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Sample records for salmonella specific inva

  1. Estandarización de una PCR para la detección del gen invA de Salmonella spp. en lechuga / Standardization of a PRC method for the detection of the Salmonella spp. invA gene in lettuce

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luz, Chacón; Kenia, Barrantes; Cristina, García; Achí, Rosario.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. es un patógeno bacteriano muy importante causante de diarreas, que es transmitido tanto por la vía fecal-oral, como por alimentos y agua contaminados. En este trabajo se estandarizó una técnica de PCR en lechuga para la detección del gen invA de Salmonella spp.; dicho gen se relacion [...] a con el proceso de invasión al epitelio intestinal. Con la PCR desarrollada en este trabajo se logró estandarizar un método que permite la amplificación del gen invA con una detección de 10² UFC/25 g. Este método acorta los tiempos de respuesta de los resultados presuntivos y brinda información complementaria al cultivo tradicional del patógeno. El estudio del gen invA establece el potencial patógeno del microorganismo presente en la muestra, lo que puede ser de utilidad para la salud pública. Abstract in english Salmonella spp. is a very important bacterial pathogen that causes diarrhea and which is transmitted both through the fecal-oral pathway, as by contaminated food and water. In this study we standardized a PCR method in lettuce for the detection of the Salmonella spp. invA gene. This gene is related [...] to the invasion of the intestinal epithelium process. With the PCR method developed in this study we were able to standardize a method which permits the amplification of the invA gene with a 10² CFU/25 g detection. This method shortens the response times of the presumptive results and gives complementary information to the traditional culture of the pathogen. The study of the invA gene establishes the pathogenic potential of the microorganism present in the sample, which can be useful for public health purposes.

  2. Presencia del gen de invasividad inv A en cepas de Salmonella spp: aisladas de alimentos del Caribe Colombiano / Presence of the invasive gene invA in Salmonella spp: strains isolated from food in several cities of the Colombian Caribbean area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paula, Espinal Marin; Edgar, Prieto Suárez; Vanessa, Otero Jiménez; Salim, Máttar Velilla.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: establecer la presencia del gen de invasividad invA en aislamientos de Salmonella spp. obtenidos de alimentos en la región Caribe Colombiana. Métodos: se realizó un estudio microbiológico de control de alimentos en 4 ciudades de la región Caribe entre enero de 2002 y marzo de 2003. Se anal [...] izaron 1 300 muestras de alimentos provenientes de mercados y ventas callejeras. Resultados: se recuperaron 74 aislamientos de Salmonella spp. , en carne de res 30 (40,5 %), embutidos 13 (17,6 %), pollo 12 (16,2 %), queso 9 (12,2 %), cerdo 6 (8,1 %) y otros 4 (5,5 %). Los serotipos más frecuentes fueron: S. anatum 14 (18,9 %), S. uganda 13 (17,6 %), S. newport 9 (12,2 %) y S. typhimurium 7 (9,5 %). El cebador invA amplificó un fragmento de 378 pb, el gen invA se detectó en 72 (97,3 %) aislamientos de Salmonella. Conclusiones: se detectó la presencia del gen invA en los serotipos de Salmonella circulantes en alimentos en la región Caribe Colombiana. Las implicaciones epidemiológicas de estos resultados permiten sugerir a las autoridades sanitarias tomar medidas estrictas en el control, prevención y diagnóstico de la infección por Salmonella en esta región Abstract in english Objective: to establish the presence of invasive gene invA in Salmonella spp. strains obtained from food in several cities of the Colombian Caribbean area. Methods: from January 2002 to March 2003, a microbiological study of quality control of food was carried out in four cities of the Colombian Car [...] ibbean area. One thousand and three hundred food samples were analyzed in fast food outlets located in city squares or markets. Results: seventy four isolates of Salmonella were recovered: 30 (40.5) in meat; 13 (17.6 %) in sausage; 12 (16.2 %) in chicken; 9 (12.2 %) in cheese; 6 (8.1 %) in pork and 4 (5.5 %) in other types of food. The most frequently isolated serotypes were S.anatum in 14 (18.9 %), S.uganda in 13 (17.6 %), S. newport in 9 (12.2 %) y S. typhimurium in 7 (9.5 %). The invA primer amplified 378 pb fragment, invA gene was detected in 72 (97.3 %) Salmonella isolates. Conclusions: it was possible to detect the invA gene in circulating serotypes of Salmonella isolates obtained from food in the Colombian Caribbean area, the epidemiological implications allow the health authorities to take measure for the prevention, control and diagnosis of Salmonella infection in the Colombian Caribbean area

  3. Molecular beacon-based real-time PCR detection of primary isolates of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis in environmental and clinical samples

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Maria A; Demetriou Victoria L; Hadjinicolaou Andreas V; Kakoyiannis Charalambos K; Kostrikis Leondios G

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background A fast and simple two-step multiplex real-time PCR assay has been developed to replace the traditional, laborious Salmonella serotyping procedure. Molecular beacons were incorporated into the assay as probes for target DNA. Target sequences were regions of the invA, prot6E and fliC genes specific for Salmonella spp. Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, respectively, the two most clinically relevant serotypes. An internal amplification positive control was inc...

  4. Rapid Detection of Salmonella in Food and Beverage Samples by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Radji, M.; Malik, A.; Widyasmara, A.

    2010-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay had been used to detect Salmonella in food and beverage samples using suitable primers which are based on specific invA gene of Salmonella. Twenty nine samples were collected from street food counters and some canteens in Margonda Street, Depok, West Java, Indonesia. It was found that five of twenty nine samples were detected to contain Salmonella and showed the presence of the amplified product of the size 244 bp. The method of PCR demonstrated the spec...

  5. Rapid Detection of Salmonella in Food and Beverage Samples by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radji, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay had been used to detect Salmonella in food and beverage samples using suitable primers which are based on specific invA gene of Salmonella. Twenty nine samples were collected from street food counters and some canteens in Margonda Street, Depok, West Java, Indonesia. It was found that five of twenty nine samples were detected to contain Salmonella and showed the presence of the amplified product of the size 244 bp. The method of PCR demonstrated the specificity of invA primers for detection of Salmonella as confirmed by biochemical and serological assay. The results of this study revealed that PCR was a rapid and useful tool for detection of Salmonella in food and beverage samples.

  6. Psoralen photomutagenic specificity in Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytotoxic and mutagenic specificity of two therapeutically employed psoralens was examined in several Ames Salmonella typhimurium strains with near ultraviolet light activation. Photomutagenic activity of 8-methoxypsoralen (8MOP) and 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (TMP) was found to be sequence-specific, and additionally was dependent on the level of DNA-repair proficiency. Phototoxicity was essentially identical in hisC3076, hisD3052 and hisG46 strains; uvrB- excision-repair-deficient bacteria were considerably more susceptible to lethal effects than wild-type parental strains. Finally, the data show that psoralens are potent frameshift photomutagens in Salmonella hisC3076 strains and demonstrate the potential utility of these strains in evaluating photomutagenic and phototoxic activity of new furocoumarin derivatives. (Auth.)

  7. Virulence genes detection of Salmonella serovars isolated from pork and slaughterhouse environment in Ahmedabad, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Chaudhary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to detect virulence gene associated with the Salmonella serovars isolated from pork and Slaughterhouse environment. Materials and Methods: Salmonella isolates (n=37 used in this study were isolated from 270 pork and slaughter house environmental samples collected from the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation Slaughter House, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Salmonella serovars were isolated and identified as per BAM USFDA method and serotyped at National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre, Central Research Institute, Kasauli (Himachal Pradesh, India. Polymerase chain reaction technique was used for detection of five genes, namely invA, spvR, spvC, fimA and stn among different serovars of Salmonella. Results: Out of a total of 270 samples, 37 (13.70% Salmonella were isolated with two serovars, namely Enteritidis and Typhimurium. All Salmonella serovars produced 284 bp invA gene, 84 bp fimA and 260 bp amplicon for enterotoxin (stn gene whereas 30 isolates possessed 310 bp spvR gene, but no isolate possessed spvC gene. Conclusion: Presence of invA, fimA and stn gene in all isolates shows that they are the specific targets for Salmonella identification and are capable of producing gastroenteric illness to humans, whereas 20 Typhimurium serovars and 10 Enteritidis serovars can able to produce systemic infection.

  8. Evaluation of different analysis and identification methods for Salmonella detection in surface drinking water sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard method for detecting Salmonella generally analyzes food or fecal samples. Salmonella often occur in relatively low concentrations in environmental waters. Therefore, some form of concentration and proliferation may be needed. This study compares three Salmonella analysis methods and develops a new Salmonella detection procedure for use in environmental water samples. The new procedure for Salmonella detection include water concentration, nutrient broth enrichment, selection of Salmonella containing broth by PCR, isolation of Salmonella strains by selective culture plates, detection of possible Salmonella isolate by PCR, and biochemical testing. Serological assay and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) can be used to identify Salmonella serotype and genotype, respectively. This study analyzed 116 raw water samples taken from 18 water plants and belonging to 5 watersheds. Of these 116, 10 water samples (8.6%) taken from 7 water plants and belonging to 4 watersheds were positive for a Salmonella-specific polymerase chain reaction targeting the invA gene. Guided by serological assay results, this study identified 7 cultured Salmonella isolates as Salmonella enterica serovar: Alnaby, Enteritidis, Houten, Montevideo, Newport, Paratyphi B var. Java, and Victoria. These seven Salmonella serovars were identified in clinical cases for the same geographical areas, but only one of them was 100% homologous with clinical cases in the PFGE pattern. - Research highlises in the PFGE pattern. - Research highlights: ? A new Salmonella detecting procedure for environmental water is developed. ? Salmonella isolates are identified by serological assay and PFGE. ? A total of seven Salmonella serovars is isolated from environmental water.

  9. Evaluation of different analysis and identification methods for Salmonella detection in surface drinking water sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Bing-Mu, E-mail: bmhsu@ccu.edu.tw [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Kuan-Hao; Huang, Shih-Wei [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tseng, Kuo-Chih [Department of Internal Medicine, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Su, Ming-Jen [Department of Clinical Pathology, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Wei-Chen; Ji, Dar-Der [Research and Diagnostic Center, Centers for Disease Control, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shih, Feng-Cheng; Chen, Jyh-Larng [Department of Environmental Engineering and Health, Yuanpei University of Science and Technology, HsinChu, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kao, Po-Min [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2011-09-15

    The standard method for detecting Salmonella generally analyzes food or fecal samples. Salmonella often occur in relatively low concentrations in environmental waters. Therefore, some form of concentration and proliferation may be needed. This study compares three Salmonella analysis methods and develops a new Salmonella detection procedure for use in environmental water samples. The new procedure for Salmonella detection include water concentration, nutrient broth enrichment, selection of Salmonella containing broth by PCR, isolation of Salmonella strains by selective culture plates, detection of possible Salmonella isolate by PCR, and biochemical testing. Serological assay and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) can be used to identify Salmonella serotype and genotype, respectively. This study analyzed 116 raw water samples taken from 18 water plants and belonging to 5 watersheds. Of these 116, 10 water samples (8.6%) taken from 7 water plants and belonging to 4 watersheds were positive for a Salmonella-specific polymerase chain reaction targeting the invA gene. Guided by serological assay results, this study identified 7 cultured Salmonella isolates as Salmonella enterica serovar: Alnaby, Enteritidis, Houten, Montevideo, Newport, Paratyphi B var. Java, and Victoria. These seven Salmonella serovars were identified in clinical cases for the same geographical areas, but only one of them was 100% homologous with clinical cases in the PFGE pattern. - Research highlights: {yields} A new Salmonella detecting procedure for environmental water is developed. {yields} Salmonella isolates are identified by serological assay and PFGE. {yields} A total of seven Salmonella serovars is isolated from environmental water.

  10. Rapid detection of Salmonella in foods using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chorng-Ming; Lin, Wen; Van, Khanh Thien; Phan, Lieuchi; Tran, Nelly N; Farmer, Doris

    2008-12-01

    Conventional methods for detection of Salmonella serovars in foods are generally time-consuming and labor intensive. A real-time PCR method has been developed with custom designed primers and a TaqMan probe to detect the presence of a 262-bp fragment of the Salmonella-specific invA gene. The method has been tested with a total of 384 field-isolated Salmonella serovars and non-Salmonella stock strains, as well as 420 U.S. Food and Drug Administration food samples, comprising a variety of food matrices. The method was highly specific in detecting Salmonella in spiked chili powder and shrimp samples, with a sensitivity of 0.04 CFU/g. In addition, the method is faster, more accurate, and less costly than the traditional U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual cell-culturing and the AOAC International-approved VIDAS methods to detect Salmonella in foods. PMID:19256088

  11. N-terminal methionine-specific peptidase in Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, C. G.; Strauch, K. L.; Kukral, A. M.; Miller, J. L.; Wingfield, P. T.; Mazzei, G. J.; Werlen, R. C.; Graber, P.; Movva, N. R.

    1987-01-01

    Crude extracts of a multiply peptidase-deficient strain of Salmonella typhimurium contain an aminopeptidase that specifically removes N-terminal methionine from peptides. This activity shows pronounced specificity for the peptide's second amino acid. Methionine is removed from peptides with alanine, threonine, or glycine in this position but not when the second amino acid is leucine or methionine. The activity is stimulated by Co2+ and is inhibited by EDTA. Mutations that lead to overproducti...

  12. Generation of Salmonella-specific Th1 cells requires sustained antigen stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Amanda J.; Mcsorley, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The administration of live attenuated Salmonella strains has proven to be an effective way to generate protective immunity against Salmonella infection in humans and mice. Studies in the mouse model have shown that protection requires Salmonella-specific Th1 cells, however the timing and stimulatory requirements for generating optimal Th1 responses have not been carefully examined. We used antibiotic interruption of vaccination with live attenuated Salmonella to examine the requirements for S...

  13. PCR amplification of the fimA gene sequence of Salmonella typhimurium, a specific method for detection of Salmonella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, H. J.; Mechanda, S. M.; Lin, W.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the fimA gene amplification by PCR as a specific method for detection of Salmonella strains. Salmonella typhimurium and other pathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae produce morphologically and antigenically related, thin, aggregative, type 1 fimbriae. A single gene, fimA, encodes the major fimbrial unit. In order to obtain higher specificity, we have selected a series of primers internal to the fimA gene sequence and have ...

  14. Specificity of Salmonella Typhimurium strain (ATCC 14028) growth responses to Salmonella serovar-generated spent media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calo, Juliany Rivera; Park, Si Hong; Baker, Christopher A; Ricke, Steven C

    2015-06-01

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most prevalent pathogens responsible for foodborne illness worldwide. Numerous Salmonella serovars have been associated with the consumption of a variety of products, and limiting food-borne illness due to Salmonella serovars is a continuing problem for food producers and public health. The emergence and prevalence of Salmonella serovars has been studied but the predominant serovars have varied somewhat over the years. The aims of this research were to compare the aerobic growth responses of selected predominant foodborne Salmonella serovars, and evaluate how the spent media from different serovars affects the growth of a well-characterized Salmonella Typhimurium strain. Growth responses were similar for most strains in spent media except for S. Typhimurium (ATCC 14028), which exhibited a decrease in growth in the presence of Salmonella Heidelberg (ARI-14) spent media. This research will provide a better understanding of the growth differences among several Salmonella serovars in nutrient limited spent media. PMID:25844864

  15. Multicenter validation of the analytical accuracy of Salmonella PCR: towards an international standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malorny, B.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    As part of a major international project for the validation and standardization of PCR for detection of five major food-borne pathogens, four primer sets specific for Salmonella species were evaluated in-house for their analytical accuracy (selectivity and detection limit) in identifying 43 Salmonella spp. and 47 non-Salmonella strains. The most selective primer set was found to be 139-141 (K. Rahn, S. A. De Grandis, R. C. Clarke, S. A. McEwen, J. E. Galan, C. Ginocchio, R. Curtiss 111, and C. L. Gyles, Mol. Cell. Probes 6:271-279, 1992), which targets the invA gene. An extended determination of selectivity by using 364 strains showed that the inclusivity was 99.6% and the exclusivity was 100% for the invA primer set. To indicate possible PCR inhibitors derived from the sample DNA, an internal amplification control (IAC), which was coamplified with the invA target gene, was constructed. In the presence of 300 DNA copies of the IAC, the detection probability for primer set 139-141 was found to be 100% when a cell suspension containing 10(4) CFU/ml was used as the template in the PCR (50 CFU per reaction). The primer set was further validated in an international collaborative study that included 16 participating laboratories. Analysis with 28 coded ("blind") DNA samples revealed an analytical accuracy of 98%. Thus, a simple PCR assay that is specific for Salmonella spp. and amplifies a chromosomal DNA fragment detected by gel electrophoresis was established through extensive validation and is proposed as an international standard. This study addresses the increasing demand of quality assurance laboratories for standard diagnostic methods and presents findings that can facilitate the international comparison and exchange of epidemiological data.

  16. Comparison of PCR-ELISA and LightCycler real-time PCR assays for detecting Salmonella spp. in milk and meat samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perelle, Sylvie; Dilasser, Françoise

    2004-01-01

    In a previous study, we reported the performance of a PCR assay amplifying 285-bp of the invA gene of Salmonella spp. through an international ring-trial involving four participating laboratories [Int. J. Food Microbiol. 89 (2003) 241]. Based on the validated set of primers and recent advancements in PCR technology, we have designed two specific PCR assays for detecting Salmonella spp. We have compared PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA) and LightCycler real-time PCR assay (LC-PCR) with the standard ISO 6579 bacteriological reference method. The two PCR tests incorporated an internal amplification control (IAC) co-amplified with the invA gene of Salmonella to monitor potential PCR inhibitors and ensure successful amplification. The selectivity study involved 84 Salmonella and 44 non-Salmonella strains and the samples tested were represented by 60 artificially-contaminated samples of fish, minced beef and raw milk, and 92 naturally-contaminated milk and meat samples. When using either PCR-ELISA or LC-PCR assays, only Salmonella strains were detected. PCR-ELISA and LC-PCR assays gave with pure Salmonella cultures the same detection limit level of 10(3) CFU/ml, which corresponds respectively to 50 and 10 cells per PCR tube. Data on artificially contaminated samples indicated that both PCR methods were able to detect after enrichment less than five Salmonella cells in 25 g of food, giving 100% concordance with the ISO 6579 reference method. The results on naturally contaminated samples demonstrated that despite certain inhibition problems, LC-PCR and PCR-ELISA assays were highly specific and sensitive, and provide a powerful tool for detection of Salmonella in food samples.

  17. Animal salmonelloses: a brief review of “host adaptation and host specificity” of Salmonella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grammato Evangelopoulou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica, the most pathogenic species of the genusSalmonella, includes more than 2,500 serovars, many of which are of great veterinary and medical significance. The emergence of food-borne pathogens, such as Salmonella spp., has increased knowledge about the mechanisms helping microorganisms to persist and spread within new host populations. It has also increased information about the properties they acquire for adapting in the biological environment of a new host. Thedifferences observed between serovars in their host preference and clinical manifestations are referred to as “serovar-host specificity” or “serovar-host adaptation”. The genus Salmonella, highly adaptive to vertebrate hosts, has many pathogenic serovars showing host specificity. Serovar Salmonella Typhi, causing disease to man and higher primates, is a good example of host specificity. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that Salmonella serovars use to overcome animal species' barriers or adapt to new hosts is also important for understanding the origins of any other infectious diseases or the emergence of new pathogens. In addition, molecular methods used to study the virulence determinants of Salmonella serovars, could also be used to model ways of studying the virulence determinants used by bacteria in general, when causing disease to a specific animal species

  18. Identification by Subtractive Hybridization of Sequences Specific for Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis

    OpenAIRE

    Agron, Peter G.; Walker, Richard L.; Kinde, Hailu; Sawyer, Sherilyn J.; Hayes, Dawn C.; Wollard, Jessica; Andersen, Gary L.

    2001-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, a major cause of food poisoning, can be transmitted to humans through intact chicken eggs when the contents have not been thoroughly cooked. Infection in chickens is asymptomatic; therefore, simple, sensitive, and specific detection methods are crucial for efforts to limit human exposure. Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to isolate DNA restriction fragments present in Salmonella serovar Enteritidis but absent in other bacteria found in po...

  19. Genome wide evolutionary analyses reveal serotype specific patterns of positive selection in selected Salmonella serotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Qi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterium Salmonella enterica includes a diversity of serotypes that cause disease in humans and different animal species. Some Salmonella serotypes show a broad host range, some are host restricted and exclusively associated with one particular host, and some are associated with one particular host species, but able to cause disease in other host species and are thus considered "host adapted". Five Salmonella genome sequences, representing a broad host range serotype (Typhimurium, two host restricted serotypes (Typhi [two genomes] and Paratyphi and one host adapted serotype (Choleraesuis were used to identify core genome genes that show evidence for recombination and positive selection. Results Overall, 3323 orthologous genes were identified in all 5 Salmonella genomes analyzed. Use of four different methods to assess homologous recombination identified 270 genes that showed evidence for recombination with at least one of these methods (false discovery rate [FDR] ompC, a gene encoding an outer membrane protein, which has also been found to be under positive selection in other bacteria. A total of 8, 16, 7, and 5 genes showed evidence for positive selection in Choleraesuis, Typhi, Typhimurium, and Paratyphi branch analyses, respectively. Sequencing and evolutionary analyses of four genes in an additional 42 isolates representing 23 serotypes confirmed branch specific positive selection and recombination patterns. Conclusion Our data show that, among the four serotypes analyzed, (i less than 10% of Salmonella genes in the core genome show evidence for homologous recombination, (ii a number of Salmonella genes are under positive selection, including genes that appear to contribute to virulence, and (iii branch specific positive selection contributes to the evolution of host restricted Salmonella serotypes.

  20. Isolation and identification of Salmonella spp. in drinking water, streams, and swine wastewater by molecular techniques in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C.; Hsu, B.; Shen, T.; Tseng, S.; Tsai, J.; Huang, K.; Kao, P.; Chen, J.

    2013-12-01

    Salmonella spp. is a common water-borne pathogens and its genus comprises more than 2,500 serotypes. Major pathogenic genotypes which cause typhoid fever, enteritis and other intestinal-type diseases are S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Stanley, S. Agona, S.Albany, S. Schwarzengrund, S. Newport, S. Choleraesuis, and S. Derby. Hence, the identification of the serotypes of Salmonella spp. is important. In the present study, the analytical procedures include direct concentration method, non-selective pre-enrichment method and selective enrichment method of Salmonella spp.. Both selective enrichment method and cultured bacteria were detected with specific primers of Salmonella spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). At last, the serotypes of Salmonella were confirmed by using MLST (multilocus sequence typing) with aroC, dnaN, hemD, hisD, purE, sucA, thrA housekeeping genes to identify the strains of positive samples. This study contains 121 samples from three different types of water sources including the drinking water (51), streams (45), and swine wastewater (25). Thirteen samples with positive invA gene are separated from culture method. The strains of these positive samples which identified from MLST method are S. Albany, S. Typhimurium, S. Newport, S. Bareilly, and S. Derby. Some of the serotypes, S. Albany, S. Typhimurium and S. Newport, are highly pathogenic which correlated to human diarrhea. In our results, MLST is a useful method to identify the strains of Salmonella spp.. Keywords: Salmonella, PCR, MLST.

  1. Comparison of commercial RNA extraction kits for preparation of DNA-free total RNA from Salmonella cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Escalona Narjol; Asamoah Benedicta; Rump Lydia V

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The isolation of DNA-free RNA is a crucial step in the reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Every RNA extraction procedure results in RNA samples contaminated with genomic DNA, which can cause false-positive outcomes in highly sensitive applications, including a recently developed quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) assay that targets invA mRNA for the detection of live Salmonella cells. The assay of this specific mRNA can be used to indicate the presence of live, as oppos...

  2. Real-time PCR method combined with immunomagnetic separation for detecting healthy and heat-injured Salmonella Typhimurium on raw duck wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qianwang; Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yang, Yishan; Xu, Wang; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2014-09-01

    Conventional culture detection methods are time consuming and labor-intensive. For this reason, an alternative rapid method combining real-time PCR and immunomagnetic separation (IMS) was investigated in this study to detect both healthy and heat-injured Salmonella Typhimurium on raw duck wings. Firstly, the IMS method was optimized by determining the capture efficiency of Dynabeads(®) on Salmonella cells on raw duck wings with different bead incubation (10, 30 and 60 min) and magnetic separation (3, 10 and 30 min) times. Secondly, three Taqman primer sets, Sal, invA and ttr, were evaluated to optimize the real-time PCR protocol by comparing five parameters: inclusivity, exclusivity, PCR efficiency, detection probability and limit of detection (LOD). Thirdly, the optimized real-time PCR, in combination with IMS (PCR-IMS) assay, was compared with a standard ISO and a real-time PCR (PCR) method by analyzing artificially inoculated raw duck wings with healthy and heat-injured Salmonella cells at 10(1) and 10(0) CFU/25 g. Finally, the optimized PCR-IMS assay was validated for Salmonella detection in naturally contaminated raw duck wing samples. Under optimal IMS conditions (30 min bead incubation and 3 min magnetic separation times), approximately 85 and 64% of S. Typhimurium cells were captured by Dynabeads® from pure culture and inoculated raw duck wings, respectively. Although Sal and ttr primers exhibited 100% inclusivity and exclusivity for 16 Salmonella spp. and 36 non-Salmonella strains, the Sal primer showed lower LOD (10(3) CFU/ml) and higher PCR efficiency (94.1%) than the invA and ttr primers. Moreover, for Sal and invA primers, 100% detection probability on raw duck wings suspension was observed at 10(3) and 10(4) CFU/ml with and without IMS, respectively. Thus, the Sal primer was chosen for further experiments. The optimized PCR-IMS method was significantly (P=0.0011) better at detecting healthy Salmonella cells after 7-h enrichment than traditional PCR method. However there was no significant difference between the two methods with longer enrichment time (14 h). The diagnostic accuracy of PCR-IMS was shown to be 98.3% through the validation study. These results indicate that the optimized PCR-IMS method in this study could provide a sensitive, specific and rapid detection method for Salmonella on raw duck wings, enabling 10-h detection. However, a longer enrichment time could be needed for resuscitation and reliable detection of heat-injured cells. PMID:24974274

  3. Primers specific for the fimbrial major subunit gene stdA can be used to detect Salmonella enterica serovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yin-Ching; Yang, Chia-Huei; Lin, Jiunn-Horng; Wang, Ke-Chuan; Cheng, Chun-Ping; Yeh, Kuang-Sheng

    2008-06-01

    The feasibility of using two primers internal to the stdA gene (which encodes the fimbrial major subunit of the std fimbrial gene cluster in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi) to detect Salmonella by PCR was explored. The 518-bp stdA specific sequence was conserved among 268 strains from 45 serovars of S. enterica. One Salmonella bongori CCUG 30042 strain and 34 non-Salmonella strains did not possess this sequence. A sensitivity test revealed that the stdA-specific primer set detected 3.4 x 10(-1) pg of genomic DNA and 3.0 x 10(5) CFU/ml with serial dilutions of Salmonella Typhimurium cells. In vitro testing for specificity using pig carcass sponge samples contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium also was performed. An initial Salmonella Typhimurium inoculum of 4.4 x 10(1) CFU/ml in pig carcass exudates reached the stdA primer detection level after preenrichment in buffered peptone water at 37 degrees C for 18 h in the presence of indigenous non-Salmonella flora at 4.0 X 10(7) CFU/ml, but the detection level decreased to 4.4 x 10(0) CFU/ml after selective enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis R10 broth for 18 h at 42 degrees C. The PCR method with primers specific for stdA is a quick and sensitive tool for detecting S. enterica, which is an important cause of foodborne disease. PMID:18592734

  4. Sequence Analysis of the rfb Loci, Encoding Proteins Involved in the Biosynthesis of the Salmonella enterica O17 and O18 Antigens: Serogroup-Specific Identification by PCR?

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Collette; Gheesling, Linda; Collins, Marcus; Fields, Patricia I.

    2006-01-01

    We report sequencing of the O antigen encoded by the rfb gene cluster of Salmonella enterica serotype Jangwani (O17) and Salmonella serotype Cerro (O18). We developed serogroup O17- and O18-specific PCR assays based on rfb gene targets and found them to be sensitive and specific for rapid identification of Salmonella serogroups O17 and O18.

  5. RAPID DETECTION OF CAMPYLOBACTER COLI, C. JEJUNI AND SALMONELLA ENTERICA ON POULTRY CARCASSES USING PCR-ELISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of retail poultry by Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella enterica is a significant source of human diarrheal disease. Isolation and identification of these microorganisms requires a series of biochemical and serological tests. In this study, Campylobacter ceuE and Salmonella invA genes w...

