five of twenty nine samples were detected to contain Salmonella and showed the presence of the amplified product of the size 244 bp. The method of PCR demonstrated the specificity of invA primers for detection of Salmonella as confirmed by biochemical and serological assay. The results of this study revealed that PCR was a rapid and useful tool for detection of Salmonella in food and beverage samples.

  7. Salmonella-specific monoclonal antibodies against recombinant Salmonella typhi 36-kilodalton porin.

    OpenAIRE

    Kissel, V.; Gonzalez, C.; Astudillo, M.; Godard, A.; Wachman, B.; Cabello, F. C.

    1994-01-01

    Mouse monoclonal antibodies were raised against recombinant Salmonella typhi 36-kDa porin monomer. Specificities of 16 monoclonal antibodies were analyzed as reactivity patterns in dot immunobinding and Western blot (immunoblot) assays using isolated outer membrane proteins of gram-negative bacteria and cloned purified S. typhi porin monomers and trimers. Four monoclonal antibodies were specific for Salmonella spp.

  8. Evaluation of different analysis and identification methods for Salmonella detection in surface drinking water sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard method for detecting Salmonella generally analyzes food or fecal samples. Salmonella often occur in relatively low concentrations in environmental waters. Therefore, some form of concentration and proliferation may be needed. This study compares three Salmonella analysis methods and develops a new Salmonella detection procedure for use in environmental water samples. The new procedure for Salmonella detection include water concentration, nutrient broth enrichment, selection of Salmonella containing broth by PCR, isolation of Salmonella strains by selective culture plates, detection of possible Salmonella isolate by PCR, and biochemical testing. Serological assay and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) can be used to identify Salmonella serotype and genotype, respectively. This study analyzed 116 raw water samples taken from 18 water plants and belonging to 5 watersheds. Of these 116, 10 water samples (8.6%) taken from 7 water plants and belonging to 4 watersheds were positive for a Salmonella-specific polymerase chain reaction targeting the invA gene. Guided by serological assay results, this study identified 7 cultured Salmonella isolates as Salmonella enterica serovar: Alnaby, Enteritidis, Houten, Montevideo, Newport, Paratyphi B var. Java, and Victoria. These seven Salmonella serovars were identified in clinical cases for the same geographical areas, but only one of them was 100% homologous with clinical cases in the PFGE pattern. - Research highlises in the PFGE pattern. - Research highlights: ? A new Salmonella detecting procedure for environmental water is developed. ? Salmonella isolates are identified by serological assay and PFGE. ? A total of seven Salmonella serovars is isolated from environmental water.

  9. Rapid detection of Salmonella in foods using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chorng-Ming; Lin, Wen; Van, Khanh Thien; Phan, Lieuchi; Tran, Nelly N; Farmer, Doris

    2008-12-01

    Conventional methods for detection of Salmonella serovars in foods are generally time-consuming and labor intensive. A real-time PCR method has been developed with custom designed primers and a TaqMan probe to detect the presence of a 262-bp fragment of the Salmonella-specific invA gene. The method has been tested with a total of 384 field-isolated Salmonella serovars and non-Salmonella stock strains, as well as 420 U.S. Food and Drug Administration food samples, comprising a variety of food matrices. The method was highly specific in detecting Salmonella in spiked chili powder and shrimp samples, with a sensitivity of 0.04 CFU/g. In addition, the method is faster, more accurate, and less costly than the traditional U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual cell-culturing and the AOAC International-approved VIDAS methods to detect Salmonella in foods. PMID:19256088

  10. Specificity of Salmonella Typhimurium strain (ATCC 14028) growth responses to Salmonella serovar-generated spent media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calo, Juliany Rivera; Park, Si Hong; Baker, Christopher A; Ricke, Steven C

    2015-06-01

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most prevalent pathogens responsible for foodborne illness worldwide. Numerous Salmonella serovars have been associated with the consumption of a variety of products, and limiting food-borne illness due to Salmonella serovars is a continuing problem for food producers and public health. The emergence and prevalence of Salmonella serovars has been studied but the predominant serovars have varied somewhat over the years. The aims of this research were to compare the aerobic growth responses of selected predominant foodborne Salmonella serovars, and evaluate how the spent media from different serovars affects the growth of a well-characterized Salmonella Typhimurium strain. Growth responses were similar for most strains in spent media except for S. Typhimurium (ATCC 14028), which exhibited a decrease in growth in the presence of Salmonella Heidelberg (ARI-14) spent media. This research will provide a better understanding of the growth differences among several Salmonella serovars in nutrient limited spent media. PMID:25844864

  11. Schistosoma-associated Salmonella resist antibiotics via specific fimbrial attachments to the flatworm

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    Day Tim A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomes are parasitic helminths that infect humans through dermo-invasion while in contaminated water. Salmonella are also a common water-borne human pathogen that infects the gastrointestinal tract via the oral route. Both pathogens eventually enter the systemic circulation as part of their respective disease processes. Concurrent Schistosoma-Salmonella infections are common and are complicated by the bacteria adhering to adult schistosomes present in the mesenteric vasculature. This interaction provides a refuge in which the bacterium can putatively evade antibiotic therapy and anthelmintic monotherapy can lead to a massive release of occult Salmonella. Results Using a novel antibiotic protection assay, our results reveal that Schistosoma-associated Salmonella are refractory to eight different antibiotics commonly used to treat salmonellosis. The efficacy of these antibiotics was decreased by a factor of 4 to 16 due to this association. Salmonella binding to schistosomes occurs via a specific fimbrial protein (FimH present on the surface on the bacterium. This same fimbrial protein confers the ability of Salmonella to bind to mammalian cells. Conclusions Salmonella can evade certain antibiotics by binding to Schistosoma. As a result, effective bactericidal concentrations of antibiotics are unfortunately above the achievable therapeutic levels of the drugs in co-infected individuals. Salmonella-Schistosoma binding is analogous to the adherence of Salmonella to cells lining the mammalian intestine. Perturbing this binding is the key to eliminating Salmonella that complicate schistosomiasis.

  12. Animal salmonelloses: a brief review of “host adaptation and host specificity” of Salmonella spp.

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    Grammato Evangelopoulou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica, the most pathogenic species of the genusSalmonella, includes more than 2,500 serovars, many of which are of great veterinary and medical significance. The emergence of food-borne pathogens, such as Salmonella spp., has increased knowledge about the mechanisms helping microorganisms to persist and spread within new host populations. It has also increased information about the properties they acquire for adapting in the biological environment of a new host. Thedifferences observed between serovars in their host preference and clinical manifestations are referred to as “serovar-host specificity” or “serovar-host adaptation”. The genus Salmonella, highly adaptive to vertebrate hosts, has many pathogenic serovars showing host specificity. Serovar Salmonella Typhi, causing disease to man and higher primates, is a good example of host specificity. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that Salmonella serovars use to overcome animal species' barriers or adapt to new hosts is also important for understanding the origins of any other infectious diseases or the emergence of new pathogens. In addition, molecular methods used to study the virulence determinants of Salmonella serovars, could also be used to model ways of studying the virulence determinants used by bacteria in general, when causing disease to a specific animal species

  13. A murine monoclonal antibody specific for the outer core oligosaccharide of Salmonella lipopolysaccharide.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, R S; K. H. Chan; Chau, P. Y.; Wan, K C; Ng, M H; Schlecht, S

    1987-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G3 murine monoclonal antibody T6 specific for the lipopolysaccharide of Salmonella O serogroups A to E was established. By using R mutants of Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, and Shigella spp., the major reactive epitope with T6 was tentatively identified as the terminal disaccharide, N-acetylglucosamine 1.2----alpha glucose, of the core oligosaccharide. T6 was reactive with 10 clinical isolates of each of the Salmonella O serogroups A to E but not with 58 isolates of other g...

  14. Multicenter validation of the analytical accuracy of Salmonella PCR: towards an international standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malorny, B.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    As part of a major international project for the validation and standardization of PCR for detection of five major food-borne pathogens, four primer sets specific for Salmonella species were evaluated in-house for their analytical accuracy (selectivity and detection limit) in identifying 43 Salmonella spp. and 47 non-Salmonella strains. The most selective primer set was found to be 139-141 (K. Rahn, S. A. De Grandis, R. C. Clarke, S. A. McEwen, J. E. Galan, C. Ginocchio, R. Curtiss 111, and C. L. Gyles, Mol. Cell. Probes 6:271-279, 1992), which targets the invA gene. An extended determination of selectivity by using 364 strains showed that the inclusivity was 99.6% and the exclusivity was 100% for the invA primer set. To indicate possible PCR inhibitors derived from the sample DNA, an internal amplification control (IAC), which was coamplified with the invA target gene, was constructed. In the presence of 300 DNA copies of the IAC, the detection probability for primer set 139-141 was found to be 100% when a cell suspension containing 10(4) CFU/ml was used as the template in the PCR (50 CFU per reaction). The primer set was further validated in an international collaborative study that included 16 participating laboratories. Analysis with 28 coded ("blind") DNA samples revealed an analytical accuracy of 98%. Thus, a simple PCR assay that is specific for Salmonella spp. and amplifies a chromosomal DNA fragment detected by gel electrophoresis was established through extensive validation and is proposed as an international standard. This study addresses the increasing demand of quality assurance laboratories for standard diagnostic methods and presents findings that can facilitate the international comparison and exchange of epidemiological data.

  15. A conserved domain in type III secretion links the cytoplasmic domain of InvA to elements of the basal body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytoplasmic domain of Salmonella InvA shares homology to a recurring scaffold in the membrane-spanning components of the type II and type III secretion systems. Protein type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are organic nanosyringes that achieve an energy-dependent translocation of bacterial proteins through the two membranes of Gram-negative organisms. Examples include the pathogenic systems of animals, plants and symbiotic bacteria that inject factors into eukaryotic cells, and the flagellar export system that secretes flagellin. T3SSs possess a core of several membrane-associated proteins that are conserved across all known bacterial species that use this system. The Salmonella protein InvA is one of the most highly conserved proteins of this core of critical T3SS components. The crystal structure of a C-terminal domain of InvA reveals an unexpected homology to domains that have been repeatedly found as building blocks of other elements of the T3SS apparatus. This suggests the surprising hypothesis that evolution has produced a significant component of the apparatus structure through a series of gene-duplication and gene-rearrangement events

  16. Refining the LPS-Antigen in Salmonella Antibody Elisa for Poultry Enhanced Specificity without Impairing Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Klara TØlbØl; Lind, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In the Danish serological surveillance for Salmonella in poultry (serum and egg yolk) a mix-ELISA is used, based on S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis antigens (Feld et al., 2000). When we evaluated results of the test retrospectively, over the years an unacceptably large fraction of seropositive findings could not be confirmed by the subsequent confirmatory bacteriological sampling in the herd. Therefore we tried to enhance specificity of the ELISA, without losing sensitivity, by refining the antigens used.

  17. Refining the LPS-antigen in Salmonella antibody ELISA for poultry enhanced specificity without impairing sensitivity.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Klara TØlbØl; Klausen, Joan

    In the Danish serological surveillance for Salmonella in poultry (serum and egg yolk) an indirect mix - ELISA is used, based on S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis antigens (Feld et al., 2000). When we evaluated results of the test retrospectively, over the years an unacceptably large fraction of seropositive findings could not be confirmed by the subsequent confirmatory bacteriological sampling in the herd. Therefore we tried to enhance specificity of the ELISA, without losing sensitivity, by refining the antigens used.

  18. Highly Specific and Cost-Efficient Detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A Combining Aptamers with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Le Deng; Qin Zhou; Yongzhe Chen; Zhihui Peng; Yi Ning; Ming Yang

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a panel of single-stranded DNA aptamers with high affinity and specificity against Salmonella Paratyphi A was selected from an enriched oligonucleotide pool by a whole-cell-Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) procedure, during which four other Salmonella serovars were used as counter-selection targets. It was determined through a fluorescence assay that the selected aptamers had high binding ability and specificity to this pathogen. The dissociatio...

  19. Standardization of a quantification method for Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in specific liquid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Rivera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlorination is the most widely used disinfection process for drinking water production. The formation of chlorination carcinogenic by-products and chlorine intoxication by direct manipulation in small communities has motivated the study of alternative disinfection processes. In this sense, processes of advanced oxidation (PAOs have yielded promising results. Escherichia coli (E. coli is customarily used as faecal bacterial indicator to determine the efficiency of disinfection processes. However, it has been shown that E. coli is less resistant to disinfection than other enteric bacteria such as Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. Additionally, the viable non-culturable (VNC state yields bacteria which are not detectable on many culture media.Objective: The main objective is to standardize a method for counting Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in specific liquid media to reliably quantify the bacteriological potential risk related to disinfection processes based on PAO.Methods: The study followed a randomized bi-factorial experimental design and the Duncan multiple comparison test. This design allowed the selection of specific liquid media to fittingly standardize the counting of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp.Results: We found that the best broth for counting Salmonella typhimurium strain at different concentrations in pure and mixed cultures was the Rappaport broth RP, the EE broth also allowed growing the two bacterial species tested in this research. Nonetheless, the latter results suggest the use of additional tests for this particular broth.Discussion: There was a variation in the counting results when pure cultures were used compared to those obtained from mixtures of microorganisms. It was also noted that Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella sonnei, were recovered from minimal concentrations in both RP and EE broths, respectively. To some extent, this suggests an additional confirmative method when using the EE® broth.Conclusion: MPN is a rapid and inexpensive method; easy to apply in water and other contaminated environments where counting of Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. is needed to estimate potential bacteriological risks. The broths selected were able to recover the two bacterial species from densities as low as 10 cells per 100 ml.

  20. A novel multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of Salmonella enterica and Shigella species

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Radhika; Majumder, Saugata; H.S., Murali; H.V., Batra.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica and Shigella species are commonly associated with food and water borne infections leading to gastrointestinal diseases. The present work was undertaken to develop a sensitive and reliable PCR based detection system for simultaneous detection of Salmonella enterica and Shigella at [...] species level. For this the conserved regions of specific genes namely ipaH1, ipaH, wbgZ, wzy and invA were targeted for detection of Shigella genus, S. flexneri, S. sonnei, S. boydii and Salmonella enterica respectively along with an internal amplification control (IAC). The results showed that twenty Salmonella and eleven Shigella spp., were accurately identified by the assay without showing non-specificity against closely related other Enterobacteriaceae organisms and also against other pathogens. Further evaluation of multiplex PCR was undertaken on 50 natural samples of chicken, eggs and poultry litter and results compared with conventional culture isolation and identification procedure. The multiplex PCR identified the presence of Salmonella and Shigella strains with a short pre-enrichment step of 5 h in peptone water and the same samples were processed by conventional procedures for comparison. Therefore, this reported multiplex PCR can serve as an alternative to the tedious time-consuming procedure of culture and identification in food safety laboratories.

  1. Study of the presence of specific Salmonella Enteritidis antibodies in chicken egg yolks by competitive cELISA method

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    Radoji?i? Marina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common causes of salmonellosis of man and poultry is Salmonella Enteritidis which is often found in the digestive system of adult birds. The infected birds do not display any evident clinical symptoms and, at the same time, they excrete the bacteria into the surrounding environment. Studies are carried out by standard microbiological procedures which include the isolation of Salmonella spp. in egg yolks and their serologic typization by agglutination on microplates. Along these methods, studies on the possibility to use an enzyme immunoassay, such as cELISA, in order to detect the presence of specific antibodies on Salmonella Enteritidis in egg yolks are carried out intensively. The presence of specific antibodies for Salmonella Enteritidis is detected in egg yolk samples from vaccinated flocks resulted in specific positive for a total of 72.22%. Egg yolk samples originating from hens of an unknown immunologic status were cELISA positive in a total of 1.66%. However, egg yolk samples from non-vaccinated hens were positive on the presence of specific antibodies for Salmonella Enteritidis in 23.07% cases. Bearing in mind that standard bacteriological methods did not confirm the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in egg yolk samples and that cELISA did establish the presence of specific antibodies in the tested samples it can be concluded that cELISA is a more sensitive test.

  2. Detection of Salmonella strain by rapid-cycle multiplex PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Fateme Pourali; Zahra Safiri; Zeynab Ahmadi; Ali Karami

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and objective: Salmonellosis is responsible for large numbers of infections in both humans and animals. Conventional methods of isolation of Salmonella strains take 4-7 days to complete and are therefore laborious and require substantial manpower. Our main objective was to develop a rapid detection method using shortened PCR cycles in a conventional thermal cyclers and fast electrophoresis for Salmonella.Materials and methods: The PCR primers for tyv (rfbE), prt (rfbS) and invA, ...

  3. Designing of primers for detection of salmonella typhimirium and enteritidis by heminested PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmonella are the main responsible agent for the frequent food borne gastrointestinal diseases. In Tunisia, this pathogen is considered one of the most important causes of toxiinfections and its detection using classical methods is laborious and requires a large amount of time for revelation. To solve this problem, we developed a rapid molecular technique for the detection of the invA virulence gene sequence which is found in the majority of Salmonella spp. This technique is a hemi nested PCR amplification using specific primers designed and by bioinformatics tools. The detection method consisted of pre-enrichment of the sample in buffered peptone water (BPW), followed by a total DNA extraction step prior to single tube hemi nested PCR amplification. This method was found highly specific and sensitive to detect low levels of salmonella typhimurium and salmonella enteritidis (1cfu/ 25g) in naturally contaminated spicy sausage (merguez) samples. These results can benefit the public health agencies concerning microbiological and quality aspects of the commercial and traditional merguez meat production in Tunisia. (Author)

  4. Salmonella Typhimurium-specific bacteriophage ?SH19 and the origins of species specificity in the Vi01-like phage family

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    Wilson Ray

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole genome sequencing of bacteriophages suitable for biocontrol of pathogens in food products is a pre-requisite to any phage-based intervention procedure. Trials involving the biosanitization of Salmonella Typhimurium in the pig production environment identified one such candidate, ?SH19. Results This phage was sequenced and analysis of its 157,785 bp circular dsDNA genome revealed a number of interesting features. ?SH19 constitutes another member of the recently-proposed Myoviridae Vi01-like family of phages, containing S. Typhi-specific Vi01 and Shigella-specific SboM-AG3. At the nucleotide level ?SH19 is highly similar to phage Vi01 (80-98% pairwise identity over the length of the genome, with the major differences lying in the region associated with host-range determination. Analyses of the proteins encoded within this region by ?SH19 revealed a cluster of three putative tail spikes. Of the three tail spikes, two have protein domains associated with the pectate lyase family of proteins (Tsp2 and P22 tail spike family (Tsp3 with the prospect that these enable Salmonella O antigen degradation. Tail spike proteins of Vi01 and SboM-AG3 are predicted to contain conserved right-handed parallel ?-helical structures but the internal protein domains are varied allowing different host specificities. Conclusions The addition or exchange of tail spike protein modules is a major contributor to host range determination in the Vi01-like phage family.

  5. Salmonella enterocolitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your skin. Tests that may be done include: Blood culture Complete blood count with differential Febrile/cold agglutinins (a test for specific antibodies ) Stool culture for salmonella Examination of stool for white blood ...

  6. Highly Specific and Cost-Efficient Detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A Combining Aptamers with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Deng

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a panel of single-stranded DNA aptamers with high affinity and specificity against Salmonella Paratyphi A was selected from an enriched oligonucleotide pool by a whole-cell-Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX procedure, during which four other Salmonella serovars were used as counter-selection targets. It was determined through a fluorescence assay that the selected aptamers had high binding ability and specificity to this pathogen. The dissociation constant of these aptamers were up to nanomolar range, and aptamer Apt22 with the lowest Kd (47 ± 3 nM was used in cell imaging experiments. To detect this bacteria with high specificity and cost-efficiently, a novel useful detection method was also constructed based on the noncovalent self-assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs and DNAzyme-labeled aptamer detection probes. The amounts of target bacteria could be quantified by exploiting chemoluminescence intensity changes at 420 nm and the detection limit of the method was 103 cfu/mL. This study demonstrated the applicability of Salmonella specific aptamers and their potential for use in the detection of Salmonella in food, clinical and environmental samples.

  7. Occurrence of Salmonella-specific bacteriophages in swine feces collected from commercial farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella is one of the primary foodborne pathogens associated with swine production and represents a significant threat to human health. Bacteriophage are naturally-occurring viruses that prey on bacteria and have been suggested as a potential intervention strategy to reduce Salmonella in food an...

  8. Desarrollo y validación de una reacción en cadena de la polimerasa múltiple para la identificación de los serogrupos B, C2, D y E de Salmonella enterica Development and validation of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for molecular identification of Salmonella enterica serogroups B, C2, D and E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Moreno

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Introducción. El esquema Kaufmann-White para la serotipificación de Salmonella, reconoce 46 antígenos O y 119 antígenos H, los cuales han permitido la caracterización de 2.541 serovares. La serotipificación es una herramienta epidemiológica útil en la identificación de serovares circulantes y estudio de brotes, sin embargo, presenta limitaciones técnicas, de interpretación de resultados y alto costo.
    Objetivo. Desarrollar una prueba de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa múltiple (PCR-M como alternativa para identificar los serogrupos B, C2, D y E de Salmonella enterica.
    Materiales y métodos. Se desarrolló una PCR-M para detectar los genes rfbJ de los serogrupos B y C2 y wzx de los serogrupos D y E. Para estandarizar la PCR-M se probaron cepas de referencia de Salmonella pertenecientes a los serogrupos de estudio. Se incluyó el gen invA específico del género Salmonella como control interno de amplificación. La técnica fue validada con un estudio ciego que incluyó 400 aislamientos de Salmonella previamente serotipificados.
    Resultados. La PCR-M permitió identificar los serogrupos de Salmonella con resultados reproducibles (índice kappa=0,95. La sensibilidad de la prueba estuvo entre 98% y 100% y la especificidad entre 96% y 100%.
    Conclusiones. El polimorfismo de los genes rfbJ y wzx permitió desarrollar un método de tipificación molecular sensible, específico y reproducible, que podría servir de apoyo a la serotipificación para identificar serogrupos de Salmonella.

    Introduction. The scheme Kauffman-White (KW for serotyping of Salmonella recognizes 46 O antigens, and 119 H antigens, thereby permitting the characterization of 2,541 serotypes. The serotyping is a useful epidemiological tool in identifying circulating serotypes and to characterize outbreaks. However, the method presents technical limitations, difficulty in interpretation of results and high costs.
    Objective. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction test (M-PCR was developed as an alternative method for the identification of serogroups B, C2, D, and E of Salmonella enterica.
    Materials and methods. The M-PCR detected Salmonella genes rfbJ of serogroups B and C2 and wzx of serogroups D and E. To standardize the M-PCR, reference strains of Salmonella serogroups were compared. Amplification of invA gender-specific gene of Salmonella was included as internal control of amplification. To validate the test, a blind study was conducted to identify by M-PCR 400 isolates that had been previously characterized by serology.
    Results. The M-PCR detected Salmonella serogroups with reproducible results (Kappa index=0.95. The sensitivity of the test was between 98% to 100% and specificity between 96% to 100%.
    Conclusions. The polymorphisms in the Salmonella genes rfbJ and wzx permitted the development of a method for molecular typing of Salmonella serogroups that was sensitive, specific and reproducible.

  9. Application of an Impedimetric Technique for the Detection of Lytic Infection of Salmonella spp. by Specific Phages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula C. Teixeira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the adaption of the impedimetric method to detect the lytic infection by Salmonella-specific bacteriophages and to provide a higher selectivity to this rapid method in detecting Salmonella spp. by using specific agents. Three bacteriophages and twelve strains of Salmonella spp. were tested. Each of the twelve strains was used separately to inoculate TSB together with each one of the phages. The inoculum concentration was between 106 and 107?cfu/mL, at a cell: phage ratio of 1 : 100. From the sample analysis, based on conductance (G measurements (37°C, the infection could be detected, by observation of both detection-time delay and distinct curve trends. The main conclusions were that kinetic detection by impedance microbiology with phage typing constitutes a method of determining whether a test microorganism is sensitive to the bacteriophage and a method to evaluate whether a lytic bacteriophage is present in a sample, by affecting bacterial growth rate/metabolic change.

  10. Identification of Salmonella Typhimurium-specific DNA aptamers developed using whole-cell SELEX and FACS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jihea; Kim, Giyoung; Lee, Sangdae; Park, Saetbyeol

    2013-11-01

    Conventional methods for detection of infective organisms, such as Salmonella, are complicated and require multiple steps, and the need for rapid detection has increased. Biosensors show great potential for rapid detection of pathogens. In turn, aptamers have great potential for biosensor assay development, given their small size, ease of synthesis and labeling, lack of immunogenicity, a lower cost of production than antibodies, and high target specificity. In this study, ssDNA aptamers specific to Salmonella Typhimurium were obtained by a whole bacterium-based systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) procedure and applied to probing S. Typhimurium. After 10 rounds of selection with S. Typhimurium as the target and Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as counter targets, the highly enriched oligonucleic acid pool was sorted using flow cytometry. In total, 12 aptamer candidates from different families were sequenced and grouped. Fluorescent analysis demonstrated that aptamer C4 had particularly high binding affinity and selectivity; this aptamer was then further characterized. PMID:23978634

  11. Detection of Salmonella strain by rapid-cycle multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Pourali

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Salmonellosis is responsible for large numbers of infections in both humans and animals. Conventional methods of isolation of Salmonella strains take 4-7 days to complete and are therefore laborious and require substantial manpower. Our main objective was to develop a rapid detection method using shortened PCR cycles in a conventional thermal cyclers and fast electrophoresis for Salmonella.Materials and methods: The PCR primers for tyv (rfbE, prt (rfbS and invA, genes were used for the rapid identification of S. enterica serovars typhi and paratyphi A, with rapid and short cycles of multiplex PCR. By using very fast and simple DNA extraction method in 10mins, rapid PCR cycles with total times of 35mins and rapid electrophoresis procedure with simple and very cheap buffer in 15mins we were able to separate the PCR products. Results: All references and clinical isolates of Salmonella serovars typhi and paratyphi were accurately identified. Specificity analysis revealed no cross reaction with other enterobacterial strains. The sensitivity of the assay was 1-10 cells. The total time of multiplex PCR from sample preparation to final result is 45 to 50mins.Conclusion: These data indicate that the specificity and sensitivity of optimized rapid cycle multiplex PCR is a potentially valuable tool for rapid diagnosis of S. typhi using a conventional thermal cycler. This method cut the time of a PCR reaction from 3.5h to less than 60mins. These findings could also be applied to other PCR programs detecting various genes allowing researchers to significantly shorten their PCR reaction times.

  12. Structural and Mutational Studies on Substrate Specificity and Catalysis of Salmonella typhimurium D-Cysteine Desulfhydrase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharath, Sakshibeedu R.; Bisht, Shveta; Harijan, Rajesh K.; Savithri, Handanahal S.; Murthy, Mathur R. N.

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium DCyD (StDCyD) is a fold type II pyridoxal 5? phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of D-Cys to H2S and pyruvate. It also efficiently degrades ?-chloro-D-alanine (?CDA). D-Ser is a poor substrate while the enzyme is inactive with respect to L-Ser and 1-amino-1-carboxy cyclopropane (ACC). Here, we report the X-ray crystal structures of StDCyD and of crystals obtained in the presence of D-Cys, ?CDA, ACC, D-Ser, L-Ser, D-cycloserine (DCS) and L-cycloserine (LCS) at resolutions ranging from 1.7 to 2.6 Å. The polypeptide fold of StDCyD consisting of a small domain (residues 48–161) and a large domain (residues 1–47 and 162–328) resembles other fold type II PLP dependent enzymes. The structures obtained in the presence of D-Cys and ?CDA show the product, pyruvate, bound at a site 4.0–6.0 Å away from the active site. ACC forms an external aldimine complex while D- and L-Ser bind non-covalently suggesting that the reaction with these ligands is arrested at C? proton abstraction and transimination steps, respectively. In the active site of StDCyD cocrystallized with DCS or LCS, electron density for a pyridoxamine phosphate (PMP) was observed. Crystals soaked in cocktail containing these ligands show density for PLP-cycloserine. Spectroscopic observations also suggest formation of PMP by the hydrolysis of cycloserines. Mutational studies suggest that Ser78 and Gln77 are key determinants of enzyme specificity and the phenolate of Tyr287 is responsible for C? proton abstraction from D-Cys. Based on these studies, a probable mechanism for the degradation of D-Cys by StDCyD is proposed. PMID:22574144

  13. Packaging Specific Segments of the Salmonella Chromosome with Locked-in Mud-P22 Prophages

    OpenAIRE

    Youderian, P.; Sugiono, P; Brewer, K. L.; Higgins, N. P.; Elliott, T

    1988-01-01

    Hybrid genetic elements, Mud-P and Mud-Q (collectively, Mud-P22s), have been constructed that carry two-thirds of the temperate Salmonella phage P22 genome sandwiched between the ends of transposon Mu. Insertions of these elements in the Salmonella chromosome generate locked-in P22 prophages that cannot excise. Upon induction (as a consequence of the inactivation of P22 c2 repressor), a locked-in prophage replicates its DNA in situ, resulting in the amplification of neighboring regions of the...

  14. Regulated Antigen Expression in Live Recombinant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strongly Affects Colonization Capabilities and Specific CD4+-T-Cell Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Bumann, Dirk

    2001-01-01

    Regulated antigen expression can influence the immunogenicity of live recombinant Salmonella vaccines, but a rational optimization has remained difficult since important aspects of this effect are incompletely understood. Here, attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL3261 strains expressing the model antigen GFP_OVA were used to quantify in vivo antigen levels by flow cytometry and to simultaneously follow the crucial early steps of antigen-specific T-cell responses in mice that ...

  15. Development and evaluation of a novel nucleic acid sequence-based amplification method using one specific primer and one degenerate primer for simultaneous detection of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollasalehi, Hamidreza; Yazdanparast, Razieh

    2013-04-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium are the most widespread causes of salmonellosis and gastrointestinal diseases worldwide. Thus, their simple and sensitive detection is significantly important in biosafety and point-of-care diagnostics. In that regard, although present nucleic acid-based attempts are mainly focused on the detection methods encompassing all Salmonella enterica members in a single reaction, serotypes other than S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium are clinically and epidemiologically rare to humans. Therefore, regarding high ribosomal RNA (rRNA) copy numbers in a cell, isothermal nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) technique was employed for simple, sensitive and simultaneous detection of the bacteria. However, due to high sequence homology among 16S rRNA genes and consequently, very few specific regions, we developed a novel NASBA method called "single specific primer-NASBA or SSP-NASBA" in which the specificity of the antisense primer is sufficient to perform a specific NASBA reaction. Accordingly, we designed highly specific NASBA antisense and degenerate sense primers for a segment of 16S rRNA variable region by universal sequence alignment to simultaneously detect S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium. Meanwhile, the approach was successfully evaluated for various Salmonella as well as closely related non-Salmonella serovars. Specific and simultaneous detection of both bacteria was achieved with the designed primer set in a single reaction environment with a detection limit of less than 10 CFUs mL(-1). The developed NASBA assay should facilitate the overall process and provide a simple, fast, specific and sensitive approach for molecular diagnostics of pathogens under various circumstances, e.g. outbreaks. PMID:23498700

  16. A single dose of recombinant Salmonella typhimurium induces specific humoral immune responses against heterologous Eimeria tenella antigens in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogonka, Thomas; Klotz, Christian; Kovács, Ferenc; Lucius, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strains were used as antigen delivery system for oral immunisation of chickens against two antigens of the coccidian parasite Eimeria tenella. The cDNAs of the known E. tenella proteins, SO7 and TA4, were isolated from total RNA and subcloned into the expression vectors pQE30 and pTECH2. Subcutaneous immunisation of chickens with Escherichia coli-expressed SO7 and TA4 revealed that both proteins were immunogenic. Both cDNAs were subcloned into plasmids of the pTECH2 vector system, which allows them to be expressed as fusion proteins with the highly immunogenic fragment C of the tetanus toxin under control of the anaerobically inducible nirB promoter. Plasmids were introduced into the S. typhimurium vaccine strains SL3261, C5aroD and C5htrA. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis revealed expression of both fusion proteins in all strains under anaerobic culture conditions. Three-week-old white leghorn chickens were orally immunised with 10(9) CFU per animal. The stability of the recombinant bacteria was revealed by recovery of viable Salmonella containing the respective plasmids from the liver of the immunised chickens at day 3 after inoculation. Specific serum IgG antibodies against the SO7-or TA4-antigens were detectable by ELISA 2 weeks after oral immunisation and remained for at least 6 weeks, while specific IgA antibodies were restricted to the bile of the birds. All chickens produced serum IgG and IgA to S. typhimurium lipopolysaccharides. Our data show that a single oral inoculation with recombinant S. typhimurium SL3261, C5aroD and C5htrA can induce specific antibody responses to heterologous Eimeria antigens in chickens, suggesting that recombinant Salmonella are a suitable delivery system for vaccines against Eimeria infections. PMID:12547349

  17. Quantitative detection of Salmonella enterica and the specific interaction with Lactuca sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Klerks, M. M.

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella is among the most commonly known bacterial pathogens to cause human illness. Often Salmonellosis is associated with the consumption of contaminated foods like meat, eggs or egg products. However, during the last decades an increase of outbreaks is recognized to be caused by human pathogenic bacteria in association with fresh produce. The use of manure for production of vegetables, e.g. lettuce, contributes significantly to the risk of contamination of fresh produce. Enteric pathoge...

  18. Sequence-specific interaction of the Salmonella Hin recombinase in both major and minor grooves of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, K T; Gaines, P C; Karlinsey, J E; Vinayak, R; Simon, M I

    1992-01-01

    The Hin recombinase of Salmonella catalyzes a site-specific recombination event which leads to flagellar phase variation. Starting with a fully symmetrical recombination site, hixC, a set of 40 recombination sites which vary by pairs of single base substitutions was constructed. This set was incorporated into the Salmonella-specific bacteriophage P22 based challenge phage selection and used to define the DNA sequence determinants for the binding of Hin to DNA in vivo. The critical sequence-specific contacts between a Hin monomer and a 13 bp hix half-site are at two T:A base pairs in the major groove of the DNA which are separated by one base pair, and two consecutive A:T contacts in the minor groove. The base substitutions in the major groove recognition portion which were defective in binding Hin still retained residual binding capability in vivo, while the base pair substitutions affecting the minor groove recognition region lost all in vivo binding. Using in vitro binding assays, Hin was found to bind to hix symmetrical sites with A:T base pairs or I:C base pairs in the minor groove recognition sequences, but not to G:C base pairs. In separate in vitro binding assays, Hin was equally defective in binding to either a G:C or a I:C contact in a major groove recognition sequence. Results from in vitro binding assays to hix sites in which 3-deazaadenine was substituted for adenine are consistent with Hin making a specific contact to either the N3 of adenine or O2 of thymine in the minor groove within the hix recombination site on each symmetric half-site. These results taken with the results of previous studies on the DNA binding domain of Hin suggest a sequence-specific minor groove DNA binding motif. Images PMID:1628628

  19. Proliferative and T-cell specific interleukin (IL-2/IL-4) production responses in spleen cells from mice vaccinated with aroA live attenuated Salmonella vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, B; Mastroeni, P; de Hormaeche, R D; Hormaeche, C E

    1992-10-01

    T-cell responses were studied in mice immunized with the Salmonella typhimurium aroA SL3261 live attenuated vaccine strain. T-cell responses in the spleen, both in whole cell populations and in nylon wool non-adherent (T-cell enriched) cells, were studied in vitro as proliferation by incorporation of tritiated thymidine and production of T-cell specific cytokines [IL-2 (interleukin-2)/IL-4]. Stimulating antigens included whole Salmonella lysates and purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS), both untreated and after alkaline hydrolysis to prevent the non-specific mitogenic effect of LPS. Strong proliferative responses were obtained with untreated whole cell extract and LPS, which were decreased by polymyxin B (PB). Alkaline detoxification of the antigens decreased the proliferative response of nylon-wool non-adherent populations to LPS, but greatly increased their response to the Salmonella extract. Surprisingly, PB also reduced proliferation to detoxified LPS. Little or no IL-2/IL-4 production was seen in response to LPS or purified polysaccharide antigens, while there was a strong IL-2/IL-4 response to whole cell lysate, again markedly increasing after alkaline treatment. The results suggest that the T-cell response elicited by immunization with live Salmonella aroA vaccines in mice recognizes antigens other than LPS determinants, and that estimation of T-cell responses to Salmonella antigens by proliferation alone may yield misleading results. PMID:1298869

  20. An oral recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mutant elicits systemic antigen-specific CD8+ T cell cytokine responses in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin'ombe Nyasha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The induction of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell cytokine responses against an attenuated, oral recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP model antigen was investigated. A GFP expression plasmid was constructed in which the gfp gene was fused in-frame with the 5' domain of the Escherichia coli ?-galactosidase ?-gene fragment with expression under the lac promoter. Groups of mice were orally immunized three times with the bacteria and systemic CD8+ T cell cytokine responses were evaluated. Results High level of the GFP model antigen was expressed by the recombinant Salmonella vaccine vector. Systemic GFP-specific CD8+ T cell cytokine (IFN-? and IL-4 immune responses were detected after mice were orally vaccinated with the bacteria. It was shown that 226 net IFN-? and 132 net IL-4 GFP-specific SFUs/10e6 splenocytes were formed in an ELISPOT assay. The level of IFN-? produced by GFP peptide-stimulated cells was 65.2-fold above background (p Conclusion These results suggested that a high expressing recombinant Salmonella vaccine given orally to mice would elicit antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the spleen. Salmonella bacteria may, therefore, be used as potential mucosal vaccine vectors.

  1. Antigen-specific systemic and reproductive tract antibodies in foxes immunized with Salmonella typhimurium expressing bacterial and sperm proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jersey, J; Bird, P H; Verma, N K; Bradley, M P

    1999-01-01

    Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strains are potential 'safe' delivery vectors of an oral immunocontraceptive vaccine for the European red fox (Vulpes vulpes). In the present study, model bacterial (Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit, LTB) and fox sperm (fSP10) antigens were expressed in S. typhimurium SL3261 (delta aroA) under the control of the trc promoter. Adult female foxes were given three oral immunizations with SL3261 containing either LTB (SL3261/pLTB), fSP10 (SL3261/pFSP10) or a control plasmid (pKK233-2 or pTrc99A). All foxes raised serum (IgG) and vaginal (IgG and IgA) antibodies against S. typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Each fox that received SL3261/pLTB raised high titre LTB-specific serum and vaginal IgG antibodies. However, only one of four foxes immunized with SL3261/pFSP10 raised an anti-fSP10 immune response, in the form of low titre serum and vaginal IgG antibodies. No vaginal IgA antibodies were raised against either LTB or fSP10 in these experiments. The immune responses against recombinant LTB and fSP10 resulted chiefly from the initial dose of antigen in the inocula and were minimally influenced by continued in vivo antigen expression. This study demonstrates for the first time in the female red fox that oral Salmonella can elicit specific systemic and reproductive tract antibodies against heterologous, recombinant proteins. PMID:10898286

  2. Standardization of a quantification method for Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in specific liquid media / Estandarización de un método de recuento para Salmonella spp. y Shigella spp. en medios de cultivo líquidos especializados

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra Patricia, Rivera; Liliana Janeth, Flórez; Janeth, Sanabria.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La cloración es el método más usado para desinfectar aguas de consumo. La formación de subproductos cancerígenos y las intoxicaciones por manipulación directa en pequeñas comunidades, han motivado el estudio de procesos alternativos. Los procesos de oxidación avanzada (PAOS), han arroj [...] ado resultados prometedores, utilizando el indicador bacteriano Escherichia coli (E. coli), con el método recuento en placa. Sin embargo, también se ha demostrado que E. coli es menos resistente a la desinfección que otras bacterias entéricas como Shigella y Salmonella y que estos procesos generan bacterias viables que no se cultivan durante el proceso, y no se descubren en medios sólidos. Objetivo: Estandarizar un método de recuento de Salmonella sp. y Shigella sp., en medios de cultivo líquidos especializados, que permita valorar de forma confiable el riesgo bacteriológico en procesos de desinfección PAOS. Métodos: En el presente trabajo se ensayaron y seleccionaron medios líquidos especializados, con los que se estandarizó el recuento de Salmonella sp. y Shigella sp., mediante un diseño experimental aleatorizado bifactorial y la prueba de comparaciones múltiples de Duncan. Resultados: Se encontró que el mejor caldo para recuperar a S. typhimurium a diferentes concentraciones, en cultivos puros y mezclas, fue el caldo Rappaport de Merck (RP). El caldo de enriquecimiento para entero bacterias de Oxoid (EE), permitió un buen crecimiento de las dos especies objeto de esta investigación. Lo cual sugiere el empleo de pruebas adicionales cuando se use caldo EE para NMP. Discusión: Se observó una variación en el recuento cuando se usaron cultivos puros, comparado con la obtenida a partir de mezclas de microorganismos. Sin embargo, S. typhimurium. y Shigella sonnei logran ser recuperadas de concentraciones mínimas en los caldos RP, respectivamente. Conclusión: Se pudo estandarizar un método de fácil aplicación a aguas y otros ambientes contaminados para recuento de Salmonella sp y Shigella sp. Los medios líquidos seleccionados fueron capaces de recuperar concentraciones de menos de 10 bacterias. Abstract in english Introduction: Chlorination is the most widely used disinfection process for drinking water production. The formation of chlorination carcinogenic by-products and chlorine intoxication by direct manipulation in small communities has motivated the study of alternative disinfection processes. In this s [...] ense, processes of advanced oxidation (PAOs) have yielded promising results. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is customarily used as faecal bacterial indicator to determine the efficiency of disinfection processes. However, it has been shown that E. coli is less resistant to disinfection than other enteric bacteria such as Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. Additionally, the viable non-culturable (VNC) state yields bacteria which are not detectable on many culture media. Objective: The main objective is to standardize a method for counting Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in specific liquid media to reliably quantify the bacteriological potential risk related to disinfection processes based on PAO. Methods: The study followed a randomized bi-factorial experimental design and the Duncan multiple comparison test. This design allowed the selection of specific liquid media to fittingly standardize the counting of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. Results: We found that the best broth for counting Salmonella typhimurium strain at different concentrations in pure and mixed cultures was the Rappaport broth RP, the EE broth also allowed growing the two bacterial species tested in this research. Nonetheless, the latter results suggest the use of additional tests for this particular broth. Discussion: There was a variation in the counting results when pure cultures were used compared to those obtained from mixtures of microorganisms. It was also noted that Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella sonnei, were recovered from minimal concentrations in both RP and EE broths, respecti

  3. Specific lung mucosal and systemic immune responses after oral immunization of mice with Salmonella typhimurium aroA, Salmonella typhi Ty21a, and invasive Escherichia coli expressing recombinant pertussis toxin S1 subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M J; Rohde, M; Timmis, K N; Guzmán, C A

    1992-10-01

    Pertussis toxin (PT) is considered an essential protective component for incorporation into new generation vaccines against Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. Traditionally, antipertussis vaccination has employed an intramuscular route. An alternative to this approach is to stimulate mucosal and systemic immune responses by oral immunization with live vaccine carrier strains of Salmonella spp. or Escherichia coli. Recombinant S1 subunit of pertussis toxin was expressed in the attenuated aroA mutant of Salmonella typhimurium, SL3261, in the human typhoid vaccine strain Salmonella typhi Ty21a, and in E. coli CAG629 containing the Shigella flexneri plasmid pWR110, which encodes bacterial invasiveness of epithelial cells. Expression of recombinant PT S1 subunit (rPT-S1) did not affect in vitro invasiveness of the tested strains, which retained the ability to adhere to and invade the embryonic human intestinal cell line HI-407. Following oral immunization of mice with the live vaccine strains expressing rPT-S1, immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, and IgM responses were monitored. IgG specific to PT was detected in serum samples of mice, while IgG and IgA specific to PT were detected in lung washes after oral immunization with living Salmonella spp. or E. coli (pWR110) expressing rPT-S1. Utilization of live oral vaccines expressing B. pertussis antigens, which stimulate both a systemic and lung mucosal response, may provide an attractive alternative to purified component vaccines against whooping cough. PMID:1398937

  4. Visualization of specific gene expression in individual Salmonella typhimurium cells by in situ PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; HolmstrØm, Kim

    1997-01-01

    An in situ PCR protocol by which we can monitor the presence or absence of lac mRNA in individual cells of a Salmonella typhimurium F' lac(+) strain has been developed. In this protocol, fixed cells are permeabilized with lysozyme and subjected to a seminested reverse transcriptase PCR using reporter molecule-labeled primers, and subsequently, intracellular reporter molecules are detected microscopically at the individual-cell level by use of a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated antifluorescein antibody assay. In order to determine the sensitivity of the in situ PCR assay, the ability to detect lac mRNA in suboptimally isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside-induced cells was investigated. By use of a single-cell beta-galactosidase assay, it was confirmed that homogeneous suboptimally induced cultures of S. typhimurium F' lacY cells could be established, and the number of functional lac mRNAs in individual cells was estimated from standard population level beta-galactosidase assays, Cells estimated to contain asingle lac mRNA were detected as containing lac mRNA by the in situ PCR method. Conclusively, we demonstrate the potential of in situ PCR for detection of even poorly expressed mRNA in individual bacterial cells.

  5. Induction of feline immunodeficiency virus specific antibodies in cats with an attenuated Salmonella strain expressing the Gag protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijhaar, E J; Siebelink, K H; Karlas, J A; Burger, M C; Mooi, F R; Osterhaus, A D

    1997-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium aroA strains (SL3261), expressing high levels of the Gag protein of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) fused with maltose binding protein (SL3261-MFG), were constructed using an invertible promoter system that allows the stable expression of heterologous antigens at levels toxic for bacteria. A SL3261 strain expressing the B subunit of cholera toxin by a similar system (SL3261-CtxB) served as a control in FIV-immunization experiments. Cats immunized once orally or intraperitoneally with SL3261-MFG or SL3261-CtxB all developed serum antibodies to SL3261 lipopolysaccharide and against maltose binding protein or the B subunit of cholera toxin, respectively. Two intraperitoneal immunizations with SL3261-MFG also resulted in the development of Gag specific serum antibodies. Two oral immunizations with SL3261-MFG primed for a Gag specific response, which was demonstrated upon FIV challenge. All challenged cats became infected and no significant differences in viral loads were found between SL3261-MFG and SL3261-CtxB immunized cats. PMID:9178455

  6. Acid environments affect biofilm formation and gene expression in isolates of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Denis; McCabe, Evonne M; McCusker, Matthew P; Martins, Marta; Fanning, Séamus; Duffy, Geraldine

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the survival and potential virulence of biofilm-forming Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 under mild acid conditions. Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 employs an acid tolerance response (ATR) allowing it to adapt to acidic environments. The threat that these acid adapted cells pose to food safety could be enhanced if they also produce biofilms in acidic conditions. The cells were acid-adapted by culturing them in 1% glucose and their ability to form biofilms on stainless steel and on the surface of Luria Bertani (LB) broth at pH7 and pH5 was examined. Plate counts were performed to examine cell survival. RNA was isolated from cells to examine changes in the expression of genes associated with virulence, invasion, biofilm formation and global gene regulation in response to acid stress. Of the 4 isolates that were examined only one (1481) that produced a rigid biofilm in LB broth at pH7 also formed this same structure at pH5. This indicated that the lactic acid severely impeded the biofilm producing capabilities of the other isolates examined under these conditions. Isolate 1481 also had higher expression of genes associated with virulence (hilA) and invasion (invA) with a 24.34-fold and 13.68-fold increase in relative gene expression respectively at pH5 compared to pH7. Although genes associated with biofilm formation had increased expression in response to acid stress for all the isolates this only resulted in the formation of a biofilm by isolate 1481. This suggests that in addition to the range of genes associated with biofilm production at neutral pH, there are genes whose protein products specifically aid in biofilm production in acidic environments. Furthermore, it highlights the potential for the use of lactic acid for the inhibition of Salmonella biofilms. PMID:25912312

  7. Salmonella typhimurium IroN and FepA Proteins Mediate Uptake of Enterobactin but Differ in Their Specificity for Other Siderophores

    OpenAIRE

    Rabsch, Wolfgang; Voigt, Wolfgang; Reissbrodt, Rolf; Tsolis, Renée M.; Bäumler, Andreas J.

    1999-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium possesses two outer membrane receptor proteins, IroN and FepA, which have been implicated in the uptake of enterobactin. To determine whether both receptors have identical substrate specificities, fepA and iroN mutants and a double mutant were characterized. While both receptors transported enterobactin, the uptake of corynebactin and myxochelin C was selectively mediated by IroN and FepA, respectively.

  8. Effect of operating conditions in production of diagnostic Salmonella Enteritidis O-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody in different bioreactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyildiz-Tamis, Duygu; Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Elibol, Murat; Deliloglu-Gurhan, Saime Ismet

    2014-01-01

    In this study, different cultivation systems such as roller bottles (RB), 5-L stirred-tank bioreactor (STR), and disposable bioreactors were used to cultivate hybridoma for lab-scale production of Salmonella Enteritidis O-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb). Hybridoma cell line was cultivated in either serum-containing or serum-free medium (SFM) culture conditions. In STR, MAb production scaled up to 4 L, and production capabilities of the cells were also evaluated in different featured production systems. Moreover, the growth parameters of the cells in all production systems such as glucose consumption, lactate and ammonia production, and also MAb productivities were determined. Collected supernatants from the reactors were concentrated by a cross-flow filtration system. In conclusion, cells were not adapted to SFM in RB and STR. Therefore, less MAb titer in both STR and RB systems with SFM was observed compared to the cultures containing fetal bovine serum-supplemented medium. A higher MAb titer was gained in the membrane-aerated system compared to those in STR and RB. Although the highest MAb titer was obtained in the static membrane bioreactor system, the highest productivity was obtained in STR operated in semicontinuous mode with overlay aeration. PMID:24068476

  9. Salmonella typhimurium infection in calves: specific immune reactivity against O-antigenic polysaccharide detectable in in vitro assays.

    OpenAIRE

    Robertsson, J A; Fossum, C; Svenson, S B; Lindberg, A A

    1982-01-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes collected from calves infected experimentally with Salmonella typhimurium (O antigens 4,5,12) or Salmonella sp. serotype dublin (O 9,12) were stimulated with various bacterial cell envelope components, and their [3H]thymidine incorporation was measured. It was found that peripheral blood lymphocytes from infected calves incorporated significantly more [3H]thymidine than peripheral blood lymphocytes from uninfected controls (P values ranged from less than 0.05 to l...

  10. Oral Vaccination with Attenuated Salmonella enterica Strains Encoding T-Cell Epitopes from Tumor Antigen NY-ESO-1 Induces Specific Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jia-Zi; Dong, Yu-Jun; Huang, He; Li, Shuang; Zhong, Yi; Liu, Shu-Lin; Wang, Yue-Dan

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial fimbriae can accept foreign peptides and display them on the cell surface. A highly efficient gene replacement method was used to generate peptide vaccines based on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL3261. The T-cell epitopes (NY-ESO-1 p157-165 and p157-167) from NY-ESO-1, which is a promising target antigen in patients for the specific immune recognition of cancer, were incorporated into the gene encoding AgfA (the major subunit protein of thin aggregative fimbriae of Salmonella) by replacing an equal length of the DNA segment. To improve cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognition, both termini of the peptide were flanked by double alanine (AA) residues. Immunofluorescence microscopy with AgfA-specific antiserum verified the expression of chimeric AgfA, which was also proved by a Congo red binding assay. Oral immunizations of HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice with recombinant SL3261 strains encoding NY-ESO-1 p157-165 or p157-167 induced NY-ESO-1 p157-165-specific CD8+ T cells, detected by an HLA-A*0201 pentamer, and induced a T-cell response detected by an enzyme-linked immunospot assay. The Salmonella fimbrial display system was efficient at the induction of an antitumor cellular immune response in vivo, providing a new strategy for the development of efficient cancer vaccinations. PMID:20375244

  11. Oral vaccination with attenuated Salmonella enterica strains encoding T-cell epitopes from tumor antigen NY-ESO-1 induces specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jia-Zi; Dong, Yu-Jun; Huang, He; Li, Shuang; Zhong, Yi; Liu, Shu-Lin; Wang, Yue-Dan

    2010-06-01

    Bacterial fimbriae can accept foreign peptides and display them on the cell surface. A highly efficient gene replacement method was used to generate peptide vaccines based on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL3261. The T-cell epitopes (NY-ESO-1 p157-165 and p157-167) from NY-ESO-1, which is a promising target antigen in patients for the specific immune recognition of cancer, were incorporated into the gene encoding AgfA (the major subunit protein of thin aggregative fimbriae of Salmonella) by replacing an equal length of the DNA segment. To improve cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognition, both termini of the peptide were flanked by double alanine (AA) residues. Immunofluorescence microscopy with AgfA-specific antiserum verified the expression of chimeric AgfA, which was also proved by a Congo red binding assay. Oral immunizations of HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice with recombinant SL3261 strains encoding NY-ESO-1 p157-165 or p157-167 induced NY-ESO-1 p157-165-specific CD8(+) T cells, detected by an HLA-A*0201 pentamer, and induced a T-cell response detected by an enzyme-linked immunospot assay. The Salmonella fimbrial display system was efficient at the induction of an antitumor cellular immune response in vivo, providing a new strategy for the development of efficient cancer vaccinations. PMID:20375244

  12. Regulated antigen expression in live recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strongly affects colonization capabilities and specific CD4(+)-T-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumann, D

    2001-12-01

    Regulated antigen expression can influence the immunogenicity of live recombinant Salmonella vaccines, but a rational optimization has remained difficult since important aspects of this effect are incompletely understood. Here, attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL3261 strains expressing the model antigen GFP_OVA were used to quantify in vivo antigen levels by flow cytometry and to simultaneously follow the crucial early steps of antigen-specific T-cell responses in mice that are transgenic for a T-cell receptor recognizing ovalbumin. Among seven tested promoters, P(pagC) has the highest activity in murine tissues combined with low in vitro expression, whereas P(tac) has a comparable in vivo and a very high in vitro activity. Both SL3261 (pP(pagC)GFP_OVA) and SL3261 (pP(tac)GFP_OVA) cells can induce potent ovalbumin-specific cellular immune responses following oral administration, but doses almost 1,000-fold lower are sufficient for the in vivo-inducible construct SL3261 (pP(pagC)GFP_OVA) compared to SL3261 (pP(tac)GFP_OVA). This efficacy difference is largely explained by impaired early colonization capabilities of SL3261 (pP(tac)GFP_OVA) cells. Based on the findings of this study, appropriate in vivo expression levels for any given antigen can be rationally selected from the increasing set of promoters with defined properties. This will allow the improvement of recombinant Salmonella vaccines against a wide range of pathogens. PMID:11705925

  13. Oral Immunization with Attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Encoding Cryptosporidium parvum Cp23 and Cp40 Antigens Induces a Specific Immune Response in Mice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Alvaro J.; McNair, Nina; Mead, Jan R.

    2009-01-01

    Attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine strain SL3261 was used as an antigen delivery system for the oral immunization of mice against two Cryptosporidium parvum antigens, Cp23 and Cp40. Each antigen was subcloned into the pTECH1 vector system, which allows them to be expressed as fusion proteins with highly immunogenic fragment C of tetanus toxin under the control of the anaerobically inducible nirB promoter. The recombinant vector was introduced into Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strain SL3261, and the stable soluble expression of the chimeric protein was evaluated and confirmed by Western blotting with polyclonal C. parvum antisera. Mice were inoculated orally with a single dose of SL3261/pTECH-Cp23 or Cp40, respectively, and plasmid stability was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. Specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against the Cp23 or Cp40 antigen were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 35 days after immunization. Also, serum IgA and mucosal (feces) IgA antibodies were detected in 30% of the mice immunized with Cp23. In addition, prime-boosting with Cp23 and Cp40 DNA vaccine vectors followed by Salmonella immunization significantly increased antibody responses to both antigens. Our data show that a single oral inoculation with recombinant S. Typhimurium SL3261 can induce specific antibody responses to the Cp23 or Cp40 antigen from C. parvum in mice, suggesting that recombinant Salmonella is a feasible delivery system for a vaccine against C. parvum infection. PMID:19605593

  14. Oral immunization with attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium encoding Cryptosporidium parvum Cp23 and Cp40 antigens induces a specific immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Alvaro J; McNair, Nina; Mead, Jan R

    2009-09-01

    Attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine strain SL3261 was used as an antigen delivery system for the oral immunization of mice against two Cryptosporidium parvum antigens, Cp23 and Cp40. Each antigen was subcloned into the pTECH1 vector system, which allows them to be expressed as fusion proteins with highly immunogenic fragment C of tetanus toxin under the control of the anaerobically inducible nirB promoter. The recombinant vector was introduced into Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strain SL3261, and the stable soluble expression of the chimeric protein was evaluated and confirmed by Western blotting with polyclonal C. parvum antisera. Mice were inoculated orally with a single dose of SL3261/pTECH-Cp23 or Cp40, respectively, and plasmid stability was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. Specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against the Cp23 or Cp40 antigen were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 35 days after immunization. Also, serum IgA and mucosal (feces) IgA antibodies were detected in 30% of the mice immunized with Cp23. In addition, prime-boosting with Cp23 and Cp40 DNA vaccine vectors followed by Salmonella immunization significantly increased antibody responses to both antigens. Our data show that a single oral inoculation with recombinant S. Typhimurium SL3261 can induce specific antibody responses to the Cp23 or Cp40 antigen from C. parvum in mice, suggesting that recombinant Salmonella is a feasible delivery system for a vaccine against C. parvum infection. PMID:19605593

  15. THE USE OF THE SPECIFIC ANTI-SALMONELLA POLYCLONAL ANTIBODIES ISOLATED FROM HEN EGGS, IN SALMONELLOSIS PROPHYLAXIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA CRISTE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The administration of increased doses of antibodies in groups experimentallyinfected with Salmonella gallinarum, in order to record the efficiency of theiradministration in salmonellosis prophylaxis was the aim of our research. When alow infection dose, 1x107 CFU Salmonella gallinarum, was used theadministration of IgY polyclonal antibodies as immunoglobulin extract, or evenyolk administration had a protective effect against germs invasion. This effect wasnot recorded when a 10 folds higher dose was administered (1x108 CFU. Theprophylactic effect of the administration of polyclonal antibodies is demonstrated.

  16. New O-acetyltransferase-deficient Ames Salmonella strains generated by specific gene disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Aguirre, J J; Yamada, M; Matsui, K; Watanabe, M; Sofuni, T; Nohmi, T

    1999-02-19

    CoASAc-dependent N-hydroxyarylamine O-acetyltransferase (OAT) is an enzyme involved in the intracellular metabolic activation of N-hydroxyarylamines derived from mutagenic nitroarenes and aromatic amines. The oat gene encoding the enzyme of S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100 was specifically disrupted and the sensitivities of the resulting strains, i.e., YG7130 and YG7126, to mutagens were compared with those of the conventional oat-deficient strains, i.e., TA98/1,8DNP6 and TA100/1,8DNP, respectively. The new oat-deficient strains and the conventional strains exhibited similar sensitivity against most of the chemicals tested: both strains YG7130 and strain TA98/1,8-DNP6 were resistant to mutagenicity by 1,8-dinitropyrene (1, 8-DNP), 1-nitropyrene, 2-amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2-alpha:3', 2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1) and 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4, 5-f]quinoline (IQ); neither strain YG7130 nor strain TA98/1,8-DNP6 was resistant to the mutagenicity of 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4, 3-b]indole (Trp-P-2); strain YG7126 and strain TA100/1,8-DNP were refractory to the mutagenicity of 1,8-DNP. However, the order of the sensitivity against 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF) was TA98>YG7130>TA98/1, 8-DNP6 and TA100>YG7126>TA100/1,8-DNP. Since the strains YG7130 and YG7126 have chloramphenicol resistance (Cmr) gene in place of the chromosomal oat gene for gene disruption, the possible involvement of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) encoded by the Cmr gene in the activation of 2-NF was examined. Strikingly, introduction of plasmid pACYC184 carrying the Cmr gene alone substantially enhanced the sensitivity of the conventional oat-deficient strains to 2-NF. These results suggest that the new strains as well as the conventional strains are useful to assess the roles of OAT in the metabolic activation of nitroaromatics and aromatic amines in S. typhimurium, and also that CAT has the ability to activate N-hydroxy aromatic amines to mutagens. PMID:10023048

  17. Serotype-specific and serotype-independent strategies for pre-harvest control of foodborne Salmonella in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Of more than 2500 identified Salmonella serotypes, only a small proportion are common in poultry flocks. However, there is an epidemiologically important connection between poultry products and human infections, as many of the serotypes that are most prevalent in humans (such as S. Typhimurium and S...

  18. SYBR®Green qPCR Salmonella detection system allowing discrimination at the genus, species and subspecies levels

    OpenAIRE

    Barbau-Piednoir, Elodie; Bertrand, Sophie; Mahillon, Jacques; Roosens, Nancy H.; Botteldoorn, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a three-level Salmonella detection system based on a combination of seven SYBR®Green qPCR was developed. This detection system discriminates Salmonella at the genus, species and subspecies levels using a single 96-well plate. The SYBR®Green qPCR assays target the invA, rpoD, iroB and safC genes, as well as the STM0296 locus, putatively coding for a cytoplasmic protein. This study includes the design of primer pairs, in silico and in situ selectivity, sensitivity, repeatability a...

  19. Oral Vaccination with Attenuated Salmonella enterica Strains Encoding T-Cell Epitopes from Tumor Antigen NY-ESO-1 Induces Specific Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Responses?

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Jia-Zi; Dong, Yu-Jun; Huang, He; LI, SHUANG; Zhong, Yi; Liu, Shu-Lin; Wang, Yue-dan

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial fimbriae can accept foreign peptides and display them on the cell surface. A highly efficient gene replacement method was used to generate peptide vaccines based on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL3261. The T-cell epitopes (NY-ESO-1 p157-165 and p157-167) from NY-ESO-1, which is a promising target antigen in patients for the specific immune recognition of cancer, were incorporated into the gene encoding AgfA (the major subunit protein of thin aggregative fimbriae of Salmon...

  20. Isolation and molecular characterization of Salmonella spp. from chevon and chicken meat collected from different districts of Chhattisgarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Naik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the prevalence of Salmonella in raw chevon and chicken meat sold in the retail meat shops situated in and around Durg, Rajnandgaon, Dhamtari, Raipur, and Bilaspur districts of Chhattisgarh. Studies were also conducted to find out the antibiotic resistance in Salmonella isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 samples comprising of 200 chevon meat and 200 chicken meat samples were processed for isolation of Salmonella and all isolates were further confirmed on the basis of cultural and biochemical characters and by targeting invA gene of Salmonella. All Salmonella isolates were also examined for their antimicrobial drug susceptibility/resistance pattern against commonly used antibiotics. Results: Out of 400 samples, the prevalence of Salmonella in chevon and chicken meat was found 9% and 7% respectively, with an overall prevalence of 8%. Polymerase chain reaction targeting invA gene of Salmonella showed positive result with 31 isolates. All 32 Salmonella isolates were found to be highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin while 96.87%, 96.87% and 93.75% were sensitive to gentamicin, imipenem, and ceftazidime, respectively. 93.75% and 59.37% isolates were resistant to erythromycin and oxytetracycline, respectively. Out of 32, 14 isolates had multiple antibiotic resistance index equal to or more than 0.2. Conclusion: Salmonella in chevon and chicken meat samples is prevailing in the areas of sampling due to poor hygienic conditions and also demonstrated the varied spectrum of antimicrobial resistance, including several multiple drug resistance phenotypes. Therefore, the present study emphasizes the need for continued surveillance of zoonotic foodborne pathogens including antimicrobial-resistant variants throughout the food production chain.

  1. Allotypic and idiotypic specificities of anti-Salmonella abortus-equi antibodies produced by rabbits subjected to successive irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three out of five rabbits subjected to successive irradiations and immunized against Salmonella abortus-equi produced IgG which, transiently, were not precipitated by anti-a3 anti-allotypic sera, although they carried all the determinants of the a3 allotypic pattern. As a3 IgG from normal rabbits are precipitated by anti-a3 sera, it appeared that the molecular distribution of the a3 allotypic determinants was different on the IgG produced by these irradiated rabbits compared to IgG produced by normal rabbits. After a second irradiation, one of these rabbits produced a high level (50 mg per ml) of anti-Salmonella antibodies of restricted heterogeneity. An anti-idiotypic serum prepared against anti-Salmonella antibodies produced by this rabbit after the first irradiation precipitated the idiotypes it recognised in the serum collected after the first irradiation, while it did not precipitate the idiotypes it recognised in the serum collected after the second irradiation, although they carried all the determinants of the idiotypes of the serum collected after the first irradiation. That probably means that there is a different molecular distribution of the idiotypic determinants between antibodies produced after the first irradiation and antibodies produced after the second irradiation. An antiidiotypic serum prepared against anti-Salmonella antibodies produced after the second irradiation did not distinguish by precipitation in gel medium or by radioimmunoassay between tel medium or by radioimmunoassay between the idiotypes it recognised in antibodies produced after the first irradiation and those in antibodies produced after the second irradiation. The idiotypic similarity thus detected, and the fact that unexpected allotypes were not detected, is in better agreement with the expression of the potentiality of radiation-resistant cells than with the expression of new antibody producing cell clones arising from virgin stem cells. (author)

  2. Induction of feline immunodeficiency virus specific antibodies in cats with an attenuated Salmonella strain expressing the Gag protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Tijhaar, E.J.; Siebelink, C.H.J.; Karlas, J A; Burger, M C; Mooi, F.R.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.

    1997-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium aroA strains (SL3261), expressing high levels of the Gag protein of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) fused with maltose binding protein (SL3261-MFG), were constructed using an invertible promoter system that allows the stable expression of heterologous antigens at levels toxic for bacteria. A SL3261 strain expressing the B subunit of cholera toxin by a similar system (SL3261-CtxB) served as a control in FIV-immunization experiments. Cats immunized once orally or intr...

  3. Distribution of Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-8 and SPI-10 among different serotypes of Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroj, Sunil D; Shashidhar, R; Karani, Manisha; Bandekar, Jayant R

    2008-04-01

    Many virulence phenotypes of Salmonella enterica are encoded by genes located on pathogenicity islands. Based on genome analysis, it is predicted that Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-8 is restricted to Salmonella serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A, and SPI-10 to Salmonella serovars Typhi, Paratyphi, Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum. This study was conducted to investigate the distribution of SPI-8 and SPI-10 among Salmonella isolates from sprouts, fish, water and blood. A total of 110 Salmonella isolates and 6 Salmonella serovars from the Microbial Type Culture Collection, Chandigarh, India, were screened. All isolates belonging to Salmonella serovars Washington, Enteritidis and Paratyphi A had both SPI-8 and SPI-10. All Salmonella serovar Typhi isolates from water and blood had both SPI-8 and SPI-10, whereas isolates from fish contained only SPI-8. SPI-8 and SPI-10 were also detected in only 3 out of 42 isolates belonging to Salmonella serovar Typhimurium. Both SPI-8 and SPI-10 were absent in Salmonella serovars Worthington, Dublin, Paratyphi B and Paratyphi C. These results contradict the predictions from Salmonella genome sequences available in GenBank and indicate that SPI-8 and SPI-10 are widely distributed among Salmonella serovars and that virulence factors other than those on SPI-8 and SPI-10 may be responsible for host specificity. This is the first report on the distribution of SPIs in Salmonella isolates from India. PMID:18349359

  4. Pathogenicity of Salmonella enteritidis Phage Type 1 Isolate of Malaysia in 21 Day Old Specific-Pathogen Free Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khairani-Bejo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enteritidis (SE has always been related to subclinical infection in the chickens infected after 2 weeks of hatching. However, few pathogenic phage types were proven for their ability to manifest systemic infection and cause the organism to be shed into the surrounding environment. It was the objective of the study to determine the pathogenicity of SE Phage Type (PT 1 in Specific-Pathogen-Free (SPF chickens. About 93, 21 day old SPF chickens where divided into 3 groups namely the Control, SE and Mortality groups. The chickens were raised separately in caging system and given free access to antibiotic-free ration and water. The SE and Mortality groups were inoculated orally (1.0 mL with SE PT 1 (1x108 cfu mL-1. The chickens in the SE and Control groups were sacrificed at various intervals throughout the trial. Samples were collected for bacterial isolation and histological examination. The mortality percentage of the chickens in the Mortality group was recorded. The study showed that no mortality was recorded throughout the trial in the mortality as well as the SE group. Body weight was lower in the SE group when compared to the Control group throughout the trial except at days 2, 3 and 5 post inoculation (pi reaching its peak at day 14 pi when the SE group body weight was 26% lower than the controls. Clinical signs observed in the SE and Mortality group were represented by diarrhoea, inappetance, ruffled feather and stunted chickens while no abnormal clinical signs where recorded in the Control group. Grossly mild airsacculitis, mild peritonitis and hepatic congestion where recorded in the SE group at day 2 pi until day 5 pi while no gross lesions where recorded in the Control group. SE was first isolated in the caecum (66% at 12 h pi. At day 1 pi SE was isolated from the caecum and spleen (33% whilst at day 2, SE was isolated from the caecum (100% and caecal tonsil (66%. No SE was isolated from the cloacal swabs throughout the trial. The villi height was generally lower in the SE group when compared to the Controls, however it was significantly lower (p<0.05 in the duodenum at 12 h, days 1, 3, 5, 10, 14 and 21 pi; in the jejunum at 6 h, days 2, 14 and 21 pi while in the ileum at days 1, 3 and 5 pi. The crypts depth measurement was fluctuating however it ended up by being higher in the SE group, nevertheless it was significantly lower (p<0.05 in the SE group when compared to the Control group in the duodenum at 6 h and day 14 pi in the jejunum at day 10 pi; in the ileum at 12 h pi. Histopathological changes recorded included hepatitis, congestion and focal areas of necrosis; splenitis, congestion and oedema in the adenoid sheathed arteries; congestion and areas of necrosis in the lymphoi follicles of the bursa of Fabricius; enteritis, congestion and sloughing of necrotic enterocytes in the intestinal villi with presence of bacterial clusters in the villi surface and intestinal lumen. SE rods present in the caecal tonsils were seen to be engulfed by macrophages at days 1 and 2 pi, necrosis of the enterocytes on the villi surface and infiltration of the bacteria was recorded at day 2 pi while at days 5 pi the bacteria multiplication were seen and often located upon the M-like M cells however, no actual engulfment was recorded.