  6. The Genome of ?15, a Serotype-Converting, Group E1 Salmonella enterica-Specific Bacteriophage

    OpenAIRE

    Kropinski, Andrew M.; Kovalyova, Irina V.; Billington, Stephen J.; Patrick, Aaron N.; Butts, Brent D.; Guichard, Jared A.; Pitcher, Trevor J.; Guthrie, Carly C.; Sydlaske, Anya D.; Barnhill, Lisa M.; Havens, Kyle A.; Day, Kenneth R.; Falk, Darrel R.; Mcconnell, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    The genome sequence of the Salmonella enterica serovar Anatum-specific, serotype-converting bacteriophage ?15 has been completed. The nonredundant genome contains 39,671 bp and 51 putative genes. It most closely resembles the genome of ?V10, an Escherichia coli O1H57-specific temperate phage, with which it shares 36 related genes. More distant relatives include the Burkholderia cepacia-specific phage, BcepC6B [8 similar genes], the Bordetella bronchiseptica-specific phage, BPP-1 [8 similar ...

  7. Determination of specific antibodies titre to salmonella enteritidis by elisa technique in several selected flocks of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velhner Maja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the antibody titre to Salmonella enteritidis (SE was examined by the ELISA method in two flocks of laying hens, where during routine bacteriological investigations Salmonellae was never isolated, and in one flock where Colysepticemia was diagnosed and Salmonella isolated accidentally. In the flocks were Salmonellae were not isolated, a titre with a high level of specific antibodies to SE was discovered (15 and 45%, while the flock with accidental findings of SE was poorly positive (5%. These results point to the necessity of introducing serological monitoring to SE so that the infection of salmonella may be discovered early and the prevalence in the flock determined, and also for the purpose of applying adequate measures that could reduce the possibility of secretion of SE through eggs.

  8. Refining the LPS-antigen in Salmonella antibody ELISA for poultry enhanced specificity without impairing sensitivity.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Klara TØlbØl; Klausen, Joan

    In the Danish serological surveillance for Salmonella in poultry (serum and egg yolk) an indirect mix - ELISA is used, based on S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis antigens (Feld et al., 2000). When we evaluated results of the test retrospectively, over the years an unacceptably large fraction of seropositive findings could not be confirmed by the subsequent confirmatory bacteriological sampling in the herd. Therefore we tried to enhance specificity of the ELISA, without losing sensitivity, by refining the antigens used.

  9. Refining the LPS-Antigen in Salmonella Antibody Elisa for Poultry Enhanced Specificity without Impairing Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Klara TØlbØl; Lind, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In the Danish serological surveillance for Salmonella in poultry (serum and egg yolk) a mix-ELISA is used, based on S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis antigens (Feld et al., 2000). When we evaluated results of the test retrospectively, over the years an unacceptably large fraction of seropositive findings could not be confirmed by the subsequent confirmatory bacteriological sampling in the herd. Therefore we tried to enhance specificity of the ELISA, without losing sensitivity, by refining the antigens used.

  10. Sequence-specific interaction of the Salmonella Hin recombinase in both major and minor grooves of DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, K. T.; Gaines, P. C.; Karlinsey, J. E.; Vinayak, R.; Simon, M. I.

    1992-01-01

    The Hin recombinase of Salmonella catalyzes a site-specific recombination event which leads to flagellar phase variation. Starting with a fully symmetrical recombination site, hixC, a set of 40 recombination sites which vary by pairs of single base substitutions was constructed. This set was incorporated into the Salmonella-specific bacteriophage P22 based challenge phage selection and used to define the DNA sequence determinants for the binding of Hin to DNA in vivo. The critical sequence-sp...

  11. Standardization of a quantification method for Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in specific liquid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Rivera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlorination is the most widely used disinfection process for drinking water production. The formation of chlorination carcinogenic by-products and chlorine intoxication by direct manipulation in small communities has motivated the study of alternative disinfection processes. In this sense, processes of advanced oxidation (PAOs have yielded promising results. Escherichia coli (E. coli is customarily used as faecal bacterial indicator to determine the efficiency of disinfection processes. However, it has been shown that E. coli is less resistant to disinfection than other enteric bacteria such as Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. Additionally, the viable non-culturable (VNC state yields bacteria which are not detectable on many culture media.Objective: The main objective is to standardize a method for counting Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in specific liquid media to reliably quantify the bacteriological potential risk related to disinfection processes based on PAO.Methods: The study followed a randomized bi-factorial experimental design and the Duncan multiple comparison test. This design allowed the selection of specific liquid media to fittingly standardize the counting of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp.Results: We found that the best broth for counting Salmonella typhimurium strain at different concentrations in pure and mixed cultures was the Rappaport broth RP, the EE broth also allowed growing the two bacterial species tested in this research. Nonetheless, the latter results suggest the use of additional tests for this particular broth.Discussion: There was a variation in the counting results when pure cultures were used compared to those obtained from mixtures of microorganisms. It was also noted that Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella sonnei, were recovered from minimal concentrations in both RP and EE broths, respectively. To some extent, this suggests an additional confirmative method when using the EE® broth.Conclusion: MPN is a rapid and inexpensive method; easy to apply in water and other contaminated environments where counting of Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. is needed to estimate potential bacteriological risks. The broths selected were able to recover the two bacterial species from densities as low as 10 cells per 100 ml.

  12. Study of the presence of specific Salmonella Enteritidis antibodies in chicken egg yolks by competitive cELISA method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoji?i? Marina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common causes of salmonellosis of man and poultry is Salmonella Enteritidis which is often found in the digestive system of adult birds. The infected birds do not display any evident clinical symptoms and, at the same time, they excrete the bacteria into the surrounding environment. Studies are carried out by standard microbiological procedures which include the isolation of Salmonella spp. in egg yolks and their serologic typization by agglutination on microplates. Along these methods, studies on the possibility to use an enzyme immunoassay, such as cELISA, in order to detect the presence of specific antibodies on Salmonella Enteritidis in egg yolks are carried out intensively. The presence of specific antibodies for Salmonella Enteritidis is detected in egg yolk samples from vaccinated flocks resulted in specific positive for a total of 72.22%. Egg yolk samples originating from hens of an unknown immunologic status were cELISA positive in a total of 1.66%. However, egg yolk samples from non-vaccinated hens were positive on the presence of specific antibodies for Salmonella Enteritidis in 23.07% cases. Bearing in mind that standard bacteriological methods did not confirm the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in egg yolk samples and that cELISA did establish the presence of specific antibodies in the tested samples it can be concluded that cELISA is a more sensitive test.

  13. Designing of primers for detection of salmonella typhimirium and enteritidis by heminested PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmonella are the main responsible agent for the frequent food borne gastrointestinal diseases. In Tunisia, this pathogen is considered one of the most important causes of toxiinfections and its detection using classical methods is laborious and requires a large amount of time for revelation. To solve this problem, we developed a rapid molecular technique for the detection of the invA virulence gene sequence which is found in the majority of Salmonella spp. This technique is a hemi nested PCR amplification using specific primers designed and by bioinformatics tools. The detection method consisted of pre-enrichment of the sample in buffered peptone water (BPW), followed by a total DNA extraction step prior to single tube hemi nested PCR amplification. This method was found highly specific and sensitive to detect low levels of salmonella typhimurium and salmonella enteritidis (1cfu/ 25g) in naturally contaminated spicy sausage (merguez) samples. These results can benefit the public health agencies concerning microbiological and quality aspects of the commercial and traditional merguez meat production in Tunisia. (Author)

  14. Inversions of specific DNA segments in flagellar phase variation of Salmonella and inversion systems of bacteriophages P1 and Mu.

    OpenAIRE

    Kutsukake, K.; Iino, T.

    1980-01-01

    Prophages P1 and Mu produces a trans-acting factor possessing the din+ activity which catalyzes the inversion of the specific DNA segment responsible for flagellar phase variation of Salmonella, din mutants were isolated from PICMclr100 phage by selecting phages that did not suppress the yh2 mutation of Salmonella in prophage state. No inversion loop structure was detected among DNA forms arising after denaturation and rehybridization of DNAs extracted from the din mutants. The DNA fragment c...

  15. Expression, purification and immobilization of the intracellular invertase INVA, from Zymomonas mobilis on crystalline cellulose and Nylon-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Los Angeles Calixto-Romo, María; Santiago-Hernández, José Alejandro; Vallejo-Becerra, Vanessa; Amaya-Delgado, Lorena; del Carmen Montes-Horcasitas, María; Hidalgo-Lara, María Eugenia

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents two immobilization methods for the intracellular invertase (INVA), from Zymomonas mobilis. In the first method, a chimeric protein containing the invertase INVA, fused through its C-terminus to CBDCex from Cellulomonas fimi was expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). INVA was purified and immobilized on crystalline cellulose (Avicel) by means of affinity, in a single step. No changes were detected in optimal pH and temperature when INVA-CBD was immobilized on Avicel, where values of 5.5 and 30 degrees C, respectively, were registered. The kinetic parameters of the INVA-CBD fusion protein were determined in both its free form and when immobilized on Avicel. Km and Vmax were affected with immobilization, since both showed an increase of up to threefold. Additionally, we found that subsequent to immobilization, the INVA-CBD fusion protein was 39% more susceptible to substrate inhibition than INVA-CBD in its free form. The second method of immobilization was achieved by the expression of a 6xHis-tagged invertase purified on Ni-NTA resin, which was then immobilized on Nylon-6 by covalent binding. An optimal pH of 5.5 and a temperature of 30 degrees C were maintained, subsequent to immobilization on Nylon-6 as well as with immobilization on crystalline cellulose. The kinetic parameters relating to Vmax increased up to 5.7-fold, following immobilization, whereas Km increased up to 1.7-fold. The two methods were compared showing that when invertase was immobilized on Nylon-6, its activity was 1.9 times that when immobilized on cellulose for substrate concentrations ranging from 30 to 390 mM of sucrose. PMID:18712537

  16. Identification of Novel Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104-Specific Prophage and Nonprophage Chromosomal Sequences among Serovar Typhimurium Isolates by Genomic Subtractive Hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Hermans, Armand P. H. M.; Abee, Tjakko; Zwietering, Marcel H.; Aarts, Henk J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Genomic subtractive hybridization was performed between Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 and DT104 to search for novel Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104-specific sequences. The subtraction resulted mainly in the isolation of DNA fragments with sequence similarity to phages. Two fragments identified were associated with possible virulence factors. One fragment was identical to irsA of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028, which is suggested to be involved in macrophage survi...

  17. Identification of novel Salmonella enterica Serovar Thyphimurium DT104-specific prophage and nonprophage chromosomal sequences among serovar Thyphimurium isolates by genomic subtractive hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Hermans, A. P. H. M.; Abee, T.; Zwietering, M. H.; Aarts, H. J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Genomic subtractive hybridization was performed between Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 and DT104 to search for novel Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104-specific sequences. The subtraction resulted mainly in the isolation of DNA fragments with sequence similarity to phages. Two fragments identified were associated with possible virulence factors. One fragment was identical to irsA of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028, which is suggested to be involved in macrophage survi...

  18. Development of a rapid serotyping method for Salmonella enterica using serotype-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Enteriditis (S. Enteriditis) is the leading cause of salmonellosis worldwide, including the USA. Many S. enterica serotypes known to cause foodborne disease are associated with broiler meat contamination. While some serotypes are specific to birds (S. e...

  19. Detección de Salmonella spp. en melón Cantaloupe en unidades de producción y unidad de empaque / Detection of Salmonella spp. on Cantaloupe melon production units and packaging facility

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucía, Morales-Hernández; Ana María, Hernández-Anguiano; Cristóbal, Cháidez-Quiroz; Gilberto, Rendón-Sánchez; Trevor, V. Suslow.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El melón Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) grupo reticulatus precortado, proveniente del estado de Guerrero, México, se ha asociado con brotes de salmonelosis en Estados Unidos de América y Canadá, por lo que las exportaciones de melón, a estos países, se suspendieron en 2001. En este trabajo se evaluó l [...] a condición sanitaria del melón Cantaloupe, con la detección e identificación de Salmonella, en dos unidades de producción y una unidad de empaque en Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero. Se analizaron 100 melones Cantaloupe (50 de las unidades de producción y 50 de la unidad de empaque), recolectados en enero y abril de 2005, mediante métodos bacteriológicos convencionales y el crecimiento en medios selectivos para la detección de Salmonella, como indicador de contaminación fecal. La proporción de melones con presencia de Salmonella spp. fue 4%, en una de las unidades de producción y 20% en la unidad de empaque. Salmonella se detectó en frutos irrigados con agua de río filtrada pero no clorada y manejados por trabajadores con poca higiene. En pruebas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR), dos de seis cepas presuntivas de Salmonella dieron amplificaciones positivas con el par de iniciadores Sal-3 y Sal-4 e invA-1 e invA-2; de las otras cuatro, solo dieron amplificación positiva con invA-1 e invA-2. Estos resultados sugieren que en la región de Zirándaro de los Chávez se tiene más de un serotipo de Salmonella y evidencian la importancia de implementar programas preventivos para asegurar la calidad sanitaria del melón Cantaloupe. Abstract in english Fresh Cantaloupe melons (Cucumis melo L.) group reticulatus coming from the state of Guerrero, Mexico, have been associated with outbreaks of salmonellosis in the United States of America and Canada. These countries suspended the importations of Cantaloupe melon from Mexico due to the outbreaks in 2 [...] 001. This study evaluated the food safety quality of Cantaloupe melon, with the detection and identification of Salmonella in two production units and a packing facility unit in Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero. 100 Cantaloupe melons (50 of the production units and 50 of the packaging unit), collected in January and April 2005, were analyzed by conventional bacteriological methods and growth in selective media for detection of Salmonella, as an indicator of fecal contamination. The proportion of melons with presence of Salmonella was 4%, in one of the field production units and 20% in the packing unit. Salmonella was detected in fruits irrigated with filtered but not chlorinated river water and handled by workers with poor hygiene. Characterization by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) demonstrated that, two of six strains of presumptive Salmonella gave positive amplifications with the pair of primers Sal-3 and Sal-4 as with invA-1and invA-2. For four other isolates only two were observed with invA-1 and invA-2. These results suggest that in the region of Zirándaro de los Chávez there are more than one serotype of Salmonella, and demonstrate the importance of implementing prevention programs to ensure the sanitary quality of Cantaloupe melon.

  20. Desarrollo y validación de una reacción en cadena de la polimerasa múltiple para la identificación de los serogrupos B, C2, D y E de Salmonella enterica Development and validation of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for molecular identification of Salmonella enterica serogroups B, C2, D and E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Moreno

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Introducción. El esquema Kaufmann-White para la serotipificación de Salmonella, reconoce 46 antígenos O y 119 antígenos H, los cuales han permitido la caracterización de 2.541 serovares. La serotipificación es una herramienta epidemiológica útil en la identificación de serovares circulantes y estudio de brotes, sin embargo, presenta limitaciones técnicas, de interpretación de resultados y alto costo.
    Objetivo. Desarrollar una prueba de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa múltiple (PCR-M como alternativa para identificar los serogrupos B, C2, D y E de Salmonella enterica.
    Materiales y métodos. Se desarrolló una PCR-M para detectar los genes rfbJ de los serogrupos B y C2 y wzx de los serogrupos D y E. Para estandarizar la PCR-M se probaron cepas de referencia de Salmonella pertenecientes a los serogrupos de estudio. Se incluyó el gen invA específico del género Salmonella como control interno de amplificación. La técnica fue validada con un estudio ciego que incluyó 400 aislamientos de Salmonella previamente serotipificados.
    Resultados. La PCR-M permitió identificar los serogrupos de Salmonella con resultados reproducibles (índice kappa=0,95. La sensibilidad de la prueba estuvo entre 98% y 100% y la especificidad entre 96% y 100%.
    Conclusiones. El polimorfismo de los genes rfbJ y wzx permitió desarrollar un método de tipificación molecular sensible, específico y reproducible, que podría servir de apoyo a la serotipificación para identificar serogrupos de Salmonella.

    Introduction. The scheme Kauffman-White (KW for serotyping of Salmonella recognizes 46 O antigens, and 119 H antigens, thereby permitting the characterization of 2,541 serotypes. The serotyping is a useful epidemiological tool in identifying circulating serotypes and to characterize outbreaks. However, the method presents technical limitations, difficulty in interpretation of results and high costs.
    Objective. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction test (M-PCR was developed as an alternative method for the identification of serogroups B, C2, D, and E of Salmonella enterica.
    Materials and methods. The M-PCR detected Salmonella genes rfbJ of serogroups B and C2 and wzx of serogroups D and E. To standardize the M-PCR, reference strains of Salmonella serogroups were compared. Amplification of invA gender-specific gene of Salmonella was included as internal control of amplification. To validate the test, a blind study was conducted to identify by M-PCR 400 isolates that had been previously characterized by serology.
    Results. The M-PCR detected Salmonella serogroups with reproducible results (Kappa index=0.95. The sensitivity of the test was between 98% to 100% and specificity between 96% to 100%.
    Conclusions. The polymorphisms in the Salmonella genes rfbJ and wzx permitted the development of a method for molecular typing of Salmonella serogroups that was sensitive, specific and reproducible.

  1. Salmonella enteritidis ghost vaccine induces effective protection against lethal challenge in specific-pathogen-free chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Si, Wei; Yin, Lu; Liu, Huifang; Yu, Shenye; Liu, Siguo; Wang, Chunlai; Chang, Yuehong; Zhang, Zhuo; Hu, Shouping; Du, Yanfen

    2011-05-01

    Bacterial ghosts (BGs) are empty bacterial envelopes generated by expulsion of the bacterial genome and cytoplasmic contents from bacterial cells, and the process is mediated by lysis protein E encoded on bacteriophage PhiX174. BGs represent a new approach in vaccine development and have been applied to a variety of gram-negative bacterial vaccine candidates. In this study, a BG vaccine generated from Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis) strain DH091 was prepared using the highly efficient plasmid, pBV-mE. The efficacy of the BG vaccine was tested using 75 chicks (Gallus gallus) kept under specific pathogen-free (SPF) conditions. A comprehensive evaluation of the immune response, including humoral and cellular immune responses, interferon-? (IFN-?) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production, and histopathology of various tissues, was performed in BG-vaccinated animals subsequently challenged with S. enteritidis. The results were compared with animals that were immunized with the inactivated vaccine. S. enteritidis ghosts not only promoted the generation of high titer antibodies and IFN-? and IL-4 production but also stimulated a significant increase in CD8(+) and CD4(+) T lymphocytes. In particular, the dramatic increase in CD8(+) T cells indicated that the vaccine was able to induce clearance of intracellular Salmonella. The protective effects of BG vaccination in SPF chicks against 5×10(9) colony forming units of S. enteritidis were a result of the induction of a more effective immune response than that observed with the inactivated vaccine. These findings demonstrate the potential of S. enteritidis ghosts to be used as effective vaccines. PMID:21247655

  2. Tetracycline promotes the expression of ten fimbrial operons in specific Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella is associated with increased morbidity in humans and presents an important food safety concern. Antibiotic resistance among isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has become especially prevalent as over 27 per cent of isolates from humans in the Unit...

  3. Specific adhesion and invasion of Salmonella Enteritidis in the vagina of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Naoe; Sasai, Kazumi; Tani, Hiroyuki; Baba, Eiichiroh

    2005-11-30

    Salmonella Enteritidis is the predominant serovar associated with egg-borne salmonellosis in humans. The colonization of S. Enteritidis in the vagina may play a role in the production of S. Enteritidis-contaminated eggs. In the first experiment, the in vitro adhesion of S. Enteritidis in vaginal and follicular explants was compared with that of S. Typhimurium by bacteriological isolation methods. The mean number of S. Enteritidis associated with vaginal explants was significantly (P serovars associated with follicular explants. In the second experiment, the in vitro adhesion and invasion of S. Enteritidis strains in the vaginal epithelium was compared with that of several strains of S. Agona, S. Infantis, S. Hadar, S. Heidelberg, S. Montevideo and S. Typhimurium, by immunohistochemical methods. The mean number of Salmonella in the vaginal epithelium depended on their lipopolysaccharide (LPS) type, with the rank order as follows: LPS type O9 (S. Enteritidis) > LPS type O4 (S. Agona, S. Typhimurium and S. Heidelberg) > LPS type O7 (S. Montevideo and S. Infantis) and LPS type O8 (S. Hadar). This rank order of Salmonella invasiveness is in accordance with the frequency of Salmonella outbreaks involving contaminated eggs. These findings suggest that S. Enteritidis has a higher ability to colonize the vaginal epithelium than other serovars, and the Salmonella LPS type may play an essential role in tropism of the reproductive tract. PMID:16242866

  4. Molecular characterization of Salmonella strains in individuals with acute diarrhea syndrome in the State of Sucre, Venezuela / Caracterização molecular de cepas de Salmonella em indivíduos com síndrome da diarreia aguda no Estado de Sucre, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hectorina, Rodulfo; Marcos De, Donato; Jesús, Luiggi; Elvia, Michelli; Adriana, Millán; Miriam, Michelli.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Na Venezuela, síndrome da diarreia aguda (SDA) é a principal causa de mórbi-mortalidade, muitas vezes envolvem o gênero Salmonella. Infecções por Salmonella são associadas com gastroenterite aguda, uma das mais comuns intoxicações alimentares causada pelo consumo de água e alimentos cont [...] aminados, principalmente carne. MÉTODOS: Métodos convencionais e moleculares foram usados para detectar cepas de Salmonella em 330 amostras de fezes de indivíduos com SDA de diferentes idades e ambos os sexos. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) foi utilizada para a caracterização molecular de genes Salmonella invA, sefA e fliC para identificar o gênero e os sorotipos Enteritidis e Typhimurium, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: A maior frequência de indivíduos com SDA foi encontrada em crianças de 0-2 (39,4%) anos, e a frequência total de culturas de fezes positiva foi de 76,9%. Um total de 14 (4,2%) cepas foram bioquímica e imunologicamente identificados como Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, dos quais 7 foram classificados como pertencentes ao sorotipo Enteritidis, Typhimurium sorotipo 4 e 3 para outros sorotipos. Cepas S. enterica foram distribuídas mais frequentemente em grupos de 3-4 e 9-10 anos de idade. CONCLUSÕES: O método de caracterização molecular usada provou ser altamente específico para tipificar as estirpes dos S. enterica usando tanto DNA extraído de colônias isoladas e direta e caldos de enriquecimento seletivo inoculados com amostras fecais, o que representa uma ferramenta complementar para a detecção e identificação de bactérias que causam a SDA. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION:In Venezuela, acute diarrheic syndrome (ADS) is a primary cause of morbi-mortality, often involving the Salmonella genus. Salmonella infections are associated with acute gastroenteritis, one of the most common alimentary intoxications, and caused by the consumption of contaminated water [...] and food, especially meat. METHODS: Conventional and molecular methods were used to detect Salmonella strains from 330 fecal samples from individuals of different ages and both sexes with ADS. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the molecular characterization of Salmonella, using invA, sefA, and fliC genes for the identification of this genus and the serotypes Enteritidis and Typhimurium, respectively. RESULTS: The highest frequency of individuals with ADS was found in children 0-2 years old (39.4%), and the overall frequency of positive coprocultures was 76.9%. A total of 14 (4.2%) strains were biochemically and immunologically identified as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, of which 7 were classified as belonging to the Enteritidis serotype, 4 to the Typhimurium serotype, and 3 to other serotypes. The S. enterica strains were distributed more frequently in the age groups 3-4 and 9-10 years old. CONCLUSIONS: The molecular characterization method used proved to be highly specific for the typing of S. enterica strains using DNA extracted from both the isolated colonies and selective enrichment broths directly inoculated with fecal samples, thus representing a complementary tool for the detection and identification of ADS-causing bacteria.

  5. Salmonella flagellin is a potent carrier-adjuvant for peptide conjugate to induce peptide-specific antibody response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Feng; Guo, Aihua; Li, Mengmeng; Liu, Wei; Pan, Zhiming; Jiang, Lei; Wu, Xin; Xu, Huji

    2015-04-21

    As an agonist to innate immune system, Salmonella flagellin has been proven to be a potent adjuvant either admixed or genetically fused with antigens and applied to a variety of vaccines against infectious diseases. However, relatively little is known about its carrier-adjuvant effect for conjugate vaccine. Conjugation is an effective approach often used to make haptens such as some peptides and polysaccharides immunogenic and in some cases used to make poor immunogens more immunogenic. In the current study, Salmonella flagellin was tested for its carrier-adjuvant effect in a peptide conjugation. The recombinant Salmonella flagellin (rFliC) purified from Escherichia coli was firstly modified by maleimide groups, then coupled with a synthetic peptide (EXP153:CDNNLVSGP) that is a B-cell epitope derived from Plasmodium falciparum exported protein-1 to generate the conjugate of EXP153-rFliC. Bioactivity assay showed that both chemical modification and conjugation did not apparently impair the TLR5-ligand activity of rFliC. EXP153-rFliC was used to immunize BALB/c mice via subcutaneous route, and the sera obtained from immunized mice were examined by ELISA and IFA. While no detectable antibody responses were induced by the peptide admixed with rFliC, the robust peptide-specific antibody responses were observed in mice immunized with the peptide conjugated to rFliC in the absence of any additional adjuvant. The immune sera induced by the conjugate recognized the native protein of malaria parasite. The data obtained from this study demonstrate the carrier-adjuvant activity of Salmonella flagellin in peptide conjugate immunization and indicate its promising application for conjugate vaccine research and development. PMID:25765964

  6. A highly sensitive and fast non-radioactive method for thedetection of polymerase chain reaction products from Salmonellaserovars, such as Salmonella typhi, in blood specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Cocolin, Luca Simone

    1998-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction based test was developed for the detection of Salmonella spp. in blood specimens. After amplification of a 389 bp-polymerase chain reaction product from the invA gene, a microtiter plate hybridization assay was performed. The protocol described allowed the detection of six to seven copies of the Salmonella typhi genome, as determined by serial dilutions of DNA from S. typhi. Eighteen blood specimens from artificially infected rats and 22 blood specimens fr...

  7. Rapid and Specific Detection of Salmonella spp. in Animal Feed Samples by PCR after Culture Enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Lo?fstro?m, Charlotta; Knutsson, Rickard; Axelsson, Ce; Ra?dstro?m, Peter

    2004-01-01

    A PCR procedure has been developed for routine analysis of viable Salmonella spp. in feed samples. The objective was to develop a simple PCR-compatible enrichment procedure to enable DNA amplification without any sample pretreatment such as DNA extraction or cell lysis. PCR inhibition by 14 different feed samples and natural background flora was circumvented by the use of the DNA polymerase Tth. This DNA polymerase was found to exhibit a high level of resistance to PCR inhibitors present in t...

  8. Detection and classification of mutagens: a set of base-specific Salmonella tester strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, P; Maron, D M; Ames, B N

    1994-11-22

    A detection and classification system for mutagens has been developed that identifies the six possible base-pair substitution mutations. A set of six Salmonella typhimurium (TA7001 to TA7006) strains has been constructed, each of which carries a unique missense mutation in the histidine biosynthetic operon. In addition to the his mutation, these strains carry different auxiliary features that enhance the mutability of the target his mutation. These include the R factor pKM101, which has the SOS-inducible mucAB system; a deletion of the uvrB component of excision repair; and rfa mutations to increase the accessibility of bulky chemicals to the bacteria. Another set of strains (TA7041 to TA7046) contain a wild-type rfa gene. Reversion via the base substitution unique to each strain was verified by sequence analyses of > 800 revertants obtained from different types of mutagens. The strains have considerably lower spontaneous reversion frequencies and detect a variety of mutagens at a sensitivity comparable to the Salmonella tester strains TA100, TA102, and TA104. The low spontaneous frequency of reversion of a mixture of the six tester strains (approximately 10 revertants per plate) enables a single mutation assay with the mixture that is followed by classification of the type of mutation with the individual strains. PMID:7972111

  9. The consequences of a sudden demographic change on the seroprevalence pattern, virulence genes, identification and characterisation of integron-mediated antibiotic resistance in the Salmonella enterica isolated from clinically diarrhoeic humans in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, K M; Hassan, W M M; Mohamed, R A H

    2014-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to identify and characterise integrons and integrated resistance gene cassettes among eight multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella serovars isolated from humans in Egypt. Virulotyping by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the detection of the presence of virulence genes. Integron PCR was used to detect the presence of class 1 in the MDR strains. The associated individual resistance gene cassettes were identified using specific PCRs. The isolated serovars were Salmonella Grampian (C1; 2/5), Larose (C1; 1/5), Hato (B; 1/5) and Texas (B; 1/5). Among the Salmonella serovars, five Salmonella isolates showed the highest resistance to amoxicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, lincomycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin and trimethoprim (100%), followed by neomycin, norfloxacin and tetracycline (80%), while the lowest resistance was recorded to colistin sulphate and ciprofloxacin in percentages of 20 and 40%, respectively. The invA, avrA, ssaQ, mgtC, siiD and sopB genes were detected in all isolates (100%), while the spvC and gipA genes were totally (100%) absent from all isolates. The remaining three virulence genes were diversely distributed as follows: the bcfC gene was detected in all isolates except Salmonella Hato (80%); the sodC1 gene was detected only in Salmonella Grampian and Salmonella Texas (60%); and the sopE1 gene was detected only in Salmonella Grampian, Hato and Texas (60%). Class 1 integrons were detected in 90% of the MDR isolates, comprising serovars Muenster, Florian, Noya, Grampian, Larose, Hato and Texas. Of the class 1 integron-positive isolates, 45% harboured Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) either right junction or right and left junction having an A-C-S-T phenotype. Of the class 1 integron-positive isolates, 44% harboured integron gene cassette aadA2, while 11% harboured the floR gene present in multidrug resistance flanked by two integrons of SGI1. The results of the present study indicate that class 1 integrons carrying gene cassettes conferring resistance mainly to aminoglycosides are widespread among the MDR Salmonella serovars isolated from humans in Egypt, indicating the important role of these genetic elements in the dissemination of multidrug resistance. PMID:24535570

  10. Multiplex PCR for the concurrent detection and differentiation of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pui, Chai Fung; Wong, Woan Chwen; Chai, Lay Ching; Lee, Hai Yen; Noorlis, Ahmad; Zainazor, Tuan Chilek Tuan; Tang, John Yew Huat; Ghazali, Farinazleen Mohamad; Cheah, Yoke Kqueen; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2011-01-01

    Salmonellosis outbreaks involving typhoid fever and human gastroenteritis are important diseases in tropical countries where hygienic conditions are often not maintained. A rapid and sensitive method to detect Salmonella spp., Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Typhimurium is needed to improve control and surveillance of typhoid fever and Salmonella gastroenteritis. Our objective was the concurrent detection and differentiation of these food-borne pathogens using a multiplex PCR. We therefore designed and optimized a multiplex PCR using three specific PCR primer pairs for the simultaneous detection of these pathogens. The concentration of each of the primer pairs, magnesium chloride concentration, and primer annealing temperature were optimized before verification of the specificity of the primer pairs. The target genes produced amplicons at 429 bp, 300 bp and 620 bp which were shown to be 100% specific to each target bacterium, Salmonella spp., Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Typhimurium, respectively. PMID:22028607

  11. Standardization of a quantification method for Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in specific liquid media / Estandarización de un método de recuento para Salmonella spp. y Shigella spp. en medios de cultivo líquidos especializados

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra Patricia, Rivera; Liliana Janeth, Flórez; Janeth, Sanabria.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Introducción: La cloración es el método más usado para desinfectar aguas de consumo. La formación de subproductos cancerígenos y las intoxicaciones por manipulación directa en pequeñas comunidades, han motivado el estudio de procesos alternativos. Los procesos de oxidación avanzada (PAOS), han arroj [...] ado resultados prometedores, utilizando el indicador bacteriano Escherichia coli (E. coli), con el método recuento en placa. Sin embargo, también se ha demostrado que E. coli es menos resistente a la desinfección que otras bacterias entéricas como Shigella y Salmonella y que estos procesos generan bacterias viables que no se cultivan durante el proceso, y no se descubren en medios sólidos. Objetivo: Estandarizar un método de recuento de Salmonella sp. y Shigella sp., en medios de cultivo líquidos especializados, que permita valorar de forma confiable el riesgo bacteriológico en procesos de desinfección PAOS. Métodos: En el presente trabajo se ensayaron y seleccionaron medios líquidos especializados, con los que se estandarizó el recuento de Salmonella sp. y Shigella sp., mediante un diseño experimental aleatorizado bifactorial y la prueba de comparaciones múltiples de Duncan. Resultados: Se encontró que el mejor caldo para recuperar a S. typhimurium a diferentes concentraciones, en cultivos puros y mezclas, fue el caldo Rappaport de Merck (RP). El caldo de enriquecimiento para entero bacterias de Oxoid (EE), permitió un buen crecimiento de las dos especies objeto de esta investigación. Lo cual sugiere el empleo de pruebas adicionales cuando se use caldo EE para NMP. Discusión: Se observó una variación en el recuento cuando se usaron cultivos puros, comparado con la obtenida a partir de mezclas de microorganismos. Sin embargo, S. typhimurium. y Shigella sonnei logran ser recuperadas de concentraciones mínimas en los caldos RP, respectivamente. Conclusión: Se pudo estandarizar un método de fácil aplicación a aguas y otros ambientes contaminados para recuento de Salmonella sp y Shigella sp. Los medios líquidos seleccionados fueron capaces de recuperar concentraciones de menos de 10 bacterias. Abstract in english Introduction: Chlorination is the most widely used disinfection process for drinking water production. The formation of chlorination carcinogenic by-products and chlorine intoxication by direct manipulation in small communities has motivated the study of alternative disinfection processes. In this s [...] ense, processes of advanced oxidation (PAOs) have yielded promising results. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is customarily used as faecal bacterial indicator to determine the efficiency of disinfection processes. However, it has been shown that E. coli is less resistant to disinfection than other enteric bacteria such as Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. Additionally, the viable non-culturable (VNC) state yields bacteria which are not detectable on many culture media. Objective: The main objective is to standardize a method for counting Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in specific liquid media to reliably quantify the bacteriological potential risk related to disinfection processes based on PAO. Methods: The study followed a randomized bi-factorial experimental design and the Duncan multiple comparison test. This design allowed the selection of specific liquid media to fittingly standardize the counting of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. Results: We found that the best broth for counting Salmonella typhimurium strain at different concentrations in pure and mixed cultures was the Rappaport broth RP, the EE broth also allowed growing the two bacterial species tested in this research. Nonetheless, the latter results suggest the use of additional tests for this particular broth. Discussion: There was a variation in the counting results when pure cultures were used compared to those obtained from mixtures of microorganisms. It was also noted that Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella sonnei, were recovered from m

  12. Tetracycline accelerates the temporally-regulated invasion response in specific isolates of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella is associated with increased morbidity compared to antibiotic-sensitive strains and is an important health and safety concern in both humans and animals. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a prevalent cause of foodborne disease, and a consider...

  13. SYBR®Green qPCR Salmonella detection system allowing discrimination at the genus, species and subspecies levels

    OpenAIRE

    Barbau-piednoir, Elodie; Bertrand, Sophie; Mahillon, Jacques; Roosens, Nancy H.; Botteldoorn, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a three-level Salmonella detection system based on a combination of seven SYBR®Green qPCR was developed. This detection system discriminates Salmonella at the genus, species and subspecies levels using a single 96-well plate. The SYBR®Green qPCR assays target the invA, rpoD, iroB and safC genes, as well as the STM0296 locus, putatively coding for a cytoplasmic protein. This study includes the design of primer pairs, in silico and in situ selectivity, sensitivity, repeatability...

  14. Development and application of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for specific detection of Salmonella enteritidis infections in chickens based on antibodies to SEF14 fimbrial antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Thorns, C. J.; Bell, M. M.; Sojka, M. G.; Nicholas, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    A double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect antibodies to the SEF14 fimbrial antigen (SEF14-DAS ELISA) and was evaluated for its use in the specific detection of chicken flocks infected with Salmonella enteritidis. The SEF14-DAS ELISA successfully discriminated between chickens experimentally infected with S. enteritidis and those infected with S. panama or S. typhimurium, although the SEF14 responses in adult birds infected with S. enteritidis...

  15. Temporal analyses of the distribution and diversity of Salmonella in natural biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Qiong; Gunathilake, Anuradha; Forstner, Michael R J; Hahn, Dittmar

    2011-07-01

    The diversity and distribution of salmonellae in freshwater biofilms were analyzed at a fine scale (i.e. in 20 locations from a 324 cm(2) area) for two sites in San Marcos, TX. A concrete storm water overflow channel (City Park) was sampled 4 times and a concrete surface in the spring-fed headwaters of the San Marcos River (Spring Lake) 5 times between April and September 2009, and each biofilm sample analyzed by a combination of traditional enrichment methods and molecular techniques. PCR detection of the invA gene, that encodes a protein of a type III secretion system present in salmonellae, after semi-selective enrichment of salmonellae was achieved in biofilms from all 20 locations at the City Park site, with locations generally being positive 2-3 times out of 4 sampling times for a total of 59% positive samples. InvA gene fragment detection in biofilms was less frequent for the 5 sampling times and 20 locations from the Spring Lake site (18% of all samples), with 1 sampling time being entirely negative and 8 locations remaining negative throughout the study. Rep-PCR fingerprinting of 491 Salmonella isolates obtained from both sites resulted in 30 distinct profiles, with 26 and 7 profiles retrieved from City Park and Spring Lake samples, respectively, and thus with 3 profiles present at both sites, and multiple strains frequently obtained from single locations at both sites. The composition of Salmonella strains in the area analyzed changed in time with large differences between early (April, June) and late sampling times (September) within and among sites, except for one strain (S12) that was present at almost all sampling times at both sites, though often at different locations within the area analyzed. These results demonstrate the presence of salmonellae in natural biofilms and a significant micro-heterogeneity with differences in diversity and persistence of salmonellae. PMID:21536398

  16. THE USE OF THE SPECIFIC ANTI-SALMONELLA POLYCLONAL ANTIBODIES ISOLATED FROM HEN EGGS, IN SALMONELLOSIS PROPHYLAXIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA CRISTE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The administration of increased doses of antibodies in groups experimentallyinfected with Salmonella gallinarum, in order to record the efficiency of theiradministration in salmonellosis prophylaxis was the aim of our research. When alow infection dose, 1x107 CFU Salmonella gallinarum, was used theadministration of IgY polyclonal antibodies as immunoglobulin extract, or evenyolk administration had a protective effect against germs invasion. This effect wasnot recorded when a 10 folds higher dose was administered (1x108 CFU. Theprophylactic effect of the administration of polyclonal antibodies is demonstrated.

  17. Genetische gevoeligheid voor Salmonella-infecties

    OpenAIRE

    Jgc, Amsterdam; Wh, Jong; Jonge R de; Hoebee B

    2007-01-01

    The Salmonella species Typhimurium and Enteritidis form the most important causes of food poisoning. Immunity to Salmonellae requires innate and specific immune responses. Reported here are the genetic polymorphisms in the genes of Nramp1, Toll-like receptors and CD14 related to the innate immune response to Salmonellae. Salmonella species are typically associated with the intra-cellular pathogens capable of surviving and replicating intra-cellularly in the phagocyte. Co...

  18. Detection of Salmonella spp. in oysters by PCR.

    OpenAIRE

    Bej, A. K.; Mahbubani, M. H.; Boyce, M. J.; Atlas, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    PCR DNA amplification of a region of the himA gene of Salmonella typhimurium specifically detected Salmonella spp. In oysters, 1 to 10 cells of Salmonella spp. were rapidly detected by the PCR following a pre-enrichment step to increase sensitivity and to ensure that detection was based on the presence of viable Salmonella spp.

  19. Detection of Salmonella spp. in oysters by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bej, A K; Mahbubani, M H; Boyce, M J; Atlas, R M

    1994-01-01

    PCR DNA amplification of a region of the himA gene of Salmonella typhimurium specifically detected Salmonella spp. In oysters, 1 to 10 cells of Salmonella spp. were rapidly detected by the PCR following a pre-enrichment step to increase sensitivity and to ensure that detection was based on the presence of viable Salmonella spp. PMID:8117091

  20. MUTATION SPECTRA OF GLU-P-1 IN SALMONELLA: INDUCTION OF HOTSPOT FRAMESHIFTS AND SITE-SPECIFIC BASE SUBSTITUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mutations induced in approximately 2,000 mutants of Salmonella by the heterocyclic@ amine Glu-P-1 were determined by colony probe hybridization and PCR/DNA sequence analysis. ll of the mutations were at sites containing guanine, which is the base at which Glu-P-1 forms DNA ad...

  1. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantification of Salmonella enteritidis-specific antibodies in egg yolk

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    IT, Tayeb; P, Nehme; L, Jaber; EK, Barbour.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study aims at developing an indirect ELISA to quantify yolk antibodies specific to all surface proteins of the invasive Salmonella Enteritidis (SE), which acquired the 1.8, 14.1, and ~ 50 Kb plasmids. An ELISA checkerboard was used in four different experiments to account for the differe [...] nt parameters included in the preliminary ELISA procedure, and consequently to maximize the difference in Optical Density (OD) values between control positive and negative yolk samples. The first experiment aimed at studying the impact of 5% Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) dissolved in distilled water as a blocking reagent on a 28 µg/well SE antigen-coated plate, while applying the positive and negative control yolk samples to different concentrations of Phosphate-Buffered Saline (PBS).Conjugate application was maintained constant at a dilution of 1:500 in PBS. The second experiment was similar to the first one, but the positive and negative control yolk samples were diluted in PBS-Tween 20, and the conjugate dilution was changed to 1:1500 in PBS-Tween 20. In the third experiment, the conjugate was diluted at 1:1500 in 5% BSA/PBS-Tween 20 diluent or PBS-Tween 20 diluent with no 5% BSA. The objective of the fourth experiment was to study the impact of four different concentrations of SE-coated antigen levels (28µg/well, 56µg/well, 84µg/well, and 112µg/well), while fixing the blocking step with 5% BSA in distilled water, and the conjugate dilution set at 1:1000 in 5% BSA/PBSTween 20, and fixing the control yolk samples dilution at 1% in PBS-Tween 20. This last experimental procedure allowed the highest difference in mean absorbance OD values of the positive control minus the negative control samples, which was equivalent to 0.381. In addition, the final protocol for this ELISA was applied on individual egg yolk samples of two groups of chicken layers: one challenged in the esophagus at 11 days with 5.4 x 10(10) CFU/ml/bird of SE, and the second group was not challenged. The mean OD values of the egg yolk of antibodies specific against SE of the two groups were significantly different (0.8578 versus 0.5250; p

  2. Comparison of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium LT2 and Non-LT2 Salmonella Genomic Sequences, and Genotyping of Salmonellae by Using PCR†

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-joong; Park, Si-hong; Kim, Hae-yeong

    2006-01-01

    Genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 expected to be specifically present in Salmonella were selected using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) program. The 152 selected genes were compared with 11 genomic sequences of Salmonella serovars, including Salmonella enterica subsp. I and IIIb and Salmonella bongori (V), and were clustered into 17 groups by their comparison patterns. A total of 38 primer pairs were constructed to represent each of the 17 groups, and PCR was ...

  3. Rapid Detection of Different Serovares of Salmonella entrica by Multiplex PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Karami, A.; Ranjbar, R.; Ahmadi, Z.; Safiri, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Typhoid fever is still one of the serious public health problems in many geographic areas and is endemic in most countries. Aim of current study was to evaluate a shortened time –Multiplex PCR for rapid detection of different Sal¬monella enterica serovars. Methods: The PCR primers for three target genes tyv, prt and invA were subjected for amplification by PCR. By using sim¬ple DNA extraction method, rapid PCR cycles and rapid electrophoresis procedure with simple and very che...

  4. Distribution of Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-8 and SPI-10 among different serotypes of Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroj, Sunil D; Shashidhar, R; Karani, Manisha; Bandekar, Jayant R

    2008-04-01

    Many virulence phenotypes of Salmonella enterica are encoded by genes located on pathogenicity islands. Based on genome analysis, it is predicted that Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-8 is restricted to Salmonella serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A, and SPI-10 to Salmonella serovars Typhi, Paratyphi, Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum. This study was conducted to investigate the distribution of SPI-8 and SPI-10 among Salmonella isolates from sprouts, fish, water and blood. A total of 110 Salmonella isolates and 6 Salmonella serovars from the Microbial Type Culture Collection, Chandigarh, India, were screened. All isolates belonging to Salmonella serovars Washington, Enteritidis and Paratyphi A had both SPI-8 and SPI-10. All Salmonella serovar Typhi isolates from water and blood had both SPI-8 and SPI-10, whereas isolates from fish contained only SPI-8. SPI-8 and SPI-10 were also detected in only 3 out of 42 isolates belonging to Salmonella serovar Typhimurium. Both SPI-8 and SPI-10 were absent in Salmonella serovars Worthington, Dublin, Paratyphi B and Paratyphi C. These results contradict the predictions from Salmonella genome sequences available in GenBank and indicate that SPI-8 and SPI-10 are widely distributed among Salmonella serovars and that virulence factors other than those on SPI-8 and SPI-10 may be responsible for host specificity. This is the first report on the distribution of SPIs in Salmonella isolates from India. PMID:18349359

  5. Induction of feline immunodeficiency virus specific antibodies in cats with an attenuated Salmonella strain expressing the Gag protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Tijhaar, E. J.; Siebelink, C. H. J.; Karlas, J. A.; Burger, M. C.; Mooi, F. R.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.

    1997-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium aroA strains (SL3261), expressing high levels of the Gag protein of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) fused with maltose binding protein (SL3261-MFG), were constructed using an invertible promoter system that allows the stable expression of heterologous antigens at levels toxic for bacteria. A SL3261 strain expressing the B subunit of cholera toxin by a similar system (SL3261-CtxB) served as a control in FIV-immunization experiments. Cats immunized once orally or intr...

  6. Allotypic and idiotypic specificities of anti-Salmonella abortus-equi antibodies produced by rabbits subjected to successive irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three out of five rabbits subjected to successive irradiations and immunized against Salmonella abortus-equi produced IgG which, transiently, were not precipitated by anti-a3 anti-allotypic sera, although they carried all the determinants of the a3 allotypic pattern. As a3 IgG from normal rabbits are precipitated by anti-a3 sera, it appeared that the molecular distribution of the a3 allotypic determinants was different on the IgG produced by these irradiated rabbits compared to IgG produced by normal rabbits. After a second irradiation, one of these rabbits produced a high level (50 mg per ml) of anti-Salmonella antibodies of restricted heterogeneity. An anti-idiotypic serum prepared against anti-Salmonella antibodies produced by this rabbit after the first irradiation precipitated the idiotypes it recognised in the serum collected after the first irradiation, while it did not precipitate the idiotypes it recognised in the serum collected after the second irradiation, although they carried all the determinants of the idiotypes of the serum collected after the first irradiation. That probably means that there is a different molecular distribution of the idiotypic determinants between antibodies produced after the first irradiation and antibodies produced after the second irradiation. An antiidiotypic serum prepared against anti-Salmonella antibodies produced after the second irradiation did not distinguish by precipitation in gel medium or by radioimmunoassay between tel medium or by radioimmunoassay between the idiotypes it recognised in antibodies produced after the first irradiation and those in antibodies produced after the second irradiation. The idiotypic similarity thus detected, and the fact that unexpected allotypes were not detected, is in better agreement with the expression of the potentiality of radiation-resistant cells than with the expression of new antibody producing cell clones arising from virgin stem cells. (author)

  7. Salmonella Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Flu Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Salmonella Infections KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Stomach & Intestinal Infections > Salmonella ... bathroom and before handling food in any way. Salmonella Basics Not everyone who ingests salmonella bacteria will ...

  8. Salmonella Serotype Enteritidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella serotype Enteritidis General Information Frequently Asked Questions Salmonella serotype Enteritidis infection Egg and chicken contamination Who ... Pages in this Report General Information Additional Information Salmonella serotype Enteritidis infection Salmonella serotype Enteritidis (SE) is ...

  9. Pathogenicity of Salmonella enteritidis Phage Type 1 Isolate of Malaysia in 21 Day Old Specific-Pathogen Free Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khairani-Bejo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enteritidis (SE has always been related to subclinical infection in the chickens infected after 2 weeks of hatching. However, few pathogenic phage types were proven for their ability to manifest systemic infection and cause the organism to be shed into the surrounding environment. It was the objective of the study to determine the pathogenicity of SE Phage Type (PT 1 in Specific-Pathogen-Free (SPF chickens. About 93, 21 day old SPF chickens where divided into 3 groups namely the Control, SE and Mortality groups. The chickens were raised separately in caging system and given free access to antibiotic-free ration and water. The SE and Mortality groups were inoculated orally (1.0 mL with SE PT 1 (1x108 cfu mL-1. The chickens in the SE and Control groups were sacrificed at various intervals throughout the trial. Samples were collected for bacterial isolation and histological examination. The mortality percentage of the chickens in the Mortality group was recorded. The study showed that no mortality was recorded throughout the trial in the mortality as well as the SE group. Body weight was lower in the SE group when compared to the Control group throughout the trial except at days 2, 3 and 5 post inoculation (pi reaching its peak at day 14 pi when the SE group body weight was 26% lower than the controls. Clinical signs observed in the SE and Mortality group were represented by diarrhoea, inappetance, ruffled feather and stunted chickens while no abnormal clinical signs where recorded in the Control group. Grossly mild airsacculitis, mild peritonitis and hepatic congestion where recorded in the SE group at day 2 pi until day 5 pi while no gross lesions where recorded in the Control group. SE was first isolated in the caecum (66% at 12 h pi. At day 1 pi SE was isolated from the caecum and spleen (33% whilst at day 2, SE was isolated from the caecum (100% and caecal tonsil (66%. No SE was isolated from the cloacal swabs throughout the trial. The villi height was generally lower in the SE group when compared to the Controls, however it was significantly lower (p<0.05 in the duodenum at 12 h, days 1, 3, 5, 10, 14 and 21 pi; in the jejunum at 6 h, days 2, 14 and 21 pi while in the ileum at days 1, 3 and 5 pi. The crypts depth measurement was fluctuating however it ended up by being higher in the SE group, nevertheless it was significantly lower (p<0.05 in the SE group when compared to the Control group in the duodenum at 6 h and day 14 pi in the jejunum at day 10 pi; in the ileum at 12 h pi. Histopathological changes recorded included hepatitis, congestion and focal areas of necrosis; splenitis, congestion and oedema in the adenoid sheathed arteries; congestion and areas of necrosis in the lymphoi follicles of the bursa of Fabricius; enteritis, congestion and sloughing of necrotic enterocytes in the intestinal villi with presence of bacterial clusters in the villi surface and intestinal lumen. SE rods present in the caecal tonsils were seen to be engulfed by macrophages at days 1 and 2 pi, necrosis of the enterocytes on the villi surface and infiltration of the bacteria was recorded at day 2 pi while at days 5 pi the bacteria multiplication were seen and often located upon the M-like M cells however, no actual engulfment was recorded.

  10. Salmonella Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Follow Salmonella RSS Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Quick Tips ... salmonellosis and many other health problems. More About Prevention There is no vaccine to prevent salmonellosis. Because ...

  11. Occurrence, genetic characterization and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from chicken meat and giblets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elghany, S M; Sallam, K I; Abd-Elkhalek, A; Tamura, T

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY This study was undertaken to survey the presence of Salmonella in 200 chicken samples collected from Mansoura, Egypt. Salmonella was detected in 16% (8/50), 28% (14/50), 32% (16/50) and 60% (30/50) of whole chicken carcasses, drumsticks, livers and gizzards, respectively, with an overall prevalence of 34% (68/200) among all samples. One hundred and sixty-six isolates were identified biochemically as Salmonella, and confirmed genetically by PCR, based on the presence of invA and stn genes. The spvC gene, however, was detected in only 25·3% (42/166) of the isolates. Isolates were serotyped as Salmonella Enteritidis (37·3%), S. Typhimurium (30·1%), S. Kentucky (10·8%), S. Muenster (8·4%), S. Virchow (4·8%), S. Anatum (4·8%), S. Haifa (1·2%), and four were non-typable. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests of the Salmonella isolates revealed that 100% were resistant to each of erythromycin, penicillin, and amoxicillin, while 98·8%, 96·4%, 95·2%, and 91·6% were resistant to nalidixic acid, sulphamethoxazole, oxytetracycline, and ampicillin, respectively. Multidrug resistance was evident for 92·8% of the isolates. The high contamination level of chicken meat with multidrug-resistant Salmonella can constitute a problem for public health. PMID:25004116

  12. Salmonella Yoruba infection in white-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) / Infecção por Salmonella Yoruba em sagui-de-tufo-branco (Callithrix jacchus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Terezinha, Knöbl; Leliane T., Rocha; Márcia C., Menão; Cláudia A.S., Igayara; Renata, Paixão; Andréa M., Moreno.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever um caso fatal de salmonelose em uma fêmea primata não humana (Callithrix jacchus), originária de tráfico ilegal no Brasil. O sagui foi enviado para seção de quarentena do Zoológico Municipal de Guarulhos e morreu após um episódio de diarréia profusa. Achados d [...] e necropsia incluíram enterite mucosa, hepatomegalia e necrose do fígado. Fezes e fragmentos do fígado foram coletados para testes bacteriológicos e indicaram a presença de Salmonella sp.; subsequentemente caracterizada como sorotipo Yoruba. O perfil de suscetibilidade mostrou resistência somente à tetraciclina. A cepa foi positiva para os genes que codificam os fatores de virulência investigados (invA, sefC, pefA and spvC). Os resultados indicaram o risco de introdução de sorotipos patogênicos de Salmonella por primatas em cativeiro. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to describe a fatal salmonellosis case in a non-human female primate (Callithrix jacchus), found in the illegal pet trade in Brazil. The marmoset was sent to the quarantine section of the Guarulhos City Zoo and died in the sequence of an episode of profuse diarrhea. Necrops [...] y findings included mucous enteritis, and liver enlargement and necrosis. Feces and liver fragments were collected for bacteriological tests, which indicated the presence of Salmonella sp.; it was subsequently characterized as pertaining to the Yoruba serotype. The susceptibility profile demonstrated resistance to tetracycline only. The strain was positive for genes that encoded the virulence factors investigated (invA, sefC, pefA and spvC). The results indicated the risk of introduction of Salmonella pathogenic serotypes in primates in captivity.

  13. Detección de Salmonella y coliformes fecales en agua de uso agrícola para la producción de melón "Cantaloupe" / Detection of Salmonella and fecal coliforms in water for agricultural use destined to melon"Cantaloupe"

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carmela, Hernández-Domínguez; Ana María, Hernández-Anguiano; Cristóbal, Cháidez-Quiroz; Gilberto, Rendón-Sánchez; Trevor, Suslow.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El agua que se utiliza en la producción de cultivos hortofrutícolas representa una fuente potencial de microorganismos que ocasionan enfermedades de transmisión alimentaria. Con el objetivo de evaluar la calidad sanitaria de diferentes fuentes de agua empleadas en la producción de melón Cantaloupe ( [...] Cucumis melo L. [grupo reticulatus] cv. Ovación y Caminos), en Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero, se analizaron 71 muestras de agua provenientes de dos unidades de campo (23) y de una unidad de empaque (48) mediante métodos bacteriológicos convencionales para la detección deSalmonella spp, y por el método de filtración en membrana y el crecimiento en medios selectivos, para la detección de coliformes fecales, como indicadores de contaminación fecal. Del total de muestras de agua analizadas sólo tres muestras de campo resultaron positivas a la presencia de Salmonella spp. y nueve muestras, siete de campo y dos de la unidad de empaque, resultaron positivas a coliformes fecales. Salmonella spp. y coliformes fecales se detectaron principalmente en muestras de agua no clorada a 29 °C y 7.5 de pH, en promedio. En pruebas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR), dos de cuatro cepas presuntivas de Salmonella ssp. dieron amplificaciones positivas con los iniciadores Sal-3 y Sal-4, y invA-1 e invA-2; de las otras dos, sólo dieron amplificación positiva con Sal-3 y Sal-4. Aparentemente se tiene más de una raza o serovar de Salmonella en la región. Estos resultados sugieren que algunas de las fuentes de agua empleadas en la producción de melón Cantaloupe en Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero, no cumplen con la normatividad sanitaria por lo que estas fuentes deben establecerse como puntos prerequisitos de control para evitar la contaminación de melones frescos con patógenos de humanos. Abstract in english Water used in the production of horticultural crops represents a potential source of microorganisms that cause food-transmitted diseases. In order to evaluate the sanitary quality of different agricultural water sources used in the production of Cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo L. [group reticulatus] [...] cv. Ovacion and Caminos), in Zirandaro Chavez, Guerrero, 71 water samples were analyzed from two field units (23) and one packaging house unit (48) through traditional bacteriological methods, to detect Salmonella spp, and the filtering membrane method and growth selective media, to detect fecal coliforms, as fecal contamination indicators. Of the total analyzed water samples only three field samples were positive to Salmonella spp. and nine samples, seven coming from the field and two from the packaging house, were positive to fecal coliforms. Salmonella spp. and fecal coliforms were detected mainly in non-chlorinated water samples at 29 °C and pH of 7.5, on average. Two out of four presumptive Salmonella spp. isolates were confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers Sal-3 and Sal-4, and invA-1 and invA-2; the other two were only confirmed with Sal-3 y Sal-4. Apparently more than one race or serovar of Salmonella spp. are present in this region. Results suggest that some water sources used in the Cantaloupe melon production in Zirandaro Chavez, Guerrero, do not meet sanitary standards therefore these sources should be considered as critical control points to prevent fresh melon contamination with human pathogens.