  5. Salmonella Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sports: Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know Salmonella Infections KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Stomach & Intestinal Infections > Salmonella ... bathroom and before handling food in any way. Salmonella Basics Not everyone who ingests Salmonella bacteria will ...

  6. Extending the CD4(+) T-cell epitope specificity of the Th1 immune response to an antigen using a Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium delivery vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo-Man, R; Langeveld, J P; Dériaud, E; Jehanno, M; Rojas, M; Clément, J M; Meloen, R H; Hofnung, M; Leclerc, C

    2000-06-01

    We analyzed the CD4 T-cell immunodominance of the response to a model antigen (Ag), MalE, when delivered by an attenuated strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (SL3261*pMalE). Compared to purified MalE Ag administered with adjuvant, the mapping of the peptide-specific proliferative responses showed qualitative differences when we used the Salmonella vehicle. We observed the disappearance of one out of eight MalE peptides' T-cell reactivity upon SL3261*pMalE immunization, but this phenomenon was probably due to a low level of T-cell priming, since it could be overcome by further immunization. The most striking effect of SL3261*pMalE administration was the activation and stimulation of new MalE peptide-specific T-cell responses that were silent after administration of purified Ag with adjuvant. Ag presentation assays performed with MalE-specific T-cell hybridomas showed that infection of Ag-presenting cells by this intracellular attenuated bacterium did not affect the processing and presentation of the different MalE peptides by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules and therefore did not account for immunodominance modulation. Thus, immunodominance of the T-cell response to microorganisms is governed not only by the frequency of the available T-cell repertoire or the processing steps in Ag-presenting cells that lead to MHC presentation but also by other parameters probably related to the infectious process and to the bacterial products. Our results indicate that, upon infection by a microorganism, the specificity of the T-cell response induced against its Ags can be much more effective than with purified Ags and that it cannot completely be mimicked by purified Ags administered with adjuvant. PMID:10816447

  7. GolS controls the response to gold by the hierarchical induction of Salmonella-specific genes that include a CBA efflux-coding operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontel, Lucas B; Audero, María E Pérez; Espariz, Martín; Checa, Susana K; Soncini, Fernando C

    2007-11-01

    Salmonella employs a specific set of proteins that allows it to detect the presence of gold salts in the environment and to mount the appropriate resistance response. This includes a P-type ATPase, GolT, and a small cytoplasmic metal binding protein, GolB. Their expression is controlled by a MerR-like sensor, GolS, which is highly selective for Au ions. Here, we identify a new GolS-controlled operon named gesABC which codes for a CBA efflux system, and establish its role in Au resistance. GesABC can also mediate drug resistance when induced by Au in a GolS-dependent manner, in a strain deleted in the main drug transporter acrAB. The GolS-controlled transcription of gesABC differs from the other GolS-regulated loci. It is activated by gold, but not induced by copper, even in a strain deleted of the main Cu transporter gene copA, which triggers a substantial GolS-dependent induction of golTS and golB. We demonstrate that the Au-dependent induction of gesABC transcription requires higher GolS levels than for the other members of the gol regulon. This correlates with a divergent GolS operator in the gesABC promoter. We propose that the hierarchical induction within the gol regulon allows Salmonella to cope with Au-contaminated environments. PMID:17919284

  8. Occurrence, genetic characterization and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from chicken meat and giblets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elghany, S M; Sallam, K I; Abd-Elkhalek, A; Tamura, T

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY This study was undertaken to survey the presence of Salmonella in 200 chicken samples collected from Mansoura, Egypt. Salmonella was detected in 16% (8/50), 28% (14/50), 32% (16/50) and 60% (30/50) of whole chicken carcasses, drumsticks, livers and gizzards, respectively, with an overall prevalence of 34% (68/200) among all samples. One hundred and sixty-six isolates were identified biochemically as Salmonella, and confirmed genetically by PCR, based on the presence of invA and stn genes. The spvC gene, however, was detected in only 25.3% (42/166) of the isolates. Isolates were serotyped as Salmonella Enteritidis (37.3%), S. Typhimurium (30.1%), S. Kentucky (10.8%), S. Muenster (8.4%), S. Virchow (4.8%), S. Anatum (4.8%), S. Haifa (1.2%), and four were non-typable. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests of the Salmonella isolates revealed that 100% were resistant to each of erythromycin, penicillin, and amoxicillin, while 98.8%, 96.4%, 95.2%, and 91.6% were resistant to nalidixic acid, sulphamethoxazole, oxytetracycline, and ampicillin, respectively. Multidrug resistance was evident for 92.8% of the isolates. The high contamination level of chicken meat with multidrug-resistant Salmonella can constitute a problem for public health. PMID:25004116

  9. REAL-TIME MONITORING OF SALMONELLA IN SWINE: SPECIFICITY AND SENSITIVITY OF BACTERIAL DETECTION THROUGH THE GASTROINFESTINAL TRACTS OF JUVENILE AND MARKET WEIGHT PIGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have demonstrated that Salmonella can be monitored non-invasively using biophotonic paradigms (Salmonella expressing light-emitting proteins) in living neonatal pigs. Nevertheless, questions remain concerning system sensitivity and adaptations of these methodologies for investigations of pre-harv...

  10. Salmonella Yoruba infection in white-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) / Infecção por Salmonella Yoruba em sagui-de-tufo-branco (Callithrix jacchus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Terezinha, Knöbl; Leliane T., Rocha; Márcia C., Menão; Cláudia A.S., Igayara; Renata, Paixão; Andréa M., Moreno.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever um caso fatal de salmonelose em uma fêmea primata não humana (Callithrix jacchus), originária de tráfico ilegal no Brasil. O sagui foi enviado para seção de quarentena do Zoológico Municipal de Guarulhos e morreu após um episódio de diarréia profusa. Achados d [...] e necropsia incluíram enterite mucosa, hepatomegalia e necrose do fígado. Fezes e fragmentos do fígado foram coletados para testes bacteriológicos e indicaram a presença de Salmonella sp.; subsequentemente caracterizada como sorotipo Yoruba. O perfil de suscetibilidade mostrou resistência somente à tetraciclina. A cepa foi positiva para os genes que codificam os fatores de virulência investigados (invA, sefC, pefA and spvC). Os resultados indicaram o risco de introdução de sorotipos patogênicos de Salmonella por primatas em cativeiro. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to describe a fatal salmonellosis case in a non-human female primate (Callithrix jacchus), found in the illegal pet trade in Brazil. The marmoset was sent to the quarantine section of the Guarulhos City Zoo and died in the sequence of an episode of profuse diarrhea. Necrops [...] y findings included mucous enteritis, and liver enlargement and necrosis. Feces and liver fragments were collected for bacteriological tests, which indicated the presence of Salmonella sp.; it was subsequently characterized as pertaining to the Yoruba serotype. The susceptibility profile demonstrated resistance to tetracycline only. The strain was positive for genes that encoded the virulence factors investigated (invA, sefC, pefA and spvC). The results indicated the risk of introduction of Salmonella pathogenic serotypes in primates in captivity.

  11. Salmonella Yoruba infection in white-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix jacchus Infecção por Salmonella Yoruba em sagui-de-tufo-branco (Callithrix jacchus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Knöbl

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe a fatal salmonellosis case in a non-human female primate (Callithrix jacchus, found in the illegal pet trade in Brazil. The marmoset was sent to the quarantine section of the Guarulhos City Zoo and died in the sequence of an episode of profuse diarrhea. Necropsy findings included mucous enteritis, and liver enlargement and necrosis. Feces and liver fragments were collected for bacteriological tests, which indicated the presence of Salmonella sp.; it was subsequently characterized as pertaining to the Yoruba serotype. The susceptibility profile demonstrated resistance to tetracycline only. The strain was positive for genes that encoded the virulence factors investigated (invA, sefC, pefA and spvC. The results indicated the risk of introduction of Salmonella pathogenic serotypes in primates in captivity.O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever um caso fatal de salmonelose em uma fêmea primata não humana (Callithrix jacchus, originária de tráfico ilegal no Brasil. O sagui foi enviado para seção de quarentena do Zoológico Municipal de Guarulhos e morreu após um episódio de diarréia profusa. Achados de necropsia incluíram enterite mucosa, hepatomegalia e necrose do fígado. Fezes e fragmentos do fígado foram coletados para testes bacteriológicos e indicaram a presença de Salmonella sp.; subsequentemente caracterizada como sorotipo Yoruba. O perfil de suscetibilidade mostrou resistência somente à tetraciclina. A cepa foi positiva para os genes que codificam os fatores de virulência investigados (invA, sefC, pefA and spvC. Os resultados indicaram o risco de introdução de sorotipos patogênicos de Salmonella por primatas em cativeiro.

  12. Activation of salmonella typhi-specific regulatory T cells in typhoid disease in a wild-type s. Typhi challenge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Monica A; Fresnay, Stephanie; Magder, Laurence S; Darton, Thomas C; Jones, Claire; Waddington, Claire S; Blohmke, Christoph J; Dougan, Gordon; Angus, Brian; Levine, Myron M; Pollard, Andrew J; Sztein, Marcelo B

    2015-05-01

    Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi), the causative agent of typhoid fever, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently available vaccines are moderately efficacious, and identification of immunological responses associated with protection or disease will facilitate the development of improved vaccines. We investigated S. Typhi-specific modulation of activation and homing potential of circulating regulatory T cells (Treg) by flow and mass cytometry using specimens obtained from a human challenge study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from volunteers pre- and at multiple time-points post-challenge with wild-type S. Typhi. We identified differing patterns of S. Typhi-specific modulation of the homing potential of circulating Treg between volunteers diagnosed with typhoid (TD) and those who were not (No TD). TD volunteers demonstrated up-regulation of the gut homing molecule integrin ?4ß7 pre-challenge, followed by a significant down-regulation post-challenge consistent with Treg homing to the gut. Additionally, S. Typhi-specific Treg from TD volunteers exhibited up-regulation of activation molecules post-challenge (e.g., HLA-DR, LFA-1). We further demonstrate that depletion of Treg results in increased S. Typhi-specific cytokine production by CD8+ TEM in vitro. These results suggest that the tissue distribution of activated Treg, their characteristics and activation status may play a pivotal role in typhoid fever, possibly through suppression of S. Typhi-specific effector T cell responses. These studies provide important novel insights into the regulation of immune responses that are likely to be critical in protection against typhoid and other enteric infectious diseases. PMID:26001081

  13. Salmonella Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Moir (National Institutes of Health; )

    2010-04-23

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) are a group of enteric bacteria can lead to life-threatening bacteremia in those with weakened immune systems. MacLennan et al. identify an immune response that may have important implications for the development of a vaccine against NTS.

  14. Dysregulated humoral immunity to nontyphoidal Salmonella in HIV-infected African adults

    OpenAIRE

    Maclennan, Calman A.; Gilchrist, James J.; Gordon, Melita A.; Cunningham, Adam F.; Cobbold, Mark; Goodall, Margaret; Kingsley, Robert A.; Oosterhout, Joep J. G.; Msefula, Chisomo L.; Mandala, Wilson L.; Leyton, Denisse L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Gondwe, Esther N.; Bobat, Saeeda; Lo?pez-maci?as, Constantino

    2010-01-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonellae are a major cause of life-threatening bacteremia among HIV-infected individuals. Although cell-mediated immunity controls intracellular infection, antibody protects against Salmonella bacteremia. We report that high titer antibodies specific for Salmonella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) associate with absent Salmonella-killing in HIV-infected African adults. Killing was restored by genetically shortening LPS from target Salmonella, or removing LPS-specific antibodies from s...

  15. 78 FR 42526 - Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ...Docket No. FDA-2013-D-0254] Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food; Withdrawal...CPG) entitled ``Sec. 690.700 Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food...the CGP entitled ``Sec. 690.700 Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food...

  16. Infection with Salmonella typhimurium has no effect on the composition and cleavage specificity of the 20S proteasome in human lymphoid cells

    OpenAIRE

    Marcilla Goldaracena, Miguel; Lo?pez Castro A?lvarez, Jose? Antonio; Castan?o, Jose? G.; A?lvarez, In?aki

    2007-01-01

    Human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 is strongly associated with spondyloarthropathies, including reactive arthritis. Several Gram-negative bacteria, such as Salmonella typhimurium, can trigger this disease. It has been suggested that peptides derived from bacterial proteins and presented by HLA-B27 to cytotoxic T lymphocytes might show molecular mimicry with autologous peptides, leading to T-cell cross-reaction and autoimmunity. Antigen presentation in Salmonella-infected cells could be modulat...

  17. Oral Immunization with Attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Encoding Cryptosporidium parvum Cp23 and Cp40 Antigens Induces a Specific Immune Response in Mice?

    OpenAIRE

    Benitez, Alvaro J.; McNair, Nina; Mead, Jan R.

    2009-01-01

    Attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine strain SL3261 was used as an antigen delivery system for the oral immunization of mice against two Cryptosporidium parvum antigens, Cp23 and Cp40. Each antigen was subcloned into the pTECH1 vector system, which allows them to be expressed as fusion proteins with highly immunogenic fragment C of tetanus toxin under the control of the anaerobically inducible nirB promoter. The recombinant vector was introduced into Salmonella Typhimuriu...

  18. Extracellular export of Shiga toxin B-subunit/haemolysin A (C-terminus) fusion protein expressed in Salmonella typhimurium aroA-mutant and stimulation of B-subunit specific antibody responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, G F; Brahmbhatt, H N; de Lorenzo, V; Wehland, J; Timmis, K N

    1992-12-01

    The Shiga toxin B-subunit has been fused to the 23-kD C-terminus of Escherichia coli haemolysin A (HlyA) and exported from attenuated antigen carrier strain of Salmonella typhimurium aroA (SL3261). The expression of the gene fusion under the control of a synthetic modified beta-lactamase promoter (constitutive expression) and under the iron-regulated aerobactin promoter showed that the fusion protein could be stably expressed and exported out of the bacterial cell in significant amounts so long as high copy number plasmids were not used. Oral and i.p. immunization of mice with the hybrid salmonellae resulted in significant B-subunit specific mucosal and serum antibody responses. A comparative analysis of the location of hybrid proteins in the antigen carrier bacterial cell (i.e. cytoplasmic expression and extracellular export) has shown that both modes of expression result in antigen-specific immune responses. This is the first report demonstrating that foreign polypeptides fused to the 23-kD C-terminus of E. coli haemolysin A can be exported from attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains and that such exported polypeptides can result in antigen-specific immune responses. PMID:1302285

  19. A comparison of cecal colonization of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in white leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomolnaya Lydia M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial food borne illnesses worldwide. A major source of infection for humans is consumption of chicken or egg products that have been contaminated with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, however our knowledge regarding colonization and persistence factors in the chicken is small. Results We compared intestinal and systemic colonization of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant CBA/J mice during infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028, one of the most commonly studied isolates. We also studied the distribution of wild type serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028 and an isogenic invA mutant during competitive infection in the cecum of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and 8-week-old CBA/J mice. We found that although the systemic levels of serotype Typhimurium in both infected animal models are low, infected mice have significant splenomegaly beginning at 15 days post infection. In the intestinal tract itself, the cecal contents are the major site for recovery of serotype Typhimurium in the cecum of 1-week-old chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice. Additionally we show that only a small minority of Salmonellae are intracellular in the cecal epithelium of both infected animal models, and while SPI-1 is important for successful infection in the murine model, it is important for association with the cecal epithelium of 1-week-old chicks. Finally, we show that in chicks infected with serotype Typhimurium at 1 week of age, the level of fecal shedding of this organism does not reflect the level of cecal colonization as it does in murine models. Conclusion In our study, we highlight important differences in systemic and intestinal colonization levels between chick and murine serotype Typhimurium infections, and provide evidence that suggests that the role of SPI-1 may not be the same during colonization of both animal models.

  20. Detección de Salmonella y coliformes fecales en agua de uso agrícola para la producción de melón "Cantaloupe" / Detection of Salmonella and fecal coliforms in water for agricultural use destined to melon"Cantaloupe"

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carmela, Hernández-Domínguez; Ana María, Hernández-Anguiano; Cristóbal, Cháidez-Quiroz; Gilberto, Rendón-Sánchez; Trevor, Suslow.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available El agua que se utiliza en la producción de cultivos hortofrutícolas representa una fuente potencial de microorganismos que ocasionan enfermedades de transmisión alimentaria. Con el objetivo de evaluar la calidad sanitaria de diferentes fuentes de agua empleadas en la producción de melón Cantaloupe ( [...] Cucumis melo L. [grupo reticulatus] cv. Ovación y Caminos), en Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero, se analizaron 71 muestras de agua provenientes de dos unidades de campo (23) y de una unidad de empaque (48) mediante métodos bacteriológicos convencionales para la detección deSalmonella spp, y por el método de filtración en membrana y el crecimiento en medios selectivos, para la detección de coliformes fecales, como indicadores de contaminación fecal. Del total de muestras de agua analizadas sólo tres muestras de campo resultaron positivas a la presencia de Salmonella spp. y nueve muestras, siete de campo y dos de la unidad de empaque, resultaron positivas a coliformes fecales. Salmonella spp. y coliformes fecales se detectaron principalmente en muestras de agua no clorada a 29 °C y 7.5 de pH, en promedio. En pruebas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR), dos de cuatro cepas presuntivas de Salmonella ssp. dieron amplificaciones positivas con los iniciadores Sal-3 y Sal-4, y invA-1 e invA-2; de las otras dos, sólo dieron amplificación positiva con Sal-3 y Sal-4. Aparentemente se tiene más de una raza o serovar de Salmonella en la región. Estos resultados sugieren que algunas de las fuentes de agua empleadas en la producción de melón Cantaloupe en Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero, no cumplen con la normatividad sanitaria por lo que estas fuentes deben establecerse como puntos prerequisitos de control para evitar la contaminación de melones frescos con patógenos de humanos. Abstract in english Water used in the production of horticultural crops represents a potential source of microorganisms that cause food-transmitted diseases. In order to evaluate the sanitary quality of different agricultural water sources used in the production of Cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo L. [group reticulatus] [...] cv. Ovacion and Caminos), in Zirandaro Chavez, Guerrero, 71 water samples were analyzed from two field units (23) and one packaging house unit (48) through traditional bacteriological methods, to detect Salmonella spp, and the filtering membrane method and growth selective media, to detect fecal coliforms, as fecal contamination indicators. Of the total analyzed water samples only three field samples were positive to Salmonella spp. and nine samples, seven coming from the field and two from the packaging house, were positive to fecal coliforms. Salmonella spp. and fecal coliforms were detected mainly in non-chlorinated water samples at 29 °C and pH of 7.5, on average. Two out of four presumptive Salmonella spp. isolates were confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers Sal-3 and Sal-4, and invA-1 and invA-2; the other two were only confirmed with Sal-3 y Sal-4. Apparently more than one race or serovar of Salmonella spp. are present in this region. Results suggest that some water sources used in the Cantaloupe melon production in Zirandaro Chavez, Guerrero, do not meet sanitary standards therefore these sources should be considered as critical control points to prevent fresh melon contamination with human pathogens.

  1. The invA gene of Brucella melitensis is involved in intracellular invasion and is required to establish infection in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva-Pérez, Jorge; Arellano-Reynoso, Beatriz; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Suárez-Güemes, Francisco

    2014-05-15

    Some of the mechanisms underlying the invasion and intracellular survival of B. melitensis are still unknown, including the role of a subfamily of NUDIX enzymes, which have been described in other bacterial species as invasins and are present in Brucella spp. We have generated a mutation in the coding gene of one of these proteins, the invA gene (BMEI0215) of B. melitensis strain 133, to understand its role in virulence. HeLa cell invasion results showed that mutant strain survival was decreased 5-fold compared with that of the parental strain at 2 h pi (P<0.001). In a goat macrophage infection assay, mutant strain replication was 8-fold less than in the parental strain at 24 h pi (P<0.001); yet, at 48 h pi, no significant differences in intracellular replication were observed. Additionally, colocalization of the invA mutant with calregulin was significantly lower at 24 h pi compared with that of the parental strain. Furthermore, the mutant strain exhibited a low level of colocalization with cathepsin D, which was similar to the parental strain colocalization at 24 h pi. In vivo infection results demonstrated that spleen colonization was significantly lower with the mutant than with the parental strain. The immune response, measured in terms of antibody switching and IFN-? transcription, was similar for Rev1 and infection with the mutant, although it was lower than the immune response elicited by the parental strain. Consequently, these results indicate that the invA gene is important during invasion but not for intracellular replication. Additionally, mutation of the invA gene results in in vivo attenuation. PMID:24667775

  2. Oral vaccination with a recombinant Salmonella vaccine vector provokes systemic HIV-1 subtype C Gag-specific CD4+ Th1 and Th2 cell immune responses in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williamson Anna-Lise

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant Salmonella vaccine vectors may potentially be used to induce specific CD4+ T cell responses against foreign viral antigens. Such immune responses are required features of vaccines against pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1. The aim of this study was to investigate the induction of systemic HIV-1-specific CD4+ T helper (Th responses in mice after oral immunization with a live attenuated Salmonella vaccine vector that expressed HIV-1 subtype C Gag. Groups of BALB/c mice were vaccinated orally three times (4 weeks apart with this recombinant Salmonella. At sacrifice, 28 days after the last immunization, systemic CD4+ Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunospot assay and cytometric bead array. HIV-1 Gag-specific IgG1 and IgG2a humoral responses in the serum were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Mice vaccinated with the recombinant Salmonella elicited both HIV-1-specific Th1 (interferon-gamma (IFN-? and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-? and Th2 (interleukin-4 (IL-4 and interleukin-5 (IL-5 cytokine responses. The vaccine induced 70 (IFN-? spot-forming units (SFUs/10e6 splenocytes and 238 IL-4 SFUs/10e6 splenocytes. Splenocytes from vaccinated mice also produced high levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines upon stimulation with a Gag CD4 peptide. The levels of IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-4 and IL-5 were 7.5-, 29.1-, 26.2- and 89.3-fold above the background, respectively. Both HIV-1 Gag-specific IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies were detected in the sera of vaccinated mice. Conclusion The study highlights the potential of orally-delivered attenuated Salmonella as mucosal vaccine vectors for HIV-1 Subtype C Gag to induce Gag-specific CD4+ Th1 and Th2 cellular immune responses and antibodies which may be important characteristics required for protection against HIV-1 infection.

  3. Specific lung mucosal and systemic immune responses after oral immunization of mice with Salmonella typhimurium aroA, Salmonella typhi Ty21a, and invasive Escherichia coli expressing recombinant pertussis toxin S1 subunit.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, M J; Rohde, M; Timmis, K.N.; Guzmán, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Pertussis toxin (PT) is considered an essential protective component for incorporation into new generation vaccines against Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. Traditionally, antipertussis vaccination has employed an intramuscular route. An alternative to this approach is to stimulate mucosal and systemic immune responses by oral immunization with live vaccine carrier strains of Salmonella spp. or Escherichia coli. Recombinant S1 subunit of pertussis toxin was express...

  4. Isolation of Salmonella spp. from lettuce and evaluation of its susceptibility to novel bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis and antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Ramírez, Cristobal; Cortes-Rodríguez, Viridiana; de la Fuente-Salcido, Norma; Bideshi, Dennis K; del Rincón-Castro, M Cristina; Barboza-Corona, J Eleazar

    2011-02-01

    In this study, 13% of fresh lettuce (Lactuca sativa) samples collected from markets and supermarkets in two cities of Mexico were contaminated with Salmonella spp. From those samples, amplicons of ?300 base pairs (bp) were amplified, corresponding to the expected size of the invasion (invA) and internal transcribed spacer regions of the 16S and 23S rRNA genes of Salmonella spp. Additionally, Salmonella strains were isolated and harbored plasmids ranging from ?9 to 16 kbp. From these strains, 91% were resistant to ampicillin and nitrofurantoin, whereas 55% were resistant to cephalothin and chloramphenicol. No resistance was detected to amikacin, carbenicillin, cefotaxime, gentamicin, netilmicin, norfloxacin, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. When Salmonella isolates were tested against novel bacteriocins (morricin 269, kurstacin 287, kenyacin 404, entomocin 420, and tolworthcin 524) produced by five Mexican strains of Bacillus thuringiensis, 50% were susceptible to these antimicrobial peptides. This is the first report showing that Salmonella strains isolated from lettuce are susceptible to bacteriocins produced by the most important bioinsecticide worldwide, suggesting the potential use of these antibacterial peptides as therapeutic agents or food preservatives to reduce or destroy populations of Salmonella spp. PMID:21333148

  5. Occurrence of Salmonella in retail beef and related meat products in Zaria, Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafida, S.Y.; Kabir, J.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella is among the most important food borne pathogens worldwide contaminating a wide range of animal products including meat products. Human illnesses due to this pathogen are attributed to poor biosecurity in production, improper processing and handling of meat and meat products. This is more likely where surveillance and regulatory control is weak. There is however limited information on the occurrence of these pathogens in foods in Nigeria. The extent of contamination of retail-beef and related meat products with Salmonellae in Zaria was evaluated. A total of 435 retailed beef and related meat products consisting of muscle meat, offal and processed meat products were tested for the presence of Salmonella species. Sample types included raw meat, ‘suya’ (roasted meat), ‘balangu’ (barbequed meat), ‘Kilishi’ (spiced sun dried meat) and ‘dambu’ (shredded fried meat). Samples were derived from four major markets and Zango abattoir in Zaria, Nigeria and cultured using selective isolation method with prior enrichment. Suspected isolates were identified and characterised using conventional biochemical methods and Microbact 12E (Oxoid, UK) identification kit. The isolates were serotyped. Confirmed isolates were evaluated in vitro for susceptibilities to 18 commonly used antimicrobial agents. Ten samples (2.3%) were positive for Salmonella. Raw beef samples had the highest isolation rates (2.43%). All the 10 Salmonella isolates were found to carry the invA gene. All the isolates exhibited multiple drug resistance. Simultaneous resistance to up to 8 antibiotics was found amongst the Salmonellae. The isolates exhibited more commonly resistance to members of ?-lactam family and other antibiotic classes including lincosamides, macrolides, aminoglycosides and nitrofurans. Meat and meat products including ready-to-eat meat in Zaria were contaminated with multidrug and virulent Salmonella species. Meat and meat products in Nigeria are thus a hazardous group of foods that can potentially transmit this pathogen to humans.

  6. Salmonella enterica in imported and domestic day-old turkey poults in Egypt: repertoire of virulence genes and their antimicrobial resistance profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, K M; Marouf, S H; Erfan, A M; AlAtfeehy, N

    2014-12-01

    Globalisation and international trade facilitate the rapid spread and transmission of foodborne pathogens. This study was designed to determine the serovars, distribution of virulence genes (invA, avrA, ssaQ, mgtC, siiD, sopB, gipA, sodC1, sopE1, spvC, bcfC) and antibiotic resistance profiles in salmonellae recovered from imported and domestic day-old turkey poults in Egypt. The prevalence of salmonellae in the imported poults was 4% (6/150): S. Enteritidis was the most frequent isolate (1.3%; 2/150), followed by Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle and a non-typeable strain, each with 0.7% (1/150) prevalence. The prevalence of salmonellae in the domestic poults was < 2% (2/150) and serotyping indicated a prevalence of 1.3% (1/150) for both Typhimurium and Altona. In polymerase chain reaction screening, the genes invA, sopB and bcfC were detected in all the Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle, Altona and non-typeable isolates (100%); the gene gipA was absent from all isolates. Carriage of invA, sopB and bcfC among the Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle, Altona and non-typeable isolates was associated with a core pattern of resistance to three antibiotics: streptomycin, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol. The detection of S. Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle, and Altona in turkey poults has important implications because these serovars are a significant cause of foodborne illness and enteric fever in humans. PMID:25812224

  7. Class 1 integrons and virulence genes in Salmonella enterica isolates from pork and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannaprasat, Wechsiri; Padungtod, Pawin; Chuanchuen, Rungtip

    2011-05-01

    In this study, 183 Salmonella enterica isolates were characterised for integrons and virulence genes. Among the isolates, 46% were positive for intI1, but no isolates carried intI2 or intI3. Eighteen class 1 integrons (21%) contained resistance gene cassettes (i.e. dfrA1-orfC, dfrA12-aadA2, bla(PSE-1) and aadA2) and five class 1 integrons with the dfrA12-aadA2 array were conjugally transferable. Two Salmonella pork isolates of serotypes Albany and Kedougou possessed Salmonella genomic island 1 variants SGI1-G and SGI1-F, respectively. Four class 1 integrons contained an atypical 3'-CS linked to the qacH-sul3 domain, and three were not a sul type. Two novel GyrA mutations (Pro-45?Ser and Met-48?Ile) and three novel ParC mutations (Ser-5?Arg, Thr-31?Met and Leu-77?Arg) were identified in ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates. At least 90% of the Salmonella isolates contained pagC, prgH, sitC, sipB or spaN, whereas all isolates harboured invA, msgA, spiA and tolC. PMID:21295950

  8. Tentative Colistin Epidemiological Cut-Off Value for Salmonella spp.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    AgersØ, Yvonne; Torpdahl, Mia

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) population distributions for colistin for Salmonella on subtype level. Furthermore, we wanted to determine if differences in MIC for colistin could be explained by mutations in pmrA or pmrB encoding proteins involved in processes that influence the binding of colistin to the cell membrane. During 2008–2011, 6,583 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica isolates of human origin and 1931 isolates of animal/meat origin were collected. The isolates were serotyped, and susceptibility was tested towards colistin (range 1–16 mg/L). Moreover, 37 isolates were tested for mutations in pmrA and pmrB by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. MIC distribution for colistin at serotype level showed that Salmonella Dublin (n=198) followed by Salmonella Enteritidis (n=1247) were less susceptible than “other” Salmonella serotypes originating from humans (n=5,274) and Salmonella Typhimurium of animal/meat origin (n=1794). MIC was ?1 mg/L for 98.9% of “other” Salmonella serotypes originating from humans, 99.4% of Salmonella Typhimurium, 61.3% of Salmonella Enteritidis, and 12.1% of Salmonella Dublin isolates. Interestingly, Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Enteritidis belong to the same O-group (O:1, 9,12), suggesting that surface lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of the cell (O-antigen) play a role in colistin susceptibility. The epidemiological cut-off value of >2 mg/L for colistin suggested by European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) is placed inside the distribution for both Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Enteritidis. All tested Salmonella Dublin isolates, regardless of MIC colistin value, had identical pmrA and pmrB sequences. Missense mutations were found only in pmrA in one Salmonella Reading and in pmrB in one Salmonella Concord isolate, both with MIC of ?1 for colistin. In conclusion, our study indicates that missense mutations are not necessarily involved in increased MICs for colistin. Increased MICs for colistin seemed to be linked to specific serotypes (Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Enteritidis). We recommend that Salmonella with MIC of >2 mg/L for colistin be evaluated on the serovar level.

  9. Evaluation of two colored latex kits, the Wellcolex Colour Salmonella Test and the Wellcolex Colour Shigella Test, for serological grouping of Salmonella and Shigella species.

    OpenAIRE

    Bouvet, P. J.; Jeanjean, S.

    1992-01-01

    Two colored latex kits (the Wellcolex Colour Salmonella Test [WCT-Salmonella] and the Wellcolex Colour Shigella Test [WCT-Shigella]; Division Diagnostics, Laboratories Wellcome S.A., Paris, France), which allow identification of the most frequently encountered Salmonella serogroups and Shigella species, respectively, were evaluated. WCT-Salmonella and WCT-Shigella yielded sensitivities of 98.4 and 98%, respectively, and a specificity of 100% when they were tested on pure cultures received at ...

  10. Recovery of Salmonella group B from blood and Salmonella group C2 from feces and serological evidence of dual infection in one patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasian, C J; Bartholomew, W R; Neter, E; Amsterdam, D

    1984-01-01

    A patient with a dual Salmonella infection is described. Salmonella group B was recovered from three blood culture sets but was not detected in seven stool cultures. Salmonella group C2 was isolated from three of seven stool cultures but was not recovered from blood cultures. Specific, non-cross-reactive antibodies to Salmonella groups B and C2 were detected in the sera of the patient by passive hemagglutination assays. PMID:6490840

  11. Salmonella Source Attribution in Japan by a Microbiological Subtyping Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Toyofuku, Hajime; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hald, Tine

    2011-01-01

    In order to estimate the number of human Salmonella infections attributable to each of major animal-food source, and help identifying the best Salmonella intervention strategies, a microbial subtyping approach for source attribution was applied. We adapted a Bayesian model that attributes illnesses to specific sources and allows for the estimation of the differences in the ability of Salmonella subtypes and food types to result in reported salmonellosis. The number of human cases caused by di...

  12. Salmonella infection inhibits intestinal biotin transport: cellular and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Abhisek; Jellbauer, Stefan; Kapadia, Rubina; Raffatellu, Manuela; Said, Hamid M

    2015-07-15

    Infection with the nontyphoidal Salmonella is a common cause of food-borne disease that leads to acute gastroenteritis/diarrhea. Severe/prolonged cases of Salmonella infection could also impact host nutritional status, but little is known about its effect on intestinal absorption of vitamins, including biotin. We examined the effect of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection on intestinal biotin uptake using in vivo (streptomycin-pretreated mice) and in vitro [mouse (YAMC) and human (NCM460) colonic epithelial cells, and human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells] models. The results showed that infecting mice with wild-type S. typhimurium, but not with its nonpathogenic isogenic invA spiB mutant, leads to a significant inhibition in jejunal/colonic biotin uptake and in level of expression of the biotin transporter, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter. In contrast, infecting YAMC, NCM460, and Caco-2 cells with S. typhimurium did not affect biotin uptake. These findings suggest that the effect of S. typhimurium infection is indirect and is likely mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, the levels of which were markedly induced in the intestine of S. typhimurium-infected mice. Consistent with this hypothesis, exposure of NCM460 cells to the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IFN-? led to a significant inhibition of biotin uptake, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter expression, and activity of the SLC5A6 promoter. The latter effects appear to be mediated, at least in part, via the NF-?B signaling pathway. These results demonstrate that S. typhimurium infection inhibits intestinal biotin uptake, and that the inhibition is mediated via the action of proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:25999427

  13. Genes de virulência e diversidade genética em Salmonella spp. isoladas de amostras de origem suína / Virulence genes and genetic diversity in Salmonella spp. isolated from samples of swine origin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.S., Moura; R.P., Oliveira; R.T., Melo; E.P., Mendonça; B.B., Fonseca; D.A., Rossi.

    1367-13-01

    Full Text Available A diversificação da produção industrial de alimentos de origem suína e o intercâmbio comercial de animais e seus derivados destinados ao consumo humano podem ser importantes disseminadores de sorovares de Salmonella spp. na cadeia alimentar. Objetivou-se avaliar em 86 cepas de Salmonella spp., isola [...] das em granja de terminação e no abate de suínos, a ocorrência de três genes de virulência (invA, agfA e lpfA), bem como a similaridade genética entre elas. A ocorrência do gene invA foi verificada em 100% das amostras. O gene lpfA foi detectado em 80,23% (69/86) das cepas, não foi detectado em S. Panama e estava presente em todas as cepas de S. Infantis. O gene agfA foi detectado em 63,95% (55/86) das amostras. S. Agona apresentou positividade para todos os genes de virulência estudados. A análise de homologia entre as cepas agrupou os diferentes sorovares em clusters. A similaridade foi independente do local de isolamento, o que demonstra a presença de clones ao longo da cadeia de produção e a existência de multiplicidade de fontes para a infecção dos animais, como a ração, e a contaminação cruzada das carcaças. A pesquisa de genes de virulência e a avaliação da proximidade gênica permitem a caracterização e um maior entendimento sobre cepas de Salmonella circulantes na cadeia produtiva de suínos e, assim, podem subsidiar medidas de controle durante o processo produtivo com o objetivo de garantir a saúde do consumidor. Abstract in english The diversification of industrial food production of swine origin and trade of animals and their derivatives for human consumption may be important disseminators of serovars of Salmonella spp. in the food chain. This study aimed to evaluate 86 strains of Salmonella spp. isolated form in the finishin [...] g and slaughter of pigs, the occurrence of three virulence genes (invA, agfa and lpfA), as well as the genetic similarity between them. The occurrence of gene invA was observed in 100% of the samples. The gene lpfA was detected in 80.23% (69/86) strains and is not detected in S. Panama, but present in all strains of S. Infantis. The gene agfA was detected in 63.95% (55/86). S. Agona was positive for all virulence genes studied. The analysis of homology between the different serovars grouped the isolates in clusters. The similarity was regardless of the location of isolation, demonstrating the presence of clones along the production chain and that there are multiple sources for the infection of animals, such as feed, and cross-contamination of carcasses. A survey of virulence genes and evaluation of gene proximity allow characterization and better understanding of Salmonella strains circulating in the pig production chain, thus being able to support control measures during the production process in order to ensure consumer health.

  14. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in oysters in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Danielle A; Inman, Allison E; Gerba, Charles P; Maré, C John; Billington, Stephen J; Saif, Linda A; Levine, Jay F; Joens, Lynn A

    2005-02-01

    Food-borne diseases such as salmonellosis can be attributed, in part, to the consumption of raw oysters. To determine the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in oysters, oysters harvested from 36 U.S. bays (12 each from the West, East, and Gulf coasts in the summer of 2002, and 12 bays, four per coast, in the winter of 2002-2003) were tested. Salmonella was isolated from oysters from each coast of the United States, and 7.4% of all oysters tested contained Salmonella. Isolation tended to be bay specific, with some bays having a high prevalence of Salmonella, while other bays had none. Differences in the percentage of oysters from which Salmonella was isolated were observed between the summer and winter months, with winter numbers much lower probably due to a variety of weather-related events. The vast majority (78/101) of Salmonella isolates from oysters were Salmonella enterica serovar Newport, a major human pathogen, confirming the human health hazard of raw oyster consumption. Contrary to previous findings, no relationship was found between the isolation of fecal coliforms and Salmonella from oysters, indicating a necessity for specific monitoring for Salmonella and other pathogens rather than the current reliance on fecal coliform testing. PMID:15691945

  15. Diagnostic Real-Time PCR for Detection of Salmonella in Food

    OpenAIRE

    Malorny, Burkhard; Paccassoni, Elisa; Fach, Patrick; Bunge, Cornelia; Martin, Annett; Helmuth, Reiner

    2004-01-01

    A robust 5? nuclease (TaqMan) real-time PCR was developed and validated in-house for the specific detection of Salmonella in food. The assay used specifically designed primers and a probe target within the ttrRSBCA locus, which is located near the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 at centisome 30.5. It is required for tetrathionate respiration in Salmonella. The assay correctly identified all 110 Salmonella strains and 87 non-Salmonella strains tested. An internal amplification control, whi...

  16. Salmonella.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rob.

    From the University of Illinois, Professor Stanley Maloy and Assistant Professor Rob Edwards' Web site Salmonella.org is dedicated to the study of the Salmonella bacteria genome. The site offers news and information on the bacteria's various strains, including everything from tips on preventing the infection to links to genomic sequencing data. Any Salmonella researcher or enthusiast will find this uncluttered and straightforward compilation useful.

  17. Salmonella – A Brief Summary

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmi Esko

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Salmonellosis is the main cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in most European countries. Infections with Salmonella is usually subclinical, whereas clinical cases show symptoms with a wide range of severity. Infection is most commonly associated with the consumption of meat, especially poultry or pork, and eggs and their products. Salmonella can enter the food chain at any point throughout its length. The principal reservoir of Salmonellae is the gastrointestinal tract of mamma...

  18. Specificity and sensitivity of Salmonella typhimurium YG1041 and YG1042 strains possessing elevated levels of both nitroreductase and acetyltransferase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Y; Watanabe, M; Oda, Y; Sofuni, T; Nohmi, T

    1993-06-01

    Acetyltransferase and nitroreductase are enzymes involved in the intracellular metabolic activation of nitroarenes and/or aromatic amines in Salmonella typhimurium. The plasmid carrying both the acetyltransferase and nitroreductase genes was introduced into S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100. The resulting strains, YG1041 and YG1042, respectively, showed high levels of both enzyme activities and were more sensitive to the mutagenic action of some nitro-aromatic compounds such as 2-nitrofluorene, 1-nitropyrene and p-nitrophenetole than did the sensitive strains previously established in this laboratory or the conventional strains. These results indicate that the new strains permit the very efficient detection of the mutagenicity of nitroarenes in the environment. PMID:7685058

  19. PREVALENCE OF DRUG RESISTANCE AND VIRULENCE FEATURES IN Salmonella spp. ISOLATED FROM FOODS ASSOCIATED OR NOT WITH SALMONELLOSIS IN BRAZIL / Prevalência de resistência antimicrobiana e características de virulência em Salmonella spp. isoladas de alimentos associados ou não com salmonelose no Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ruth Estela Gravato, Rowlands; Christiane Asturiano, Ristori; Alice A., Ikuno; Maria Luisa, Barbosa; Miyoko, Jakabi; Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo, Franco.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella é o agente etiológico mais comumente envolvido em casos e surtos de doenças diarréicas de origem alimentar. A preocupação com este patógeno é, ainda, maior quando se verifica o surgimento e a disseminação de cepas multirresistentes e potencialmente mais patogênicas. Neste estudo, 237 cepa [...] s Salmonella spp., associadas ou não com casos ou surtos de salmonelose e pertencentes, principalmente, ao sorovar Enteritidis, foram avaliadas quanto ao perfil de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana e presença dos genes de virulência spvC, invA, sefA e pefA. Entre as cepas avaliadas, 46,8% foram sensíveis a todos os agentes antimicrobianos e 51,9% foram resistentes a pelo menos uma droga. Multirresistência foi observada em 10,5% das cepas. As maiores taxas de resistência foram observadas para estreptomicina (35,9%) e ácido nalidíxico (16,9%). Não foram detectadas cepas resistentes à cefoxitina, cefalotina, cefotaxima, amicacina, ciprofloxaxina e imipenem. O gene invA foi detectado em todas as cepas de Salmonella. Os genes spvC e pefA foram encontrados em 48,1% e 44,3% das cepas, respectivamente. O gene sefA foi detectado em 31,6% das cepas, estando presente somente entre as cepas de S. Enteritidis. Resistência antimicrobiana e marcadores de virulência foram detectados em cepas de Salmonella pertencentes a diversos sorovares. A alta taxa de resistência antimicrobiana verificada em cepas isoladas de frangos e derivados demonstra o potencial risco associado ao consumo destes produtos e a necessidade de se assegurar boas práticas de higiene em toda cadeia produtiva para reduzir a disseminação de patógenos relevantes para a saúde pública. Abstract in english Salmonella is the most common etiological agent of cases and outbreaks of foodborne diarrheal illnesses. The emergence and spread of Salmonella spp., which has become multi-drug resistant and potentially more pathogenic, have increased the concern with this pathogen. In this study, 237 Salmonella sp [...] p., associated or not with foodborne salmonellosis in Brazil, belonging mainly to serotype Enteritidis, were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of the virulence genes spvC, invA, sefA and pefA. Of the isolates, 46.8% were sensitive to all antimicrobials and 51.9% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent was observed in 10.5% of the strains. The highest rates of resistance were observed for streptomycin (35.9%) and nalidixic acid (16.9%). No strain was resistant to cefoxitin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, amikacin, ciprofloxacin and imipenem. The invA gene was detected in all strains. Genes spvC and pefA were found in 48.1% and 44.3% of strains, respectively. The gene sefA was detected in 31.6% of the strains and only among S. Enteritidis. Resistance and virulence determinants were detected in Salmonella strains belonging to several serotypes. The high rates of antibiotic-resistance in strains isolated from poultry products demonstrate the potential risk associated with the consumption of these products and the need to ensure good food hygiene practices from farm to table to reduce the spread of pathogens relevant to public health.

  20. Evaluation of VIDAS Salmonella (SLM) easy Salmonella method for the detection of Salmonella in a variety of foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Erin; Bird, Patrick; Fisher, Kiel; Goetz, Katherine; Benzinger, M Joseph; Agin, James; Goins, David; Johnson, Ronald L

    2011-01-01

    The VIDAS Salmonella (SLM) Easy Salmonella method is a specific enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay performed in the automated VIDAS instrument. The VIDAS Easy Salmonella method is a simple 2-step enrichment procedure, using pre-enrichment followed by selective enrichment in a newly formulated broth, SX2 broth. This new method was compared in a multilaboratory collaborative study to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual, Chapter 5 method for five food matrixes (liquid egg, vanilla ice cream, spinach, raw shrimp, and peanut butter) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook 4.04 method for deli turkey. Each food type was artificially contaminated with Salmonella at three inoculation levels. A total of 15 laboratories representing government, academia, and industry, throughout the United States, participated. In this study, 1583 samples were analyzed, of which 792 were paired replicates and 791 were unpaired replicates. Of the 792 paired replicates, 285 were positive by both the VIDAS and reference methods. Of the 791 unpaired replicates, 341 were positive by the VIDAS method and 325 were positive by the cultural reference method. A Chi-square analysis of each of the six food types was performed at the three inoculation levels tested. For all foods evaluated, the VIDAS Easy SLM method demonstrated results comparable to those of the reference methods for the detection of Salmonella. PMID:22320090

  1. Acute diarrhea associated with Salmonella enterica in Belo Horizonte-MG: prevalence and characterization of isolates / Diarreia aguda associada a Salmonella enterica em Belo Horizonte-MG: prevalência e caracterização das amostras isoladas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mireille Ângela Bernardes, Sousa; Edilberto Nogueira, Mendes; Francisco José, Penna; Luciano Amedée, Péret-Filho; Paula Prazeres, Magalhães.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A diarreia infecciosa aguda é considerada um problema de saúde pública associado a uma ampla gama de agentes etiológicos, entre os quais destaca-se Salmonella enterica, causa importante de diarreia inflamatória em países desenvolvidos e em desenvolvimento. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a distribuiç [...] ão de S. enterica em crianças com diarreia aguda em Belo Horizonte e caracterizar as amostras isoladas. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: O grupo de estudo consistiu de 157 crianças de nível socioeconômico baixo. Espécimes fecais foram empregados para pesquisa de leucóc itos e cultivo de Salmonella. As amostras isoladas foram sorotipadas e submetidas à avaliação do perfil de suscetibilidade a antimicrobianos, da produção de betalactamases de amplo espectro (ESBL) e da presença de marcadores de virulência (invA, iroB e spvC). RESULTADOS: Cinco/3,2% crianças apresentaram-se infectadas por S. enterica; três/60%, por S. enterica Typhimurium; uma/20%, por S. enterica Enteritidis; e uma/20%, por S. enterica subsp. enterica sorotipo 8,20:z4,z23:-. Leucócitos fecais foram detectados em dois dos cinco espécimes positivos para S. enterica. As amostras isoladas de três crianças apresentaram resistência a ácido nalidíxico, ácido nalidíxico + cloranfenicol e ácido nalidíxico + cloranfenicol + ampicilina. Nenhuma amostra produziu ESBL. Todas as amostras albergavam os genes invA e iroB. O marcador spvC foi observado em amostras isoladas de duas crianças infectadas por S. Typhimurium e S. Enteritidis. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados demonstram que diarreia associada a S. enterica é raramente observada entre crianças da nossa região e indicam a necessidade de avaliação periódica do perfil de suscetibilidade a antimicrobianos da bactéria para orientar o estabelecimento de antibioticoterapia, quando indicada. Abstract in english Introduction: Acute infectious diarrhea is still regarded as a public health problem associated with a wide range of etiologic agents, from which Salmonella enterica is particularly worth mentioning inasmuch as it is a major cause of inflammatory diarrhea in both developed and developing countries. [...] Objective: To assess the distribution of S. enterica among children with acute diarrhea in Belo Horizonte and to characterize bacterium isolates. Material and methods: The study group comprised a total of 157 children from low socioeconomic background. Stool samples were collected for leukocyte analysis and Salmonella bacterial culture. The isolates were serotyped and evaluated as to antimicrobial susceptibility profile, extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBL) production, and presence of virulence markers (invA, iroB, and spvC). RESULTS: A total of 5/3.2% children were infected by S. enterica, 3/60% by S. enterica Typhimurium, 1/20% by S. enterica Enteritidis and 1/20% S. enterica subsp. enterica serotype 8.20:z4,z23:-. Fecal leucocytes were detected in two out of five fecal specimens positive for S. enterica. Isolates from three children were resistant to nalidixic acid, nalidixic acid + chloramphenicol, and nalidixic acid + chloramphenicol + ampicillin. ESBL production was not detected. All samples presented invA and iroB genes. spvC marker was observed in isolates from two children infected by S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that S. enterica infection is uncommon among children from our region. Furthermore, they indicate the need for periodic monitoring of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility profile in order to establish suitable antimicrobial therapy when required.

  2. Meta-analysis of Chicken – Salmonella infection experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    te Pas Marinus FW

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken meat and eggs can be a source of human zoonotic pathogens, especially Salmonella species. These food items contain a potential hazard for humans. Chickens lines differ in susceptibility for Salmonella and can harbor Salmonella pathogens without showing clinical signs of illness. Many investigations including genomic studies have examined the mechanisms how chickens react to infection. Apart from the innate immune response, many physiological mechanisms and pathways are reported to be involved in the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of diverse experiments to identify general and host specific mechanisms to the Salmonella challenge. Results Diverse chicken lines differing in susceptibility to Salmonella infection were challenged with different Salmonella serovars at several time points. Various tissues were sampled at different time points post-infection, and resulting host transcriptional differences investigated using different microarray platforms. The meta-analysis was performed with the R-package metaMA to create lists of differentially regulated genes. These gene lists showed many similarities for different chicken breeds and tissues, and also for different Salmonella serovars measured at different times post infection. Functional biological analysis of these differentially expressed gene lists revealed several common mechanisms for the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The meta-analysis-specific genes (i.e. genes found differentially expressed only in the meta-analysis confirmed and expanded the biological functional mechanisms. Conclusions The meta-analysis combination of heterogeneous expression profiling data provided useful insights into the common metabolic pathways and functions of different chicken lines infected with different Salmonella serovars.

  3. Development of Recombinant Flagellar Antigens for Serological Detection of Salmonella enterica Serotypes Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, and Typhimurium in Poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Charles L. Hofacre; Holt, Peter S.; Lee, Margie D.; Susan Sanchez; Joseph Minicozzi; Maurer, John J

    2013-01-01

    Accurate and fast detection of harmful Salmonella is a major concern of food safety. Common Salmonella serotypes responsible for human associated foodborne outbreaks are S. Enteritidis, S. Hadar, S. Heidelberg, and S. Typhimurium are also commonly isolated from poultry. Serology is commonly used to monitor disease in poultry, therefore application of Salmonella serotype-specific test will have added value in Salmonella surveillance or monitoring vaccine efficacy. Recombinant flagellins were p...

  4. Evaluation of the Vitek Immunodiagnostic Assay System (VIDAS) for the detection of Salmonella in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, C W; Curtis, L M; Humpheson, L; Petitt, S B

    1994-07-01

    A Salmonella Assay using the Vitek Immunodiagnostic Assay System (VIDAS) was compared with a conventional cultural method (CCM) for the detection of salmonellas in 141 samples of artificially and naturally contaminated foods. There was an overall agreement of 92.9% between the methods. The productivity of the VIDAS Salmonella Assay (VSA) was not improved using an alternative enrichment protocol for the detection of Salmonella in 12 raw meat samples. The sensitivity and specificity of the VSA was assessed using pure cultures of salmonellas and non-salmonellas. The detection limit was 1.8 x 10(6) salmonellas ml-1 in M-broth and some Citrobacter freundii strains gave false-positive results. Using an immunomagnetic separation (IMS) technique and an abbreviated cultural enrichment, the VSA results could be obtained a day earlier than the standard VSA method. PMID:7765217

  5. SALMONELLA SEROTYPES FROM ANIMALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: This session will provide insight into foodborne transmission and direct transmission of salmonella from a variety of sources to humans. An understanding of the various modes of transmission will enable a more effective intervention strategy to be developed....

  6. Salmonella Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reduction; Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (PR/HACCP) Systems, Final Rule" in 1996. This rule sets Salmonella ... to reduce bacteria by means of the PR/HACCP system. [ Top of Page ] Q. How can consumers prevent ...

  7. SYBR®Green qPCR Salmonella detection system allowing discrimination at the genus, species and subspecies levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbau-Piednoir, Elodie; Bertrand, Sophie; Mahillon, Jacques; Roosens, Nancy H; Botteldoorn, Nadine

    2013-11-01

    In this work, a three-level Salmonella detection system based on a combination of seven SYBR®Green qPCR was developed. This detection system discriminates Salmonella at the genus, species and subspecies levels using a single 96-well plate. The SYBR®Green qPCR assays target the invA, rpoD, iroB and safC genes, as well as the STM0296 locus, putatively coding for a cytoplasmic protein. This study includes the design of primer pairs, in silico and in situ selectivity, sensitivity, repeatability and reproducibility evaluations of the seven SYBR®Green qPCR assays. Each detection level displayed a selectivity of 100 %. This combinatory SYBR®Green qPCR system was also compared with three commercially available Salmonella qPCR detection kits. This comparison highlighted the importance of using a multi-gene detection system to be able to detect every target strain, even those with deletion or mutation of important genes. PMID:24113820

  8. [Detection of Salmonella in faecal, tissue, and feed samples by conventional culture methods and VIDAS Salmonella Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerhäuser, Jürgen; Failing, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    The VIDAS Salmonella Test (VST) is an enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay for the detection of Salmonella-antigens. The suitability of VST for the detection of Salmonella in faecal, tissue, and feed samples was evaluated by the comparison with routine culture methods. From 312 naturally contaminated samples 17 were classified as Salmonella positive by routine methods and 28 by VST. Salmonella were isolated from 15 VST positive samples by the routine method and from eight samples only by an extended culture method. Five positive VST results could not be proved by culture. Two samples were classified as positive by the routine method and as false-negative by VST. The sensitivity varied between 88% and 100% and the specifity between 92% and 100%, depending on the kind of sample. Matrix or serovar specific factors resulting in a false VST result could not be determined. The performance of VST was easy and did not require special experiences. Mostly, samples with Salmonella negative results were faster detected than by culture methods. VST is suitable for the detection of Salmonella in the studied kind of samples especially as a screening method. PMID:16450704

  9. PCR Method To Identify Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, and Paratyphi B among Salmonella Isolates from the Blood of Patients with Clinical Enteric Fever?

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Haim; Diallo, Souleymane; Tennant, Sharon M.; Livio, Sofie; Sow, Samba O.; Tapia, Milagritos; Fields, Patricia I.; Mikoleit, Matthew; Tamboura, Boubou; Kotloff, Karen L.; Lagos, Rosanna; Nataro, James P.; Galen, James E.; Levine, Myron M.

    2008-01-01

    PCR methodology was developed to identify Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, and Paratyphi B. One multiplex PCR identifies serogroup D, A, and B and Vi-positive strains; another confirms flagellar antigen “d,” “a,” or “b.” Blinded testing of 664 Malian and Chilean Salmonella blood isolates demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity.

  10. Two Salmonella OmpC Kb-Restricted Epitopes for CD8+-T-Cell Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-quin?onez, Alberto; Martin-orozco, Natalia; Isibasi, Armando; Ortiz-navarrete, Vianney

    2004-01-01

    We report the identification of two peptides from Salmonella OmpC porin that can bind to major histocompatibility complex class I Kb molecules and are targets of cytotoxic T lymphocytes from Salmonella-infected mice. These peptides are conserved in gram-negative bacterial porins and are the first Salmonella porin-specific epitopes described for possible CD8+-T-cell elimination of infected cells.

  11. Salmonella enteritidis in Quail Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Erdog?rul, O?zlem Turgay

    2002-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella enteritidis was investigated in 123 liquid whole quail eggs. Salmonella strains were identified and sero-grouped by coagglutination test and slide agglutination test. Seven (5.69%) of 123 whole quail eggs were in group D1 and were sero-typed as Salmonella enteritidis. It was found that in phage-typing of Salmonella enteritidis, three of 7 strains were Salmonella enteritidis PT4 , two of them were PT1, one of them was PT7, and one of them was indefinite.

  12. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis reports investigations using gamma-radiation to decontaminate poultry carcasses. The application to foods of doses of ionizing radiation sufficient to reduce the number of viable specific non-sporeforming pathogenic microorganisms so that none is detectable in the treated food by any standard method is termed radicidation. The doses used in this study were at such a level that no undesirable or unfavourable side-effects occurred. The effects of these doses were studied on salmonellae and other microorganisms present in, or associated with poultry carcasses and in liquid and on solid culture media as well. Decimal reduction (D10) values were estimated. These represent the dose (kGy) required to achieve a reduction in initial colony count from N0 to 0.1 N0. Together with the estimation of the numbers of Salmonella present per carcass the data were used to predict the effect of an ionizing radiation treatment of poultry. Data on the effect of ionizing radiation on the total microflora of poultry carcasses were also collected. (Auth.)

  13. Excreción fecal de Salmonella Albany, su aislamiento en la ración alimenticia y repercusión en el estado de salud de un ocelote (Leopardus pardalis) en cautiverio / Fecal excretion of Salmonella Albany, its isolation in the diet and health repercussion on an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in captivity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriela, Silva-Hidalgo; Héctor Samuel, López-Moreno; Vianney F., Ortiz-Navarrete; Felipe, Juárez-Barranco; Martín, López-Valenzuela.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los serotipos de Salmonella especie enterica son los responsables del 99% de las salmonelosis en humanos y animales, en particular, Salmonella enterica serovariedad Albany se ha identificado en canales de pollo, por lo que representa un riesgo para la salud humana y animal. Se aisló Salmonella enter [...] ica serovariedad Albany a partir de heces de un ocelote macho (Leopardus pardalis), cautivo en el zoológico de Culiacán, Sinaloa, México, y de pollo crudo (alimento del felino). El patrón por electroforesis en campo pulsado (PFGE) con la enzima Xba I fue idéntico en ambos aislados, lo que indica que la fuente de infección fue el pollo crudo. Cinco meses después de haber aislado las bacterias de las heces, se realizó estudio post mortem del felino anteriormente mencionado, y se observó macroscópicamente: enterocolitis hemorrágica severa y fibrosis renal; y microscópicamente: necrosis de vellosidades y de criptas e infiltrado mononuclear linfocitario severo en íleon, además nefritis intersticial severa multifocal y fibrosis en riñón. A partir de muestras intestinales se amplificó el gen invA que confirma la infección por Salmonella. Los diagnósticos microbiológico, molecular e histopatológico sugieren que la muerte del felino se debió a la infección causada por la ingesta de pollo crudo contaminado con Salmonella enterica serovariedad Albany. Este caso clínico confirma la importancia que tienen los animales que excretan Salmonella vía fecal y describe la relación epidemiológica-molecular de los aislamientos obtenidos de heces y alimento, lo que permitió esclarecer la fuente primaria de infección. Abstract in english Salmonella enterica serotypes are 99% responsible for salmonellosis in human and animals, especially Salmonella enterica serovar Albany that has been identified in chicken carcass representing a risk for human and animal health. Salmonella enterica serovar Albany was isolated from the feces of a mal [...] e ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), at the zoo in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico, and from raw chicken (feline's diet). The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern (PFGE) generated by Xba I enzyme was identical in both isolates, indicating that the source of infection was the raw chicken. Five months after having isolated the bacteria from the feces, a post mortem study was carried out on the feline. Macroscopically, severe hemorrhagic enterocolitis and renal fibrosis was observed and microscopically, there was evidence of severe mononuclear lymphocytic infiltration in the ileum, as well as necrosis of intestinal villi and crypts, besides severe multifocal interstitial nephritis and fibrosis in both kidneys. The invA gene was amplified from intestinal samples confirming an infection by Salmonella. The microbiologic, molecular and histopathology diagnoses suggest that death of the feline was caused by ingestion of raw chicken contaminated with Salmonella enterica serovar Albany. This clinical case highlights the importance of persistent fecal Salmonella shedding animals and describes the molecular epidemiological relationships of isolates from feces and food, which allowed to find the primary source of infection.

  14. Salmonella Typhimurium induces SPI-1 and SPI-2 regulated and strain dependent downregulation of MHC II expression on porcine alveolar macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Parys Alexander

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Foodborne salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial zoonotic diseases worldwide. Salmonella Typhimurium is the serovar most frequently isolated from persistently infected slaughter pigs in Europe. Circumvention of the host’s immune system by Salmonella might contribute to persistent infection of pigs. In the present study, we found that Salmonella Typhimurium strain 112910a specifically downregulated MHC II, but not MHC I, expression on porcine alveolar macrophages in a Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI-1 and SPI-2 dependent way. Salmonella induced downregulation of MHC II expression and intracellular proliferation of Salmonella in macrophages were significantly impaired after opsonization with Salmonella specific antibodies prior to inoculation. Furthermore, the capacity to downregulate MHC II expression on macrophages differed significantly among Salmonella strains, independently of strain specific differences in invasion capacity, Salmonella induced cytotoxicity and altered macrophage activation status. The fact that strain specific differences in MHC II downregulation did not correlate with the extent of in vitro SPI-1 or SPI-2 gene expression indicates that other factors are involved in MHC II downregulation as well. Since Salmonella strain dependent interference with the pig’s immune response through downregulation of MHC II expression might indicate that certain Salmonella strains are more likely to escape serological detection, our findings are of major interest for Salmonella monitoring programs primarily based on serology.

  15. Salmonella – A Brief Summary

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    Nurmi Esko

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Salmonellosis is the main cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in most European countries. Infections with Salmonella is usually subclinical, whereas clinical cases show symptoms with a wide range of severity. Infection is most commonly associated with the consumption of meat, especially poultry or pork, and eggs and their products. Salmonella can enter the food chain at any point throughout its length. The principal reservoir of Salmonellae is the gastrointestinal tract of mammals and birds, but Salmonellae are able to survive and even multiply in many external environments. In Norway, Sweden and Finland cost effective prevention methods have been used for several years to prevent and control Salmonellea infections. In addition, competitive exclusion (CE and vaccination might be relevant as biological methods to prevent colonisation of bird intestines by enteropathogens, especially Salmonella. Antibiotic drug resistance has been a problem since the start of the antibiotic era. The cause for anxiety is that more and more bacteria are becoming resistant, often to a whole range of antibiotics. The debate on the use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine and animal production dates back almost as long as the use itself. There is a clear evidence to show that antibacterial agents given to animals for growth promotion, prophylactic purposes or treatment induce a rise in the number of antibiotic resistant strains isolated from the animals. These bacteria may be transmitted to humans by several possible routes. There are thus strong arguments for preventive efforts which have to be directed towards identifying real critical control points (HACCP throughout the whole food chain, which starts from the farm and ends at the consumer's table.

  16. Immunomagnetic nanoparticle based quantitative PCR for rapid detection of Salmonella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a rapid and sensitive method for immunomagnetic separation (IMS) of Salmonella along with their real time detection via PCR. Silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles were functionalized with carboxy groups to which anti-Salmonella antibody raised against heat-inactivated whole cells of Salmonella were covalently attached. The immuno-captured target cells were detected in beverages like milk and lemon juice by multiplex PCR and real time PCR with a detection limit of 104 cfu.mL?1 and 103 cfu.mL?1, respectively. We demonstrate that IMS can be used for selective concentration of target bacteria from beverages for subsequent use in PCR detection. PCR also enables differentiation of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A using a set of four specific primers. In addition, IMS—PCR can be used as a screening tool in the food and beverage industry for the detection of Salmonella within 3–4 h which compares favorably to the time of several days that is needed in case of conventional detection based on culture and biochemical methods. (author)

  17. Evanescent Wave Fiber Optic Biosensor for Salmonella Detection in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K. Bhunia

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica is a major food-borne pathogen of world-wide concern. Sensitive and rapid detection methods to assess product safety before retail distribution are highly desirable. Since Salmonella is most commonly associated with poultry products, an evanescent wave fiber-optic assay was developed to detect Salmonella in shell egg and chicken breast and data were compared with a time-resolved fluorescence (TRF assay. Anti-Salmonella polyclonal antibody was immobilized onto the surface of an optical fiber using biotin-avidin interactions to capture Salmonella. Alexa Fluor 647-conjugated antibody (MAb 2F-11 was used as the reporter. Detection occurred when an evanescent wave from a laser (635 nm excited the Alexa Fluor and the fluorescence was measured by a laser-spectrofluorometer at 710 nm. The biosensor was specific for Salmonella and the limit of detection was established to be 103 cfu/mL in pure culture and 104 cfu/mL with egg and chicken breast samples when spiked with 102 cfu/mL after 2–6 h of enrichment. The results indicate that the performance of the fiber-optic sensor is comparable to TRF, and can be completed in less than 8 h, providing an alternative to the current detection methods.

  18. [Bavaroise and an epidemic of Salmonella enteritidis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, P L; Willemsen, F; Houben, A W; van Boven, C P

    1990-06-30

    In the literature an association is made between the increasing prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis in poultry products and in the isolates of patients with gastroenteritis, without sufficient evidence of a causal relationship between the increasing prevalences. A microbiological and epidemiological analysis of a food poisoning incident among 239 visitors of a restaurant by way of food specific attack rates and food specific infection rates revealed an epidemic of 70 cases of S. enteritidis enteritis. The analysis supports the causal relationship with the consumption of an infected, unhygienically prepared egg product, in this case bavaroise. PMID:2196469

  19. Rapid Detection of Different Serovares of Salmonella entrica by Multiplex PCR

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    A Karami

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Typhoid fever is still one of the serious public health problems in many geographic areas and is endemic in most countries. Aim of current study was to evaluate a shortened time –Multiplex PCR for rapid detection of different Sal¬monella enterica serovars. Methods: The PCR primers for three target genes tyv, prt and invA were subjected for amplification by PCR. By using sim¬ple DNA extraction method, rapid PCR cycles and rapid electrophoresis procedure with simple and very cheap buffer were utilized in 200 to 300 volts for 15 minutes to separate the PCR products. Results: The results showed that all reference and clinical isolates of S. enterica were accurately identified by this as¬say with no cross reaction with other enterobacterial strains tested. Detection limit of the reaction was to be fewer than 10-1 colony forming unit. Conclusion: These data indicate that the optimized rapid cycle multiplex PCR is a potentially valuable tool for rapid diagno¬sis of S. enterica using a conventional thermal cycler. This method reduced the reaction time of PCR from 3.5 h to less than 1 h.