  14. The utility and application of real-time PCR and FISH in the detection of single-copy gene targets in Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffar, Merriam; Gilbride, Kimberley A

    2010-03-01

    The ultimate specificity in molecular-based assays for pathogen detection relies on the design of the primers and probes. Their ability to hybridize to DNA sequences found only in pathogens can be realized by designing primers and probes that are complementary to pathogen-specific virulence genes. This study evaluates the detection and enumeration strengths of real-time PCR (qPCR) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for selected waterborne pathogens and their ultimate applicability within a monitoring framework. Detection limits calculated in the qPCR assay were 150 tir (intimin protein receptor) gene copies for Escherichia coli O157:H7 and 2 x 103 invA (inner membrane invasive protein) gene copies for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Detection limits were, however, at least 100-fold less sensitive in wastewater extracts, partly because of the inhibitory effect of the wastewater itself. Fluorescent signals from hybridized whole target cells were below the detection limit of the FISH assay. While this research demonstrates the potential detection strength of qPCR, it highlights the need for strong dependable primer and probe sets among PCR and FISH methodologies as well as the need for further signal amplification with DNA-targeted FISH for single-copy gene targets within environmental samples. PMID:20453912

  15. Salmonellae interactions with host processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRock, Doris L; Chaudhary, Anu; Miller, Samuel I

    2015-04-01

    Salmonellae invasion and intracellular replication within host cells result in a range of diseases, including gastroenteritis, bacteraemia, enteric fever and focal infections. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that salmonellae use to alter host cell physiology; through the delivery of effector proteins with specific activities and through the modulation of defence and stress response pathways. In this Review, we summarize our current knowledge of the complex interplay between bacterial and host factors that leads to inflammation, disease and, in most cases, control of the infection by its animal hosts, with a particular focus on Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. We also highlight gaps in our knowledge of the contributions of salmonellae and the host to disease pathogenesis, and we suggest future avenues for further study. PMID:25749450

  16. REAL-TIME MONITORING OF SALMONELLA IN SWINE: SPECIFICITY AND SENSITIVITY OF BACTERIAL DETECTION THROUGH THE GASTROINFESTINAL TRACTS OF JUVENILE AND MARKET WEIGHT PIGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have demonstrated that Salmonella can be monitored non-invasively using biophotonic paradigms (Salmonella expressing light-emitting proteins) in living neonatal pigs. Nevertheless, questions remain concerning system sensitivity and adaptations of these methodologies for investigations of pre-harv...

  17. Salmonella Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Moir (National Institutes of Health; )

    2010-04-23

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) are a group of enteric bacteria can lead to life-threatening bacteremia in those with weakened immune systems. MacLennan et al. identify an immune response that may have important implications for the development of a vaccine against NTS.

  18. [Salmonella meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, E

    1982-01-01

    Cultures were done for 14.838 cerebro spinal fluid specimens (CSF) during 1977-1980. Positive results were obtained from 950 specimens. These were identified as 352 Klebsiella-Enterobacter (37.0%), 133 Pseudomonas (14.%), 96 Salmonella (10.1%), 65 Pneumococcus (6,9%), 51 Escherichia coli 5,4%), 50 Meningococcus (.3%), Haemophilus influenzae type B (1.0%) and 127 various miscellaneous bacteria. During the same period of time, total of Salmonella isolations from various sources were 865. These specimens were 488 stool (57.0%), 160 blood (18.6% 7) 96 CSF (11.2%) so forth. The majority of these Salmonella strains were of typhimurium serotype carrying a known antibiotic resistence plasmid. This plasmid, belonging to the fime compatibility group, present in the Salmonella typhimurium strains isolated in Middle-East countries like Iran, Israel and others, conferred resistance to the carrying strain against antibiotics like ampicillin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulphamide and tetracycline. As started to show up in Ankara too, addition of trimethoprim and gentamicin resistences to this markers were reported. These bacteria were also causing epidemics in pediatric wards of some South America countries which develops with hing rate of bacteremia and meningitis complications as it is in our hospital. PMID:6763663

  19. 78 FR 42526 - Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ...Docket No. FDA-2013-D-0254] Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food; Withdrawal...CPG) entitled ``Sec. 690.700 Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food...the CGP entitled ``Sec. 690.700 Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food...

  20. A rapid and direct real time PCR-based method for identification of Salmonella spp.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Lazaro, D.; Hernández, Marta

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was the validation of a rapid, real-time PCR assay based on TaqMan((R)) technology for the unequivocal identification of Salmonella spp. to be used directly on an agar-grown colony. A real-time PCR system targeting at the Salmonella spp. invA gene was optimized and validated through a four times repeated blind experiment performed in two different laboratories including 50 Salmonella spp. with representative strains from each of the 5 different Salmonella subgenera and 30 non-Salmonella strains. Both parameters DeltaR(n) (fluorescence intensity of template through a normalized reporter value) and C-T (cycle at which the fluorescence intensity achieved a pre-established threshold) were analyzed. Overall mean DeltaR(n) and C-T values for Salmonella strains (2.14 +/- 0.87 and 15.30 +/- 0.90, respectively) were statistically different from values for non-Salmonella strains, allowing the establishment of cut-off DeltaR(n) and C-T values based on 95% confidence intervals that allowed the correct identification of all strains tested in each independent experiment. The accuracy of this assay in terms of inclusivity and exclusivity was 100%. Moreover, the PCR system proved to be especially convenient because the pre-mix containing all PCR reagents except for the bacterial cells could be kept at -20 degreesC for at least I month before its use. The optimized TaqMan((R)) real-time PCR assay is a useful, simple and rapid method for routine identification of Salmonella spp., irrespective of the particular subgenus.

  1. Dysregulated humoral immunity to nontyphoidal Salmonella in HIV-infected African adults

    OpenAIRE

    Maclennan, Calman A.; Gilchrist, James J.; Gordon, Melita A.; Cunningham, Adam F.; Cobbold, Mark; Goodall, Margaret; Kingsley, Robert A.; Oosterhout, Joep J. G.; Msefula, Chisomo L.; Mandala, Wilson L.; Leyton, Denisse L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Gondwe, Esther N.; Bobat, Saeeda; Lo?pez-maci?as, Constantino

    2010-01-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonellae are a major cause of life-threatening bacteremia among HIV-infected individuals. Although cell-mediated immunity controls intracellular infection, antibody protects against Salmonella bacteremia. We report that high titer antibodies specific for Salmonella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) associate with absent Salmonella-killing in HIV-infected African adults. Killing was restored by genetically shortening LPS from target Salmonella, or removing LPS-specific antibodies from s...

  2. Salmonella enterica in imported and domestic day-old turkey poults in Egypt: repertoire of virulence genes and their antimicrobial resistance profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, K M; Marouf, S H; Erfan, A M; AlAtfeehy, N

    2014-12-01

    Globalisation and international trade facilitate the rapid spread and transmission of foodborne pathogens. This study was designed to determine the serovars, distribution of virulence genes (invA, avrA, ssaQ, mgtC, siiD, sopB, gipA, sodC1, sopE1, spvC, bcfC) and antibiotic resistance profiles in salmonellae recovered from imported and domestic day-old turkey poults in Egypt. The prevalence of salmonellae in the imported poults was 4% (6/150): S. Enteritidis was the most frequent isolate (1.3%; 2/150), followed by Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle and a non-typeable strain, each with 0.7% (1/150) prevalence. The prevalence of salmonellae in the domestic poults was < 2% (2/150) and serotyping indicated a prevalence of 1.3% (1/150) for both Typhimurium and Altona. In polymerase chain reaction screening, the genes invA, sopB and bcfC were detected in all the Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle, Altona and non-typeable isolates (100%); the gene gipA was absent from all isolates. Carriage of invA, sopB and bcfC among the Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle, Altona and non-typeable isolates was associated with a core pattern of resistance to three antibiotics: streptomycin, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol. The detection of S. Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle, and Altona in turkey poults has important implications because these serovars are a significant cause of foodborne illness and enteric fever in humans. PMID:25812224

  3. Inoculation of newly hatched broiler chicks with two Brazilian isolates of Salmonella Heidelberg strains with different virulence gene profiles, antimicrobial resistance, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns to intestinal changes evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsoi, A; Santin, E; Santos, L R; Salle, C T P; Moraes, H L S; Nascimento, V P

    2009-04-01

    Salmonella Heidelberg is one of the 3 most frequently isolated serovars from human Salmonella cases in Canada, and the fourth most commonly reported Salmonella serovar in human foodborne disease cases in the United States. Since 1962, Salmonella Heidelberg has been isolated and reported in poultry and poultry products in Brazil. The poultry industry has focused efforts on reducing salmonellae incidence in live production in an effort to reduce Salmonella in the processing plant. A better understanding of the initial infection in chicks could provide approaches to control Salmonella contamination. The objective of the present study was to evaluate 2 Salmonella Heidelberg strains that differed in the presence of virulence genes invA, agfA, and lpfA; antimicrobial resistance profiles; and epidemiologic profiles on aspects of pathogenicity and intestinal morphology. Newly hatched broiler chicks were inoculated with 2 strains (SH23 and SH35) of Salmonella Heidelberg and cecal morphometry, histopathology, electron microscopy, and bacterial counts in the liver and cecum were assessed. The SH23 and SH35 strains resulted in different changes in villi height and crypt depth and inflammatory cell infiltration in the cecum. The SH35 group had higher liver and cecum bacterial cell counts when compared with SH23 strains. PMID:19276418

  4. Molecular typing of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium isolated in Abruzzo region (Italy from 2008 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Alessiani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 47 antibiotic-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST were characterised, including 15 monophasic variants 1, 4, [5], 12:i:-, (STm isolated from different matrices. They were all selected from 389 Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica strains isolated during 2008-2010 in Abruzzo region (Italy. Thirty-seven strains showed to be resistant to more than 1 antibiotic. Among 47 isolates, phage type U311 and DT104 were identified. The ASSuT resistance pattern was predominant in mST strains and ACSSuT in ST DT104 and U302. A multiplex Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR method was used to investigate 4 genes: fluorfenicol (floSt, virulence (spvC, invasine (invA and integrase (int. All ST the strain were positive for invA gene and 28,32% of strains were positive for spvC gene. PFGE analysis revealed a large number of small clonal populations, however not ascrivable to outbreaks.

  5. Salmonella typhi

    OpenAIRE

    Mochammad, Hatta

    2008-01-01

    Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis differentiated 297 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi blood culture isolates from Makassar in 76 genotypes and a single unique S. Typhi genotype was isolated from the cholecystectomy specimens of four patients with cholelithiasis. The high diversity in S. Typhi genotypes circulating in Makassar indicates that the number of carriers could be very large, which may complicate disease prevention and control.

  6. Live cell imaging of intracellular Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl, Alexander; Hensel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    During the intracellular phase of the pathogenic lifestyle, Salmonella enterica massively alters the endosomal system of its host cells. Two hallmarks are the remodeling of phagosomes into the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV) as a replicative niche, and the formation of tubular structures, such as Salmonella-induced filaments (SIFs). To study the dynamics and the fate of these Salmonella-specific compartments, live cell imaging (LCI) is a method of choice. In this chapter, we compare currently used microscopy techniques and focus on considerations and requirements specific for LCI. Detailed protocols for LCI of Salmonella infection with either confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) or spinning disk confocal microscopy (SDCM) are provided. PMID:25253257

  7. Detection of Salmonella spp. from chevon, mutton and its environment in retail meat shops in Anand city (Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Makwana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was (i To attempt isolation and identification of Salmonella species from samples. (ii Serotyping of Salmonella isolates. (iii Detection of virulence factor associated genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and Methods: A total of 284 samples comprised of chevon and mutton (112 samples each as well as 60 samples (20 each of retail meat shops environment samples viz. Butchers’ hands, knives and log swabs were collected from the retail meat shops in and around Anand City under aseptic precautions. Rappaport-vassiliadis soy bean meal broth and tetrathionate broth was used for the enrichment of all the samples and inoculation was done on brilliant green agar and xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. This was followed by the confirmation of isolates using biochemical tests. For the serotyping, isolates were sent to the National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre, Central Research Institute, Kasauli, Himachal Pradesh. Detection of virulence genes was performed by PCR technique using previously reported primer. Result: Of 284 meats and retail meat shops environment samples, 13 (4.58% samples were found positive for Salmonella. It was interesting to know that incidence of Salmonella was more in mutton (6.25% than chevon (3.57%. In case of meat shop environmental samples 1 (5.00% sample observed positive for Salmonella separately among the butchers’ hands and knives swabs (Each of 20 samples examined. Out of 13, eleven isolates detected as Salmonella Typhimurium, whereas only two isolates were detected as Salmonella Enteritidis. All Salmonella isolates possess invA and stn genes, whereas nine isolates had a presence of spvR gene while only five of the isolates revealed the presence of spvC gene as shown by in vitro detection of virulence genes by PCR. Conclusion: Therefore, might be suggested that the good hygiene practices and effective control measures should be taken to encourage clean meat production with prolonged shelf-life.

  8. Entry and survival of Salmonella typhimurium in dendritic cells and presentation of recombinant antigens do not require macrophage-specific virulence factors

    OpenAIRE

    Niedergang, Florence; Sirard, Jean-claude; Blanc, Corinne Tallichet; Kraehenbuhl, Jean-pierre

    2000-01-01

    Macrophages have long been regarded as the main target encountered by Salmonella typhimurium, a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that invades the intestinal mucosa. S. typhimurium, however, are first internalized by dendritic cells. To gain new insights into the interactions between Salmonella and the dendritic cells, we compared the fate of wild-type S. typhimurium and the virulence-attenuated PhoP constitutive (PhoPc) strain. The PhoPc strain ...

  9. Molecular Analysis of the rfb O Antigen Gene Cluster of Salmonella enterica Serogroup O:6,14 and Development of a Serogroup-Specific PCR Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Collette; Sherwood, Rachel; Gheesling, Linda L.; Brenner, Frances W.; Fields, Patricia I.

    2003-01-01

    The Kauffmann-White scheme for serotyping Salmonella recognizes 46 somatic (O) antigen groups, which together with detection of the flagellar (H) antigens form the basis for serotype identification. Although serotyping has become an invaluable typing method for epidemiological investigations of Salmonella, it does have some practical limitations. We have been characterizing the genes required for O and H antigen biosynthesis with the goal of developing a DNA-based system for the determination...

  10. Induction of specific CD8+ memory T cells and long lasting protection following immunization with Salmonella typhimurium expressing a lymphocytic choriomeningitis MHC class I-restricted epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, H; Poblete, F; Rüssmann, H; Galán, J E; Donis, R O

    2001-11-12

    Numerous studies have shown the potential of Salmonella typhimurium as a vector for delivery of heterologous proteins for vaccination against other pathogens. Earlier studies showed that the inefficient elicitation of MHC class I-restricted responses could limit the use of S. typhimurium as a heterologous antigen delivery vector for vaccination. We recently developed an approach to overcome this limitation by using a bacterial-encoded specialized protein secretion system, termed type III, to deliver proteins into the class I antigen presenting pathways. Thus, peptides of interest fused to proteins bearing the type III secretion signal, which can elicit protective CTL responses. Because protective immunity is usually assessed a few weeks after vaccination, there is a paucity of information regarding duration of protective immunity induced by this system. We show here that mice immunized orally with S. typhimurium vectors expressing a MHC class I-restricted epitope of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) nucleoprotein developed specific antiviral CTL responses. CD8+ T cells were found to be necessary for this CTL activity against targets presenting the LCMV epitope. The survival of mice challenged with lethal doses of LCMV 60 or 135 days after vaccination was as complete as the survival of mice challenged 2 weeks after immunization with the same vectors. By demonstrating their ability to induce prolonged protective immunity after oral delivery, S. typhimurium vectors have met an essential requirement in support of their development as vectors for heterologous vaccination. PMID:11672924

  11. Comparison of Salmonella serovar isolation and antimicrobial resistance patterns from porcine samples between 2003 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clothier, Kristin A; Kinyon, Joann M; Frana, Timothy S

    2010-07-01

    Food-borne Salmonella infections can produce symptoms from mild gastroenteritis to severe systemic disease and death, representing an important public health issue in U.S. livestock and livestock products, which have been implicated as frequent sources of Salmonella contamination. Concerns have been raised about the spread of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella strains, particularly those that originate from food animal sources, as a result of prophylactic and therapeutic antimicrobial use in these species. Longitudinal comparisons of Salmonella serovars isolated from porcine tissues submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory in 2003 and 2008 were conducted to evaluate changes in serovar dynamics and antimicrobial resistance. Incidence of recovered group C Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis var. Kunzendorf decreased between 2003 and 2008, while recovery of group B strains Salmonella Typhimurium var. 5-(formerly, Copenhagen), Salmonella Agona, Salmonella Derby, Salmonella Heidelberg, and Salmonella Typhimurium increased. Significant changes in resistance interpretation were seen in Salmonella Derby with regard to spectinomycin and sulfadimethoxine; in Salmonella Heidelberg with regard to florfenicol, spectinomycin, and sulfadimethoxine; and in Salmonella Choleraesuis var. Kunzendorf, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Typhimurium var. 5-, and Salmonella Agona with regard to spectinomycin. Only 2 of 293 isolates in 2003 and 5 of 395 isolates in 2008 were resistant to enrofloxacin. Utilizing antibiotics approved for use in food animals to evaluate antimicrobial resistance provides more specific information on the selection pressure exerted on Salmonella populations through the use of these drugs. PMID:20622228

  12. Occurrence of Salmonella in retail beef and related meat products in Zaria, Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafida, S.Y.; Kabir, J.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella is among the most important food borne pathogens worldwide contaminating a wide range of animal products including meat products. Human illnesses due to this pathogen are attributed to poor biosecurity in production, improper processing and handling of meat and meat products. This is more likely where surveillance and regulatory control is weak. There is however limited information on the occurrence of these pathogens in foods in Nigeria. The extent of contamination of retail-beef and related meat products with Salmonellae in Zaria was evaluated. A total of 435 retailed beef and related meat products consisting of muscle meat, offal and processed meat products were tested for the presence of Salmonella species. Sample types included raw meat, ‘suya’ (roasted meat), ‘balangu’ (barbequed meat), ‘Kilishi’ (spiced sun dried meat) and ‘dambu’ (shredded fried meat). Samples were derived from four major markets and Zango abattoir in Zaria, Nigeria and cultured using selective isolation method with prior enrichment. Suspected isolates were identified and characterised using conventional biochemical methods and Microbact 12E (Oxoid, UK) identification kit. The isolates were serotyped. Confirmed isolates were evaluated in vitro for susceptibilities to 18 commonly used antimicrobial agents. Ten samples (2.3%) were positive for Salmonella. Raw beef samples had the highest isolation rates (2.43%). All the 10 Salmonella isolates were found to carry the invA gene. All the isolates exhibited multiple drug resistance. Simultaneous resistance to up to 8 antibiotics was found amongst the Salmonellae. The isolates exhibited more commonly resistance to members of ?-lactam family and other antibiotic classes including lincosamides, macrolides, aminoglycosides and nitrofurans. Meat and meat products including ready-to-eat meat in Zaria were contaminated with multidrug and virulent Salmonella species. Meat and meat products in Nigeria are thus a hazardous group of foods that can potentially transmit this pathogen to humans.

  13. Immediate differentiation of salmonella-resembling colonies on brilliant green agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    A rapid biochemical system (OBIS) based on immediate enzymatic differentiation of Citrobacter, Proteus, Providencia, Hafnia and Morganella spp. from Salmonella on brilliant green agar was evaluated A total of 96 field isolates from various Salmonella serotypes, 18 Citrobacter freundii and 25 isolates of other Enterobacteriaceae were tested All Salmonella isolates were identified correctly by the kit, and none of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates were identified as Salmonella. The results indicate complete specificity for Salmonella colonies on brilliant green agar.

  14. Oral vaccination with a recombinant Salmonella vaccine vector provokes systemic HIV-1 subtype C Gag-specific CD4+ Th1 and Th2 cell immune responses in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williamson Anna-Lise

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant Salmonella vaccine vectors may potentially be used to induce specific CD4+ T cell responses against foreign viral antigens. Such immune responses are required features of vaccines against pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1. The aim of this study was to investigate the induction of systemic HIV-1-specific CD4+ T helper (Th responses in mice after oral immunization with a live attenuated Salmonella vaccine vector that expressed HIV-1 subtype C Gag. Groups of BALB/c mice were vaccinated orally three times (4 weeks apart with this recombinant Salmonella. At sacrifice, 28 days after the last immunization, systemic CD4+ Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunospot assay and cytometric bead array. HIV-1 Gag-specific IgG1 and IgG2a humoral responses in the serum were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Mice vaccinated with the recombinant Salmonella elicited both HIV-1-specific Th1 (interferon-gamma (IFN-? and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-? and Th2 (interleukin-4 (IL-4 and interleukin-5 (IL-5 cytokine responses. The vaccine induced 70 (IFN-? spot-forming units (SFUs/10e6 splenocytes and 238 IL-4 SFUs/10e6 splenocytes. Splenocytes from vaccinated mice also produced high levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines upon stimulation with a Gag CD4 peptide. The levels of IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-4 and IL-5 were 7.5-, 29.1-, 26.2- and 89.3-fold above the background, respectively. Both HIV-1 Gag-specific IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies were detected in the sera of vaccinated mice. Conclusion The study highlights the potential of orally-delivered attenuated Salmonella as mucosal vaccine vectors for HIV-1 Subtype C Gag to induce Gag-specific CD4+ Th1 and Th2 cellular immune responses and antibodies which may be important characteristics required for protection against HIV-1 infection.

  15. Crop immune response post-Salmonella enteritidis challenge in eight commercial egg-layer strains and specific-pathogen-free White Leghorn chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, L E; Holt, P S; Moore, R W; Gast, R K; Anderson, K E

    2008-03-01

    The crop immune response against Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) challenge in eight commercial egg-layer strains (five white-egg layer and three brown-egg layer) and specific-pathogen-free (SPF) White Leghorn (WL) hens was investigated. Pre- and post-SE challenge mucosal immune responses within the crops were evaluated. Commercial layers and SPF WL hens were orally challenged with 10(8) CFU/ml SE PT13a and SE nalR PT13, respectively. Crop lavage samples were collected at weekly intervals from day 0 (pre-challenge) to day 25-27 postinfection (PI), and bacteriological examination was performed to monitor progression of SE infection. Crop lavage samples were analyzed for SE-lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific IgA using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). H&E-stained slides of crop sections from day 34 PI and uninfected controls were assessed for lymphoid tissue via light microscopy. Lymphoid areas were graded based on morphology, size, and cellularity using a score 0 to 5 scale. The 0 to 5 (low to high) numerical values represented progressive increases in size and cellular density of lymphoid tissue. Bacterial culture results showed the highest percentage of SE-positive crop lavage samples from all hen groups at day 5-6 PI and day 11-12 PI. A progressive decline in percentage of SE-positive crop lavage samples did occur as time PI lengthened; however, at day 25-27 PI SE persisted in crop lavage samples from SPF WL hens and three commercial white-egg layer strains. A marked increase in SE-LPS-specific IgA was measured in crop lavage samples between day 0 and day 11-12 PI for all hen groups. Crop SE-LPS-specific IgA response remained elevated above day 0 baseline for the duration of the experiment. Well-defined score 3 to 5 lymphoid tissue aggregates were observed in crop tissue sections harvested at day 34 PI. Comparison of crop sections determined a 1.2-4.0 times increase in ratio of lymphoid tissue in day 34 PI SE-challenged hens vs. uninfected control hens. PMID:18459301

  16. Interaction of Salmonella telaviv with Maclura pomifera lectin.

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, P. Z.

    1985-01-01

    Salmonella telaviv, Salmonella tranoroa, and Salmonella illinois were examined for their ability to interact with 15 purified lectins of known sugar specificity. The only interaction observed was between the lectin of Maclura pomifera and S. telaviv. M. pomifera lectin specifically agglutinated suspensions of S. telaviv and precipitated with its purified lipopolysaccharide and isolated lipid A free O polysaccharide. Quantitative inhibition assays showing methyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside and N...

  17. Excreción fecal de Salmonella Albany, su aislamiento en la ración alimenticia y repercusión en el estado de salud de un ocelote (Leopardus pardalis en cautiverio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Silva-Hidalgo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los serotipos de Salmonella especie enterica son los responsables del 99% de las salmonelosis en humanos y animales, en particular, Salmonella enterica serovariedad Albany se ha identificado en canales de pollo, por lo que representa un riesgo para la salud humana y animal. Se aisló Salmonella enterica serovariedad Albany a partir de heces de un ocelote macho (Leopardus pardalis, cautivo en el zoológico de Culiacán, Sinaloa, México, y de pollo crudo (alimento del felino. El patrón por electroforesis en campo pulsado (PFGE con la enzima Xba I fue idéntico en ambos aislados, lo que indica que la fuente de infección fue el pollo crudo. Cinco meses después de haber aislado las bacterias de las heces, se realizó estudio post mortem del felino anteriormente mencionado, y se observó macroscópicamente: enterocolitis hemorrágica severa y fibrosis renal; y microscópicamente: necrosis de vellosidades y de criptas e infiltrado mononuclear linfocitario severo en íleon, además nefritis intersticial severa multifocal y fibrosis en riñón. A partir de muestras intestinales se amplificó el gen invA que confirma la infección por Salmonella. Los diagnósticos microbiológico, molecular e histopatológico sugieren que la muerte del felino se debió a la infección causada por la ingesta de pollo crudo contaminado con Salmonella enterica serovariedad Albany. Este caso clínico confirma la importancia que tienen los animales que excretan Salmonella vía fecal y describe la relación epidemiológica-molecular de los aislamientos obtenidos de heces y alimento, lo que permitió esclarecer la fuente primaria de infección.

  18. Salmonella from Pocket Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transplant Patients Infants and Young Children Publications & Materials Salmonella from Pocket Pets Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... has been cleaned and disinfected. Tips for Preventing Salmonella from Rodents General Information on Washing your Hands ...

  19. Reptiles, Amphibians, and Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button CDC Features Reptiles, Amphibians, and Salmonella Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... aquariums where they live. How do people get Salmonella infections from reptiles and amphibians? Reptiles and amphibians ...

  20. Rapid detection and specific differentiation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Enteritidis, Typhimurium and its monophasic variant 4,[5],12:i:- by real-time multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurischat, Sven; Baumann, Beatrice; Martin, Annett; Malorny, Burkhard

    2015-01-16

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most common zoonotic pathogens worldwide causing clinical diseases in human and animal hosts. Targeting a reduction of Salmonella prevalence in poultry, the EU set up a microbiological criterion that demands the absence of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium including its monophasic variant with seroformula 4,[5],12:i:- in 25 g of poultry neck skin samples and fresh meat according to regulation (EU) no 1086/2011. We developed and in-house validated a method that detects and differentiates these Salmonella serovars based on a 5-plex real-time PCR assay within 24 h after sampling. The inclusivity and exclusivity were between 98 and 99% analysing 456 bacterial strains. Validation according to ISO 16140:2003 against the traditional cultural reference method ISO 6579:2002 was performed using 60 artificially contaminated and 31 presumably naturally contaminated chicken neck skin samples resulting in a relative accuracy of 100%. The detection probability reached 100% between 3 and 5 CFU/25 g sample. We were also able to assign rough and non-motile strains to S. enterica subsp. enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium. In conclusion, we provide diagnostic laboratories a fast and accurate method to monitor these Salmonella serovars in chicken neck skin samples. Other matrices could be easily adapted. PMID:25462917

  1. USING BASE-SPECIFIC SALMONELLA TESTER STRAINS TO CHARACTERIZE THE TYPES OF MUTATION INDUCED BY BENZIDINE AND BENZIDINE CONGENERS AFTER REDUCTIVE METABOLISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine HCl, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine, 3,3'- dimethoxybenzidine and benzidine congener-based dye trypan blue were mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TAl 00 only with metabolic activation. It was found that a hamster liver 89 ...

  2. CROP IMMUNE RESPONSE POST-SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS CHALLENGE IN EIGHT COMMERCIAL LAYER BREED-STRAINS AND SPECIFIC-PATHOGEN-FREE (SPF)WHITE LEGHORNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pre- and post-SE-challenge mucosal immune responses within the crops of eight commercial layer-breeds (5 white-egg & 3 brown-egg layer strains) and SPF-White Leghorn chickens were evaluated. The hen groups were orally challenged with ~10e8 cfu/ml Salmonella Enteritidis PT13a. Fecal and crop samp...