  20. FECAL EXCRETION OF Salmonella Enteritidis IN BROILER LINES ROSS AND ISA LABEL EXCREÇÃO FECAL de Salmonella Enteritidis EM DUAS LINHAGENS DE FRANGOS DE CORTE

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    Adson Santa Cruz Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The invasive capacity and persistence of this pathogen, crop and ceca in apparently healthy birds of two broiler lines raised without growth promoter antibiotics in ration and originated from eggs inoculated eggshell and in allantoidal cavity with Salmonella Enteritidis. Histological and bacteriological exams from cecal and crop were performed with one, seven, 14 and 21 days of age after hatch in broilers of fast and slow growing rate. Bacterio-logical exams were performed fecal excretion with one, eigth, 22 and 35 days. The Salmonella Enteritidis invaded and colonizated the gastrointestinal tract of the two lines tested, but the the infection reduced with age, and was more persistant in Ross broilers. The results were different for two lines. The pathogen was excreted from just one chick of ISA Label at 22 days of age and four Ross chicks until 35 days of age. In order, Salmonella was detected in 87.5% (14/16 and 38,1% (5/16 of ceca; in 81.2% (13/16 and 12.5% (2/16 of crops; in fast and slow growing rate lines, respectively. In apparent healthy organs, excepted the crop, an inflammatory process with predominance of macrophage and lymphocytes. The slow growing rate line was effective to eliminate bacteria in the organism.

    Key-words: Ceca, crop, fecal excretion, inflammation.

    Avaliaram-se, neste estudo, a capacidade inva-siva, a persistência e a freqüência de excreção fecal da Salmonella Enteritidis em aves aparentemente saudáveis de duas linhagens de frango de corte, criadas sem antibióticos promotores de crescimento na ração e oriundas de ovos inoculados na casca ou na cavidade alantóide com Salmonella Enteritidis fagotipo 4. Realizaram-se exames bacteriológicos das excretas com um, oito, 22 e 35 dias, e histológicos e bacteriológicos do inglúvio e ceco, com um, sete, quatorze e 21 dias pós-eclosão em frangos de crescimento rápido e lento. Salmonella Enteritidis invadiu e colonizou o trato gastrintestinal das duas linhagens, mas a infecção declinou com a idade, sendo mais persistente na linhagem Ross. O patógeno foi excretado de uma única ave ISA Label até 22 dias de vida e em quatro aves da linhagem Ross até 35 dias. Constatou a Salmonella em ordem de colonização, em 87,5% (14/16 e 38,1% (5/16 dos cecos; em 81,2% (13/16 e 12,5% (2/16 dos inglúvios das linhagens Ross e ISA Label, respectivamente. Nos cecos aparentemente saudáveis, evidenciou-se um processo inflamatório com predominância de macrófagos e ou linfócitos, enquanto no inglúvio não se detectaram alterações microscópicas. A linhagem de ISA Label foi mais hábil em eliminar a bactéria do seu organismo.

    Palavras-chaves: Ceco, excreção fecal, inflamação, inglúvio.

  1. MyD88 signaling is not essential for induction of antigen-specific B cell responses but is indispensable for protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection following oral vaccination with attenuated Salmonella expressing PspA antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sung-moo; Ko, Hyun-jung; Shim, Doo-hee; Yang, Jin-young; Park, Yong-ho; Curtiss, Roy; Kweon, Mi-na

    2008-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) directly induce innate host defense responses, but the mechanisms of TLR-mediated adaptive immunity remain subject to debate. In this study, we clarified a role of TLR-mediated innate immunity for induction of adaptive immunity by oral vaccination with a live recombinant attenuated Salmonella enteric serovar typhimurium vaccine (RASV) strain expressing Streptococcus pneumoniae surface protein A (PspA) antigen. Of note, oral or intranasal vaccination with RASV expres...

  2. Molecular Characterisation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Isolated from Typhoidial Humans

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    Arunava Das

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is the major causative agent for typhoidial fever around the globe among human population reported till date. Present research work was carried out for detection and molecular characterisation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolated from humans with Typhoidial fever by biochemical, phenotypical and virulence gene based polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. The isolated strains were also investigated for antibiotic susceptibility patterns as a control measure. Methodology and Results: A total of 16 clinical samples were collected from the same numbers of patients (7 males and 9 females from Coimbatore, Erode and Salem districts of Tamil Nadu and were processed via broth enrichment methods for isolation and identification of the causative agent S. enterica serovar Typhi. Microbiological and biochemical investigations revealed the presence of S. Typhi from 16 samples. The biotyping of the isolates showed that all the isolates belonged to biotype IV. The PCR analysis confirmed the presence of invA (Invasion gene, 244bp, tyv (Tyveloseepimerase gene, 615 bp, fliC-d (Phage-1 flagellin gene for d-antigen, 750 bp and viaB (Vi antigen gene, 439bp in all 16 clinical samples. The antibiotic susceptibility test that was carried out among the isolates against 12 antimicrobial agents, showed 100 % resistance to only ampicillin and 100 % sensitivity to carbenicillin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, gentamycin, kanamycin and tetracycline.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This study confirmed the association of virulent strains of S. enterica serovar Typhi from Typhoidial fever among human population and suggested that PCR based diagnostic could be very useful for the rapid detection of S. Typhi isolates. Present study emphasized the use of antibiotic like chloramphenicol or in combination with other antibiotics for the effective control of S. Typhi.

  3. Bacteriophage cocktail for biocontrol of Salmonella in dried pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyse, Serena; Hanna, Leigh Farris; Woolston, Joelle; Sulakvelidze, Alexander; Charbonneau, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Human salmonellosis has been associated with contaminated pet foods and treats. Therefore, there is interest in identifying novel approaches for reducing the risk of Salmonella contamination within pet food manufacturing environments. The use of lytic bacteriophages shows promise as a safe and effective way to mitigate Salmonella contamination in various food products. Bacteriophages are safe, natural, highly targeted antibacterial agents that specifically kill bacteria and can be targeted to kill food pathogens without affecting other microbiota. In this study, we show that a cocktail containing six bacteriophages had a broadspectrum activity in vitro against a library of 930 Salmonella enterica strains representing 44 known serovars. The cocktail was effective against 95% of the strains in this tested library. In liquid culture dose-ranging experiments, bacteriophage cocktail concentrations of ?10(8) PFU/ml inactivated more than 90% of the Salmonella population (10(1) to 10(3) CFU/ml). Dried pet food inoculated with a mixture containing equal proportions of Salmonella serovars Enteritidis (ATCC 4931), Montevideo (ATCC 8387), Senftenberg (ATCC 8400), and Typhimurium (ATCC 13311) and then surface treated with the six-bacteriophage cocktail (?2.5 ± 1.5 × 10(6) PFU/g) achieved a greater than 1-log (P < 0.001) reduction compared with the phosphate-buffered saline-treated control in measured viable Salmonella within 60 min. Moreover, this bacteriophage cocktail reduced natural contamination in samples taken from an undistributed lot of commercial dried dog food that tested positive for Salmonella. Our results indicate that bacteriophage biocontrol of S. enterica in dried pet food is technically feasible. PMID:25581183

  4. An immunoconcentration-PCR assay to detect Salmonella in the environment of poultry houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumet, C; Blivet, D; Ermel, G; Colin, P; Salvat, G

    1999-06-01

    An immunoconcentration-PCR assay was developed for the rapid and specific detection of Salmonella. This assay was evaluated against a conventional bacteriological method for the detection of Salmonella from environmental swabs of poultry houses. The 120 samples investigated were pre-enriched in phosphate buffered peptone water and Salmonella was separated by an immunoconcentration process using an automated system (VIDAS bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) prior to PCR. The specificity of the assay was high as no false-positives were found. The sensitivity of the assay was 70%. The correlation between the ICS-PCR assay and the bacteriological method was 84%. PMID:10443541

  5. Application of bioinformatics on the detection of pathogens by Pcr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmonellas are the main responsible agent for the frequent food-borne gastrointestinal diseases. Their detection using classical methods are laborious and their results take a lot of time to be revealed. In this context, we tried to set up a revealing technique of the invA virulence gene, found in the majority of Salmonella species. After amplification with PCR using specific primers created and verified by bioinformatics programs, two couples of primers were set up and they appeared to be very specific and sensitive for the detection of invA gene. (Author)

  6. Detección de Salmonella spp y Listeria monocytogenes en quesos frescos y semimadurados que se expenden en vía pública en la ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia D. Alc\\u00E1zar Monta\\u00F1ez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la inocuidad bacteriológica de los quesos frescos y semimadurados que se venden en algunos ?mercados sobre ruedas? en la ciudad de México, se realizó la detección simultánea de Salmonella spp y de Listeria monocytogenes, mediante la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR, así como con los métodos bacteriológicos convencionales, según la normatividad correspondiente para cada microorganismo; es decir, la NOM-114-SSA1-1994 mexicana, que constituye un método para la determinación de Salmonella en alimentos; de igual manera la NOM-143-SSA1-1995 mexicana, que representa un método de prueba microbiológica para alimentos y determinación de L. monocytogenes. Se analizaron 120 muestras seleccionadas al azar, provenientes de cuatro ?mercados sobre ruedas? de una zona del sur de la ciudad de México. La metodología propuesta para la PCR múltiple se basó en la amplifi cación simultánea de los genes InvA e Iap procedentes de los genomas de Salmonella spp y de L. monocytogenes, respectivamente; de igual forma, la metodología para la extracción de ADN bacteriano a partir de las muestras se desarrolló con el fi n de eliminar o disminuir la posible interferencia de inhibidores propios del alimento mediante centrifugación previa de las muestras y se comprobó que la amplifi cación de ambos resultó positiva, aun cuando los patógenos se encuentren presentes en las muestras a una concentración de por lo menos 30 UFC/g. Del total de muestras analizadas con la técnica de PCR, sólo tres resultaron positivas a la presencia de Salmonella spp, en ninguna estuvo presente L. monocytogenes, en contraste con los resultados de los métodos bacteriológicos, por medio de los cuales no se obtuvo ningún resultado positivo.

  7. Molecular subtyping scheme for Salmonella panama.

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley, J.; Baquar, N.; Burnens, A.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a genotyping scheme for Salmonella panama. Defined probes specific for the 16S rRNA gene and the DNA insertion element IS200 were generated by PCR from S. panama and were used to probe genomic Southern blots made with enzymes selected to cut within and outside the probed sequences. Plasmid profiles were determined. The typeability and discriminatory power of the individual methods were compared. Ribotyping with 16S rRNA gene probe alone was slightly more discriminatory than phage ...

  8. Salmonella in Sheep in Iceland

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    Gunnarsson E

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 several outbreaks of food poisoning in humans occurred in Iceland, that were traced to salmonella contamination of singed sheep heads. This prompted us to study the prevalence of salmonella infection in sheep and to trace where and how infection might have occurred. Faecal, intestinal contents and tonsillar samples were collected in the spring and autumn from sheep on 50 farms in the southwestern part of the country, where salmonellosis had been detected and from 5 farms in the northwestern part of the country. All faecal samples from the southwest were negative, whereas samples from 3 farms obtained in the autumn in the northwest were positive. Tonsillae taken in the autumn were positive in sheep from 3 farms in the southwest and 2 in the northwest. Our results show that salmonella infection is rare in Icelandic sheep but healthy carriers may harbour the bacteria in tonsillae. Salmonella was not detected in drainage from slaughterhouses nor in singed sheep heads.

  9. Transcriptional Regulation of the assT-dsbL-dsbI Gene Cluster in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi IMSS-1 Depends on LeuO, H-NS, and Specific Growth Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego-herna?ndez, A. L.; Herna?ndez-lucas, I.; La Cruz, M. A.; Olvera, L.; Morett, E.; Medina-aparicio, L.; Rami?rez-trujillo, J. A.; Va?zquez, A.; Ferna?ndez-mora, M.; Calva, E.

    2012-01-01

    The assT gene encodes an arylsulfate sulfotransferase, an enzyme that catalyzes sulfuryl transfer from phenolic sulfate to a phenolic acceptor. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi IMSS-1, the assT gene is located upstream of the dsbL and dsbI genes, which are involved in a disulfide bond formation required for its activation. The assT-dsbL-dsbI gene cluster forms an operon transcribed by a LeuO-dependent promoter, in rich medium A (MA). Interestingly, in the absence of cloned leuO and in a ?...

  10. Acquisition of Iron Is Required for Growth of Salmonella spp. in Tomato Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Staci L; Meng, Fanhong; Martin, Gregory B; Altier, Craig

    2015-06-01

    Salmonella remains a leading cause of bacterial food-borne disease, sickening millions each year. Although outbreaks of salmonellosis have traditionally been associated with contaminated meat products, recent years have seen numerous disease cases caused by the consumption of produce. Tomatoes have been specifically implicated, due to the ability of Salmonella spp. to enter the tomato fruit and proliferate within, making the decontamination of the raw product impossible. To investigate the genetic means by which Salmonella is able to survive and proliferate within tomatoes, we conducted a screen for bacterial genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo specifically induced after inoculation into ripe tomato fruit. Among these genes, we found 17 members of the previously described anaerobic Fur (ferric uptake regulator) regulon. Fur is a transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulator known to sense iron, suggesting the importance of this mineral to Salmonella within tomatoes. To test whether iron acquisition is essential for Salmonella growth in tomatoes, we tested a ?fepDGC mutant, which lacks the ability to import iron-associated siderophores. This mutant grew significantly more poorly within tomatoes than did the wild type, but the growth defect of the mutant was fully reversed by the addition of exogenous iron, demonstrating the need for bacterial iron scavenging. Further, dependence upon iron was not apparent for Salmonella growing in filtered tomato juice, implicating the cellular fraction of the fruit as an important mediator of iron acquisition by the bacteria. PMID:25795672

  11. Comparison between ICS-Vidas, MSRV and standard cultural method for Salmonella recovery in poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Medici, D; Pezzotti, G; Marfoglia, C; Caciolo, D; Foschi, G; Orefice, L

    1998-12-22

    Two rapid methods for Salmonella detection, Vidas-ICS and modified semi-solid Rappaport-Vassiliadis (MSRV) were evaluated using contaminated poultry meat. The sensitivity and specificity of the methods were investigated on field samples and on artificially contaminated samples inoculated with mixtures of Salmonella and non-Salmonella competing strains. ICS-Vidas and MSRV yielded virtually identical results, in full agreement with the standard cultural method (SCM). The MSRV method showed better results with artificially contaminated samples, but was less sensitive than SCM when applied to field samples. The use of the MSRV and Vidas-ICS methods could be particularly advantageous in the application of HACCP. PMID:9926997

  12. Salmonella identification from foods in eight hours: A prototype study with Salmonella Typhimurium

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    A Koluman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The significant rise in food borne infections is mainly caused by Campylobacter spp., Salmonella serovars and Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli. As the emerging food borne pathogens cause disease, more studies have been conducted for rapid detection of these pathogens. The combination of immunomagnetic separation and polymerase chain reaction (IMS-PCR is the most accurate and rapid test preferred by almost every researcher. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR is preferred for being a new, user friendly and rapid technique in microbiological analyses. The main aim of this study is to detect application of IMS-FTIR for Salmonella identification from foods in a short time with a higher sensitivity.Materials and Methods: Conventional Culture Technique (CC, IMS-CC, IMS-PCR and IMS-FTIR techniques were compared with each other for rapid detection in artificially contaminated minced beef with Salmonella Typhimurium, as of the 2nd, 4th and 8th hours of contamination. The method was evaluated in different food matrices and sensitivity, specifity and overall recovery was calculated.Results: The results indicate that IMS-FTIR can detect S. Typhimurium as of the 8th hour with sensitivity of 95.6667, accuracy of 91.69329, false positive ratio of 0.04333 and overall recovery of 95.66%.Conclusion: It can be suggested that the IMS-FTIR method is capable of detecting S.Typhimurium in a short time with lower cost.

  13. Recovery of Salmonella from Incubated Eggs, Newly Hatched Chicks and Contaminated Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N.M. Rahman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 400 hatchery samples comprised of yolk interior (100, paper pad (100, shell membrane (100 and fecal swab of newly hatched chicks (100 were tested to detect the presence of Salmonella organism by bacteriological agar plate test. Positive cases recorded in this study were 37 (37, 12 (12, 3 (3 and 19 (19% from each sample (100 of yolk interior, paper pad, shell membrane and fecal swab of newly hatched chicks, respectively. A representative numbers of 50 isolates were used for the identification of serogoups of Salmonella prevailing in selected area by using polyvalent antisera. The result indicated that the test isolates 45(90% were typed to a specific serogroup of "O". All 45 isolated Salmonella serogroup ?O? were then characterized by different specific biochemical media. Based on these tests, the selective isolates were identified as Salmonella gallinarum.

  14. Research and identification of pathogenic bacteria 'Salmonella and Listeria' in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sums propose to evaluate the bacterial contamination of certain food taken randomly by two pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella and Listeria) considering the evolution of the diseases of food oignon. For that 78 food samples of different origins were analysed. 2 stocks of the Listeria kind and 3 stocks of the salmonella kind were insulated and identified by biochemical and molecular tests. The pathogenic isolates were identified by coloration gram, test catalase, insulation on specific culture media and Api (20 E for Salmonella and Api listeria. At the end, the PCR were realized to amplify the gene iap which codes for the protein p60 at listeria as well as a sequence clonee randomly specific of Salmonella.

  15. Sensibilidad y especificidad del recuento de leucocitos en las materias fecales para predecir la presencia de Salmonella o Shigellaen pacientes con enfermedad diarreica aguda / Sensitivity and specificity of leukocyte count in feces as a predictor of stool culture positivity for Samonella or Shigella

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mónica Cecilia, Cuartas Trujillo; Olga Lucía, Molina Upegui; Ana Cristina, Restrepo Ceballos; Claudia Yarely, Maya Carmona; Sergio, Jaramillo Veláquez; Jorge Hernando, Donado Gómez; John Jairo, Zuleta Tobón; Jaime Aberto, López Vargas.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En la mayoría de los estudios que evalúan la presencia de leucocitos en las materias fecales no se determinan la sensibilidad y especificidad del examen de acuerdo con el recuento de dichas células. Objetivo: evaluar el recuento de leucocitos en las materias fecales como prueba diagnóstica para pred [...] ecir la presencia de Salmonella o Shigella. Diseño: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en el Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe, de Medellín, Colombia, en 905 coprocultivos hechos a pacientes hospitalizados con enfermedad diarreica aguda. Métodos: se registraron el recuento de leucocitos y el resultado del coprocultivo. Este último se tomó como el estándar de oro para evaluar el rendimiento de los diferentes valores del recuento. Resultados: los porcentajes de sensibilidad y especificidad de la prueba, de acuerdo con el recuento de leucocitos fueron, respectivamente: 1-5: 89,2% y 57,1%; 6-10: 86,2% y 52,8%; 11-20: 77,7% y 62,7%; 21-30: 63,9% y 76,3%; 31-50: 45,2% y 85,5%; más de 50: 28,3% y 90,9%. El área bajo la curva fue de 0,7699 (IC 95%: 0,7275-0,8123). Conclusiones: la sensibilidad de la prueba descendió y su especificidad aumentó en la medida en que se incrementaba el recuento de leucocitos en la materia fecal. La baja especificidad con los valores inferiores del recuento de leucocitos puede deberse a la presencia de otros agentes enteroinvasores o a enfermedades diarreicas de causas no infecciosas. Abstract in english In most studies of fecal leukocyte counts as predictors of the result of stool cultures the sensitivity and specificity were not determined. Objective: to evaluate fecal leukocyte counts as a predictor of the presence of Salmonella and Shigella. Design: a descriptive, cross section study was carried [...] out in 905 stool cultures at a university hospital in Medellín, Colombia. Results for Salmonella and Shigella were taken as the gold standard to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of fecal leukocyte counts. Results: sensitivity and specificity, according to the level of the count, were, respectively: 1-5 leukocytes: 89.2% and 57.1%; 6-10 leukocytes: 86.2% and 52.8%; 11-20 leukocytes: 77.7% and 62.7%; 21-30 leukocytes: 63.9% and 76.3%; 31-50 leukocytes: 45.2% and 85.5%; more than 50 leukocytes: 28.3% and 90.9%. The area under the curve was 0.7699 (CI 95%: 0.7275-0.8123). Conclusions: sensitivity decreased and specificity increased with higher counts of fecal leukocytes. Low specificity with the lesser values of leukocyte counts may be due to either the presence of enteroinvasive pathogens other than Salmonella and Shigella, or to non-infectious diarrheal disease.

  16. Prevalence of Salmonella Serogroups in Chicken Meat

    OpenAIRE

    GONCAGÜL, Gül?en; GÜNAYDIN, Elçin; Carli, K. Tayfun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella serogroups in chicken meat. A total of 315 skins from the wing part of chicken carcasses were collected from 8 chicken carcass retailers. Salmonella isolation was performed as described in the Bacteriological Analytical Manual of the Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) in Serogroup D was isolated from...

  17. Retlig beskyttelse mod salmonella i et EU- og WTO-retligt perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Huizing; Andersen, Lars Bracht

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the legal approach to the risk of salmonella infections on the complex interaction between EU Law and international law. It is examined how the latitude of individual states to adopt national food safety measures is restricted by both EU Law and WTO Law. The specific issue of protection against salmonella also serves as illustration of the difficult balancing of the interests of high level of food safety and the free movement of goods.

  18. Twelve-hours PCR-based method for detection of Salmonella spp. in food

    OpenAIRE

    Cocolin, Luca Simone

    2001-01-01

    A PCR-based method for the detection of Salmonella spp. in food was developed. The method, set up on typical salami from the Italian region of Marche, is sensitive and specific and shows excellent correlation with the conventional method of reference when naturally contaminated foods are analyzed. Moreover, it can be easily performed within a maximum of 12 h from food sampling, thus allowing prompt detection of Salmonella spp. in the food stocks analyzed.

  19. Outbreak-associated Salmonella enterica Serotypes and Food Commodities, United States, 1998–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Brendan R.; Griffin, Patricia M.; Cole, Dana; Walsh, Kelly A.; Chai, Shua J.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica infections are transmitted not only by animal-derived foods but also by vegetables, fruits, and other plant products. To clarify links between Salmonella serotypes and specific foods, we examined the diversity and predominance of food commodities implicated in outbreaks of salmonellosis during 1998–2008. More than 80% of outbreaks caused by serotypes Enteritidis, Heidelberg, and Hadar were attributed to eggs or poultry, whereas >50% of outbreaks caused by serotypes Javia...

  20. The use of organic acids to combat Salmonella in poultry : a mechanistic explanation of the efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Immerseel, Filip; Russell, James; Flythe, Michael; Gantois, Inne; Timbermont, Leen; Pasmans, Frank; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Salmonella is a human pathogen that is commonly found in poultry products. It is possible to decrease chicken carcass and egg contaminations by adding organic acids to the feed or drinking water at appropriate times. Medium chain fatty acids are be more antibacterial against Salmonella than short-chain fatty acids. The antibacterial effect of these acids is species specific. Bacteria that are unable to decrease intracellular pH accumulate organic acid anions in accordance...

  1. Absent bactericidal activity of mouse serum against invasive African nontyphoidal Salmonella results from impaired complement function but not a lack of antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siggins, Matthew K; Cunningham, Adam F; Marshall, Jennifer L; Chamberlain, Jayne L; Henderson, Ian R; MacLennan, Calman A

    2011-02-15

    Nontyphoidal strains of Salmonella are a major cause of fatal bacteremia in Africa. Developing a vaccine requires an improved understanding of the relevant mechanisms of protective immunity, and the mouse model of Salmonella infection is useful for studying immunity to Salmonella in vivo. It is important to appreciate the similarities and differences between immunity to Salmonella in mice and men. Ab is important for protection against nontyphoidal Salmonella in both species, and we have previously found an important role for Ab in cell-free complement-mediated bactericidal activity against Salmonella in Africans. It is unclear whether this modality of immunity is relevant in the mouse model. C57BL/6, BALB/c, and C3H mice immunized with heat-killed Salmonella Typhimurium strains D23580 (African invasive strain) and SL1344 and live-attenuated strain SL3261 produced a Salmonella-specific Ab response. Sera from these mice deposited reduced levels of C3 on Salmonella compared with human sera and were unable to kill both wild-type and galE(-) rough mutant of D23580, indicating absent cell-free killing via classical and alternative complement pathways. Supplementing immune mouse sera with human complement enabled killing of Salmonella, whereas addition of human anti-Salmonella Ab to immune mouse sera had no effect. These findings indicate that mouse serum cannot effect [corrected] cell-free complement-dependent killing of Salmonella, because of the reduced mouse complement ability to kill these bacteria compared with human complement. This difference in Ab-dependent immunity to Salmonella in mice and men must be considered when applying findings from the mouse model of Salmonella disease and vaccination response to man. PMID:21217014

  2. wksl3, a New Biocontrol Agent for Salmonella enterica Serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium in Foods: Characterization, Application, Sequence Analysis, and Oral Acute Toxicity Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Hyun-wol; Kim, Jae-won; Jung, Tae-sung; Woo, Gun-jo

    2013-01-01

    Of the Salmonella enterica serovars, S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium are responsible for most of the Salmonella outbreaks implicated in the consumption of contaminated foods in the Republic of Korea. Because of the widespread occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella in foods and food processing environments, bacteriophages have recently surfaced as an alternative biocontrol tool. In this study, we isolated a virulent bacteriophage (wksl3) that could specifically infect S. Enteritidi...

  3. Diversity of Salmonella Strains Isolated from the Aquatic Environment as Determined by Serotyping and Amplification of the Ribosomal DNA Spacer Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Baudart, Julia; Lemarchand, Karine; Brisabois, Anne; Lebaron, Philippe

    2000-01-01

    Salmonella species are pathogenic bacteria often detected in sewage, freshwater, marine coastal water, and groundwater. Salmonella spp. can survive for long periods in natural waters, and the persistence of specific and epidemic strains is of great concern in public health. However, the diversity of species found in the natural environment remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the diversity of Salmonella strains isolated from different natural aquatic systems within a Medi...

  4. The porin OmpD from nontyphoidal Salmonella is a key target for a protective B1b cell antibody response

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-cruz, Cristina; Bobat, Saeeda; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Kingsley, Robert A.; Ross, Ewan A.; Henderson, Ian R.; Leyton, Denisse L.; Coughlan, Ruth E.; Khan, Mahmood; Jensen, Karina T.; Buckley, Christopher D.; Dougan, Gordon; Maclennan, Ian C. M.; Lo?pez-maci?as, Constantino; Cunningham, Adam F.

    2009-01-01

    Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS), including Salmonella typhimurium (STm), are major yet poorly-recognized killers of infants in sub-Saharan Africa. Death in these children is usually associated with bacteremia, commonly in the absence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Evidence from humans and animal studies suggest that severe infection and bacteremia occur when specific Ab is lacking. Understanding how Ab responses to Salmonella are regulated will help develop vaccines against these devast...

  5. Comparison of DNA probe, PCR amplification, ELISA and culture methods for the rapid detection of Salmonella in poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The identification of Salmonella spp. from poultry meat was studied by comparing bacterial detection using the Gene-Trak colorimetric hybridization method, a PCR amplification kit and an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and these methods were compared with the conventional methodology proposed by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) for detection of Salmonella in food samples. Forty positive and negative samples were studied. The three methods yielded similar results with levels of Salmonella greater than 10 CFU per sample, even when the samples were highly contaminated with competing bacteria. In contrast, 20 CFU of seed inoculum per sample was the lowest level of Salmonella detectable with all three methods and the standard culture method. The detection limits of the PCR and ELISA assays were 5 CFU/g after enrichment at 37 deg. C for 6 and 9 hours, respectively. Compared with conventional bacteriology, all three methods here demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for Salmonella. (author)

  6. Abscesso esplênico causado por Salmonella Splenic abscess due to Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno von Glen Herkenhoff

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar as características demográficas, clínicas, diagnóstica e terapêutica de pacientes com abscesso esplênico (AE causado por Salmonella. MÉTODO: Análise retrospectiva de dados de pacientes atendidos no Serviço de Cirurgia Geral e Aparelho Digestivo do Hospital Universitário Gaffrée-Guinle no período de janeiro de 2001 a dezembro de 2005, a estes se incluiu um caso tratado em outro hospital em época anterior. RESULTADOS: Dentre 4823 pacientes recentemente atendidos, dois apresentaram AE causado por Salmonella enteritidis, enquanto o caso mais antigo o agente responsável foi a Salmonella typhi. Todos eram homens, com idade média de 45 anos. Em nenhum deles foi identificada condição predisponente à formação do abscesso; os exames de imagem foram capazes de diagnosticar o AE. Todos foram tratados por esplenectomia e antibioticoterapia e evoluíram para cura. CONCLUSÕES: A Salmonella, apesar de infrequente, pode ser o agente causal do AE. Caracteristicamente os abscessos eram grandes e apresentavam material necrótico em seu interior. Nesta condição, a esplenectomia associada a antibioticoterapia mostrou-se eficaz no tratamento.BACKGROUND: Splenic abscess is a uncommon disease and remains a diagnostic challenge. Outcome is fatal when the condition is not promptly recognized and treated. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographic, clinical, diagnostic methods and management characteristic of patients with salmonelal splenic abscess. METHODS: Retrospective study at General and Digestive Surgery Service - Hospital Universitário Gaffrée-Guinle of the Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro - UNIRIO from January 2001 to December 2005 resulting in a total number of 4823 patients has been performed. An additional case treated by one author was added. RESULTS: During the studied period two cases of splenic abscess due to Salmonella enteritidis was treated; a third older case was due to Salmonella typhi. All patients were man; the mean age was 45 years, all were immunocompetent and had large solitary lesion. All patients underwent splenectomy and antibiotic therapy; the outcome was favorable for all patients. CONCLUSION: Nowadays still is possible that splenic abscess is due to Salmonella species etiology; typically, all patients are immunocompetents adult males and large solitary lesions within necrotic material. In this condition, splenectomy and intravenous antibiotic administration appear to constitute the most convenient therapy.

  7. Salmonella transfer potential onto tomatoes during laboratory-simulated in-field debris removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, Aswathy; Schneider, Keith R; Danyluk, Michelle D

    2014-07-01

    Florida Tomato Good Agricultural Practices (T-GAPs) mandate the removal of dirt and debris from tomatoes during harvest but do not provide any specific regulations or guidance; thus, the current practice of using cloths needs to be evaluated. This study examined Salmonella transfer from inoculated green tomatoes to uninoculated cloths and from inoculated cloths to uninoculated tomatoes, upon single and multiple touches. Tomatoes were spot inoculated with a rifampin-resistant Salmonella cocktail (10(7) CFU per tomato) and were touched with cloth (clean, dirty-dry, dirty-wet) at 0, 1, or 24 h postinoculation. Salmonella was enumerated on tryptic soy agar, followed by enrichments when necessary. The transfer direction was then reversed by touching freshly inoculated cloths with uninoculated tomatoes. Transfer coefficients (TCs) were then calculated. Salmonella TCs from inoculated tomato and cloth were highest when the inoculum was wet (0.44 ± 0.13 to 0.32 ± 0.12), regardless of the condition of the cloth. Although Salmonella TCs from inoculated tomato to uninoculated cloth decreased significantly when the inoculum was dried (0.17 ± 0.23 to 0.01 ± 0.00), low levels of Salmonella were detected on cloth even after 24 h of drying. Inoculated dirty cloth did not transfer more Salmonella compared with inoculated clean cloth, and Salmonella survival was not higher on dirty cloth. When inoculated clean cloth (wet) was touched with 25 tomatoes, significantly higher levels of Salmonella were transferred to the first, second, and fourth tomatoes (0.03 ± 0.10 to 0.09 ± 0.02). However, inoculated dirty-wet (below limit of detection) and dirty-dry (0.00 to 0.04 ± 0.01) cloths transferred similar levels of Salmonella to all 25 tomatoes. Results indicate a low risk of potential Salmonella contamination when the same cloth is used multiple times for debris removal, especially under high moisture levels. Results also show that the use of dirty cloths did not increase the risk of Salmonella cross-contamination. PMID:24988010

  8. Cellulitis Due to Salmonella infantis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish R Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Salmonella are highly adapted for the growth in both humans and animals and cause a wide spectrum of disease. The growth of Serotypes S. typhi and S. paratyphi is restricted to human hosts, in whom these organisms cause enteric (typhoid fever. The remaining Serotypes (non typhoidal Salmonella or NTS can colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of the broad range of animals, including mammals, reptiles, birds and insects. The usual clinical presentation of non-typhoidal salmonellae (NTS infection is self limited gastroenteritis; however bacteremia and focal extra intestinal infection may occur. However salmonella localization to the skin presenting as cutaneous ulceration is regarded as a rare event. Rates of morbidity and mortality associated with NTS are highest among the elderly, infants, and immunocompromised individuals, including those with hemoglobinopathies, HIV infection, or infections that cause blockade of the reticuloendothelial system. We isolated S.infantis in 50 years old man with left leg cellulitis. The serotype was confirmed at Central Research Institute, Kasauli.

  9. Salmonella Infection and Water Frogs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-01-12

    This podcast, featuring lead investigator Shauna Mettee, discusses the first known outbreak of Salmonella in people due to contact with water frogs.  Created: 1/12/2010 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 1/12/2010.

  10. Salmonella Source Attribution in Japan by a Microbiological Subtyping Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyofuku, Hajime; Pires, Sara Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    In order to estimate the number of human Salmonella infections attributable to each of major animal-food source, and help identifying the best Salmonella intervention strategies, a microbial subtyping approach for source attribution was applied. We adapted a Bayesian model that attributes illnesses to specific sources and allows for the estimation of the differences in the ability of Salmonella subtypes and food types to result in reported salmonellosis. The number of human cases caused by different Salmonella subtypes is estimated as a function of the prevalence of these subtypes in the animal-food sources, subtype-related factors, and source-related factors. National-surveillance serotyping data from 1998 to 2007 were applied to the model. Results suggested that the relative contribution of the sources to salmonellosis varied during the 10 year period, and that eggs are the most important source of disease, being responsible for over 50 % of the cases in most years. Broilers followed in importance in 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2005, while swine was the second most important source in 2000, 2004 and 2007. Salmonella was seldom isolated from cattle and few cases were attributed to this source. The proportion of cases attributed to an unknown source varied substantially between years. We conclude that this is valid approach to attribute salmonellosis in Japan, and that and improved dataset would substantially improve results. This is the first indication of the relative contribution of different foods for human salmonellosis, and results may be used for further research, risk management and public health strategies.

  11. Risk of Human Salmonella Infections from Live Baby Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk of Human Salmonella Infections from Live Baby Poultry Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Risk of ... do people get Salmonella infections from live baby poultry? Live poultry may have Salmonella germs in their ...

  12. Calidad microbiológica y análisis de patógenos (Shigella y Salmonella) en lechuga / Microbiological quality and pathogen analysis (Shigella and Salmonella) of lettuce

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kenia, Barrantes; Rosario, Achí.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la calidad microbiológica en 37 muestras de lechuga variedad criolla (Lactuca sativa var. Capitata L.) de distintos intermediarios en las provincias de San José y Cartago, en Costa Rica. Las muestras se recolectaron mediante muestreo no probabilístico por selección intencional. Se cuantif [...] icó Escherichia coli (NMP/g) como indicador de contaminación fecal y se determinó la presencia de patógenos específicos (Shigella y Salmonella), por cultivo y por PCR-Múltiple. En el 65% de las muestras analizadas se detectó E. coli, aunque no se encontró Shigella ni Salmonella por PCR-Múltiple o cultivo. Una posible explicación es que los niveles de contaminación de Shigella y Salmonella están por debajo de los límites de detección de ambos métodos (menos de 10(4) UFC/g para Shigella y menos de 10² UFC/g para Salmonella). Estos resultados establecen una base importante para continuar con este tema de investigación y analizar otras fuentes de transmisión de Shigella y Salmonella, dado que ambos patógenos son frecuentes en la región. Abstract in english The microbiological quality of 37 lettuce samples of the creole variety (Lactuca sativa var. Capitata L.) obtained from different intermediaries at the provinces of San José and Cartago, in Costa Rica was analyzed. The samples were collected through a non-probabilistic sampling with intentional sele [...] ction. Escherichia coli (NMP/g) was quantified as indicator of fecal contamination and the presence of specific pathogens (Shigella and Salmonella) was determined by culture and Multiplex-PCR. In 65% of the samples analyzed we detected E. coli, even though we did not find Shigella or Salmonella by Multiplex-PCR or culture. A possible explanation is that the Shigella or Salmonella contamination levels may have been under the detection limits for both methods (less than 10(4) CFU/g for Shigella, and less than 10² CFU/g for Salmonella). These results establish an important basis for continuing with this research subject and analyzing other sources of transmission of Shigella and Salmonella contamination, since both pathogens are frequent in the region.

  13. Development of Recombinant Flagellar Antigens for Serological Detection of Salmonella enterica Serotypes Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, and Typhimurium in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L. Hofacre

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and fast detection of harmful Salmonella is a major concern of food safety. Common Salmonella serotypes responsible for human associated foodborne outbreaks are S. Enteritidis, S. Hadar, S. Heidelberg, and S. Typhimurium are also commonly isolated from poultry. Serology is commonly used to monitor disease in poultry, therefore application of Salmonella serotype-specific test will have added value in Salmonella surveillance or monitoring vaccine efficacy. Recombinant flagellins were purified to be used as antigens in an ELISA. In this study, an ELISA was developed for the serological detection of S. Enteritidis. Once optimized, 500 ng of purified recombinant S. Enteritidis flagellin and a 1:64 dilution were determined to be optimal for testing sera. A negative baseline cutoff was calculated to be an optical density (OD of 0.35. All sera from birds with history of S. Enteritidis exposure tested positive and all sera from chickens with no exposure tested negative to this Salmonella serotype. Current ELISA for serological detection of Salmonella suffers from cross reactivity inherent in lipopolysaccharide (LPS or whole cell antigen based serological tests. This new ELISA eliminates common cross reactivity by focusing specifically on the flagellins of the Salmonella serotypes common in poultry and associated with foodborne outbreaks.

  14. A Markov model to estimate Salmonella morbidity, mortality, illness duration, and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Robert L; Buchberger, Steven G; Clark, Robert M; Kupferle, Margaret; Murray, Regan; Succop, Paul

    2012-10-01

    Approximately 690000-1790000 Salmonella cases, 20000 hospitalizations, and 400 deaths occur in the USA annually, costing approximately $2.6bn. Existing models estimate morbidity, mortality, and cost solely from incidence. They do not estimate illness duration or use time as an independent cost predictor. Existing models may underestimate physician visits, hospitalizations, deaths, and associated costs. We developed a Markov chain Monte Carlo model to estimate illness duration, physician/emergency room visits, inpatient hospitalizations, mortality, and resultant costs for a given Salmonella incidence. Interested parties include society, third-party payers, health providers, federal, state and local governments, businesses, and individual patients and their families. The marginal approach estimates individual disease behavior for every patient, explicitly estimates disease duration and calculates separate time-dependent costs. The aggregate approach is a Markov equivalent of the existing models; it assumes average disease behavior and cost for a given morbidity/mortality. Transition probabilities were drawn from a meta-analysis of 53 Salmonella studies. Both approaches were tested using the 1993 Salmonella typhimurium outbreak in Gideon, Missouri. This protocol can be applied to estimate morbidity, mortality and cost of specific outbreaks, provide better national Salmonella burden estimates, and estimate the benefits of reducing Salmonella risk. PMID:21887809

  15. Visualization of gold and platinum nanoparticles interacting with Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Rapid development of nanotechnology has recently brought significant attention to the extraordinary biological features of nanomaterials. The objective of the present ­investigation was to evaluate morphological characteristics of the assembles of gold and platinum nanoparticles (nano-Au and nano-Pt respectively), with Salmonella Enteritidis (Gram-negative) and Listeria monocytogenes (Gram-positive), to reveal possibilities of constructing bacteria-nanoparticle vehicles. Methods: Hydrocolloids of nano-Au or nano-Pt were added to two bacteria suspensions in the following order: nano-Au + Salmonella Enteritidis; nano-Au + Listeria monocytogenes; nano-Pt + Salmonella Enteritidis; nano-Pt + Listeria monocytogenes. Samples were inspected by transmission electron microscope. Results: Visualization of morphological interaction between nano-Au and Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes, showed that nano-Au were aggregated within flagella or biofilm network and did not penetrate the bacterialcell. The analysis of morphological effects of interaction of nano-Pt with bacteria revealed that nano-Pt entered cells of Listeria monocytogenes and were removed from the cells. In the case of Salmonella Enteritidis, nano-Pt were seen inside bacteria cells, probably bound to DNA and partly left bacterial cells. After washing and centrifugation, some of the nano-Pt-DNA complexes were observed within Salmonella Enteritidis. Conclusion: The results indicate that the bacteria could be used as a vehicle to deliver nano-Pt to specific points in the body.

  16. Spatio-temporal analysis of Salmonella surveillance data in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho Calado Domingues, Ana Rita; Vieira, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the usefulness of spatio-temporal statistical tools to detect outbreaks using routine surveillance data where limited epidemiological information is available. A dataset from 2002 to 2007 containing information regarding date, origin, source and serotype of 29 586 Salmonella isolates from Thailand was analysed. Data was grouped into human and non-human categories and the analysis was performed for the top five occurring serovars for each year of the study period. A total 91 human and 39 non-human significant spatio-temporal clusters were observed, accounting for 11% and 16% of the isolates, respectively. Serovar-specific associations between human and non-human clusters were also evaluated. Results show that these statistical tools can provide information for use in outbreak prevention and detection, in countries where only limited data is available. Moreover, it is suggested that monitoring non-human reservoirs can be relevant in predicting future Salmonella human cases.

  17. Direct visual detection of Salmonella genomic DNA using gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalidasan, Kamaladasan; Neo, Jia Ling; Uttamchandani, Mahesh

    2013-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are well recognized tools for visual DNA detection. Most reports on their use have however been restricted to synthetic or PCR amplified DNA sequences. Herein, we describe a visual DNA detection method that can detect unamplified genomic DNA sequences specifically, using simple reagents and AuNPs, without the need for PCR. This strategy applies thiolated probes and AuNPs to detect genomic DNA. The thiolated probes, in the presence of target Salmonella genomic sequences, cause the AuNPs to aggregate irreversibly, producing a red to purple colorimetric change. As little as 608?000 copies (at 37 fM) of the Salmonella genome were thus detected visually, by eye, without the need for a power source or sophisticated instrumentation. This method thus opens in-roads to direct visual detection, bringing sophisticated DNA analysis capabilities to the point of need. PMID:23407714

  18. Reveal Salmonella 2.0 test for detection of Salmonella spp. in foods and environmental samples. Performance Tested Method 960801.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerner, Rebecca; Feldpausch, Jill; Gray, R Lucas; Curry, Stephanie; Islam, Zahidul; Goldy, Tim; Klein, Frank; Tadese, Theodros; Rice, Jennifer; Mozola, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Reveal Salmonella 2.0 is an improved version of the original Reveal Salmonella lateral flow immunoassay and is applicable to the detection of Salmonella enterica serogroups A-E in a variety of food and environmental samples. A Performance Tested Method validation study was conducted to compare performance of the Reveal 2.0 method with that of the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service or U.S. Food and Drug Administration/Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference culture methods for detection of Salmonella spp. in chicken carcass rinse, raw ground turkey, raw ground beef, hot dogs, raw shrimp, a ready-to-eat meal product, dry pet food, ice cream, spinach, cantaloupe, peanut butter, stainless steel surface, and sprout irrigation water. In a total of 17 trials performed internally and four trials performed in an independent laboratory, there were no statistically significant differences in performance of the Reveal 2.0 and reference culture procedures as determined by Chi-square analysis, with the exception of one trial with stainless steel surface and one trial with sprout irrigation water where there were significantly more positive results by the Reveal 2.0 method. Considering all data generated in testing food samples using enrichment procedures specifically designed for the Reveal method, overall sensitivity of the Reveal method relative to the reference culture methods was 99%. In testing environmental samples, sensitivity of the Reveal method relative to the reference culture method was 164%. For select foods, use of the Reveal test in conjunction with reference method enrichment resulted in overall sensitivity of 92%. There were no unconfirmed positive results on uninoculated control samples in any trials for specificity of 100%. In inclusivity testing, 102 different Salmonella serovars belonging to serogroups A-E were tested and 99 were consistently positive in the Reveal test. In exclusivity testing of 33 strains of non-salmonellae representing 14 genera, 32 were negative when tested with Reveal following nonselective enrichment, and the remaining strain was found to be substantially inhibited by the enrichment media used with the Reveal method. Results of ruggedness testing showed that the Reveal test produces accurate results even with substantial deviation in sample volume or device development time. PMID:22165011

  19. 16-23S rRNA Spacer Region Polymorphism in Gangetic River Water Isolates of Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubi Singh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is one of the major pathogenic bacteria present in contaminated water. 16-23S rRNA spacer region has been reported to be polymorphic at serovar level in Salmonella. Salmonella isolates obtained from Ganges river water were studied for 16-23S rRNA spacer region polymorphism. Thirty three isolates belonging to eight serovars (S. Typhimurium, S. Abuja, S. Pantypridd, S. Lagos, S. Chinkual, S. Zwickau, S. Goldenberg and S. Oritamerin were studied for the polymorphism. Out of 33 isolates, 15 different profiles were observed no serovar specific profile. Our findings indicate that 16-23S rRNA spacer region is not specific at serovar level, but can be used for differentiation of different Salmonella isolates.

  20. Hemagglutinating properties of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolated from different sources / Propriedades hemaglutinantes de Salmonella enterica sorotipo Enteritidis isoladas de diferentes fontes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jane M.G., Mikcha; Antonio J. Piantino, Ferreira; Claudete S. Astolfi, Ferreira; Tomomasa, Yano.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas 25 amostras de Salmonella enterica sorotipo Enteritidis isoladas de diferentes fontes, em testes de hemaglutinação. Amostras bacterianas cultivadas em diferentes meios de cultura causavam hemaglutinação na presença de hemácias humanas, entretanto, não foi observada reação com hemácia [...] s de outras espécies. A expressão da atividade hemaglutinante foi melhor em ágar CFA a 37ºC. A hemaglutinação foi inibida por D-manose, D-manitol, melibiose, D-rafinose, L-ramnose e sacarose. A análise ultraestrutural não revelou a presença de estruturas filamentosas na superfície bacteriana, sugerindo que a hemaglutinina de Salmonella Enteritidis seja de natureza não fimbrial. Os dados sugerem que Salmonella Enteritidis produz uma hemaglutinina não fimbrial manose-sensível, específica para hemácias humanas, que pode ser extraída na forma solúvel. Abstract in english Twenty-five strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolated from different sources were examined for hemagglutinating activity. Bacteria cultured in different media induced hemagglutination of human erythrocytes, but no reaction was observed with erythrocytes from other animal species. T [...] he hemagglutinating expression activity was better for cultures on CFA agar at 37ºC than other conditions examined. The hemagglutination was inhibited by D-mannose, D-mannitol, melibiose, D-raffinose, L-rhamnose and sucrose. The absence of cell-surface appendages in electron microscope examinations suggested a nonfimbrial hemagglutinin. The data suggest that Salmonella Enteritidis produces nonfimbrial mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin, specific for human erythrocytes, which could be extracted in soluble form.

  1. Sensitivity and specificity of leukocyte count in feces as a predictor of stool culture positivity for S amonella or Shigella Sensibilidad y especificidad del recuento de leucocitos en las materias fecales para predecir la presencia de Salmonella o Shigella en pacientes con enfermedad diarreica aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo Zuleta Tobón

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available

    In most studies of fecal leukocyte counts as predictors of the result of stool cultures the sensitivity and specificity were not determined.

    Objective: to evaluate fecal leukocyte counts as a predictor of the presence of Salmonella and Shigella.

    Design: a descriptive, cross section study was carried out in 905 stool cultures at a university hospital in Medellín, Colombia. Results for Salmonella and Shigella were taken as the gold standard to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of fecal leukocyte counts.

    Results: sensitivity and specificity, according to the level of the count, were, respectively: 1-5 leukocytes: 89.2% and 57.1%; 6-10 leukocytes: 86.2% and 52.8%;11-20 leukocytes: 77.7% and 62.7%; 21-30 leukocytes: 63.9% and 76.3%; 31-50 leukocytes: 45.2% and 85.5%; more than 50 leukocytes: 28.3% and 90.9%. The area under the curve was 0.7699 (CI 95%: 0.7275-0.8123.

    Conclusions: sensitivity decreased and specificity increased with higher counts of fecal leukocytes. Low specificity with the lesser values of leukocyte counts may be due to either the presence of enteroinvasive pathogens other than Salmonella and Shigella, or to non-infectious diarrheal disease.

    En la mayoría de los estudios que evalúan la presencia de leucocitos en las materias fecales no se determinan la sensibilidad y especificidad del examen de acuerdo con el recuento de dichas células. Objetivo: evaluar el recuento de leucocitos en las materias fecales como prueba diagnóstica para predecir la presencia de Salmonella o Shigella. Diseño: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en el Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe, de Medellín, Colombia, en 905 coprocultivos hechos a pacientes hospitalizados con enfermedad diarreica aguda. Métodos: se registraron el recuento de leucocitos y el resultado del coprocultivo. Este último se tomó como el estándar de oro para evaluar el rendimiento de los diferentes valores del recuento. Resultados: los porcentajes de sensibilidad y especificidad de la prueba, de acuerdo con el recuento de leucocitos fueron, respectivamente: 1-5: 89,2% y 57,1%; 6-10: 86,2% y 52,8%; 11-20: 77,7% y 62,7%; 21-30: 63,9% y 76,3%; 31-50: 45,2% y 85,5%; más de 50: 28,3% y 90,9%. El área bajo la curva fue de 0,7699 (IC 95%: 0,7275-0,8123. Conclusiones: la sensibilidad de la prueba descendió y su especificidad aumentó en la medida en que se incrementaba el recuento de leucocitos en la materia fecal. La baja especificidad con los valores inferiores del recuento de leucocitos puede deberse a la presencia de otros agentes enteroinvasores o a enfermeda

  2. Immunization with live aroA recombinant Salmonella typhimurium producing invasin inhibits intestinal translocation of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Simonet, M; Fortineau, N; Beretti, J L; Berche, P.

    1994-01-01

    The Yersinia pseudotuberculosis inv gene encodes invasin, a 103-kDa outer membrane protein that allows bacteria to enter mammalian cells. The gene was subcloned into the attenuated aroA mutant of Salmonella typhimurium SL3261. Invasin was produced by the recombinant Salmonella strain and increased the ability of microorganisms to translocate from the intestinal lumen to the mesenteric lymph nodes. Specific antibodies for invasin were detected in sera and intestinal secretions of mice followin...

  3. Factors influencing phagocytosis of Salmonella typhimurium by macrophages in murine schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muniz-Junqueira Maria Imaculada

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of Salmonella typhimurium load and specific antibodies on phagocytosis in schistosomiasis. Macrophages from Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice showed depressed capacity to increase the phagocytosis in the presence of a high bacterial load, due to a reduced involvement of these cells in phagocytosis and to a deficient ability to increase the number of phagocytosed bacteria. Normal and Salmonella-infected mice increased their phagocytic capacity when exposed to a high bacterial load. Antibody to Salmonella increased the phagocytic capacity of macrophages from Schistosoma-infected mice due to an increase in the number of bacteria phagocytosed but caused no modification in the number of macrophages engaged in phagocytosis. Our data indicate that macrophages from Schistosoma-infected mice work close to their functional limit, since no increase in phagocytosis was observed after increasing the bacterial load. Specific antibodies can improve their phagocytic capacity and, therefore, could help clearing concurrent infection.

  4. Prevalence of Surface Swarming Behavior in Salmonella

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Wook; Surette, Michael G.

    2005-01-01

    Swarming behavior among 167 Salmonella sp. isolates, representing all eight groups, was assessed. Only eight strains failed to swarm under standard conditions. Four of the defective strains swarmed on alternate carbon sources, and four harbored general defects in motility or lipopolysaccharide. Thus, swarming may represent an evolutionarily conserved behavior in Salmonella spp.

  5. Cephalosporin and Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Salmonella, Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Jing-jou; Chiou, Chien-shun; Lauderdale, Tsai-ling Yang; Tsai, Shu-huei; Wu, Jiunn-jong

    2005-01-01

    We report the prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella strains resistant to ciprofloxacin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Taiwan from January to May 2004. All isolates resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins carried blaCMY-2, and all ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis isolates were genetically related.

  6. Isolation of salmonellae from dried rattlesnake preparations.

    OpenAIRE

    Babu, K.; Sonnenberg, M.; Kathpalia, S.; Ortega, P.; Swiatlo, A. L.; Kocka, F. E.

    1990-01-01

    Salmonella arizonae and other Salmonella serovars were isolated from four different rattlesnake preparations which were used for self-treatment of various diseases. A case of disseminated S. arizonae infection is reported in a patient who had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and ingested dried rattlesnake.

  7. Isolation of salmonellae from dried rattlesnake preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K; Sonnenberg, M; Kathpalia, S; Ortega, P; Swiatlo, A L; Kocka, F E

    1990-02-01

    Salmonella arizonae and other Salmonella serovars were isolated from four different rattlesnake preparations which were used for self-treatment of various diseases. A case of disseminated S. arizonae infection is reported in a patient who had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and ingested dried rattlesnake. PMID:2312681

  8. Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Aortitis in a transplant patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-typhoidal salmonella bacteremia may result in extra gastrointestinallocalization of infection. Aortitis due to non-typhoidal salmonella wasreported to be the cause of 38-42% of all infected abdominal aortitis.Underlying atherosclerosis is a frequent site for salmonella aortitis. Wedescribe here a case of possible salmonella aortitis in a renal transplantpatient. (author)

  9. Optical immunosensors for detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritidis from food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Arun K.; Geng, Tao; Lathrop, Amanda; Valadez, Angela; Morgan, Mark T.

    2004-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella are two major foodborne pathogens of significant concern. Two optical evanescent wave immunosensors were evaluated for detection: Antibody-coupled fiber-optic biosensor and a surface plasmon resonant (SPR) immunosensor. In the fiber-optic sensor, polyclonal antibodies for the test organisms were immobilized on polystyrene fiber wave -guides using streptavidin - biotin chemistry. Cyanine 5 -labeled monoclonal antibodies C11E9 (for L. monocytogenes) and SF-11 (for Salmonella Enteritidis) were used to generate a specific fluorescent signal. Signal acquisition was performed by launching a laser-light (635 nm) from an Analyte-2000. This immunosensor was able to detect 103 - 109 cfu/ml of L. monocytogenes or 106-109 cfu/ml of Salmonella Enteritidis and the assays were conducted at near real-time with results obtained within one hour of sampling. The assays were specific and showed signal even in the presence of other microorganisms such as E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis or Salmonella Typhimurium. In the SPR system, IAsys instrument (resonant mirror sensor) was used. Monoclonal antibody-C11E9 was directly immobilized onto a carboxylate cuvette. Whole Listeria cells at various concentrations did not yield any signal while surface protein extracts did. Crude protein extracts from L. monocytogenes and L. innocua had average binding responses of around 150 arc sec (0.25 ng/mm2), which was significantly different from L. grayi, L. ivanovii, or L. welshimeri with average responses of monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis.

  10. Simultaneous Detection of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in Raw Salad Vegetables and Vegetarian Burger Patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elexson Nillian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The health risks posed by Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium through the consumption of raw vegetables and vegetarian burger patties necessitates the needs for the optimization of analytical approach for their detection and enumeration in the raw vegetables, which served as potential vehicles for transmission of these pathogenic microorganisms. We sought to establish a rapid, economic and sensitive method to detect and determine the load of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium using the most probable numbers (MPN in combination with the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR. From the naturally contaminated one hundred and seventy five samples tested (n = 175, the overall prevalence of Salmonella spp. was 28%, Salmonella Enteritidis was 20% and Salmonella Typhimurium was 14.3%, respectively. The MPN-MPCR is a quantitative method to determine the density of cell concentration of Salmonella in all the samples (Salmonella spp. ranged from <3 to 53 MPN/g; S. Enteritidis ranged from <3 to 24 MPN/g; and S. Typhimurium ranged from <3 to 15 MPN/g. The combination of the MPN-MPCR is an efficient, simple, fast analytical method for the detection and enumeration of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in vegetables and the vegetarian burger patties since it can significantly reduce time and labour with analysis completed within 2 days, as opposed to the traditional confirmation method that can take up to 5 days for unequivocal identification of species.

  11. Multiplex PCR-Based Serogrouping and Serotyping of Salmonella enterica from Tonsil and Jejunum with Jejunal Lymph Nodes of Slaughtered Swine in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kamela Charmaine S; Rivera, Windell L

    2015-05-01

    Food poisoning outbreaks and livestock mortalities caused by Salmonella enterica are widespread in the Philippines, with hogs being the most commonly recognized carriers of the pathogen. To prevent and control the occurrence of S. enterica infection in the country, methods were used in this study to isolate and rapidly detect, differentiate, and characterize S. enterica in tonsils and jejuna with jejunal lymph nodes of swine slaughtered in four locally registered meat establishments (LRMEs) and four meat establishments accredited by the National Meat Inspection Services in Metro Manila. A total of 480 samples were collected from 240 animals (120 pigs from each type of meat establishment). A significantly higher proportion of pigs were positive for S. enterica in LRMEs (60 of 120) compared with meat establishments accredited by the National Meat Inspection Services (38 of 120). More S. enterica-positive samples were found in tonsils compared with jejuna with jejunal lymph nodes in LRMEs, but this difference was not significant. A PCR assay targeting the invA gene had sensitivity that was statistically similar to that of the culture method, detecting 93 of 98 culture-confirmed samples. Multiplex PCR-based O-serogrouping and H/Sdf I typing revealed four S. enterica serogroups (B, C1, D, and E) and six serotypes (Agona, Choleraesuis, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Typhimurium, and Weltevreden), respectively, which was confirmed by DNA sequencing of the PCR products. This study was the first to report detection of S. enterica serotype Agona in the country. PMID:25951380

  12. Salmonella enterica Serovar Gallinarum Requires the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 Type III Secretion System but Not the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 Type III Secretion System for Virulence in Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Michael A.; Wigley, Paul; Page, Kerrie L.; Hulme, Scott D.; Barrow, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum is a host-specific serotype that causes the severe systemic disease fowl typhoid in domestic poultry and a narrow range of other avian species but rarely causes disease in mammalian hosts. Specificity of the disease is primarily at the level of the reticuloendothelial system, but few virulence factors have been described other than the requirement for an 85-kb virulence plasmid. In this work, by making functional mutations in the type III secretion syste...

  13. Short communication: Characterization of the serologic response induced by vaccination of late-gestation cows with a Salmonella Dublin vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geof W; Smith, Feli; Zuidhof, Sjoert; Foster, Derek M

    2015-04-01

    Diarrhea due to Salmonella infection is an important cause of neonatal calf diarrhea. The acquisition of passive immunity in the calf by vaccinating the dam has shown some success in previous studies; however, no data exists on the use of currently licensed vaccines in the United States. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether vaccinating cows in late gestation with a commercially available Salmonella Dublin vaccine would stimulate Salmonella-specific antibodies in the colostrum of cows at calving and whether these antibodies would be transferred to the calf. Thirty Holstein cows were vaccinated 3wk before the end of lactation with a Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin vaccine, with a second dose given at dry-off. An additional 30 cows received only saline. Calves had a blood sample collected immediately after birth and were then fed fresh colostrum from their dam within 2 h of calving. A postcolostrum blood sample was collected 24 to 48 h later. Salmonella Dublin antibodies in colostrum as well as serum from the cows and calves were measured using an ELISA technique. Results of this study showed that vaccinated cattle had elevated Salmonella Dublin antibody titers at the time of calving (40.3±9.1) as compared with control cows (-9.4±1.1). Calves that received colostrum from vaccinated cattle also had a significant increase in Salmonella Dublin antibodies (88.5±8.9) as compared with calves born to unvaccinated cows (-3.2±1.2). This study demonstrated that the use of a commercially available Salmonella Dublin vaccine can stimulate antibodies that are passed on to the calf via colostral transfer. Further studies need to be done to determine whether these antibodies will offer protection against Salmonella challenge. PMID:25648810

  14. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium lacking hfq gene confers protective immunity against murine typhoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Uday Shankar; Krishna, M Gopala; Lahiri, Amit; Joy, Omana; Chakravortty, Dipshikha

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is an important enteric pathogen and its various serovars are involved in causing both systemic and intestinal diseases in humans and domestic animals. The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella leading to increased morbidity and mortality has further complicated its management. Live attenuated vaccines have been proven superior over killed or subunit vaccines due to their ability to induce protective immunity. Of the various strategies used for the generation of live attenuated vaccine strains, focus has gradually shifted towards manipulation of virulence regulator genes. Hfq is a RNA chaperon which mediates the binding of small RNAs to the mRNA and assists in post-transcriptional gene regulation in bacteria. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the Salmonella Typhimurium ?hfq strain as a candidate for live oral vaccine in murine model of typhoid fever. Salmonella hfq deletion mutant is highly attenuated in cell culture and animal model implying a significant role of Hfq in bacterial virulence. Oral immunization with the Salmonella hfq deletion mutant efficiently protects mice against subsequent oral challenge with virulent strain of Salmonella Typhimurium. Moreover, protection was induced upon both multiple as well as single dose of immunizations. The vaccine strain appears to be safe for use in pregnant mice and the protection is mediated by the increase in the number of CD4(+) T lymphocytes upon vaccination. The levels of serum IgG and secretory-IgA in intestinal washes specific to lipopolysaccharide and outer membrane protein were significantly increased upon vaccination. Furthermore, hfq deletion mutant showed enhanced antigen presentation by dendritic cells compared to the wild type strain. Taken together, the studies in murine immunization model suggest that the Salmonella hfq deletion mutant can be a novel live oral vaccine candidate. PMID:21347426

  15. Monitoring the efficacy of steam and formaldehyde treatment of naturally Salmonella-infected layer houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; JØrgensen, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To monitor if a temperature-humidity-time treatment found to be effective in eliminating Salmonella in laboratory trials (Gradel et al. 2003) was efficient against Salmonella in naturally infected layer houses. Methods and Results: Six layer houses with natural Salmonella infections were steam treated in a download period, aiming at greater than or equal to60degreesC and 100% relative humidity (RH) during a 24-h period, with or without the addition of 30 ppm formaldehyde. In addition, two control layer houses were disinfected chemically. Salmonella samples taken from predetermined sites before and after treatment were tested qualitatively for Salmonella and coliforms. Samples with indicator bacteria (feed inoculated with Escherichia coli or Enterococcus faecalis and faeces with naturally occurring E. coli and enterococci) were placed during steam-treatment at 12 sites in each house (where the temperature was logged at 5-min intervals) and tested for surviving bacteria. Generally, the field test results confirmed the results of laboratory tests, especially when 30 ppm formaldehyde was added to the steam. In well-sealed houses, the recommended temperature-humidity-time scheme was accomplished at a minimum of 10 cm above floor level within 1 h. Conclusions: A steam treatment of greater than or equal to60degreesC and 100% RH during a 24-h period with the addition of 30 ppm formaldehyde at the beginning of the process is recommended for eliminating Salmonella from naturally infected poultry layer houses. Significance and Impact of the Study: A specific recommendation for the elimination of Salmonella in poultry houses can be given.

  16. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on a review on the European Union Summary reports on trends and sources zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2009 and 2010 – specifically for the data on Salmonella, Campylobacter, verotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and foodborne outbreaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    2012-01-01

    The European Union (EU) Summary Reports on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2009 and 2010 – specifically for the data on Salmonella, Campylobacter, verotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and foodborne outbreaks was reviewed. The main conclusions and recommendations are reported. Comparison between EU Member States (MSs) was found to be difficult due to the differences of the methods used, sampling schemes and reporting systems. Methods, sampling schemes and reporting systems among MSs should therefore be harmonised. When comparing MS-specific trends, the impact of sample sizes, weight of samples and methodologies should be considered, as these variables could otherwise lead to misinterpretation of the data. Incidence data alone do not provide a full picture of the public health burden of zoonotic diseases. Fatalities provide another important insight. Ultimately, summary measures of public health such as disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and cost-of-illness estimates should be presented. Travel information was found to be still incomplete in many MSs. For many pathogens this hampers source attribution. To better understand the public health problems related to food and animal sources in the EU, it is desirable to differentiate between travel within and outside the EU. This would also be useful to better evaluate the public health impact of EU-wide food safety measures. Whenever possible the data/results should be analysed using proper statistical tools. When data do not allow for this, the text should be kept to presenting the data without implying any patterns or trends.

  17. Construction and immunogenicity of Salmonella typhimurium vaccine vectors that express HIV-1 gp120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouts, T R; Tuskan, R G; Chada, S; Hone, D M; Lewis, G K

    1995-12-01

    Since the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is transmitted either parenterally or sexually, both mucosal and systemic immune responses may be required to provide protective immunity. Attenuated Salmonella vectors expressing heterologous antigen can stimulate responses in both compartments. To evaluate the utility of Salmonella vectors as an HIV-1 vector vaccine, a gene expression cassette encoding recombinant HIV-1 gp120 (rgp120) was integrated into the hisOGD locus of Salmonella typhimurium aroA strain, SL3261 (SL3261::120). To test if increased antigen expression potentiates immunogenicity, strains were constructed that express rgp120 from a multicopy asd-stabilized plasmid (SL7207 pYA:120). Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that SL7207 pYA:120 expressed approximately 50-fold more rgp120 than SL3261::120. Oral immunization of BALB/c mice with these strains did not stimulate an env-specific CTL response or a significant rise in antigp120 antibody titer as compared to controls. However, splenic T cells from SL7207 pYA::120 immunized mice proliferated upon restimulation with gp120 in vitro while splenocytes from SL3261::120 immunized mice did not, gp120 restimulated splenic T cells from SL7207 pYA:120 immune mice also produced IFN-gamma but no IL-5. Two conclusions can be drawn from these results. First, high level expression of rgp120 in Salmonella vectors is necessary to stimulate a gp120-specific immune response in mice. Second, Salmonella::rgp120 stimulates a gp120-specific Th1 response in mice. This is the first report to describe the construction of a Salmonella::rgp120 vector vaccine that is immunogenic in mice. PMID:8719522

  18. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, R. W. A. W.

    1982-01-01

    Validity of methodsExperiments were carried out In which it was assessed which Salmonella isolation method is the most productive one In the examination of broiler carcasses. Refrigerated, refrigerated and radiated (2.50 kGy), frozen and frozen and radiated (2.50 kGy) samples of broilers were examined. After evaluation of all results It was concluded that the following method was the most productive one:1. pre-enrichment in buffered peptone water at 37 °C for 20 hours2. enrichment in selenit...

  19. ESTABELECIMENTO DE UM PROTOCOLO DE SOROAGLUTINAÇÃO RÁPIDA (SAR PARA DETECÇÃO DE ANTICORPOS PARA Salmonella Typhimurium EM SUÍNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosecler Alves Pereirara

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium is an important agent isolated from cases of human food poisoning in Brazil. Animal-origin products are the main source of infection, and pork has been implicated in Salmonella transmission to humans. Programs to salmonella monitoring in swine have been carried out, using bacteriologicaland serological tests like ELISA. However, these tests are time-consuming and expensive. The rapid agglutination test (RAT is cheaper, faster and easier. Aiming to standardize RAT to detect anti-salmonella antibodies in swine serum, 60 samples of swine serum were tested. They had previously displayed positive (30 or negative (30 results in the ELISA test. The results showed that RAT had sensitivity, specificity, predictive positive value and predictive negative value equal to 96.7% when non-diluted serum was tested. Thus, this test can be applied to detect antibodies against S. Typhimurium in swine serum.

  20. Molecular Epidemiology of Nontyphoidal Salmonella in Poultry and Poultry Products in India: Implications for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Sellappan; Purushothaman, Venketaraman; Murthy, Thippichettypalayam Ramasamy Gopala Krishna; Sukumar, Kuppannan; Srinivasan, Palani; Gowthaman, Vasudevan; Balusamy, Mohan; Atterbury, Robert; Kuchipudi, Suresh V

    2015-09-01

    Human infections with non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars are increasingly becoming a threat to human health globally. While all motile Salmonellae have zoonotic potential, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium are most commonly associated with human disease, for which poultry are a major source. Despite the increasing number of human NTS infections, the epidemiology of NTS in poultry in India has not been fully understood. Hence, as a first step, we carried out epidemiological analysis to establish the incidence of NTS in poultry to evaluate the risk to human health. A total of 1215 samples (including poultry meat, tissues, egg and environmental samples) were collected from 154 commercial layer farms from southern India and screened for NTS. Following identification by cultural and biochemical methods, Salmonella isolates were further characterized by multiplex PCR, allele-specific PCR, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In the present study, 21/1215 (1.73 %) samples tested positive for NTS. We found 12/392 (3.06 %) of tissue samples, 7/460 (1.52 %) of poultry products, and 2/363 (0.55 %) of environmental samples tested positive for NTS. All the Salmonella isolates were resistant to oxytetracycline, which is routinely used as poultry feed additive. The multiplex PCR results allowed 16/21 isolates to be classified as S. Typhimurium, and five isolates as S. Enteritidis. Of the five S. Enteritidis isolates, four were identified as group D Salmonella by allele-specific PCR. All of the isolates produced different banding patterns in ERIC PCR. Of the thirteen macro restriction profiles (MRPs) obtained by PFGE, MRP 6 was predominant which included 6 (21 %) isolates. In conclusion, the findings of the study revealed higher incidence of contamination of NTS Salmonella in poultry tissue and animal protein sources used for poultry. The results of the study warrants further investigation on different type of animal feed sources, food market chains, processing plants, live bird markets etc., to evaluate the risk factors, transmission and effective control measures of human Salmonella infection from poultry products. PMID:26063942

  1. Functional and phenotypic profiling of innate immunity during Salmonella infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Rikke Brandt; Pedersen, Susanne Brix

    2012-01-01

    Salmonellae are food borne pathogens, typically acquired by the oral ingestion of contaminated food or water, causing disease in both healthy and immunocompromised individuals. To gain insight into early immune regulation events caused by Salmonella as well as inflammatory signatures induced by Salmonella and other bacteria in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC), we examined these properties using in vivo and in vitro experimental settings. The outcome of infection with Salmonella depends on the host as well as the infecting serovar. Understanding the relative risks associated with and within different serovars is of major importance for public health. Using an established mouse model, we compared the pathogenicity of two S. Typhimurium strains (SL1344 and DT120) and found that the passage through and the ability to proliferate within the host gastrointestinal system determined the pathogenicity of these strains. Salmonella is a mucosal pathogen, gaining access to host systemic circulation by crossing the gut epithelial barrier and residing intracellularly in DC and M?. Until recently focus has been centred on the involvement of M? and the conventional antigen-presenting DC (mDC) in bacterial infections, whereas the other major dendritic cell subset, plasmacytoid DC (pDC), plays an important part in antiviral responses, and is less well characterised in regard to antibacterial immunity. Using multi-parametric flow cytometry, we were able to show for the first time that pDC accumulated in Peyer’s patches 24 hours after murine oral Salmonella challenge and while M? and mDC exhibited dose-related cellular atrophy, pDC were less susceptible to bacteria-induced cell death, suggesting a role for pDC in early stage Salmonella containment. Furthermore, we identified a number of both DC and M? subsets, two of which following infection, accumulated in Peyer’s patches and lamina propria, respectively. Generally, we tend to set apart pathogenic bacteria from opportunistic pathogens and commensal bacteria based on their abilities to induce disease in different hosts, however, the nature of the inflammatory response they induce in DC that set them apart from commensal bacteria remains largely unclear. In the present study, we developed a system by which we were able to compare the bacteria-induced imprint of important regulatory proteins in DC to bacterial-encoded ligands. We observed that DC responded to six different bacteria in a phyla-specific manner giving rise to similar inflammatory signatures within the groups of proteobacteria, firmicutes and actinobacteria, hence being independent on pathogenic versus non-pathogenic properties, and also on the bacteria-to-cell ratio for most bacteria. The results presented in this thesis add to the current knowledge about innate immunity to Salmonella, suggest new host immune cell subsets important for bacterial containment and provide a basic understanding of bacteria-induced DC inflammatory programs. The two latter could prove important in regard to treatment regimes, as targeted modulation of DC profiles for instance by probiotics, could lead to improved therapy for a number of gut related diseases.

  2. Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 4-Mediated Adhesion Is Coregulated with Invasion Genes in Salmonella enterica?

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlach, Roman G.; Ja?ckel, Daniela; Geymeier, Nina; Hensel, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella pathogenicity island 4 (SPI4) encodes a type I secretion system and the cognate substrate protein, SiiE. We have recently demonstrated that SiiE is a giant nonfimbrial adhesin involved in the adhesion of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to polarized epithelial cells. We also observed that under in vitro culture conditions, the synthesis and secretion of SiiE coincided with the activation of Salmonella invasion genes. These observations prompted us to investigate the regulati...

  3. Previously uncharacterized Salmonella enterica genes required for swarming play a role in seedling colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incidences of bacterial foodborne illness caused by ingestion of fresh produce are rising. Instead of being a case of incidental contamination, the animal pathogen Salmonella enterica utilizes specific molecular mechanisms to attach to and colonize plants. This work characterizes two S. enterica gen...

  4. THE USE OF ORGANIC ACIDS TO COMBAT SALMONELLA IN POULTRY: A MECHANISTIC EXPLANATION OF THE EFFICACY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella is a human pathogen that is commonly found in poultry products, but it is possible to decrease carcass and egg contaminations by adding organic acids to the feed or drinking water at appropriate times. The antibacterial effect of these acids is species specific. Bacteria that are unable...

  5. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against the O-5 antigen of Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaradat, Z. W.; Zawistowski, J.

    1996-01-01

    Three murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced by fusion of P3X63-Ag8.653 myeloma cells and splenocytes of a mouse immunized with heat-attenuated (20 min, 80 degrees C) Salmonella typhimurium cells. MAbs 5A5 and 5B2 were of the immunoglobulin M (IgM) class, while MAb 4A8 was IgG2a. All possessed the kappa light chains. The MAbs were specific to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-5 antigen of Salmonella B serogroup, as determined by electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting. All MAbs rec...

  6. Towards new immunotherapies: targeting recombinant cytokines to the immune system using live attenuated Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Claudia D; Chiara, Damasia; Agorio, Caroline; Baz, Adriana; Pasetti, Marcela F; Schreiber, Fernanda; Dematteis, Silvia; Martinez, Miguel; Sztein, Marcelo B; Chabalgoity, Jose A

    2003-01-30

    We have used Salmonella as a delivery system for eukaryotic expression plasmids encoding cytokines, and assessed its capacity to modulate immune responses in different experimental models. Plasmids encoding mouse IL-4 and IL-18 under cytomegalovirus promoter were constructed and transformed into live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain CVD 908-htrA, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain SL3261. We have shown that systemic as well as mucosal immunization with such constructs can influence the antibody and cytokine responses to the Salmonella carrier and to co-administered bystander antigens, as well as the specific immune response elicited during a parasitic infection. Further, we have shown that oral cytokine-therapy using Salmonella as gene vector induce antitumoral effect as demonstrated by extended survival time in melanoma-bearing mice. This approach may be particularly suited for the development of new immunotherapies with applications in parasitic infections and cancer, were alterations of the host's immune responses are usually found, and therapy-induced modulation of the immune response is likely to be required. PMID:12531363

  7. PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA IN CAPTIVE REPTILES FROM CROATIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13% of the animals, among them 48.4% lizards, 8.9% snakes, and 3.8% turtles. Representatives of five of the six Salmonella enterica subspecies were identified with the following proportions in the total number of isolates: Salmonella enterica enterica 34.6%, Salmonella enterica houtenae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence of Salmonella is considerable in captive reptiles in Croatia, indicating that these animals may harbor serovars not commonly seen in veterinary or human microbiologic practice. This should be addressed in the prevention and diagnostics of human reptile-transmitted infections.

  8. Prevalence of Salmonella serovars from captive reptiles from Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13% of the animals, among them 48.4% lizards, 8.9% snakes, and 3.8% turtles. Representatives of five of the six Salmonella enterica subspecies were identified with the following proportions in the total number of isolates: Salmonella enterica enterica 34.6%, Salmonella enterica houtenae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence of Salmonella is considerable in captive reptiles in Croatia, indicating that these animals may harbor serovars not commonly seen in veterinary or human microbiologic practice. This should be addressed in the prevention and diagnostics of human reptile-transmitted infections.

  9. Division of the Salmonella-Containing Vacuole and Depletion of Acidic Lysosomes in Salmonella-Infected Host Cells Are Novel Strategies of Salmonella enterica To Avoid Lysosomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Eswarappa, Sandeepa M.; Negi, Vidya Devi; Chakraborty, Sangeeta; Chandrasekhar Sagar, B. K.; Chakravortty, Dipshikha

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella has evolved several strategies to counteract intracellular microbicidal agents like reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. However, it is not yet clear how Salmonella escapes lysosomal degradation. Some studies have demonstrated that Salmonella can inhibit phagolysosomal fusion, whereas other reports have shown that the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV) fuses/interacts with lysosomes. Here, we have addressed this issue from a different perspective by investigating if the infected ...

  10. Sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos de cepas de salmonella aisladas en granjas porcinas del estado Zulia / Antimicrobial susceptibility of salmonella strains isolated from pig herds in Zulia state

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Willian, Mejia; Derwin, Calatayud Marquez; Denice, Zapata; Armando, Quintero; Damarys, Sánchez; Enric, Mateu.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los patrones de resistencia a los antimicrobianos de diferentes cepas de Salmonella aisladas en granjas de cerdos del estado Zulia. Para este fin se evaluaron mediante la técnica de Bauer-Kirby, 126 cepas de Salmonella aisladas de heces de cerdos portadores [...] asintomáticos. Las pruebas de sensibilidad antimicrobiana demostraron que los más altos niveles de resistencia fueron frente a la sulfamida (54%), tetraciclina (40%), ácido nalidíxico (29%) y ampicilina (23%). Sin embargo, sensibilidad superior al 95% fue encontrada frente a la ceftriaxona, gentamicina, apramicina y colistina. El treinta por ciento de las cepas mostraron multirresistencia (MR) a los antimicrobianos, siendo el patrón de resistencia ASuT (7,14%) el más frecuente. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la proporción de cepas de Salmonella de origen porcino con características de multirresistencia a los agentes antimicrobianos es medianamente elevada (30%) y esta multirresistencia puede afectar a cualquier serotipo. Desde ese punto de vista, la infección de las personas por cepas de Salmonella de origen porcino conlleva a un riesgo potencial de presentar dificultades en el tratamiento específico. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial resintance paterns of different strains of Salmonella isolated in pig farms of the Zulia State. To achieve these goals 126 strain Salmonella were screened by Kirby-Bauer method, colleted from heces of pigs asymptomatic. Antimicrobial susceptibilit [...] y tests showed that the highest level of resistance was against Sulphonamides (54%), Tetracycline (40%), Nalidixic acid (29%) and Amplicillin (23%). However, susceptibility superior to 95% was found to Ceftriaxone, Gentamycin, Apramycin and Colistin. Thrity percent of the strains showed multirresitance, being the patterns resistance ASuT (7.14%) the most frequent. The results indicate the proportion of strain of Salmonella of pig origin with characteristics of multiresistance to the antimicrobial agents is elevated (30%) and this multiresistance could affect to anyone serotype. From this point of view, the infection of the people by isolates of Salmonella from swine origin entails a potential risk to present difficulties in the specific treatment.

  11. Evaluation of VIDAS Immuno-Concentration Salmonella (ICS)/VIDAS Salmonella (SLM) immunoassay method for detection of Salmonella in selected foods (Method Modification 2001.09): collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Wendy A; Schultz, Ann M; Johnson, Ronald L

    2004-01-01

    A new method for detection of Salmonella in foods in a minimum of 24 h was adopted as an AOAC Official First Action Method for selected foods (2001.09) using both the VIDAS Immuno-Concentration Salmonella (ICS) and VIDAS Salmonella (SLM) methods. PMID:15164833

  12. 75 FR 18751 - Prevention of Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 118 [Docket No. FDA-2000-N-0190] Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation; Change of Registration Date, Address, and...

  13. The occurrence of Salmonella in airline meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakka, M; Asplund, K

    1993-01-01

    The occurrence of Salmonella in airline meals was studied in 1989-1992. Samples were collected from flight kitchens in 29 countries. The material consisted of 400 cold dishes and 1,288 hot dishes as well as salads, cheese plates and deserts. Total number of samples was 2211. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 6 samples; 1 contaminated sample was a cold dish prepared in Bangkok, 1 was a hot dish prepared in Mombasa and the remaining 4 contaminated samples were hot dishes prepared within one week in Beijing. The isolated serotypes were S. ohio, S. manchester and S. braenderup. The contaminated cold dish prepared by a flight kitchen in Bangkok was found to be connected with a Salmonella outbreak which occurred in Finland in 1990. Cold airline dishes containing food of animal origin seems to be more risky as a source of Salmonella infections among airline passengers. PMID:8147292

  14. CEPHALOSPORIN RESISTANCE AMONG BOVINE SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEROTYPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Extended-spectrum *-lactamases (ESBLs) are important resistance mechanisms which affect *-lactam antibiotics, including cephalosporins. Extended-spectrum 3rd generation cephalosporins are considered drugs of choice for serious Salmonella infections. The emergence of ESBL-producing orga...

  15. ANALYZING BIOSOLIDS FOR FECAL COLIFORM AND SALMONELLAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current federal regulations required monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Standard protocols designed to quantify these organisms in water or wastewater were identified and specified in these regulations. However, proto...

  16. Water Frogs, Aquariums, and Salmonella -- Oh My!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-09

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses how people can get Salmonella from water frogs and aquariums.  Created: 12/9/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 12/9/2009.

  17. Radiosensitivity study of salmonella enteritidis in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the applications of ionizing radiations in food is the inactivation of vegetative phatogenic bacteria (radicidation) such as Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Vibro and Listeria. These bacteria are associated with the diseases transmitted by food (ETA). Fresh and frozen farmyard fowls can be contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms, between them Salmonella. In Argentine, between years 1987-1990, Salmonella enteritidis was the main cause of salmonellosis. In food irradiation, with the aim of improving and assuring its hygienic quality, it is important to know the radiosensitivity of microorganisms to be inactivated. Inactivation of a determined microorganism shall depend, between others factors, of the species, strain, number and of the irradiation conditions (temperature, media, etc.). D10 value is a very useful data in order to compare radiosensitivities between the microorganisms and the influence of different factors in their sensitivities. In this paper, it was determined the sensitivity to the gamma radiation of Salmonella enteritidis in fresh and frozen chickens

  18. Occurrence of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battikhi, M N G

    2003-10-01

    In order to justify the surveillance control system and hygiene policy in Jordan, this study evaluated the occurrence of diarrhoea during the period 1988-2000, focusing on cases caused by Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi. From January 1988 to December 2000, the number of notified diarrhoeal cases by the Ministry of Health in Jordan was 1,399,563 million. Other groups of patients confined to the Governorate of Amman was diagnosed at Al-Battikhi Medical Laboratories. One-way ANOVA and Least Significant Difference (LSD) were carried out for statistical analysis. The number of reported diarrhea cases was 1,399,563, 53.0% were males, and 47.0% were females, among them, 80.3% were 20 years. Out of 245,255 patients tested for S. typhi and S. pararyphi, positive stool culture were 1992 (0.6%). Out of these, 960 (48.2%) were males and 1,032 (51.8%) were females (P = 0.028). The highest incidence rate (10.8) was observed in the year 1993, while the lowest incidence rate (0.9) was found in year 2000. A significant difference (P water resources and disposal systems. S. typhi and S. paratyphi antibiotics resistance pattern showed they were resistant to tetracycline (56.0%, 58.0%), ampicillin (45.0%, 48.0%), trimethoprim (43.0%, 47.0%), cephtazidime (12.0%, 13.5%) chloramphenicol (6.8%, 7.2%), gentamycin (3.0%, 4.0%) neomycin (2.1. 1.8%), calvulanic acid (augmentin (1.4%, 2.2%) and norofloxacin (0.92%, 1.1%). Susceptibility to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, cetfriaxone, ofloxacine, imepenim, cefixime and cefotaxime was 100.0%. The increase in percentage of antibiotic resistant strain might indicate a need for a further prescribing policy for treatment. PMID:14596347

  19. European Food Safety Authority; Analysis of the baseline survey of Salmonella in holdings with breeding pigs, in the EU, 2008; Part B: Analysis of factors potentially associated with Salmonella pen positivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    2011-01-01

    A European Union-wide Salmonella baseline survey was conducted in 2008 in holdings with breeding pigs. A total of 1,609 randomly selected holdings housing and selling mainly breeding pigs (breeding holdings) and 3,508 holdings housing commercial breeding pigs and mainly selling pigs for fattening or slaughter (production holdings) were sampled. In each selected holding, pooled fresh faecal samples were collected from 10 randomly chosen pens of breeding pigs over six months of age, representing the different stages of the breeding herd, and examined for the presence of Salmonella. Analyses at country-level demonstrated a strong positive association between the prevalence of Salmonella-positive breeding holdings and the prevalence of Salmonella-positive production holdings, suggesting a vertical dissemination of Salmonella between the holdings. Based on the combined results from breeding and production holdings, multivariable regression analysis showed that the odds of Salmonella-positive pens with pigs increased with the number of breeding pigs in the holding and with the following pen-level factors: flooring systems other than slatted floors or solid floors with straw, presence of maiden gilts, number of pigs per pen, feed of commercial compound origin or pelleted feed. A tendency towards some Member State group-specific Salmonella serovars was identified, but spatial distribution of other serovars was heterogeneous. S. Typhimurium and S. Derby were widespread and dominant in the EU, in both breeding and production holdings. However, many other serovars were relatively prevalent in Western EU Member States. A complementary within-holding prevalence study indicated that, due to a non-perfect diagnostic test sensitivity, the observed EU-level prevalence of Salmonella-positive holdings with breeding pigs was roughly 80% of the estimated true EU-level prevalence. But this proportion varied between Member States.

  20. Salmonella kingabwa meningitis in a neonate

    OpenAIRE

    Olariu, Adina; Jain, Sangita; Gupta, Ajay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A 23-day-old male baby was admitted with 1 day history of high temperature, irritability and poor feeding. His general examination was unremarkable. Salmonella species grew from CSF culture and subsequent identification revealed Salmonella kingabwa, a serotype which rarely causes human illness. The child lived with his parents and regularly visited his grandmother for 4 h every day. Grandmother kept five snakes and five water dragons as pets. They lived in tanks and crawled freely around the ...

  1. Factors affecting salmonellae repopulation in composted sludges.

    OpenAIRE

    Russ, C. F.; Yanko, W. A.

    1981-01-01

    The repopulation potential and recovery of Salmonella sp. and their close relatives Arizona spp. and Citrobacter spp. in sewage sludge which had been composted was examined. Salmonellae growth in previously composted sludge was found to occur in the mesophilic temperature range (20 to 40 degrees c), require a moisture content of greater than or equal to 20%, and require a carbon/nitrogen ratio in excess of 15:1.

  2. Control by H-2 genes of the Th1 response induced against a foreign antigen expressed by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo-Man, R; Martineau, P; Dériaud, E; Newton, S M; Jehanno, M; Clément, J M; Fayolle, C; Hofnung, M; Leclerc, C D

    1996-11-01

    Attenuated salmonellae represent an attractive vehicle for the delivery of heterologous protective antigens to the immune system. Here, we have investigated the influence of the genetic background of the host which regulates the growth and elimination of Salmonella cells on the cellular response induced against a foreign antigen delivered by an aroA Salmonella strain. We have tested CD4+ T-cell responses (cell proliferation and cytokine production) in various mouse strains following immunization with Salmonella typhimurium SL3261 expressing a high level of the recombinant Escherichia coli MalE protein. We were able to detect a CD4+ T-cell response against the recombinant MalE protein only in a restricted number of mouse strains, whereas all mice produced good levels of anti-MalE immunoglobulin G antibodies. The Ity gene did not play a major role in these differences in T-cell responses, since both Ity-resistant and -susceptible strains of mice were found to be unresponsive to MalE delivered by recombinant salmonellae. In contrast, when B10 congenic mice were used, a correlation was established between MalE-specific T-cell unresponsiveness and H-2 genes. The discrepancies described in this paper in the ability of various strains of mice to develop an efficient Th1 response against a recombinant antigen displayed by a live Salmonella vaccine underscore the difficulties that can be encountered in the vaccination of human populations by such a strategy. PMID:8890187

  3. Salmonella-S. mansoni ASSOCIATION IN PATIENTS WITH ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Roberto LAMBERTUCCI

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Two young men with Salmonella bacteraemia, active schistosomiasis and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are reported. The clinical presentation comprised nonspecific signs and symptoms, such as fatigue, malaise, weight loss, diarrhoea, prolonged fever, and hepatosplenomegaly. In one patient, liver biopsy showed poorly formed granulomata around Schistosoma mansoni eggs and hepatitis. Treatment of schistosomiasis alone induced consistent clinical improvement with eventual cure of both Salmonella and S. mansoni infections. Recognition of the Salmonella-S. mansoni association in patients with AIDS is important because treatment of schistosomiasis makes a difference, improving the prognosis of this otherwise, recurrent, potentially fatal bacteraemia.Apresentam-se os casos de dois jovens com bacteriemia por Salmonella associada a esquistossomose mansoni ativa em pacientes com a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida. A apresentação clínica incluiu sintomas e sinais inespecíficos como fadiga, perda de peso, diarréia, febre prolongada e hepatoesplenomegalia. A biópsia hepática em um paciente revelou granulomas mal formados em torno de ovos de S. mansoni e hepatite de intensidade moderada. O tratamento da esquistossomose com a oxamniquine induziu melhora clínica progressiva culminando com a cura da salmonelose e da esquistossomose. O reconhecimento da associação Salmonella-S. mansoni em pacientes com AIDS mostra-se importante nesses casos pois o tratamento da esquistossomose melhora o prognóstico da bacteriemia por Salmonella que pode tornar-se recorrente e fatal nos pacientes com AIDS.

  4. Salmonella-S. mansoni ASSOCIATION IN PATIENTS WITH ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. Roberto, LAMBERTUCCI; Abdunnabi A.M., RAYES; Rogério, GERSPACHER-LARA.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Apresentam-se os casos de dois jovens com bacteriemia por Salmonella associada a esquistossomose mansoni ativa em pacientes com a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida. A apresentação clínica incluiu sintomas e sinais inespecíficos como fadiga, perda de peso, diarréia, febre prolongada e hepatoespl [...] enomegalia. A biópsia hepática em um paciente revelou granulomas mal formados em torno de ovos de S. mansoni e hepatite de intensidade moderada. O tratamento da esquistossomose com a oxamniquine induziu melhora clínica progressiva culminando com a cura da salmonelose e da esquistossomose. O reconhecimento da associação Salmonella-S. mansoni em pacientes com AIDS mostra-se importante nesses casos pois o tratamento da esquistossomose melhora o prognóstico da bacteriemia por Salmonella que pode tornar-se recorrente e fatal nos pacientes com AIDS. Abstract in english Two young men with Salmonella bacteraemia, active schistosomiasis and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are reported. The clinical presentation comprised nonspecific signs and symptoms, such as fatigue, malaise, weight loss, diarrhoea, prolonged fever, and hepatosplenomegaly. In one patient, li [...] ver biopsy showed poorly formed granulomata around Schistosoma mansoni eggs and hepatitis. Treatment of schistosomiasis alone induced consistent clinical improvement with eventual cure of both Salmonella and S. mansoni infections. Recognition of the Salmonella-S. mansoni association in patients with AIDS is important because treatment of schistosomiasis makes a difference, improving the prognosis of this otherwise, recurrent, potentially fatal bacteraemia.

  5. Processing of viable Salmonella typhimurium for presentation of a CD4 T cell epitope from the Salmonella invasion protein C (SipC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musson, Julie A; Hayward, Richard D; Delvig, Alexei A; Hormaeche, Carlos E; Koronakis, Vassilis; Robinson, John H

    2002-09-01

    We have identified Salmonella invasion protein C (SipC) as a target antigen for CD4 T cell recognition in mice infected with Salmonella typhimurium. SipC is a product of the type III secretion system encoded by S. typhimurium pathogenicity island 1. A SipC-specific T cell response was induced by infection with either the C5 wild type or attenuated SL3261 vaccine strain of S. typhimurium. We localized the response of T cell lines from infected mice to an epitope near the carboxyl terminus of SipC (SipC(381-394)) and studied the way it was processed from viable S. typhimurium. We demonstrated that CD4 T cell recognition of this epitope required actin-dependent uptake of S. typhimurium. Presentation also occurred when transport of newly synthesized MHC class II from the endoplasmic reticulum was disrupted and when the pH of intracellular compartments was raised, suggesting presentation by mature MHC class II recycled from the macrophage surface into neutral intracellular compartments. Salmonellae are known to colonize macrophages by localizing to compartments that do not make contact with the bactericidal environment of late endosomes or lysosomes, and thus might avoid lysosomal antigen processing. However, we demonstrate that a CD4 T cell response to S. typhimurium-secreted proteins may be induced by an alternative pathway capable of antigen presentation in conditions similar to those in the compartments where Salmonella localize. PMID:12207351

  6. Visualization of gold and platinum nanoparticles interacting with Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sawosz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Ewa Sawosz1, André Chwalibog2, Jacek Szeliga3, Filip Sawosz2, Marta Grodzik1, Marlena Rupiewicz1, Tomasz Niemiec1, Katarzyna Kacprzyk11Division of Biotechnology and Biochemistry of Nutrition, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; 2Department of Basic Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Division of Microbiology of Analytical Centre, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, PolandPurpose: Rapid development of nanotechnology has recently brought significant attention to the extraordinary biological features of nanomaterials. The objective of the present ­investigation was to evaluate morphological characteristics of the assembles of gold and platinum nanoparticles (nano-Au and nano-Pt respectively, with Salmonella Enteritidis (Gram-negative and Listeria monocytogenes (Gram-positive, to reveal possibilities of constructing bacteria-nanoparticle vehicles.Methods: Hydrocolloids of nano-Au or nano-Pt were added to two bacteria suspensions in the following order: nano-Au + Salmonella Enteritidis; nano-Au + Listeria monocytogenes; nano-Pt + Salmonella Enteritidis; nano-Pt + Listeria monocytogenes. Samples were inspected by transmission electron microscope.Results: Visualization of morphological interaction between nano-Au and Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes, showed that nano-Au were aggregated within flagella or biofilm network and did not penetrate the bacterial cell. The analysis of morphological effects of interaction of nano-Pt with bacteria revealed that nano-Pt entered cells of Listeria monocytogenes and were removed from the cells. In the case of Salmonella Enteritidis, nano-Pt were seen inside bacteria cells, probably bound to DNA and partly left bacterial cells. After washing and centrifugation, some of the nano-Pt-DNA complexes were observed within Salmonella Enteritidis.Conclusion: The results indicate that the bacteria could be used as a vehicle to deliver nano-Pt to specific points in the body.Keywords: morphology, nanoparticles, gold, platinum, bacteria

  7. Salmonella typhimurium Virulence Genes Are Induced upon Bacterial Invasion into Phagocytic and Nonphagocytic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Cheryl G.; Marcus, Sandra L.; Steele-Mortimer, Olivia; Knodler, Leigh A.; Finlay, B. Brett

    1999-01-01

    Survival and growth of salmonellae within host cells are important aspects of bacterial virulence. We have developed an assay to identify Salmonella typhimurium genes that are induced inside Salmonella-containing vacuoles within macrophage and epithelial cells. A promoterless luciferase gene cassette was inserted randomly into the Salmonella chromosome, and the resulting mutants were screened for genes upregulated in intracellular bacteria compared to extracellular bacteria. We identified four genes in S. typhimurium that were upregulated upon bacterial invasion of both phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells. Expression of these genes was not induced by factors secreted by host cells or media alone. All four genes were induced at early time points (2 to 4 h) postinvasion and continued to be upregulated within host cells at later times (5 to 7 h). One mutant contained an insertion in the ssaR gene, within Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2), which abolished bacterial virulence in a murine typhoid model. Two other mutants contained insertions within SPI-5, one in the sopB/sigD gene and the other in a downstream gene, pipB. The insertions within SPI-5 resulted in the attenuation of S. typhimurium in the mouse model. The fourth mutant contained an insertion within a previously undescribed region of the S. typhimurium chromosome, iicA (induced intracellularly A). We detected no effect on virulence as a result of this insertion. In conclusion, all but one of the genes identified in this study were virulence factors within pathogenicity islands, illustrating the requirement for specific gene expression inside mammalian cells and indicating the key role that virulence factor regulation plays in Salmonella pathogenesis. PMID:10531217

  8. Innate Immune Detection of Flagellin Positively and Negatively Regulates Salmonella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Marvin A.; Quarles, Ellen K.; López-Yglesias, Américo H.; Zhao, Xiaodan; Hajjar, Adeline M.; Smith, Kelly D.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a flagellated bacterium and one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis in humans. Bacterial flagellin is required for motility and also a prime target of the innate immune system. Innate immune recognition of flagellin is mediated by at least two independent pathways, TLR5 and Naip5-Naip6/NlrC4/Caspase-1. The functional significance of each of the two independent flagellin recognition systems for host defense against wild type Salmonella infection is complex, and innate immune detection of flagellin contributes to both protection and susceptibility. We hypothesized that efficient modulation of flagellin expression in vivo permits Salmonella to evade innate immune detection and limit the functional role of flagellin-specific host innate defenses. To test this hypothesis, we used Salmonella deficient in the anti-sigma factor flgM, which overproduce flagella and are attenuated in vivo. In this study we demonstrate that flagellin recognition by the innate immune system is responsible for the attenuation of flgM? S. Typhimurium, and dissect the contribution of each flagellin recognition pathway to bacterial clearance and inflammation. We demonstrate that caspase-1 controls mucosal and systemic infection of flgM? S. Typhimurium, and also limits intestinal inflammation and injury. In contrast, TLR5 paradoxically promotes bacterial colonization in the cecum and systemic infection, but attenuates intestinal inflammation. Our results indicate that Salmonella evasion of caspase-1 dependent flagellin recognition is critical for establishing infection and that evasion of TLR5 and caspase-1 dependent flagellin recognition helps Salmonella induce intestinal inflammation and establish a niche in the inflamed gut. PMID:23977202

  9. Salmonella typhimurium virulence genes are induced upon bacterial invasion into phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, C G; Marcus, S L; Steele-Mortimer, O; Knodler, L A; Finlay, B B

    1999-11-01

    Survival and growth of salmonellae within host cells are important aspects of bacterial virulence. We have developed an assay to identify Salmonella typhimurium genes that are induced inside Salmonella-containing vacuoles within macrophage and epithelial cells. A promoterless luciferase gene cassette was inserted randomly into the Salmonella chromosome, and the resulting mutants were screened for genes upregulated in intracellular bacteria compared to extracellular bacteria. We identified four genes in S. typhimurium that were upregulated upon bacterial invasion of both phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells. Expression of these genes was not induced by factors secreted by host cells or media alone. All four genes were induced at early time points (2 to 4 h) postinvasion and continued to be upregulated within host cells at later times (5 to 7 h). One mutant contained an insertion in the ssaR gene, within Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2), which abolished bacterial virulence in a murine typhoid model. Two other mutants contained insertions within SPI-5, one in the sopB/sigD gene and the other in a downstream gene, pipB. The insertions within SPI-5 resulted in the attenuation of S. typhimurium in the mouse model. The fourth mutant contained an insertion within a previously undescribed region of the S. typhimurium chromosome, iicA (induced intracellularly A). We detected no effect on virulence as a result of this insertion. In conclusion, all but one of the genes identified in this study were virulence factors within pathogenicity islands, illustrating the requirement for specific gene expression inside mammalian cells and indicating the key role that virulence factor regulation plays in Salmonella pathogenesis. PMID:10531217

  10. Salmonella surveillance and control for finisher pigs and pork in Denmark — A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alban, L.; Baptista, F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella can either be controlled pre-harvest, post-harvest or by a combination of both approaches. This paper describes the lessons learned in Danish Salmonella surveillance and control programme for finisher pigs and pork. Initially, main focus was on pre-harvest initiatives and correct identification of herds with respect to the risk for Salmonella that they represented. However, an analysis of risk-mitigating actions applied along the chain from stable to table showed that it would be more cost-effective to deal with Salmonella on the abattoirs than in the herds. This knowledge moved focus from pre- to post-harvest without giving up on pre-harvest surveillance. First of all, this meant increased attention on slaughter hygiene and individual interventions in the abattoirs. In brief, we learned that for a programme to be successful it must be based on standardised methods for sampling and testing to be able to evaluate and compare performance of the programme. More specifically, meat-juice samples taken from finisher pigs at the time of slaughter are an effective way of identifying high-risk herds for Salmonella. In addition, a penalty system might act as an incentive for farmers to deal with Salmonella in their herd. Additionally, common targets for all abattoirs allowing for unique control solutions should be adapted. Finally, decontamination techniques like hot water decontamination are a feasible way of dealing with high-risk pigs (Level-3 pigs). The current prevalence in Danish pork is around 1.2%, and a target is set to

  11. Comparison of different selective enrichment steps to isolate Salmonella sp. from feces of finishing swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Geovana Brenner

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-phase study was conducted to compare the efficacy of several enrichment selective-broth steps associated to different plating media for recovery of Salmonella sp. from finishing swine feces. In a first phase, Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth (RV incubated at 42ºC, Tetrathionate Müller-Kauffmann broth at 37ºC (TMK37 and 42ºC (TMK42, and Selenite Cystine broth (SC at 37ºC, in combination with three selective plating media Rambach agar (RA, Xylose-Lysine-Tergitol 4 agar (XLT4, and Brilliant-Green Phenol-Red Lactose Sucrose agar (VB were compared for recovery of Salmonella from artificially contaminated swine feces. In a second phase, RV, TMK37, and TMK42, associated with XLT4 and VB , were tested with naturally contaminated swine feces. In this study RV, TMK42 and TMK37 were superior to SC for isolating Salmonella sp. from artificially contaminated feces. TMK42 and RV were more productive than TMK37 for recovery of Salmonella from naturally contaminated feces samples. Selectivity and indication capability of the plating media were remarkably affected by the selective enrichment step effectiveness. The TMK42/XLT4 association was the most sensitive and RV/XLT4 the most specific. The use of VB agar is also recommended to increase the likelihood of isolating atypical H2S-late producing/ non-producing Salmonella. In this study RV and TMK42 were the most efficient selective enrichment for recovery of Salmonella sp. from swine feces.

  12. Salmonella Is a Sneaky Germ: Seven Tips for Safer Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... However, a lightly cooked egg with a runny egg white or yolk still poses a greater risk than a thoroughly cooked egg. Lightly cooked egg whites and yolks have both caused outbreaks of Salmonella infections. Salmonella ...

  13. X-Ray crystal structure of GarR—tartronate semialdehyde reductase from Salmonella typhimurium

    OpenAIRE

    Osipiuk, J.; Zhou, M; Moy, S.; Collart, F.; Joachimiak, A.

    2009-01-01

    Tartronate semialdehyde reductases (TSRs), also known as 2-hydroxy-3-oxopropionate reductases, catalyze the reduction of tartronate semialdehyde using NAD as cofactor in the final stage of D-glycerate biosynthesis. These enzymes belong to family of structurally and mechanically related ?-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases which differ in substrate specificity and catalyze reactions in specific metabolic pathways. Here, we present the crystal structure of GarR a TSR from Salmonella typhimurium determi...

  14. Salmonella detection in poultry meat and meat products by the Vitek immunodiagnostic assay system easy Salmonella method, a LightCycler polymerase chain reaction system, and the International Organization for Standardization method 6579.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temelli, S; Eyigor, A; Carli, K T

    2012-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the capability of the Vitek immunodiagnostic assay system easy Salmonella (VIDAS ESLM) method and a specific real-time PCR system (LightCycler, LCPCR) to complement the International Organization for Standardization Method 6579 (ISO) in detecting Salmonella from a total of 105 naturally contaminated samples comprised of poultry meat and poultry meat products. The detection limit of ISO and LCPCR was 9 cfu/mL for both poultry meat and poultry meat products, whereas that of VIDAS ESLM with both sample types was determined to be 90 cfu/mL. Twelve (33.33%), 11 (30.55%), and 18 (50.00%) out of 36 poultry meat samples were positive for Salmonella by ISO, VIDAS ESLM, and LCPCR, respectively. Salmonella detection rates from poultry meat products were 5.80% for ISO and 8.69% for LCPCR, whereas none of these products tested positive by VIDAS ESLM. In poultry meat samples, VIDAS ESLM and LCPCR detection results were in substantial agreement with ISO, with the relative accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity rates of 97.2, 91.7, and 100%, respectively, for VIDAS ESLM and 83.3, 100, and 75%, respectively, for LCPCR. This is the first report on the evaluation of both VIDAS ESLM and LCPCR to complement ISO for the rapid detection of Salmonella in poultry meat and meat products. We determined that both VIDAS ESLM and LCPCR have the potential to complement the ISO standard culture method in the rapid screening of Salmonella from naturally contaminated poultry meats. For the poultry meat products, VIDAS ESLM and LCPCR can be used for rapid primary screening, and they should be complemented absolutely by ISO. Although LCPCR can preferentially be used for initial screening poultry meat products, the results should definitely be confirmed by ISO. Also, the VIDAS ESLM did not seem to be a suitable method for detecting Salmonella in poultry meat products. PMID:22334749

  15. Detectie van Salmonella in referentiemonsters. BCR-Food Trial 1

    OpenAIRE

    Veld PH in 't; Hoekstra JA; Beckers HJ

    2012-01-01

    De Salmonella referentiemonsters werden getest in 31 laboratoria. De laboratoria onderzochten elk 25 monsters, 20 Salmonella referentiemonsters en 5 Salmonella negatieve monsters. De werkwijze was gebaseerd op het ISO-voorschrift voor de aantoning van Salmonella. Er werden 3 selectieve ophopingsmedia gebruikt: - tetrathionaat briljant-groen gal bouillon (TBB) - malachiet-groen magnesium-chloride bouillon (RV) - Een op het deelnemende laboratorium gebruikelijk medium (O...

  16. Evanescent Wave Fiber Optic Biosensor for Salmonella Detection in Food

    OpenAIRE

    Bhunia, Arun K; Mark T. Morgan; Shu-I Tu; Angela M. Valadez; Lana, Carlos A.

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a major food-borne pathogen of world-wide concern. Sensitive and rapid detection methods to assess product safety before retail distribution are highly desirable. Since Salmonella is most commonly associated with poultry products, an evanescent wave fiber-optic assay was developed to detect Salmonella in shell egg and chicken breast and data were compared with a time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) assay. Anti-Salmonella polyclonal antibody was immobilized onto the surface ...

  17. Diffuse abdominal gallium-67 citrate uptake in salmonella infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two pediatric patients with salmonella infections (one with typhoid fever and the second with salmonella C2 gastroenteritis), had a diffuse abdominal uptake of Ga-67 citrate. The possible explanation for this finding is discussed. Salmonella infection should be included as a cause in the differential diagnosis of diffuse accumulation of Ga-67 citrate

  18. Antibiotic Resistant Salmonella and Vibrio Associated with Farmed Litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Sanjoy; Ooi, Mei Chen; Shariff, Mohamed; Khatoon, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella and Vibrio species were isolated and identified from Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in shrimp farms. Shrimp samples showed occurrence of 3.3% of Salmonella and 48.3% of Vibrio. The isolates were also screened for antibiotic resistance to oxolinic acid, sulphonamides, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, norfloxacin, ampicillin, doxycycline hydrochloride, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and nitrofurantoin. Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis isolated from shrimp showed indiv...

  19. Towards standardization of microarray-based genotyping of Salmonella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; GrØnlund, Hugo Ahlm

    2010-01-01

    Genotyping is becoming an increasingly important tool to improve risk assessments of Salmonella. DNA microarray technology is a promising diagnostic tool that can provide high resolution genomic profile of many genes simultaneously. However, standardization of DNA microarray analysis is needed before it can be used as a tool in source attribution models for comparable characterization of isolates across laboratories and countries. The reproducibility of data was evaluated for a simple and single-dye DNA microarray (Huehn et al., Appl Environ Microbiol, 2009, 75:1011-1020) for genotyping of Salmonella at two different laboratories. The low-density array contained 281 of 57-60-mer oligonucleotide probes for detecting a wide range of specific genomic markers associated with antibiotic resistance, cell envelope structures, mobile genetic elements and pathogenicity. Several test parameters that differed between the two labs were identified: printing facilities and equipment, choice of hybridization buffer, wash buffers used following hybridization and the choice of procedure for purifying genomic DNA. These critical parameters were randomized in a four-factorial experiment and statistical measures of inter-lab consistency and agreement were performed based on the kappa coefficient. A high level of agreement (kappa = 0.7-1.0) was obtained even when using different printing and hybridization facilities, different procedures for purifying genomic DNA and different wash buffers. However, less agreement (Kappa = 0.2-0.6) between microarray results were observed when using different hybridization buffers, indicating this as the most critical factor for standardization between laboratories. In conclusion, this study indicates that it is possible to set up an international standard for a decentralized and simple-to-implement DNA microarray as part of a pan-European source-attribution model for risk assessment of Salmonella.

  20. Elucidation of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles and Genotyping of Salmonella enterica Isolates from Clinical Cases of Salmonellosis in New Mexico in 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kenneth P.; George, Jeffy; Cadle, Kathleen M.; Kumar, Sanath; Aragon, Steven J.; Hernandez, Ricardo L.; Jones, Suzanna E.; Floyd, Jody L.; Manuel F. Varela

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and the distribution of some well known genetic determinants of virulence in clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica from New Mexico. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for various antimicrobials were determined by using the E-test strip method according to CLSI guidelines. Virulence genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers specific for known virulence genes of Salmonella enter...

  1. Microbiological Culture Simplified Using Anti-O12 Monoclonal Antibody in TUBEX Test to Detect Salmonella Bacteria from Blood Culture Broths of Enteric Fever Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Nugraha, Jusak; Marpaung, Ferdy R.; Tam, Frankie C. H.; Lim, Pak Leong

    2012-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of infectious diseases, including food poisoning, requires culture and identification of the infectious agent. We described how antibodies could be used to shorten this cumbersome process. Specifically, we employed an anti-Salmonella lipopolysaccharide O12 monoclonal antibody in an epitope-inhibition 10-min test (TUBEX TP) to detect O12+Salmonella organisms directly from routine blood culture broths. The aim is to obviate the need to subculture the broth and subsequently ...

  2. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption. PMID:25730295

  3. Prevalence of Salmonella in a poultry slaughterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M G R; Fiorese, M L; Moretto, G; López, M C; Jordano, R

    2007-07-01

    The prevalence of Salmonella on surfaces, water, and broiler chicken (carcasses, parts, viscera, and spoils) taken from a poultry slaughterhouse located in the south of Brazil was studied. The automated mini-VIDAS system (a variation of the basic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) was used to screen for the presence of this microorganism in 615 samples, and the traditional culture method was used in 470 samples. We detected Salmonella in the following sampling points by the VIDAS Salmonella test: transport cages (16.7%), boxes (10%), scalding water (16.7%), chilled water (6.7%), carcass before evisceration (6.7%), carcass after chilling (3.3%), fresh breast (3.3%), fresh leg (10%), frozen wing (13.3%), frozen leg (13.3%), intestines (6.7%), skin of breast and leg (10%), and skin of neck (6.7%). Nevertheless, with the traditional culture method we only detected salmonellae in the following sampling points: scalding water (10%), fresh leg (6.7%), frozen wing (10%), skin of breast and leg (20%), and skin of neck (10%). Finally, 5.4% (33 of 615) of the samples analyzed by the VIDAS Salmonella system were positive, whereas the positive percentage with the traditional method was 2.6% (12 of 470). The results showed that transport cages, scalding water, frozen wing, frozen leg, and skin of breast and leg were the sampling points that demonstrated the greatest prevalence. PMID:17685349

  4. Protection against salmonella typhimurium, salmonella gallinarum, and salmonella enteritidis infection in layer chickens conferred by a live attenuated salmonella typhimurium strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John Hwa

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated the protection conferred by a live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) strain against Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Gallinarum (SG), and Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infection in layer chickens. Birds were orally primed with the attenuated ST strain at 7 days of age and then boosted at 4 weeks post prime immunization (PPI). Sequential monitoring of plasma IgG and mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA) levels revealed that inoculation with ST induced a significant antibody response to antigens against ST, SE, and SG. Moreover, significant lymphoproliferative responses to the 3 Salmonella serovars were observed in the immunized group. We also investigated protection against virulent ST, SE, and SG strain challenge. Upon virulent SG challenge, the immunized group showed significantly reduced mortality compared to the non-immunized group. The reduced persistence of the virulent ST and SE challenge strains in the liver, spleen, and cecal tissues of the immunized group suggests that immunization with the attenuated ST strain may not only protect against ST infection but can also confer cross protection against SE and SG infection. PMID:25713506

  5. Salmonella and eggs: from production to plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption. PMID:25730295

  6. Comparison of predictive models for growth of parent and green fluorescent protein-producing strains of Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar, T P

    2003-02-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria can be expressed in, and used to follow the fate of, Salmonella in microbiologically complex ecosystems such as food. As a first step in the evaluation of GFP as a tool for the development of predictive models for naturally contaminated food, the present study was undertaken to compare the growth kinetics of parent and GFP-producing strains of Salmonella. A previously established sterile chicken burger model system was used to compare the growth kinetics of stationary-phase cells of parent and GFP strains of Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Salmonella Dublin. Growth curves for constant temperatures from 10 to 48 degrees C were fit to a two- or three-phase linear model to determine lag time, specific growth rate, and maximum population density. Secondary models for the growth parameters as a function of temperature were generated and compared between the parent and GFP strain pairs. The effects of GFP on the three growth parameters were significant and were affected by serotype and incubation temperature. The expression of GFP reduced specific growth rate and maximum population density while having only a small effect on the lag times of the three serotypes. The results of this study indicate that the growth kinetics of the GFP strains tested were different from those of the parent strains and thus would not be good marker strains for the development of predictive models for naturally contaminated food. PMID:12597477

  7. Construction and immunological assessment of Salmonella typhimurium expressing fox sperm LDH-C4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, P; Hayes, C; de Jersey, J; Bradley, M

    1998-01-01

    This study examined immune responses of foxes to oral doses of recombinant Salmonella typhimurium expressing fox sperm-specific lactate dehydrogenase (fLDH). The cDNA for fLDH was cloned into the expression plasmid pKK233.2 (pKKfLDH). Salmonella typhimurium aroA- (SL3261) was transformed with either the pKK233.2 plasmid alone (SpKK) or the pKKfLDH construct (SpKfLDH). The fLDH expressed by SpKfLDH retained enzymatic activity and was recognized by human LDH-C4-specific antibody. Male European red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were given an initial oral dose of 1 x 10(11) cfu of either SpKK (control, n = 3) or SpKfLDH (test, n = 6), followed four weeks later with a further dose of 1 x 10(11) cfu. Antibodies to Salmonella lipopolysaccharide (LPS-04) and fLDH were measured in plasma and saliva for eight consecutive weeks after the initial doses. Both LPS-04 IgG- and IgA-specific antibodies as well as fLDH-specific IgG antibodies were detected in plasma and saliva. However, there was a marked fLDH-specific IgA response in saliva consistent with induction of the common mucosal immune system. The antibody measurements demonstrated the feasibility of using recombinant Salmonella as an oral vaccine to elicit gamete antigen-specific mucosal immune responses in foxes. PMID:11596868

  8. Septic arthritis of the ankle due to Salmonella enteritidis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dineen, Patrick F

    2011-06-01

    Salmonella septic arthritis in healthy, immunocompetent patients is extremely rare. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with a one-day history of painful swelling of his ankle from which was aspirated pus which subsequently grew Salmonella enteritidis. There was no history of trauma or symptoms consistent with Salmonella enterocolitis. Our patient recovered fully after two weeks on intravenous ceftriaxone and six weeks on oral ciprofloxacin. Salmonella is a notifiable disease in the European Union and the United States of America, and is associated with outbreaks as a result of food contamination. The nature of Salmonella arthritis and its appropriate management are outlined.

  9. Thoracic spinal epidural abscess caused by Salmonella typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Saad Hamdan; Ata, Osama Abu; El-Adwan, Nael

    2008-03-01

    A 56-year-old man presented with a rare spinal epidural abscess manifesting as attacks of back pain associated with fever, weight loss, generalized weakness and fatigability, and constipation. He had multiple skin pustules in the last 4 months treated with oral amoxicillin. He had suffered diabetes mellitus for the last 5 years and was insulin dependent. Physical examination found slight paraparesis with sensory loss around the nipple and sphincteric urgency, and diabetic retinopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging showed edematous T2, T3, and T4 vertebral bodies, and narrow enhanced T3-4 disk space with a soft tissue enhanced mass mostly anterior to the spinal cord and indenting the cord. T3-4 costotransversectomy was performed to remove the extradural mass and evacuate the intradiscal material. Histological examination of the bone found osteomyelitis, and culture of the soft tissue showed Salmonella typhi sensitive to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. Intravenous ceftriaxone administration was started, and the patient was discharged after 6 days in good condition. The outcome of spinal epidural abscess is devastating unless recognized and treated early. The present case of spinal epidural abscess in the thoracic spine caused by Salmonella typhi infection illustrates the importance of cultures to assess the drug sensitivity of the specific strain detected and adjusting the treatment accordingly. PMID:18362463

  10. Global burden of invasive nontyphoidal salmonella disease, 2010(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Trong T; Feasey, Nicholas A; Gordon, Melita A; Keddy, Karen H; Angulo, Frederick J; Crump, John A

    2015-06-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella is a major cause of bloodstream infections worldwide, and HIV-infected persons and malaria-infected children are at increased risk for the disease. We conducted a systematic literature review to obtain age group-specific, population-based invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) incidence data. Data were categorized by HIV and malaria prevalence and then extrapolated by using 2010 population data. The case-fatality ratio (CFR) was determined by expert opinion consensus. We estimated that 3.4 (range 2.1-6.5) million cases of iNTS disease occur annually (overall incidence 49 cases [range 30-94] per 100,000 population). Africa, where infants, young children, and young adults are most affected, has the highest incidence (227 cases [range 152-341] per 100,000 population) and number of cases (1.9 [range 1.3-2.9] million cases). An iNTS CFR of 20% yielded 681,316 (range 415,164-1,301,520) deaths annually. iNTS disease is a major cause of illness and death globally, particularly in Africa. Improved understanding of the epidemiology of iNTS is needed. PMID:25860298

  11. Rapid radiometric method for detection of Salmonella in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiometric method for the detection of Salmonella in foods has been developed which is based on Salmonella poly H agglutinating serum preventing Salmonella from producing 14CO2 from [14C] dulcitol. The method will detect the presence or absence of Salmonella in a product within 30 h compared to 4 to 5 days by routine culture methods. The method has been evaluated against a routine culture method using 58 samples of food. The overall agreement was 91%. Five samples negative for Salmonella by the routine method were positive by the radiometric method. These may have been false positives. However, the routine method may have failed to detect Salmonella due to the presence of large numbers of lactose-fermenting bacteria which hindered isolation of Salmonella colonies on the selective agar plates

  12. Salmonella outbreak from microwave cooked food.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, M. R.; Parry, S. M.; Ribeiro, C. D.

    1995-01-01

    Following a buffet meal served to six guests at a private domestic function, five of the guests and the host developed symptoms of food poisoning. Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 (PT4) was isolated from all four individuals who submitted faecal samples for investigation. Leftover samples of a savoury rice dish consumed by all six ill persons contained 6 x 10(3)/gm Salmonella enteritidis PT4. The rice salad comprised boiled rice, raw carrots, eggs, cheese and curry powder. The curry powder...

  13. Assessing the Differences in Public Health Impact of Salmonella Subtypes Using a Bayesian Microbial Subtyping Approach for Source Attribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hald, Tine

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella is a major cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. To prioritize interventions and assess the effectiveness of efforts to reduce illness, it is important to attribute salmonellosis to the responsible sources. Studies have suggested that some Salmonella subtypes have a higher health impact than others. Likewise, some food sources appear to have a higher impact than others. Knowledge of variability in the impact of subtypes and sources may provide valuable added information for research, risk management, and public health strategies. We developed a Bayesian model that attributes illness to specific sources and allows for a better estimation of the differences in the ability of Salmonella subtypes and food types to result in reported salmonellosis. The model accommodates data for multiple years and is based on the Danish Salmonella surveillance. The number of sporadic cases caused by different Salmonella subtypes is estimated as a function of the prevalence of these subtypes in the animal-food sources, the amount of food consumed, subtype-related factors, and source-related factors. Our results showed relative differences between Salmonella subtypes in their ability to cause disease. These differences presumably represent multiple factors, such as differences in survivability through the food chain and/or pathogenicity. The relative importance of the source-dependent factors varied considerably over the years, reflecting, among others, variability in the surveillance programs for the different animal sources. The presented model requires estimation of fewer parameters than a previously developed model, and thus allows for a better estimation of these factors to result in reported human disease. In addition, a comparison of the results of the same model using different sets of typing data revealed that the model can be applied to data with less discriminatory power, which is the only data available in many countries. In conclusion, the model allows for the estimation of relative differences between Salmonella subtypes and sources, providing results that will benefit future risk assessment or risk ranking purposes.

  14. Detection of salmonella sp in chicken cuts using immunomagnetic separation / Detecção de salmonella sp em cortes de frango usando separação imunomagnética

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rita de Cássia dos Santos da, Conceição; Ângela Nunes, Moreira; Roberta Juliano, Ramos; Fabiana Lemos, Goularte; José Beiro, Carvalhal; José Antonio Guimarães, Aleixo.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A separação imunomagnética (IMS) é uma técnica que tem sido associada a diferentes métodos de detecção de Salmonella em alimentos para aumentar a sensibilidade e a especificidade e diminuir o tempo de análise. Neste trabalho é comunicada a obtenção de microesferas magnéticas sensibilizadas com antic [...] orpos anti-Salmonella e seu uso em associação com a metodologia de cultivo convencional para desenvolver um método de detecção de salmonelas em cortes de frango (IMS-plaqueamento). Inicialmente, microesferas cobertas com proteína A foram sensibilizadas com anticorpos policlonais contra lipopolissacarídeo e flagelo de salmonelas e usadas na padronização de um procedimento que captura Salmonella Enteritidis em cultivo puro e faz posterior detecção em ágar seletivo. A seguir, amostras de carne de frango experimentalmente contaminadas com S. Enteritidis foram analisadas imediatamente após a contaminação e após 24h de refrigeração utilizando três protocolos de enriquecimento. O limite de detecção foi cerca de 2x10 UFC/mL. O protocolo que incluiu enriquecimento não-seletivo por 6-8h, enriquecimento seletivo por 16-18h e pós-enriquecimento por 4h foi o que proporcionou melhor resultado na detecção de S. Enteritidis em carne de frango experimentalmente contaminada. Este protocolo foi comparado à metodologia convencional em estudo de detecção de salmonelas em cortes de frango naturalmente contaminados e obteve 100% de sensibilidade e 94% de especificidade. O método desenvolvido foi capaz de diminuir em pelo menos um dia o tempo de detecção de salmonelas em cortes de frango pela metodologia convencional. Abstract in english The immunomagnetic separation (IMS) is a technique that has been used to increase sensitivity and specificity and to decrease the time required for detection of Salmonella in foods through different methodologies. In this work we report on the development of a method for detection of Salmonella in c [...] hicken cuts using in house antibody-sensitized microspheres associated to conventional plating in selective agar (IMS-plating). First, protein A-coated microspheres were sensitized with polyclonal antibodies against lipopolysacharide and flagella from salmonellae and used to standardize a procedure for capturing Salmonella Enteritidis from pure cultures and detection in selective agar. Subsequently, samples of chicken meat experimentally contaminated with S. Enteritidis were analyzed immediately after contamination and after 24h of refrigeration using three enrichment protocols. The detection limit of the IMS-plating procedure after standardization with pure culture was about 2x10 CFU/mL. The protocol using non-selective enrichment for 6-8h, selective enrichment for 16-18h and a post-enrichment for 4h gave the best results of S. Enteritidis detection by IMS-plating in experimentally contaminated meat. IMS-plating using this protocol was compared to the standard culture method for salmonellae detection in naturally contaminated chicken cuts and yielded 100% sensitivity and 94% specificity. The method developed using in house prepared magnetic microespheres for IMS and plating in selective agar was able to diminish by at least one day the time required for detection of Salmonella in chicken products by the conventional culture method.

  15. Empiema causado por Salmonella typhimurium Pleural empyema caused by Salmonella typhimurium: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA DEL MAR TACCHINI A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El género Salmonella se caracteriza por causar infecciones en el tracto gastrointestinal, debido a la ingesta de alimentos o agua contaminada. También puede causar, con menor frecuencia, infecciones localizadas en diferentes órganos; esto se asocia con inmunodepresión. En este caso se describe un paciente con infección pleuropulmonar por Salmonella typhimurium, que no reportó antecedentes de diarrea previa. Evolucionó favorablemente con tratamiento adecuado.Salmonella species are commonly associated with acute gastroenteritis due to ingestion of contaminated food or water. Extraintestinal infections are less frequent, and most of them occur in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of pleural empyema caused by Salmonella typhimurium, without previous diarrhea or fever. The patient evolved favorably after receiving adequate treatment.

  16. Empiema causado por Salmonella typhimurium / Pleural empyema caused by Salmonella typhimurium: A case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARÍA DEL MAR, TACCHINI A; ANA, CARAFFINI F; MARÍA SOLEDAD, MONTAMAT C; NATALIA, SPITALE A; YANINA, BOSIO D; ANGEL, MINGUEZ G.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El género Salmonella se caracteriza por causar infecciones en el tracto gastrointestinal, debido a la ingesta de alimentos o agua contaminada. También puede causar, con menor frecuencia, infecciones localizadas en diferentes órganos; esto se asocia con inmunodepresión. En este caso se describe un pa [...] ciente con infección pleuropulmonar por Salmonella typhimurium, que no reportó antecedentes de diarrea previa. Evolucionó favorablemente con tratamiento adecuado. Abstract in english Salmonella species are commonly associated with acute gastroenteritis due to ingestion of contaminated food or water. Extraintestinal infections are less frequent, and most of them occur in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of pleural empyema caused by Salmonella typhimurium, without prev [...] ious diarrhea or fever. The patient evolved favorably after receiving adequate treatment.

  17. Tissue Selectivity of Interferon-Stimulated Gene Expression in Mice Infected with Dam+ versus Dam? Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtrichman, Ronit; Heithoff, Douglas M.; Mahan, Michael J.; Samuel, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    The host interferon (IFN) system plays an important role in protection against microbial infections. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is highly virulent in the mouse model, whereas mutants that lack DNA adenine methylase (Dam?) are highly attenuated and elicit fully protective immune responses against murine typhoid fever. We examined the expression of IFN-responsive genes in several mouse tissues following infection with Dam+ or Dam? Salmonella. Infection of mice with Dam+ Salmonella resulted in the induction of host genes known to be indicators of IFN bioactivity and regulated by either IFN-?/? (Mx1) or IFN-? (class II transactivator protein [CIITA] and inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]) or by both IFN-?/? and IFN-? (RNA-specific adenosine deaminase [ADAR1] and RNA-dependent protein kinase [PKR]) in a tissue-specific manner compared to uninfected animals. Since the Mx1 promoter is IFN-?/? specific and the Mx1 gene is not inducible directly by IFN-?, these data suggest a role of IFN-?/? in the host response to Salmonella infection. Mice infected with Dam? Salmonella showed reduced expression of the same set of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) as that observed after infection with wild-type Salmonella. The reduced capacity to induce ISGs persisted in Dam?-vaccinated mice after challenge with the virulent (Dam+) strain. Finally, although no Dam? organisms were recovered from the liver or spleen after oral infection of mice, ADAR, PKR, Mx, and CIITA expression levels were elevated in these tissues relative to those in uninfected mice, suggestive of the distant action of a signaling molecule(s) in the activation of ISG expression. PMID:12228285

  18. Tissue selectivity of interferon-stimulated gene expression in mice infected with Dam(+) versus Dam(-) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtrichman, Ronit; Heithoff, Douglas M; Mahan, Michael J; Samuel, Charles E

    2002-10-01

    The host interferon (IFN) system plays an important role in protection against microbial infections. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is highly virulent in the mouse model, whereas mutants that lack DNA adenine methylase (Dam(-)) are highly attenuated and elicit fully protective immune responses against murine typhoid fever. We examined the expression of IFN-responsive genes in several mouse tissues following infection with Dam(+) or Dam(-) Salmonella. Infection of mice with Dam(+) Salmonella resulted in the induction of host genes known to be indicators of IFN bioactivity and regulated by either IFN-alpha/beta (Mx1) or IFN-gamma (class II transactivator protein [CIITA] and inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]) or by both IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma (RNA-specific adenosine deaminase [ADAR1] and RNA-dependent protein kinase [PKR]) in a tissue-specific manner compared to uninfected animals. Since the Mx1 promoter is IFN-alpha/beta specific and the Mx1 gene is not inducible directly by IFN-gamma, these data suggest a role of IFN-alpha/beta in the host response to Salmonella infection. Mice infected with Dam(-) Salmonella showed reduced expression of the same set of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) as that observed after infection with wild-type Salmonella. The reduced capacity to induce ISGs persisted in Dam(-)-vaccinated mice after challenge with the virulent (Dam(+)) strain. Finally, although no Dam(-) organisms were recovered from the liver or spleen after oral infection of mice, ADAR, PKR, Mx, and CIITA expression levels were elevated in these tissues relative to those in uninfected mice, suggestive of the distant action of a signaling molecule(s) in the activation of ISG expression. PMID:12228285

  19. Prediction of Salmonella carcass contamination by a comparative quantitative analysis of E. coli and Salmonella during pig slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten; Barfod, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Faecal contamination of carcasses in the slaughterhouse is generally considered to be the source of Salmonella on pork. In this study the hygiene indicator Escherichia coli is used to quantify faecal contamination of carcasses and it is hypothesized that it can be used to predict the quantitative carcass contamination with Salmonella, when the distribution of Salmonella concentrations in faeces is known. Paired pig sample data (faecal samples and carcass swabs) were obtained from five slaughterhouses and analysed for prevalence and concentrations of E. coli and Salmonella. A simple model was developed to describe the faecal contamination of carcasses using the E. coli data. The E. coli results suggested different hygiene performances in different slaughterhouses, and showed that a model assuming that carcasses are predominantly contaminated by their own faeces was not appropriate. Observed Salmonella prevalences were low (on average 1.9% on carcasses) and between slaughterhouses the prevalences ranked differently than the hygiene performance based on the E. coli data suggested. Also, the Salmonella concentrations predicted using E. coli as a faecal indicator were lower than the observed Salmonella concentrations. It is concluded that the faecal carriage of Salmonella together with the faecal contamination of carcasses, as predicted from E. coli data in the animal faeces and hygiene performance of the slaughterhouse, is not sufficient to explain carcass contamination with Salmonella. Our extensive data set showed that other factors than the observed faecal carriage of Salmonella by the individual animals brought to slaughter, play a more important role in the Salmonella carcass contamination of pork.

  20. Comparative evaluation of Salmonella Enteritidis ghost vaccines with a commercial vaccine for protection against internal egg contamination with Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawale, Chetan V; Lee, John Hwa

    2014-10-14

    The study was conducted for the comparative evaluation of the vaccine potential of Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis, SE) ghost, SE ghost carrying Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) protein, and a commercial vaccine. Group A chickens were used as a non-vaccinated control, group B chickens were immunized with the ghost carrying LTB protein, group C chickens were immunized with the ghost and, group D chickens were immunized with a commercial vaccine. Group D chickens showed the swelling at the injection site, while no adverse reactions were observed at injection sites of the group B and C chickens. Chickens from the immunized groups B, C, and D demonstrated significant increases in plasma IgG, intestinal secretory IgA levels, and antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative responses. After challenge with a virulent SE strain via intravenous route, groups B, C, and D showed significantly higher egg production and lower internal egg contamination and lower recovery of the challenge strain from internal organs compared to non-immunized-challenged control group A. In conclusion, these data indicate that immunization of chickens with the ghost and ghost carrying LTB is safe, without causing any adverse reaction, and is effective as the commercial vaccine in terms of reduction in internal egg contamination and internal organ colonization of Salmonella. PMID:25218296

  1. Salmonella-TEK, a rapid screening method for Salmonella species in food.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Poucke, L S

    1990-01-01

    A micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (micro-ELISA) using the Salmonella-TEK screen kit was tested for the detection of Salmonella spp. in pure cultures as well as in 30 artificially contaminated food samples and in 45 naturally contaminated food samples. Different raw, fleshy foods and processed foods were used as test products. The artificially contaminated minced meat samples were preenriched in buffered peptone water, and after incubation, different selective enrichment broths were te...

  2. Variant Salmonella Genomic Island 1 Antibiotic Resistance Gene Cluster in Salmonella enterica Serovar Albany

    OpenAIRE

    Doublet, Benoît; Lailler, Renaud; Meunier, Danièle; Brisabois, Anne; Boyd, David; Mulvey, Michael R.; CHASLUS-DANCLA, Elisabeth; Cloeckaert, Axel

    2003-01-01

    Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) contains an antibiotic resistance gene cluster and has been previously identified in multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium DT104, Agona, and Paratyphi B. We identified a variant SGI1 antibiotic-resistance gene cluster in a multidrug-resistant strain of S. enterica serovar Albany isolated from food fish from Thailand and imported to France. In this strain, the streptomycin resistance aadA2 gene cassette in one of the SGI1 integrons was ...

  3. Occurence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica in the beef cattle production and processing continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specific concerns have been raised that 3rd-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCr) Escherichia coli, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant (COTr) E. coli, 3GCr Salmonella enterica, and nalidixic acid-resistant (NALr) S. enterica, may be present in cattle production environments, persist through...

  4. Longitudinal Study on Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Salmonella spp. and E. coli obtained from Dairy Cattle in Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective of study: The objective of this study was to describe antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella spp. and non-type specific Escherichia coli isolated from the same animals and same environmental areas over time. Materials and Methods: Sampling occurred at a local dairy over a 12 month...

  5. Differentiation of Salmonella serovar infantis isolates from human and animal sources by fingerprinting IS200 and 16S rrn loci.

    OpenAIRE

    Pelkonen, S.; Romppanen, E L; Siitonen, A; Pelkonen, J

    1994-01-01

    We genotyped Salmonella serovar infantis (referred to as S. infantis), which is the most widespread serovar among animals and the third most common cause of human salmonellosis in Finland. Molecular fingerprinting of the 16S rrn locus and the Salmonella-specific insertion sequence IS200 was used to type the 131 isolates originating from the main sources of S. infantis infection. The number of IS200 elements in S. infantis varied from zero to seven; three or more copies were present in 97% of ...

  6. Comparison between VIDAS automatic enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay and culture method for Salmonella recovery from pork carcass sponge samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Kuang-Sheng; Tsai, Chin-En; Chen, Shih-Ping; Liao, Chao-Wei

    2002-10-01

    VIDAS Salmonella (VIDAS-SLM) is an automated system that uses the enzyme-linked fluorescent assay method to detect Salmonella species. This study evaluated the efficacy of the VIDAS-SLM method in detecting Salmonella species in pork carcass sponge samples gathered from 10 slaughter plants in Taiwan. Two hundred fifty-seven pork carcass sponge samples were screened by the VIDAS-SLM method and by the culture method in parallel. While 18 sponge samples were found to test positive by both methods, the VIDAS-SLM method detected four additional positive samples for which the culture method failed to recover Salmonella. The specificity of the VIDAS-SLM method was found to be 0.98, and its sensitivity was 1.0, since no false-negative results occurred. Artificially inoculated Salmonella at concentrations as low as 5.0 x 10(0) CFU/ml was detected in the heat-inactivated sponge sample in the presence or absence of 5.0 x 10(4) CFU of Citrobacter freundii per ml. Thus, the VIDAS-SLM method is a rapid screening method and a potential alternative to the time- and labor-intensive culture method. PMID:12380756

  7. RIG-I detects mRNA of intracellular Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium during bacterial infection

    OpenAIRE

    Schmolke, Mirco; Patel, Jenish R.; Castro, Elisa; Sa?nchez-aparicio, Maria T.; Uccellini, Melissa B.; Miller, Jennifer C.; Manicassamy, Balaji; Satoh, Takashi; Kawai, Taro; Akira, Shizuo; Merad, Miriam; Garci?a-sastre, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    The cytoplasmic helicase RIG-I is an established sensor for viral 5'-triphosphorylated RNA species. Recently, RIG-I was also implicated in the detection of intracellular bacteria. However, little is known about the host cell specificity of this process and the bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) that activates RIG-I. Here we show that RNA of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium activates production of beta interferon in a RIG-I-dependent fashion only in nonphagocytic cel...

  8. Epidemiology of Virulence-Associated Plasmids and Outer Membrane Protein Patterns Within Seven Common Salmonella Serotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Helmuth, R.; Stephan, R.; Bunge, C.; Hoog, B.; Steinbeck, A.; Bulling, E.