  3. Chloramphenicol and tetracycline decrease motility and increase invasion and attachment gene expression in specific isolates of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle, Brian W; Bearson, Bradley L; Bearson, Shawn M D

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is one of the most common serovars isolated from humans and livestock, and over 35% of these isolates are resistant to three or more antibiotics. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella is a public health concern as it is associated with increased morbidity in patients compared to antibiotic sensitive strains, though it is unknown how the antibiotic resistant isolates lead to a more severe infection. Cellular invasion is temporally regulated in Salmonella and normally occurs during late-log and stationary growth. However, our previous work determined that a 30 min exposure to a sub-inhibitory concentration of tetracycline can induce the full invasion phenotype during early-log growth in certain MDR S. Typhimurium isolates. The current study examined whether sub-inhibitory concentrations of other antibiotics could also induce the invasiveness in the same set of isolates. Ampicillin and streptomycin had no effect on invasion, but certain concentrations of chloramphenicol were found to induce invasion in a subset of isolates. Two of the isolates induced by chloramphenicol were also inducible by tetracycline. RNA-seq analyses demonstrated that chloramphenicol and tetracycline both down-regulated motility gene expression, while up-regulating genes associated with attachment, invasion, and intracellular survival. Eleven fimbrial operons were up-regulated, which is notable as only three fimbrial operons were thought to be inducible in culture; six of these up-regulated operons have been reported to play a role in Salmonella persistence in mice. Overall, these data show that the normal progression of the genetic pathways that regulate invasion can be expedited to occur within 30 min due to antibiotic exposure. This altered invasion process due to antibiotics may play a role in the increased intensity and duration of infection observed in patients with MDR Salmonella. PMID:25688233

  4. Contamination of surface and potable water in South Asia by Salmonellae: culture-independent quantification with molecular beacon real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, Anurag; Ram, Siya; Vajpayee, Poornima; Singh, Gulshan; Dwivedi, Premendra D; Jain, Swatantra K; Shanker, Rishi

    2010-02-15

    Low numbers (15-100CFU) of Salmonella in food or water may pose a public health risk. The management of infections caused by Salmonella spp. during outbreaks or forecasting of contamination of aquatic resources largely depends on rapid, sensitive and accurate diagnostic in few hours. In this study, a real-time PCR assay in Molecular-Beacon format was developed and culture-independent quantitative enumeration of Salmonella spp. in surface and potable water is being reported for the first time from northern part of India. Molecular Beacon was designed in highly conserved region of invA gene (present in wide range of Salmonella serotypes including all subspecies) encoding an essential component of the invasion associated specialized type Ø protein secretion apparatus for detection of Salmonella spp. in water. The assay could detect directly 10 and 1 genomic equivalent of Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 per PCR with detection probability of 100 and 20%, respectively. Further, the assay could detect 10CFU/PCR or more of reference strain (S. typhimurium ATCC 14028) without any enrichment in the presence of 10(8)CFUml(-1) of non-pathogenic E. coli (E. coli DH5alpha) with 100% detection probability. The assay could enumerate Salmonella spp. in surface (n=40) and potable waters (n=10) directly (without enrichment). Results indicate that northern India is at high risk of developing Salmonella borne infections. Further, real-time PCR assay in Molecular Beacon format can be used for identification of critical contamination points in natural water resources and potable water distribution systems, necessary to implement vaccination plan timely for prevention of waterborne outbreaks caused by Salmonella spp. PMID:20035972

  5. Recovery of Salmonella group B from blood and Salmonella group C2 from feces and serological evidence of dual infection in one patient.

    OpenAIRE

    Papasian, C. J.; Bartholomew, W. R.; Neter, E.; Amsterdam, D.

    1984-01-01

    A patient with a dual Salmonella infection is described. Salmonella group B was recovered from three blood culture sets but was not detected in seven stool cultures. Salmonella group C2 was isolated from three of seven stool cultures but was not recovered from blood cultures. Specific, non-cross-reactive antibodies to Salmonella groups B and C2 were detected in the sera of the patient by passive hemagglutination assays.

  6. Evaluation of two colored latex kits, the Wellcolex Colour Salmonella Test and the Wellcolex Colour Shigella Test, for serological grouping of Salmonella and Shigella species.

    OpenAIRE

    Bouvet, P. J.; Jeanjean, S.

    1992-01-01

    Two colored latex kits (the Wellcolex Colour Salmonella Test [WCT-Salmonella] and the Wellcolex Colour Shigella Test [WCT-Shigella]; Division Diagnostics, Laboratories Wellcome S.A., Paris, France), which allow identification of the most frequently encountered Salmonella serogroups and Shigella species, respectively, were evaluated. WCT-Salmonella and WCT-Shigella yielded sensitivities of 98.4 and 98%, respectively, and a specificity of 100% when they were tested on pure cultures received at ...

  7. Development of a real-time PCR melt curve assay for simultaneous detection of virulent and antibiotic resistant Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant; Mustapha, Azlin

    2014-12-01

    Multiple drug resistance in Salmonella is an emerging problem in the area of food safety. Depending on the virulence and antibiotic resistance characteristics of the Salmonella strain, infections of varying severity could result. In this study, a multiplex melt curve real-time PCR assay for the detection of virulent and antibiotic resistance strains of Salmonella was developed with two primer sets. The first set targets the virulence gene, invasin (invA), and tetracycline (tetG), streptomycin (aadA2) and sulphonamide (sulI) antibiotic resistance genes, and the second set amplifies ampicillin (blaPSE,blaTEM) and chloramphenicol (floR) resistance genes. The multiplex assay was evaluated using 41 Salmonella strains and was further tested on eight different artificially inoculated food samples. The fluorescent DNA intercalating dye, SYTO9, generated high resolution melt curve peaks and, hence, was used for the development of the assay. This multiplex assay worked efficiently over a DNA concentration range of 20 ng-200 fg and showed a sensitivity of 290 CFU/mL with serially diluted broth cultures. The detection limit for un-enriched artificially inoculated food samples was 10(4) CFU/g, but an enrichment period of 6 h allowed for detection of 10 CFU/g of cells in the samples. PMID:25084639

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence characteristics of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium isolates from healthy and diseased pigs in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Migma Dorji; Gurung, Mamata; Nam, Hyang-Mi; Moon, Dong Chan; Jang, Geum-Chan; Jung, Suk-Chan; Lim, Suk-Kyung

    2014-09-01

    This study compared the antimicrobial susceptibility and prevalence of virulence genes in Salmonella enterica Typhimurium isolated from healthy and diseased pigs in Korea. A total of 456 Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from healthy (n = 238) and diseased (n = 218) pigs between 1998 and 2011 were investigated. In total, 93.4% of the Salmonella Typhimurium isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent tested. The isolates were most often resistant to tetracycline (85.7%), followed by streptomycin (83.6%), nalidixic acid (67.3%), ampicillin (49.3%), chloramphenicol (42.8%), and gentamicin (37.1%). Moreover, multidrug resistance phenotype and resistance to ampicillin, florfenicol, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, neomycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline were significantly higher (P < 0.01) among Salmonella Typhimurium isolates from the diseased pigs compared with those from the healthy pigs. The most common resistance pattern observed in both groups of isolates was streptomycin-tetracycline. Overall, more than 96% of the isolates tested possessed invA, spiA, msgA, sipB, prgH, spaN, tolC, lpfC, sifA, sitC, and sopB virulence genes. The prevalence of orgA, pagC, and iroN were 50.2, 74.1, and 91.0%, respectively, whereas isolates carrying cdtB (1.5%), pefA (7.0%), and spvB (14.9%) were identified much less frequently. Furthermore, the prevalence of invA, lpfC, orgA, pagC, and iroN was significantly higher (P < 0.01) among the isolates from the diseased pigs than in isolates from the healthy pigs. Our results demonstrated that, among diseased pigs, there was significantly higher resistance to some antimicrobials and greater prevalence of some virulence genes than in healthy pigs, indicating the role these factors play in pathogenesis. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates that carry virulence-associated genes are potentially more dangerous and constitute a public health concern. Thus, continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and virulence characteristics in Salmonella is essential. PMID:25198838

  9. PREVALENCE OF DRUG RESISTANCE AND VIRULENCE FEATURES IN Salmonella spp. ISOLATED FROM FOODS ASSOCIATED OR NOT WITH SALMONELLOSIS IN BRAZIL / Prevalência de resistência antimicrobiana e características de virulência em Salmonella spp. isoladas de alimentos associados ou não com salmonelose no Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ruth Estela Gravato, Rowlands; Christiane Asturiano, Ristori; Alice A., Ikuno; Maria Luisa, Barbosa; Miyoko, Jakabi; Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo, Franco.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella é o agente etiológico mais comumente envolvido em casos e surtos de doenças diarréicas de origem alimentar. A preocupação com este patógeno é, ainda, maior quando se verifica o surgimento e a disseminação de cepas multirresistentes e potencialmente mais patogênicas. Neste estudo, 237 cepa [...] s Salmonella spp., associadas ou não com casos ou surtos de salmonelose e pertencentes, principalmente, ao sorovar Enteritidis, foram avaliadas quanto ao perfil de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana e presença dos genes de virulência spvC, invA, sefA e pefA. Entre as cepas avaliadas, 46,8% foram sensíveis a todos os agentes antimicrobianos e 51,9% foram resistentes a pelo menos uma droga. Multirresistência foi observada em 10,5% das cepas. As maiores taxas de resistência foram observadas para estreptomicina (35,9%) e ácido nalidíxico (16,9%). Não foram detectadas cepas resistentes à cefoxitina, cefalotina, cefotaxima, amicacina, ciprofloxaxina e imipenem. O gene invA foi detectado em todas as cepas de Salmonella. Os genes spvC e pefA foram encontrados em 48,1% e 44,3% das cepas, respectivamente. O gene sefA foi detectado em 31,6% das cepas, estando presente somente entre as cepas de S. Enteritidis. Resistência antimicrobiana e marcadores de virulência foram detectados em cepas de Salmonella pertencentes a diversos sorovares. A alta taxa de resistência antimicrobiana verificada em cepas isoladas de frangos e derivados demonstra o potencial risco associado ao consumo destes produtos e a necessidade de se assegurar boas práticas de higiene em toda cadeia produtiva para reduzir a disseminação de patógenos relevantes para a saúde pública. Abstract in english Salmonella is the most common etiological agent of cases and outbreaks of foodborne diarrheal illnesses. The emergence and spread of Salmonella spp., which has become multi-drug resistant and potentially more pathogenic, have increased the concern with this pathogen. In this study, 237 Salmonella sp [...] p., associated or not with foodborne salmonellosis in Brazil, belonging mainly to serotype Enteritidis, were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of the virulence genes spvC, invA, sefA and pefA. Of the isolates, 46.8% were sensitive to all antimicrobials and 51.9% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent was observed in 10.5% of the strains. The highest rates of resistance were observed for streptomycin (35.9%) and nalidixic acid (16.9%). No strain was resistant to cefoxitin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, amikacin, ciprofloxacin and imipenem. The invA gene was detected in all strains. Genes spvC and pefA were found in 48.1% and 44.3% of strains, respectively. The gene sefA was detected in 31.6% of the strains and only among S. Enteritidis. Resistance and virulence determinants were detected in Salmonella strains belonging to several serotypes. The high rates of antibiotic-resistance in strains isolated from poultry products demonstrate the potential risk associated with the consumption of these products and the need to ensure good food hygiene practices from farm to table to reduce the spread of pathogens relevant to public health.

  10. Direct quantitation and detection of salmonellae in biological samples without enrichment, using two-step filtration and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffs, Petra F G; Glencross, Kari; Thibaudeau, Romain; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2006-06-01

    A new two-step filtration protocol followed by a real-time PCR assay based on SYBR green I detection was developed to directly quantitate salmonellae in two types of biological samples: i.e., chicken rinse and spent irrigation water. Four prefiltration filters, one type of final filter, and six protocols for recovery of salmonellae from the final filter were evaluated to identify an effective filtration protocol. This method was then combined with a real-time PCR assay based on detection of the invA gene. The best results were obtained by subsequent filtration of 100 ml of chicken rinse or 100 ml of spent irrigation water through filters with pore diameters of >40 mum to remove large particles and of 0.22 microm to recover the Salmonella cells. After this, the Salmonella cells were removed from the filter by vortexing in 1 ml of physiological saline, and this sample was then subjected to real-time quantitative PCR. The whole procedure could be completed within 3 h from sampling to quantitation, and cell numbers as low as 7.5 x 10(2) CFU per 100-ml sample could be quantified. Below this limit, qualitative detection of concentrations as low as 2.2 CFU/100 ml sample was possible on occasion. This study has contributed to the development of a simple, rapid, and reliable method for quantitation of salmonellae in food without the need for sample enrichment or DNA extraction. PMID:16751494

  11. Salmonella prevalence in bovine lymph nodes differs among feedyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymphatic tissue, specifically lymph nodes, is commonly incorporated into ground beef products as a component of lean trimmings. Salmonella and other pathogenic bacteria have been identified in bovine lymph nodes. Although Salmonella prevalence has been examined among lymph nodes within an animal,...

  12. Salmonella.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rob.

    From the University of Illinois, Professor Stanley Maloy and Assistant Professor Rob Edwards' Web site Salmonella.org is dedicated to the study of the Salmonella bacteria genome. The site offers news and information on the bacteria's various strains, including everything from tips on preventing the infection to links to genomic sequencing data. Any Salmonella researcher or enthusiast will find this uncluttered and straightforward compilation useful.

  13. Detection of Salmonella spp, Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium in naturally infected broiler chickens by a multiplex PCR-based assay

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.G., Paião; L.G.A., Arisitides; L.S., Murate; G.T., Vilas-Bôas; L.A., Vilas-Boas; M., Shimokomaki.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The presence of Salmonella in the intestinal tract, on the chickens skin and among their feathers, may cause carcasses contamination during slaughtering and processing and possibly it is responsible by the introduction of this microorganism in the slaughterhouses. A rapid method to identify and moni [...] tor Salmonella and their sorovars in farm is becoming necessary. A pre-enriched multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) assay employing specific primers was developed and used to detect Salmonella at the genus level and to identify the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) in broiler chicken swab samples. The method was validated by testing DNA extract from 90 fresh culture cloacal swab samples from poultry chicken cultured in phosphate buffer peptone water at 37 ºC for 18 h. The final results showed the presence of Salmonella spp. in 25% of samples, S. Enteritidis was present in 12% of the Salmonella-positive samples and S. Typhimurium in 3% of the samples. The m-PCR assay developed in this study is a specific and rapid alternative method for the identification of Salmonella spp. and allowed the observation of specific serovar contamination in the field conditions within the locations where these chickens are typically raised.

  14. Detection of Salmonella spp, Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium in naturally infected broiler chickens by a multiplex PCR-based assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Paião

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Salmonella in the intestinal tract, on the chickens skin and among their feathers, may cause carcasses contamination during slaughtering and processing and possibly it is responsible by the introduction of this microorganism in the slaughterhouses. A rapid method to identify and monitor Salmonella and their sorovars in farm is becoming necessary. A pre-enriched multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR assay employing specific primers was developed and used to detect Salmonella at the genus level and to identify the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium in broiler chicken swab samples. The method was validated by testing DNA extract from 90 fresh culture cloacal swab samples from poultry chicken cultured in phosphate buffer peptone water at 37 ºC for 18 h. The final results showed the presence of Salmonella spp. in 25% of samples, S. Enteritidis was present in 12% of the Salmonella-positive samples and S. Typhimurium in 3% of the samples. The m-PCR assay developed in this study is a specific and rapid alternative method for the identification of Salmonella spp. and allowed the observation of specific serovar contamination in the field conditions within the locations where these chickens are typically raised.

  15. Characterization of Salmonella isolates from beef cattle, broiler chickens and human sources on Prince Edward Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouzeed, Y M; Hariharan, H; Poppe, C; Kibenge, F S

    2000-10-01

    Non-typhoid Salmonella serovars remain a potential threat to human health, and beef cattle and broiler chickens are possible sources of these organisms on Prince Edward Island (PEI). In this study, the ceca of beef cattle belonging to fasted and non-fasted groups, and broiler chickens were examined for Salmonella at the time of slaughter. The characteristics of the isolates, including antimicrobial resistance patterns and virulence genes, were studied along with the isolates obtained from cases of human salmonellosis on PEI during the study period (1996-97). The prevalence of Salmonella in beef cattle was 4.6% (11/240). The rate was significantly higher in fasted cattle (7.46%), than in non-fasted cattle (0.94%). The prevalence rate in chickens was 32.5% (39/120). In beef cattle, Salmonella typhimurium phage type (PT) or definitive type (DT) 104 which was resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole and tetracycline, was the most predominant type (64%). In chickens, S. heidelberg, with resistance to gentamicin, streptomycin and sulfisoxazole, predominated. Of 26 isolates from humans, the most common serovar was S. typhimurium, including a multidrug-resistant strain of DT104. Examination by PCR revealed presence of the virulence gene invA in all serovars, and the spvC gene in all S. typhimurium isolates, of both beef cattle and human origin. Among the other serovars the latter gene was found in 7 human isolates, but in none of the chicken or beef isolates. All but 3 of the spvC-positive isolates possessed a 90 kilobasepair (kbp) plasmid suggesting that the 3 isolates had the spvC gene on their chromosome. These findings were confirmed by plasmid DNA isolation using 3 different protocols and by sequence analysis of the spvC-PCR product. PMID:11038127

  16. SYBR®Green qPCR Salmonella detection system allowing discrimination at the genus, species and subspecies levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbau-Piednoir, Elodie; Bertrand, Sophie; Mahillon, Jacques; Roosens, Nancy H; Botteldoorn, Nadine

    2013-11-01

    In this work, a three-level Salmonella detection system based on a combination of seven SYBR®Green qPCR was developed. This detection system discriminates Salmonella at the genus, species and subspecies levels using a single 96-well plate. The SYBR®Green qPCR assays target the invA, rpoD, iroB and safC genes, as well as the STM0296 locus, putatively coding for a cytoplasmic protein. This study includes the design of primer pairs, in silico and in situ selectivity, sensitivity, repeatability and reproducibility evaluations of the seven SYBR®Green qPCR assays. Each detection level displayed a selectivity of 100 %. This combinatory SYBR®Green qPCR system was also compared with three commercially available Salmonella qPCR detection kits. This comparison highlighted the importance of using a multi-gene detection system to be able to detect every target strain, even those with deletion or mutation of important genes. PMID:24113820

  17. Three new serotypes of Salmonella.

    OpenAIRE

    Sutch, K. E.; Blackburn, B. O.

    1980-01-01

    Three new Salmonella serotypes belonging to Kauffmann's subgenus I (F. Kauffmann, The Bacteriology of Enterobacteriaceae, 1966) were identified. These serotypes were Salmonella brazos 6,14,18:a:e,n,z15, Salmonella midway 6,14,24:d:1,7, and Salmonella balboa 48a, 48b:z41:monophasic.

  18. Evaluation of an indirect ELISA for the detection of Salmonella in chicken meat Avaliação de um ELISA indireto para detecção de Salmonella em carne de frango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa dos Santos Schneid

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an indirect ELISA based on a monoclonal antibody (MAb specific for an outer membrane protein of Salmonellaenterica serovar Enteritidis was used for detection of Salmonella in 154 samples of chicken meat. Its efficiency was determined through comparison with the results obtained from the conventional method. The prevalence of samples contaminated with Salmonella was 23% with the conventional culture method, and 26% with the ELISA. From thirty-five samples positive for Salmonella by the conventional method, 33 were also positive by ELISA. Seven other samples were only positive in the ELISA. Comparison of the results obtained in the two methods showed an ELISA sensitivity and specificity of 94%, and positive and negative predictive values of 82% and 98% respectively. The serotyping of the isolates revealed 31 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, 2 Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg, 1 Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis and 1 Salmonella enterica sorovar 6,7:-:-.Neste trabalho, um ELISA indireto baseado em um anticorpo monoclonal (MAb especifico para proteína de membrane externa de Salmonellaenterica serovar Enteritidis foi usado para detecção de Salmonella em 154 amostras de carne de frango. Sua eficiência foi determinada através de comparação com os resultados obtidos pela metodologia convencional. A prevalência de amostras contaminadas com Salmonella foi de 23% pelo método de cultivo convencional, e 26% pelo ELISA. De 35 amostras positivas para Salmonella pela metodologia convencional, 32 também foram positivas no ELISA. Outras sete amostras foram positivas somente no ELISA. Comparando os resultados obtidos nos dois métodos, o ELISA demonstrou sensibilidade e especificidade de 94%, e valor preditivo positivo e negativo de 82% e 98% respectivamente. A sorotipagem dos isolados revelou 31 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, 2 Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg, 1 Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis e 1 Salmonella enterica sorovar 6,7:-:-.

  19. Evaluation of an indirect ELISA for the detection of Salmonella in chicken meat / Avaliação de um ELISA indireto para detecção de Salmonella em carne de frango

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andréa dos Santos, Schneid; Kelly Lameiro, Rodrigues; Davi, Chemello; Eduardo Cesar, Tondo; Marco Antônio Zacchia, Ayub; José Antonio Guimarães, Aleixo.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, um ELISA indireto baseado em um anticorpo monoclonal (MAb) especifico para proteína de membrane externa de Salmonellaenterica serovar Enteritidis foi usado para detecção de Salmonella em 154 amostras de carne de frango. Sua eficiência foi determinada através de comparação com os resu [...] ltados obtidos pela metodologia convencional. A prevalência de amostras contaminadas com Salmonella foi de 23% pelo método de cultivo convencional, e 26% pelo ELISA. De 35 amostras positivas para Salmonella pela metodologia convencional, 32 também foram positivas no ELISA. Outras sete amostras foram positivas somente no ELISA. Comparando os resultados obtidos nos dois métodos, o ELISA demonstrou sensibilidade e especificidade de 94%, e valor preditivo positivo e negativo de 82% e 98% respectivamente. A sorotipagem dos isolados revelou 31 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, 2 Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg, 1 Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis e 1 Salmonella enterica sorovar 6,7:-:-. Abstract in english In this work, an indirect ELISA based on a monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific for an outer membrane protein of Salmonellaenterica serovar Enteritidis was used for detection of Salmonella in 154 samples of chicken meat. Its efficiency was determined through comparison with the results obtained from t [...] he conventional method. The prevalence of samples contaminated with Salmonella was 23% with the conventional culture method, and 26% with the ELISA. From thirty-five samples positive for Salmonella by the conventional method, 33 were also positive by ELISA. Seven other samples were only positive in the ELISA. Comparison of the results obtained in the two methods showed an ELISA sensitivity and specificity of 94%, and positive and negative predictive values of 82% and 98% respectively. The serotyping of the isolates revealed 31 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, 2 Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg, 1 Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis and 1 Salmonella enterica sorovar 6,7:-:-.

  20. Study on the incidence of Salmonella enteritidis in Poultry and meat Samples by Cultural and PCR Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putturu Ramya

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the incidence of S.enteritidis in poultry and meat samples by cultural and PCR methods. Materials and Methods: A total of 130 samples (25 each of chicken, mutton, poultry faeces, cloacal samples and 10 each of liver, spleen and kidney collected from different sources were subjected to cultural and PCR methods for the presence of Salmonella and Salmonella enteritidis. Primers for invA and sefA gene were used for Salmonella and S.enteritidis respectively. Results: Out of 130 samples, 87 were positive for Salmonella spp. i.e. chicken-16(64%, mutton-12(48%, faeces-23(92%, cloacal swabs-23(92%, liver-5(50%, spleen and kidney samples-4(40% each by PCR methods, whereas 77 were positive by cultural method i.e. chicken-14(56%, mutton-10(40%, faeces-22(88%, cloacal swabs-21(84%, liver-4(40%, spleen and kidney-3(30% each. Out of 87 positive for Salmonella by PCR method, 59(chicken-12, mutton-7, faeces-17, cloacal swabs-15, liver-3, spleen-2, kidney-3 were positive for S.enteritidis. High incidence of S.enteritidis (68% in all the above samples are indicative of unhygienic conditions in poultry farms. Selective enrichment with Rappaport-Vassilidias (RV broths and Tetrathionate (TT broths were superior over Selenite-F (SF and Selenite cysteine (SC broths. Conclusions: High incidence of S.enteritidis was seen in most of poultry samples like chicken, kidney, liver and it's faeces than mutton, which was indicative of contamination of S.enteritidis is more prevalent in poultry farms. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 541-545

  1. Applications of microscopy in salmonella research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malt, Layla M; Perrett, Charlotte A; Humphrey, Suzanne; Jepson, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a Gram-negative enteropathogen that can cause localized infections, typically resulting in gastroenteritis, or systemic infection, e.g., typhoid fever, in humans and many other animals. Understanding the mechanisms by which Salmonella induces disease has been the focus of intensive research. This has revealed that Salmonella invasion requires dynamic cross-talk between the microbe and host cells, in which bacterial adherence rapidly leads to a complex sequence of cellular responses initiated by proteins translocated into the host cell by a type 3 secretion system. Once these Salmonella-induced responses have resulted in bacterial invasion, proteins translocated by a second type 3 secretion system initiate further modulation of cellular activities to enable survival and replication of the invading pathogen. Elucidation of the complex and highly dynamic pathogen-host interactions ultimately requires analysis at the level of single cells and single infection events. To achieve this goal, researchers have applied a diverse range of microscopy techniques to analyze Salmonella infection in models ranging from whole animal to isolated cells and simple eukaryotic organisms. For example, electron microscopy and high-resolution light microscopy techniques such as confocal microscopy can reveal the precise location of Salmonella and its relationship to cellular components. Widefield light microscopy is a simpler approach with which to study the interaction of bacteria with host cells and often has advantages for live cell imaging, enabling detailed analysis of the dynamics of infection and cellular responses. Here we review the use of imaging techniques in Salmonella research and compare the capabilities of different classes of microscope to address specific types of research question. We also provide protocols and notes on some microscopy techniques used routinely in our own research. PMID:25253256

  2. Evaluation of VIDAS Salmonella (SLM) easy Salmonella method for the detection of Salmonella in a variety of foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Erin; Bird, Patrick; Fisher, Kiel; Goetz, Katherine; Benzinger, M Joseph; Agin, James; Goins, David; Johnson, Ronald L

    2011-01-01

    The VIDAS Salmonella (SLM) Easy Salmonella method is a specific enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay performed in the automated VIDAS instrument. The VIDAS Easy Salmonella method is a simple 2-step enrichment procedure, using pre-enrichment followed by selective enrichment in a newly formulated broth, SX2 broth. This new method was compared in a multilaboratory collaborative study to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual, Chapter 5 method for five food matrixes (liquid egg, vanilla ice cream, spinach, raw shrimp, and peanut butter) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook 4.04 method for deli turkey. Each food type was artificially contaminated with Salmonella at three inoculation levels. A total of 15 laboratories representing government, academia, and industry, throughout the United States, participated. In this study, 1583 samples were analyzed, of which 792 were paired replicates and 791 were unpaired replicates. Of the 792 paired replicates, 285 were positive by both the VIDAS and reference methods. Of the 791 unpaired replicates, 341 were positive by the VIDAS method and 325 were positive by the cultural reference method. A Chi-square analysis of each of the six food types was performed at the three inoculation levels tested. For all foods evaluated, the VIDAS Easy SLM method demonstrated results comparable to those of the reference methods for the detection of Salmonella. PMID:22320090

  3. Interaction of Salmonella telaviv with Maclura pomifera lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, P Z

    1985-01-01

    Salmonella telaviv, Salmonella tranoroa, and Salmonella illinois were examined for their ability to interact with 15 purified lectins of known sugar specificity. The only interaction observed was between the lectin of Maclura pomifera and S. telaviv. M. pomifera lectin specifically agglutinated suspensions of S. telaviv and precipitated with its purified lipopolysaccharide and isolated lipid A free O polysaccharide. Quantitative inhibition assays showing methyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine to be potent inhibitors of Maclura lectin precipitation by S. telaviv O polysaccharide suggest that the interaction is mediated by D-galactose or N-acetyl-D-galactosamine units of bacterial polysaccharide structure, or both. PMID:3838092

  4. Recognition of Salmonella Typhimurium by Immobilized Phage P22 Monolayers

    OpenAIRE

    Handa, Hitesh; Gurczynski, Stephen; Jackson, Matthew P.; Auner, Gregory; Mao, Guangzhao

    2008-01-01

    Phages are promising alternatives to antibodies as the biorecognition element in a variety of biosensing applications. In this study, a monolayer of bacteriophage P22 whose tailspike proteins specifically recognize Salmonella serotypes was covalently bound to glass substrates through a bifunctional cross linker 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. The specific binding of Salmonella typhimurium to the phage monolayer was studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and atomic force microscopy. Esche...

  5. Rapid Detection of Salmonella spp. by Using Felix-O1 Bacteriophage and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsh, Dwight C.; Martin, Lori D.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described whereby the presence of Salmonella spp. can be detected within 8 to 24 h of sample collection. The method depends upon the interaction of Salmonella spp. with the Salmonella-specific Felix-O1 bacteriophage. This interaction results in an increase in concentration of the bacteriophage which is detected by high-performance liquid chromatographic techniques.

  6. Development of Recombinant Flagellar Antigens for Serological Detection of Salmonella enterica Serotypes Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, and Typhimurium in Poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Hofacre, Charles L.; Holt, Peter S.; Lee, Margie D.; Susan Sanchez; Joseph Minicozzi; Maurer, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate and fast detection of harmful Salmonella is a major concern of food safety. Common Salmonella serotypes responsible for human associated foodborne outbreaks are S. Enteritidis, S. Hadar, S. Heidelberg, and S. Typhimurium are also commonly isolated from poultry. Serology is commonly used to monitor disease in poultry, therefore application of Salmonella serotype-specific test will have added value in Salmonella surveillance or monitoring vaccine efficacy. Recombinant flagellins were p...