    1986-01-01

    Antibiotic-sensitive Salmonella isolates belonging to seven common serotypes and originating from 29 different countries from all continents were investigated for their plasmid DNA content (337 isolates) and their outer membrane protein profiles (216 isolates). Of the S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, S. dublin, and S. choleraesuis isolates, 90% or more carried a serotype-specific plasmid. The molecular sizes of the plasmids were 60 megadaltons (Md) for S. typhimurium, 37 Md for S. enteritidis,...

  9. Studies on the lactose character in Salmonella S:41:z10.

    OpenAIRE

    Rajgopalan D; Sathe M; Joshi L; Deshpande C

    1991-01-01

    A number of plasmids carrying the Lac+ character have been reported. Lac+ character of salmonella S:41:z10:- studied for transfer of Lac+ character to standard Escherichia coli K12 Lac-F- Nalr and Escherichia coli K12 F- Lac- Rifr, failed to transfer in in vitro experiments. Similarly, identification and characterisation of plasmid DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis technique did not show specific plasmid DNA as compared to standard molecular weight plasmids. Plasmid DNA ...

  10. Immunization with live aroA recombinant Salmonella typhimurium producing invasin inhibits intestinal translocation of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonet, M; Fortineau, N; Beretti, J L; Berche, P

    1994-03-01

    The Yersinia pseudotuberculosis inv gene encodes invasin, a 103-kDa outer membrane protein that allows bacteria to enter mammalian cells. The gene was subcloned into the attenuated aroA mutant of Salmonella typhimurium SL3261. Invasin was produced by the recombinant Salmonella strain and increased the ability of microorganisms to translocate from the intestinal lumen to the mesenteric lymph nodes. Specific antibodies for invasin were detected in sera and intestinal secretions of mice following oral immunization with the live Inv+ Salmonella strain. The immunization strongly inhibited intestinal translocation of Y. pseudotuberculosis when this pathogen was inoculated to mice but failed to prevent Yersinia dissemination from the gut lymphoid tissue. PMID:8112856

  11. Salmonella osteomyelitis by sickle cell anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case report of a 28 year old black sickle cell anemia patient with salmonella osteomyelitis of the radius. Aside from sickle cell anemia patients this skeletal complication of enteric salmonellosis is an extreme rarity. Description of the typical roentgenological features includes intracortical fissures and sequestration. (orig.)

  12. Colicinogeny in Salmonella serovars isolated in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Carvalho Campos

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of colicinogeny was made in 748 strains of Salmonella (97 serovars isolated from different sources; human (291, animal (119, environmental (141, food (102 and animal feed (95. Colicin production was detected in 64 strains (8.6%, particularly isolated from foods (30.4%. Col. E1 (53 and Ia (44 were the most frequently observed, especially in S. agona for environment and food sources. Col V production was identified in 5 strains of S. typhimurium within 8 producer cultures isolated from humans. Its relationship with the sources and serovars of Salmonella are discussed.Investigou-se a produção de colicina em 748 amostras de Salmonella (97 sorovares advindas de díferentes fontes: humana (291, animal (119, ambiental (141, de alimentos (102 e rações (95. Detectaram-se 64 amostras (8,6% colicinogênicas, particularmente isoladas de alimentos (30,4%. ColE1 (53 e Ia (44 foram as mais freqüentes, especialmente no sorovar S, agona, de origem ambiental e de alimentos. Identificou-se também a produção de col V em 5 amostras de S. typhimurium dentre 8 culturas produtoras de origem humana. Discute-se a relação entre a capacidade colicinogênica e as fontes e sorovares de Salmonella.

  13. Risk assessment of Salmonella in Danish meatballs produced in the catering sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØller, Cleide Oliveira de Almeida; Nauta, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    A modular process risk model approach was used to assess health risks associated with Salmonella spp. after consumption of the Danish meatball product (frikadeller) produced with fresh pork in a catering unit. Meatball production and consumption were described as a series of processes (modules), starting from 1.3 kg meat pieces through conversion to 70 g meatballs, followed by a dose response model to assess the risk of illness from consumption of these meatballs. Changes in bacterial prevalence, concentration, and unit size were modelled within each module. The risk assessment was built using observational data and models that were specific for Salmonella spp. in meatballs produced in the catering sector. Danish meatballs are often pan-fried followed by baking in an oven before consumption, in order to reach the core temperature of 75 degrees C recommended by the Danish Food Safety Authority. However, in practice this terminal heat treatment in the oven may be accidentally omitted. Eleven production scenarios were evaluated with the model, to test the impact of heat treatments and cooling rates at different room temperatures. The risk estimates revealed that a process comprising heat treatment of meatballs to core temperatures higher than 70 degrees C, and subsequent holding at room temperatures lower than 20 degrees C, for no longer than 3.5 h, were very effective in Salmonella control. The current Danish Food Safety Authority recommendation of cooking to an internal temperature of 75 degrees C is conservative, at least with respect to Salmonella risk. Survival and growth of Salmonella during cooling of meatballs not heat treated in oven had a significant impact on the risk estimates, and therefore, cooling should be considered a critical step during meatball processing. (c) 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Risk assessment of Salmonella in Danish meatballs produced in the catering sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Cleide O de A; Nauta, Maarten J; Schaffner, Donald W; Dalgaard, Paw; Christensen, Bjarke B; Hansen, Tina B

    2015-03-01

    A modular process risk model approach was used to assess health risks associated with Salmonella spp. after consumption of the Danish meatball product (frikadeller) produced with fresh pork in a catering unit. Meatball production and consumption were described as a series of processes (modules), starting from 1.3kg meat pieces through conversion to 70g meatballs, followed by a dose response model to assess the risk of illness from consumption of these meatballs. Changes in bacterial prevalence, concentration, and unit size were modelled within each module. The risk assessment was built using observational data and models that were specific for Salmonella spp. in meatballs produced in the catering sector. Danish meatballs are often pan-fried followed by baking in an oven before consumption, in order to reach the core temperature of 75°C recommended by the Danish Food Safety Authority. However, in practice this terminal heat treatment in the oven may be accidentally omitted. Eleven production scenarios were evaluated with the model, to test the impact of heat treatments and cooling rates at different room temperatures. The risk estimates revealed that a process comprising heat treatment of meatballs to core temperatures higher than 70°C, and subsequent holding at room temperatures lower than 20°C, for no longer than 3.5h, were very effective in Salmonella control. The current Danish Food Safety Authority recommendation of cooking to an internal temperature of 75°C is conservative, at least with respect to Salmonella risk. Survival and growth of Salmonella during cooling of meatballs not heat treated in oven had a significant impact on the risk estimates, and therefore, cooling should be considered a critical step during meatball processing. PMID:25540860

  15. Salmonella spp. on chicken carcasses in processing plants in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miko?ajczyk, Anita; Radkowski, Mieczys?aw

    2002-09-01

    Chickens at selected points in the slaughter process and after slaughter on the dressing line in poultry plants were sampled and analyzed for Salmonella. These chickens came from the northeast part of Poland. The examinations were carried out in quarters I, II, III, and IV of 1999. All the birds were determined to be healthy by a veterinary inspection. Swab samples were taken from the cloaca after stunning and from the skin surface and body cavity of the whole bird after evisceration, after rinsing at the final rinse station but before chilling in the spin-chiller, and after cooling in the continuous cooling plant at the end of the production day. In 1999, 400 whole chickens were examined. The percentage of these 400 chickens from which Salmonella spp. were isolated was relatively high (23.75%; Salmonella-positive results were observed in 95 cases). Salmonella spp. were found after stunning in 6% of the chickens (6 of 100 samples), after evisceration in 24% (24 of 100), before cooling in 52% (52 of 100), and after cooling in 13% (13 of 100). These results show that Salmonella spp. were found more often at some processing points than at others. The lowest Salmonella spp. contamination rate (6%) for slaughter birds was found after stunning, and the highest contamination rate was found before chilling (52%). The serological types of Salmonella spp. isolated from whole chickens were Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Saintpaul, Salmonella Agona, and Salmonella Infantis. The results of these investigations indicate that Salmonella Enteritidis is the dominant serological type in infections of slaughter chickens, as it is in many countries. PMID:12233861

  16. Use of Rambach Propylene Glycol Containing Agar for identification of Salmonella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Gruenewald, R.; Henderson, R. W.; Yappow, S.

    1991-01-01

    When grown on Rambach Propylene Glycol Containing Agar (Rambach agar), 216 of 230 (93.9%) Salmonella organisms isolated from patients and 54 of 62 (87.1%) Salmonella stock cultures produced a crimson-colored growth. Of the 14 clinical Salmonella isolates which displayed colors other than crimson, 8 were Salmonella typhi, 2 were Salmonella paratyphi A, and 4 belonged to other commonly isolated serotypes. All eight Salmonella stock cultures which failed to produce a crimson color belonged to ra...

  17. Large outbreaks of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in Denmark in 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethelberg, S.; Wingstrand, Anne

    2008-01-01

    An outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type U292 has been ongoing in Denmark since 1 April, with 1,054 cases registered until 23 October 2008. Extensive investigations including hypothesis-generating interviews, matched case-control studies, cohort studies in embedded outbreaks, shopping list analyses, analyses of food samples from patient's homes, trace-back analyses and extensive microbiological analysis of products have not provided clear indications of a specific source of infection but the main hypothesis is that the vehicle of the outbreak are different pork products. In addition to the large U292 outbreak, at least four other S. Typhimurium outbreaks (caused by phage types U288, DT120, DT3 and DT135) have been investigated in Denmark in 2008.

  18. Comparing human-Salmonella with plant-Salmonella protein-protein interaction predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleker, Sylvia; Kshirsagar, Meghana; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis is the most frequent foodborne disease worldwide and can be transmitted to humans by a variety of routes, especially via animal and plant products. Salmonella bacteria are believed to use not only animal and human but also plant hosts despite their evolutionary distance. This raises the question if Salmonella employs similar mechanisms in infection of these diverse hosts. Given that most of our understanding comes from its interaction with human hosts, we investigate here to what degree knowledge of Salmonella-human interactions can be transferred to the Salmonella-plant system. Reviewed are recent publications on analysis and prediction of Salmonella-host interactomes. Putative protein-protein interactions (PPIs) between Salmonella and its human and Arabidopsis hosts were retrieved utilizing purely interolog-based approaches in which predictions were inferred based on available sequence and domain information of known PPIs, and machine learning approaches that integrate a larger set of useful information from different sources. Transfer learning is an especially suitable machine learning technique to predict plant host targets from the knowledge of human host targets. A comparison of the prediction results with transcriptomic data shows a clear overlap between the host proteins predicted to be targeted by PPIs and their gene ontology enrichment in both host species and regulation of gene expression. In particular, the cellular processes Salmonella interferes with in plants and humans are catabolic processes. The details of how these processes are targeted, however, are quite different between the two organisms, as expected based on their evolutionary and habitat differences. Possible implications of this observation on evolution of host-pathogen communication are discussed. PMID:25674082

  19. Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis of Human and Chicken Origin

    OpenAIRE

    GONCAGÜL, Gül?en; GÜNAYDIN, Elçin; ÇARLI, K. Tayfun

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between antibiotic resistance patterns among Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Enteritidis isolates (Salmonella Enteritidis) of human and poultry origin. Antibiotic resistance of 97 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from 25 chicken meat, 25 chicken intestine and 47 human fecal samples was examined using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS, 1997) disk diffusion method. Resistance patterns of the isolates ...

  20. Meta-analysis of Chicken - Salmonella infection experiments.

    OpenAIRE

    te Pas Marinus FW; Hulsegge Ina; Schokker Dirkjan; Smits Mari A; Fife Mark; Zoorob Rima; Endale Marie-Laure; Rebel Johanna MJ

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Chicken meat and eggs can be a source of human zoonotic pathogens, especially Salmonella species. These food items contain a potential hazard for humans. Chickens lines differ in susceptibility for Salmonella and can harbor Salmonella pathogens without showing clinical signs of illness. Many investigations including genomic studies have examined the mechanisms how chickens react to infection. Apart from the innate immune response, many physiological mechanisms and pathways...

  1. Salmonella enterica Serotype Arizonae Meningitis in a Neonate

    OpenAIRE

    Wubishet Lakew; Abayneh Girma; Elizabeth Triche

    2013-01-01

    Typhoidal and nontyphoidal salmonella infections are common causes of gastroenteritis in the community. However, salmonella only rarely causes invasive infections like meningitis. We report a 13-day-old female neonate with signs and symptoms of meningitis whose cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture showed Salmonella enterica serotype Arizonae that was sensitive to ceftriaxone. She presented with fever and failure to feed for 2 days. Despite prompt treatment with ampicillin, gentamicin, and ceftri...

  2. Salmonella induces prominent gene expression in the rat colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosing Susanne

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella enteritidis is suggested to translocate in the small intestine. In vivo it induces gene expression changes in the ileal mucosa and Peyer's patches. Stimulation of Salmonella translocation by dietary prebiotics fermented in colon suggests involvement of the colon as well. However, effects of Salmonella on colonic gene expression in vivo are largely unknown. We aimed to characterize time dependent Salmonella-induced changes of colonic mucosal gene expression in rats using whole genome microarrays. For this, rats were orally infected with Salmonella enteritidis to mimic a foodborne infection and colonic gene expression was determined at days 1, 3 and 6 post-infection (n = 8 rats per time-point. As fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS affect colonic physiology, we analyzed colonic mucosal gene expression of FOS-fed versus cellulose-fed rats infected with Salmonella in a separate experiment. Colonic mucosal samples were isolated at day 2 post-infection. Results Salmonella affected transport (e.g. Chloride channel calcium activated 6, H+/K+ transporting Atp-ase, antimicrobial defense (e.g. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein, Defensin 5 and phospholipase A2, inflammation (e.g. calprotectin, oxidative stress related genes (e.g. Dual oxidase 2 and Glutathione peroxidase 2 and Proteolysis (e.g. Ubiquitin D and Proteosome subunit beta type 9. Furthermore, Salmonella translocation increased serum IFN? and many interferon-related genes in colonic mucosa. The gene most strongly induced by Salmonella infection was Pancreatitis Associated Protein (Pap, showing >100-fold induction at day 6 after oral infection. Results were confirmed by Q-PCR in individual rats. Stimulation of Salmonella translocation by dietary FOS was accompanied by enhancement of the Salmonella-induced mucosal processes, not by induction of other processes. Conclusion We conclude that the colon is a target tissue for Salmonella, considering the abundant changes in mucosal gene expression.

  3. THE DYNAMICS OF ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF Salmonella typhimurium ISOLATES.

    OpenAIRE

    Erleta Peqini; Zheni Brahimaj; Sotir Mali; Klementina Puto; Ariola Devolli; Naxhije Hila; Aida Dervishi

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium is the most common pathogen isolated in foodstuffs toxin infections. The development of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella typhimurium over the last twenty years is caused by an extensive application of some antibiotics. The study of antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella typhimurium isolates helps the physicians in using the indispensable antibiotic and replacing the resistant antibiotics with new ones. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antimicr...

  4. Nuevos Perfiles Genéticos de Salmonella Enteritidis identificados en Luján, Argentina / New Genetic Profiles of Salmonella Enteritidis identified in Lujan, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo J, Anselmo; Hebe A, Barrios.

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue aislar y seleccionar bacteriófagos salvajes de aguas del río Luján en Argentina, contra Salmonella Enteritidis, fagotipificar 86 cepas de esta serovariedad y evaluar los perfiles genéticos de representantes de los grupos de especificidad surgidos. La concentració [...] n de bacteriófagos de agua de río se realizó mediante el hisopo de Moore con 60 minutos de exposición a la corriente de agua. El aislamiento y purificación se efectuó por la técnica de doble capa de agar. Al fagotipificar los 86 aislamientos por metodología estandarizada surgieron cuatro grupos de especificidad. La subtipificación por electroforesis en campo pulsado realizada a un representante de cada grupo, estableció que dos grupos correspondieron al fagotipo PT4, predominante en Latinoamérica. Los dos grupos restantes presentaron dos perfiles genéticos que no se habían encontrado antes en la base de datos de la Red PulseNet de América Latina y el Caribe. Abstract in english The aim of this study was isolating and selecting wild bacteriophages from waters of the Lujan river in Argentina, against Salmonella Enteritidis, phage typing 86 strains of this serovariety and evaluating the genetic profiles of samples from the emerged specific groups. Bacteriophages concentration [...] of river water was performed using the Moore swab with 60 minutes of exposure to water flow. Isolation and purification was carried out by the technique of double-layer agar. Eighty six isolates were phage-typed by standardized methodology and four groups of specificity appeared. Subtyping by pulsed field gel electrophoresis conducted on one sample of each group, establishing that two phage group corresponded to PT4 phagotype, which is the most common in Latin America. The other two groups had two genetic profiles that were not previously found in the database Latin America and the Caribbean PulseNet Network

  5. Nuevos Perfiles Genéticos de Salmonella Enteritidis identificados en Luján, Argentina New Genetic Profiles of Salmonella Enteritidis identified in Lujan, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J Anselmo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue aislar y seleccionar bacteriófagos salvajes de aguas del río Luján en Argentina, contra Salmonella Enteritidis, fagotipificar 86 cepas de esta serovariedad y evaluar los perfiles genéticos de representantes de los grupos de especificidad surgidos. La concentración de bacteriófagos de agua de río se realizó mediante el hisopo de Moore con 60 minutos de exposición a la corriente de agua. El aislamiento y purificación se efectuó por la técnica de doble capa de agar. Al fagotipificar los 86 aislamientos por metodología estandarizada surgieron cuatro grupos de especificidad. La subtipificación por electroforesis en campo pulsado realizada a un representante de cada grupo, estableció que dos grupos correspondieron al fagotipo PT4, predominante en Latinoamérica. Los dos grupos restantes presentaron dos perfiles genéticos que no se habían encontrado antes en la base de datos de la Red PulseNet de América Latina y el Caribe.The aim of this study was isolating and selecting wild bacteriophages from waters of the Lujan river in Argentina, against Salmonella Enteritidis, phage typing 86 strains of this serovariety and evaluating the genetic profiles of samples from the emerged specific groups. Bacteriophages concentration of river water was performed using the Moore swab with 60 minutes of exposure to water flow. Isolation and purification was carried out by the technique of double-layer agar. Eighty six isolates were phage-typed by standardized methodology and four groups of specificity appeared. Subtyping by pulsed field gel electrophoresis conducted on one sample of each group, establishing that two phage group corresponded to PT4 phagotype, which is the most common in Latin America. The other two groups had two genetic profiles that were not previously found in the database Latin America and the Caribbean PulseNet Network

  6. Expression and immunogenicity of an Echinococcus granulosus fatty acid-binding protein in live attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabalgoity, J A; Harrison, J A; Esteves, A; Demarco de Hormaeche, R; Ehrlich, R; Khan, C M; Hormaeche, C E

    1997-06-01

    Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are candidate molecules for vaccines against several parasitic platyhelminths. A FABP from the cestode Echinococcus granulosus (EgDf1) was expressed in Salmonella vaccine strains as a C-terminal fusion to fragment C of tetanus toxin (TetC) by using expression vector pTECH. The fusion protein was equally expressed in several attenuated vaccine strains derived from bacteria with different genetic backgrounds and different attenuating mutations. Single-dose immunization experiments with the aroA Salmonella typhimurium strain SL3261 carrying the pTECH-EgDf1 construct were conducted with mice, using both the intravenous and the oral routes. Surprisingly, the antibody response to EgDf1 and the antigen-specific cytokine production in spleen cells were stronger in mice immunized orally. Furthermore, immune mouse sera strongly reacted with fixed sections of the worm's larval stage. Analysis of the isotype distribution of the specific anti-EgDf1 antibodies showed similar production of immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2a together with specific IgA antibodies. In addition, stimulation of spleen cells from mice immunized with the different constructs with either Salmonella lysate, TetC, or EgDf1 showed that, together with Th1-related cytokines (gamma interferon and interleukin 2 [IL-2]), significant levels of a Th2 cytokine (IL-5) were produced specifically, indicating a Th2 component to the response to the Salmonella carrier and to the recombinant antigens. Salmonellae expressing the TetC-rEgDfl fusion are currently under evaluation as potential vaccines against E. granulosus. PMID:9169781

  7. Detecção de Salmonella Anatum em ema (Rhea americana) / Detection of Salmonella Anatum in the Greater Rhea (Rhea americana)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosecler Alves, Pereira; Cláudio Wageck, Canal; Verônica, Schmidt.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Para pesquisa de Salmonella spp. foram coletadas amostras de fígado e conteúdo cecal de 70 emas (Rhea americana) abatidas no Rio Grande do Sul - Brasil. Uma colônia morfológica e bioquimicamente compatível com Salmonella spp., isolada de uma amostra de fígado, foi sorotipada como Salmonella Anatum. [...] Considerando-se o alto potencial zoonótico deste microrganismo, destaca-se a relevância do controle microbiológico efetivo em frigoríficos que abatem espécies silvestres, assim como no produto final. Abstract in english In aiming to investigate the Salmonella spp. presence in one slaughterhouse in Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil, liver and cecum samples from 70 Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) were collected. One Salmonella-like colonie was serologically typed and identified as Salmonella Anatum. Considering the high zoono [...] tical potential of this microorganism, an effective microbiological control of wild animal slaughterhouses and the final product is needed.

  8. Detecção de Salmonella Anatum em ema (Rhea americana Detection of Salmonella Anatum in the Greater Rhea (Rhea americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosecler Alves Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Para pesquisa de Salmonella spp. foram coletadas amostras de fígado e conteúdo cecal de 70 emas (Rhea americana abatidas no Rio Grande do Sul - Brasil. Uma colônia morfológica e bioquimicamente compatível com Salmonella spp., isolada de uma amostra de fígado, foi sorotipada como Salmonella Anatum. Considerando-se o alto potencial zoonótico deste microrganismo, destaca-se a relevância do controle microbiológico efetivo em frigoríficos que abatem espécies silvestres, assim como no produto final.In aiming to investigate the Salmonella spp. presence in one slaughterhouse in Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil, liver and cecum samples from 70 Greater Rhea (Rhea americana were collected. One Salmonella-like colonie was serologically typed and identified as Salmonella Anatum. Considering the high zoonotical potential of this microorganism, an effective microbiological control of wild animal slaughterhouses and the final product is needed.

  9. Salmonella serotype determination utilizing high-throughput genome sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaokang; Yin, Yanlong; Jones, Marcus B; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L; Dinsmore, Blake A; Fitzgerald, Collette; Fields, Patricia I; Deng, Xiangyu

    2015-05-01

    Serotyping forms the basis of national and international surveillance networks for Salmonella, one of the most prevalent foodborne pathogens worldwide (1-3). Public health microbiology is currently being transformed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS), which opens the door to serotype determination using WGS data. SeqSero (www.denglab.info/SeqSero) is a novel Web-based tool for determining Salmonella serotypes using high-throughput genome sequencing data. SeqSero is based on curated databases of Salmonella serotype determinants (rfb gene cluster, fliC and fljB alleles) and is predicted to determine serotype rapidly and accurately for nearly the full spectrum of Salmonella serotypes (more than 2,300 serotypes), from both raw sequencing reads and genome assemblies. The performance of SeqSero was evaluated by testing (i) raw reads from genomes of 308 Salmonella isolates of known serotype; (ii) raw reads from genomes of 3,306 Salmonella isolates sequenced and made publicly available by GenomeTrakr, a U.S. national monitoring network operated by the Food and Drug Administration; and (iii) 354 other publicly available draft or complete Salmonella genomes. We also demonstrated Salmonella serotype determination from raw sequencing reads of fecal metagenomes from mice orally infected with this pathogen. SeqSero can help to maintain the well-established utility of Salmonella serotyping when integrated into a platform of WGS-based pathogen subtyping and characterization. PMID:25762776

  10. Salmonella enterica induces and subverts the plant immune system

    KAUST Repository

    García, Ana V.

    2014-04-04

    Infections with Salmonella enterica belong to the most prominent causes of food poisoning and infected fruits and vegetables represent important vectors for salmonellosis. Although it was shown that plants raise defense responses against Salmonella, these bacteria persist and proliferate in various plant tissues. Recent reports shed light into the molecular interaction between plants and Salmonella, highlighting the defense pathways induced and the means used by the bacteria to escape the plant immune system and accomplish colonization. It was recently shown that plants detect Salmonella pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as the flagellin peptide flg22, and activate hallmarks of the defense program known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Interestingly, certain Salmonella strains carry mutations in the flg22 domain triggering PTI, suggesting that a strategy of Salmonella is to escape plant detection by mutating PAMP motifs. Another strategy may rely on the type III secretion system (T3SS) as T3SS mutants were found to induce stronger plant defense responses than wild type bacteria. Although Salmonella effector delivery into plant cells has not been shown, expression of Salmonella effectors in plant tissues shows that these bacteria also possess powerful means to manipulate the plant immune system. Altogether, these data suggest that Salmonella triggers PTI in plants and evolved strategies to avoid or subvert plant immunity. 2014 Garca and Hirt.

  11. Radiation Resistance of Salmonellae and their Occurrence in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have been undertaken to determine the salmonellae contamination of different food and feed products in Thailand. The radioresistance of different isolated strains was determined. Of the examined samples, 0.5% beef meat, 0.7% pork meat, 2.5% pork liver, 4% beef liver and 2% fish meal were contaminated with salmonellae. Salmonella derby and S. anatum were predominant. The D-values for different Salmonella serotypes in minced beef irradiated at 4 to 10°C varied from 27 to 50 krads. (author)

  12. Phylogenetic relationships of Salmonella based on rRNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H.; Nordentoft, Steen

    1998-01-01

    To establish the phylogenetic relationships between the subspecies of Salmonella enterica (official name Salmonella choleraesuis), Salmonella bongori and related members of Enterobacteriaceae, sequence comparison of rRNA was performed by maximum-likelihood analysis. The two Salmonella species were separated by 16S rRNA analysis and found to be closely related to the Escherichia coli and Shigella complex by both 16S and 23S rRNA analyses. The diphasic serotypes S. enterica subspp. I and VI were separated from the monophasic serotypes subspp. IIIa and IV, including S. bongori, by 23S rRNA sequence comparison.

  13. Bacillus subtilis (DSM17299) significantly reduces Salmonella in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knap, I; Kehlet, A B; Bennedsen, M; Mathis, G F; Hofacre, C L; Lumpkins, B S; Jensen, M M; Raun, M; Lay, A

    2011-08-01

    Salmonella continues to be a major public health burden worldwide. Poultry are known to be one of the main reservoirs for this zoonotic pathogen. It has previously been shown that a single dose of Bacillus subtilis reduces fecal shedding of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, whereas no effect on long-term colonization of the cecum has been observed. Here we report experiments that were undertaken to test the efficacy of a conventional diet supplemented with a probiotic (B. subtilis DSM17299) on 1) Salmonella colonization in the intestinal tract of broiler chickens, and 2) fecal shedding of Salmonella under production-like conditions. The trial birds fed the B. subtilis diet showed a significant 58% reduction in Salmonella-positive drag swabs compared with control birds, which had 100% presence of Salmonella. Feeding B. subtilis significantly reduced the average Salmonella load of cecum samples of the chickens, by 3 log units. This reduction in Salmonella colonization might not only positively affect broilers on the live production side by reducing the risk of infection between birds, but could also aid on the processing side by decreasing the amount of Salmonella entering the facility and improving food safety. Furthermore, numerical, but not statistically significant, improvements in feed conversion rate and BW gain at d 42 were observed in the B. subtilis-treated group compared with control birds. PMID:21753205

  14. Detecção de Salmonella Anatum em ema (Rhea americana) Detection of Salmonella Anatum in the Greater Rhea (Rhea americana)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosecler Alves Pereira; Cláudio Wageck Canal; Verônica Schmidt

    2008-01-01

    Para pesquisa de Salmonella spp. foram coletadas amostras de fígado e conteúdo cecal de 70 emas (Rhea americana) abatidas no Rio Grande do Sul - Brasil. Uma colônia morfológica e bioquimicamente compatível com Salmonella spp., isolada de uma amostra de fígado, foi sorotipada como Salmonella Anatum. Considerando-se o alto potencial zoonótico deste microrganismo, destaca-se a relevância do controle microbiológico efetivo em frigoríficos que abatem espécies silvestres, assim como no produto fina...

  15. Isolation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis from Houseflies (Musca domestica) Found in Rooms Containing Salmonella Serovar Enteritidis-Challenged Hens?

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Peter S.; Geden, Christopher J.; Moore, Randle W.; Gast, Richard K.

    2007-01-01

    Houseflies (Musca domestica) released into rooms containing hens challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella serovar Enteritidis) rapidly became contaminated with Salmonella serovar Enteritidis. Forty to 50% of the flies were contaminated at 48 h, and the percentage increased to 50 to 70% at 4 and 7 days postexposure and then decreased to 30% at day 15. Initial attempts at recovering surface organisms for culture using an aqueous rinse were largely unsuccessful, while ...

  16. Vidas UP-enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay based on recombinant phage protein and fluorescence in situ hybridization as alternative methods for detection of Salmonella enterica serovars in meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadernowska, Anna; Chaj?cka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta; K??bukowska, Lucyna

    2014-09-01

    Several methods for the rapid and specific detection of Salmonella spp. in meat have been described. This study was conducted to evaluate the capability of the VIDAS(®) UP (SPT [Salmonella Phage Technology]), an enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay method, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to complement the International Organization for Standardization Method 6579 (ISO) in detecting Salmonella spp. from beef, pork, and poultry meat samples. The meat was inoculated with a mixture of Salmonella spp. on three levels of contamination. It was also checked that the tests did not produce cross-reactions with other Enterobacteriaceae rods. On the basis of the results, the relative specificity, relative accordance, and relative sensitivity of the method were determined. In meat samples, Vidas UP and FISH detection results were in substantial agreement with ISO, with relative specificity, accordance, and sensitivity rates of 90%, 96.3%, and 100%, respectively, for Vidas UP and 100%, 100%, and 99.4%, respectively, for FISH. This is the first report on the evaluation of both Vidas UP and FISH compared to ISO for the rapid detection of Salmonella enterica serovars in meat. PMID:24971928

  17. Enhanced immune response by amphotericin B following NS1 protein prime-oral recombinant Salmonella vaccine boost vaccination protects mice from dengue virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Tssann; Lin, Wei-Ting; Tsai, Chung-Chin; Chuang, Chuan-Chang; Liao, Chin-Len; Lin, Huang-Chi; Hung, Yao-Wen; Huang, Shih-Shiung; Liang, Chung-Chih; Hsu, Hui-Ling; Wang, Hsian-Jenn; Liu, Yu-Tien

    2006-07-26

    A recombinant vaccine strain SL3261/pLT105 of attenuated aroA Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL3261 strain expressing a secreted dengue virus type 2 non-structural NS1 and Yersinia pestis F1 (Caf1) fusion protein, rNS1:Caf1, was generated. Immunological evaluation was performed by prime-boost vaccine regimen. Oral immunization of mice with 1 x 10(9)cfu of SL3261/pLT105 only induced low levels of NS1-specific antibody response and protective immunity following dengue virus challenge. The parenteral NS1 protein priming-oral Salmonella boosting protocol enhanced both NS1-specific serum IgG response and protective efficacy as compared to mice immunized with each type vaccine alone. Addition of an antifungal antibiotic amphotericin B (AmB) to Salmonella vaccine further enhanced the synergic effects of prime-boost vaccine regimen on the elicited NS1-specific serum IgG response and the protective efficacy. Together, the results demonstrated that the rNS1:Caf1 producing Salmonella SL3261/pLT105 strain fails to provide effective protection as an oral vaccine alone despite co-administration of AmB as an adjuvant capable of enhancing the immune responses, and moreover, the protein priming-oral Salmonella vaccine boosting approach in combination with AmB as an immunization regimen may have the potential to be further explored as an alternative approach for dengue vaccine development. PMID:16759760

  18. Helicobacter and salmonella persistent infection strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monack, Denise M

    2013-12-01

    Some host-adapted bacterial pathogens are capable of causing persistent infections in humans. For example, Helicobacter pylori inhabits the human gastric mucosa and persistence can be lifelong. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi causes systemic infections that involve colonization of the reticuloendothelial system and some individuals become lifelong carriers. In this review, I compare and contrast the different lifestyles of Helicobacter and Salmonella within the host and the strategies they have evolved to persist in mammalian hosts. Persistently infected carriers serve as the reservoirs for these pathogens, and the carrier state is an essential feature that is required for survival of the bacteria within a restricted host population. Therefore, investigating the chronic carrier state should provide insight into bacterial survival strategies, as well as new therapeutic approaches for treatments. PMID:24296347

  19. Faecal Salmonella shedding in fattening pigs in relation to the presence of Salmonella antibodies in three pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marianne Kjær; SØrensen, Jan Tind

    2012-01-01

    Human salmonellosis originating from pork is an important zoonotic disease, and the production of outdoor pigs may increase the risk of contaminating the food chain with Salmonella from environmental sources. The prevalence of faecal Salmonella shedding has therefore been compared in organic, conventional outdoor and indoor finishing pig herds in a Danish survey with participation of 34 herds. Individual faecal samples were collected from 30 to 50 pigs per herd before and after transport to slaughter and analysed for the presence of Salmonella. Further meat juice samples were collected from the pigs at slaughter and analysed for the presence of Salmonella antibodies. The results showed a low level of on-farm Salmonella shedding (overall prevalence 0.8%), while 2.3% of the pigs were shedding Salmonella at slaughter, with no significant differences between systems. The overall seroprevalence was 5.4% with no significant differences between systems. Pigs with Salmonella shedding on farm were more likely to also be shedding Salmonella at slaughter (P<0.001). The serological test result was a significant predictor of Salmonella shedding at slaughter in indi-vidual pigs from conventional systems, but not in organic pigs (P<0.05). © 2012.

  20. Protection against oral challenge three months after i.v. immunization of BALB/c mice with live Aro Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis vaccines is serotype (species)-dependent and only partially determined by the main LPS O antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormaeche, C E; Mastroeni, P; Harrison, J A; Demarco de Hormaeche, R; Svenson, S; Stocker, B A

    1996-03-01

    The role of the main LPS O antigen in the specificity of protection as mediated by systemic mechanisms following immunization with live attenuated Aro Salmonella vaccines was studied in mice. Innately Salmonella-susceptible (Itys) BALB/c mice were immunized intravenously with a single dose of either Salmonella typhimurium SL3261 aroA (LPS O4,5,12) or Salmonella enteritidis Se795aroA (LPS O1,9,12), and challenged orally 2-3 months later with either S. typhimurium C5 or S. enteritidis Thirsk. Nearly isogenic transductants of the two challenge strains expressing either their own LPS or that of the other serotype (S. typhimurium C5 O4 or O9, and S. enteritidis Thirsk O9 or O4) were also used. Both vaccines conferred similar high protection against the virulent strain of the homologous serotype expressing its own LPS. There was no protection against the heterologous serotype expressing its own LPS. However, when vaccinated mice were challenged with either the same serotype as the vaccine but expressing the heterologous LPS, or with the heterologous serotype expressing the LPS of the vaccine, protection was always lower than protection against the fully homologous serotype. Anti-smooth LPS antibodies showed higher titres against the homologous LPS, but with significant crossreactivity with the heterologous LPS. Antibodies to O-rough S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis LPS were present following immunization with either of the two vaccine strains. The LPS alone cannot fully account for the specificity of protection in this model; other (protein) antigens may be responsible. It remains to be seen whether there is a T-cell mediated component to the specificity of protection conferred by live Salmonella vaccines. PMID:8744548

  1. Direct attachment of nanoparticle cargo to salmonella typhimurium membranes designed for combination bacteriotherapy against tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmierczak, Robert; Choe, Elizabeth; Sinclair, Jared; Eisenstark, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle technology is an emerging approach to resolve difficult-to-manage internal diseases. It is highly regarded, in particular, for medical use in treatment of cancer due to the innate ability of certain nanoparticles to accumulate in the porous environment of tumors and to be toxic to cancer cells. However, the therapeutic success of nanoparticles is limited by the technical difficulty of fully penetrating and thus attacking the tumor. Additionally, while nanoparticles possess seeming-specificity due to the unique physiological properties of tumors themselves, it is difficult to tailor the delivery of nanoparticles or drugs in other models, such as use in cardiac disease, to the specific target. Thus, a need for delivery systems that will accurately and precisely bring nanoparticles carrying drug payloads to their intended sites currently exists. Our solution to this engineering challenge is to load such nanoparticles onto a biological "mailman" (a novel, nontoxic, therapeutic strain of Salmonella typhimurium engineered to preferentially and precisely seek out, penetrate, and hinder prostate cancer cells as the biological delivery system) that will deliver the therapeutics to a target site. In this chapter, we describe two methods that establish proof-of-concept for our cargo loading and delivery system by attaching nanoparticles to the Salmonella membrane. The first method (Subheading 1.1) describes association of sucrose-conjugated gold nanoparticles to the surface of Salmonella bacteria. The second method (Subheading 1.2) biotinylates the native Salmonella membrane to attach streptavidin-conjugated fluorophores as example nanoparticle cargo, with an alternative method (expression of membrane bound biotin target sites using autodisplay plasmid vectors) that increases the concentration of biotin on the membrane surface for streptavidin-conjugated nanoparticle attachment. By directly attaching the fluorophores to our bacterial vector through biocompatible, covalent, and stable bonds, the coupling of bacterial and nanoparticle therapeutic approaches should synergistically lead to improved tumor destruction. PMID:25253255

  2. Salmonella Enteritidis em Aves: Retrospectiva no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    EN Silva; Duarte A

    2002-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) emergiu como um grande problema avícola e de saúde pública no Brasil a partir de 1993. Os estudos epidemiológicos, incluindo a fagotipagem e sonda complementar de rRNA, sugerem a entrada de SE no Brasil via importação de material genético avícola contaminado, provavelmente no final da década de 80. As taxas de crescimento da avicultura brasileira na década de 90 criaram condições favoráveis para a manutenção e proliferação da SE nos plantéis avíc...

  3. Salmonella typhimurium mutants lacking NAD pyrophosphatase.

    OpenAIRE

    Park, U E; Roth, J. R.; Olivera, B. M.

    1988-01-01

    NAD can serve as both a purine and a pyridine source for Salmonella typhimurium. Exogenous NAD is rapidly broken down into nicotinamide mononucleotide and AMP by an NAD pyrophosphatase, the first step in the pathway for the assimilation of exogenous NAD. We isolated and characterized mutants of S. typhimurium lacking NAD pyrophosphatase activity; such mutants were identified by their failure to use exogenous NAD as a purine source. These mutants carry mutations that map at a new locus, design...

  4. Comparison of DNA probe, PCR amplification, ELISA and culture methods for the rapid detection of Salmonella in poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The detection of foodborne microorganisms has traditionally been done using microbiologically based methods. Such methods are generally reliable but have the disadvantage of being labor intensive, subjective, and time consuming. This study was conducted to compare molecular techniques and immunoassay to the culture methods for detection of Salmonella in food. The identification of Salmonella sp. from poultry meat was studied by comparing bacterial detection using the Gene-Trak colorimetric hybridization method, PCR amplification kit and ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay), compared to the conventional methodology proposed by US FDA for detection of Salmonella in food samples. A total of forty samples which included positive and negative controls, were studied. The detection limits of the PCR assay were 10''2 and 10''1 CFU/ml after enrichment at 37 deg. C for 6 and 9 hr, respectively. When the assay was validated, S. enteric in artificially inoculated meat, 101 CFU/g was detected. The hybridization assay was able to detect as little as 100 pg of purified chromosomal DNA of S. typhimurium and 10 CFU g-l of artificially contaminated food sample. The sensitivity and specificity value of ELISA compared to the DNA amplification were 91.3% and 100%, respectively. Good enrichment procedures are very important to achieve a detection limit of approx. 10''5 cell/ml. All the three methods investigated demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for Salmonella ensitivity and specificity for Salmonella in comparison to conventional standard bacteriological methods. Economic reasons may determine whether these alternative methods can be used routinely in food inspection. (author)

  5. T-2 toxin induced Salmonella Typhimurium intoxication results in decreased Salmonella numbers in the cecum contents of pigs, despite marked effects on Salmonella-host cell interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbrugghe Elin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mycotoxin T-2 toxin and Salmonella Typhimurium infections pose a significant threat to human and animal health. Interactions between both agents may result in a different outcome of the infection. Therefore, the aim of the presented study was to investigate the effects of low and relevant concentrations of T-2 toxin on the course of a Salmonella Typhimurium infection in pigs. We showed that the presence of 15 and 83 ?g T-2 toxin per kg feed significantly decreased the amount of Salmonella Typhimurium bacteria present in the cecum contents, and a tendency to a reduced colonization of the jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and colon contents was noticed. In vitro, proteomic analysis of porcine enterocytes revealed that a very low concentration of T-2 toxin (5 ng/mL affects the protein expression of mitochondrial, endoplasmatic reticulum and cytoskeleton associated proteins, proteins involved in protein synthesis and folding, RNA synthesis, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and regulatory processes. Similarly low concentrations (1-100 ng/mL promoted the susceptibility of porcine macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells to Salmonella Typhimurium invasion, in a SPI-1 independent manner. Furthermore, T-2 toxin (1-5 ng/mL promoted the translocation of Salmonella Typhimurium over an intestinal porcine epithelial cell monolayer. Although these findings may seem in favour of Salmonella Typhimurium, microarray analysis showed that T-2 toxin (5 ng/mL causes an intoxication of Salmonella Typhimurium, represented by a reduced motility and a downregulation of metabolic and Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 genes. This study demonstrates marked interactions of T-2 toxin with Salmonella Typhimurium pathogenesis, resulting in bacterial intoxication.

  6. T-2 toxin induced Salmonella Typhimurium intoxication results in decreased Salmonella numbers in the cecum contents of pigs, despite marked effects on Salmonella-host cell interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugghe, Elin; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Dhaenens, Maarten; Shearer, Neil; Goossens, Joline; De Saeger, Sarah; Eeckhout, Mia; D'Herde, Katharina; Thompson, Arthur; Deforce, Dieter; Boyen, Filip; Leyman, Bregje; Van Parys, Alexander; De Backer, Patrick; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Croubels, Siska; Pasmans, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The mycotoxin T-2 toxin and Salmonella Typhimurium infections pose a significant threat to human and animal health. Interactions between both agents may result in a different outcome of the infection. Therefore, the aim of the presented study was to investigate the effects of low and relevant concentrations of T-2 toxin on the course of a Salmonella Typhimurium infection in pigs. We showed that the presence of 15 and 83 ?g T-2 toxin per kg feed significantly decreased the amount of Salmonella Typhimurium bacteria present in the cecum contents, and a tendency to a reduced colonization of the jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and colon contents was noticed. In vitro, proteomic analysis of porcine enterocytes revealed that a very low concentration of T-2 toxin (5 ng/mL) affects the protein expression of mitochondrial, endoplasmatic reticulum and cytoskeleton associated proteins, proteins involved in protein synthesis and folding, RNA synthesis, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and regulatory processes. Similarly low concentrations (1-100 ng/mL) promoted the susceptibility of porcine macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells to Salmonella Typhimurium invasion, in a SPI-1 independent manner. Furthermore, T-2 toxin (1-5 ng/mL) promoted the translocation of Salmonella Typhimurium over an intestinal porcine epithelial cell monolayer. Although these findings may seem in favour of Salmonella Typhimurium, microarray analysis showed that T-2 toxin (5 ng/mL) causes an intoxication of Salmonella Typhimurium, represented by a reduced motility and a downregulation of metabolic and Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 genes. This study demonstrates marked interactions of T-2 toxin with Salmonella Typhimurium pathogenesis, resulting in bacterial intoxication. PMID:22440148

  7. Cambios epidemiológicos de las salmonelosis en Chile: Desde Salmonella typhi a Salmonella enteritidis CHANGES IN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PATTERNS OF SALMONELLOSIS IN CHILE: SINCE Salmonella typhi TO Salmonella enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERTO FICA C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Chile ha experimentado un cambio epidemiológico en la última década con la desaparición progresiva de la fiebre tifoidea causada mayoritariamente por Salmonella typhi y la emergencia epidémica de Salmonella enteritidis, un agente de diarrea sin tratamiento específico eficaz y ligado estrechamente a productos avícolas contaminados e inadecuadamente preparados. La fiebre tifoidea ha disminuido su importancia debido al desarrollo humano experimentado en Chile que ha significado un alto grado de cobertura de agua potable y de manejo de excretas, en conjunto con un mayor nivel de educación, factores que limitan la contaminación del ambiente por este agente y la adquisición de él por huéspedes susceptibles. A pesar de este notable avance, un nuevo serotipo de salmonela ha irrumpido en Chile, denominado enteritidis, que ha logrado aprovechar el nuevo escenario logrado con la industrialización avícola donde miles de aves ahora conviven en pequeños espacios facilitando la infección cruzada entre ellas. La contaminación intermitente de huevos por vía transovárica o superficial permite la llegada de este agente en forma errática pero persistente al ser humano. Este nuevo escenario y la ausencia de un tratamiento antimicrobiano eficaz para este agente, obligan a que nuestro país adopte nuevas estrategias de prevención que involucran a productores, distribuidores y consumidores de productos avícolasChile has experienced a dramatic epidemiologic change in the last decade with a progressive decline in typhoid fever, -a disease mainly associated to Salmonella typhi- and the parallel emergence of Salmonella enteritidis. This pathogen causes diarrhea by the ingestion of contaminated avian products, and differs from S. typhi because it does not have an effective antibiotic treatment. Typhoid fever rates have declined due to global human development in Chile that has reached a high coverage in tap water provision, higher educational rates, and feces and solid waste disposal. These factors limit the spread of S. typhi in the environment or the adquisition of this pathogen by susceptible hosts. Despite this remarkable achievement, another Salmonella serotype has irrupted and has taken advantage of the new scenario where thousand of lay hens share closed spaces facilitating the horizontal transfer of S. enteritidis. Intermitent inoculation of eggs either by a transovaric route or by simple superficial contamination allow that this agent reaches human hosts in an sporadic but persistent way. The new epidemiological condition requires adoption of different preventive strategies that should involve health authorities, producers, retail-market distributors and consumers of the avian food industry

  8. Cambios epidemiológicos de las salmonelosis en Chile: Desde Salmonella typhi a Salmonella enteritidis / CHANGES IN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PATTERNS OF SALMONELLOSIS IN CHILE: SINCE Salmonella typhi TO Salmonella enteritidis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ALBERTO, FICA C.; MARCELA, ALEXANDRE S.; SOLEDAD, PRAT M.; ALDA, FERNÁNDEZ R.; JORGE, FERNÁNDEZ O.; INGRID, HEITMANN G..

    Full Text Available Chile ha experimentado un cambio epidemiológico en la última década con la desaparición progresiva de la fiebre tifoidea causada mayoritariamente por Salmonella typhi y la emergencia epidémica de Salmonella enteritidis, un agente de diarrea sin tratamiento específico eficaz y ligado estrechamente a [...] productos avícolas contaminados e inadecuadamente preparados. La fiebre tifoidea ha disminuido su importancia debido al desarrollo humano experimentado en Chile que ha significado un alto grado de cobertura de agua potable y de manejo de excretas, en conjunto con un mayor nivel de educación, factores que limitan la contaminación del ambiente por este agente y la adquisición de él por huéspedes susceptibles. A pesar de este notable avance, un nuevo serotipo de salmonela ha irrumpido en Chile, denominado enteritidis, que ha logrado aprovechar el nuevo escenario logrado con la industrialización avícola donde miles de aves ahora conviven en pequeños espacios facilitando la infección cruzada entre ellas. La contaminación intermitente de huevos por vía transovárica o superficial permite la llegada de este agente en forma errática pero persistente al ser humano. Este nuevo escenario y la ausencia de un tratamiento antimicrobiano eficaz para este agente, obligan a que nuestro país adopte nuevas estrategias de prevención que involucran a productores, distribuidores y consumidores de productos avícolas Abstract in english Chile has experienced a dramatic epidemiologic change in the last decade with a progressive decline in typhoid fever, -a disease mainly associated to Salmonella typhi- and the parallel emergence of Salmonella enteritidis. This pathogen causes diarrhea by the ingestion of contaminated avian products, [...] and differs from S. typhi because it does not have an effective antibiotic treatment. Typhoid fever rates have declined due to global human development in Chile that has reached a high coverage in tap water provision, higher educational rates, and feces and solid waste disposal. These factors limit the spread of S. typhi in the environment or the adquisition of this pathogen by susceptible hosts. Despite this remarkable achievement, another Salmonella serotype has irrupted and has taken advantage of the new scenario where thousand of lay hens share closed spaces facilitating the horizontal transfer of S. enteritidis. Intermitent inoculation of eggs either by a transovaric route or by simple superficial contamination allow that this agent reaches human hosts in an sporadic but persistent way. The new epidemiological condition requires adoption of different preventive strategies that should involve health authorities, producers, retail-market distributors and consumers of the avian food industry

  9. Relationship of Salmonella infection and inflammatory intestinal response with hematological and serum biochemical values in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Mario Alberto; Bonnet, María Agustina; Bueno, Dante Javier

    2015-06-15

    There are few studies about the blood serum of laying hens infected with Salmonella. The differential leukocyte count and blood chemistry values are an important aid in the diagnosis of human diseases, but blood parameters in the avian species are not well known. On the other hand, invasive forms of bacterial gastroenteritis, like Salmonella, often cause intestinal inflammation so this study was undertaken to find a biomarker of Salmonella infection and inflammatory intestinal response in the hematological or serum biochemical parameters in laying hens. Furthermore, we evaluated the association of some farm characteristics with Salmonella infection and fecal leukocytes (FL). A fecal sample with at least one fecal leukocyte per field was considered positive for inflammatory intestinal response. False positive serum reactions for Salmonella infection, by serum plate agglutination (SPA) test, were reduced by heating the sample to 56°C for 30min and then diluting it 5-fold. The range of hematological and biochemical parameter values was very wide, in addition, there was a poor agreement between the SPA and FL results. Comparison of the positive and negative samples in SPA and FL showed that 1.3% and 79.8% of the laying hens were positive and negative in both tests, respectively. Hens with a positive SPA result showed a higher percentage of monocytes than those with a negative SPA result. Hens with a positive FL test had a higher percentage of heterophils, ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes and aspartate aminotransferase values, while the percentage of lymphocytes was significantly lower (P<0.05) than those with a negative FL test. The risk of Salmonella infection increased when the age of laying hens and the number of hens per poultry house was greater than or equal to 18 months old and 10,000 laying hens, compared to less than 18 months old and 10,000 laying hens, respectively. On the other hand, the risk of inflammatory intestinal response was higher in laying hens ?18 months old than in hens <18 months old. Despite the fact that we did not find any specific biomarker of Salmonella infection, this is the first report about the change of Salmonella infection and inflammatory response in hematological/serum biochemical values for laying hens. PMID:25912484

  10. Salmonella Enteritidis em Aves: Retrospectiva no Brasil Salmonella Enteritidis in Poultry: Retrospective in Brazil

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    EN Silva

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Enteritidis (SE emergiu como um grande problema avícola e de saúde pública no Brasil a partir de 1993. Os estudos epidemiológicos, incluindo a fagotipagem e sonda complementar de rRNA, sugerem a entrada de SE no Brasil via importação de material genético avícola contaminado, provavelmente no final da década de 80. As taxas de crescimento da avicultura brasileira na década de 90 criaram condições favoráveis para a manutenção e proliferação da SE nos plantéis avícolas. Além disso, o uso indiscriminado de antibióticos em aves, particularmente as quinolonas, encorajou a manutenção de lotes positivos para SE. As cepas de SE isoladas de aves têm mostrado alta sensibilidade aos antibióticos de uso comum em avicultura, incluindo as quinolonas. Entretanto, o aumento da resistência antimicrobiana e multirresistência tem sido observado em cepas de origem humana. Os últimos levantamentos realizados no ano de 2001 continuam a mostrar que a SE em materiais avícolas é o principal sorovar responsável pelas infecções humanas. Embora as carcaças de frangos apresentem altas taxas de contaminação por SE, são os ovos e seus derivados - principalmente a maionese caseira - os principais responsáveis pelos surtos humanos. O uso de vacinas específicas em poedeiras e reprodutoras tem se mostrado uma ferramenta auxiliar no controle de SE. O procedimento mais indicado para o controle de SE na avicultura está na aquisição e produção de lotes livres do agente. As rações e matérias primas de origem animal parecem não ser tão importantes na perpetuação do problema de SE, porém, os roedores parecem ser reservatórios ambientais importantes de SE em granjas contaminadas.In Brazil, Salmonella enteritidis (SE emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health as from 1993. Epidemiological studies, including fagotyping and complementary rRNA probe, suggest that SE entered Brazil via the importation of contaminated poultry genetic material, probably at the end of the eighties. The rate of growth of the Brazilian poultry industry in the nineties created favorable conditions for the maintenance and proliferation of SE in poultry production. Also, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in chickens, especially quinolones, encouraged the maintenance of SE positive flocks. SE strains isolated from chickens have shown great sensitivity to the antibiotics commonly used in poultry, including the quinolones. However, an increase in antimicrobial resistance and multiresistance has been observed in strains of human origin. The latest surveys carried out in 2001 continue showing the presence of SE in poultry materials as the main serovar responsible for human food infections. Although chicken carcasses show high levels of contamination by SE, it is eggs and egg products - mainly home made mayonnaise - which are the products mostly responsible for outbreaks in humans. The use of specific vaccines in layers and parent stock has been used as an auxiliary tool in the control of SE. However, the most indicated procedure for the control of SE in poultry is the acquisition and production of SE free flocks. Animal feed and raw materials of animal origin are apparently of lesser importance in the perpetuation of the SE problem, although rodents appear to be important environmental reservoirs of SE in contaminated farms.

  11. Salmonella Enteritidis em Aves: Retrospectiva no Brasil / Salmonella Enteritidis in Poultry: Retrospective in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    EN, Silva; A, Duarte.

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) emergiu como um grande problema avícola e de saúde pública no Brasil a partir de 1993. Os estudos epidemiológicos, incluindo a fagotipagem e sonda complementar de rRNA, sugerem a entrada de SE no Brasil via importação de material genético avícola contaminado, provavelment [...] e no final da década de 80. As taxas de crescimento da avicultura brasileira na década de 90 criaram condições favoráveis para a manutenção e proliferação da SE nos plantéis avícolas. Além disso, o uso indiscriminado de antibióticos em aves, particularmente as quinolonas, encorajou a manutenção de lotes positivos para SE. As cepas de SE isoladas de aves têm mostrado alta sensibilidade aos antibióticos de uso comum em avicultura, incluindo as quinolonas. Entretanto, o aumento da resistência antimicrobiana e multirresistência tem sido observado em cepas de origem humana. Os últimos levantamentos realizados no ano de 2001 continuam a mostrar que a SE em materiais avícolas é o principal sorovar responsável pelas infecções humanas. Embora as carcaças de frangos apresentem altas taxas de contaminação por SE, são os ovos e seus derivados - principalmente a maionese caseira - os principais responsáveis pelos surtos humanos. O uso de vacinas específicas em poedeiras e reprodutoras tem se mostrado uma ferramenta auxiliar no controle de SE. O procedimento mais indicado para o controle de SE na avicultura está na aquisição e produção de lotes livres do agente. As rações e matérias primas de origem animal parecem não ser tão importantes na perpetuação do problema de SE, porém, os roedores parecem ser reservatórios ambientais importantes de SE em granjas contaminadas. Abstract in english In Brazil, Salmonella enteritidis (SE) emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health as from 1993. Epidemiological studies, including fagotyping and complementary rRNA probe, suggest that SE entered Brazil via the importation of contaminated poultry genetic material, probably at the end [...] of the eighties. The rate of growth of the Brazilian poultry industry in the nineties created favorable conditions for the maintenance and proliferation of SE in poultry production. Also, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in chickens, especially quinolones, encouraged the maintenance of SE positive flocks. SE strains isolated from chickens have shown great sensitivity to the antibiotics commonly used in poultry, including the quinolones. However, an increase in antimicrobial resistance and multiresistance has been observed in strains of human origin. The latest surveys carried out in 2001 continue showing the presence of SE in poultry materials as the main serovar responsible for human food infections. Although chicken carcasses show high levels of contamination by SE, it is eggs and egg products - mainly home made mayonnaise - which are the products mostly responsible for outbreaks in humans. The use of specific vaccines in layers and parent stock has been used as an auxiliary tool in the control of SE. However, the most indicated procedure for the control of SE in poultry is the acquisition and production of SE free flocks. Animal feed and raw materials of animal origin are apparently of lesser importance in the perpetuation of the SE problem, although rodents appear to be important environmental reservoirs of SE in contaminated farms.

  12. TOE ABSCESS WITH SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM IN SICKLE CELL ANEMIA PATIENT

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    A. Rangaiahagari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella are a rare cause of toe abscess. We report a case of Salmonella typhimurium in sickle cell anemia in a pediatric patient. The isolate was sensitive to commonly used antibiotics and the patient was treated successfully with a course of amoxicillin.

  13. Persistence of poultry associated Salmonella spp. on spinach plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Pre-harvest spinach contamination can occur via irrigation water and can influence the persistence of Salmonella on spinach leaves. Salmonella persistence on spinach plants should be evaluated as nearby poultry farms can be a critical source of contaminated water run-off. Purpose: The...

  14. Development of bioluminescent Salmonella strains for use in food safety

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    Bailey R Hartford

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella can reside in healthy animals without the manifestation of any adverse effects on the carrier. If raw products of animal origin are not handled properly during processing or cooked to a proper temperature during preparation, salmonellosis can occur. In this research, we developed bioluminescent Salmonella strains that can be used for real-time monitoring of the pathogen's growth on food products. To accomplish this, twelve Salmonella strains from the broiler production continuum were transformed with the broad host range plasmid pAKlux1, and a chicken skin attachment model was developed. Results Salmonella strains carrying pAKlux1 constitutively expressed the luxCDABE operon and were therefore detectable using bioluminescence. Strains were characterized in terms of bioluminescence properties and plasmid stability. To assess the usefulness of bioluminescent Salmonella strains in food safety studies, we developed an attachment model using chicken skin. The effect of washing on attachment of Salmonella strains to chicken skin was tested using bioluminescent strains, which revealed the attachment properties of each strain. Conclusion This study demonstrated that bioluminescence is a sensitive and effective tool to detect Salmonella on food products in real-time. Bioluminescence imaging is a promising technology that can be utilized to evaluate new food safety measures for reducing Salmonella contamination on food products.

  15. Orange peel products can reduce Salmonella populations in ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella can live undetected in the gut of food animals and be spread to humans directly and indirectly. Diet can impact intestinal populations of foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella spp. Orange juice production results in a waste product, orange peel and orange pulp, which has a high nutr...

  16. Differences in attachment of Salmonella to fresh produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of fresh produce. The produce may be contaminated with Salmonella at any point throughout the food continuum. To develop effective strategies to minimize the risk of foodborne disease caused by this organism, it is essential to examine i...

  17. Salmonella-associated Deaths, Sweden, 1997–2003

    OpenAIRE

    Ternhag, Anders; Törner, Anna; Ekdahl, Karl; Giesecke, Johan

    2006-01-01

    We examined excess deaths after infection with Salmonella in a registry-based matched cohort study of 25,060 persons infected abroad and 5,139 infected within Sweden. The domestically infected have an increased standardized mortality ratio, whereas those who acquired Salmonella infection abroad had no excess risk of death.

  18. Evaluation of gallium maltolate on fecal Salmonella shedding in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness in humans and causes over a third of all cases of gastroenteritis in the United States. Human foodborne outbreaks due to Salmonella have been traced to milk, beef, pork, and poultry. Fecal contamination of the carcass and hide is thought to be a maj...

  19. EFFECT OF EXPERIMENTAL CHLORATE PRODUCT ON SALMONELLA CONTAMINATION OF POULTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. coli and Salmonella are members of the family Enterobacteriacea, a common commensal family of bacteria. Salmonella and E. coli have a nitrate reductase enzyme that allows respiration in anaerobic conditions. Nitrate reductase can also co-metabolize chlorate to chlorite which will kill the bacte...

  20. SURVIVAL OF SALMONELLA IN WASTE EGG WASH WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The survival of salmonellae under various environmental conditions has been subject of numerous research studies. Due to low densities of these organisms in natural samples, laboratory or clinical cultures were used to ensure that the initial density of salmonellae was sufficien...

  1. Survival of Salmonella spp. In Waste Egg Wash Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The survival of salmonellae under various environmental conditions has been subject of numerous research studies. Due to low densities of these organisms in natural samples, laboratory or clinical cultures were used to ensure that the initial density of salmonellae was sufficien...

  2. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Mulvey, Michael R.; Boyd, David A.; Finley, Rita; Fakharuddin, Ken; Langner, Stacie; Allen, Vanessa; Ang, Lei; Bekal, Sadjia; El Bailey, Sameh; Haldane, David; Hoang, Linda; Horsman, Greg; Louis, Marie; Robberts, Lourens; Wylie, John

    2013-01-01

    We report emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky in Canada during 2003–2009. All isolates had similar macrorestriction patterns and were multilocus sequence type ST198, which has been observed in Europe and Africa. Ciprofloxacin-resistant S. enterica serovar Kentucky represents 66% of all ciprofloxacin-resistant nontyphoidal Salmonella sp. isolates observed in Canada since 2003.

  3. Salmonella thyroiditis: A case report and review of the literature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Maraj; A, Kiss; T E, Luvhengo.

    Full Text Available Thyroid abscesses are rare, and Staphylococcus aureus is the main causative organism. Abscesses caused by other organisms are even rarer. This report describes a case of Salmonella thyroiditis in an HIV-positive patient. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was performed and Salmonella sp. were cultured. [...] The patient was successfully treated with antibiotics and incision and drainage.

  4. Inactivation of Salmonella spp. on tomatoes by plant molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of carvacrol (CAR), trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), eugenol (EUG) and ß-resorcylic acid (BR) as a wash treatment for reducing Salmonella spp. on tomatoes was investigated. Plum tomatoes inoculated with a six-serotype mixture of Salmonella (108 CFU) were subjected to washing in sterile deion...

  5. Serotyping of Salmonella Isolates from Broiler Vertical Integrations in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study analyzed 106 Salmonella isolates from different points in broiler vertical integrations of two important poultry areas of Colombia. It was possible to identify the presence of Salmonella in five categories: breeder farm (17.9%), hatchery (6.6 %), broiler farm (38.7 %), processing plant (9...

  6. Application of Microarray Technology to Investigate Salmonella and Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microarrays have been developed for the study of various aspects of Salmonella, which is a model system for investigating pathogenesis. Microarrays were used to analyze the gene expression of Salmonella in various environments that mimic the host environment and these studies have helped to elucidat...

  7. ENHANCED PHAGE PLAQUE ASSAYS IN H2S+ SALMONELLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) and sodium thiosulfate (ST) have traditionally been used in selective media to aid identification of Salmonella. The chemistry supporting this application is well known. Sulfate-reducing strains of Salmonella convert thiosulfate to sulfite and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) g...

  8. Analysis of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid profiles in Salmonella serovars associated with tropical seafood of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Surendran, P K; Thampuran, Nirmala

    2009-06-01

    A total of 256 Salmonella strains consisting of 29 Salmonella serovars isolated from seafood of Cochin (India) were analyzed for resistance to antimicrobials commonly used in human and veterinary medicines as therapeutic agents. The 10 most predominant Salmonella serovars in seafood were also characterized for presence of plasmids using the alkaline lysis method. Antimicrobial susceptibility studies highlighted a comparatively high resistance in Salmonella isolates to sulfamethizol and carbenicillin, and moderate resistance to nalidixic acid and oxytetracycline. Nevertheless, antimicrobial resistance was not observed against ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and kanamycin in different Salmonella serovars. Fifty percent of the Salmonella isolates, comprising 16 Salmonella serovars, were resistant to sulfamethizol followed by 39% resistant to carbenicillin and 14% resistant to oxytetracycline. Multidrug resistance was detected in 39.4%, 14.4%, 12.1%, and 1.5% of Salmonella isolates towards two drugs (sulfamethizol and carbenicillin), three drugs (sulfamethizol, carbenicillin, and oxytetracycline), four drugs (sulfamethizol, carbenicillin, oxytetracycline, and nalidixic acid), and five drugs (sulfamethizol, carbenicillin, oxytetracycline, nalidixic acid, and streptomycin), respectively. Plasmid profiling highlighted the presence of nine plasmid profiles in Salmonella serovars and plasmids that were not detected in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Weltevreden, Salmonella Rissen, Salmonella Bareilly, Salmonella Irumu, Salmonella Ohio, Salmonella Oslo, and Salmonella Typhi isolated from seafood. PMID:19422307

  9. Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of ready-to-eat street-vended pork meat dishes in Antananarivo, Madagascar: a risk for the consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Eric; Abat, Cédric; Bénédicte, Contamin; Vincent, Porphyre; Michel, Rakotoharinome; Muriel, Maeder

    2015-03-01

    Street-food vending has been increasing in many developing countries and particularly in Madagascar since 2000. Gastroenteric diseases cause 37% of all deaths each year, and 50% of children <5 years are infected with intestinal pathogens. However, there has been little information regarding the incidence of street-food-related diseases, or foodborne pathogens in pork, which is the most commonly eaten meat, along with chicken. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the safety of traditional ready-to-eat street-vended pork dishes and to assess the association of restaurant characteristics and cooking practices with Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of these meals. Sixty street-restaurants were studied from March 2012 to August 2012 in Antananarivo. A questionnaire was submitted to the managers, and samples of ready-to-eat pork dishes were bought. Salmonella spp. were isolated in 10% of the 60 street-restaurants studied and in 5% samples of pork dishes. The most prevalent serovars isolated were Salmonella Typhimurium (44%) and Senftenberg (33%). Campylobacter was not detected. Only 4 of the 43 variables tested in the screening analysis were significantly associated with Salmonella spp. contamination of the street-restaurants. The risk for a restaurant to be Salmonella positive decreased when there were specific premises for the restaurant and when the staff was wearing specific clothes when working. Conversely, that risk increased when the temperature of ready-to-eat pork was <52 °C and when tablecloths were used in the restaurant. PMID:25764444

  10. Salmonella spp. in raw broiler parts: occurrence, antimicrobial resistance profile and phage typing of the Salmonella Enteritidis isolates Salmonella spp. em cortes de frango: ocorrência, resistência antimicrobiana e fagotipificação dos isolados de Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldemir Reginato Ribeiro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonellae in raw broiler parts and to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolated strains. Twenty-four (39.3% broiler parts samples were positive for Salmonella and twenty-five Salmonella strains were isolated, since two different serovars were detected in one single positive sample. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most prevalent serovar. Among Salmonella Enteritidis isolates, 95.2% belonged to Phage Type 4 (PT4 (20/21 and 4.8% to PT7 (1/21. Twenty-two (88% strains of Salmonella were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent, generating eight different resistance patterns. The S. Typhimurium (n: 1 and S. Hadar (n: 3 isolates presented multiple resistance. Three S. Enteritidis isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, two were resistant only to tetracycline. The high prevalence of Salmonella in the broiler parts strenghtens the importance of the use of good manufacturing practices (GMP, and HACCP. The results also emphasize the need for the responsible use of antimicrobials in animal production.Este trabalho foi conduzido para avaliar a ocorrência de Salmonella em cortes de frango e para determinar o perfil de resistência antimicrobiana das cepas isoladas. Vinte e quatro (39,3% cortes de frango foram positivas para Salmonella, tendo sido isoladas vinte e cinco cepas de Salmonella, uma vez que em uma amostra isolaram-se dois sorovares. Salmonella Enteritidis foi o sorovar prevalente. Entre as Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas, 95,2% pertencem ao Fagotipo 4 (PT4 (20/21 e 4,8% ao PT7 (1/21. Vinte e duas (88% cepas de Salmonella foram resistentes a pelo menos um agente antimicrobiano e oito diferentes padrões de resistência foram observados. S. Typhimurium (n:1 e S. Hadar (n: 3, apresentaram múltipla resistência. Três cepas de S. Enteritidis foram sensíveis a todos os antimicrobianos e duas resistentes somente a tetraciclina. A elevada ocorrência de Salmonella nos cortes de frango utilizados no presente estudo reforça a importância das normas de boas práticas de fabricação, bem como dos controles de perigos e pontos críticos de controle. No tocante aos níveis de resistência a antimicrobianos, os resultados enfatizam a necessidade do uso responsável dos mesmos na produção animal.