  7. Evaluation of the Vitek Immunodiagnostic Assay System (VIDAS) for the detection of Salmonella in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, C W; Curtis, L M; Humpheson, L; Petitt, S B

    1994-07-01

    A Salmonella Assay using the Vitek Immunodiagnostic Assay System (VIDAS) was compared with a conventional cultural method (CCM) for the detection of salmonellas in 141 samples of artificially and naturally contaminated foods. There was an overall agreement of 92.9% between the methods. The productivity of the VIDAS Salmonella Assay (VSA) was not improved using an alternative enrichment protocol for the detection of Salmonella in 12 raw meat samples. The sensitivity and specificity of the VSA was assessed using pure cultures of salmonellas and non-salmonellas. The detection limit was 1.8 x 10(6) salmonellas ml-1 in M-broth and some Citrobacter freundii strains gave false-positive results. Using an immunomagnetic separation (IMS) technique and an abbreviated cultural enrichment, the VSA results could be obtained a day earlier than the standard VSA method. PMID:7765217

  8. Evaluation of an indirect ELISA for the detection of Salmonella in chicken meat Avaliação de um ELISA indireto para detecção de Salmonella em carne de frango

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa dos Santos Schneid; Kelly Lameiro Rodrigues; Davi Chemello; Eduardo Cesar Tondo; Marco Antônio Zacchia Ayub; José Antonio Guimarães Aleixo

    2006-01-01

    In this work, an indirect ELISA based on a monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific for an outer membrane protein of Salmonellaenterica serovar Enteritidis was used for detection of Salmonella in 154 samples of chicken meat. Its efficiency was determined through comparison with the results obtained from the conventional method. The prevalence of samples contaminated with Salmonella was 23% with the conventional culture method, and 26% with the ELISA. From thirty-five samples positive for Salmonella...

  9. Excreción fecal de Salmonella Albany, su aislamiento en la ración alimenticia y repercusión en el estado de salud de un ocelote (Leopardus pardalis) en cautiverio / Fecal excretion of Salmonella Albany, its isolation in the diet and health repercussion on an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in captivity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriela, Silva-Hidalgo; Héctor Samuel, López-Moreno; Vianney F., Ortiz-Navarrete; Felipe, Juárez-Barranco; Martín, López-Valenzuela.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los serotipos de Salmonella especie enterica son los responsables del 99% de las salmonelosis en humanos y animales, en particular, Salmonella enterica serovariedad Albany se ha identificado en canales de pollo, por lo que representa un riesgo para la salud humana y animal. Se aisló Salmonella enter [...] ica serovariedad Albany a partir de heces de un ocelote macho (Leopardus pardalis), cautivo en el zoológico de Culiacán, Sinaloa, México, y de pollo crudo (alimento del felino). El patrón por electroforesis en campo pulsado (PFGE) con la enzima Xba I fue idéntico en ambos aislados, lo que indica que la fuente de infección fue el pollo crudo. Cinco meses después de haber aislado las bacterias de las heces, se realizó estudio post mortem del felino anteriormente mencionado, y se observó macroscópicamente: enterocolitis hemorrágica severa y fibrosis renal; y microscópicamente: necrosis de vellosidades y de criptas e infiltrado mononuclear linfocitario severo en íleon, además nefritis intersticial severa multifocal y fibrosis en riñón. A partir de muestras intestinales se amplificó el gen invA que confirma la infección por Salmonella. Los diagnósticos microbiológico, molecular e histopatológico sugieren que la muerte del felino se debió a la infección causada por la ingesta de pollo crudo contaminado con Salmonella enterica serovariedad Albany. Este caso clínico confirma la importancia que tienen los animales que excretan Salmonella vía fecal y describe la relación epidemiológica-molecular de los aislamientos obtenidos de heces y alimento, lo que permitió esclarecer la fuente primaria de infección. Abstract in english Salmonella enterica serotypes are 99% responsible for salmonellosis in human and animals, especially Salmonella enterica serovar Albany that has been identified in chicken carcass representing a risk for human and animal health. Salmonella enterica serovar Albany was isolated from the feces of a mal [...] e ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), at the zoo in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico, and from raw chicken (feline's diet). The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern (PFGE) generated by Xba I enzyme was identical in both isolates, indicating that the source of infection was the raw chicken. Five months after having isolated the bacteria from the feces, a post mortem study was carried out on the feline. Macroscopically, severe hemorrhagic enterocolitis and renal fibrosis was observed and microscopically, there was evidence of severe mononuclear lymphocytic infiltration in the ileum, as well as necrosis of intestinal villi and crypts, besides severe multifocal interstitial nephritis and fibrosis in both kidneys. The invA gene was amplified from intestinal samples confirming an infection by Salmonella. The microbiologic, molecular and histopathology diagnoses suggest that death of the feline was caused by ingestion of raw chicken contaminated with Salmonella enterica serovar Albany. This clinical case highlights the importance of persistent fecal Salmonella shedding animals and describes the molecular epidemiological relationships of isolates from feces and food, which allowed to find the primary source of infection.

  10. [Detection of Salmonella in faecal, tissue, and feed samples by conventional culture methods and VIDAS Salmonella Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerhäuser, Jürgen; Failing, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    The VIDAS Salmonella Test (VST) is an enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay for the detection of Salmonella-antigens. The suitability of VST for the detection of Salmonella in faecal, tissue, and feed samples was evaluated by the comparison with routine culture methods. From 312 naturally contaminated samples 17 were classified as Salmonella positive by routine methods and 28 by VST. Salmonella were isolated from 15 VST positive samples by the routine method and from eight samples only by an extended culture method. Five positive VST results could not be proved by culture. Two samples were classified as positive by the routine method and as false-negative by VST. The sensitivity varied between 88% and 100% and the specifity between 92% and 100%, depending on the kind of sample. Matrix or serovar specific factors resulting in a false VST result could not be determined. The performance of VST was easy and did not require special experiences. Mostly, samples with Salmonella negative results were faster detected than by culture methods. VST is suitable for the detection of Salmonella in the studied kind of samples especially as a screening method. PMID:16450704

  11. The Salmonella enterica pan-genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Annika; Hendriksen, Rene S; Aaresturp, Frank M; Ussery, David W; Friis, Carsten

    2011-10-01

    Salmonella enterica is divided into four subspecies containing a large number of different serovars, several of which are important zoonotic pathogens and some show a high degree of host specificity or host preference. We compare 45 sequenced S. enterica genomes that are publicly available (22 complete and 23 draft genome sequences). Of these, 35 were found to be of sufficiently good quality to allow a detailed analysis, along with two Escherichia coli strains (K-12 substr. DH10B and the avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC O1) strain). All genomes were subjected to standardized gene finding, and the core and pan-genome of Salmonella were estimated to be around 2,800 and 10,000 gene families, respectively. The constructed pan-genomic dendrograms suggest that gene content is often, but not uniformly correlated to serotype. Any given Salmonella strain has a large stable core, whilst there is an abundance of accessory genes, including the Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs), transposable elements, phages, and plasmid DNA. We visualize conservation in the genomes in relation to chromosomal location and DNA structural features and find that variation in gene content is localized in a selection of variable genomic regions or islands. These include the SPIs but also encompass phage insertion sites and transposable elements. The islands were typically well conserved in several, but not all, isolates--a difference which may have implications in, e.g., host specificity. PMID:21643699

  12. Recognition of Salmonella Typhimurium by Immobilized Phage P22 Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Hitesh; Gurczynski, Stephen; Jackson, Matthew P; Auner, Gregory; Mao, Guangzhao

    2008-04-01

    Phages are promising alternatives to antibodies as the biorecognition element in a variety of biosensing applications. In this study, a monolayer of bacteriophage P22 whose tailspike proteins specifically recognize Salmonella serotypes was covalently bound to glass substrates through a bifunctional cross linker 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. The specific binding of Salmonella typhimurium to the phage monolayer was studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and atomic force microscopy. Escherichia coli and a Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes were also studied as control bacteria. The P22 particles show strong binding affinity to Salmonella typhimurium. In addition, the dried P22 monolayer maintained 50% binding capacity to Salmonella typhimurium after a one-week storage time. This is a promising method to prepare phage monolayer coatings on surface plasmon resonance and acoustic biosensor substrates in order to utilize the nascent phage display technology. PMID:19461940

  13. A mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium RNA polymerase extracytoplasmic stress response sigma factor sigma(E) with altered promoter specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezuchova, Bronislava; Skovierova, Henrieta; Homerova, Dagmar; Roberts, Mark; Kormanec, Jan

    2009-08-01

    The alternative sigma factor sigma(E) is critical for envelope stress response and plays a role in pathogenicity of a variety of different bacteria. We previously identified several critical nucleotides in the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) sigma(E)-dependent rpoEp3 promoter that corresponded to the most conserved nucleotides in the sigma(E) consensus sequence of the -10 and -35 promoter elements. In the present study, we exploited a previously established Escherichia coli (E. coli) two-plasmid system with an error-prone PCR mutagenesis to identify mutants in the rpoE gene that suppress the mutation of the most conserved residue A-30G of the rpoEp3 promoter. This analysis identified amino-acid changes in the conserved arginine residue (R171G, R171C) located in the conserved region 4.2 of sigma(E) that enabled efficient recognition of the mutated rpoEp3 promoter. However, the change of this conserved arginine to alanine (R171A) resulted in an almost complete loss of sigma(E) activity. The activity of the mutant sigma(E) factors in directing transcription of the wild-type (WT) and the A-30G mutated rpoEp3 promoters was investigated by S1-nuclease mapping using RNA isolated from the E. coli two-plasmid system. In addition to suppression of the A-30G mutated rpoEp3 promoter, both mutant sigma factors (R171G, R171C) also efficiently directed transcription from the WT rpoEp3 promoter and from the rpoEp3 promoter with other mutations in the -35 element, indicating relaxed recognition of the sigma(E)-dependent promoters by both mutants. The activity of both mutant sigma(E) factors was confirmed in vivo in S. Typhimurium. In conclusion, replacement of the conserved R171 residue in sigma(E) by different amino-acid residues exhibited intriguingly different phenotypes; R171A almost completely abolished sigma factor activity, whereas R171G and R171C impart a relaxed recognition phenotype to sigma(E). PMID:19415331

  14. Detection of Salmonella sp in chicken cuts using immunomagnetic separation

    OpenAIRE

    Ca?ssia Dos Santos Da Conceic?a?o, Rita; Moreira, A?ngela Nunes; Ramos, Roberta Juliano; Goularte, Fabiana Lemos; Carvalhal, Jose? Beiro; Aleixo, Jose? Antonio Guimara?es

    2008-01-01

    The immunomagnetic separation (IMS) is a technique that has been used to increase sensitivity and specificity and to decrease the time required for detection of Salmonella in foods through different methodologies. In this work we report on the development of a method for detection of Salmonella in chicken cuts using in house antibody-sensitized microspheres associated to conventional plating in selective agar (IMS-plating). First, protein A-coated microspheres were sensitized with polyclonal ...

  15. Bacteriophage cocktail for biocontrol of Salmonella in dried pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyse, Serena; Hanna, Leigh Farris; Woolston, Joelle; Sulakvelidze, Alexander; Charbonneau, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Human salmonellosis has been associated with contaminated pet foods and treats. Therefore, there is interest in identifying novel approaches for reducing the risk of Salmonella contamination within pet food manufacturing environments. The use of lytic bacteriophages shows promise as a safe and effective way to mitigate Salmonella contamination in various food products. Bacteriophages are safe, natural, highly targeted antibacterial agents that specifically kill bacteria and can be targeted to kill food pathogens without affecting other microbiota. In this study, we show that a cocktail containing six bacteriophages had a broadspectrum activity in vitro against a library of 930 Salmonella enterica strains representing 44 known serovars. The cocktail was effective against 95% of the strains in this tested library. In liquid culture dose-ranging experiments, bacteriophage cocktail concentrations of ?10(8) PFU/ml inactivated more than 90% of the Salmonella population (10(1) to 10(3) CFU/ml). Dried pet food inoculated with a mixture containing equal proportions of Salmonella serovars Enteritidis (ATCC 4931), Montevideo (ATCC 8387), Senftenberg (ATCC 8400), and Typhimurium (ATCC 13311) and then surface treated with the six-bacteriophage cocktail (?2.5 ± 1.5 × 10(6) PFU/g) achieved a greater than 1-log (P Salmonella within 60 min. Moreover, this bacteriophage cocktail reduced natural contamination in samples taken from an undistributed lot of commercial dried dog food that tested positive for Salmonella. Our results indicate that bacteriophage biocontrol of S. enterica in dried pet food is technically feasible. PMID:25581183

  16. Detection of Salmonella spp, Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium in naturally infected broiler chickens by a multiplex PCR-based assay

    OpenAIRE

    Paia?o, F. G.; Arisitides, L. G. A.; Murate, L. S.; Vilas-bo?as, G. T.; Vilas-boas, L. A.; Shimokomaki, M.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella in the intestinal tract, on the chickens skin and among their feathers, may cause carcasses contamination during slaughtering and processing and possibly it is responsible by the introduction of this microorganism in the slaughterhouses. A rapid method to identify and monitor Salmonella and their sorovars in farm is becoming necessary. A pre-enriched multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) assay employing specific primers was developed and used to detect Salmone...

  17. Identification of Genes Associated with Survival of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis in Chicken Egg Albumen

    OpenAIRE

    Clavijo, Raul I.; Loui, Cindy; Andersen, Gary L.; Riley, Lee W.; Lu, Sangwei

    2006-01-01

    Salmonella enterica consists of over 2,000 serovars that are major causes of morbidity and mortality associated with contaminated food. Despite similarities among serovars of Salmonella enterica, many demonstrate unique host specificities, epidemiological characteristics, and clinical manifestations. One of the unique epidemiological characteristics of the serovar Enteritidis is that it is the only bacterium routinely transmitted to humans through intact chicken eggs. Therefore, Salmonella en...

  18. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis reports investigations using gamma-radiation to decontaminate poultry carcasses. The application to foods of doses of ionizing radiation sufficient to reduce the number of viable specific non-sporeforming pathogenic microorganisms so that none is detectable in the treated food by any standard method is termed radicidation. The doses used in this study were at such a level that no undesirable or unfavourable side-effects occurred. The effects of these doses were studied on salmonellae and other microorganisms present in, or associated with poultry carcasses and in liquid and on solid culture media as well. Decimal reduction (D10) values were estimated. These represent the dose (kGy) required to achieve a reduction in initial colony count from N0 to 0.1 N0. Together with the estimation of the numbers of Salmonella present per carcass the data were used to predict the effect of an ionizing radiation treatment of poultry. Data on the effect of ionizing radiation on the total microflora of poultry carcasses were also collected. (Auth.)

  19. Salmonella as an Innovative Therapeutic Antitumor Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Wei Chang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lack of specificity of the therapeutic agent is a primary limitation in the treatment of a tumor. The use of preferentially replicating bacteria as therapeutic agents is an innovative approach to tumor treatment. This is based on the observation that certain obligate or facultative anaerobic bacteria are capable of multiplying selectively in tumors and inhibiting their growth. Bacteria have been employed as antitumor agents that are capable of preferentially amplifying within tumors and inhibiting their growth. Moreover, bacteria-derived factors have an immune-stimulation effect. Therefore, bacteria are able to transfer therapeutic genes into the tumor cells using their infective ability. Herein, we introduce the application of bacteria for tumor therapy and focus on Salmonella, which have been widely used for tumor therapy. Salmonella have mainly been applied as gene-delivery vectors, antitumor immune activators and tumor cell death inducers. This study will not only evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of Salmonella for the treatment of tumor but will also elucidate the mechanisms underlying the antitumor activities mediated by Salmonella, which involve host immune responses and cellular molecular responses.

  20. Salmonella as an innovative therapeutic antitumor agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Wei; Lee, Che-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Lack of specificity of the therapeutic agent is a primary limitation in the treatment of a tumor. The use of preferentially replicating bacteria as therapeutic agents is an innovative approach to tumor treatment. This is based on the observation that certain obligate or facultative anaerobic bacteria are capable of multiplying selectively in tumors and inhibiting their growth. Bacteria have been employed as antitumor agents that are capable of preferentially amplifying within tumors and inhibiting their growth. Moreover, bacteria-derived factors have an immune-stimulation effect. Therefore, bacteria are able to transfer therapeutic genes into the tumor cells using their infective ability. Herein, we introduce the application of bacteria for tumor therapy and focus on Salmonella, which have been widely used for tumor therapy. Salmonella have mainly been applied as gene-delivery vectors, antitumor immune activators and tumor cell death inducers. This study will not only evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of Salmonella for the treatment of tumor but will also elucidate the mechanisms underlying the antitumor activities mediated by Salmonella, which involve host immune responses and cellular molecular responses. PMID:25196596

  1. Flagellin gene sequence evolution in Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Chloe K B; Gharbia, Saheer E; Logan, Julie M J; Peters, Tansy M; Arnold, Catherine

    2007-07-01

    Salmonella exhibits 70 serologically distinct flagellins, used internationally to diagnose and track infections. The terminal sequences of flagellin protein subunits are conserved in a range of bacteria and are here used as evolutionary markers to reveal how new serotypes arise. Terminal sequences of flagellins that exhibit factors g or m (G-group) were distinct from other Salmonella antigens (Non-G-group) and cluster more closely with Escherichia coli. It is postulated that G-group flagellins were inherited from a common ancestor of E. coli and Salmonella and that these antigens were among the original set in Salmonella. Sequence differences at the 5' termini may prevent recombination between co-infecting strains. Evidence of increased variation of flagellin in rare biphasic G-group serotypes suggests that the presence of a second flagellin locus allows mutation of the G-group flagellin. FljB probably arose from a single duplication of a Non-G gene, since which synonymous mutations resulted in the fljB-specific sequence at the 5' termini. PMID:17251067

  2. Rapid detection of Salmonella in foods using a combination of SPRINT TM,MSRV TM and Salmonella Latex TestTM Detecção rápida de Salmonella em alimentos empregando uma combinação de SPRINT®, MSRV® e Salmonella Latex Test®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria Lafayette Neves Gelinski

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure for rapid detection of Salmonella in foods, based on the combination of SPRINT TM, MSRV TM and Salmonella Latex TestTM, was evaluated. SPRINT TM is a system to reduce the preenrichment and selective enrichment steps to 24 hours. MSRV TM is a semi-solid selective media for detection of motile Salmonella. Salmonella Latex TestTM is a rapid latex agglutination test for Salmonella. Using the three systems in combination, the total time for detection of Salmonella in a food sample is 48h. Evaluations were performed in artificially contaminated ready-to-eat baby-foods and raw Brazilian sausages (lingüiça containing no added microorganisms. The BAM conventional culture procedure was used as reference method. The study with baby foods indicated that the new procedure had good sensitivity (89% and specificity (100%, without cross-reactions with Enterobacteriaceae. However, when applied to naturally contaminated foods, the performance was poor: chi square (x² = 5.062, ?> 0. 05 and Kappa-Cohen agreement (K = 0.171, p=0.089 indexes indicated that the differences between results given by the two procedures were significant and the correlation between them was low.Avaliou-se um novo procedimento para detecção rápida de Salmonella em alimentos, baseado na combinação entre SPRINT®, MSRV® e Salmonella Latex Test® . SPRINT® é um sistema para reduzir as etapas de pré-enriquecimento e enriquecimento seletivo para 24 h. MSRV® é um meio seletivo semi-sólido para detecção de salmonelas móveis. Salmonella Latex Test® é um teste rápido de aglutinação de látex. A combinação dos três sistemas permite que a detecção de Salmonella em alimentos possa ser feita em apenas 48 h. O procedimento foi avaliado em alimentos infantis prontos para consumo, experimentalmente contaminados com Salmonella exclusivamente e com uma mistura de Salmonella e várias espécies de Enterobacteriaceae e também em cem amostras de lingüiças de porco e de frango sem adição artificial de microrganismos. O método convencional de cultura foi empregado como método de referência. A avaliação em alimentos infantis indicou que o procedimento proposto apresentava boa sensibilidade (80% e especificidade (100%, sem reação cruzada com outras Enterobacteriaceae. Entretanto, quando aplicado a lingüiças, seu desempenho não foi adequado: os valores de x² (5,062, ? > 0,05 e do índice de concordância de Kappa (0,171, p=0,089 indicaram que as diferenças entre os resultados obtidos pelos dois métodos foram estatisticamente significantes e a correlação entre eles foi baixa.

  3. Rapid detection of Salmonella in foods using a combination of SPRINT TM,MSRV TM and Salmonella Latex TestTM / Detecção rápida de Salmonella em alimentos empregando uma combinação de SPRINT®, MSRV® e Salmonella Latex Test®

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jane Maria Lafayette Neves, Gelinski; Gunnar, Martin; Maria Teresa, Destro; Mariza, Landgraf; Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo, Franco.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se um novo procedimento para detecção rápida de Salmonella em alimentos, baseado na combinação entre SPRINT®, MSRV® e Salmonella Latex Test® . SPRINT® é um sistema para reduzir as etapas de pré-enriquecimento e enriquecimento seletivo para 24 h. MSRV® é um meio seletivo semi-sólido para dete [...] cção de salmonelas móveis. Salmonella Latex Test® é um teste rápido de aglutinação de látex. A combinação dos três sistemas permite que a detecção de Salmonella em alimentos possa ser feita em apenas 48 h. O procedimento foi avaliado em alimentos infantis prontos para consumo, experimentalmente contaminados com Salmonella exclusivamente e com uma mistura de Salmonella e várias espécies de Enterobacteriaceae e também em cem amostras de lingüiças de porco e de frango sem adição artificial de microrganismos. O método convencional de cultura foi empregado como método de referência. A avaliação em alimentos infantis indicou que o procedimento proposto apresentava boa sensibilidade (80%) e especificidade (100%), sem reação cruzada com outras Enterobacteriaceae. Entretanto, quando aplicado a lingüiças, seu desempenho não foi adequado: os valores de x² (5,062, ? > 0,05) e do índice de concordância de Kappa (0,171, p=0,089) indicaram que as diferenças entre os resultados obtidos pelos dois métodos foram estatisticamente significantes e a correlação entre eles foi baixa. Abstract in english A new procedure for rapid detection of Salmonella in foods, based on the combination of SPRINT TM, MSRV TM and Salmonella Latex TestTM, was evaluated. SPRINT TM is a system to reduce the preenrichment and selective enrichment steps to 24 hours. MSRV TM is a semi-solid selective media for detection o [...] f motile Salmonella. Salmonella Latex TestTM is a rapid latex agglutination test for Salmonella. Using the three systems in combination, the total time for detection of Salmonella in a food sample is 48h. Evaluations were performed in artificially contaminated ready-to-eat baby-foods and raw Brazilian sausages (lingüiça) containing no added microorganisms. The BAM conventional culture procedure was used as reference method. The study with baby foods indicated that the new procedure had good sensitivity (89%) and specificity (100%), without cross-reactions with Enterobacteriaceae. However, when applied to naturally contaminated foods, the performance was poor: chi square (x² = 5.062, ?> 0. 05) and Kappa-Cohen agreement (K = 0.171, p=0.089) indexes indicated that the differences between results given by the two procedures were significant and the correlation between them was low.

  4. Salmonella Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... non-typhoidal Salmonella and is recommended only for patients with severe illness (e.g., those with severe diarrhea, high fever, bloodstream infection, or who need hospitalization) or those at risk of severe disease or complications, including young infants, older adults (over 65 years old) and ...

  5. Thermal inactivation of eight Salmonella serotypes on dry corn flour.

    OpenAIRE

    Vancauwenberge, J. E.; Bothast, R. J.; Kwolek, W. F.

    1981-01-01

    Dry heat was used to inactivate Salmonella newington, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella anatum, Salmonella kentucky, Salmonella cubana, Salmonella seftenberg, Salmonella thompson, and Salmonella tennessee in corn flour at 10 and 15% moisture. The flour was spray inoculated at 10(5) Salmonella cells per g and then stored at 49 degrees C (120 degrees F); viable Salmonella cells were counted on Trypticase (BBL Microbiology Systems) soy agar plates every 30 min for the first 4 h and then at 4-h ...

  6. Antimicrobial resistance-conferring plasmids with similarity to virulence plasmids from avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains in Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky isolates from poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella enterica, a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide, may be found in any raw food of animal, vegetable, or fruit origin. Salmonella serovars differ in distribution, virulence, and host specificity. Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky, though often found in the food supply, ...

  7. Salmonella enterica: survival, colonization, and virulence differences among serovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andino, A; Hanning, I

    2015-01-01

    Data indicate that prevalence of specific serovars of Salmonella enterica in human foodborne illness is not correlated with their prevalence in feed. Given that feed is a suboptimal environment for S. enterica, it appears that survival in poultry feed may be an independent factor unrelated to virulence of specific serovars of Salmonella. Additionally, S. enterica serovars appear to have different host specificity and the ability to cause disease in those hosts is also serovar dependent. These differences among the serovars may be related to gene presence or absence and expression levels of those genes. With a better understanding of serovar specificity, mitigation methods can be implemented to control Salmonella at preharvest and postharvest levels. PMID:25664339

  8. The Salmonella enterica Pan-genome

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Annika; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Ussery, David; Friis, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is divided into four subspecies containing a large number of different serovars, several of which are important zoonotic pathogens and some show a high degree of host specificity or host preference. We compare 45 sequenced S. enterica genomes that are publicly available (22 complete and 23 draft genome sequences). Of these, 35 were found to be of sufficiently good quality to allow a detailed analysis, along with two Escherichia coli strains (K-12 su...

  9. Immune Reaction and Survivability of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Infantis after Infection of Primary Avian Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braukmann, Maria; Methner, Ulrich; Berndt, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella serovars are differentially able to infect chickens. The underlying causes are not yet fully understood. Aim of the present study was to elucidate the importance of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and -2) for the virulence of two non-host-specific, but in-vivo differently invasive, Salmonella serovars in conjunction with the immune reaction of the host. Primary avian splenic macrophages were inoculated with Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica serovar (S.) Typhimurium and S. Infantis. The number and viability of intracellular bacteria and transcription of SPI-1 and -2 genes by the pathogens, as well as transcription of immune-related proteins, surface antigen expression and nitric oxide production by the macrophages, were compared at different times post inoculation. After infection, both of the Salmonella serovars were found inside the primary macrophages. Invasion-associated SPI-1 genes were significantly higher transcribed in S. Infantis- than S. Typhimurium-infected macrophages. The macrophages counteracted the S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium infection with elevated mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-12, IL-18 and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha factor (LITAF) as well as with an increased synthesis of nitric oxide. Despite these host cell attacks, S. Typhimurium was better able than S. Infantis to survive within the macrophages and transcribed higher rates of the SPI-2 genes spiC, ssaV, sifA, and sseA. The results showed similar immune reactions of primary macrophages after infection with both of the Salmonella strains. The more rapid and stronger transcription of SPI-2-related genes by intracellular S. Typhimurium compared to S. Infantis might be responsible for its better survival in avian primary macrophages. PMID:25811871

  10. Nitric Oxide and Salmonella Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Henard, Calvin A.; Va?zquez-torres, Andre?s

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and its congeners contribute to the innate immune response to Salmonella. This enteric pathogen is exposed to reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the environment and at different anatomical locations during its infectious cycle in vertebrate hosts. Chemical generation of RNS enhances the gastric barrier to enteropathogenic bacteria, while products of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 type III secretion system and Salmonella-associated molecular patterns stimulate transcri...

  11. Automated 5 ' nuclease PCR assay for identification of Salmonella enterica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Ahrens, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A simple and ready-to-go test based on a 5' nuclease (TaqMan) PCR technique was developed for identification of presumptive Salmonella enterica isolates. The results were compared with those of conventional methods. The TaqMan assay was evaluated for its ability to accurately detect 210 S. enterica isolates, including 100 problematic "rough" isolates. An internal positive control was designed to use the same Salmonella primers for amplification of a spiked nonrelevant template (116 bp) in the sample tube. The PCR test correctly identified all the Salmonella strains by resulting in positive end-point fluorescence (FAM) signals for the samples and positive control (TET) signals (relative sensitivity [Delta Rn], >0.6). The diagnostic specificity of the method was assessed using 120 non-Salmonella strains, which all resulted in negative FAM signals (Delta Rn, less than or equal to 0.5). All 100 rough Salmonella strains tested resulted in positive FAM and TET signals. In addition, it was found that the complete PCR mixture, predispensed in microwell plates, could be stored for up to 3 months at -20 degrees C, Thus, the diagnostic TaqMan assay developed can be a useful and simple alternative method for identification of Salmonella, particularly in Large reference laboratories.

  12. Immunomagnetic nanoparticle based quantitative PCR for rapid detection of Salmonella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a rapid and sensitive method for immunomagnetic separation (IMS) of Salmonella along with their real time detection via PCR. Silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles were functionalized with carboxy groups to which anti-Salmonella antibody raised against heat-inactivated whole cells of Salmonella were covalently attached. The immuno-captured target cells were detected in beverages like milk and lemon juice by multiplex PCR and real time PCR with a detection limit of 104 cfu.mL?1 and 103 cfu.mL?1, respectively. We demonstrate that IMS can be used for selective concentration of target bacteria from beverages for subsequent use in PCR detection. PCR also enables differentiation of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A using a set of four specific primers. In addition, IMS—PCR can be used as a screening tool in the food and beverage industry for the detection of Salmonella within 3–4 h which compares favorably to the time of several days that is needed in case of conventional detection based on culture and biochemical methods. (author)

  13. Evaluation of two enrichment broths, three plating media and ELISA technique for the isolation of salmonella from dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shamy, Hoda A; Bakr, Wafaa M; Gomaa, Naglaa F; Barheem, Omar H

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella is one of the most important food-borne pathogens that can be transmitted through the consumption of contaminated milk and milk products. Early detection of Salmonella in food is important for food safety. Two selective media, brilliant green agar (BGA) and xylose lysine desoxycholate (XLD) agar are commonly used in diagnostic laboratories for the isolation of Salmonella, often after enrichment of the samples in a broth before plating on the solid medium. Recently, a new medium called CHROmagar Salmonella (CAS) has become available for the rapid detection of Salmonella. In the present study, we compared this new medium with BGA and XLD for the isolation of Salmonella from 160 dairy products samples (80 ice cream and 80 kariesh cheese samples) with enrichment in Rappaport- Vassiliadis (RV) and tetrathionate (TT) broth. TECRA Unique Salmonella ELISA test was used. Only one sample was positive for Salmonella, which appeared on each of CAS and XLD agars, after enrichment using RV but not TT. This was associated with a sensitivity and specificity of (100 %, 92.45%), (100%, 93.71%) and (0 %, 100%) for each of CHROmagar Salmonella, XLD and BGA respectively. TECRA Unique Salmonella test yielded the highest sensitivity and specificity among all used methods; it had 100% sensitivity with 100% specificity. PMID:18992207

  14. FECAL EXCRETION OF Salmonella Enteritidis IN BROILER LINES ROSS AND ISA LABEL EXCREÇÃO FECAL de Salmonella Enteritidis EM DUAS LINHAGENS DE FRANGOS DE CORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adson Santa Cruz Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The invasive capacity and persistence of this pathogen, crop and ceca in apparently healthy birds of two broiler lines raised without growth promoter antibiotics in ration and originated from eggs inoculated eggshell and in allantoidal cavity with Salmonella Enteritidis. Histological and bacteriological exams from cecal and crop were performed with one, seven, 14 and 21 days of age after hatch in broilers of fast and slow growing rate. Bacterio-logical exams were performed fecal excretion with one, eigth, 22 and 35 days. The Salmonella Enteritidis invaded and colonizated the gastrointestinal tract of the two lines tested, but the the infection reduced with age, and was more persistant in Ross broilers. The results were different for two lines. The pathogen was excreted from just one chick of ISA Label at 22 days of age and four Ross chicks until 35 days of age. In order, Salmonella was detected in 87.5% (14/16 and 38,1% (5/16 of ceca; in 81.2% (13/16 and 12.5% (2/16 of crops; in fast and slow growing rate lines, respectively. In apparent healthy organs, excepted the crop, an inflammatory process with predominance of macrophage and lymphocytes. The slow growing rate line was effective to eliminate bacteria in the organism.

    Key-words: Ceca, crop, fecal excretion, inflammation.

    Avaliaram-se, neste estudo, a capacidade inva-siva, a persistência e a freqüência de excreção fecal da Salmonella Enteritidis em aves aparentemente saudáveis de duas linhagens de frango de corte, criadas sem antibióticos promotores de crescimento na ração e oriundas de ovos inoculados na casca ou na cavidade alantóide com Salmonella Enteritidis fagotipo 4. Realizaram-se exames bacteriológicos das excretas com um, oito, 22 e 35 dias, e histológicos e bacteriológicos do inglúvio e ceco, com um, sete, quatorze e 21 dias pós-eclosão em frangos de crescimento rápido e lento. Salmonella Enteritidis invadiu e colonizou o trato gastrintestinal das duas linhagens, mas a infecção declinou com a idade, sendo mais persistente na linhagem Ross. O patógeno foi excretado de uma única ave ISA Label até 22 dias de vida e em quatro aves da linhagem Ross até 35 dias. Constatou a Salmonella em ordem de colonização, em 87,5% (14/16 e 38,1% (5/16 dos cecos; em 81,2% (13/16 e 12,5% (2/16 dos inglúvios das linhagens Ross e ISA Label, respectivamente. Nos cecos aparentemente saudáveis, evidenciou-se um processo inflamatório com predominância de macrófagos e ou linfócitos, enquanto no inglúvio não se detectaram alterações microscópicas. A linhagem de ISA Label foi mais hábil em eliminar a bactéria do seu organismo.

    Palavras-chaves: Ceco, excreção fecal, inflamação, inglúvio.

  15. Antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella spp.: a comparison of two surveys with a 5 years interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Mijovi?

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella infections are one of the major global public health problems. During the last decade, antibiotic resistance and multiresistance of Salmonella spp. have increased a great deal, especially in developing countries with an increased and indiscriminate use of antibiotics in the treatment of humans and animals. This study aims to investigate and compare antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella during 2005 and 2010.A total of 186 Salmonella strain during 2005 and 140 Salmonella strain during 2010 were isolated from stool specimens using standard methods. The isolates were confirmed as Salmonella by using a battery of biochemical reactions. Specific antisera were used for serologic characterization of Salmonella strain. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by standard disk diffusion method using ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxasole, ceftriaxon, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin.One hundred eighty (96.8% of 186 isolated Salmonella strains in 2005, and 133 (95% of 140 isolated Salmonella strain in 2010 are recognized as Salmonella Enteritidis. Sensitivity of Salmonella isolates during 2005 and 2010 were 91.9% and 92.9% to ampicillin, 95.7% and 97.1% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxasole, 99.5% and 100% to chloramphenicol, 99.5% and 100% to ciprofloxacin, 98.9% and 97.1% to ceftriaxon, 73.1% and 95.7% to nalidixic acid, respectively.Sensitivity of Salmonella isolates to all tested antimicrobial agents except to ceftriaxon was been slightly improved over testing period. Resistance rate to ceftriaxon was higher in 2010 than in 2005, and this fact deserves attention. Significantly increase susceptibility rate to nalidixic acid was observed between the two surveys

  16. Detección de Salmonella spp y Listeria monocytogenes en quesos frescos y semimadurados que se expenden en vía pública en la ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia D. Alc\\u00E1zar Monta\\u00F1ez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la inocuidad bacteriológica de los quesos frescos y semimadurados que se venden en algunos ?mercados sobre ruedas? en la ciudad de México, se realizó la detección simultánea de Salmonella spp y de Listeria monocytogenes, mediante la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR, así como con los métodos bacteriológicos convencionales, según la normatividad correspondiente para cada microorganismo; es decir, la NOM-114-SSA1-1994 mexicana, que constituye un método para la determinación de Salmonella en alimentos; de igual manera la NOM-143-SSA1-1995 mexicana, que representa un método de prueba microbiológica para alimentos y determinación de L. monocytogenes. Se analizaron 120 muestras seleccionadas al azar, provenientes de cuatro ?mercados sobre ruedas? de una zona del sur de la ciudad de México. La metodología propuesta para la PCR múltiple se basó en la amplifi cación simultánea de los genes InvA e Iap procedentes de los genomas de Salmonella spp y de L. monocytogenes, respectivamente; de igual forma, la metodología para la extracción de ADN bacteriano a partir de las muestras se desarrolló con el fi n de eliminar o disminuir la posible interferencia de inhibidores propios del alimento mediante centrifugación previa de las muestras y se comprobó que la amplifi cación de ambos resultó positiva, aun cuando los patógenos se encuentren presentes en las muestras a una concentración de por lo menos 30 UFC/g. Del total de muestras analizadas con la técnica de PCR, sólo tres resultaron positivas a la presencia de Salmonella spp, en ninguna estuvo presente L. monocytogenes, en contraste con los resultados de los métodos bacteriológicos, por medio de los cuales no se obtuvo ningún resultado positivo.

  17. Characterization of an unusual Salmonella phage type DT7a and report of a foodborne outbreak of salmonellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettini, A A; Saccardin, C; Ramon, E; Longo, A; Cortini, E; Dalla Pozza, M C; Barco, L; Guerra, B; Luzzi, I; Ricci, A

    2014-10-17

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar 4,[5],12,i:- is a monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium and its occurrence has markedly increased in several European countries in the last ten years. In June 2011, an outbreak of Salmonella 4,[5],12,i:- was reported among attendees of a wedding reception in the North-East of Italy. The source of this outbreak was identified as a cooked pork product served during the wedding reception. All Salmonella isolates from humans and the contaminated pork products were identified as Salmonella 4,[5],12,i:- and phage typed as DT7a. Afterwards, the farm where the pigs were raised was identified and sampled, and Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from swine fecal samples. Despite the difference in serovar, these Salmonella Typhimurium isolates were also phage typed as DT7a. In the present study, Salmonella isolates from animals, humans and pork products during the outbreak investigation were subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), Multiple-Locus Variable number tandem repeats Analysis (MLVA), and resistance patterns, aiming to identify the most suitable subtyping methods to characterize isolates associated with this outbreak. In addition, a collection of epidemiologically unrelated strains of Salmonella 4,[5],12,i:- and Salmonella Typhimurium sharing the same phage type (DT7a) was similarly characterized in order to investigate their genetic relationship. This study provides a first snapshot of a rare Salmonella phage type, DT7a, associated with both Salmonella 4,[5],12,i:- and Salmonella Typhimurium. Moreover, the study demonstrated that in this specific context MLVA could be a reliable tool to support outbreak investigations as well as to assess the genetic relatedness among Salmonella isolates. PMID:25108760

  18. Development of a PCR microplate-capture hybridizationmethod for simple, fast and sensitive detection ofSalmonella serovars in food

    OpenAIRE

    Cocolin, Luca Simone

    1998-01-01

    The authors have developed an easy and rapid detection and identification system for Salmonella spp. in food. The gene inv A was selected as the target sequence. Oligonucleotides derived from conserved regions of this gene were able to exclusively prime the amplification of a 389 bp fragment when Salmonella spp. DNA was used as the template. An internal Salmonella spp. specific DNA probe was used for confirmation of the amplified polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product, by Sout...

  19. Development of Rapid Detection and Genetic Characterization of Salmonella in Poultry Breeder Feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C. Ricke

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, with poultry and poultry products being a primary source of infection to humans. Poultry may carry some Salmonella serovars without any signs or symptoms of disease and without causing any adverse effects to the health of the bird. Salmonella may be introduced to a flock by multiple environmental sources, but poultry feed is suspected to be a leading source. Detecting Salmonella in feed can be challenging because low levels of the bacteria may not be recovered using traditional culturing techniques. Numerous detection methodologies have been examined over the years for quantifying Salmonella in feeds and many have proven to be effective for Salmonella isolation and detection in a variety of feeds. However, given the potential need for increased detection sensitivity, molecular detection technologies may the best candidate for developing rapid sensitive methods for identifying small numbers of Salmonella in the background of large volumes of feed. Several studies have been done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays and commercial kits to detect Salmonella spp. in a wide variety of feed sources. In addition, DNA array technology has recently been utilized to track the dissemination of a specific Salmonella serotype in feed mills. This review will discuss the processing of feeds and potential points in the process that may introduce Salmonella contamination to the feed. Detection methods currently used and the need for advances in these methods also will be discussed. Finally, implementation of rapid detection for optimizing control methods to prevent and remove any Salmonella contamination of feeds will be considered.

  20. An immunoconcentration-PCR assay to detect Salmonella in the environment of poultry houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumet, C; Blivet, D; Ermel, G; Colin, P; Salvat, G

    1999-06-01

    An immunoconcentration-PCR assay was developed for the rapid and specific detection of Salmonella. This assay was evaluated against a conventional bacteriological method for the detection of Salmonella from environmental swabs of poultry houses. The 120 samples investigated were pre-enriched in phosphate buffered peptone water and Salmonella was separated by an immunoconcentration process using an automated system (VIDAS bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) prior to PCR. The specificity of the assay was high as no false-positives were found. The sensitivity of the assay was 70%. The correlation between the ICS-PCR assay and the bacteriological method was 84%. PMID:10443541

  1. Multiple-serotype Salmonella gastroenteritis outbreak after a reception --- Connecticut, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    In September 2009, the Connecticut Department of Public Health (DPH) identified an outbreak of Salmonella gastroenteritis among attendees at a reception. A case-control study and environmental and laboratory investigations were conducted. Nine case-patients and 14 control subjects were identified. Potato salad consumption was strongly associated with illness (odds ratio [OR] = 84.0). During the investigation, food service workers were observed to have bare-handed contact with ready-to-eat food. Five case-patients and one asymptomatic food service worker had stool samples positive for Salmonella species. Two Salmonella serotypes were identified, Salmonella enterica serovar Schwarzengrund and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium variant O:5--, including coinfection in one case-patient and one food service worker. The isolates of each respective serotype (S. Schwarzengrund and S. Typhimurium variant O:5--) had indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. Potato salad was the likely source of the outbreak but the contamination mechanism is unclear. Control measures included exclusion of the food service worker with Salmonella-positive stool from the restaurant until two consecutive stool samples yielded no bacterial growth. Standard public health laboratory practices in Connecticut and testing techniques used specifically during this investigation led to the rapid identification of the two serotypes. Multiple-serotype Salmonella outbreaks might occur more frequently than recognized; knowledge of all Salmonella serotypes involved in an outbreak might help implicate the outbreak source, define the scope of the outbreak, and determine the selection of appropriate control measures. PMID:20814404

  2. Bacteriophage P22 to challenge Salmonella in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinno, Paola; Devirgiliis, Chiara; Ercolini, Danilo; Ongeng, Duncan; Mauriello, Gianluigi

    2014-11-17

    In this study we considered the influence of phage addition on the fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in different foods. Phage P22 was applied to the following: liquid eggs, energy drinks, whole and skimmed milk, apple juice, chicken breast and chicken mince all spiked with its host, whose growth was monitored for 24 and 48 h at 4 °C. Appreciable host inactivation, generally in the order of 2 log cycles, was achieved compared to phage-free controls in all food matrices when 10(4) UFC/g host inoculum was used. Furthermore, wild food strains belonging to the serotypes Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Derby Give, Newport, Muenchen and Muenster were assayed towards phage P22. Only isolates of Salmonella Typhimurium as well as Salmonella Derby and Salmonella Enteritidis was inhibited by the presence of P22 phage. Additional challenge experiments were carried out by spiking liquid-eggs, chicken breast and chicken mince with mixes of wild Salmonella Typhimurium (at concentration of about 10(4) UFC/g) strains along with their relative phage P22. The results showed a reduction of 2-3 log cycles after 48 h at 4 °C depending on both mix of strains and the specific food. Overall, the results indicate that phages may be useful in the control of food-borne pathogens. The food matrices considered, the liquid more than the solid, do not seem to affect the phage ability of infection compared to similar tests performed in vitro. PMID:25240138

  3. New immunoenzymatic strategy for rapid and selective growth of salmonella.

    OpenAIRE

    Ponsard, Isabelle; Soumillion, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrated that an exogenous conjugate consisting of a ?-lactamase and a monoclonal antibody against a surface antigen of Salmonella is capable of conferring selective penicillin resistance on bacteria. This immunoenzymatic approach allows the rapid growth and detection of specific bacteria and may find other applications when temporary and nongenetic antibiotic resistance is required.

  4. SPI-7: Salmonella’s Vi-Encoding Pathogenicity Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. B. Seth-Smith

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-7 (SPI-7 is a large, mosaic, genetic island, found in several serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica associated with systemic disease. As well as encoding genes which may aid its own transmission, it carries genes for potential virulence factors such as Vi antigen, SopE effector and type IVB pili. The stability of SPI-7 is of interest with respect to typhoid fever and related vaccines.

  5. Phosphorylation of the autophagy receptor optineurin restricts Salmonella growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wild, Philipp; Farhan, Hesso

    2011-01-01

    Selective autophagy can be mediated via receptor molecules that link specific cargoes to the autophagosomal membranes decorated by ubiquitin-like microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) modifiers. Although several autophagy receptors have been identified, little is known about mechanisms controlling their functions in vivo. In this work, we found that phosphorylation of an autophagy receptor, optineurin, promoted selective autophagy of ubiquitin-coated cytosolic Salmonella enterica. The protein kinase TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1) phosphorylated optineurin on serine-177, enhancing LC3 binding affinity and autophagic clearance of cytosolic Salmonella. Conversely, ubiquitin- or LC3-binding optineurin mutants and silencing of optineurin or TBK1 impaired Salmonella autophagy, resulting in increased intracellular bacterial proliferation. We propose that phosphorylation of autophagy receptors might be a general mechanism for regulation of cargo-selective autophagy.

  6. Effect of Low Dose of Fumonisins on Pig Health: Immune Status, Intestinal Microbiota and Sensitivity to Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Fravalo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure the effects of chronic exposure to fumonisins via the ingestion of feed containing naturally contaminated corn in growing pigs infected or not with Salmonella spp. This exposure to a moderate dietary concentration of fumonisins (11.8 ppm was sufficient to induce a biological effect in pigs (Sa/So ratio, but no mortality or pathology was observed over 63 days of exposure. No mortality or related clinical signs, even in cases of inoculation with Salmonella (5 × 104 CFU, were observed either. Fumonisins, at these concentrations, did not affect the ability of lymphocytes to proliferate in the presence of mitogens, but after seven days post-inoculation they led to inhibition of the ability of specific Salmonella lymphocytes to proliferate following exposure to a specific Salmonella antigen. However, the ingestion of fumonisins had no impact on Salmonella translocation or seroconversion in inoculated pigs. The inoculation of Salmonella did not affect faecal microbiota profiles, but exposure to moderate concentrations of fumonisins transiently affected the digestive microbiota balance. In cases of co-infection with fumonisins and Salmonella, the microbiota profiles were rapidly and clearly modified as early as 48 h post-Salmonella inoculation. Therefore under these experimental conditions, exposure to an average concentration of fumonisins in naturally contaminated feed had no effect on pig health but did affect the digestive microbiota balance, with Salmonella exposure amplifying this phenomenon.

  7. Detection of salmonella sp in chicken cuts using immunomagnetic separation Detecção de salmonella sp em cortes de frango usando separação imunomagnética

    OpenAIRE

    Rita de Cássia dos Santos da Conceição; Ângela Nunes Moreira; Roberta Juliano Ramos; Fabiana Lemos Goularte; José Beiro Carvalhal; José Antonio Guimarães Aleixo

    2008-01-01

    The immunomagnetic separation (IMS) is a technique that has been used to increase sensitivity and specificity and to decrease the time required for detection of Salmonella in foods through different methodologies. In this work we report on the development of a method for detection of Salmonella in chicken cuts using in house antibody-sensitized microspheres associated to conventional plating in selective agar (IMS-plating). First, protein A-coated microspheres were sensitized with polyclonal ...

  8. Salmonella in Sheep in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson E; Hjartardóttir S; Sigvaldadóttir J

    2002-01-01

    In 1995 several outbreaks of food poisoning in humans occurred in Iceland, that were traced to salmonella contamination of singed sheep heads. This prompted us to study the prevalence of salmonella infection in sheep and to trace where and how infection might have occurred. Faecal, intestinal contents and tonsillar samples were collected in the spring and autumn from sheep on 50 farms in the southwestern part of the country, where salmonellosis had been detected and from 5 farms in the north...

  9. Een ringonderzoek voor de serotypering van Salmonella met de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella

    OpenAIRE

    Voogt N; Hme, Maas; Wj, Leeuwen; Am, Henken

    2012-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella heeft een ringonderzoek voor de serotypering van Salmonella georganiseerd met deelname van alle Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRLs) voor Salmonella. Het doel van dit ringonderzoek was meer informatie te krijgen over de resultaten van de serotypering van Salmonella enterica in de NRLs. De deelnemende laboratoria moesten de stammen identificeren volgens de serotyperingsmethode die routinematig in hun laboratori...

  10. A novel Salmonella serovar isolated from Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in Sweden: Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Pajala (Salmonella Pajala)

    OpenAIRE

    Ndez, Jorge Hern X. E.; Peter Lindberg; Jonas Waldenström; Mirva Drobni; Rn Olsen, Bj X. F.

    2012-01-01

    A novel Salmonella serovar was isolated from Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in northern Sweden in 2006. Three isolates of the same clone was retrieved from three falcon siblings and characterized as Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica: O-phase 13, 23:-: e, n, z 15 and the H-phase was not present. We propose the geographical name Salmonella enterica, sub-species enterica serovar Pajala to this novel Salmonella.

  11. Transcriptional Regulation of the assT-dsbL-dsbI Gene Cluster in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi IMSS-1 Depends on LeuO, H-NS, and Specific Growth Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego-herna?ndez, A. L.; Herna?ndez-lucas, I.; La Cruz, M. A.; Olvera, L.; Morett, E.; Medina-aparicio, L.; Rami?rez-trujillo, J. A.; Va?zquez, A.; Ferna?ndez-mora, M.; Calva, E.

    2012-01-01

    The assT gene encodes an arylsulfate sulfotransferase, an enzyme that catalyzes sulfuryl transfer from phenolic sulfate to a phenolic acceptor. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi IMSS-1, the assT gene is located upstream of the dsbL and dsbI genes, which are involved in a disulfide bond formation required for its activation. The assT-dsbL-dsbI gene cluster forms an operon transcribed by a LeuO-dependent promoter, in rich medium A (MA). Interestingly, in the absence of cloned leuO and in a ?...

  12. Comparison between ICS-Vidas, MSRV and standard cultural method for Salmonella recovery in poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Medici, D; Pezzotti, G; Marfoglia, C; Caciolo, D; Foschi, G; Orefice, L

    1998-12-22

    Two rapid methods for Salmonella detection, Vidas-ICS and modified semi-solid Rappaport-Vassiliadis (MSRV) were evaluated using contaminated poultry meat. The sensitivity and specificity of the methods were investigated on field samples and on artificially contaminated samples inoculated with mixtures of Salmonella and non-Salmonella competing strains. ICS-Vidas and MSRV yielded virtually identical results, in full agreement with the standard cultural method (SCM). The MSRV method showed better results with artificially contaminated samples, but was less sensitive than SCM when applied to field samples. The use of the MSRV and Vidas-ICS methods could be particularly advantageous in the application of HACCP. PMID:9926997

  13. Pet Turtles: Cute but Contaminated with Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Updates Pet Turtles: Cute But Contaminated with Salmonella Search the Consumer Updates Section Because young children are more vulnerable to the effects of Salmonella, since 1975, FDA has banned the sale of ...

  14. Salmonella identification from foods in eight hours: A prototype study with Salmonella Typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koluman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The significant rise in food borne infections is mainly caused by Campylobacter spp., Salmonella serovars and Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli. As the emerging food borne pathogens cause disease, more studies have been conducted for rapid detection of these pathogens. The combination of immunomagnetic separation and polymerase chain reaction (IMS-PCR is the most accurate and rapid test preferred by almost every researcher. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR is preferred for being a new, user friendly and rapid technique in microbiological analyses. The main aim of this study is to detect application of IMS-FTIR for Salmonella identification from foods in a short time with a higher sensitivity.Materials and Methods: Conventional Culture Technique (CC, IMS-CC, IMS-PCR and IMS-FTIR techniques were compared with each other for rapid detection in artificially contaminated minced beef with Salmonella Typhimurium, as of the 2nd, 4th and 8th hours of contamination. The method was evaluated in different food matrices and sensitivity, specifity and overall recovery was calculated.Results: The results indicate that IMS-FTIR can detect S. Typhimurium as of the 8th hour with sensitivity of 95.6667, accuracy of 91.69329, false positive ratio of 0.04333 and overall recovery of 95.66%.Conclusion: It can be suggested that the IMS-FTIR method is capable of detecting S.Typhimurium in a short time with lower cost.

  15. Elfde CRL-Salmonella ringonderzoek (2006) voor de typering van Salmonella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Pa, Berk; Hme, Maas; Pinna E de; Ka, Mooijman

    2007-01-01

    The eleventh interlaboratory comparison study on the typing of Salmonella was organised by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, The Netherlands) in collaboration with the Health Protection Agency (HPA, London, United Kingdom) in March 2006. 26 National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella), including Norway, and 31 Enter-Net Laboratories (ENLs), three of which also NRLs, participated in the study. In total, 20 strain...

  16. Salmonella detection using 16S ribosomal DNA/RNA probe-gold nanoparticles and lateral flow immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Che; Yeung, Chun-Yan; Chen, Po-Hao; Yeh, Ming-Kung; Hou, Shao-Yi

    2013-12-01

    An ultrasensitive, simple, and fast lateral flow immunoassay for Salmonella detection using gold nanoparticles conjugated with a DNA probe, which is complementary to the 16S ribosomal RNA and DNA of Salmonella, has been developed. The detection limit is 5 fmol for the synthetic single-stranded DNA. For the Salmonella cultured samples, the nucleic acids from 10(7) bacteria were rapidly detected in 30 min. After silver enhancement, the detection limit was as low as 10(4) cells which is lower than 10(5) bacteria cells, the human infective dose of food-borne Salmonella. Furthermore, the probes used in this study are specific to Salmonella compared to several other Enterobacteriaceae. This approach would be a useful tool for microbial detection regarding food safety or clinical diagnosis. It is also suitable for large-scale screening in developing countries because it is low-cost, sensitive, specific and convenient. PMID:23870991

  17. Splenic abscess due to Salmonella enteritidis

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice Çabadak; Kerem Karaman; Süha ?en; Ay?e Erbay; Yasemin Tezer Tekçe

    2012-01-01

    Splenic abscess is a very rare complication of non-typhoidal Salmonella infections. We report a case of splenic abscess caused by Salmonella enteritidis. The patient is a 63-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus and underwent splenectomy. This case suggests that the patients with comorbities are at increased risk for invasive infections in non-typhoidal Salmonella infections.

  18. Splenic abscess due to Salmonella enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Çabadak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Splenic abscess is a very rare complication of non-typhoidal Salmonella infections. We report a case of splenic abscess caused by Salmonella enteritidis. The patient is a 63-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus and underwent splenectomy. This case suggests that the patients with comorbities are at increased risk for invasive infections in non-typhoidal Salmonella infections.

  19. Twelve-Hour PCR-Based Method for Detection of Salmonella spp. in Food

    OpenAIRE

    Ferretti, R.; Mannazzu, I.; Cocolin, L.; Comi, G.; Clementi, F.

    2001-01-01

    A PCR-based method for the detection of Salmonella spp. in food was developed. The method, set up on typical salami from the Italian region of Marche, is sensitive and specific and shows excellent correlation with the conventional method of reference when naturally contaminated foods are analyzed. Moreover, it can be easily performed within a maximum of 12 h from food sampling, thus allowing prompt detection of Salmonella spp. in the food stocks analyzed.

  20. Detection of antibiotic resistance genes in different Salmonella serovars by oligonucleotide microarray analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hoek, A. H. A. M.; Scholtens-toma, I. M. J.; Cloekaert, A.; Aarts, H. J. M.

    2005-01-01

    In this study the feasibility of 50- and 60-mer oligonucleotides in microarray analysis for the detection and identification of antibiotic resistance genes in various Salmonella strains was assessed. The specificity of the designed oligonucleotides was evaluated, furthermore the optimal spotting concentration was determined. The oligonucleotide microarray was used to screen two sets of Salmonella strains for the presence of several antibiotic resistance genes. Set 1 consisted of strains with ...

  1. Retlig beskyttelse mod salmonella i et EU- og WTO-retligt perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Huizing; Andersen, Lars Bracht

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the legal approach to the risk of salmonella infections on the complex interaction between EU Law and international law. It is examined how the latitude of individual states to adopt national food safety measures is restricted by both EU Law and WTO Law. The specific issue of protection against salmonella also serves as illustration of the difficult balancing of the interests of high level of food safety and the free movement of goods.