  11. Salmonella spp. in raw broiler parts: occurrence, antimicrobial resistance profile and phage typing of the Salmonella Enteritidis isolates / Salmonella spp. em cortes de frango: ocorrência, resistência antimicrobiana e fagotipificação dos isolados de Salmonella Enteritidis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aldemir Reginato, Ribeiro; Aline, Kellermann; Luciana Ruschel dos, Santos; Marjo Cadó, Bessa; Vladimir Pinheiro do, Nascimento.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido para avaliar a ocorrência de Salmonella em cortes de frango e para determinar o perfil de resistência antimicrobiana das cepas isoladas. Vinte e quatro (39,3%) cortes de frango foram positivas para Salmonella, tendo sido isoladas vinte e cinco cepas de Salmonella, uma vez [...] que em uma amostra isolaram-se dois sorovares. Salmonella Enteritidis foi o sorovar prevalente. Entre as Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas, 95,2% pertencem ao Fagotipo 4 (PT4) (20/21) e 4,8% ao PT7 (1/21). Vinte e duas (88%) cepas de Salmonella foram resistentes a pelo menos um agente antimicrobiano e oito diferentes padrões de resistência foram observados. S. Typhimurium (n:1) e S. Hadar (n: 3), apresentaram múltipla resistência. Três cepas de S. Enteritidis foram sensíveis a todos os antimicrobianos e duas resistentes somente a tetraciclina. A elevada ocorrência de Salmonella nos cortes de frango utilizados no presente estudo reforça a importância das normas de boas práticas de fabricação, bem como dos controles de perigos e pontos críticos de controle. No tocante aos níveis de resistência a antimicrobianos, os resultados enfatizam a necessidade do uso responsável dos mesmos na produção animal. Abstract in english The present study was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonellae in raw broiler parts and to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolated strains. Twenty-four (39.3%) broiler parts samples were positive for Salmonella and twenty-five Salmonella strains were isolated, sin [...] ce two different serovars were detected in one single positive sample. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most prevalent serovar. Among Salmonella Enteritidis isolates, 95.2% belonged to Phage Type 4 (PT4) (20/21) and 4.8% to PT7 (1/21). Twenty-two (88%) strains of Salmonella were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent, generating eight different resistance patterns. The S. Typhimurium (n: 1) and S. Hadar (n: 3) isolates presented multiple resistance. Three S. Enteritidis isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, two were resistant only to tetracycline. The high prevalence of Salmonella in the broiler parts strenghtens the importance of the use of good manufacturing practices (GMP), and HACCP. The results also emphasize the need for the responsible use of antimicrobials in animal production.

  12. Effects of propolis from Brazil and Bulgaria on Salmonella serovars

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R. O., Orsi; J. M., Sforcin; S. R. C., Funari; A., Fernandes-JR.; P., Rodrigues; V., Bankova.

    Full Text Available Propolis shows biological properties such as antibacterial action. This bee product has a complex chemical composition, which depends on the local flora where it is produced. Salmonella serovars are responsible for human diseases that range from localized gastroenteritis to systemic infections. The [...] aim of the present study was to investigate the susceptibility of Salmonella strains, isolated from food and infectious processes, to the antibacterial action of Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis, as well as to determine the behavior of these bacteria, according to the incubation period, in medium plus propolis. Dilution of ethanolic extract of propolis in agar was the used method. Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis showed an antibacterial action against all Salmonella serovars. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of propolis were similar, although they were collected in different geographic regions. Salmonella typhimurium, isolated from human infection, was more resistant to propolis than Salmonella enteritidis.

  13. Effects of propolis from Brazil and Bulgaria on Salmonella serovars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. O. Orsi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis shows biological properties such as antibacterial action. This bee product has a complex chemical composition, which depends on the local flora where it is produced. Salmonella serovars are responsible for human diseases that range from localized gastroenteritis to systemic infections. The aim of the present study was to investigate the susceptibility of Salmonella strains, isolated from food and infectious processes, to the antibacterial action of Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis, as well as to determine the behavior of these bacteria, according to the incubation period, in medium plus propolis. Dilution of ethanolic extract of propolis in agar was the used method. Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis showed an antibacterial action against all Salmonella serovars. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of propolis were similar, although they were collected in different geographic regions. Salmonella typhimurium, isolated from human infection, was more resistant to propolis than Salmonella enteritidis.

  14. Salmonellas, Poultry House Environments and Feeds: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The gram-negative bacteria and member of the family Enterobacteraceae is one of the most important causes of human food-borne illnesses in recent times. These pathogens may occur naturally in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry and sometimes in eggs through transovarian transmission. A number of factors have contributed to the spread of Salmonella in poultry. Among these are stocking densities of poultry farms, poultry feeds, farming activities, mice, wild animals, transportation of live birds to slaughter houses, slaughtering of live birds and processing of poultry carcasses into processed finished products. Lesser concerned area is the association between Salmonellas, poultry house environments and feeds and the significant role they may play to integrate other factors in contributing to the spread of Salmonella in poultry. Furthermore, techniques for isolating and identifying Salmonella species in poultry house environments and feeds are crucial for reliable reporting purposes to reduce the spread of Salmonella by poultry thus the objective of this study.

  15. Salmonella serotypes in reptiles and humans, French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Noellie; Le Hello, Simon; Weill, François-Xavier; de Thoisy, Benoit; Berger, Franck

    2014-05-14

    In French Guiana, a French overseas territory located in the South American northern coast, nearly 50% of Salmonella serotypes isolated from human infections belong to serotypes rarely encountered in metropolitan France. A reptilian source of contamination has been investigated. Between April and June 2011, in the area around Cayenne, 151 reptiles were collected: 38 lizards, 37 snakes, 32 turtles, 23 green iguanas and 21 caimans. Cloacal swab samples were collected and cultured. Isolated Salmonella strains were identified biochemically and serotyped. The overall carriage frequency of carriage was 23.2% (95% confidence interval: 16.7-30.4) with 23 serotyped strains. The frequency of Salmonella carriage was significantly higher for wild reptiles. Near two-thirds of the Salmonella serotypes isolated from reptiles were also isolated from patients in French Guiana. Our results highlight the risk associated with the handling and consumption of reptiles and their role in the spread of Salmonella in the environment. PMID:24560590

  16. Salmonella enterica Serotype Arizonae Meningitis in a Neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, Wubishet; Girma, Abayneh; Triche, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Typhoidal and nontyphoidal salmonella infections are common causes of gastroenteritis in the community. However, salmonella only rarely causes invasive infections like meningitis. We report a 13-day-old female neonate with signs and symptoms of meningitis whose cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture showed Salmonella enterica serotype Arizonae that was sensitive to ceftriaxone. She presented with fever and failure to feed for 2 days. Despite prompt treatment with ampicillin, gentamicin, and ceftriaxone, she developed communicating hydrocephalus, frequent seizures, and coma that progressed to death after 2 weeks of hospitalization. Salmonella enterica serotype Arizonae is a rare cause of human infection known to leading to meningitis symptoms similar to those caused by other salmonella species. This is the first report of it as a cause of meningitis in a child under one month of age. Therefore, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of Gram-negative bacillary meningitis in immunocompromised children, neonates, and those with contacts with reptiles. PMID:24187642

  17. Determinación de Salmonella spp. por PCR en tiempo real y método convencional en canales de bovinos y en alimentos de la vía pública de Montería, Córdoba Detection of Salmonella spp. by real time PCR and standard methods in cattle carcasses and public fast food outlets in Montería, Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Yánez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Detectar Salmonella spp. por PCR en tiempo real (PCR-TR y el método convencional en alimentos de la vía pública y canales de bovino de una planta certificada de beneficio animal con sistema HACCP de Montería. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron 311 muestras de alimentos: 256 de la vía pública y 55 de una planta de beneficio animal. Los análisis microbiológicos se realizaron por el método estándar convencional y la PCR-TR con LightCycler® foodproof Salmonella detection kit (Roche Diagnostics. Resultados. Se aisló Salmonella spp. en 16,1% de las muestras. La prueba de ?²mostró significancia estadística entre las técnicas (pObjective: To establish Salmonella spp. by real-time PCR (RT-PCR and standard microbiological method in public fastfood outlets and cattle carcasses from a profit animal plant (PBA-slaughterhouse certified with the HACCP system in the city of Montería. Materials and methods: 311 food samples were analyzed: 256 from public fastfood outlets and 55 from a PBA (slaughterhouse. The microbiological tests were conducted by the standard method, the molecular detection RTPCR was carried out by LightCycler® foodproof Salmonella detection kit (Roche Diagnostics. Results: Salmonella spp. was isolated in 16.1% of the samples. The ?2 test showed statistical significance between techniques (p<0.001, with RT-PCR was obtained by 68% of positive cases and 48% with the conventional method. The fastfood sold in public streets had higher contamination by Salmonella spp. SausageS had Salmonella in 28.1% of the samples by RT-PCR and 12.3% by the conventional method; cheese, 18.4% by RT-PCR, and 5.3% by the conventional method: pork meat, 23.1% by RT-PCR, and 15.4% by the conventional method, and ground meat, 9.3% by RT-PCR, and 15.6% by the conventional method. Cattle carcasses showed a 1.8% of Salmonella spp., a significant difference was observed with respect to spent time for each technique, RT-PCR yielded results within 24 hours as compared to four days for the conventional method. Conclusions: The study showed that RTPCR is a valuable alternative to determine Salmonella spp. in foods for their specificity and promptness, furthermore, the high presence of Salmonella in public fastfood outlets is a public health problem for consumers.

  18. Comparison of Conventional and Rapid Methods for Salmonella Detection in Artisanal Minas Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardênia M. S. C. Mata

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal cheeses traditionally produced from raw milk have a diverse microbiota and, due the varied changes that occur in this type of food matrix during the maturation, pathogens detection’s may be impaired. In this study, the conventional method established by ISO 6579:2005 to evaluate the presence of Salmonella was compared with two alternative rapid methods, PCR-BAX® (DuPont and VIDAS®-SLM (BioMérieux, to analyze artisanal Minas cheese, a typical Brazilian product. Salmonella was not detected by conventional or PCR-BAX® in 63 artisanal Minas cheese samples analyzed. Although highly specific and accurate, the immunoassay (VIDAS®-SLM presented 3.17% of false positives. Good manufactures practices were absent in some producers of Minas artisanal cheese and, the fact of Salmonella was not detected in analyzed samples should be related with presence of high and diverse endogenous microbiota, including approximately, 107 CFU.g-1 of lactic bacteria, and a low pH and water activity, conditions that can minimize pathogens growth, provide cellular injury and hamper the recovery strategies.

  19. Shift in chicken intestinal gene association networks after infection with Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schokker, Dirkjan; de Koning, Dirk-Jan; Rebel, Johanna M J; Smits, Mari A

    2011-12-01

    A primary infection of Salmonella enteritidis causes a spatial-temporal dependent change in the gene expression patterns in the intestine of chickens (Gallus gallus). This is the result of a dynamic intestinal response to adapt to the altered environment and to optimize its 'health' and functionality under the new circumstances. By inferring gene association networks (GANs), the complexities of and changes in biological networks can be uncovered. Within such GANs highly interacting (hub) genes can be identified, which are supposed to be high-level regulators connected to multiple processes. By exploring the intestinal expression of genes differing between control and Salmonella infected chicken in a time-dependent manner differences in GANs were found. In control chickens more developmental processes were observed, whereas in infected chickens relatively more processes were associated to 'defense/pathogen response'. Moreover the conserved protein domains of the identified hub genes in controls were nuclear-associated, whereas hub genes in infected chickens were involved in 'cellular communication'. The shift in topology and functionality of the intestinal GANs in control and Salmonella infected animals and the identification of GAN-specific hubs is a first step to understand the complexity of biological networks and processes regulating intestinal health and functionality under normal and disturbed conditions. PMID:21885356

  20. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against the O-5 antigen of Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Z W; Zawistowski, J

    1996-01-01

    Three murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced by fusion of P3X63-Ag8.653 myeloma cells and splenocytes of a mouse immunized with heat-attenuated (20 min, 80 degrees C) Salmonella typhimurium cells. MAbs 5A5 and 5B2 were of the immunoglobulin M (IgM) class, while MAb 4A8 was IgG2a. All possessed the kappa light chains. The MAbs were specific to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-5 antigen of Salmonella B serogroup, as determined by electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting. All MAbs recognized the same epitope, as determined by an additive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), although IgM MAbs exhibited higher avidity than the IgG MAb. ELISA analyses revealed that all three MAbs reacted with S. typhimurium (LPS O:1, 4, 5, and 12) while failing to recognize S. typhimurium var. copenhagen (LPS O:1, 4, and 12). The MAbs reacted equally with live and heat-attenuated Salmonella B serovars containing LPS O-5 antigen. The ability of the MAbs to detect live bacterial cells was further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Treatment of bacteria with cholic acid and extremely low pH did not affect antibody binding to S. typhimurium. However, when S. typhimurium cells were exposed to alkaline conditions prior to reaction with all three MAbs, no binding was observed. The use of MAbs to discriminate between S. typhimurium and S. typhimurium var. copenhagen in meat samples was investigated. PMID:8572685

  1. Control panels of meat juice samples for a Salmonella enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, H.; SØrensen, Vibeke

    2006-01-01

    In the Danish pig production system, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of antibodies in meat juice is used for Salmonella surveillance. Quality control (QC) of this ELISA was previously based on repeated testing of control serum samples. The purpose of the study reported here was to collect, characterize, and implement a panel of meat juice pools for supplemental internal QC. Muscle samples for extraction of meat juice were collected from slaughter pigs of 5 herds infected with Salmonella spp. and from 4 herds without Salmonella infection. A QC panel with 39 pools of meat juice, yielding ELISA optical density (OD) values covering the full range of expected OD values, was prepared and tested repeatedly to determine mean and SD OD values. Each pool was tested twice on each microtitration plate, and the results were used to determine limits for validity of future tests. This QC panel was included as an internal QC to be tested every month. Besides the QC panel, 2 panels containing 100 samples of meat juice with OD above the positive cut-off value and 100 samples with OD below that value were prepared for quarterly control of the diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) and the diagnostic specificity (DSp) of the ELISA. The inclusion of these panels in the QC system will provide information about drifts in DSe and DSp of the test. The procedures described here can be applied to other tests where meat juice samples are used for testing.

  2. PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA ENTERICA AND SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEROTYPE TYPHIMURIUM IN SWINE AT SLAUGHTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella enterica is recognized as an important foodborne pathogen with multiple potential sources, including pork. Although S. enterica constitutes a very heterogeneous group of bacteria, including more than 2,400 serotypes, only a limited number of serotypes are responsible for most outbreaks. D...

  3. Farm-level associations with the shedding of Salmonella and antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella in U.S. dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habing, Greg G; Lombard, Jason E; Kopral, Christine A; Dargatz, David A; Kaneene, John B

    2012-09-01

    Salmonella enterica is the leading cause of foodborne-related deaths and hospitalizations within the United States. Infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) strains are associated with higher hospital costs and case fatality. The objective for this study was to determine the association of management practices with the recovery of Salmonella and AMR Salmonella on dairy herds. Individual adult cow fecal samples and/or composite fecal samples were collected from 265 dairy herds in 17 states. Samples were cultured for Salmonella, and the MIC was determined for 15 antimicrobials. Herds were classified as Salmonella positive if at least one isolate was recovered, and AMR Salmonella positive if at least one resistant isolate was recovered. Questionnaires regarding management practices were administered to herd operators, and a subset of practices was selected based on subject knowledge and prior research. Data on preventive and therapeutic antimicrobial usage were included in the analysis. Logistic regression models were used to determine which practices were significantly (pcomposted/dried manure for bedding relative to herds with only susceptible isolates (OR=3.6; CI: 1.2-11.0). These results can be useful to focus additional research aimed at decreasing the prevalence of Salmonella and AMR Salmonella on U.S. dairy herds. PMID:22870913

  4. Presence of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Gallinarum in commercial laying hens diagnosed with Fowl Typhoid Disease in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    : A severe outbreak of salmonellosis in commercial brown table egg layers first occurred in Colombia in 2006. From 2008 to 2012, 35 samples collected from commercial layers farms in the states of Cundinamarca, Santander, Bolivar and San Andres, were positive to Salmonella enterica. Salmonella (S) wa...

  5. Epidemiological Investigation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Kedougou in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pornruangwong, Srirat; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Salmonella enterica serovar Kedougou is among the top 10 serovars reported in northern Thailand. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella Kedougou infection in Thailand and to compare the molecular types and antimicrobial resistance with Salmonella Kedougou isolates of human origin from United States and of animal origin from the United Kingdom.Methods: Data from 13,976 Salmonella infections of which 253 were Salmonella Kedougou collected in Thailand between 2002 and 2008 were analyzed by logistic regression. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed on selected Salmonella Kedougou strains causing infections in Thailand (n = 66), and compared to isolates from the United States (n = 5) and the United Kingdom (n = 20).Results: Logistic analysis revealed season (hot/dry; p = 0.023), region (northern Thailand; p <0.001), and specimen (stool; p <0.001) as significant risk factors associated with Salmonella Kedougou infection compared to other nontyphoid Salmonella. Of the Salmonella Kedougou isolates of human origin, 84% exhibited resistance to at least three antimicrobial classes. Three strains recovered from human stool in Thailand were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins: two harbored blaCTX-M-63 and one blaCMY-2. PFGE revealed 45 unique clusters. Isolates obtained from humans in Thailand and the United States presented identical PFGE profiles suggesting a travel association, whereas the majority of the animal isolates from United Kingdom clustered separately.Conclusions: This study reveals Salmonella Kedougou as a major cause of human infections in northern Thailand especially during the hot period and suggests a global spread probably due to travel. The clonal types causing infections in humans differed from those observed in animals in United Kingdom, which suggests the absence of an epidemiological link and could suggest differences in virulence. The high frequency of antimicrobial resistance, including emergence of resistance to fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins, might pose problems for treatment of infections.

  6. CHROMagar Salmonella Detection Test Kit. Performance Tested Method 020502.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Katana; Ritter, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    BBL CHROMagar Salmonella was evaluated by an external food testing laboratory for the recovery of Salmonella in peanut butter using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) procedure. The peanut butter was found to be negative for the presence of Salmonella and, therefore, was seeded with heat-stressed Salmonella at target concentrations of 0.2 and 2 CFU/25 g. The Salmonella-seeded samples remained at room temperature for 14 days before analysis to stabilize the Salmonella in the food environment. Twenty 25 g test portions from each seeded level and five 25 g samples of uninoculated control samples were processed using enrichment broths as outlined in the FDA-BAM procedure. BBL CHROMagar Salmonella-prepared plates were evaluated with the FDA reference method media (bismuth sulfite, xylose lysine desoxycholate, and Hektoen enteric agars). Fractionally positive results were obtained from the lower inoculum level of peanut butter samples. Five positive cultures were recovered from both the BBL CHROMagar Salmonella and reference methods. The two methods gave identical results for all cultures resulting in a method agreement of 100%. McNemar's chi2 test, which assesses the evidence for difference in marginal proportions between two methods, could not be evaluated because it requires one or more discrepant cultures. However, because there were no discrepant cultures, the marginal proportions for the two methods were identical; therefore, there is no evidence of a difference between the methods. This study demonstrates that the results from BBL CHROMagar Salmonella are comparable to the three reference method media for the detection of Salmonella in peanut butter using the FDA-BAM procedures. PMID:20166616

  7. Use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to characterize the heterogeneity and clonality of Salmonella serotype Enteritidis, Typhimurium and Infantis isolates obtained from whole liquid eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoal, Katell; Protais, Jocelyne; Quéguiner, Stéphane; Boscher, Evelyne; Chidaine, Bérengère; Rose, Valérie; Gautier, Michel; Baron, Florence; Grosset, Noël; Ermel, Gwennola; Salvat, Gilles

    2009-02-15

    Salmonella is a well-documented pathogen known to occur in a wide range of foods, especially poultry products. The most frequently reported food-sources of human infection are eggs and egg products. In this study, in order to describe Salmonella contamination of egg products, 144 liquid egg samples were collected from 3 different egg-breaking plants during the 3 sampling periods. Salmonella detection was performed on raw samples stored at 2 degrees C for 2 days (D+2) and on pasteurised samples stored at 2 degrees C at D+2 and at shelf-life date. Salmonella was detected in 130 of the 144 raw egg samples collected and in 11 of the 288 pasteurised egg samples analysed. 740 Salmonella isolates were collected and serotyped: 14 serovars were demonstrated. A great diversity, particularly during summer, was noted. The dominant serovars were S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium and S. Infantis, mainly found in whole raw egg products. Typing of 325 isolates of S. Enteritidis, 54 isolates of S. Typhimurium and 58 isolates of S. Infantis was carried out by macrorestriction of the genomic DNA with XbaI and SpeI enzymes followed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The Salmonella Enteritidis isolates could be grouped into 3 clusters. Cluster 1 was predominant at all 3 egg-breaking companies during the different sampling periods. This cluster seemed to be adapted to the egg-breaking plants. Cluster 2 was linked to plant 1 and cluster 3 to plant 3. Two main clusters of Salmonella Typhimurium were demonstrated. Cluster A was mainly found at plant 2 during autumn. Plant 3 was contaminated by all the Salmonella Typhimurium genotypes but in a more sporadic manner during the three seasons studied. Plant 1 seemed to be less contaminated by Salmonella Typhimurium than the others. Three clusters and 2 genotypes of Salmonella Infantis were shown. The main cluster, cluster alpha, consisted of 75% of the S. Infantis isolates and was mainly found during summer at plants 1 and 3. Plant 2 seemed to be less contaminated by S. Infantis. In this study, molecular typing demonstrated that, although certain clusters were common to all three companies, specific clusters, notably of S. Enteritidis were present at each plant. PMID:19128850

  8. Comparison of culture, ELISA and PCR techniques for salmonella detection in faecal samples for cattle, pig and poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspan Anna

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Performances of different salmonella detection methods were evaluated by applying them to of artificially contaminated faecal specimens from cattle, pigs and poultry. The NMKL71 method, being the standard reference method for detection of salmonella in the official Swedish control program, was compared with the proposed ISO method using MSRV-selective enrichment for culturing, and also with three commercial ELISA- based systems, Bioline Selecta, Bioline Optima and Vidas, a commercial PCR-based method, BAX® system, and three different strategies using PCR detection using a non-commercial PCR system. Results Altogether, 391 samples were tested, and the overall results clearly indicate that, when faeces from all animal species and all serotypes were included, the MSRV performed best, with a calculated accuracy of 99% and a calculated sensitivity of 98%. The second most sensitive and specific method was the BAX® system, using the modified enrichment protocol as recommended by the manufacturer for faecal samples. However, this protocol includes one additional day of work, as compared with the standard procedure for food sample analysis by the same method. The different strategies for salmonella detection using non-commercial PCR showed a sensitivity and specificity in the same range as the BAX® method; furthermore, results were obtained more quickly. The various commercial ELISA methods and the NMKL method showed the poorest performance of the methods included in the study, and were closely dependent on the origin of the faeces used and on which salmonella strain was to be detected. Conclusion The study showed that the sensitivity of the different methods depended to a great extent on the origin of the faecal matrices and the salmonella strains used to "spike" the samples.

  9. Simulation model estimates of test accuracy and predictive values for the Danish Salmonella surveillance program in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnick, L.D.; Nielsen, L.R.

    2006-01-01

    The Danish government and cattle industry instituted a Salmonella surveillance program in October 2002 to help reduce Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Dublin (S. Dublin) infections. All dairy herds are tested by measuring antibodies in bulk tank milk at 3-month intervals. The program is based on a well-established ELISA, but the overall test program accuracy and misclassification was not previously investigated. We developed a model to simulate repeated bulk tank milk antibody measurements for dairy herds conditional on true infection status. The distributions of bulk tank milk antibody measurements for infected and noninfected herds were determined from field study data. Herd infection was defined as having either >= 1 Salmonella culture-positive fecal sample or >= 5% within-herd prevalence based on antibody measurements in serum or milk from individual animals. No distinction was made between Dublin and other Salmonella serotypes which cross-react in the ELISA. The simulation model was used to estimate the accuracy of herd classification for true herd-level prevalence values ranging from 0.02 to 0.5. Test program sensitivity was 0.95 across the range of prevalence values evaluated. Specificity was inversely related to prevalence and ranged from 0.83 to 0.98. For a true herd-level infection prevalence of 15%, the estimate for specificity (Sp) was 0.96. Also at the 15% herd-level prevalence, approximately 99% of herds classified as negative in the program would be truly noninfected and 80% of herds classified as positive would be infected. The predictive values were consistent with the primary goal of the surveillance program which was to have confidence that herds classified negative would be free of Salmonella infection.

  10. Involvement of SPI-2-encoded SpiC in flagellum synthesis in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugita Asami

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SpiC encoded within Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 on the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium chromosome is required for survival within macrophages and systemic infection in mice. Additionally, SpiC contributes to Salmonella-induced activation of the signal transduction pathways in macrophages by affecting the expression of FliC, a component of flagella filaments. Here, we show the contribution of SpiC in flagellum synthesis. Results Quantitative RT-PCR shows that the expression levels of the class 3 fliD and motA genes that encode for the flagella cap and motor torque proteins, respectively, were lower for a spiC mutant strain than for the wild-type Salmonella. Further, this mutant had lower expression levels of the class 2 genes including the fliA gene encoding the flagellar-specific alternative sigma factor. We also found differences in flagella assembly between the wild-type strain and the spiC mutant. Many flagella filaments were observed on the bacterial surface of the wild-type strain, whereas the spiC mutant had only few flagella. The absence of spiC led to reduced expression of the FlhD protein, which functions as the master regulator in flagella gene expression, although no significant difference at the transcription level of the flhDC operon was observed between the wild-type strain and the spiC mutant. Conclusion The data show that SpiC is involved in flagella assembly by affecting the post-transcription expression of flhDC.

  11. Comprehensive assignment of roles for Salmonella typhimurium genes in intestinal colonization of food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Roy R; Morgan, Eirwen; Peters, Sarah E; Pleasance, Stephen J; Hudson, Debra L; Davies, Holly M; Wang, Jinhong; van Diemen, Pauline M; Buckley, Anthony M; Bowen, Alison J; Pullinger, Gillian D; Turner, Daniel J; Langridge, Gemma C; Turner, A Keith; Parkhill, Julian; Charles, Ian G; Maskell, Duncan J; Stevens, Mark P

    2013-04-01

    Chickens, pigs, and cattle are key reservoirs of Salmonella enterica, a foodborne pathogen of worldwide importance. Though a decade has elapsed since publication of the first Salmonella genome, thousands of genes remain of hypothetical or unknown function, and the basis of colonization of reservoir hosts is ill-defined. Moreover, previous surveys of the role of Salmonella genes in vivo have focused on systemic virulence in murine typhoid models, and the genetic basis of intestinal persistence and thus zoonotic transmission have received little study. We therefore screened pools of random insertion mutants of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium in chickens, pigs, and cattle by transposon-directed insertion-site sequencing (TraDIS). The identity and relative fitness in each host of 7,702 mutants was simultaneously assigned by massively parallel sequencing of transposon-flanking regions. Phenotypes were assigned to 2,715 different genes, providing a phenotype-genotype map of unprecedented resolution. The data are self-consistent in that multiple independent mutations in a given gene or pathway were observed to exert a similar fitness cost. Phenotypes were further validated by screening defined null mutants in chickens. Our data indicate that a core set of genes is required for infection of all three host species, and smaller sets of genes may mediate persistence in specific hosts. By assigning roles to thousands of Salmonella genes in key reservoir hosts, our data facilitate systems approaches to understand pathogenesis and the rational design of novel cross-protective vaccines and inhibitors. Moreover, by simultaneously assigning the genotype and phenotype of over 90% of mutants screened in complex pools, our data establish TraDIS as a powerful tool to apply rich functional annotation to microbial genomes with minimal animal use. PMID:23637626

  12. Salmonella abortusovis, strain Rv6, a new vaccinal vehicle for small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgogne, A; Sanchis, R; Clément, J M; Pépin, M

    1998-03-31

    Salmonella abortusovis strain Rv6 (Sao Rv6) is a live attenuated vaccine used for a few years to protect ewes against abortive salmonellosis. As Salmonellae, particularly Salmonella aro mutants, have considerable potential as vehicles for the presentation of heterologous vaccine antigens, Sao Rv6 was tested in order to develop a vaccinal vehicle for small ruminants. Five vector plasmids were tested in Sao Rv6; these plasmids, which carry Maltose Binding Protein (MBP) expressed as protein, but differ in their promotors, had been previously tested in S. typhimurium strain SL3261, and were transferred into Sao Rv6. The five plasmids were stable in vitro, and the recombinant Sao Rv6 expressed MBP at various levels. Intraperitoneal infection of OF1 mice with the recombinant bacteria did not modify the characteristics of Sao Rv6; dissemination and infection levels were similar in all groups and all mice developed antibodies to Salmonella antigens as measured by ELISA. In contrast, only animals immunized with Sao Rv6 carrying the pNTE plasmid developed a serum antibody response to MBP. This plasmid was then tested in sheep; following subcutaneous immunization with Sao Rv6-pNTE, dissemination and infection levels were not modified in comparison with sheep immunized with Sao Rv6 lacking plasmid. Antibodies specific to MBP were detected in sera of sheep immunized with Sao Rv6-pNTE, purified MBP, and with S. typhimurium SL3261-pNTE as positive controls. These results demonstrate that Sao Rv6 can be used as a vehicle for heterologous antigens in sheep with pNTE as plasmid vector. PMID:9631532

  13. Intra-continental spread of human invasive Salmonella Typhimurium pathovariants in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Okoro, Chinyere K.; Kingsley, Robert A.; Connor, Thomas R.; Harris, Simon R.; Parry, Christopher M.; Al-mashhadani, Manar N.; Kariuki, Samuel; Msefula, Chisomo L.; Gordon, Melita A.; Pinna, Elizabeth; Wain, John; Heyderman, Robert S.; Obaro, Stephen; Alonso, Pedro L.; Mandomando, Inacio

    2012-01-01

    A highly invasive form of non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease has been recently documented in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The most common Salmonella enterica serovar causing this disease is Typhimurium. We applied whole-genome sequence-based phylogenetic methods to define the population structure of sub-Saharan African invasive Salmonella Typhimurium and compared these to global Salmonella Typhimurium isolates. Notably, the vast majority of sub-Saharan invasive Salmonella Typhim...

  14. Determination of selected veterinary antimicrobials in poultry excreta by UHPLC-MS/MS, for application in Salmonella control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorissen, Brecht; Reyns, Tim; Devreese, Mathias; De Backer, Patrick; Van Loco, Joris; Croubels, Siska

    2015-06-01

    The most important source of Salmonella spp. infection in humans is by the consumption of contaminated poultry products. Due to the risk of resistance development and its transfer from animals to humans, the Belgian Royal Decree concerning the eradication of Salmonella (C-2007/22784) prohibits treatment of poultry with antimicrobials against zoonotic Salmonella spp. To uncover illicit use, an analytical method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for the determination of antimicrobial residues in poultry excreta was developed and validated for classes having an active spectrum against Salmonella spp. in poultry: ?-lactams (amoxicillin and penicillin V), fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin, difloxacin, and flumequine), polymyxins (colistin), sulfonamides in combination with trimethoprim (sulfachloropyridazine, sulfadiazine, and sulfaclozine), and tetracyclines (chlortetracycline and doxycycline). A generic and high-throughput sample preparation was developed. Extraction of samples was performed by ultrasonication using a combination of acetonitrile and McIlvaine buffer, followed by centrifugation and filtration prior to analysis. The method was validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC for linearity, apparent recovery/trueness, repeatability, reproducibility, limit of quantification, limit of detection, specificity, matrix effect, and storage stability in matrix. To demonstrate the applicability of the method, an in vivo experiment was conducted. For each antimicrobial class, one registered drug was selected and administered in the drinking water to two laying hens. Excreta samples were collected every 12 h during and until 2 days after treatment and analyzed using the developed method. PMID:25633214

  15. Activation of NF-?B-dependent Gene Expression by Salmonella Flagellins FliC and FljB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Raphael; Samuel, Charles E.

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial flagellin is recognized by Toll-like receptor (TLR5) and activates NF-?B which leads to the induction of proinflammatory gene expression. Salmonella expresses two flagellin proteins, FliC and FljB. We purified FliC and FljB and examined the ability of the Salmonella flagellins to activate the NF-?B transcription factor in human embryonic kidney cells. We found that FliC and FljB as purified proteins possessed a comparable specific activity for activation of NF-?B-dependent gene expression in HEK293 cells. We also determined the ability of UV-inactivated bacteria, both wild-type and fliC and fljB mutant strains, to activate NF-?B. Wild-type fliC+/fljB+ Salmonella and the fliC+/fljB? mutant strain were robust activators, whereas the fliC?/fljB+ and flhC? mutant strains were very poor activators. The NF-?B activation capacity of bacterial strains correlated with their flagellin expression level. Finally, Salmonella cell wall-associated polymeric flagellin displayed greatly reduced ability to activate NF-?B compared to purified monomeric flagellin. PMID:17292856

  16. A fusogenic peptide expressed on the surface of Salmonella enterica elicits CTL responses to a dengue virus epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria-Perez, R; Cedillo-Barron, L; Santos-Argumedo, L; Ortiz-Navarrete, V F; Ocaña-Mondragon, A; Gonzalez-Bonilla, C R

    2007-06-28

    Attenuated Salmonella strains are used widely as live carriers of antigens because they elicit both mucosal and systemic immunity against passenger antigens. However, they generally evoke poor cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses because Salmonella resides within vacuolar compartments and the passenger antigens must travel to the cytosol and be processed through the MHC class I-dependent pathway to simulate CTLs. To address this problem, we designed a fusion protein to destabilize the phagosome membrane and allow a dengue epitope to reach the cytosol. The fusion protein was displayed on the bacterial surface of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL3261 through the beta domain of the autotransporter MisL. The passenger alpha domain contained, from the N-terminus, a fusogenic sequence, the NS3 protein 298-306-amino acid CTL epitope from the dengue virus type 2, a molecular tag, and a recognition site for the protease OmpT to release it to the milieu. Display of the fusion protein on the bacterial surface was demonstrated by IFA and flow cytometry using antibodies against the molecular tag. Cleavage of the fusogenic protein-dengue peptide was demonstrated by flow cytometry using OmpT+ Escherichia coli strains. The recombinant Salmonella strains displaying the fusogenic-dengue peptide were able to lyse erythrocytes, induced specific proliferative responses, and elicited CTL responses. These results suggest that the recombinant fusion proteins containing fusogenic sequences provide a promising system to induce CTLs by live vector vaccines. PMID:17543427

  17. A fast and highly sensitive blood culture PCR method for clinical detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Liqing

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella Typhi causes an estimated 21 million new cases of typhoid fever and 216,000 deaths every year. Blood culture is currently the gold standard for diagnosis of typhoid fever, but it is time-consuming and takes several days for isolation and identification of causative organisms. It is then too late to initiate proper antibiotic therapy. Serological tests have very low sensitivity and specificity, and no practical value in endemic areas. As early diagnosis of the disease and prompt treatment are essential for optimal management, especially in children, a rapid sensitive detection method for typhoid fever is urgently needed. Although PCR is sensitive and rapid, initial research indicated similar sensitivity to blood culture and lower specificity. We developed a fast and highly sensitive blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Typhi, allowing same-day initiation of treatment after accurate diagnosis of typhoid. Methods An ox bile tryptone soy broth was optimized for blood culture, which allows the complete lysis of blood cells to release intracellular bacteria without inhibiting the growth of Salmonella Typhi. Using the optimised broth Salmonella Typhi bacteria in artificial blood samples were enriched in blood culture and then detected by a PCR targeting the fliC-d gene of Salmonella Typhi. Results Tests demonstrated that 2.4% ox bile in blood culture not only lyzes blood cells completely within 1.5 hours so that the intracellular bacteria could be released, but also has no inhibiting effect on the growth of Salmonella Typhi. Three hour enrichment of Salmonella Typhi in tryptone soya broth containing 2.4% ox bile could increase the bacterial number from 0.75 CFU per millilitre of blood which is similar to clinical typhoid samples to the level which regular PCR can detect. The whole blood culture PCR assay takes less than 8 hours to complete rather than several days for conventional blood culture. Conclusions This novel blood culture PCR method is superior in speed and sensitivity to both conventional blood culture and PCR assays. Its use in clinical diagnosis may allow early detection of the causative organism and facilitate initiation of prompt treatment among patients with typhoid fever.

  18. Longitudinal monitoring of two commercial layer flocks and their environments for Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis and other Salmonellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinde, Hailu; Castellan, David M; Kerr, David; Campbell, James; Breitmeyer, Richard; Ardans, Alex

    2005-06-01

    Between August 20, 2001, and September 17, 2002, 1429 samples including drag swabs, egg belt or egg rollout swabs, fan-blade swabs, rodent organ and intestinal pools, beetle (Alphitobius diaperinus) pools, housefly (Musca domestica) pools, chicken organ and intestinal pools, and egg pools were obtained for Salmonella culture from two flocks from two different commercial layer ranches. The two ranches were purposefully selected for the study based on their previous status of Salmonella Enteritidis isolation using environmental drag swabs in cooperation with practicing veterinarians. Salmonella sp. was isolated from 337 out of 979 (34.42%) non-egg samples. No Salmonella was isolated from 450 egg pools collected from either ranch. S. enteritidis was isolated from samples obtained from ranch 1 from manure drag swabs, 4/284 (1.4%); rodent organs, 1/24 (4.2%); and housefly pool cultures 1/21 (4.8%). Salmonella Enteritidis was isolated from ranch 2 from mouse organ and intestinal pool samples, 1/24 (4.2%). Salmonella group B was isolated from all sample types except the insects. There was a statistically significant difference in isolation rates among seven serogroups of Salmonella: groups B, C1, C2, D, E, K, and untypeable (Pearson chi-square 18.96, P = 0.002). Overall, statistically significant differences were observed with respect to Salmonella isolation among the types of samples taken (Pearson chi-square 118.54, P < 0.0001). Intensive monitoring for Salmonella Enteritidis can be used to optimize a Salmonella reduction program for an individual poultry biosecurity unit. PMID:16094821

  19. Involvement of a putative intercellular signal-recognizing G protein-coupled receptor in the engulfment of Salmonella by the protozoan Tetrahymena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N. Agbedanu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to investigate the molecular basis of protozoa engulfment-mediated hypervirulence of Salmonella in cattle, we evaluated protozoan G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs as transducers of Salmonella engulfment by the model protozoan Tetrahymena. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that non-pathogenic protozoa (including Tetrahymena engulf Salmonella and then exacerbate its virulence in cattle, but the mechanistic details of the phenomenon are not fully understood. GPCRs were investigated since these receptors facilitate phagocytosis of particulates by Tetrahymena, and a GPCR apparently modulates bacterial engulfment for the pathogenic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. A database search identified three putative Tetrahymena GPCRs, based on sequence homologies and predicted transmembrane domains, that were the focus of this study. Salmonella engulfment by Tetrahymena was assessed in the presence of suramin, a non-specific GPCR inhibitor. Salmonella engulfment was also assessed in Tetrahymena in which expression of putative GPCRs was knocked-down using RNAi. A candidate GPCR was then expressed in a heterologous yeast expression system for further characterization. Our results revealed that Tetrahymena were less efficient at engulfing Salmonella in the presence of suramin. Engulfment was reduced concordantly with a reduction in the density of protozoa. RNAi-based studies revealed that knock-down of one the Tetrahymena GPCRs caused diminished engulfment of Salmonella. Tetrahymena lysates activated this receptor in the heterologous expression system. These data demonstrate that the Tetrahymena receptor is a putative GPCR that facilitates bacterial engulfment by Tetrahymena. Activation of the putative GPCR seemed to be related to protozoan cell density, suggesting that its cognate ligand is an intercellular signaling molecule.

  20. Characterization of a Thermolabile Sulfite Reductase from Salmonella pullorum1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksema, Walter D.; Schoenhard, Delbert E.

    1971-01-01

    The biochemical basis for sulfite accumulation by sulfate-using revertants of Salmonella pullorum was determined. All of the sulfate-using mutants isolated from wild-type S. pullorum accumulated sulfite when grown at 37 but not at 25 C. The specific activity of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH)-dependent sulfite reductase (H 2S-NADP oxidoreductase, EC 1.8.1.2) and of reduced methyl viologen (MVH)-dependent sulfite reductase (H 2S-MV oxidoreductase), in extracts prepared from cells incubated at 37 C, declined as the incubation period lengthened. However, the specific activity of both reductases from cells incubated at 25 C did not decline. Thermolability of cell-free NADPH-dependent sulfite reductase from cells of S. pullorum incubated at 37 C was greater than the lability of this enzyme either from cells of S. typhimurium incubated at 37 C or from cells of S. pullorum incubated at 25 C. Cells cultured at 37 C continued to accumulate sulfite when the incubation temperature was shifted to 25 C; cells cultured at 25 C and shifted to 37 C accumulated no sulfite, whereas these cells shifted to 41 C accumulated sulfite. It was concluded that the configuration of the sulfite reductase of S. pullorum strain 6–18 is a function of the incubation temperature at which synthesis occurs. PMID:5122801

  1. Optimization of the reactional medium and a food impact study for a colorimetric in situ Salmonella spp. detection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junillon, Thomas; Mosticon, David; Mallen, Benoît; Baril, Florent; Morand, Lucie; Michel, Déborah; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre

    2014-07-01

    Foodborne pathogens are still a major concern for public health authorities. In this paper, we describe the optimization of a previously reported method which combines a highly specific capture of targeted food pathogens with an intracellular staining method. The reaction medium was optimized to simultaneously allow specific enrichment of Salmonella and maximize the staining of the target pathogen. This in situ colorimetric concept was evaluated with a broad range of food samples artificially contaminated with low levels of stressed Salmonella to mimic natural contamination conditions. This direct detection method compared favorably to a commercially available immunoassay system (Vidas® UP Salmonella), for cooked meat, dry milk powder and egg products. Globally 88% agreement was obtained between the two methods with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 100% for the tested method. Main discordances were obtained with food matrices having high levels of competitive Gram negative microflora. These observations show that the design of an adapted culture medium is necessary to enhance the specific in situ capture and revelation system. PMID:24819412

  2. Evaluation of VIDAS Immuno-Concentration Salmonella (ICS) plus selective plate method (Hektoen enteric, bismuth sulfite, Salmonella identification) for detection of Salmonella in selected foods (Method Modification 2001.07): collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Wendy A; Schultz, Ann M; Johnson, Ronald L

    2004-01-01

    A new method for detection of Salmonella in foods in 48 h has been granted AOAC First Action approval in selected foods (Official Method 2001.07) using both the VIDAS Immuno-Concentration Salmonella (ICS) method and a combination of 3 selective plates: Hektoen enteric (HE), bismuth sulfite (BS), and Salmonella Identification (SMID). PMID:15164831

  3. Antibacterial activity of niridazole against Salmonellae.

    OpenAIRE

    Bannatyne, R. M.; Jackowski, J.; Grant, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    Fifty-six strains, representing eight species of salmonellae of diverse geographic origin and possessing a variety of antimicrobial resistance profiles, were tested for susceptibility to niridazole by the agar dilution method. Calculated MICs for 50 and 90% of strains were 4.8 and 16.0 mg/liter, respectively, with a susceptibility range of 0.25 to 32 mg/liter. No obvious species differences were noted. Niridazole was found to be rapidly and powerfully bactericidal. No significant difference w...

  4. Primary Psoas Abscess Due to Salmonella typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccaro

    1999-06-10

    Typhoid fever is a febrile illness caused by Salmonella typhi. The usual symptoms include fever, malaise, and compromise of the gut such as diarrhea and abdominal pain. Occasionally, an extraintestinal involvement can be seen and it may be accompanied by severe complications like bowel perforation or massive hemorrhage. The general manifestations are always present in the extraintestinal compromise, and can be preponderant. However, nonintestinal involvement without the general symptoms that this case reports is so rare that no related records can be found in the MEDLINE database. PMID:11104418

  5. Salmonella bacteraemia among healthcare workers and their dependents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To determine the incidence and resistance pattern of Salmonella infection in healthcare workers and their dependents. Methods: The retrospective analysis was conducted at Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, and comprised records of employees and their dependents with bacteraemia from January 2007 to December 2011. Person-years were calculated using data from the human resources department. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analyses. Results: Of the total 2532 records available, 82(3.23%) patients were identified with Salmonella bacteraemia. Of them, 34(41.5%) patients were in age group 1-10, 15(18.3%) in 11-20, 26(31.7%) in 21-30, and 7(8.5%) were above 30 years. Besides, 48(58.5%) were males. Salmonella typhi was found in 44(53.7%) patients, Salmonella paratyphi A in 35(42.7%) and Salmonella species in 3(3.7%) patients. The yearly incidence of Salmonella infection in the study population ranged from 206 to 596 per 100000 person-years. Ciprofloxacin resistance was noted to be 56 (68.2%) followed by Ampicillin 29 (35.3%) and Co-trimoxazole 24 (29.2%). No strains were resistant to Cefiximeor Ceftriaxone. Conclusion: The yearly incidence of Salmonella bacteraemia ranged from 200 to 600 per 100000 person years. There was significant quinolone resistance among the isolates. (author)

  6. Source attribution of human Salmonella cases in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, H.; Andersson, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the sources of sporadic domestic Salmonella cases in Sweden and to evaluate the usefulness of a source-attribution model in a country in which food animals are virtually free from Salmonella. The model allocates human sporadic domestic Salmonella cases to different sources according to distribution of Salmonella subtypes in the different sources. Sporadic domestic human Salmonella cases (n=1086) reported between July 2004 and June 2006 were attributed to nine food-animal and wildlife sources. Of all Salmonella cases, 82% were acquired abroad and 2.9% were associated with outbreaks. We estimated that 6.4% were associated with imported food, 0.5% with food-producing animals, and 0.6% with wildlife. Overall, 7.7% could not be attributed to any source. We concluded that domestic food-producing animals are not an important source for Salmonella in humans in Sweden, and that the adapted model is useful also in low-prevalence countries.

  7. THE DYNAMICS OF ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF Salmonella typhimurium ISOLATES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erleta Peqini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella typhimurium is the most common pathogen isolated in foodstuffs toxin infections. The development of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella typhimurium over the last twenty years is caused by an extensive application of some antibiotics. The study of antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella typhimurium isolates helps the physicians in using the indispensable antibiotic and replacing the resistant antibiotics with new ones. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella typhimurium isolates of persons with foodstuff’s toxin infections in Elbasan region during the years 1985-2004, to which are made the antibiograms and the antimicrobial resistance. This study includes 2931 Salmonella typhimurium strains in this period of time. All the strains were tested using disk diffusion method (with antibiotics: AM, S, TE, C, K, GM, SXT, NA and CIP. Salmonella typhimurium strains have been more resistant to Ampicilin (98.29 %, Tetracycline (93.48 %, Streptomycin (78.92 %, Bactrim (64.14 %.The reason of passivity of such antibiotics against Salmonella typhimurium is their use, in most cases, without doing the antibiograms in each case and physicians have used very often the above antibiotics, bringing about the intensification of bacteria’s resistance towards them.

  8. Salmonella detection in a microfluidic channel using orbiting magnetic beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Matt; Mills, Zachary; Owen, Drew; Hanasoge, Srinivas; Hesketh, Peter; Alexeev, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    We use three-dimensional simulations to model the detection of salmonella in a complex fluid sample in a microfluidic channel. Salmonella is captured using magnetic microbeads orbiting around soft ferromagnetic discs at the microchannel bottom subjected to a rotating external magnetic field. Numerical simulations are used to model the dynamics of salmonella and microbeads throughout the detection process. We examine the effect of the channel geometry on the salmonella capture, and the forces applied to the salmonella as it is dragged through the fluid after capture. Our findings guide the design of a lab-on-a-chip device to be used for detection of salmonella in food samples in a way that ensures that salmonella captured by orbiting microbeads are preserved until they can be extracted from the system for testing, and are not washed away by the fluid flow or damaged due to the experience of excessive stresses. Such a device is needed to detect bacteria at the food source and prevention of consumption of contaminated food, and also can be used for the detection of a variety of biomaterials of interest from complex fluid samples. Support from USDA and NSF is gratefully acknowledged.

  9. H2-M3 Major Histocompatibility Complex Class Ib-Restricted CD8 T Cells Induced by Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infection Recognize Proteins Released by Salmonella Serovar Typhimurium

    OpenAIRE

    Ugrinovic, S; Brooks, C. G.; ROBSON, J.; Blacklaws, B A; Hormaeche, C E; Robinson, J H

    2005-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes a typhoid-like disease in mice which has been studied extensively as a model for typhoid fever in humans. CD8 T cells contribute to protection against S. enterica serovar Typhimurium in mice, but little is known about the specificity and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction of the response. We report here that CD8 T-cell lines derived from S. enterica serovar Typhimurium-infected BALB/c mice lysed bone marrow macrophages infected wi...

  10. Influence of preimmunization with tetanus toxoid on immune responses to tetanus toxin fragment C-guest antigen fusions in a Salmonella vaccine carrier.

    OpenAIRE

    Chabalgoity, J A; Villareal-Ramos, B; Khan, C M; Chatfield, S N; de Hormaeche, R D; Hormaeche, C E

    1995-01-01

    We have previously described a new system for the delivery of recombinant antigens in live Salmonella vaccines as genetic fusions to the C terminus of fragment C of tetanus toxin (TetC) driven by the anaerobically inducible nirB promoter. It has been reported that preimmunization with tetanus toxoid (TT) can suppress the antibody response to peptides chemically coupled to TT (epitope-specific suppression) in both animals and humans, which could interfere with efficacy of the Salmonella-TetC d...

  11. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from poultry carcasses in Dakar (Senegal) Resistência antimicrobiana de Salmonella isolada de carcaças de frango em Dakar, Sénégal

    OpenAIRE

    Rianatou Bada-Alambedji; Aïssatou Fofana; Malang Seydi; Ayayi Justin Akakpo

    2006-01-01

    This study was undertaken to estimate the antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from raw chicken. From November 2003 to April 2004 a total of 120 chicken carcasses were collected from 36 randomly selected sale points (supermarkets, traditional market, poultry slaughter house, flocks) in the urban and periurban zones of Dakar, Sénégal, and examined for the presence of Salmonella. Salmonella was isolated from 75 (62.5%) of the examined samples. Out of the 90 Salmonella isolates obta...

  12. The SopEPhi phage integrates into the ssrA gene of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium A36 and is closely related to the Fels-2 prophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelludat, Cosima; Mirold, Susanne; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2003-09-01

    Salmonella spp. are enteropathogenic gram-negative bacteria that use a large array of virulence factors to colonize the host, manipulate host cells, and resist the host's defense mechanisms. Even closely related Salmonella strains have different repertoires of virulence factors. Bacteriophages contribute substantially to this diversity. There is increasing evidence that the reassortment of virulence factor repertoires by converting phages like the GIFSY phages and SopEPhi may represent an important mechanism in the adaptation of Salmonella spp. to specific hosts and to the emergence of new epidemic strains. Here, we have analyzed in more detail SopEPhi, a P2-like phage from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT204 that encodes the virulence factor SopE. We have cloned and characterized the attachment site (att) of SopEPhi and found that its 47-bp core sequence overlaps the 3' terminus of the ssrA gene of serovar Typhimurium. Furthermore, we have demonstrated integration of SopEPhi into the cloned attB site of serovar Typhimurium A36. Sequence analysis of the plasmid-borne prophage revealed that SopEPhi is closely related to (60 to 100% identity over 80% of the genome) but clearly distinct from the Fels-2 prophage of serovar Typhimurium LT2 and from P2-like phages in the serovar Typhi CT18 genome. Our results demonstrate that there is considerable variation among the P2-like phages present in closely related Salmonella spp. PMID:12923091

  13. European outbreak of Salmonella Strathcona caused by small tomatoes, August – November 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Luise; Kjelsoe, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In September 2011 a small cluster of Salmonella Strathcona was identified in Denmark. An urgent inquiry was posted on the Epidemic Intelligence Information System (EPIS) for the Food and Waterborne Disease Network and cases were reported from Germany and Austria. An outbreak investigation was initiated to reveal the source in order to stop the outbreak. METHODS: A case was defined as a laboratory confirmed Salmonella Strathcona patient in Europe with a specific pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern ill between August and November 2011. Hypothesis-generating interviews were performed in Denmark, Germany and Austria, and further studies in Denmark included comparative analyses of patients’ shopping lists obtained from supermarket computers, and a case-control study with 25 cases and 56 population register controls matched on age, sex and municipality. RESULTS: In total, 43 cases of Salmonella Strathcona were reported in Denmark, 13 in Germany, two in Italy and one in Austria with the same PFGE. The comparative analyses of patients’ shopping lists showed that 8/10 cases had bought a specific type of Datterino tomatoes prior to disease onset. In a case-control study illness was associated with a specific supermarket chain, mOR=16.9 [2.2-130], and having consumed elongated small tomatoes, mOR=28, 95% CI [2,6-300]. Trace-back investigation showed that the tomatoes came from an Italian producer and had been sold both in Germany and Austria, although a detailed European trace-back investigation could not be performed. CONCLUSIONS: Non-animal food vehicles are increasingly recognized as causing outbreaks in Europe. This outbreak emphasizes the challenges in investigating contaminated food items across borders in Europe. We recommend that cooperation between epidemiological investigators and food authorities within Europe are strengthened to address such outbreaks.

  14. Multistate Outbreak of Salmonella Serovar Muenchen Infections Associated with Alfalfa Sprouts Grown from Seeds Pretreated with Calcium Hypochlorite

    OpenAIRE

    Proctor, Mary E.; Hamacher, Marge; Tortorello, Mary Lou; Archer, John R.; Davis, Jeffrey P.

    2001-01-01

    During September 1999, a multistate outbreak of Salmonella serovar Muenchen infection associated with eating raw alfalfa sprouts was identified in Wisconsin. Despite use of a calcium hypochlorite sanitizing procedure to pretreat seeds before sprouting, at least 157 outbreak-related illnesses were identified in seven states having sprouters who received alfalfa seed from a specific lot. The continued occurrence of sprout-related outbreaks despite presprouting disinfection supports the concern ...

  15. Anti-flagellin antibody responses elicited in mice orally immunized with attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine strains

    OpenAIRE

    LM Massis; CJM Braga; ME Sbrogio-Almeida; C Lauand; SMC Newton; PE Klebba; LCS Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the flagellin-specific serum (IgG) and fecal (IgA) antibody responses elicited in BALB/c mice immunized with isogenic mutant derivatives of the attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) SL3261 strain expressing phase 1 (FliCi), phase 2 (FljB), or no endogenous flagellin. The data reported here indicate that mice orally immunized with recombinant S. Typhimurium strains do not mount significant systemic or secreted antibody response...

  16. Outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in Switzerland, May – June 2008, implications for production and control of meat preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, H.; Hächler, H; Stephan, R.; Baumgartner, A; K. Boubaker

    2008-01-01

    An increased number of Salmonella Typhimurium cases were reported in Switzerland between May and June 2008. Investigations involved 72 cases. Results of PFGE typing identified several outbreak strains, the dominating one present in 43 of the 72 isolates. Strains affecting one third of the cases were also found in animal samples, in particular pork. However, no specific food source could be identified. Outbreaks described in this paper highlight the importance of food safety regulations such a...

  17. Identification of the phosphocarrier protein enzyme IIIgut: essential component of the glucitol phosphotransferase system in Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Grenier, F.C.; Hayward, I; Novotny, M J; Leonard, J E; Saier, M H

    1985-01-01

    The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphorylation of glucitol has been shown to require four distinct proteins in Salmonella typhimurium: two general energy-coupling proteins, enzyme I and HPr, and two glucitol-specific proteins, enzyme IIgut and enzyme IIIgut. The enzyme IIgut was solubilized from the membrane and purified about 100-fold, free of the other protein constituents of the phosphotransferase system. Enzyme IIIgut was found in both the soluble and the membrane fractions. The solubl...

  18. Sensitivity of a Salmonella typhimurium aspC mutant to sulfometuron methyl, a potent inhibitor of acetolactate synthase II.

    OpenAIRE

    Dyk, T. K.; Larossa, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Sulfometuron methyl is a potent and specific inhibitor of acetolactate synthase II in Salmonella typhimurium. Mutant strains sensitive to sulfometuron methyl on minimal medium were isolated following mutagenesis with Tn10. A conditionally auxotrophic insertion mutant, strain SMS409, which required aspartate at high temperatures or in the presence of tyrosine, was found among the 15 mutants isolated. The Tn10 insertion in strain SMS409 was mapped by conjugation and transduction to the region b...

  19. Oral immunisation with live aroA attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing the Yersinia pestis V antigen protects mice against plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmory, Helen S; Griffin, Kate F; Brown, Katherine A; Titball, Richard W

    2003-06-20

    Bubonic and pneumonic plague are caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. The V antigen of Y. pestis is a protective antigen against plague. In this study, an aroA attenuated strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (SL3261) has been used to deliver the Y. pestis V antigen as a candidate oral plague vaccine. SL3261 was transformed with the expression plasmid pTrc-LcrV, containing the lcrV gene encoding V antigen. Immunoblot analysis showed V antigen expression in SL3261 in vitro and intragastric immunisation of mice with the recombinant Salmonella resulted in the induction of V antigen-specific serum antibody responses and afforded protection against Y. pestis challenge. However, the antibody responses induced by the recombinant Salmonella did not correlate with the protection afforded, indicating that immune responses other than antibody may play a role in the protection afforded against plague by this candidate vaccine. PMID:12798649

  20. Salmonella outbreak among railway and airline passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakka, M

    1992-01-01

    A widespread outbreak by Salmonella infantis, infecting a total of 226 people, occurred in Finland at the beginning of August 1986. Of those infected, 107 were railway passengers, 91 were airline passengers and 28 were employed in a food processing establishment. The outbreak among the railway passengers was caused by egg sandwiches, the airline passengers were infected by a meal served on board and the catering employees by the breakfast served in the establishment. The outbreak was caused by food prepared in the establishment's kitchen. The employees' breakfasts had probably been contaminated by an employee who was a symptom-free Salmonella infantis carrier, and a number of the employees subsequently became infected, leading to widespread contamination of the food prepared in the establishment. The spread of the outbreak was further influenced by a heatwave at the time and by shortcomings in the cold storage facilities. The kitchen's hygiene supervision and the quality control of its output were reorganized after the outbreak. PMID:1488941

  1. Whole Genome Epidemiological Typing of Salmonella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella is one of the most common foodborne pathogens worldwide. In the US alone, salmonellosis was estimated to cause 1.4 million cases effecting 17,000 hospitalization and almost 600 deaths each year. Particularly, Salmonella enterica is a common cause of minor and large food borne outbreaks. Technological advances and effective price in high throughput genome sequencing are making whole genome sequencing (WGS) available as a routine tool for bacterial typing. Typing of Salmonella, especially sub-typing within the same serotype or even the same clone, the genetic variation of the target genes being used for typing is crucial for successful discrimination. The core genes or the genes that are conserved in all members of a genus or species are potentially good candidates for investigating genomic variation in phylogeny and epidemiology. A total of 2,882 core genes have been observed among 73 available Salmonella enterica genomes (accessed in April 2011). A consensus tree based on variation of the core genes gives better resolution than 16S rRNA and MLST that rarely provide separation between closely related strains. The performance of the pan-genome tree which is based on the presence/absence of all genes across genomes, is similar to the consensus tree but with higher branching confidence value. The core genes can be divided into two categories: a few highly variable genes and a larger set of conserved core genes, with low variance. These core genes are useful for investigating molecular evolution and remain useful as candidate genes for bacterial genome typing-even if they cannot be expected to differentiate highly clonal isolates e.g. outbreak cases of Salmonella [I]. To achieve successful ‘real-time’ monitoring and identification of outbreaks, rapid and reliable sub-typing is essential. A collection of thirty-four human S. Typhimurium strains from six different outbreaks together with background strains plus eight S. Enteritidis isolates from two outbreaks and five S. Derby isolates from a single outbreak were used to evaluate the strengths and drawbacks of different WGS approaches compared to the traditional typing, PFGE, for retrospectively outbreak typing of Salmonella. The resulting outcome showed that SNP analysis and nucleotide difference approach seem to be the superior methods for outbreak detection compared to other phylogenetic analytic approaches of WGS. Furthermore, WGS approaches were also superior to the more classical typing method, PFGE. Meanwhile, k-mer method constructs a tree in high speed and giving high accuracy in clade level [II]. SNP analysis has successfully applied in recent epidemiological studies of Salmonella. Currently, there are different tools and methods to identify SNPs including various cut-off values. In addition, all the tools require bioinformatics skill. In order to apply WGS in routine typing, an automatic and user-friendly tool is needed. Therefor, snpTree has been developed as a server for online-automatic SNP analysis. snpTree can identify SNPs and construct phylogenetic tree from WGS raw reads as well as from assembled genomes or contigs. The tool is freely accessible at http://cge.cbs.dtu.dk/services/snpTree/ [III]. Globally, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is the most commonly isolated serovar. S. Typhimurium consists of a number of subtypes that conventionally have been divided by phagetyping. During the last three decades, S. Typhimurium phage type DT104 emerged as the most prevalent phage type and one of the best-studied because of its rapid global dissemination. Nonetheless, the origin and transmission route of this particular phage type have not been revealed. To bridge the gaps in epidemiology of DT104, WGS and temporally structured sequence analysis within Bayesian framework have been incorporated for reconstructing temporal and spatial phylogenies, estimating rate of mutation and divergence time of global and local S. Typhimurium DT104 isolates sampled from 1969 to 2012 from twenty-one countries in six continents. The DT104 was estimated to initiall

  2. Salmonella promotes virulence by repressing cellulose production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Mauricio H; Lee, Eun-Jin; Choi, Jeongjoon; Groisman, Eduardo A

    2015-04-21

    Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth. In bacteria, cellulose confers protection against environmental insults and is a constituent of biofilms typically formed on abiotic surfaces. We report that, surprisingly, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium makes cellulose when inside macrophages. We determine that preventing cellulose synthesis increases virulence, whereas stimulation of cellulose synthesis inside macrophages decreases virulence. An attenuated mutant lacking the mgtC gene exhibited increased cellulose levels due to increased expression of the cellulose synthase gene bcsA and of cyclic diguanylate, the allosteric activator of the BcsA protein. Inactivation of bcsA restored wild-type virulence to the Salmonella mgtC mutant, but not to other attenuated mutants displaying a wild-type phenotype regarding cellulose. Our findings indicate that a virulence determinant can promote pathogenicity by repressing a pathogen's antivirulence trait. Moreover, they suggest that controlling antivirulence traits increases long-term pathogen fitness by mediating a trade-off between acute virulence and transmission. PMID:25848006

  3. A microfluidic nano-biosensor for the detection of pathogenic Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Giyoung; Moon, Ji-Hea; Moh, Chang-Yeon; Lim, Jong-guk

    2015-05-15

    Rapid detection of pathogenic Salmonella in food products is extremely important for protecting the public from salmonellosis. The objective of the present study was to explore the feasibility of using a microfluidic nano-biosensor to rapidly detect pathogenic Salmonella. Quantum dot nanoparticles were used to detect Salmonella cells. For selective detection of Salmonella, anti-Salmonella polyclonal antibodies were covalently immobilized onto the quantum dot surface. To separate and concentrate the cells from the sample, superparamagnetic particles and a microfluidic chip were used. A portable fluorometer was developed to measure the fluorescence signal from the quantum dot nanoparticles attached to Salmonella in the samples. The sensitivity for detection of pathogenic Salmonella was evaluated using serially diluted Salmonella Typhimurium in borate buffer and chicken extract. The fluorescence response of the nano-biosensor increased with increasing cell concentration. The detection limit of the sensor was 10(3) CFU/mL Salmonella in both borate buffer and food extract. PMID:25172028

  4. Investigation of risk factors for Salmonella on commercial egg-laying farms in Great Britain, 2004-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, L C; Davies, R H; Christiansen, K H; Carrique-Mas, J J; Cook, A J C; Evans, S J

    2010-05-01

    In 2004/05, all European Union member states were required to carry out standardised prevalence surveys to establish the baseline prevalence of Salmonella in commercial laying flocks. As part of the survey in Great Britain, additional data were collected from 380 of the enrolled laying hen holdings to investigate risk factors for Salmonella at farm level. Stratified, simple random sampling was used to select holdings from which dust and boot swab samples were collected and tested for Salmonella using a modification of ISO 6579:2002. Using a multivariable logistic model weighted to account for the survey design, several factors significantly associated with Salmonella and Salmonella Enteritidis status were identified. Larger holdings (>or=30,000 birds) were found to be at higher risk of Salmonella (odds ratio [OR] 4.79, P=0.025), while vaccination (OR 0.28, P=0.013), providing foot dips with brushes (OR 0.27, P=0.042), washing and disinfecting the house at depopulation (OR 0.19, P=0.003), having a clean car park away from house (OR 0.14, P=0.001), using an independent (OR 0.19, P=0.007) or other non-company (OR 0.40, P=0.049) source of feed, being over 1 km from the nearest neighbouring farm (OR 0.45, P=0.021) and the presence of cats and dogs on the farm (OR 0.26, P=0.002) or on contiguous farms (OR 0.44, P=0.030) reduced the risk of any Salmonella serovars being present. Factors found to be associated specifically with an increased risk of S Enteritidis infection included holding size (OR 14.88, P=0.001) and frequent sightings of rats (OR 8.17, P<0.001) or mice (OR 5.78, P=0.006). Non-caged systems (OR 0.14, P=0.002), vaccination (OR 0.08, P=0.001), the use of a non-company feed source (OR 0.11, P=0.003), running the site as all-in/all-out (OR 0.06, P<0.001) and the presence of cats and dogs on the farm (OR 0.14, P=0.002) were associated with a reduced risk. PMID:20453235

  5. A questionnaire-based, retrospective field study of persistence of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in Danish broiler houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Rattenborg, Erik

    2003-01-01

    A questionnaire-based, retrospective field study was conducted in 78 Danish broiler houses (analytical units) on 42 farms. In spring 1997, all these broiler houses had been infected with Salmonella Enteritidis, phage type 8, and/or Salmonella Typhimurium, definitive-type 66, by day-old chicks delivered from the same hatchery. Because these two salmonella types had not been detected in the Danish broiler sector before and the broiler houses were infected in a period of low salmonella prevalence, the study could focus on farm-related factors, without being distorted by other salmonella infections. The same person visited all 78 broiler houses, and farm-related factors were listed both from personal observations and by interrogating the person in charge of attending to the broilers. Additional factors (noted at the visits) were recorded in a later telephone interview. Altogether, 187 variables were analyzed. Broiler houses were divided into single-infection houses (which had one or both of the salmonella types in only one crop), and multiple-infection houses (where infection occurred in multiple crops). This was done both generally and separately for each of the salmonella types. Factors associated with house status-but that were beyond the control of the farmer-were the salmonella type and the percentage of salmonella positive samples in the first crop. Factors which could be controlled by the farmer and which were associated with reduced prevalence of multiple-infection houses included antiseptic soap and water for washing hands in the anteroom, hygiene barriers when removing dead broilers, gravel alongside the broiler house, systematic checks of indoor rodent-bait depots, and combined surface and pulse-fogging disinfection.

  6. The N4-hydroxycytidine reduction system in toluenized cells of Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzymatic reduction of N4-hydroxycytidine to cytidine in Salmonella typhimurium is highly specific. The reaction occurs only at the nucleoside level. Free base or its 1-methyl analogue is not reduced. The pH optimum shows a broad plateau with a maximum at pH 7.0. The apparent Ksub(m) value, estimated in the toluene-treated cells, is 4.8mM and Vsub(max) 1.4nmoles/min/mg of wet bacterial weight. The reaction is NADH-dependent, although in toluenized bacterial cells it can occur without addition of any exogenous factor. (author)

  7. An infrequent molecular ruler controls flagellar hook length in Salmonella enterica

    OpenAIRE

    Erhardt, Marc; Singer, Hanna M.; Wee, Daniel H.; Keener, James P.; Hughes, Kelly T

    2011-01-01

    The bacterial flagellum consists of a long external filament connected to a membrane-embedded basal body at the cell surface by a short curved structure called the hook. In Salmonella enterica, the hook extends 55 nm from the cell surface. FliK, a secreted molecular ruler, controls hook length. Upon hook completion, FliK induces a secretion-specificity switch to filament-type substrate secretion. Here, we demonstrate that an infrequent ruler mechanism determines hook length. FliK is intermitt...

  8. Studies on the lactose character in Salmonella S:41:z10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajgopalan D

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available A number of plasmids carrying the Lac+ character have been reported. Lac+ character of salmonella S:41:z10:- studied for transfer of Lac+ character to standard Escherichia coli K12 Lac-F- Nalr and Escherichia coli K12 F- Lac- Rifr, failed to transfer in in vitro experiments. Similarly, identification and characterisation of plasmid DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis technique did not show specific plasmid DNA as compared to standard molecular weight plasmids. Plasmid DNA appeared to have been embedded with chromosomal DNA molecule.

  9. Immunization with live recombinant Salmonella typhimurium aroA producing F1 antigen protects against plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyston, P C; Williamson, E D; Leary, S E; Eley, S M; Griffin, K F; Titball, R W

    1995-02-01

    An attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain which expressed the F1 capsular antigen of Yersinia pestis was constructed by transformation of S. typhimurium SL3261 with plasmid pFGAL2a, a derivative of pUC18 which contained the caf1 gene without the leader sequence. The recombinant was used to vaccinate mice intragastrically and intravenously. The immunity induced was able to protect mice against challenge with a virulent strain of plague. Protection correlated with the induction of high titers of immunoglobulin G in serum samples and a specific T-cell response. PMID:7822022

  10. Salmonella Challenge Affects the Antibody Isotype Profile of Bile in Hens Differing in Metabolic Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Cotter, P. F.; Eerden, E.

    2006-01-01

    Gel precipitation reactions determined antibody isotypes in bile from hens differing in dietary efficiency. Ouchterlony double diffusion employing ¿-chain specific goat-anti-chicken IgA, rabbit anti-chicken IgG, goat anti-chicken IgM, black turtle bean (BTB), and Jacalin lectins as precipitating reagents detected bile IgA, IgG, and IgM from Salmonella exposed and nonexposed hens. The IgA was present in 1 of 3 forms designated by reagent and frequency: IgAB (precipitated by BTB lectin) 100%; ...

  11. Rapid and Simultaneous Identification of Two Salmonella enterica Serotypes, Enteritidis and Typhimurium from Chicken and Meat Products by Multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Issa Malkawi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to overcome the large volume of work required to detect and identify food samples that may contain Salmonella enterica serotypes Enteritidis ?and Typhimurium, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR was used as a diagnostic tool to identify Salmonella enterica, Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis and Typhimurium in naturally contaminated meat and poultry products. Three sets of known S. enterica and serotypes S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium specific primers were applied to simultaneous identification of such pathogens in the most frequently used fresh and frozen meat (beef and lamb and poultry (chicken products (whole, cut, ground and processed collected from eight locations within Irbid city (Jordan. Out of 93 samples, Only 21 (22.5% samples contained serotype S. typhimurium alone. Nineteen samples (20% showed the 312 bp specific band for serotype S. enteritidis specific band. A total of 28 (30% samples showed only for S. enterica genus and 25 (26.8% samples showed both serotypes S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium. In general, 46 (49.5% samples contained serotype S. typhimurium, while 44 (47.3% samples contained serotype S. enteritidis. Multiplex PCR amplification was shown to be an effective and rapid method for the simultaneous identification of such pathogens in food samples.

  12. Phage amplification assay as rapid method for Salmonella detection / Amplificação de bacteriófagos como um método rápido de detecção de Salmonella

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Regina Silva de, Siqueira; Christine E.R., Dodd; Catherine E.D., Rees.

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de métodos rápidos é crucial para a implantação de programas de HACCP em indústrias de alimentos. Neste contexto, o método de amplificação de bacteriófagos é um instrumento de diagnóstico importante porque está baseado na interação dos bacteriófagos com suas células hospedeiras. Este mét [...] odo, usando o bacteriófago P22, foi aplicado para detectar Salmonella em peito de frango. Amostras de 25 g de peito de frango foram diluídas e as diluições apropriadas foram usadas no método de amplificação de bacteriófagos na detecção de Salmonella. Após 3-4 horas de incubação, foi observado uma titulação de partículas virais de, aproximadamente, 10(4) ufp mL-1 (unidades formadoras de placas virais), indicando a presença de células de Salmonella na carne de frango. A comprovação da presença de Salmonella neste produto foi verificada usando-se plaqueamento direto em ágar XLD e procedimento de enriquecimento convencional. As colônias suspeitas de Salmonella foram sorologicamente testadas e identificadas como pertencendo aos sorogrupos B (grupo de S. typhimurium) e D (grupo de S. enteritidis). Portanto, concluiu-se que este método pode ser aplicado, na detecção de Salmonella em alimentos, porque fornece rápido e conclusivo resultado, reduzindo o tempo de análise e o trabalho laboratorial para 3-4 horas. Abstract in english The application of rapid methods is crucial for the HACCP program implantation in food industry. In this context, Phage Amplification Assay is a good candidate because is based on the interactions of phage and their host bacteria. This method using phage P22 was applied with to detect Salmonella cel [...] ls in chicken breast. Samples of 25 g of chicken breast were diluted and the appropriate dilutions were used in phage amplification assay for Salmonella detection. After 3-4 h of incubation, it was observed a phage titre of approximately 10(4) pfu mL-1, indicating that there were Salmonella cells which were naturally present in the meat. The presence of Salmonella cells were verified by using direct plating on XLD agar and by conventional enrichment procedure. The colonies suspected to be Salmonella were serologically tested and were identified as belonging to the serogroups B (S. typhimurium group) and D (S. enteritidis group). It can be concluded that this method provides a rapid and alternative application for Salmonella detection in food samples reducing both time and laboratory work to 3-4 hours.

  13. Cytotoxic mechanism of cytolethal distending toxin in nontyphoidal Salmonella serovar (Salmonella Javiana) during macrophage infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Katherine; Gokulan, Kuppan; Shelman, Diamond; Akiyama, Tatsuya; Khan, Ashraf; Khare, Sangeeta

    2015-02-01

    Cytolethal distending toxin B (cdtB) is a conserved virulence factor in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Here we report the presence and functionality of cdtB in some nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars, including Salmonella Javiana (cdtB+wt S. Javiana), isolated from imported food. To understand the role of cdtB in NTS serovars, a deletion mutant (cdtB(-)?S. Javiana) was constructed. Macrophages were infected with cdtB+wt S. Javiana (wild type), cdtB(-)? S. Javiana (mutant), and cdtB-negative NTS serovar (S. Typhimurium). Cytotoxic activity and transcription level of genes involved in cell death (apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis) were assessed in infected macrophages. The cdtB+wt S. Javiana caused cellular distension as well as high degree of vacuolization and presence of the autophagosome marker LC3 in infected macrophages as compared with cdtB(-)?S. Javiana. The mRNA expression of genes involved in the induction of autophagy in response to toxin (Esr1 and Pik3C3) and coregulators of autophagy and apoptosis (Bax and Cyld) were significantly upregulated in cdtB(+)wt S. Javiana-infected macrophages. As autophagy destroys internalized pathogens in addition to the infected cell, it may reduce the spread of infection. PMID:25389664

  14. Biological effect of plutonium 239 on Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmonella typhimurium cells were exposed in a 239Pu citrate solution. Cell death and induction of gene mutations were an exponential fucntion of ?-radiation dose. LD37 was 34.8 Gy; mutation doubling dose, 19 Gy

  15. AMES SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY ASSAY PROCEDURE FOR WATER SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes methods for water and wastewater sample collection and processing for the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay. uidelines are provided for sampling equipment, composite sample collection, storage, and handling; sample filtration and extraction and concentratio...

  16. Gamma irradiation increase the sensitivity of Salmonella to antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the effect of ionizing radiation on the resistance of Salmonella to antibiotics, four strains of Salmonella were isolated from foods, The different strains used in the present study are (S. Hadar isolate 287, S. Hadar isolate 63, S. Cerro isolate 291, S. Zanzibar isolate 1103), antibiogram analyses were made to test the in vitro-sensitivity of irradiated Salmonella isolates to different antibiotics.The analyse of Control and exposed antibiograms showed that gamma radiation have increased the sensitivity of Salmonella isolates to Cefalotin, Chloramphenicol, Nalidixic acid, Spiramycin and Gentamycin excepted S. Hadar isolate 287 that was resistant to Cefalotin and became sensitive after irradiation. Statistical analyses showed that the effect of different irradiation dose treatment on the antibiotic sensitivity is increasingly significant. The irradiation didn't induce modifications of the sensitivity to other antibiotics,probably because of their nature, of their penetration mode inside the cell or their action way

  17. Physical maps of Klebsiella aerogenes and Salmonella typhimurium hut genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Blumenberg, M.; Magasanik, B.

    1981-01-01

    The recognition sites for several restriction endonucleases were mapped within deoxyribonucleic acid coding for histidine utilization (hut) genes of Salmonella typhimurium and Klebsiella aerogenes. Deoxyribonucleic acid fragments containing the two hut promoters were identified by ribonucleic acid polymerase binding.

  18. 78 FR 42451 - Animal Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ...commerce and found upon examination to be contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms: Bone meal, blood meal, crab meal, feather meal, fish meal, fish solubles, meat scraps, poultry meat meal, tankage, or other similar animal...

  19. Radiation processing for the control of Salmonella in frog legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large consignments of frogs legs are exported annually from India. Failure to satisfy some of the strict microbiological standards, especially in relating to Salmonellae contamination, has resulted in the rejection of large quantities of the product in recent years. This has emphasised the need for better and more effective methods than those currently in use for the elimination of Salmonellae. With a view to developing an irradiation process for the control of this public health problem, commercial samples of frog legs have been screened to assess the incidence of Salmonella. The various serotypes have been identified and their radiation sensitivities determined. Based on these data, a radiation treatment of frozen frog legs for the elimination of Salmonella has been developed. (author)

  20. Ionizing Radiation for the Elimination of Salmonellae from Frozen Meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation resistance in frozen meat of a number of different serotypes of Salmonella has been examined. A dose of 0.65 Mrad achieves a 106 reduction in the numbers of the most resistant types and this dose has been shown to be effective in eliminating salmonellae from naturally contaminated meat. Some results are outlined which show that (a) Salmonella resistance is higher in frozen meat than in unfrozen meat, (b) pre-irradiation growth of the organisms in meat does not influence resistance, (c) salmonellae surviving irradiation grow at a slower rate than unirradiated organisms and appear to be unchanged in serological properties or phage type. Reference is made to wholesomeness tests carried out on irradiated meat and to the current situation on legislation in the United Kingdom controlling the irradiation of food. The identification of irradiated food is also mentioned. (author)

  1. Positive effects of diet change on shedding of Salmonella spp. in the feces of captive felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charles E; Bemis, David A; Ramsay, Edward C

    2002-03-01

    A high prevalence of fecal Salmonella shedding in a collection of healthy exotic felids precipitated a change to two new commercially available feline diets. One year after initiation of the new diets, 18 fecal samples from individual felines, their exhibits, and representative samples of the diets were cultured for Salmonella spp. Only one culture grew a Salmonella sp. Salmonella uganda was cultured from the feces of one snow leopard (Felis uncia). Feeding a diet with minimal to no Salmonella contamination lowered Salmonella shedding rates in this collection of captive exotic felids. PMID:12216800

  2. Isolated lymphoid follicles are not IgA inductive sites for recombinant Salmonella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we investigated whether isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF) play a role in the regulation of intestinal IgA antibody (Ab) responses. The transfer of wild type (WT) bone marrow (BM) to lymphotoxin-?-deficient (LT?-/-) mice resulted in the formation of mature ILF containing T cells, B cells, and FDC clusters in the absence of mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. Although the ILF restored total IgA Abs in the intestine, antigen (Ag)-specific IgA responses were not induced after oral immunization with recombinant Salmonella expressing fragment C of tetanus toxin. Moreover, Ag-specific cell proliferation was not detected in the ILF. Interestingly, no IgA anti-LPS Abs were detected in the fecal extracts of LT?-/- mice reconstituted with WT BM. On the basis of these findings, ILF can be presumed to play a role in the production of IgA Abs, but lymphoid nodules are not inductive sites for the regulation of Ag-specific intestinal IgA responses to recombinant Salmonella

  3. Oral immunization of swine with attenuated Salmonella typhimurium aroA SL3261 expressing a recombinant antigen of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (NrdF) primes the immune system for a NrdF specific secretory IgA response in the lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, P K; Walker, M J; Chin, J; Eamens, G J; Djordjevic, S P

    2001-02-01

    Salmonella typhimurium SL3261 (aroA mutant) expressing a recombinant Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigen was used to orally immunize swine against porcine enzootic pneumonia. This construct, designated S. typhimurium aro A SL3261 (pKF1), expressed a recombinant protein containing the carboxy-terminal 11 kDa of a 42 kDa M. hyopneumoniae NrdF ribonucleotide reductase R2 subunit protein. Here we demonstrate that this antigen is present in all seven geographically diverse strains of M. hyopneumoniae tested, and is recognized by the swine immune system after experimental infection with the virulent M. hyopneumoniae Beaufort strain. The immune response of swine orally immunized twice with S. typhimurium SL3261 (pKF1) on day 0 and day 14 was evaluated. Oral immunization with S. typhimurium SL3261 (pKF1) primed the immune system to elicit a significant (PSL3261 (pKF1) proliferated significantly (PSL3261 (pKF1) showed higher average daily weight gains and reduced lung pathology compared to control groups. PMID:11162190

  4. The transfer and growth of Salmonella modelled during pork processing and applied to a risk assessment for the catering sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØller, Cleide

    2012-01-01

    Salmonellosis is an important cause of foodborne human gastroenteritis in most European countries, and pork contributes significantly to the disease burden caused by Salmonella infections. A traditional, and very popular, pork product in Denmark is fried meatballs. Danish meatballs are typically made with ground pork as the main ingredient. They are consumed as a component in hot meals but are also widely used as filling in cold sandwiches. Because of their popularity, pork meatballs are often part of the product range in Danish catering settings. As illustrated by the fact that 55 of 77 reported outbreaks in Denmark in 2010 were associated with outside-the-home settings, such as restaurants, canteens, hotels, schools, shops, institutions and sport events (Anonymous 2011), food prepared outside the home is a significant source of foodborne illness. In the present study, Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA), following the Codex Alimentarius Principles and using the modular process risk model (MPRM) methodology, was used as the tool to investigate the fate of Salmonella during processing of pork meatballs from the reception of whole pork cuttings, through processing, until the point of consumption in a catering unit, e.g. worksite or school canteens. Appropriate transfer, growth and inactivation models developed specifically for Salmonella spp. in fresh meat, preferably pork, were applied to evaluate different scenarios for a food processing line constructed from two observational studies. Applying the proposed QMRA model (MANUSCRIPT II), risk estimates of illness from meatballs processed by the catering sector per year in Denmark were obtained (no cases applying a core temperature >71°C, 27 cases applying a core temperature of 65°C, 69 cases without applying a final heat treatment in oven). When comparing with recent epidemiological data from 2011 (44 –131 reported cases) for Salmonella cases in Denmark related to pork (Anonymous, 2012), these estimates are considered reasonable and realistic. Core temperatures higher than 71°C were found sufficient to inactivate Salmonella in meatballs, indicating that the recommendation from the Danish Food Authorities of 75°C is sufficient to eliminate this pathogen. Survival as a result of ineffective heating and growth of Salmonella during cooling had relevant impact on the risk estimates and, therefore, these processing steps should continue to be considered critical for meatballs safety. However, more knowledge about the critical limits was obtained, e.g. cooling of meatballs at temperatures lower than 24°C for periods shorter than three hours does not allow growth of the remaining Salmonella cells. In addition, prevalence and concentration of Salmonellahad higher impact on the risk estimates, thereby justifying the efforts to keep these factors low. The flexible structure of the QMRA model allows scenario analysis, which consequently makes it possible to expand the use of the QMRA model from pathogen outbreak investigation to product development and other food safety evaluation activities, e.g. efficiency of guidelines and establishment of critical limits. Two of the predictive models used to build the QMRA model (MANUSCRIPT II) were also developed in this thesis: - The transfer of Salmonella during grinding of pork was successfully modelled in processing of up to 110 pork slices corresponding to 21 kg meat (PAPER I). This model includes the pieces of meat that are contaminated before grinding and it gives clear explanations of all the parameters involved that combined give an overview of the dynamics of a grinding process. The structure of the model, and particularly its ability to predict the tailing phenomenon of low contaminated portions, seems relevant for different cross contamination processes. - Effect of pork natural microbiota on growth of Salmonella was modelled and predicted during storage of ground pork at temperatures between 4°C and 38°C (MANUSCRIPT I). Continued growth of Salmonella after the natural microbiota had reached their max. populat

  5. Microcantilver-based DNA hybridization sensors for Salmonella identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Ricciardi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The detection of pathogenic microorganisms in foods remains a challenging since the safety of foodstuffs has to be ensured by the food producing companies. Conventional methods for the detection and identification of bacteria mainly rely on specific microbiological and biochemical identification. Biomolecular methods, are commonly used as a support for traditional techniques, thanks to their high sensitivity, specificity and not excessive costs. However, new methods like biosensors for example, can be an exciting alternative to the more traditional tecniques for the detection of pathogens in food. In this study we report Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis DNA detection through a novel class of label-free biosensors: microcantilevers (MCs. In general, MCs can operate as a microbalance and is used to detect the mass of the entities anchored to the cantilever surface using the decrease in the resonant frequency. We use DNA hybridization as model reaction system and for this reason, specific single stranded probe DNA of the pathogen and three different DNA targets (single-stranded complementary DNA, PCR product and serial dilutions of DNA extracted from S. Enteritidis strains were applied. Two protocols were reported in order to allow the probe immobilization on cantilever surface: i MC surface was functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and glutaraldehyde and an amino-modified DNA probe was used; ii gold-coated sensors and thiolated DNA probes were used in order to generate a covalent bonding (Th-Au. For the first one, measures after hybridization with the PCR product showed related frequency shift 10 times higher than hybridization with complementary probe and detectable signals were obtained at the concentrations of 103 and 106 cfu/mL after hybridization with bacterial DNA. There are currently optimizations of the second protocol, where preliminary results have shown to be more uniform and therefore more precise within each of the three hybridizations.

  6. O:2-CRM197 Conjugates against Salmonella Paratyphi A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micoli, Francesca; Rondini, Simona; Gavini, Massimiliano; Lanzilao, Luisa; Medaglini, Donata; Saul, Allan; Martin, Laura B.

    2012-01-01

    Enteric fevers remain a common and serious disease, affecting mainly children and adolescents in developing countries. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was believed to cause most enteric fever episodes, but several recent reports have shown an increasing incidence of S. Paratyphi A, encouraging the development of a bivalent vaccine to protect against both serovars, especially considering that at present there is no vaccine against S. Paratyphi A. The O-specific polysaccharide (O:2) of S. Paratyphi A is a protective antigen and clinical data have previously demonstrated the potential of using O:2 conjugate vaccines. Here we describe a new conjugation chemistry to link O:2 and the carrier protein CRM197, using the terminus 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (KDO), thus leaving the O:2 chain unmodified. The new conjugates were tested in mice and compared with other O:2-antigen conjugates, synthesized adopting previously described methods that use CRM197 as carrier protein. The newly developed conjugation chemistry yielded immunogenic conjugates with strong serum bactericidal activity against S. Paratyphi A. PMID:23144798

  7. Monitoring bacteriolytic therapy of salmonella typhimurium with optical imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systemically administrated Salmonella has been studied for targeting tumor and developed as an anticancer agent. In Salmonella, because msbB gene plays role in the terminal myristoylation of lipid A and induces tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-a) -mediated septic shock, Salmonella msbB mutant strain is safe and useful for tumor-targeting therapy. Here we report that Salmonella msbB mutant strain induce onco lysis after intravenous injection in tumor bearing mice. The CT26 mouse colon cancer cells were stably transfected with firefly luciferase gene and subcutaneously implantated in Balb/C mice. After establishing subcutaneous tumor mass, we intravenously injected 1x108 cfu Salmonella msbB mutant strain or MG1655 E coli strain. Not only tumor size but also total photon flux from the tumor mass were monitored. everyday and compared among experimental groups (No treatment, Salmonella treatment, E. coli MG1655 treatment group). After intraperitoneal injection of D-Iuciferin (3 mg/animal), in vivo optical imaging for firefly luciferase was performed using cooled CCD camera. Imaging signal from Salmonella injected group were significantly lower than that of no treatment or E. coli treatment group on day 2 after injection. On day 4 after injection, imaging signal of salmonella-injected group was 43.8 or 20.7 times lower than that of no treatment or E. coli treatment group, respectively (no treatment: 2.78E+07 p/s/cm2/sr, Salmonella treatment: 6.35E+05 p/s/cm22/sr, E. coli treatment: 1.29E+07 p/s/cm2/sr, P<0.05). However. when we injected E. coli MG1655 into tumor bearing mice, the intensity of imaging signal was not different from no treatment group. These findings suggest that Salmonella msbB mutant strain retains its tumor-targeting properties and have therapeutical effect. Bioluminescent tumor bearing animal model was useful for assessing tumor viability after bacteriolytic therapy using Salmonella

  8. Role of T cells, TNF alpha and IFN gamma in recall of immunity to oral challenge with virulent salmonellae in mice vaccinated with live attenuated aro- Salmonella vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroeni, P; Villarreal-Ramos, B; Hormaeche, C E

    1992-12-01

    The SL3261 Salmonella typhimurium aroA live vaccine strain confers solid protection against oral challenge with virulent salmonellae, immunity persisting long after the vaccine has been cleared from the tissues. BALB/c mice immunized with SL3261 and later subjected to in vivo depletion of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells had impaired recall of immunity to oral challenge with the virulent S. typhimurium C5, with increased mortality and higher bacterial loads in the reticuloendothelial system (RES). Selective depletion of CD4+ cells alone significantly impaired resistance both 8 and 14 weeks after vaccination as determined by estimation of bacterial numbers in organ homogenates. Depletion of CD8+ cells alone had less effect on immunity when performed at 8 weeks than at 14 weeks after immunization. Administration of anti-IFN gamma or anti-TNF alpha antibodies also impaired recall of immunity, exacerbating a secondary infection in vaccinated mice. Challenge of T cell-depleted immune mice with virulent salmonellae caused hepatosplenomegaly with minute grossly visible focal lesions, and a marked increase in the number and severity of necrotic foci in spleen, liver and lymph nodes. A widespread mononuclear cell infiltrate was present. The histopathology in anti-IFN gamma-treated mice was qualitatively similar to that seen in T-cell depleted mice. In contrast, in the anti-TNF alpha-treated mice splenomegaly was much less than in T cell-depleted mice. Granulomas were absent, no mononuclear infiltration was observed and there was severe necrosis; the lesions appeared similar to or worse than those seen in naïve mice. Surprisingly, IFN gamma was detectable in sera of both controls and T cell-depleted mice on day 8 of the secondary infection, as well as in sera of anti-TNF alpha-treated mice on day 6 of infection. The results indicate that T cells, IFN gamma and TNF alpha are all important in the specific recall of immunity to virulent salmonellae conferred by immunization with live vaccines, with the effect of T cell and IFN gamma depletion (marked macrophage infiltration) being qualitatively very different from that of TNF alpha neutralization (no mononuclear infiltrate or granuloma formation). PMID:1363824

  9. Inhibition of Salmonella Host Cell Invasion by Dimethyl Sulfide?

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, L. Caetano M; Buckner, Michelle M. C.; Auweter, Sigrid D; Ferreira, Rosana B. R.; Loli?, Petra; Finlay#, B. Brett

    2010-01-01

    We show that dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) inhibits Salmonella hilA expression and that this inhibition is stronger under anaerobiosis. Because DMSO can be reduced to dimethyl sulfide (DMS) during anaerobic growth, we hypothesized that DMS was responsible for hilA inhibition. Indeed, DMS strongly inhibited the expression of hilA and multiple Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1)-associated genes as well as the invasion of cultured epithelial cells. Because DMSO and DMS are widespread in natur...

  10. International outbreak of Salmonella Oranienburg due to German chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Weise Ekkehard; Bartelt Edda; Behnke Susanne C; Fisher Ian ST; Prager Rita; Roggentin Peter; Hauri Anja M; Ethelberg Steen; Fell Gerhard; van Treeck Ulrich; Feil Fabian; Dreesman Johannes; Werber Dirk; Ellis Andrea; Siitonen Anja

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background This report describes a large international chocolate-associated Salmonella outbreak originating from Germany. Methods We conducted epidemiologic investigations including a case-control study, and food safety investigations. Salmonella (S.) Oranienburg isolates were subtyped by the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results From 1 October 2001 through 24 March 2002, an estimated excess of 439 S. Oranienburg notifications was registered in Germany. Simultaneous...

  11. International outbreak of Salmonella Oranienburg due to German chocolate.

    OpenAIRE

    Werber, Dirk; Dreesman, Johannes; Feil, Fabian; Treeck, Ulrich; Fell, Gerhard; Ethelberg, Steen; Hauri, Anja M.; Roggentin, Peter; Prager, Rita; Fisher, Ian St; Behnke, Susanne; Bartelt, Edda; Weise, Ekkehard; Ellis, Andrea; Siitonen, Anja

    2005-01-01

    Background: This report describes a large international chocolate-associated Salmonella outbreak originating from Germany. Methods: We conducted epidemiologic investigations including a case-control study, and food safety investigations. Salmonella (S.) Oranienburg isolates were subtyped by the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results: From 1 October 2001 through 24 March 2002, an estimated excess of 439 S. Oranienburg notifications was registered in Germany. Simultaneously, an...

  12. Targeting Tumors with Salmonella Typhimurium - Potential for Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, Daniel M.; Srikanth, C. V.; McCormick, Beth A

    2011-01-01

    When one considers the organism Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), one usually thinks of the Gram-negative enteric pathogen that causes the severe food borne illness, gastroentertitis. In this context, the idea of Salmonella being exploited as a cancer therapeutic seems pretty remote. However, there has been an escalating interest in the development of tumor-therapeutic bacteria for use in the treatment of a variety of cancers. This strategy takes advantage of the rema...

  13. Salmonella in free living terrestrial and aquatic turtles

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo-vila, J.; Di?az-paniagua, Carmen; Frutos-escobar, C.; Jime?nez-marti?nez, C.; Pe?rez-santigosa, N.

    2007-01-01

    Detection of Salmonella in pet turtles has been the focus of extensive research, but its incidence in free living turtles is not well known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of Salmonella in terrestrial and aquatic species of chelonians inhabiting a National Park in southwestern Spain. Individuals of the terrestrial tortoise Testudo graeca (n = 16) and the aquatic turtles Emys orbicularis (n = 26) and Mauremys leprosa (n = 50) were investigated. Maximum incidence of Salmone...

  14. Reducing Salmonella horizontal transmission during egg incubation by phage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Ana; Sereno, Rui; Almeida, Adelaide

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella is a serious problem for both animal production and public health worldwide. Contaminated poultry is the main vehicle of Salmonella and the most important serotype is Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. In order to test the efficiency of bacteriophages to treat Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infections in poultry, a cocktail of two phages, F1055S and F12013S, isolated from chicken litter was applied by aerosol spray on fertile eggs challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experiment in which phages were applied by spray on fertile eggs. Two groups of eggs were challenged with Salmonella (3×10(8) colony-forming units [CFU]/mL) and one of them was treated with the phage suspension (2×10(6) plaque-forming units [PFU]/mL). A third group was used as nonchallenged and nontreated control. The phage treatment of challenged Salmonella eggs reduced the disease symptoms in the chicks. The arthritis and pasting after 8 days in the challenged and treated group were similar to those normally occurring in chicks (nonchallenged and nontreated chick control group) (p=1.000 and p=0.828, respectively, for arthritis and pasting) and were significantly lower than the challenged but nontreated ones (p=0.017 and p=0.002 for arthritis and pasting, respectively). The phage-treated group did not lose weight, showing an average weight similar to that of the nonchallenged control group and higher than that of the challenged nontreated group. The results of this study suggest that the application of phages by aerosol spray during the transfer of the eggs from incubators to hatchers may be an effective and inexpensive approach for reducing the horizontal transfer of Salmonella in poultry. PMID:23672473

  15. Salmonella typhimurium virulence in a burned-mouse model.

    OpenAIRE

    Carsiotis, M.; Stocker, B. A.; Holder, I A

    1989-01-01

    Various features of salmonellosis were examined in a burned-mouse model. In this model, which uses an outbred mouse strain, a challenge dose of ca. 100 CFU with any of several strains of Salmonella typhimurium caused a fatal infection. A variety of mutated strains attenuated for virulence in Salmonella-susceptible parenterally infected mice were also attenuated in the burned-mouse model. When administered as live vaccines injected intraperitoneally the same attenuated strains provided between...

  16. Direct immunoassay for detection of salmonellae in foods and feeds.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, J. M.; Hartman, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    A direct enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with polyclonal antibodies was developed for detecting salmonellae in foods and feeds. Salmonella cells were attached firmly to the wells of polystyrene microtitration plates with a capture-antibody technique. Spicer-Edwards anti-H immunoglobulin G was bound to protein A-beta-D-galactosidase to serve as the signal; 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside was used as the substrate. The sensitivity threshold was 10(7) cells per ml. Direct EIA, indirect EIA, and...

  17. A Genetic Characterization of the Nadc Gene of Salmonella Typhimurium

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, K T; Roth, J. R.; Olivera, B. M.

    1991-01-01

    The nadC gene of Salmonella encodes the pyridine biosynthetic enzyme PRPP-quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase. Using a combination of genetic techniques, a deletion map for the Salmonella nadC gene has been generated which includes over 100 point mutants and 18 deletion intervals. The nadC alleles obtained by hydroxylamine mutagenesis include those suppressed by either amber, ochre, or UGA nonsense suppressors as well as alleles suppressed by the missense suppressor, sumA. Deletions were ob...

  18. Antibacterial effect of some leaf extracts on Salmonella typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlot, D; Bohra, A

    2000-03-01

    Aqueous and methanol extracts of fresh leaves of twenty desert plants of Rajasthan state were tested for their antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhi, causal organism of typhoid fever in human beings. 10% concentrate extracts of leaves of various plant species were used for testing antibacterial potential. Five plant species were found to have inhibitory effect against the organism. Fagonia cretica leaf extracts were found most effective against Salmonella typhi. PMID:11227613

  19. Tentative Colistin Epidemiological Cut-Off Value for Salmonella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Agersø, Yvonne; Torpdahl, Mia; Zachariasen, Camilla; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Hammerum, Anette M.; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) population distributions for colistin for Salmonella on subtype level. Furthermore, we wanted to determine if differences in MIC for colistin could be explained by mutations in pmrA or pmrB encoding proteins involved in processes that influence the binding of colistin to the cell membrane. During 2008–2011, 6,583 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica isolates of human origin and 1931 isolates of animal/meat...

  20. How Salmonella oxidises H(2) under aerobic conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Parkin, A.; Bowman, L.; Roessler, Mm; Davies, Ra; Palmer, T.; Armstrong, Fa; Sargent, F.

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a Gram negative bacterial pathogen and a common cause of food-borne illness. Molecular hydrogen has been shown to be a key respiratory electron donor during infection and H(2) oxidation can be catalysed by three genetically-distinct [NiFe] hydrogenases. Of these, hydrogenases-1 (Hyd-1) and Hyd-2 have well-characterised homologues in Escherichia coli. The third, designated Hyd-5 here, is peculiar to Salmonella and is expressed under aerobic conditions...

  1. Evaluation of the Lon-deficient Salmonella strain as an oral vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Chie; Eguchi, Masahiro; Sekiya, Yukie; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Kikuchi, Yuji; Matsui, Hidenori

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of CS2022 (the Lon protease-deficient mutant strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium) as a candidate live oral vaccine strain against subsequent oral challenge with a virulent strain administered to BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. CS2022 persistently resided in the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, and cecum of both strains of mice after a single oral inoculation with 1 x 10(8) colony-forming units. Finally, CS2022 almost disappeared from each tissue sample by week 12 in BALB/c mice, whereas CS2022 still resided in each tissue type at week 12 after inoculation of C57BL/6 mice. A significant increase in the serovar Typhimurium lipopolysaccharide-specific secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA), as measured for one of the mucosal immune responses, was detected in bile and intestinal samples of both strains of immunized mice at week 4 after immunization. In addition, the expression of gamma interferon mRNA in the spleens of both strains of immunized mice, especially those of C57BL/6 mice, was significantly increased at week 4 after immunization and was boosted during the following 5 days after the challenge was administered to the mice. Furthermore, peritoneal macrophages isolated from immunized mice at week 4 after immunization exhibited an increase in intracellular killing activity against both virulent and avirulent Salmonella. The present results suggested that salmonellae-specific s-IgA on the mucosal surfaces induced by immunization with CS2022 generally prevented mice from succumbing to an oral challenge with a virulent strain. Simultaneously, CS2022 promoted the protective immunity associated with macrophages in both strains of mice. PMID:16365528

  2. Survival of Salmonella on basil plants and in pesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckner, Karl F; Høgåsen, Helga R; Begum, Mumtaz; Økland, Marianne; Cudjoe, Kofitsyo S; Johannessen, Gro S

    2015-02-01

    Leafy greens, including fresh herbs, have repeatedly been involved in outbreaks of foodborne disease. Although much effort has been put into studying leafy greens and products such as head lettuce and baby leaves, less is known about fresh leafy herbs, such as basil. The goal of this study was to investigate the survival of Salmonella on basil plants and in pesto. A mix of three Salmonella strains (Reading, Newport, and Typhimurium) was inoculated onto basil leaves and pesto and survived during the experimental period. Whereas the mix of Salmonella survived in pesto stored at 4°C for 4 days, Salmonella was recovered from inoculated leaves for up to 18 days at 20 to 22°C. Although the steady decline of Salmonella on leaves and in pesto suggests a lack of growth, it appears that pesto is a hostile environment for Salmonella because the rate of decline in pesto was faster (0.29 log CFU/g/day) than on leaves (0.11 log CFU/g/day). These findings suggest that the dilution of contaminated ingredients and the bactericidal effect of the pesto environment helped to further reduce the level of enteric organisms during storage, which may have applications for food safety. PMID:25710158

  3. Salmonella carriers among expatriate workers in Al-Qatif area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albreiki Hassan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salmonella infection and diarrhoeal diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. All expatriates applying for work permits in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA have to undergo a governmental compulsory health check program. Aim of the study: To estimate the number of salmonella carriers who had previously been diagnosed as free of infection. Subjects and methods: Over a period of two years, a total of 17, 918 workers in Al-Qatif area, in the Eastern Province were tested for salmonella on stool samples. Results: Three hundred and twenty eight were found to be asymptomatic carriers of salmonella. The highest frequency was found among workers from Egypt (13.1 % while Filipinos and Indians were the lowest carriers (1.2%. Salmonella serogroups E, C 1 and C2 were most common ( 29%, 29% and 23.5% respectively followed by serogroups B, D and C (13%, 3.7% and 1% respectively. No Shigella species were isolated. All carriers were given antibiotics and were instructed in prophylactic hygiene measures. After completing the course of antibiotics, they were retested and found to be clear of infection. Conclusion: The health check system in this area will contribute towards the prevention of outbreaks of infection by salmonella

  4. Epidemiology and control measures for Salmonella in pigs and pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Hald, Tine

    2002-01-01

    In order to effectively manage the problem of human salmonellosis attributable to pork and pork products, control measures should be taken simultaneously at all levels of production. These measures require an understanding of the epidemiology of Salmonella within and between links of the production chain. Two major factors of pre-harvest Salmonella epidemiology are the introduction and subsequent transmission of infection within and between herds. Stress imposed by transportation and the associated handling can significantly increase the number of pigs excreting Salmonella upon arrival at the abattoir and during lairage, exposing negative pigs to Salmonella. Positive pigs carry Salmonella on the skin, in the gastro-intestinal system or in the mouth. The (cross-)contamination of carcasses is basically a matter of redistributing the Salmonella bacteria from the positive pigs during the various slaughter processes. Although the manufacturing and retail levels of pork production depend on the quality of raw materials that are delivered, they share the responsibility for the quality and safety of the end products reaching the consumer. At this level and onwards, the three main factors which influence the microbiological quality of meats are handling, time and temperature. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Survivability of Salmonella typhimurium L1388 and Salmonella enteritidis L1225 under stressful growth conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngwai YB

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In an earlier study with Salmonella typhimurium L1388 (ST and Salmonella enteritidis L1225 (SE isolated from diseased chickens, we found that SE formed more biofilm than ST on abiotic surfaces in a time-dependent manner. Since the ability of salmonellae to survive extreme environment is related to their virulence, the present study examined the survival of Salmonella typhimurium L1388 and Salmonella nteritidis L1225 under the usual stresses that salmonellae encounter during their life cycle. This is with a view to understanding the strains’ stress tolerance that could be used to explain their virulence. Incubation at 37oC for various time periods was done for: i stationary phase (SP cells at pH 2.6; ii log-phase (LP cells at pH 4.0; log-phase or stationary phase cells in broth containing iii hydrogen peroxide, iv sodium chloride and v ethanol; vi stationary phase cells in Hank’s balanced salt solution (single strength containing 10% human serum; and vii prolong stationary phase cells. Stationary phase cells were also incubated at 52oC for 15 min. Surviving cells at the various incubation times were counted on trypticase soy agar (TSA after appropriate dilution in saline and overnight incubation at 37oC. Growth iron-poor medium was determined by growing a single bacterial colony in Medium A with shaking at 37oC or 40oC for 24 h. Statistics was done by one-way analysis-of-variance (ANOVA at P = 0.05. Differences in the survival of ST and SE were insignificant (p>0.05 in acid pH at both pH 4.0 (p = 0.3783 and pH 2.6 (p = 0.4711; at high salinity for log-phase (p = 0.1416 and stationary phase (p = 0.1816 cells; in ethanol (p = 0.5984, human serum (p = 0.8139, prolonged stationary phase (p = 0.3506; and under heat (p = 0.5766. SE was significantly (p<0.05; p = 0.0031 more tolerant to oxidative-killing by hydrogen peroxide. Culturable growth of the ST and SE in an iron-poor medium A revealed insignificant differences at 37oC (p = 0.8381 but marginally significant at 40oC (p = 0.0508. Thus, with the exception of survival in hydrogen peroxide, SE had similar response pattern with ST to the usual stresses that salmonellae encounter during their life cycle, despite the former’s preferential ability to form biofilm on abiotic surfaces. The relationship between the observed enhanced ability of SE to survive in hydrogen peroxide and virulence need to be investigated in subsequent study.

  6. Serovars of Salmonella from captive reptiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Lassen-Nielsen, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    The distribution on serovars of 60 Salmonella isolates from reptiles kept in captivity in Denmark during the period 1995–2006 was investigated. The isolates were all recovered from clinical specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Institute. A majority of the samples were from reptiles in zoological gardens or similar, while a minor number was from reptiles kept in private homes. A total of 43 serovars were detected, most of them being what is usually called exotic serotypes, and many not having a trivial name, while a few isolates belonged to well-known human pathogenic serovars, such as S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, S. Bovismorbificans. One isolate was rough and two were non-typeable. Isolates from turtles belonged to the subspecies enterica, while many isolates from both sauria and snakes belonged to other subspecies. The findings underline the potential zoonotic risk by handling reptiles in zoological garden or other public settings, or keeping pet reptiles in private homes.

  7. Salmonella tel-el-kebir and terrapins.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, M

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVES: An outbreak of Salmonella tel-el-kebir occurring over a 6-month period is described in this report. This is the first outbreak of S. tel-el-kebir in the reported literature. METHODS: S. tel-el-kebir was isolated from human faecal samples using conventional laboratory methods. RESULTS: Eight patients had S. tel-el-kebir isolated from faeces. All patients were owners of, or in close contact with, pet terrapins. The terrapins were purchased in the same pet shop, where they were imported from America. The epidemiological link with these pets was confirmed, as S. tel-el-kebir was isolated from cloacal swabs from the terrapins, and from terrapin water. Molecular biology studies using DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) gave identical fingerprint patterns for all human and terrapin isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Salmonellosis associated with exotic pets is a re-emerging disease in the 1990s, and measures to reduce this are discussed.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence determinants in European Salmonella genomic island 1-positive Salmonella enterica isolates from different origins.

    OpenAIRE

    Beutlich, J.; Jahn, S; Malorny, B.; Hauser, E.; Hühn, S.; Schroeter, A.; Rosario Rodicio, M.; Appel, B.; Thelfall, J.; Mevius, D.J.; Helmuth, R.; Guerra, B.

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) contains a multidrug resistance region conferring the ampicillin-chloramphenicol-streptomycin-sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline resistance phenotype encoded by bla(PSE-1), floR, aadA2, sul1, and tet(G). Its increasing spread via interbacterial transfer and the emergence of new variants are important public health concerns. We investigated the molecular properties of SGI1-carrying Salmonella enterica serovars selected from a European strain collection. A total of...

  9. Pontos críticos de controle de Salmonella spp. no abate de frangos / Critical control points for Salmonella spp. in poultry slaughter

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D.A.S., Von Rückert; P.S.A., Pinto; B.M., Santos; M.A.S., Moreira; A.C.A., Rodrigues.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a presença de Salmonella spp. em esfregaços superficiais em 135 carcaças de frangos, coletadas em cinco diferentes fases do abate, utilizando os métodos de microbiologia convencional, reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR) e imunoanálise. Os três métodos resultaram em tendência semelhante d [...] e detecção de Salmonella spp. nas carcaças de frango, ao longo da linha de abate. A maior frequência de Salmonella spp. foi determinada após o chuveiro de lavagem das carcaças, localizado entre a evisceração e o pré-resfriamento. Vinte (14,8%) esfregaços foram determinados pela metodologia convencional, 52 (38,5%) pela PCR e 66 (48,8%) pela imunoanálise. A menor contaminação foi encontrada na saída do pré-resfriamento, com frequências de 3,7%, 0% e 16,7%, respectivamente. Salmonella spp. foi encontrada em todas as fases de abate, mostrando a importância do monitoramento de diferentes pontos críticos de controle eventualmente identificados no abate de frangos. Abstract in english The presence of Salmonella spp. in superficial swabs collected from 135 chicken carcasses in five different slaugther steps using the conventional microbiology, PCR, and immunoanalysis methods was evaluated. The three methods presented similar tendency to detect Salmonella spp. in the chicken carcas [...] ses along the slaugther line. The highest frequency of Salmonella spp. was found after the shower, located between the evisceration and the chiller. Twenty (14.8%) swabes were determined by the conventional methodology, 52 (38.9%) by the PCR, and 66 (48.9%) by the immunoanalysis. The lowest contamination was found after chiller tank, where the frequencies were 5 (3.7%), 0 (0%), and 24 (16.7%), respectively. Salmonella spp. was found in all the slaugther steps. This shows the importance for monitoring different CCP (Control Critical Point) in the poultry slaughterhouses.

  10. Pontos críticos de controle de Salmonella spp. no abate de frangos Critical control points for Salmonella spp. in poultry slaughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A.S. Von Rückert

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a presença de Salmonella spp. em esfregaços superficiais em 135 carcaças de frangos, coletadas em cinco diferentes fases do abate, utilizando os métodos de microbiologia convencional, reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR e imunoanálise. Os três métodos resultaram em tendência semelhante de detecção de Salmonella spp. nas carcaças de frango, ao longo da linha de abate. A maior frequência de Salmonella spp. foi determinada após o chuveiro de lavagem das carcaças, localizado entre a evisceração e o pré-resfriamento. Vinte (14,8% esfregaços foram determinados pela metodologia convencional, 52 (38,5% pela PCR e 66 (48,8% pela imunoanálise. A menor contaminação foi encontrada na saída do pré-resfriamento, com frequências de 3,7%, 0% e 16,7%, respectivamente. Salmonella spp. foi encontrada em todas as fases de abate, mostrando a importância do monitoramento de diferentes pontos críticos de controle eventualmente identificados no abate de frangos.The presence of Salmonella spp. in superficial swabs collected from 135 chicken carcasses in five different slaugther steps using the conventional microbiology, PCR, and immunoanalysis methods was evaluated. The three methods presented similar tendency to detect Salmonella spp. in the chicken carcasses along the slaugther line. The highest frequency of Salmonella spp. was found after the shower, located between the evisceration and the chiller. Twenty (14.8% swabes were determined by the conventional methodology, 52 (38.9% by the PCR, and 66 (48.9% by the immunoanalysis. The lowest contamination was found after chiller tank, where the frequencies were 5 (3.7%, 0 (0%, and 24 (16.7%, respectively. Salmonella spp. was found in all the slaugther steps. This shows the importance for monitoring different CCP (Control Critical Point in the poultry slaughterhouses.

  11. Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infection Induces Cyclooxygenase 2 Expression in Macrophages: Involvement of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2

    OpenAIRE

    Uchiya, Kei-ichi; Nikai, Toshiaki

    2004-01-01

    Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2) is required for intramacrophage survival and systemic infection in mice. We have recently reported that Salmonella enterica causes activation of the protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway in a manner dependent on SPI-2, resulting in the upregulation of interleukin-10 expression in macrophages (K. Uchiya et al., Infect. Immun. 72:1964-1973, 2004). We show in the present study the involvement of SPI-2 in a signal transduction pathway that induces the ...

  12. Evaluation of VIDas immuno-concentration Salmonella/VIDAS salmonella immunoassay method for detection of Salmonella in selected foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepper, Wendy A; Schultz, Ann M; Curiale, Michael S; Johnson, Ronald L

    2002-01-01

    The VIDAS Immuno-concentration Salmonella ICS)/VIDAS Salmonella (SLM) immunoassay method for the detection of Salmonella was compared to the Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM)/AOAC culture method in a collaborative study. Thirty-two laboratories participated in the evaluation. Each laboratory tested one or more of the 6 test products: milk chocolate, nonfat dry milk, dried whole egg, soy flour, ground black pepper, and ground raw turkey. The 2 methods were in agreement for 1,266 of the 1,440 samples. Of the 174 samples not in agreement, 69 were VIDAS CS/SLM-positive and BAM/AOAC-negative and 105 were VIDAS ICS/SLM-negative and BAM/AOAC-positive. PMID:12083253

  13. Evaluation of VIDAs Immuno-concentration Salmonella assay Plus selective plate method (Hektoen enteric, bismuth sulfite, Salmonella identification) for detection of Salmonella in selected foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepper, Wendy A; Schultz, Ann M; Curiale, Michael S; Johnson, Ronald L

    2002-01-01

    The VIDAS Immuno-concentration Salmonella (ICS) plus selective plate method (Hektoen enteric, bismuth sulfite, Salmonella identification) method for the detection of Salmonella was compared to the Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM)/AOAC culture method in a collaborative study. Thirty-two laboratories participated in the evaluation. Each laboratory tested one or more of the 6 test products: milk chocolate, nonfat dry milk, dried whole egg, soy flour, ground black pepper, and ground raw turkey. The 2 methods were in agreement for 1,283 of the 1,440 test samples. Of the 157 test samples not in agreement, 82 were VIDAS ICS plus selective plate-positive and BAM/AOAC-negative, and 75 were VIDAS ICS plus selective plate-negative and BAM/AOAC-positive. PMID:12083251

  14. Rapid, sensitive, and validated method for detection of Salmonella in food by an enrichment broth culture - nested PCR combination assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroj, Sunil D; Shashidhar, R; Karani, Manisha; Bandekar, Jayant R

    2008-06-01

    A rapid nested PCR assay for detection of Salmonella from food was developed. The sensitivity of the assay developed was comparable to the traditional culture based methods with an advantage in reduction of assay time. The assay procedure with artificially contaminated samples was able to detect as low as 4CFU Salmonella/25g of food samples (sprout, carrot, cucumber and poultry meat). With two synthetic primers of 26 mer TS11 and 25 mer TS4, a 1.2kb fragment was amplified which served as a template for amplification of final 375bp product using TS11 and TS5 primers. No non-specific amplification from the native microbial flora of food samples was observed. The reaction generates a single band specific to Salmonella which allows the analyst to interpret data at ease and without any confusion. Enriched broth serves as template for the reaction which removes labour intensive DNA isolation procedures. In case of artificially contaminated samples, 6h enriched lactose broth can serve as template. However, for market samples where the organisms are under environmental stress, it is desirable to use template from Rappaport Vasiliadis medium. The assay also employes internal amplification control, which is amplified into a 300bp fragment and thus serves as positive control for the reaction and any possibility of false negative due to inhibitory action of food components on PCR reaction can be ruled out. PMID:18406104

  15. Comparison of an automated ELFA and two different real-time PCR techniques for Salmonella detection in poultry samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohonczy, Kata; Zoller, Linda; Hermann, Zsolt; Fodor, Andrea; Mráz, Balázs; Tabajdi-Pintér, Veronika

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA)-based and two real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods with the results of the standard culture-based method EN ISO 6579:2002 (bacteriological standard method used in the European Union) for the detection of Salmonella spp. in raw chicken meat. Our investigations were performed on 141 poultry samples sorted from supermarkets. Relative accuracy, relative specificity and relative sensitivity were determined. According to the ISO 16140:2003 criteria for validation of alternative microbiological methods, the ELFA-based method (VIDAS ICS2 + SLM), and real-time PCR methods (TaqMan, Bax) were comparable to the reference standard method for the detection of Salmonella spp. in chicken meat. The use of these methods provide results within 48 hours with high sensitivity (100%). The TaqMan real-time PCR showed a relative specificity of 98% and both of the real-time PCR methods presented 100%.The VIDAS ICS2 + SLM and the Bax real-time PCR methods showed the highest relative accuracy (100%) and 99% in case of the TaqMan method. In conclusion, both the real-time PCR and the ELFA-based assay can be used as a rapid and user-friendly diagnostic method for detection of Salmonella spp. in chicken meat samples. PMID:25261941

  16. Use of muscle fluid as a source of antibodies for serologic detection of Salmonella infection in slaughter pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B.; Ekeroth, Lars

    1998-01-01

    Fluid drained from a muscle tissue sample was used as an alternative to serum for the detection of specific anti-Salmonella antibodies in an indirect LPS enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the first study, serum and muscle fluid from 3 pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella typhimurium showed parallel dilution-response relationships when ELISA optical density (OD) values were plotted against sample dilution. ELISA results obtained with serum diluted 1:400 corresponded to those from muscle fluid diluted 1:30. Ln a second study, using the predetermined dilutions of individually paired serum and muscle fluid samples from 103 pigs, a high degree of concordance between the serum ELISA and the muscle fluid ELISA was observed, Limits of agreement between the 2 methods were calculated as -8.9 to 12.3 OD%, which was considered acceptable. The muscle fluid ELISA had specificities of 0.91-1.0 and sensitivities of 0.80-0.89 at various cutoff values as compared with the serum ELISA. Muscle fluid is a useful postmortem alternative to serum when used with an ELISA to detect anti-Salmonella antibodies.

  17. Isolamento de Salmonella Braenderup em arara-azul (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) / Salmonella Braenderup isolation in Hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariangela Costa, Allgayer; Sérgio José de, Oliveira; Vanessa Daniele, Mottin; Márcia Regina, Loiko; Fernanda, Abilleira; Neiva Maria Robaldo, Guedes; Daniel Thompsen, Passos; Tania de Azevedo, Weimer.

    2542-25-01

    Full Text Available O monitoramento sanitário de populações de arara-azul (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) de vida livre visa a permitir ajustes de manejo em ambiente natural alterado. Para avaliar a ocorrência de Salmonella spp. em filhotes dessa espécie, foram coletados swabs de cloaca no Pantanal de Miranda, Mato Grosso [...] do Sul (MS). Uma colônia morfológica e bioquimicamente compatível com Salmonella spp. foi isolada e sorotipada como Salmonella Braenderup. Devido ao alto potencial zoonótico desse microrganismo, é importante o controle sanitário de psitacídeos em vida livre. Na literatura pesquisada não foi encontrado relato sobre o isolamento dessa bactéria em arara-azul, tanto em vida livre, como em cativeiro. Abstract in english The sanitary monitoring of free-living Hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) allows adjusting the management in altered natural habitat. To evaluate the occurrence of Salmonella spp. it was collected cloacal swabs of this nestlings species, in the Pantanal wetlands, in the state of Mato Grosso [...] do Sul, Brazil. One Salmonella-like colony was serologically typed and identified as Salmonella Braenderup. Due to the high zoonotical potential of this microorganism, it is important an effective sanitary control of wildlife psittacines. In the literature searched it was not found any report on isolation of this bacterium in Hyacinth macaw for both free-living and captive animals.

  18. Isolamento de Salmonella Braenderup em arara-azul (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus Salmonella Braenderup isolation in Hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Costa Allgayer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O monitoramento sanitário de populações de arara-azul (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus de vida livre visa a permitir ajustes de manejo em ambiente natural alterado. Para avaliar a ocorrência de Salmonella spp. em filhotes dessa espécie, foram coletados swabs de cloaca no Pantanal de Miranda, Mato Grosso do Sul (MS. Uma colônia morfológica e bioquimicamente compatível com Salmonella spp. foi isolada e sorotipada como Salmonella Braenderup. Devido ao alto potencial zoonótico desse microrganismo, é importante o controle sanitário de psitacídeos em vida livre. Na literatura pesquisada não foi encontrado relato sobre o isolamento dessa bactéria em arara-azul, tanto em vida livre, como em cativeiro.The sanitary monitoring of free-living Hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus allows adjusting the management in altered natural habitat. To evaluate the occurrence of Salmonella spp. it was collected cloacal swabs of this nestlings species, in the Pantanal wetlands, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. One Salmonella-like colony was serologically typed and identified as Salmonella Braenderup. Due to the high zoonotical potential of this microorganism, it is important an effective sanitary control of wildlife psittacines. In the literature searched it was not found any report on isolation of this bacterium in Hyacinth macaw for both free-living and captive animals.

  19. Fate of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium during the fermentation of ergo, a traditional Ethiopian sour milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenafi, M

    1993-04-01

    The growth potential of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in milk in smoked and non-smoked containers and their inhibition by lactic acid bacteria was determined. In the absence of lactic acid bacteria, both Salmonella strains could grow to the level of 10(8) cfu/ml within 12 h. Smoking of containers significantly retarded Salmonella growth only until 12 h. Growth of lactic acid bacteria in souring milk retarded growth of Salmonella strains and complete inhibition was observed between 48 and 60 h at pH and titratable acidity values of 3.7 and 0.70%, respectively. The synergistic effect of lower pH, acids and smoking was important in the complete inhibition of the test organisms. Although ergo was preferably consumed after 24 h of fermentation, the Salmonella strains were not completely inhibited at this time. Thus, traditional making of ergo by the natural fermentation of raw milk could be hazardous to health. The use of a three-day old ergo as a starter for boiled milk is recommended to ensure the wholesomeness of ergo. PMID:8513784

  20. Analysis of the baseline survey on the prevalence of Salmonella in holdings with breeding pigs in the EU, 2008 : Part A: Salmonella prevalence estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bole-Hribovšek, Vojislava; Chriél, Mariann

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella is a major cause of food-borne illness in humans. Farm animals and foods of animal origin are important sources of human Salmonella infections. This European Union-wide Salmonella baseline survey was conducted in 2008 in holdings with breeding pigs. A total of 1,609 holdings housing and selling mainly breeding pigs (breeding holdings) and 3,508 holdings housing breeding pigs and selling mainly pigs for fattening or slaughter (production holdings) from 24 European Union Member States and two non-Member States, were randomly selected and included in the survey. In each selected breeding and production holding, fresh voidedpooled faecal samples were collected from 10 randomly chosen pens, yards or groups of breeding pigs over six months of age, representing the different stages of the breeding herd. The pooled faecal samples from each holding were tested for Salmonella and the isolates were serotyped. The overall European Union prevalence ofSalmonella-positive holdings with breeding pigs was 31.8% andall but one of the 24 participating Member States detected Salmonella in at least one holding. The European Union prevalence of Salmonella-positive breeding holdings was 28.7%, and prevalence varied from 0% to 64.0% among Member States. The European Union prevalence of Salmonella-positive production holdings was 33.3%, while the Member States’ prevalence varied from 0% to 55.7%. The number of different Salmonella serovars isolated in breeding holdings and production holdings in the European Union was 54 and 88, respectively. Salmonella Derby and Salmonella Typhimurium predominated in both types of holdings. Breeding pigs may be an important source of dissemination of Salmonella throughout the pig-production chain. The results of this survey provide valuable information for setting a Salmonella reduction target for breeding pigs and for assessing the impact of Salmonella transmission originating from holdings with breeding pigs © European Food Safety Authority, 2009

  1. Analysis of risk factors from salmonella infections and determination of critical control points in poultry industry production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velhner Maja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper encompasses problems related to infection caused by Salmonella spp in poultry. The need to carry out adequate control measures and to provide safe food is emphasized. Using experiences from other countries, critical control points are presented in flocks during rearing and in hatcheries. In attempt to diagnose disease as early as possible and to advise proper therapy, the significance of serology monitoring is underlined. In order to produce safe food there is a need to control disease applying our Regulations concerning eradication of Salmonella spp in poultry flocks that is given in Official paper of Republic of Serbia No 6&88 and also to include serology monitoring in poultry flocks. Veterinary practitioners are expected to perform analysis of critical control points in poultry industry as well as to determine specificity and differences in production for single farms, which would enable more effective struggle with diseases in general.

  2. Rapid detection of Salmonella Typhi by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Abdullah; N., Saffie; F.A.R., Sjasri; A., Husin; Z., Abdul-Rahman; A., Ismail; I., Aziah; M., Mohamed.

    1385-13-01

    Full Text Available An in-house loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) reaction was established and evaluated for sensitivity and specificity in detecting the presence of Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) isolates from Kelantan, Malaysia. Three sets of primers consisting of two outer and 4 inner were designed based on [...] locus STBHUCCB_38510 of chaperone PapD of S. Typhi genes. The reaction was optimised using genomic DNA of S. Typhi ATCC7251 as the template. The products were visualised directly by colour changes of the reaction. Positive results were indicated by green fluorescence and negative by orange colour. The test was further evaluated for specificity, sensitivity and application on field samples. The results were compared with those obtained by gold standard culture method and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). This method was highly specific and -10 times more sensitive in detecting S. Typhi compared to the optimised conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.

  3. Comparison of Tissue-Selective Proinflammatory Gene Induction in Mice Infected with Wild-Type, DNA Adenine Methylase-Deficient, and Flagellin-Deficient Salmonella enterica? †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Raphael; Heithoff, Douglas M.; Mahan, Michael J.; Samuel, Charles E.

    2007-01-01

    Mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium deficient in DNA adenine methylase (Dam) are attenuated for virulence in mice and confer heightened immunity in vaccinated animals. In contrast, infection of mice with wild-type (WT) strains or flagellin-deficient mutants of Salmonella causes typhoid fever. Here we examined the bacterial load and spatiotemporal kinetics of expression of several classes of host genes in Peyer's patches, the liver, and the spleen following oral infection of mice with WT, dam mutant, or flagellin-deficient (flhC) Salmonella. The genes evaluated included inflammatory (interleukin-1? [IL-1?], tumor necrosis factor alpha), chemokine (macrophage inflammatory protein 2), Th1/Th2 indicator (IL-12p40, IL-4), and interferon system (beta interferon [IFN-?], IFN-?, protein Mx1 GTPase, RNA-dependent protein kinase, inducible nitric oxide synthase, suppressor of cytokine signaling 1) beacons. We showed that maximal interferon system and proinflammatory gene induction occurred by 5 days after infection and that the levels were comparable for the WT and flhC strains but were significantly lower for the dam mutant. Additionally, host gene expression in systemic tissues of individual animals was dependent on the bacterial load in the Peyer's patches for mice infected with WT, dam mutant, or flhC mutant Salmonella as early as 8 h after infection. Moreover, a bacterial load threshold in the Peyer's patches was necessary to stimulate the host gene induction in the liver and spleen. Taken together, these results suggest that bacterial load and the accompanying strain-specific cytokine signature are important determinants of the host innate immune response and associated disease manifestations observed in dam mutant Salmonella-infected animals compared to the immune response and disease manifestations observed in WT and flhC mutant Salmonella-infected animals. PMID:17893133

  4. Influence of preimmunization with tetanus toxoid on immune responses to tetanus toxin fragment C-guest antigen fusions in a Salmonella vaccine carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabalgoity, J A; Villareal-Ramos, B; Khan, C M; Chatfield, S N; de Hormaeche, R D; Hormaeche, C E

    1995-07-01

    We have previously described a new system for the delivery of recombinant antigens in live Salmonella vaccines as genetic fusions to the C terminus of fragment C of tetanus toxin (TetC) driven by the anaerobically inducible nirB promoter. It has been reported that preimmunization with tetanus toxoid (TT) can suppress the antibody response to peptides chemically coupled to TT (epitope-specific suppression) in both animals and humans, which could interfere with efficacy of the Salmonella-TetC delivery system. We report that preimmunization of BALB/c mice with TT in alum did not suppress the response to either of two protective antigens of Schistosoma mansoni, the full-length S. mansoni P28 glutathione S-transferase (P28) and a construct consisting of eight tandem copies of the protective peptide comprising amino acids 115 to 131 of P28. The guest antigens were expressed in the aroA Salmonella typhimurium SL3261 vaccine strain as fusions to TetC. Preimmunization with TT 10 weeks before administration of the recombinant salmonellae did not alter the antibody response to the full-length P28, whereas the response to the peptide comprising amino acids 115 to 131 was increased by preimmunization with TT, with the increase seen mainly in the immunoglobulin G1 isotype. The antitetanus response was increased by preimmunization with TT in all groups receiving salmonellae expressing TetC. The results could be important when one is considering the use of the Salmonella-TetC delivery system in populations preimmunized with TT. PMID:7790070

  5. HOLDING TIME STUDY FOR FECALS/SALMONELLA & CONNECTING LANGUAGE FOR 503 REGULATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current federal regulations required monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Methods used for analysis of fecal coliforms and Salmonella have been developed and are currently in use for quantification of these organisms. Recently c...

  6. Comparative virulence genotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of environmental and clinical Salmonella enterica from Cochin, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvathi, A.; Vijayan, J.; Murali, G.; Chandran, P.

    2011-01-01

    Newport isolated from a backwater environment were compared with Salmonella Typhi from clinical cases in the same region where salmonellosis is endemic. Genotyping was done by PCR screening for virulence markers associated with Salmonella pathogenicity...

  7. MICROBIALLY MEDIATED GROWTH SUPPRESSION AND DEATH OF SALMONELLA IN COMPOSTED SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of compost microflora in the suppression of salmonella regrowth in composted sewage sludge was investigated. Microbial inhibition studies of salmonella growth were conducted on nutrient agar, in composts that had been subjected to different temperatures in compost piles,...

  8. STANDARDIZATION AND VALIDATION OF METHODS FOR ENUMERATION OF FECAL COLIFORM AND SALMONELLA IN BIOSOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current federal regulations required monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Methods used for analysis of fecal coliforms and Salmonella were reviewed and a standard protocol was developed. The protocols were then...

  9. 21 CFR 118.6 - Egg testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). 118.6... PRODUCTION, STORAGE, AND TRANSPORTATION OF SHELL EGGS § 118.6 Egg testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE)....

  10. Hydrogen-Stimulated Gene Expression by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in a Carbon Limited Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium can utilize molecular hydrogen for growth and amino acid transport during anaerobic growth in a carbon limited environment. In this study we identified hydrogen-stimulated gene expression changes contributing to Salmonella survival. Methods: Micr...

  11. COMPARISON OF MULLTIPLE ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE AMONG SALMONELLA ISOLATES OF ANIMAL ORIGIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System - Enteric Bacteria (NARMS) monitors for developing resistance among Salmonella isolates of animal origin, particularly from cattle, chicken, swine and turkey. Salmonella isolates were collected from federally inspected slaughter and processing plants and v...

  12. fpr, a deficient Xer recombination site from a Salmonella plasmid, fails to confer stability by dimer resolution: comparative studies with the pJHCMW1 mwr site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tung; Sherratt, David J; Tolmasky, Marcelo E

    2010-02-01

    Salmonella plasmid pFPTB1 includes a Tn3-like transposon and a Xer recombination site, fpr, which mediates site-specific recombination at efficiencies lower than those required for stabilizing a plasmid by dimer resolution. Mutagenesis and comparative studies with mwr, a site closely related to fpr, indicate that there is an interdependence of the sequences in the XerC binding region and the central region in Xer site-specific recombination sites. PMID:19966005

  13. Multicenter validation of PCR-based method for detection of Salmonella in chicken and pig samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malorny, B.; Cook, N.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a standardization project, an interlaboratory trial including 15 laboratories from 13 European countries was conducted to evaluate the performance of a noproprietary polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for the detection of Salmonella on artificially contaminated chicken rinse and pig swab samples. The 3 levels were 1-10, 10-100, and 100-1000 colony-forming units (CFU)/100 mL. Sample preparations, including inoculation and pre-enrichment in buffered peptone water (BPW), were performed centrally in a German laboratory; the pre-PCR sample preparation (by a resin-based method) and PCR assay (gel electrophoresis detection) were performed by the receiving laboratories. Aliquots of BPW enrichment cultures were sent to the participants, who analyzed them using a thermal lysis procedure followed by a validated Salmonella-specific PCR assay. The results were reported as negative or positive. Outlier results caused, for example, by gross departures from the experimental protocol, were omitted from the analysis. For both the chicken rinse and the pig swab samples, the diagnostic sensitivity was 100%, with 100% accordance (repeatability) and concordance (reproducibility). The diagnostic specificity was 80.1% (with 85.7% accordance and 67.5% concordance) for chicken rinse, and 91.7% (with 100% accordance and 83.3% concordance) for pig swab. Thus, the interlaboratory variation due to personnel, reagents, thermal cyclers, etc., did not affect the performance of the method, which will be proposed as part of a developing international PCR standard.

  14. Genomic Comparison of the Closely-Related Salmonella enterica Serovars Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, T. David; Schmieder, Robert; Silva, Genivaldo G. Z.; Busch, Julia; Cassman, Noriko; Dutilh, Bas E.; Green, Dawn; Matlock, Brian; Heffernan, Brian; Olsen, Gary J.; Farris Hanna, Leigh; Schifferli, Dieter M.; Maloy, Stanley; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A.; Edwards, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    The Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Dublin, and Gallinarum are closely related but differ in virulence and host range. To identify the genetic elements responsible for these differences and to better understand how these serovars are evolving, we sequenced the genomes of Enteritidis strain LK5 and Dublin strain SARB12 and compared these genomes to the publicly available Enteritidis P125109, Dublin CT 02021853 and Dublin SD3246 genome sequences. We also compared the publicly available Gallinarum genome sequences from biotype Gallinarum 287/91 and Pullorum RKS5078. Using bioinformatic approaches, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions, deletions, and differences in prophage and pseudogene content between strains belonging to the same serovar. Through our analysis we also identified several prophage cargo genes and pseudogenes that affect virulence and may contribute to a host-specific, systemic lifestyle. These results strongly argue that the Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum serovars of Salmonella enterica evolve by acquiring new genes through horizontal gene transfer, followed by the formation of pseudogenes. The loss of genes necessary for a gastrointestinal lifestyle ultimately leads to a systemic lifestyle and niche exclusion in the host-specific serovars. PMID:26039056

  15. Óleo essencial de orégano, alecrim, canela e extrato de pimenta no controle de Salmonella, Eimeria e Clostridium em frangos de corte / Oregano, rosemery, cinnamon essential oil and pepper extract to control Salmonella, Eimeria and Clostridium in broiler chickens

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tânia D.M.M., Bona; Larissa, Pickler; Leonardo B., Miglino; Leandro N., Kuritza; Sâmara P., Vasconcelos; Elizabeth, Santin.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência de um composto vegetal contendo óleo essencial de orégano, alecrim, canela e extrato de pimenta vermelha no controle de Salmonella, Eimeria e Clostridium em frangos de corte. Para tal, foram realizados dois experimentos. No primeiro [...] avaliou-se a eficiência deste produto no controle de Clostridium perfringens após desafio com Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima e E. tenella. Aves de um dia de idade foram divididas em três grupos: T1 - dieta controle sem aditivo promotor de crescimento; T2 - dieta com adição de avilamicina (10ppm); e T3 - dieta com adição do composto vegetal (100ppm). O uso do composto vegetal na alimentação de frangos reduziu lesões específicas de E. maxima e E. tenella aos 14 dias pós-inoculação (PI) como também reduziram a contagem de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC) de Clostridium perfringens no conteúdo do ceco das aves em relação ao grupo controle. No segundo experimento avaliou-se a eficiência deste mesmo produto em aves desafiadas com Salmonella Enteritidis. Aves de um dia de idade foram distribuídas em três tratamentos, sendo T1 - dieta controle sem adição de antibiótico promotor de crescimento, T2 - dieta com 10ppm de Avilamicina, T3 - dieta com 100ppm de um produto a base do composto vegetal acima citado. Aos 21 dias de idade todas as aves foram inoculadas com 10(5) UFC de Salmonella Enteritidis. A utilização do composto vegetal e avilamicina diminuiu a excreção de Salmonella nas aves 72 horas PI de Salmonella. A utilização do composto vegetal aumentou a relação vilo/células CD3+ no duodeno, em relação ao grupo avilamicina e controle, porém não teve efeito sobre a expressão destas células no ceco. Abstract in english The efficiency of a product in broiler feed containing essential oil of oregano, rosemary, cinnamon and extract of red pepper (plant compost) in the control of Salmonella, Eimeria and Clostridium was evaluated. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the product. In the first experiment the eff [...] iciency of this product to control Clostridium perfringens after challenge with Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella was assessed. Day old chicks were allotted into three groups: T1 - control diet without growth promoter, T2 - diet with avilamycin (10ppm), and T3 - diet with addition of the plant compost (100ppm). The use of the plant compost in broiler diets reduced specific lesions of E. maxima and E. tenella at 14 days after inoculation and reduced the count of colony forming units (CFU) of Clostridium perfringens in the ceca comparing to the control group. In the second trial the efficiency of the same product in birds challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis was evaluated. Day old birds were submitted to three experimental diets: T1 - control diet without antibiotics growth promoter, T2 - diet with 10ppm Avilamycin, T3 - diet with 100ppm of the plant compost mentioned above. At 21 days of age all birds were inoculated with 10(5) CFU of Salmonella Enteritidis. The use of the plant compost and avilamycin decreased the excretion of Salmonella in poultry 72 hours after the inoculation. The use of the plant compost increased villous/CD3+ cells in the duodenum, compared to group avilamycin and control, but had no effect on the expression of these cells in the cecum.

  16. Óleo essencial de orégano, alecrim, canela e extrato de pimenta no controle de Salmonella, Eimeria e Clostridium em frangos de corte Oregano, rosemery, cinnamon essential oil and pepper extract to control Salmonella, Eimeria and Clostridium in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia D.M.M. Bona

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência de um composto vegetal contendo óleo essencial de orégano, alecrim, canela e extrato de pimenta vermelha no controle de Salmonella, Eimeria e Clostridium em frangos de corte. Para tal, foram realizados dois experimentos. No primeiro avaliou-se a eficiência deste produto no controle de Clostridium perfringens após desafio com Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima e E. tenella. Aves de um dia de idade foram divididas em três grupos: T1 - dieta controle sem aditivo promotor de crescimento; T2 - dieta com adição de avilamicina (10ppm; e T3 - dieta com adição do composto vegetal (100ppm. O uso do composto vegetal na alimentação de frangos reduziu lesões específicas de E. maxima e E. tenella aos 14 dias pós-inoculação (PI como também reduziram a contagem de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC de Clostridium perfringens no conteúdo do ceco das aves em relação ao grupo controle. No segundo experimento avaliou-se a eficiência deste mesmo produto em aves desafiadas com Salmonella Enteritidis. Aves de um dia de idade foram distribuídas em três tratamentos, sendo T1 - dieta controle sem adição de antibiótico promotor de crescimento, T2 - dieta com 10ppm de Avilamicina, T3 - dieta com 100ppm de um produto a base do composto vegetal acima citado. Aos 21 dias de idade todas as aves foram inoculadas com 10(5 UFC de Salmonella Enteritidis. A utilização do composto vegetal e avilamicina diminuiu a excreção de Salmonella nas aves 72 horas PI de Salmonella. A utilização do composto vegetal aumentou a relação vilo/células CD3+ no duodeno, em relação ao grupo avilamicina e controle, porém não teve efeito sobre a expressão destas células no ceco.The efficiency of a product in broiler feed containing essential oil of oregano, rosemary, cinnamon and extract of red pepper (plant compost in the control of Salmonella, Eimeria and Clostridium was evaluated. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the product. In the first experiment the efficiency of this product to control Clostridium perfringens after challenge with Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella was assessed. Day old chicks were allotted into three groups: T1 - control diet without growth promoter, T2 - diet with avilamycin (10ppm, and T3 - diet with addition of the plant compost (100ppm. The use of the plant compost in broiler diets reduced specific lesions of E. maxima and E. tenella at 14 days after inoculation and reduced the count of colony forming units (CFU of Clostridium perfringens in the ceca comparing to the control group. In the second trial the efficiency of the same product in birds challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis was evaluated. Day old birds were submitted to three experimental diets: T1 - control diet without antibiotics growth promoter, T2 - diet with 10ppm Avilamycin, T3 - diet with 100ppm of the plant compost mentioned above. At 21 days of age all birds were inoculated with 10(5 CFU of Salmonella Enteritidis. The use of the plant compost and avilamycin decreased the excretion of Salmonella in poultry 72 hours after the inoculation. The use of the plant compost increased villous/CD3+ cells in the duodenum, compared to group avilamycin and control, but had no effect on the expression of these cells in the cecum.

  17. Diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from pig farms in Ibadan, Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fashae, Kayode; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2014-01-01

    Animals including food animals play a significant role in the epidemiology of Salmonella enterica. The control requires identification of sources and institution of targeted interventions. This study investigates the diversity of S. enterica serovars, antimicrobial susceptibility, and occurrence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in pigs in Ibadan, Nigeria. Pooled fresh pen floor fecal samples of pigs collected from 31 pig farms were cultured; the Salmonella isolates were serotyped and their antimicrobial susceptibility was determined. PMQR genes were screened by polymerase chain reaction. The 229 Salmonella isolates were made of 50 serovars predominated by rare serovars Salmonella Give (n = 36; 15.7 %), Salmonella Brancaster (n = 17; 7.4 %), Salmonella Colindale (n = 15; 6.6 %), Salmonella Elisaberthville (n = 13; 5.7 %), Salmonella Hillingdon (n = 13; 5.7 %), and Salmonella Kingston (n = 13; 5.7 %). The most widely distributed serovars among the farms were Salmonella Give (six farms) and Salmonella Elisaberthville (six farms). Resistance to chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, and tetracycline ranged from 11.6 % (n = 26) to 22.8 % (n = 51). Resistance ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was low (n = 2; 0.9 %). Multiply resistant isolates included Salmonella Kentucky, the most resistant serovar. qnrB19 was found in two isolates of Salmonella Corvallis and one isolate of Salmonella Larochelle, respectively, while qnrS1 was found in two isolates of Salmonella Derby. Other PMQR genes were not detected. Pigs constitute an important source of diverse Salmonella serovars in Ibadan. The isolates were more resistant to old antimicrobials with some multiple resistant. Control measures and regulation of antimicrobials are warranted.

  18. An assessment of soybeans and other vegetable proteins as source of salmonella contamination in pig production

    OpenAIRE

    Häggblom Per; Wierup Martin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The impact of salmonella contaminated feed ingredients on the risk for spreading salmonella to pigs was assessed in response to two incidences when salmonella was spread by feed from two feed mills to 78 swine producing herds. Methods The assessment was based on results from the salmonella surveillance of feed ingredients before introduction to feed mills and from HACCP - based surveillance of the feed mills. Results from the mills of the Company (A) that produced the salm...

  19. Clinically relevant multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica in swine and meat handlers at the abattoir

    OpenAIRE

    Eduarda Gomes-Neves; Fátima Gärtner

    2014-01-01

    The presence of multidrug resistant (MDR) Salmonella serotypes in slaughtered swine,carcasses, meat and meat handlers is scarcely evaluated. Recently we demonstrated thatdiverse Salmonella serotypes are frequently present in swine, pork meat and carcasses, andmeat handlers at Portuguese abattoirs. Here we have characterized their antibioticresistance phenotypes and genotypes, helping elucidate the flow of MDR Salmonella in thefood chain. Testing 60 Salmonella isolates from different serotypes...

  20. Salmonella spp. in Sardinian slaughter pigs: prevalence, serotypes and genotypic characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Piras, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    In order to further the knowledge about Salmonella prevalence at farm level and pork meat in Sardinia, the prevalence and the sources of Salmonella at 5 pig slaughterhouses (slaughtered pigs and environment) and 2 swine farms (feed and faeces), were investigated and the isolates characterized. Salmonella was isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes (30.5%), colon content (16.4%), carcass and liver (both 14.1%); as regards to the slaughterhouse environment Salmonella prevalence was ...

  1. Comparative genomic analysis uncovers 3 novel loci encoding type six secretion systems differentially distributed in Salmonella serotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiviago Carlos A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recently described Type VI Secretion System (T6SS represents a new paradigm of protein secretion in bacteria. A number of bioinformatic studies have been conducted to identify T6SS gene clusters in the available bacterial genome sequences. According to these studies, Salmonella harbors a unique T6SS encoded in the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 6 (SPI-6. Since these studies only considered few Salmonella genomes, the present work aimed to identify novel T6SS loci by in silico analysis of every genome sequence of Salmonella available. Results The analysis of sequencing data from 44 completed or in progress Salmonella genome projects allowed the identification of 3 novel T6SS loci. These clusters are located in differentially-distributed genomic islands we designated SPI-19, SPI-20 and SPI-21, respectively. SPI-19 was identified in a subset of S. enterica serotypes including Dublin, Weltevreden, Agona, Gallinarum and Enteritidis. In the later, an internal deletion eliminated most of the island. On the other hand, SPI-20 and SPI-21 were restricted to S. enterica subspecies arizonae (IIIa serotype 62:z4,z23:-. Remarkably, SPI-21 encodes a VgrG protein containing a C-terminal extension similar to S-type pyocins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This is not only the first evolved VgrG described in Salmonella, but also the first evolved VgrG including a pyocin domain described so far in the literature. In addition, the data indicate that SPI-6 T6SS is widely distributed in S. enterica and absent in serotypes Enteritidis, Gallinarum, Agona, Javiana, Paratyphi B, Virchow, IIIa 62:z4,z23:- and IIIb 61:1,v:1,5,(7. Interestingly, while some serotypes harbor multiple T6SS (Dublin, Weltvreden and IIIa 62:z4,z23:- others do not encode for any (Enteritidis, Paratyphi B, Javiana, Virchow and IIIb 61:1,v:1,5,(7. Comparative and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the 4 T6SS loci in Salmonella have a distinct evolutionary history. Finally, we identified an orphan Hcp-like protein containing the Hcp/COG3157 domain linked to a C-terminal extension. We propose to designate this and related proteins as "evolved Hcps". Conclusion Altogether, our data suggest that (i the Salmonella T6SS loci were acquired by independent lateral transfer events and (ii evolved to contribute in the adaptation of the serotypes to different lifestyles and environments, including animal hosts. Notably, the presence of an evolved VgrG protein related to pyocins suggests a novel role for T6SS in bacterial killing. Future studies on the roles of the identified T6SS loci will expand our knowledge on Salmonella pathogenesis and host specificity.

  2. Isolation of QseC-regulated genes in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by transposon mutgagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella, a leading cause of U.S. foodborne disease and food-related deaths, often asymptomatically colonizes food-producing animals. In fact, >50% of U.S. swine production facilities test positive for Salmonella. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 NCTC13348 c...

  3. Effect of 60Co ?-ray irradiation on salmonella in high immunity egg yolk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmonella were inoculated into the yolk and irradiated with different dose of 60Co ?-ray. The results show that 3 kGy irradiation dose can kill all Salmonella in the yolk and D10 value of Salmonella in the yolk is 0.36-0.46 kGy

  4. Isolation and identification of Salmonella spp. in environmental water by molecular technology in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chun Wei; Hao Huang, Kuan; Hsu, Bing Mu; Tsai, Hsien Lung; Tseng, Shao Feng; Shen, Tsung Yu; Kao, Po Min; Shen, Shu Min; Chen, Jung Sheng

    2013-04-01

    Salmonella spp. is one of the most important causal agents of waterborne diseases. The taxonomy of Salmonella is very complicated and its genus comprises more than 2,500 serotypes. The detection of Salmonella in environmental water samples by routines culture methods using selective media and characterization of suspicious colonies based on biochemical tests and serological assay are generally time consuming. To overcome this drawback, it is desirable to use effective method which provides a higher discrimination and more rapid identification about Salmonella in environmental water. The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella using molecular technology and to identify the serovars of Salmonella isolates from 70 environmental water samples in Taiwan. The analytical procedures include membrane filtration, non-selective pre-enrichment, selective enrichment of Salmonella. After that, we isolated Salmonella strains by selective culture plates. Both selective enrichment and culture plates were detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Finally, the serovars of Salmonella were confirmed by using biochemical tests and serological assay. In this study, 15 water samples (21.4%) were identified as Salmonella by PCR. The positive water samples will further identify their serotypes by culture method. The presence of Salmonella in environmental water indicates the possibility of waterborne transmission in drinking watershed. Consequently, the authorities need to provide sufficient source protection and to maintain the system for disease prevention. Keywords: Salmonella spp., serological assay, PCR

  5. 75 FR 45130 - Draft Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 690.800 Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ...FDA-2010-D-0378] Draft Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 690.800 Salmonella in Animal Feed...staff entitled ``Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 690.800 Salmonella in Animal Feed...staff entitled ``Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 690.800 Salmonella in Animal...

  6. 78 FR 42526 - Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 690.800 Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ...FDA-2010-D-0378] Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 690.800 Salmonella in Food for Animals...staff entitled ``Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 690.800 Salmonella in Food for Animals...document entitled ``Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 690.800 Salmonella in Food for...

  7. INACTIVATION OF SALMONELLA SEROVARS IN LIQUID WHOLE EGG BY HEAT FOLLOWING IRRADIATION TREATMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella is a frequent contaminant on eggs and is responsible for foodborne illnesses in humans. Ionizing radiation and thermal processing can be used to inactivate Salmonella in liquid whole egg (LWE), but the technologies are only partially effective in reducing Salmonella populations when rest...

  8. Split Marketing as a Risk Factor for Salmonella Enterica Infection in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    On-farm reduction of Salmonella prevalence in pigs requires the identification of risk factors to direct interventions. This study was designed to determine if split marketing of finishing pigs constitutes a risk factor for Salmonella infections, by comparing Salmonella prevalence in the first group...

  9. Aneurisma aórtico bacteriano por Salmonella spp. / Bacterial aortic aneurym due Salmonella spp. infection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    César, Jiménez; Álex, Valencia; Carlos, Jaramilo; Juan Rafael, Correa.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de los avances en medicina, especialmente en antimicrobianos, las infecciones siguen siendo una causa importante de morbimortalidad. La fiebre tifoidea, que en el siglo XVIII exterminó gran parte de la población europea, sigue siendo una enfermedad que requiere de toda la atención y estudio [...] para evitar sus importantes implicaciones. Salmonella spp. tiene la capacidad de infectar diferentes partes del cuerpo, entre ellas los grandes vasos, donde comprometen la capa íntima y producen una infección arterial denominada aneurisma infeccioso, con una alta mortalidad cercana a 50 %. Presentamos el caso de un aneurisma bacteriano con úlcera, en un paciente de sexo masculino de 62 años con síntomas previos de infección por Salmonella spp. y hemocultivos positivos para este germen. El paciente fue tratado quirúrgicamente mediante resección del aneurisma y reemplazo in situ con prótesis de dacrón con plata más parche de epiplón. La evolución fue satisfactoria. Abstract in english In spite of the great advances in medical science, especially regarding the antimicrobial agents, infection remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Typhoid fever, which exterminated a major part of the European population in the eighteenth century, continues to be an entity that deman [...] ds all of our attention so as to avoid its serious complications. The Salmonell sp. have the capacity to infect different organs and parts of the body, including the great vessels, where thy affect the intima layer and produce a condition that is called infectious aneurysm that is associated with a mortality rate around 50%. We report the case of an ulcerated bacterial aneurysm in a 62 year old male with previous symptomatology of Salmonella spp. infection and positive blood cultures for this microorganism. The patient underwent surgical treatment with resection of the aneurisma and a dacron silver coated prosthesis replacement and a patch of greater omentum. Clinical course was satisfactoiry.

  10. A comparative study of cultural methods for the detection of Salmonella in feed and feed ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haggblom Per

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal feed as a source of infection to food producing animals is much debated. In order to increase our present knowledge about possible feed transmission it is important to know that the present isolation methods for Salmonella are reliable also for feed materials. In a comparative study the ability of the standard method used for isolation of Salmonella in feed in the Nordic countries, the NMKL71 method (Nordic Committee on Food Analysis was compared to the Modified Semisolid Rappaport Vassiliadis method (MSRV and the international standard method (EN ISO 6579:2002. Five different feed materials were investigated, namely wheat grain, soybean meal, rape seed meal, palm kernel meal, pellets of pig feed and also scrapings from a feed mill elevator. Four different levels of the Salmonella serotypes S. Typhimurium, S. Cubana and S. Yoruba were added to each feed material, respectively. For all methods pre-enrichment in Buffered Peptone Water (BPW were carried out followed by enrichments in the different selective media and finally plating on selective agar media. Results The results obtained with all three methods showed no differences in detection levels, with an accuracy and sensitivity of 65% and 56%, respectively. However, Müller-Kauffmann tetrathionate-novobiocin broth (MKTTn, performed less well due to many false-negative results on Brilliant Green agar (BGA plates. Compared to other feed materials palm kernel meal showed a higher detection level with all serotypes and methods tested. Conclusion The results of this study showed that the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the investigated cultural methods were equivalent. However, the detection levels for different feed and feed ingredients varied considerably.

  11. Design of glycoconjugate vaccines against invasive African Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondini, S; Micoli, F; Lanzilao, L; Gavini, M; Alfini, R; Brandt, C; Clare, S; Mastroeni, P; Saul, A; MacLennan, C A

    2015-03-01

    Nontyphoidal salmonellae, particularly Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, are a major cause of invasive disease in Africa, affecting mainly young children and HIV-infected individuals. Glycoconjugate vaccines provide a safe and reliable strategy against invasive polysaccharide-encapsulated pathogens, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a target of protective immune responses. With the aim of designing an effective vaccine against S. Typhimurium, we have synthesized different glycoconjugates, by linking O-antigen and core sugars (OAg) of LPS to the nontoxic mutant of diphtheria toxin (CRM(197)). The OAg-CRM(197) conjugates varied in (i) OAg source, with three S. Typhimurium strains used for OAg extraction, producing OAg with differences in structural specificities, (ii) OAg chain length, and (iii) OAg/CRM(197) ratio. All glycoconjugates were compared for immunogenicity and ability to induce serum bactericidal activity in mice. In vivo enhancement of bacterial clearance was assessed for a selected S. Typhimurium glycoconjugate by challenge with live Salmonella. We found that the largest anti-OAg antibody responses were elicited by (i) vaccines synthesized from OAg with the highest glucosylation levels, (ii) OAg composed of mixed- or medium-molecular-weight populations, and (iii) a lower OAg/CRM(197) ratio. In addition, we found that bactericidal activity can be influenced by S. Typhimurium OAg strain, most likely as a result of differences in OAg O-acetylation and glucosylation. Finally, we confirmed that mice immunized with the selected OAg-conjugate were protected against S. Typhimurium colonization of the spleen and liver. In conclusion, our findings indicate that differences in the design of OAg-based glycoconjugate vaccines against invasive African S. Typhimurium can have profound effects on immunogenicity and therefore optimal vaccine design requires careful consideration. PMID:25547792

  12. The transcriptional programme of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium reveals a key role for tryptophan metabolism in biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochrane Brett

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biofilm formation enhances the capacity of pathogenic Salmonella bacteria to survive stresses that are commonly encountered within food processing and during host infection. The persistence of Salmonella within the food chain has become a major health concern, as biofilms can serve as a reservoir for the contamination of food products. While the molecular mechanisms required for the survival of bacteria on surfaces are not fully understood, transcriptional studies of other bacteria have demonstrated that biofilm growth triggers the expression of specific sets of genes, compared with planktonic cells. Until now, most gene expression studies of Salmonella have focused on the effect of infection-relevant stressors on virulence or the comparison of mutant and wild-type bacteria. However little is known about the physiological responses taking place inside a Salmonella biofilm. Results We have determined the transcriptomic and proteomic profiles of biofilms of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We discovered that 124 detectable proteins were differentially expressed in the biofilm compared with planktonic cells, and that 10% of the S. Typhimurium genome (433 genes showed a 2-fold or more change in the biofilm compared with planktonic cells. The genes that were significantly up-regulated implicated certain cellular processes in biofilm development including amino acid metabolism, cell motility, global regulation and tolerance to stress. We found that the most highly down-regulated genes in the biofilm were located on Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 (SPI2, and that a functional SPI2 secretion system regulator (ssrA was required for S. Typhimurium biofilm formation. We identified STM0341 as a gene of unknown function that was needed for biofilm growth. Genes involved in tryptophan (trp biosynthesis and transport were up-regulated in the biofilm. Deletion of trpE led to decreased bacterial attachment and this biofilm defect was restored by exogenous tryptophan or indole. Conclusions Biofilm growth of S. Typhimurium causes distinct changes in gene and protein expression. Our results show that aromatic amino acids make an important contribution to biofilm formation and reveal a link between SPI2 expression and surface-associated growth in S. Typhimurium.

  13. The transcriptional programme of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium reveals a key role for tryptophan metabolism in biofilms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hamilton, Shea

    2009-12-11

    Abstract Background Biofilm formation enhances the capacity of pathogenic Salmonella bacteria to survive stresses that are commonly encountered within food processing and during host infection. The persistence of Salmonella within the food chain has become a major health concern, as biofilms can serve as a reservoir for the contamination of food products. While the molecular mechanisms required for the survival of bacteria on surfaces are not fully understood, transcriptional studies of other bacteria have demonstrated that biofilm growth triggers the expression of specific sets of genes, compared with planktonic cells. Until now, most gene expression studies of Salmonella have focused on the effect of infection-relevant stressors on virulence or the comparison of mutant and wild-type bacteria. However little is known about the physiological responses taking place inside a Salmonella biofilm. Results We have determined the transcriptomic and proteomic profiles of biofilms of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We discovered that 124 detectable proteins were differentially expressed in the biofilm compared with planktonic cells, and that 10% of the S. Typhimurium genome (433 genes) showed a 2-fold or more change in the biofilm compared with planktonic cells. The genes that were significantly up-regulated implicated certain cellular processes in biofilm development including amino acid metabolism, cell motility, global regulation and tolerance to stress. We found that the most highly down-regulated genes in the biofilm were located on Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 (SPI2), and that a functional SPI2 secretion system regulator (ssrA) was required for S. Typhimurium biofilm formation. We identified STM0341 as a gene of unknown function that was needed for biofilm growth. Genes involved in tryptophan (trp) biosynthesis and transport were up-regulated in the biofilm. Deletion of trpE led to decreased bacterial attachment and this biofilm defect was restored by exogenous tryptophan or indole. Conclusions Biofilm growth of S. Typhimurium causes distinct changes in gene and protein expression. Our results show that aromatic amino acids make an important contribution to biofilm formation and reveal a link between SPI2 expression and surface-associated growth in S. Typhimurium.

  14. [A comparative analysis of the properties of bacteria in the genus Salmonella isolated from children in Latvia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grope, I; Gardovska, D

    2000-01-01

    Since social and economic changes in Latvia in 1991 the incidence of salmonellosis dramatically increased: more than 500 pediatric cases are registered every year. Specification of the properties of the Salmonella strains isolated in Latvia was undertaken. The study demonstrated that acute salmonellosis in pediatric inpatients was mainly due to S.typhimurium (78 per cent) and only in 22 per cent of the patients it was due to S.enteritidis. All the S.typhimurium isolates showed high antibiotic resistance defined by specific extended spectrum beta-lactamase (CTX-M-5). PMID:10690424

  15. Molecular characterization of Salmonella paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg from poultry and retail chicken meat in Colombia by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Byrne, Barbara A; Hume, Michael; León, Maribel; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Enriqué; Vives Flores, Martha J; Clavijo, Viviana; Holguin, Ángela; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan J; Castellanos, Ricardo; Tafur, McAllister; Smith, Woutrina A

    2015-04-01

    Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ variant (also termed Salmonella Java) and Salmonella Heidelberg are pathogens of public health importance that are frequently isolated from poultry. As a step toward implementing the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistant Surveillance, this study characterized molecular patterns of Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg isolated from poultry farms, fecal samples, and retail chicken meat using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The objective of this study was to determine the genetic relationship among isolates and to determine potential geographically predominant genotypes. Based on PFGE analysis, both serovars exhibited high heterogeneity: the chromosomal DNA fingerprints of 82 Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ isolates revealed 42 PFGE patterns, whereas the 21 isolates of Salmonella Heidelberg revealed 10 patterns. Similar genotypes of both serovars were demonstrated to be present on farms and in retail outlets. For Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+, closely genetically related strains were found among isolates coming from different farms and different integrated poultry companies within two departments (Santander and Cundinamarca) and also from farms located in the two geographically distant departments. For Salmonella Heidelberg, there were fewer farms with genetically related isolates than for Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+. A possible dissemination of similar genotypes of both serovars along the poultry production chain is hypothesized, and some facilitating factors existing in Colombia are reviewed. PMID:25836408

  16. Salmonella in Brazilian and imported pet reptiles Salmonella em répteis de estimação nacionais e importados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Valéria Abalem de Sá

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of salmonellae in fecal samples or cloacal swabs of 97 pet reptiles (15 snakes, 24 lizards and 58 chelonians was investigated. Thirty seven animals had national origin and 60 were imported. Salmonella spp was detected in 39.1% of the reptiles, being 62.5% in lizards, 53.3% in snakes and 25.8% in chelonians. Strains belonged to subspecies I (44.7%, II (10.5%, IIIa (5.2%, IIIb (21.0% and IV (18.5% of the enterica species, with predominance (55.3% of subspecies usually found in cold-blooded animals (II to IV. In the subspecies I, the serovars Albany, Enteritidis and Typhimurium predominated. The Trachemys scripta elegans imported turtles corresponded to 93.3% (14/15 of the salmonellae-positive chelonians. The national iguanas presented a high rate of colonization (77.7% - 7/9. These animals pose a potencial risk to the human health, demanding sanitary control and more information to the public.A presença de salmonelas em amostras de fezes ou swabs cloacais de 97 répteis de estimação (15 cobras, 24 lagartos e 58 quelônios, dos quais 37 eram de origem nacional e 60 importados, foi investigada. Salmonella spp foi detectada em 39,1% dos répteis estudados, sendo 62,5% em lagartos, 53,3% em cobras e 25,8% em quelônios. Foram caracterizadas as subespécies I (44,7%, II (10,5%, IIIa (5,2%, IIIb (21,0% e IV (18,5% da espécie enterica, com predominância (55,3% das subespécies habitualmente encontradas em animais de sangue frio (II a IV. Na subespécie I, houve maior freqüência dos sorovares Albany, Enteritidis e Typhimurium. As tartarugas importadas Trachemys scripta elegans corresponderam a 93,3% dos quelônios portadores de salmonelas. Os iguanas nacionais apresentaram elevado índice de colonização (77,7% - 7/9. Conclui-se que esses animais apresentam risco potencial à saúde humana, havendo necessidade de controle sanitário e maior esclarecimento ao público.

  17. Salmonella in Brazilian and imported pet reptiles / Salmonella em répteis de estimação nacionais e importados

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isabel Valéria Abalem de, Sá; Claude André, Solari.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A presença de salmonelas em amostras de fezes ou swabs cloacais de 97 répteis de estimação (15 cobras, 24 lagartos e 58 quelônios), dos quais 37 eram de origem nacional e 60 importados, foi investigada. Salmonella spp foi detectada em 39,1% dos répteis estudados, sendo 62,5% em lagartos, 53,3% em co [...] bras e 25,8% em quelônios. Foram caracterizadas as subespécies I (44,7%), II (10,5%), IIIa (5,2%), IIIb (21,0%) e IV (18,5%) da espécie enterica, com predominância (55,3%) das subespécies habitualmente encontradas em animais de sangue frio (II a IV). Na subespécie I, houve maior freqüência dos sorovares Albany, Enteritidis e Typhimurium. As tartarugas importadas Trachemys scripta elegans corresponderam a 93,3% dos quelônios portadores de salmonelas. Os iguanas nacionais apresentaram elevado índice de colonização (77,7% - 7/9). Conclui-se que esses animais apresentam risco potencial à saúde humana, havendo necessidade de controle sanitário e maior esclarecimento ao público. Abstract in english The presence of salmonellae in fecal samples or cloacal swabs of 97 pet reptiles (15 snakes, 24 lizards and 58 chelonians) was investigated. Thirty seven animals had national origin and 60 were imported. Salmonella spp was detected in 39.1% of the reptiles, being 62.5% in lizards, 53.3% in snakes an [...] d 25.8% in chelonians. Strains belonged to subspecies I (44.7%), II (10.5%), IIIa (5.2%), IIIb (21.0%) and IV (18.5%) of the enterica species, with predominance (55.3%) of subspecies usually found in cold-blooded animals (II to IV). In the subspecies I, the serovars Albany, Enteritidis and Typhimurium predominated. The Trachemys scripta elegans imported turtles corresponded to 93.3% (14/15) of the salmonellae-positive chelonians. The national iguanas presented a high rate of colonization (77.7% - 7/9). These animals pose a potencial risk to the human health, demanding sanitary control and more information to the public.

  18. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and relation to indicator and pathogenic microorganisms of Salmonella enterica isolated from surface waters within an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, Vangelis; Gousia, Panagiota; Kansouzidou, Athina; Sakkas, Hercules; Karanis, Panagiotis; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy

    2013-07-01

    During a 12 month period (June 2007-May 2008), the prevalence and susceptibility of Salmonella serovars and their relation to specific pathogenic and indicator bacteria in river and coastal waters was investigated. A total of 240 water samples were collected from selected sites in Acheron and Kalamas Rivers and the Ionian Sea coast in north western Greece. The samples were analyzed for Salmonella spp., Listeria spp., Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157, Staphylococci, Pseudomonas spp., Total Coliforms, Fecal Coliforms, Fecal Streptococci, Total Heterotrophic Flora at 20°C and at 37°C, fungi and protozoa (Cryptosporidium, Giardia). Susceptibility tests to nine antimicrobials (ampicillin, amikacin, amoxicillin/clavulavic acid, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, cefoxitin, tetracycline, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin/sulbactam) were performed using the disk diffusion method for Salmonella isolates. We isolated 28 serovars of Salmonella spp. identified as Salmonella enteritidis (23), Salmonella thompson (3) and Salmonella virchow (2). Multi-drug resistant Salmonella serovars were isolated from both river and marine waters, with 34.8% of S. enteritidis and 100% of S. virchow being resistant to more than 3 antibiotics. Also we isolated 42 strains of Listeria spp. identified as L. monocytogenes (20), L. innocua (9), L. seeligeri (2) and L. ivanovii (11). All the Listeria isolates were susceptible to the tested antibiotics. No Campylobacter spp., E. coli O157, Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected. The overall ranges (and average counts) of the indicator bacteria were: Total Coliforms 0-4×10(4)cfu/100ml (3.7×10(3)cfu/100ml), Fecal Coliforms 0-9×10(3)cfu/100ml (9.2×10(2)cfu/100ml), Fecal Streptococci 0-3.5×10(4)cfu/100ml (1.4×10(3)cfu/100ml), Total Heterotrophic Flora at 20°C 0-6×10(3)cfu/ml (10(3)cfu/ml) and at 37°C 0-5×10(3)cfu/ml (4.9×10(2)cfu/ml). Weak or non significant positive Spearman correlations (presistant bacteria in the aquatic environments. PMID:22901425

  19. Trisodium phosphate and sodium hypochlorite are more effective as antimicrobials against Campylobacter and Salmonella on duck as compared to chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarjit, Amreeta; Dykes, Gary A

    2015-06-16

    Little work has been reported on the use of commercial antimicrobials against foodborne pathogens on duck meat. We investigated the effectiveness of trisodium phosphate (TSP) and sodium hypochlorite (SH) as antimicrobial treatments against Campylobacter and Salmonella on duck meat under simulated commercial water chilling conditions. The results were compared to the same treatments on well-studied chicken meat. A six strain Campylobacter or Salmonella cocktail was inoculated (5ml) at two dilution levels (10(4) and 10(8)cfu/ml) onto 25g duck or chicken meat with skin and allowed to attach for 10min. The meat was exposed to three concentrations of pH adjusted TSP (8, 10 and 12% (w/v), pH11.5) or SH (40, 50 and 60ppm, pH5.5) in 30ml water under simulated spin chiller conditions (4°C, agitation) for 10min. In a parallel experiment the meat was placed in the antimicrobial treatments before inoculation and bacterial cocktails were added to the meat after the antimicrobial solution was removed while all other parameters were maintained. Untreated controls and controls using water were included in all experiments. Bacterial numbers were determined on Campylobacter blood-free selective agar and Mueller Hinton agar or xylose deoxycholate agar and tryptone soya agar using the thin agar layer method for Campylobacter and Salmonella, respectively. All TSP concentrations significantly (pTSP and numbers of Salmonella were less than the limit of detection at all concentrations of TSP except one. On chicken meat, numbers of Campylobacter and Salmonella were less than the limit of detection only at the lower inoculum level and higher TSP concentrations. By contrast only some of the concentrations of SH significantly (p<0.05) reduced numbers of Campylobacter and Salmonella (~0.2-1.5logcfu/cm(2)) on both duck and chicken meats. None of the SH treatments resulted in numbers of either pathogen being less than limit of detection. Results indicate that chicken meat has the ability to effectively protect Campylobacter and Salmonella against the impact of trisodium phosphate and sodium hypochlorite while duck meat does not. This study suggests that trisodium phosphate has a strong potential for application in a commercial poultry processing to reduce Campylobacter and Salmonella specifically on duck meat. PMID:25791251

  20. Reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para la detección de Salmonella sp. en leche en polvo: Optimización del método en 12 horas / Polimerase chain reaction technique for detecting Salmonella sp. in powdered milk: optimization of the method in 12 hours

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José, Villarreal Camacho; Zamira, Soto Varela; Nicole, Pereira San Andrés; Lourdes, Varela Prieto; Rubén, Jaramillo Lanchero; Daniel, Villanueva Torregroza; Evelyn, Mendoza Torres.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Los métodos tradicionales para identificar Salmonella sp. se basan en el empleo de medios de cultivo que permiten la recuperación del microorganismo, el aislamiento en medios selectivos, la identificación bioquímica y caracterización serológica. Estos métodos son dispendiosos, tienen baja especifici [...] dad, baja sensibilidad y consumen mucho tiempo. El principal objetivo de este trabajo fue estandarizar y optimizar la técnica de PCR para detectar Salmonella sp. en 12 horas, a partir de ADN de cultivos puros y en muestras de leche en polvo, inoculadas intencionalmente con 200, 20 y 2 UFC/mL. Para la extracción del ADN se estudió la conveniencia de fenol:cloroformo:alcohol isoamílico y Chelex® 100. La temperatura de hibridización y las concentraciones de cloruro de magnesio, empleando un diseño factorial incompleto 6x7, permitieron establecer un límite de detección de hasta 10 pg de ADN en cultivos puros de Salmonella typhi. La PCR se basó en la exclusividad de los oligonucleótidos 139-141, los cuales amplificaron una banda de 284 pb para la identificación de género. Los resultados muestran que: (I) la adición de Novobiacina (45 mg/L) o de verde brillante (10 mg/L) como inhibidores de flora acompañante, después de las primeras tres horas del pre-enriquecimiento no selectivo de 6 horas, no influye significativamente en la recuperación de las células bacterianas; (II) obtener biomasa de la primera dilución en base 10 y emplear la técnica de fenol:cloroformo:alcohol isoamílico para la obtención de ADN, se pueden detectar 2 UFC/mL de Salmonella sp. en leche en polvo y que el tiempo de detección se reduce considerablemente. Abstract in english The traditional methods to identify Salmonella sp. are based on the culture medium use that allows the recovery of the micro organism, isolation in selective media, biochemical and serologic characterization. These methods are tedious, have a low specificity and sensitivity and they generally consum [...] e a long time. The main objective of this study was to standardize and to optimize the PCR technique to detect Salmonella sp. in 12 hours, from DNA of pure cultures and from powdered milk samples, intentionally inoculated with 200, 20 and 2 CFU/mL. For the extraction of DNA, two methods were used: phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol and chelex® 100. The optimization of the temperature of hibridización and the concentrations of Magnesium Chloride, using an incomplete factorial desing 6x7 allowed to establish a detection limit of up to 10 pg of DNA from pure cultures of Salmonella typhi. The PCR was based on the specificity of oligonucleotidos the 139-141, that amplified a band of 284 pb for the gender identification. The results show that: (I) the inhibitor addition of accompanying flora like Novobiocin (45 mg/L) or brilliant green (10 mg/L) as inhibitors of accompanying flora, after the first three hours in the nonselective pre-enrichment of 6 hours, does not significantly influence in the recovery of the bacterial cells, (II) when obtaining biomass of the first dilution in base 10 and using the phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol technique for the extraction of DNA; can be detected 2 CFU/mL Salmonella s.p. from powdered milk and that the PCR technique reduces the time of test considerably.

  1. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field. PMID:24804797

  2. Salmonellae in avian wildlife in Norway from 1969 to 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsum, T.; Handeland, K.

    2002-01-01

    Postmortem records of wild-living birds in Norway with laboratory-confirmed findings of salmonella infection were summarized for the period from 1969 to 2000. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 470 birds belonging to 26 species. The salmonella-positive birds included 441 small passerines, 15 gulls, 5 waterfowl, 4 birds of prey, 3 doves, and 2 crows. The bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) was by far the most frequently recorded species (54% of the cases). Salmonella enterica serover Typhimurium was recovered from all cases except from one hooded crow (Corpus corone), which yielded serovar Paratyphi-B var. Java. Variant 0:4,12 comprised 96% (451 cases) of all serovar Typhimurium isolates, including all the passerines, while variant 0:4,5,12 accounted for the remaining 4% (18 cases). The occurrence of salmonellae in small passerines showed a distinct seasonality, with a peak in February and March. Plasmid profile analysis of 346 isolates of serovar Typhimurium 0:4,12 detected six profiles, of which two comprised 66 and 28% of the isolates, respectively. Phage typing of 52 randomly selected isolates of serovar Typhimurium 0:4,12 from passerines detected four types: DT 40 (54%), U277 (35%), DT 99 (6%), and DT 110 (4%).

  3. Salmonella in free living terrestrial and aquatic turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Vila, J; Díaz-Paniagua, C; de Frutos-Escobar, C; Jiménez-Martínez, C; Pérez-Santigosa, N

    2007-01-31

    Detection of Salmonella in pet turtles has been the focus of extensive research, but its incidence in free living turtles is not well known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of Salmonella in terrestrial and aquatic species of chelonians inhabiting a National Park in southwestern Spain. Individuals of the terrestrial tortoise Testudo graeca (n = 16) and the aquatic turtles Emys orbicularis (n = 26) and Mauremys leprosa (n = 50) were investigated. Maximum incidence of Salmonella was recorded in the terrestrial species (100%). In contrast, the incidence of infected animals was low in the aquatic species, 12% in M. leprosa and 15.4% in E. orbicularis. Five serotypes of Salmonella belonging to subspecies enterica (I) and salamae (II) were identified. All serotypes were found in the terrestrial species, and three in the aquatic ones, suggesting that wild terrestrial chelonians are important reservoirs of Salmonella in our study area. Cloacal transmission during mating is the most probable mode of transmission among individuals. PMID:16979850

  4. A retrospective study on salmonella infection in Danish broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angen, Øystein; Skov, M. N.

    1996-01-01

    A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella enterica infection in Danish broiler production. The study was based on information in the antemortem database (AM database) where data were available for all broiler Becks slaughtered over the 2-year period from 1992 to 1993 in Denmark. The AM database contains information collected by the ante-mortem veterinarians, from the slaughterhouses, and from the salmonella examinations carried out at the National Veterinary Laboratory. The epidemiological unit was the individual broiler flock. The salmonella status of the flock was determined by examining the caecal tonsils from 16 3-week-old chickens from each flock. This procedure would detect a salmonella-infected flock, with a probability above 95%, if the prevalence is above 20%. Furthermore, the structure and quality of the collected data have been evaluated. Fourteen variables were selected for analysis by multivariable logistic regression. An increased risk of salmonella infection in the broiler Becks was associated with the biggest hatcheries and feedmill, with an increasing number of houses on the farm, if the preceding flock was infected, and if the flock was reared in the autumn. Additionally, the main variables of the model were analysed by including a random effect at the house level. This resulted only in minor changes of the parameter estimates.

  5. H2-M3 major histocompatibility complex class Ib-restricted CD8 T cells induced by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection recognize proteins released by Salmonella serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugrinovic, S; Brooks, C G; Robson, J; Blacklaws, B A; Hormaeche, C E; Robinson, J H

    2005-12-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes a typhoid-like disease in mice which has been studied extensively as a model for typhoid fever in humans. CD8 T cells contribute to protection against S. enterica serovar Typhimurium in mice, but little is known about the specificity and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction of the response. We report here that CD8 T-cell lines derived from S. enterica serovar Typhimurium-infected BALB/c mice lysed bone marrow macrophages infected with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium or pulsed with proteins from S. enterica serovar Typhimurium culture supernatants. Cytoxicity was beta-2-microglobulin dependent and largely TAP dependent, although not MHC class Ia restricted, as target cells of several different MHC haplotypes were lysed. The data suggested the participation of class Ib MHC molecules although no evidence for the presence of Qa1-restricted T cells could be found, unlike in previous reports. Instead, the T-cell lines lysed H2-M3-transfected fibroblasts infected with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium SL3261 or treated with Salmonella culture supernatants. Thus, this report increases the number of MHC class Ib antigen-presenting molecules known for Salmonella antigens to three: Qa-1, HLA-E, and now H2-M3. It also expands the range of pathogens that induce H2-M3-restricted CD8 T cells to include an example of gram-negative bacteria. PMID:16299293

  6. Efeitos da Salmonella Enteritidis experimentalmente inoculada na saúde gastrintestinal de perus Effects of experimentally inoculated Salmonella Enteritidis on the gastrointestinal health of turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Yoko Tanikawa de Andrade

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de Salmonella Enteritidis sobre a colonização e o desenvolvimento do trato intestinal, a conversão alimentar e o ganho de peso em perus. Um total de 135 perus de corte de 1 dia foi distribuído em três tratamentos: controle; perus oriundos de ovos inoculados com Salmonella Enteritidis via casca e perus desafiados com água de bebida com Salmonella Enteritidis. Aos 10, 20 e 28 dias, avaliaram-se as variáveis de desempenho e coletaram-se amostras para avaliação bacteriana, biometria e histomorfometria. Realizaram-se também, nos dias 1, 15 e 28 de idade, coletas de mecônio/excretas de todas as aves. A colonização intestinal aumentou durante a fase inicial quando Salmonella foi inoculada via casca. O intestino apresentou maior peso ao 1º, 10º e 28º dias quando Salmonella esteve presente, sem diferença no comprimento. Salmonella Enteritidis foi capaz de colonizar o trato intestinal, estabelecer infecção, reduzir o desempenho das aves e modificar as estruturas celulares do intestino. A contaminação da casca do ovo antes da incubação propiciou a ocorrência de infecções ao nascimento, e a frequência de isolamento de Salmonella Enteritidis persistiu até 28 dias de idade. A inoculação de Salmonella pela água de bebida gerou aves infectadas, porém com menor nível de infecção com o avançar da idade. O desempenho de aves inoculadas com Salmonella Enteritidis é menor e isso confirma potenciais prejuízos para a produção avícola.The effects of Salmonella Enteritidis on the colonization and development of the intestinal tract, feed conversion and weight gain were evaluated. A total of 135 day old turkeys were assigned to three treatments: control; turkeys from eggs inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis via shell and turkeys challenged with drinking water with Salmonella Enteritidis. At 10, 20 and 28 days, the performance variables were evaluated and samples were collected to perform bacterial assessment, biometrics and histomorphometry. On days one, 15 and 28, samples of meconium/excreta were collected from all birds. The intestinal colonization increased during the initial phase when Salmonella was inoculated via eggshell. The intestine showed greater weight on the first, tenth and 28th days when Salmonella was present, with no differences regarding the intestine length. Salmonella Enteritidis was able to colonize the intestinal tract, establish infection, reduce bird performance and modify the cellular structures of the intestine. Contamination of the eggshell before hatching generated birds susceptible to infection at birth and the frequency of isolation of Salmonella Enteritidis persisted until 28 days of age. Salmonella inoculation by drinking water generated infected birds, but with less recovery of the pathogen with age increase. Inoculated birds showed inferior performance, confirming the potential damage to poultry production.

  7. Efeitos da Salmonella Enteritidis experimentalmente inoculada na saúde gastrintestinal de perus / Effects of experimentally inoculated Salmonella Enteritidis on the gastrointestinal health of turkeys

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carla Yoko Tanikawa de, Andrade; Maria Auxiliadora, Andrade; Marcos Barcellos, Café; José Henrique, Stringhini; Anderson, Mori; Dunya Mara Cardoso, Moraes; Juliana Bonifácio, Alcântara; Hérika Xavier, Costa.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de Salmonella Enteritidis sobre a colonização e o desenvolvimento do trato intestinal, a conversão alimentar e o ganho de peso em perus. Um total de 135 perus de corte de 1 dia foi distribuído em três tratamentos: controle; perus oriundos de ovos inoculados com Salmonella Ent [...] eritidis via casca e perus desafiados com água de bebida com Salmonella Enteritidis. Aos 10, 20 e 28 dias, avaliaram-se as variáveis de desempenho e coletaram-se amostras para avaliação bacteriana, biometria e histomorfometria. Realizaram-se também, nos dias 1, 15 e 28 de idade, coletas de mecônio/excretas de todas as aves. A colonização intestinal aumentou durante a fase inicial quando Salmonella foi inoculada via casca. O intestino apresentou maior peso ao 1º, 10º e 28º dias quando Salmonella esteve presente, sem diferença no comprimento. Salmonella Enteritidis foi capaz de colonizar o trato intestinal, estabelecer infecção, reduzir o desempenho das aves e modificar as estruturas celulares do intestino. A contaminação da casca do ovo antes da incubação propiciou a ocorrência de infecções ao nascimento, e a frequência de isolamento de Salmonella Enteritidis persistiu até 28 dias de idade. A inoculação de Salmonella pela água de bebida gerou aves infectadas, porém com menor nível de infecção com o avançar da idade. O desempenho de aves inoculadas com Salmonella Enteritidis é menor e isso confirma potenciais prejuízos para a produção avícola. Abstract in english The effects of Salmonella Enteritidis on the colonization and development of the intestinal tract, feed conversion and weight gain were evaluated. A total of 135 day old turkeys were assigned to three treatments: control; turkeys from eggs inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis via shell and turkeys [...] challenged with drinking water with Salmonella Enteritidis. At 10, 20 and 28 days, the performance variables were evaluated and samples were collected to perform bacterial assessment, biometrics and histomorphometry. On days one, 15 and 28, samples of meconium/excreta were collected from all birds. The intestinal colonization increased during the initial phase when Salmonella was inoculated via eggshell. The intestine showed greater weight on the first, tenth and 28th days when Salmonella was present, with no differences regarding the intestine length. Salmonella Enteritidis was able to colonize the intestinal tract, establish infection, reduce bird performance and modify the cellular structures of the intestine. Contamination of the eggshell before hatching generated birds susceptible to infection at birth and the frequency of isolation of Salmonella Enteritidis persisted until 28 days of age. Salmonella inoculation by drinking water generated infected birds, but with less recovery of the pathogen with age increase. Inoculated birds showed inferior performance, confirming the potential damage to poultry production.

  8. PESQUISA DE SALMONELLA EM MUTUNS (Mitu mitu) MANTIDOS EM CATIVEIRO / SURVEY OF SALMONELLA IN CURASSOWS BREEDING CENTER OF WILD ANIMALS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andréia Nakashima, Vaz; Alexandre Paulo, Armando; Andréa Rentz, Ribeiro; Fábio Tavares, Zancan; Marcelo Landim, Brisola.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram colhidas 50 amostras de fezes de mutuns do Criadouro Científico e Cultural Poços de Caldas. A amostras foram enriquecidas em meio caldo Tetrationato e Selenito-Cistina e plaqueadas em Salmonella Shigella (SS), Mac Conkey (MC), Endo-C (EC), Verde Brilhante (VB) e Eosina Azul de Metileno (EMB), [...] a 37º C por 24h. Colônias suspeitas de Salmonella spp foram inoculadas em tubos contendo Ágar Tríplice Açúcar Ferro (TSI) e incubadas a 37 ºC por 24 h. Os tubos com crescimento característico foram submetidas ao teste de aglutinação em lâmina com soros polivalentes somático e flagelar. Os meios SS, MC e VB foram os mais eficientes para o cultivo, sendo 6% das amostras, positivas para Salmonella spp. Sabendo-se que as aves são reservatórios importantes de spp e que esta pode representar um alto risco para a saúde humana, há a necessidade de implantação de uma rotina de limpeza dos recintos para evitar contaminação entre os recintos e o consequente carreamento destes micro-organismos, pelos tratadores, até suas residências ou outros recintos. A presença da Salmonella spp em criadouros pode ser responsável pela menor eclodibilidade dos ovos, prejudicando o objetivo da entidade, que visa o estudo e a manutenção das diferentes espécies de aves silvestres. Abstract in english We collected 50 samples of curasow feces from the Scientific and Cultural Breeding Center in the city of Poços de Caldas. The samples were enriched in broth medium Tetrationato and Cystine-selenite and plated on Salmonella Shigella (SS), Mac Conkey (MC), endo-C (EC), Brilliant Green (VB) and Eosyn M [...] ethilen Blue EMB, remaining at 37 °C for 24h. Colonies suspected of Salmonella were inoculated in tubes containing Agar Triple Sugar Iron (TSI) and again incubated at 37 ºC for 24h. Tubes with characteristic growth were submitted to slide agglutination test with polyvalent somatic and flagellar serum. The medium SS, MC and VB were the most efficient for growing, and 36% of samples were positive for Salmonella spp. As birds are important reservoirs of Salmonella spp and it may represent a high risk to human health, there is a need to implement a cleaning routine in enclosures avoiding contamination between the enclosures and the consequent entrainment of these micro-organisms, by the keepers until their homes or other venues. The presence of Salmonella in breeding centers may be responsible for lower hatchability of eggs, undermining the purpose of the entity, which is to study and maintain the various birds species.

  9. Microarray-based genotyping of Salmonella: Inter-laboratory evaluation of reproducibility and standardization potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    GrØnlund, Hugo Ahlm; Riber, Leise

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial food-borne infections in humans caused by Salmonella spp. are considered a crucial food safety issue. Therefore, it is important for the risk assessments of Salmonella to consider the genomic variationamong different isolates in order to control pathogen-induced infections. Microarray technology is a promising diagnostic tool that provides genomic information onmany genes simultaneously. However, standardization of DNA microarray analysis is needed before it can be used as a routine method for characterizing Salmonella isolates across borders and laboratories. A comparative study was designed inwhich the agreement of data fromaDNA microarray assay used for typing Salmonella spp. between two different labs was assessed. The study was expected to reveal the possibility of obtaining the same results in different labs using different equipment in order to evaluate the reproducibility of the microarray technique as a first step towards standardization. The low-density array contains 281 57–60-mer oligonucleotide probes for detecting a wide range of specific genomic marker genes associated with antibiotic resistance, cell envelope structures,mobile genetic elements and pathogenicity. Several critical methodology parameters that differed between the two labs were identified. These related to printing facilities, choice of hybridization buffer,wash buffers used following the hybridization and choice of procedure for purifying genomic DNA. Critical parameters were randomized in a four-factorial experiment and statistical measures of inter-lab consistency and agreementwere performed based on the kappa coefficient. A high level of agreement (kappa=0.7–1.0) in microarray results was obtained even when employing different printing and hybridization facilities, different procedures for purifying genomicDNA and different wash buffers. However, less agreement (Kappa=0.2–0.6) between microarray results were observed when using different hybridization buffers, indicating this parameter as being highly criticalwhen transferring a standard microarray assay between laboratories. In conclusion, this study indicates that DNA microarray assays can be reproduced in at least two different facilities, which is a pre-requisite for the development of standard guidelines.

  10. A review of the official sampling of flocks of laying hens in the Salmonella National Control Programme in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, R J; Martelli, F; Sayers, R; Larkin, L; Davies, R H

    2014-01-01

    In line with European legislation and the UK National Control Programme for Salmonella, poultry farms are sampled to establish their Salmonella status. Regular samples are collected by the farmer (operator), with annual routine (official) samples being collected by the competent authority to verify achievement of the Salmonella programme reduction target. To confirm sampling was being carried out effectively, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted. The aim was to identify any complicating factors the samplers encountered and the decisions made in these circumstances. There was good compliance with the official sampling visits, with few delays reported. However, farm-specific clothing/separate boots for non-caged houses were rarely provided by the operator, whereas boot dips and hand washing facilities were usually available. The collection of dust was often a problem for official samplers, operator boot swabs were not always moistened before sampling and both sampler groups did not always follow the recommended method for the collection of faeces from belts and scrapers. Overall, there was a good application of the sampling protocol, although a few areas for improvement were identified. PMID:25350727

  11. Production and characterization of monoclonal immunoglobulin A antibodies directed against Salmonella H:g,m flagellar antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iankov, Ianko D; Petrov, Dragomir P; Mladenov, Ivan V; Haralambieva, Iana H; Ivanova, Radka; R Velev, Valeri; Mitov, Ivan G

    2002-06-01

    Hybridomas were generated after intragastral immunization of BALB/c mice with live Salmonella suberu and subsequent fusion between isolated spleen lymphoblasts and myeloma cells. Three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) of immunoglobulin A (IgA) isotype were selected and characterized. All of them were found to recognize the H:g epitope in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting but did not react with all H:g-expressing strains in slide agglutination test. All MAbs strongly agglutinated Salmonella enteritidis type strain and a large number of S. enteritidis clinical isolates. They were not bactericidal in the presence of complement. All hybridoma clones produced secretory IgA forms, which were found in the gastrointestinal tract of mice bearing hybridoma as a subcutaneous 'backpack' tumor or after intravenous application of purified MAbs. The IgA MAbs stability demonstrated in different tests together with their antigen specificity and strong agglutination ability make them a useful diagnostic tool for serotyping of Salmonella strains. PMID:12052565

  12. Induction of an antibody response in mice against human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 after immunization with HPV recombinant Salmonella strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krul, M R; Tijhaar, E J; Kleijne, J A; Van Loon, A M; Nievers, M G; Schipper, H; Geerse, L; Van der Kolk, M; Steerenberg, P A; Mooi, F R; Den Otter, W

    1996-09-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are present in approximately 95% of all cervical carcinomas and the HPV E6 and E7 genes are continuously expressed in these lesions. There is also circumstantial evidence that often natural immunity against HPV is generated and that this is of influence on HPV-induced lesions. Stimulation of the immune system by proper presentation of relevant HPV antigens might, therefore, lead to a prophylactic or therapeutic immunological intervention for HPV-induced lesions. For this purpose we have expressed the E6 and E7 protein of HPV 16 in an attenuated strain of Salmonella typhimurium (SL3261, aroA mutation), which has been used extensively as a live vector. Live recombinant Salmonella vaccines have the ability to elicit humoral, secretory and cell-mediated immune responses, including cytotoxic T cells, against the heterologous antigens they express. This report describes the construction of recombinant Salmonella strains expressing the HPV 16 E6 and E7 proteins, and the induction of an HPV-16-specific immune response in mice after immunization with these live vectors. PMID:8917635

  13. An AIL family protein promotes type three secretion system-1-independent invasion and pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rimi; Mandal, Rahul S; Ta, Atri; Das, Santasabuj

    2015-04-01

    Adhesion and invasion of Intestinal Epithelial Cells (IECs) are critical for the pathogenesis of Salmonella?Typhi, the aetiological agent of human typhoid fever. While type three secretion system-1 (T3SS-1) is a major invasion apparatus of Salmonella, independent invasion mechanisms were described for non-typhoidal Salmonellae. Here, we show that T2942, an AIL-like protein of S. Typhi Ty2 strain, is required for adhesion and invasion of cultured IECs. That invasion was T3SS-1 independent was proved by ectopic expression of T2942 in the non-invasive E.?coli BL21 and double-mutant Ty2 (Ty2?t2942?invG) strains. Laminin and fibronectin were identified as the host-binding partners of T2942 with higher affinity for laminin. Standalone function of T2942 was confirmed by cell adhesion of the recombinant protein, while the protein or anti-T2942 antiserum blocked adhesion/invasion of S. Typhi, indicating specificity. A 20-amino acid extracellular loop was required for invasion, while several loop regions of T2942 contributed to adhesion. Further, T2942 cooperates with laminin-binding T2544 for adhesion and T3SS-1 for invasion. Finally, T2942 was required and synergistically worked with T3SS-1 for pathogenesis of S. Typhi in mice. Considering wide distribution of T2942 among clinical strains, the protein or the 20-mer peptide may be suitable for vaccine development. PMID:25308535

  14. X-Ray crystal structure of GarR—tartronate semialdehyde reductase from Salmonella typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipiuk, J.; Zhou, M.; Moy, S.; Collart, F.

    2009-01-01

    Tartronate semialdehyde reductases (TSRs), also known as 2-hydroxy-3-oxopropionate reductases, catalyze the reduction of tartronate semialdehyde using NAD as cofactor in the final stage of D-glycerate biosynthesis. These enzymes belong to family of structurally and mechanically related ?-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases which differ in substrate specificity and catalyze reactions in specific metabolic pathways. Here, we present the crystal structure of GarR a TSR from Salmonella typhimurium determined by the single-wavelength anomalous diffraction method and refined to 1.65 Å resolution. The active site of the enzyme contains L-tartrate which most likely mimics a position of a glycerate which is a product of the enzyme reaction. The analysis of the TSR structure shows also a putative NADPH binding site in the enzyme. PMID:19184529

  15. X-ray crystal structure of GarR-tartronate semialdehyde reductase from Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipiuk, J; Zhou, M; Moy, S; Collart, F; Joachimiak, A

    2009-09-01

    Tartronate semialdehyde reductases (TSRs), also known as 2-hydroxy-3-oxopropionate reductases, catalyze the reduction of tartronate semialdehyde using NAD as cofactor in the final stage of D-glycerate biosynthesis. These enzymes belong to family of structurally and mechanically related beta-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases which differ in substrate specificity and catalyze reactions in specific metabolic pathways. Here, we present the crystal structure of GarR a TSR from Salmonella typhimurium determined by the single-wavelength anomalous diffraction method and refined to 1.65 A resolution. The active site of the enzyme contains L-tartrate which most likely mimics a position of a glycerate which is a product of the enzyme reaction. The analysis of the TSR structure shows also a putative NADPH binding site in the enzyme. PMID:19184529

  16. Optimization of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocols for Salmonella Paratyphi A subtyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunxia; Zhao, Yingwei; Han, Hui; Pang, Bo; Zhang, Jingyun; Yan, Meiying; Diao, Baowei; Cui, Zhigang; Zhou, Haijian; Liang, Weili; Feng, Yanfang; Kan, Biao

    2012-04-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A infection has caused public health problems in some countries in recent years. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) has been used for the subtyping and epidemiological investigations of some serotypes of Salmonella, mainly in outbreaks caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella. In this study, different restriction endonucleases and electrophoresis parameters were compared for the PFGE subtyping by using Salmonella Paratyphi A strain panels. Two protocols for the enzymes SpeI and XbaI showed higher discriminatory power, which may facilitate epidemiological analysis for more accurate case definition, and clonality study of Salmonella Paratyphi A. PMID:22443482

  17. Detection of Salmonella Spp., Shigella (Flexneri and Sonnei) and Vibrio Cholerae O1 by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in Exported Shrimp from the Mexican Northeast Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present work was to use the PCR technique for the simultaneous detection of Salmonella spp and Vibrio cholerae O1 in frozen shrimp for export. The DNA segments located in the gene A [284 pairs of bases (pb)] from Salmonella spp. locus ial (217 and 320 pb) from Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei and the gene ctxA and ctxB (777 pb) from Vibrio cholerae O1 were amplified. The different primers that amplify these segments were assayed in a PCR reaction for the simultaneous detection of DNA from the microorganisms. It was not possible to amplify the gene of Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri under the assay’s conditions, whilst those of Salmonella spp. and Vibrio cholerae O1 were successfully amplified. The amplification conditions for the PCR were: 94° C, 58° C and 72° C during 30 cycles, allowing a reduction from 15 days test time with the official microbiological methods to 28 hours (24 for the pre-enrichment and four for the PCR). Samples of raw-frozen-headless shrimps were taken from production plants located in the State of Sinaloa, Mexico. A random sampling procedure was used, according to the guidelines described by the International Commission of Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF, 1999). Five packages per lot per production plant were obtained. From each individual package (5 pounds 80 OZ ? 2.27 kg) three samples were taken for the bacteriological assays to search for Salmonella spp. and Vibrio cholerae O1, respectively. The samples were also analyzed by PCR. Results showed that none of the samples were positive by PCR to any of the studied bacteria. Salmonella spp. and Vibrio cholerae O1 were not detected in these samples by the official methods. However, the latter were able to identify other Vibrio species and enterobacteria like Proteus and Acromobacter. These results confirmed PCR’s rapidity, sensitivity and specificity. (author)

  18. Antibiotic Resistant Salmonella and Vibrio Associated with Farmed Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sanjoy; Ooi, Mei Chen; Shariff, Mohamed; Khatoon, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella and Vibrio species were isolated and identified from Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in shrimp farms. Shrimp samples showed occurrence of 3.3% of Salmonella and 48.3% of Vibrio. The isolates were also screened for antibiotic resistance to oxolinic acid, sulphonamides, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, norfloxacin, ampicillin, doxycycline hydrochloride, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and nitrofurantoin. Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis isolated from shrimp showed individual and multiple antibiotic resistance patterns. Five Vibrio species having individual and multiple antibiotic resistance were also identified. They were Vibrio cholerae (18.3%), V. mimicus (16.7%), V. parahaemolyticus (10%), V. vulnificus (6.7%), and V. alginolyticus (1.7%). Farm owners should be concerned about the presence of these pathogenic bacteria which also contributes to human health risk and should adopt best management practices for responsible aquaculture to ensure the quality of shrimp. PMID:22619583

  19. Control of salmonella in meat and meat products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper highlights the importance of food irradiation in the protection of the public against food poisoning from eating meat or meat products contaminated with salmonella. Salmonella infections are increasing at an alarming rate (2000 in 1952 to 12000 reported cases in 1982 in England and Wales alone). Dr. Dempster reports that 50% of the chicken carcasses examined by workers in America were found to be salmonella contaminated. Use of irradiation in conjunction with mild refrigeration can extend the shelf-life of vacuum packed chicken by a factor of three. Important legislation now under discussion in the U.S.A. is likely to extend the applicability of food irradiation rapidly in the near future

  20. Salmonella source attribution based on microbial subtyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barco, Lisa; Barrucci, Federica

    2013-01-01

    Source attribution of cases of food-borne disease represents a valuable tool for identifying and prioritizing effective food-safety interventions. Microbial subtyping is one of the most common methods to infer potential sources of human food-borne infections. So far, Salmonella microbial subtyping source attribution models have been implemented by using serotyping and phage-typing data. Molecular-based methods may prove to be similarly valuable in the future, as already demonstrated for other food-borne pathogens like Campylobacter. This review assesses the state of the art concerning Salmonella source attribution through microbial subtyping approach. It summarizes the available microbial subtyping attribution models and discusses the use of conventional phenotypic typing methods, as well as of the most commonly applied molecular typing methods in the European Union (EU) laboratories in the context of their potential applicability for Salmonella source attribution studies.

  1. Risk Factors and Epidemiology of the Ten Most Common Salmonella Serovars from Patients in Thailand: 2002-2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Bangtrakulnonth, A.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective observational study to assess epidemiological trends and risk factors associated with the 10 most common Salmonella serovars isolated from humans in Thailand between 2002 and 2007. A total of 11,656 Salmonella isolates covering all 6 years were included in the study. The top 10 Salmonella serovars identified during the course of this study were Enteritidis, Stanley, Weltevreden, Rissen, I [1],4,[5],12:i:-, Choleraesuis, Anatum, Typhimurium, Corvallis, and Panama, which accounted for 8108 (69.6%) of the isolates. Most isolates were from patients 5 years; S. Choleraesuis was recovered with a higher frequency from patients in Bangkok and the central region, whereas S. Enteritidis was recovered predominantly from patients in the southern region. This study also indicates a shift in prevalence of the most common Salmonella serovars responsible for human infections in Thailand compared to previous studies. Notably, there was an increase in human infections with S. Stanley, S. Corvallis,and S. Choleraesuis, three serovars that have previously been associated with swine, and a decrease in infections due to S. Weltevreden and S. Anatum. The study also revealed differences in the epidemiology among the different serovars, suggesting that serovar-specific interventions are needed. We recommend initiating targeted interventions for the two serovars associated with a high odds ratio for submitted blood samples, S. Enteritidis and S. Choleraesuis. The authors also recommend additional epidemiologic studies to investigate the observed increase in swine associated serovars (S. Stanley, S. Corvallis, and S. Choleraesuis) and determine interventions to reduce the burden of disease from these serovars.

  2. Determinación, por PCR, de Salmonella Enteritidis FT 13 A y Salmonella Issatschenko en muestras de pollitos infectados experimentalmente / Determination of Salmonella Enteritidis FT 13 A and Salmonella Issatschenko by PCR in samples of chicks experimentally infected

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Israel, Monroy Becerra; Néstor, Ledesma Martínez; Félix Domingo, Sánchez Godoy; Griselda, Ruiz Flores; Odette, Urquiza Bravo.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar por medio de esta prueba, la presencia de Salmonella Enteritidis FT-13A (SE) y de Salmonella Issatschenko (SI), en diferentes muestras de órganos de pollitos de 4 días de edad infectados experimentalmente. Se emplearon órganos congelados de pollitos de [...] 4 días de edad inoculados experimentalmente con SE y SI, para extraer el ADN y realizar la PCR clásica y anidada. Se logró detectar SE y SI desde las 6 horas posinfección experimental (PIE), pero conforme pasó el tiempo PIE, los resultados positivos fueron inconsistentes, obteniendo resultados negativos hasta las 174 horas PIE. Se concluyó que la PCR es útil para detectar SE y SI en las primeras horas PIE. Se sugiere utilizar pre-enriquecimiento de las muestras, para facilitar la extracción de ADN y la detección de Salmonella por medio de la PCR. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine by PCR the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis FT-13A (SE) and Salmonella Issatschenko (SI) in different samples of organs from 4 days old chicks experimentally infected. Four days old chicks were inoculated with SE and SI and their organs were frozen for D [...] NAextraction to perform classic and nested PCR. It was possible to demonstrate the presence of SE and SI after 6 hours after experimental infection (AEI), but as time passed AEI positive results were inconsistent, obtaining negative results until 174 hours AEI. PCR is useful for detecting SE and SI in the early hours AEI. It is recommended to use pre-enrichment of the samples, in order to facilitate the DNA extraction and the detection of Salmonella by PCR.

  3. Inactivation of Salmonella enteritidis on raw poultry using microwave heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda B. Pucciarelli

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of microwave heating on Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated on fresh chicken was investigated using a microwave oven (800 w to determine the destruction of Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from chicken carcasses, in relation to the time of heating at two power settings: high (power level 10 and medium (power level 6; The relationship between heating time and temperature was also been studied. The destruction was 6.4 log cycles at time 95 sec for the high power level, and 5 log cycles at time 140 sec for medium power setting. After 110 sec for higher power level, no survival of Salmonella Enteritidis was detected in samples (100g, but at 140 sec for medium power level, these food pathogens were still present.Foi investigado o efeito do aquecimento por microondas sobre Salmonella Enteritidis inoculada em frangos frescos usando um forno de microondas doméstico (800 W para determinar a destruição da Salmonella Enteritidis isolada a partir de carcaças de frangos, em relação com o tempo de aquecimento a dois níveis de potência: alta (nível 10 e média ( nível 6; a relação entre tempo de aquecimento e temperatura também foi estudada. A destruição foi de 6 log em 95 s de tempo para o nível alto e 5 log em 140 s de tempo para o nível médio de potência. Depois de 110 s no nível de potência alta, não foi detectada sobrevivência de Salmonella Enteritidis em amostras de 100g de peso, porém, depois de 140 s a potência média, esse patôgeno nos alimentos ainda permanecia.