  2. Salmonella as a Model for Non-Cognate Th1 Cell Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Donnell, Hope; McSorley, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella has been a model pathogen for examining CD4 T cell activation and effector functions for many years due to the strength of the Th1 cell response observed during Salmonella infections, the relative ease of use of Salmonella, the availability of Salmonella-specific T cell reagents, and the well-characterized nature of the model system, the pathogen, and the immune response elicited. Herein, we discuss the use of Salmonella as a model pathogen to explore the complex interaction of T cells with their inflammatory environment. In particular, we address the issue of bystander activation of naïve T cells and non-cognate stimulation of activated and memory T cells. Further, we compare and contrast our current knowledge of these non-cognate responses in CD8 versus CD4 T cells. Finally, we make a case for Salmonella as a particularly appropriate model pathogen in the study of non-cognate CD4 T cell responses based on the strength of the Th1 response during infection, the requirement for CD4 T cells in bacterial clearance, and the well-characterized inflammatory response to conserved molecular patterns induced by Salmonella infection. PMID:25540644

  3. Prevalence, concentrations, and antibiotic sensitivities of Salmonella serovars in poultry from retail establishments in Seattle, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazengia, E; Samadpour, M; Hill, H W; Greeson, K; Tenney, K; Liao, G; Huang, X; Meschke, J S

    2014-06-01

    Poultry have been identified as one of the major sources of salmonellosis, with estimates ranging from 10 to 22% of total cases. Despite several advances in the industry and new performance standards, the incidence of salmonellosis in the population has not declined over the last 15 years. Salmonella is pervasive in a wide variety of foods, and thus, estimating its burden resulting from specific food categories has been challenging and plagued with uncertainty due to critical data gaps. The objective of this study was to conduct a year-long market survey (1,322 samples) to help bridge the data gaps on the contamination rates and levels of Salmonella on raw poultry by product type (i.e., breast, thighs, drums, wings, and split breast) and production method (conventional versus organic). The isolates recovered were serotyped and tested for antibiotic sensitivities. A PCR method was utilized for initial screening of samples after an overnight enrichment in tryptic soy broth. Three-tube most-probable-number (MPN) assays and anti-Salmonella immunomagnetic separation methods were utilized to determine the levels of Salmonella and aid with the recovery of Salmonella species, respectively. Eleven percent of the samples were positive for Salmonella. Significant differences in percent positive rates by product type included up to a 4-fold difference in percent positive rates between establishments, ranging from 7 to 31%. Of the samples positive for Salmonella species, 94% had MPN/100 g. Production methods identified as organic or as not using antibiotics had significantly higher rates of recovery of Salmonella. On the other hand, all of the Salmonella isolates that were resistant to two or more antibiotics originated from conventional processing establishments where antibiotics were utilized. In addition, a significant proportion of isolates from conventionally processed products were serotypes clinically relevant to humans. PMID:24853509

  4. Salmonella engineered to express CD20-targeting antibodies and a drug-converting enzyme can eradicate human lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Paul E; Paniccia, Aida; Monegal, Ana; de Marco, Ario; Rescigno, Maria

    2013-08-01

    Escape from immune detection favors both tumor survival and progression, and new approaches to circumvent this are essential to combat cancers. Nonvirulent, tumor-tropic bacteria, such as Salmonella typhimurium, can unmask a tumor by transforming it into a site of inflammation; however, the nonspecific invasiveness of Salmonella leads to off-target effects diluting its therapeutic efficacy and making its use in human patients inherently risky. Here, we demonstrate that Salmonella tumor specificity can be significantly improved via a surface-expressed single-domain antibody directed to a tumor-associated antigen (CD20). Antibody-dependent bacterial targeting specifies the infection of CD20+ lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo, while significantly diminishing nonspecific cell invasion. Indeed, CD20-targeted Salmonella was less generally invasive, even in organs that normally serve as physiological reservoirs. Furthermore, tumor-specific Salmonella engineered to carry the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase prodrug-converting enzyme effectively treats human lymphoma xenografts when coadministered intratumorally or intravenously with ganciclovir in mice lacking a functional adaptive immune system. Therefore, tumor-targeted Salmonella could prove effective even in those patients displaying a debilitated immune system, which is often the case with late-stage cancers. Altogether, antibody-displaying Salmonella vectors can mediate a tumor-specific response and rejection with few detectable adverse effects while specifically delivering cytotoxic payloads. PMID:23736700

  5. Abscesso esplênico causado por Salmonella Splenic abscess due to Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno von Glen Herkenhoff

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar as características demográficas, clínicas, diagnóstica e terapêutica de pacientes com abscesso esplênico (AE causado por Salmonella. MÉTODO: Análise retrospectiva de dados de pacientes atendidos no Serviço de Cirurgia Geral e Aparelho Digestivo do Hospital Universitário Gaffrée-Guinle no período de janeiro de 2001 a dezembro de 2005, a estes se incluiu um caso tratado em outro hospital em época anterior. RESULTADOS: Dentre 4823 pacientes recentemente atendidos, dois apresentaram AE causado por Salmonella enteritidis, enquanto o caso mais antigo o agente responsável foi a Salmonella typhi. Todos eram homens, com idade média de 45 anos. Em nenhum deles foi identificada condição predisponente à formação do abscesso; os exames de imagem foram capazes de diagnosticar o AE. Todos foram tratados por esplenectomia e antibioticoterapia e evoluíram para cura. CONCLUSÕES: A Salmonella, apesar de infrequente, pode ser o agente causal do AE. Caracteristicamente os abscessos eram grandes e apresentavam material necrótico em seu interior. Nesta condição, a esplenectomia associada a antibioticoterapia mostrou-se eficaz no tratamento.BACKGROUND: Splenic abscess is a uncommon disease and remains a diagnostic challenge. Outcome is fatal when the condition is not promptly recognized and treated. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographic, clinical, diagnostic methods and management characteristic of patients with salmonelal splenic abscess. METHODS: Retrospective study at General and Digestive Surgery Service - Hospital Universitário Gaffrée-Guinle of the Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro - UNIRIO from January 2001 to December 2005 resulting in a total number of 4823 patients has been performed. An additional case treated by one author was added. RESULTS: During the studied period two cases of splenic abscess due to Salmonella enteritidis was treated; a third older case was due to Salmonella typhi. All patients were man; the mean age was 45 years, all were immunocompetent and had large solitary lesion. All patients underwent splenectomy and antibiotic therapy; the outcome was favorable for all patients. CONCLUSION: Nowadays still is possible that splenic abscess is due to Salmonella species etiology; typically, all patients are immunocompetents adult males and large solitary lesions within necrotic material. In this condition, splenectomy and intravenous antibiotic administration appear to constitute the most convenient therapy.

  6. Comparison of DNA probe, PCR amplification, ELISA and culture methods for the rapid detection of Salmonella in poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The identification of Salmonella spp. from poultry meat was studied by comparing bacterial detection using the Gene-Trak colorimetric hybridization method, a PCR amplification kit and an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and these methods were compared with the conventional methodology proposed by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) for detection of Salmonella in food samples. Forty positive and negative samples were studied. The three methods yielded similar results with levels of Salmonella greater than 10 CFU per sample, even when the samples were highly contaminated with competing bacteria. In contrast, 20 CFU of seed inoculum per sample was the lowest level of Salmonella detectable with all three methods and the standard culture method. The detection limits of the PCR and ELISA assays were 5 CFU/g after enrichment at 37 deg. C for 6 and 9 hours, respectively. Compared with conventional bacteriology, all three methods here demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for Salmonella. (author)

  7. Analysis of Hexanitrostilbene (HNS) and Dipicryethane (DPE) for Mutagenicity by the Ames/Salmonella Assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, R; Felton, J

    2007-10-12

    The Ames/Salmonella assay, developed by Professor Bruce Ames at the University of California, Berkeley, is a rapid and sensitive assay for detecting mutagenicity of various chemical compounds (Maron and Ames, 1983). It is a widely accepted short-term assay for detecting chemicals that induce mutations in the histidine (his) gene of Salmonella typhimurium. This is a reverse mutation assay that detects the mutational reversion of his-dependent Salmonella to the his-independent counterpart. Thereby, mutagenic compounds will increase the frequency of occurrence of his-independent bacterial colonies. The assay utilizes the specific genetically constructed strains of bacteria either with or without mammalian metabolic activation enzymes (S9), Aroclor induced rat liver homogenate to assess the mutagenicity of different compounds. In this study, we will use the Ames/Salmonella assay to investigate the mutagenicity of Hexanitrostilbene (HNS) from both Bofors and Pantex, and Dipicryethane (DPE).

  8. Multi-laboratory evaluation of the rapid genoserotyping array (SGSA) for the identification of Salmonella serovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Catherine; Lingohr, Erika J; Trognitz, Friederike; MacLaren, Nikki; Rosano, Andrea; Murphy, Stephanie A; Villegas, Andre; Polt, Marlies; Franklin, Kristyn; Kostic, Tanja; Kropinski, Andrew M; Card, Roderick M

    2014-11-01

    Salmonella serotyping is an essential first step for identification of isolates associated with disease outbreaks. The Salmonella genoserotyping array (SGSA) is a microarray-based alternative to standard serotyping designed to rapidly identify 57 of the most commonly reported serovars through detection of the genes encoding surface O and H antigens and reporting the corresponding serovar in accordance with the existing White-Kaufmann-Le Minor serotyping scheme. In this study, we evaluated the SGSA at 4 laboratories in 3 countries by testing 1874 isolates from human and non-human sources. The SGSA correctly identified 96.7% of isolates from the target 57 serovars. For the prevalent and clinically important Salmonella serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium, test specificity and sensitivity were greater than 98% and 99%, respectively. Due to its high-throughput nature, the SGSA is a rapid and cost-effective alternative to standard serotyping for identifying the most prevalent serovars of Salmonella. PMID:25219780

  9. Recognition of Salmonella typhimurium by immobilized phage P22 monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Hitesh; Gurczynski, Stephen; Jackson, Matthew P.; Auner, Gregory; Walker, Jeremy; Mao, Guangzhao

    2008-04-01

    Phages are promising alternatives to antibodies as the biorecognition element in a variety of biosensing applications. In this study, a monolayer of bacteriophage P22 whose tailspike proteins specifically recognize Salmonella serotypes was covalently bound to glass substrates through a bifunctional cross linker 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. The specific binding of Salmonella typhimurium to the phage monolayer was studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and atomic force microscopy. Escherichia coli and a Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes were also studied as control bacteria. The P22 particles show strong binding affinity to S. typhimurium. In addition, the dried P22 monolayer maintained 50% binding capacity to S. typhimurium after a one-week storage time. This is a promising method to prepare phage monolayer coatings on surface plasmon resonance and acoustic biosensor substrates in order to utilize the nascent phage display technology.

  10. Salmonella-secreted Virulence Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffron, Fred; Niemann, George; Yoon, Hyunjin; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Brown, Roslyn N.; McDermott, Jason E.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2011-05-01

    In this short review we discuss secreted virulence factors of Salmonella, which directly affect Salmonella interaction with its host. Salmonella secretes protein to subvert host defenses but also, as discussed, to reduce virulence thereby permitting the bacteria to persist longer and more successfully disperse. The type III secretion system (TTSS) is the best known and well studied of the mechanisms that enable secretion from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm. Other secretion systems include outer membrane vesicles, which are present in all Gram-negative bacteria examined to date, two-partner secretion, and type VI secretion will also be addressed. Excellent reviews of Salmonella secreted effectors have focused on themes such as actin rearrangements, vesicular trafficking, ubiquitination, and the activities of the virulence factors themselves. This short review is based on S. Typhimurium infection of mice because it is a model of typhoid like disease in humans. We have organized effectors in terms of events that happen during the infection cycle and how secreted effectors may be involved.

  11. Cellulitis Due to Salmonella infantis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish R Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Salmonella are highly adapted for the growth in both humans and animals and cause a wide spectrum of disease. The growth of Serotypes S. typhi and S. paratyphi is restricted to human hosts, in whom these organisms cause enteric (typhoid fever. The remaining Serotypes (non typhoidal Salmonella or NTS can colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of the broad range of animals, including mammals, reptiles, birds and insects. The usual clinical presentation of non-typhoidal salmonellae (NTS infection is self limited gastroenteritis; however bacteremia and focal extra intestinal infection may occur. However salmonella localization to the skin presenting as cutaneous ulceration is regarded as a rare event. Rates of morbidity and mortality associated with NTS are highest among the elderly, infants, and immunocompromised individuals, including those with hemoglobinopathies, HIV infection, or infections that cause blockade of the reticuloendothelial system. We isolated S.infantis in 50 years old man with left leg cellulitis. The serotype was confirmed at Central Research Institute, Kasauli.

  12. Salmonella Infection and Water Frogs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-01-12

    This podcast, featuring lead investigator Shauna Mettee, discusses the first known outbreak of Salmonella in people due to contact with water frogs.  Created: 1/12/2010 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 1/12/2010.

  13. Identification and characterization of salmonella serotypes using DNA spectral characteristics by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analysis of DNA samples of Salmonella serotypes (Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky) were performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrometer by placing directly in contact with a diamond attenua...

  14. 78 FR 42451 - Animal Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ...Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella Microorganisms AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms. This action is being taken because...to be contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms: Bone meal, blood meal, crab...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550 ...Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Salmonella spp. serological reagents are devices...

  16. Microarray for molecular typing of Salmonella enterica serovars

    OpenAIRE

    Scaria, Joy; Palaniappan, Raghavan U. M.; Chiu, David; Phan, Julie Ann; Ponnala, Lalit; Mcdonough, Patrick; Grohn, Yrjo; Porwollik, Steffen; Mcclelland, Michael; Chiou, Chien-shun; Chu, Chishih; Chang, Yung-fu

    2008-01-01

    We describe the development of a spotted array for the delineation of the most common 14 disease causing Salmonella serovars in the United States. Our array consists of 414 70mers targeting core genes of S. enterica, subspecies I specific genes, fimbrial genes, pathogenicity islands, Gifsy elements and other variable genes. Using this array we were able to identify a unique gene presence/absence profile for each of the targeted serovar which was used as the serovar differentiating criteria. B...

  17. Molecular insights into farm animal and zoonotic Salmonella infections

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Mark P.; Humphrey, Tom J.; Maskell, Duncan J.

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a facultative intracellular pathogen of worldwide importance. Infections may present in a variety of ways, from asymptomatic colonization to inflammatory diarrhoea or typhoid fever depending on serovar- and host-specific factors. Human diarrhoeal infections are frequently acquired via the food chain and farm environment by virtue of the ability of selected non-typhoidal serovars to colonize the intestines of food-producing animals and contaminate the avian reproductive ...

  18. Immunological detection of Salmonella paratyphi A in raw prawns.

    OpenAIRE

    Korbsrisate, S.; Sarasombath, S.; Janyapoon, K.; Ekpo, P.; Pongsunk, S.

    1994-01-01

    A slot blot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, using monoclonal antibodies specific only for Salmonella paratyphi A, to detect S. paratyphi A contamination in raw prawns has been established. When artificially contaminated prawn samples were tested. S. paratyphi A contamination could be identified correctly within 20 h. No false positives from samples artificially contaminated by other microorganisms were obtained. The sensitivity was such that as few as 1 S. paratyphi A organism per g of raw...

  19. Salmonella typhimurium Mediated Delivery of Apoptin in Human Laryngeal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Guo-fang; Zhao, Ming; Liu, Li-ming; Jin, Chun-shun; Sun, Kai; Zhang, De-jun; Yu, Duo-jiao; Cao, Hong-wei; Lu, Yan -qing; Wen, Lian-ji

    2013-01-01

    An effective cancer therapeutic should target tumours specifically with limited systemic toxicity. Here, we transformed an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) with an Apoptin expressing plasmid into a human laryngeal carcinoma cell line. The expression of the inserted gene was measured using fluorescence and immunoblotting assays. The attenuated S. typhimurium-mediated Apoptin significantly decreased cytotoxicity and strongly increased cell apoptosis through the activation of c...

  20. Protein expression diversity amongst serovars of Salmonella enterica

    OpenAIRE

    Encheva, V.; Wait, R.; Begum, S.; Gharbia, Se; Shah, Hn

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most extensively studied bacterial species in terms of physiology, genetics, cell culture and development. As a very diverse group, the serovars of S. enterica display a spectrum of host specificities ranging from a broad host range to strictly host-adapted variants. This study utilized a classic proteomic approach combining 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry for the comparative analysis of the proteomes of serovars Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Cholera...

  1. New Salmonella serotype: Salmonella enteritidis serotype Grandhaven (30(1):r:1,2).

    OpenAIRE

    Mcdougal, D. L.; Treleaven, B. E.; Renshaw, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    A new Salmonella serotype, Salmonella enteritidis serotype Grandhaven (30(1):r:1,2), was isolated from the stool of a 35-year-old man with mild gastroenteritis. He had just returned from Sudan, Africa.

  2. Interaction of Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella dublin and Salmonella typhimurium with porcine and bovine terminal ileum in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, A J; Osborne, M P; Wallis, T S; Stephen, J

    1999-09-01

    Quantitative experiments on the interaction of Salmonella choleraesuis and Salmonella dublin with porcine and bovine intestinal epithelia yielded no evidence to suggest that host restriction of S. choleraesuis and S. dublin for pigs and calves respectively could be explained in terms of the patterns of intestinal invasion observed in ligated ileal loops in vivo, at 3 h after challenge. No evidence was found to support the idea that Peyer's patches, or specifically M cells, are the major route of entry for these serotypes in vivo. Three hours after loop inoculation, each serotype was recovered in comparable numbers from either absorptive or Peyer's patch mucosae present in the same ileal loop, indicating that both types of tissue are involved in the early stages of the enteropathogenic process induced by both serotypes. More detailed transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses of follicle-associated epithelia (FAE) challenged with S. choleraesuis showed that in the same region of FAE, organisms invaded both M cells and enterocytes directly; comparable detailed TEM studies with S. dublin could not be carried out because of the tissue-destructive properties of this serotype. S. dublin was clearly more histotoxic than S. choleraesuis as had previously been found in rabbits: this difference is almost certainly due to a tissue-damaging toxin which is neither host nor gut-tissue specific. The tissue-destructive potential of S. dublin has profound implications for the measurement of and the assignment of significance to the invasiveness of S. dublin. S. dublin was nearly always seen entering gut cells in micro-colonies whereas S. choleraesuis entered mainly as single organisms or small groups of two or three. PMID:10517596

  3. Identification of Salmonellae with the 4-methylumbelliferyl caprilate fluorescence test.

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, M.; Syk, A.; Wollin, R.

    1991-01-01

    We have tested 750 Salmonella strains and 130 strains of other species of the family Enterbacteriaceae with the 4-methylumbelliferyl caprilate reagent (MUCAP) test. The MUCAP test is a fluorescence test for rapid identification of Salmonella strains. The non-Salmonella strains were strains sent for identification as suspected Salmonella strains and thus have phenotypes similar to those of Salmonella strains. All 748 tested Salmonella strains of subgroups I, II, III, and IV were positive in th...

  4. Control of Salmonella infections in animals and prevention of human foodborne Salmonella infections. WHO Consultation.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    In many countries the incidence of human salmonella infections has markedly increased in recent years. To discuss recent developments and current understanding on the control of salmonella infections in animals, WHO organized a Consultation on the Control of Salmonella Infections in Animals: Prevention of Foodborne Salmonella Infections in Humans, held in Jena, Germany, on 21-26 November 1993. The present article summarizes the recommendations made by the participants on the pathoimmunogenesi...

  5. Control of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in laying hens by inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas Neto, Oliveiro Caetano; Mesquita, Aline Lopes; Paiva, Jaqueline Boldrin; Zotesso, Fa?bio; Berchieri Ju?nior, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is one of the agents that is responsible for outbreaks of human foodborne salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis and is generally associated with the consumption of poultry products. Inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis cell vaccine is one of the available methods to control Salmonella Enteritidis in breeders and laying hens, however results in terms of efficacy vary. This vaccine has never been tested in Brazil, therefore, the present work was carried out to asse...

  6. Occurrence of a Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104-Like Antibiotic Resistance Gene Cluster Including the floR Gene in S. enterica Serovar Agona

    OpenAIRE

    Cloeckaert, Axel; Sidi Boumedine, Karim; Flaujac, Geraldine; Imberechts, Hein; D Hooghe, Inge; Chaslus-dancla, Elisabeth

    2000-01-01

    Recently a chromosomal locus possibly specific for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 has been reported that contains a multiple antibiotic resistance gene cluster. Evidence is provided that Salmonella enterica serovar Agona strains isolated from poultry harbor a similar gene cluster including the newly described floR gene, conferring cross-resistance to chloramphenicol and florfenicol.

  7. An allelotyping PCR for identifying Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, and Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, John J; Lee, Margie D; Cheng, Ying; Pedroso, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Current commercial PCRs tests for identifying Salmonella target genes unique to this genus. However, there are two species, six subspecies, and over 2,500 different Salmonella serovars, and not all are equal in their significance to public health. For example, finding S. enterica subspecies IIIa Arizona on a table egg layer farm is insignificant compared to the isolation of S. enterica subspecies I serovar Enteritidis, the leading cause of salmonellosis linked to the consumption of table eggs. Serovars are identified based on antigenic differences in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)(O antigen) and flagellin (H1 and H2 antigens). These antigenic differences are the outward appearance of the diversity of genes and gene alleles associated with this phenotype. We have developed an allelotyping, multiplex PCR that keys on genetic differences between four major S. enterica subspecies I serovars found in poultry and associated with significant human disease in the US. The PCR primer pairs were targeted to key genes or sequences unique to a specific Salmonella serovar and designed to produce an amplicon with size specific for that gene or allele. Salmonella serovar is assigned to an isolate based on the combination of PCR test results for specific LPS and flagellin gene alleles. The multiplex PCRs described in this article are specific for the detection of S. enterica subspecies I serovars Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, and Typhimurium. Here we demonstrate how to use the multiplex PCRs to identify serovar for a Salmonella isolate. PMID:21808227

  8. Differences in abilities to colonize reproductive organs and to contaminate eggs in intravaginally inoculated hens and in vitro adherences to vaginal explants between Salmonella enteritidis and other Salmonella serovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, M; Miyamoto, T; Kamijima, Y; Tani, H; Sasai, K; Baba, E

    2001-01-01

    In Experiment 1, mature laying hens were inoculated intravaginally with 10(6) colony-forming units of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis (S. enteritidis), Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella infantis, Salmonella hadar, Salmonella heidelberg, or Salmonella montevideo to compare their abilities to colonize the reproductive organs of chickens and to contaminate eggs. Salmonella enteritidis was more frequently recovered (from 11 of 40 eggs, 27.5%) than the other serovars, and especially the inner shell was contaminated with these organisms in 10 of 40 eggs (25.0%). The contamination rates and the viable counts in cloaca were significantly (P serovars at 4 days postinoculation (PI). In the vagina, the positive rates were 90%-100% in hens inoculated with S. enteritidis, and the viable counts of the organisms in this portion were significantly (P serovars at 2, 4, and 7 days PI. The ceca were colonized similarly by each serovar at 7 days PI. The spleen and ovary were infected with S. enteritidis in three and one hen, respectively. No Salmonella was recovered from liver and peripheral blood in any hen. Salmonella enteritidis was recovered from other oviductal portions than the vagina (10%-20%), whereas no forming egg was contaminated in the oviduct. In Experiment 2, the in vitro adherence of these six serovars to the vaginal epithelium was compared with vaginal explants. The mean number of S. enteritidis attaching to the secondary villi in the vaginal lumen was significantly (P serovars. These results suggest that S. enteritidis has a specific advantage over the other Salmonella serovars by its capacity to colonize the vaginal tissues of hens, and this higher affinity of S. enteritidis to the vagina may play a significant role in the production of many S. enteritidis-contaminated eggs. PMID:11785900

  9. Salmonella paratyphi osteomyelitis and psoas abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navin, Paul; Thambu, David S; Venugopal, R; Subhash, H S; Thomas, Kurien

    2006-01-01

    Bone and joint infections associated with Salmonella spp account for less than 1% of all Salmonella infections. Most of the isolates are Salmonella typhi. Joint infections with S. paratyphi are uncommon, and there have been only a few reported cases in literature. Psoas abscess caused by S. paratyphi has not been reported previously in the literature. We report a case of S. paratyphi A osteomyelitis and psoas abscess. PMID:16483445

  10. Pathogenesis of Salmonella-induced enteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Santos R.L.; Tsolis R.M.; Bäumler A.J.; Adams L.G.

    2003-01-01

    Infections with Salmonella serotypes are a major cause of food-borne diseases worldwide. Animal models other than the mouse have been employed for the study of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections because the murine model is not suitable for the study of Salmonella-induced diarrhea. The microbe has developed mechanisms to exploit the host cell machinery to its own purpose. Bacterial proteins delivered directly into the host cell cytosol cause cytoskeletal changes and interfere with host cell si...

  11. Recombinant Salmonella vectors in vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtiss, R; Kelly, S M; Tinge, S A; Tacket, C O; Levine, M M; Srinivasan, J; Koopman, M

    1994-01-01

    A diversity of means are available for the attenuation of Salmonella which can be used to immunize animals and humans orally to elicit mucosal, humoral and cellular immune responses. Avirulent Salmonellae can be genetically engineered to express foreign antigens and the recombinant avirulent Salmonellae are capable of stable, high-level expression of the foreign antigen in the orally immunized animal or human host. The resulting vaccines are safe, efficacious, and are easy and economical to use. PMID:7958478

  12. Competitive exclusion of Salmonella enteritidis by Salmonella gallinarum in poultry.

    OpenAIRE

    Rabsch, W.; Hargis, B. M.; Tsolis, R. M.; Kingsley, R. A.; Hinz, K. H.; Tscha?pe, H.; Ba?umler, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis emerged as a major egg-associated pathogen in the late 20th century. Epidemiologic data from England, Wales, and the United States indicate that S. Enteritidis filled the ecologic niche vacated by eradication of S. Gallinarum from poultry, leading to an epidemic increase in human infections. We tested this hypothesis by retrospective analysis of epidemiologic surveys in Germany and demonstrated that the number of human S. Enteritidis cases is inversely related to the pr...

  13. The Role of Biofilms and Curli in Salmonella Transport Through Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvucci, A. E.; Zhang, W.; Morales, V. L.; Cakmak, M. E.; Hay, A. G.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2008-12-01

    Microbial pathogens, such as Salmonella and E. coli, are continually deposited in the environment and have been shown to contaminate the groundwater by leaching through the vadose zone. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms controlling the transport of these microbial pathogens through porous media is critical to protecting drinking water supplies. As previous research has shown, retention of microbial pathogens in porous media can be influenced by numerous biological factors. Consequently, this experiment specifically investigated the role of biofilm formation and curli production on the transport of environmental Salmonella through porous media. Environmental Salmonella strains used in the experiment were isolated from tile drains on dairy farms. In addition, two well-characterized E. coli strains with known high and low biofilm and curli producing capabilities were tested as controls alongside the Salmonella isolates throughout the experiment. The isolates were first assayed for their ability to form biofilms and produce curli, and then a subset of these isolates, representing range of high and low biofilm and curli formation capabilities, were simultaneously examined for transport characteristics through packed sand columns. Transport characteristics were tested for correlation with biofilm and curli-forming capabilities. Unlike the E. coli strains in which column retention correlated with biofilm formation and curli production, no obvious correlation between Salmonella phenotypes was observed. The results indicate that while transport of well-characterized laboratory E. coli strains can often be hindered by the presence of curli and biofilms, such assumptions are not fully representative of the behavior exhibited by environmental isolates of Salmonella.

  14. Visualization of gold and platinum nanoparticles interacting with Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Rapid development of nanotechnology has recently brought significant attention to the extraordinary biological features of nanomaterials. The objective of the present ­investigation was to evaluate morphological characteristics of the assembles of gold and platinum nanoparticles (nano-Au and nano-Pt respectively), with Salmonella Enteritidis (Gram-negative) and Listeria monocytogenes (Gram-positive), to reveal possibilities of constructing bacteria-nanoparticle vehicles. Methods: Hydrocolloids of nano-Au or nano-Pt were added to two bacteria suspensions in the following order: nano-Au + Salmonella Enteritidis; nano-Au + Listeria monocytogenes; nano-Pt + Salmonella Enteritidis; nano-Pt + Listeria monocytogenes. Samples were inspected by transmission electron microscope. Results: Visualization of morphological interaction between nano-Au and Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes, showed that nano-Au were aggregated within flagella or biofilm network and did not penetrate the bacterialcell. The analysis of morphological effects of interaction of nano-Pt with bacteria revealed that nano-Pt entered cells of Listeria monocytogenes and were removed from the cells. In the case of Salmonella Enteritidis, nano-Pt were seen inside bacteria cells, probably bound to DNA and partly left bacterial cells. After washing and centrifugation, some of the nano-Pt-DNA complexes were observed within Salmonella Enteritidis. Conclusion: The results indicate that the bacteria could be used as a vehicle to deliver nano-Pt to specific points in the body.

  15. Development of Recombinant Flagellar Antigens for Serological Detection of Salmonella enterica Serotypes Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, and Typhimurium in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L. Hofacre

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and fast detection of harmful Salmonella is a major concern of food safety. Common Salmonella serotypes responsible for human associated foodborne outbreaks are S. Enteritidis, S. Hadar, S. Heidelberg, and S. Typhimurium are also commonly isolated from poultry. Serology is commonly used to monitor disease in poultry, therefore application of Salmonella serotype-specific test will have added value in Salmonella surveillance or monitoring vaccine efficacy. Recombinant flagellins were purified to be used as antigens in an ELISA. In this study, an ELISA was developed for the serological detection of S. Enteritidis. Once optimized, 500 ng of purified recombinant S. Enteritidis flagellin and a 1:64 dilution were determined to be optimal for testing sera. A negative baseline cutoff was calculated to be an optical density (OD of 0.35. All sera from birds with history of S. Enteritidis exposure tested positive and all sera from chickens with no exposure tested negative to this Salmonella serotype. Current ELISA for serological detection of Salmonella suffers from cross reactivity inherent in lipopolysaccharide (LPS or whole cell antigen based serological tests. This new ELISA eliminates common cross reactivity by focusing specifically on the flagellins of the Salmonella serotypes common in poultry and associated with foodborne outbreaks.

  16. Comparison of four Salmonella isolation techniques in four different inoculated matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybolt, M L; Wills, R W; Byrd, J A; Doler, T P; Bailey, R H

    2004-07-01

    The poultry industry is now operating under increased regulatory pressure following the introduction of the pathogen reduction and hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) rule in 1996. This new operation scheme has greatly increased the need for on-farm food safety risk management of foodborne bacteria, such as Salmonella. Information needed to make informed food safety risk management decisions must be obtained from accurate risk assessments, which rely on the sensitivity of the isolation techniques used to identify Salmonella in the production environment. Therefore, better characterization of the Salmonella isolation and identification techniques is warranted. One new technique, immunomagnetic separation (IMS), may offer a benefit to the poultry industry, as it has been shown to be efficacious in the isolation of Salmonella from various sample matrices, including some poultry products. In this work, we compared the isolation ability of 4 Salmonella-specific protocols: IMS, tetrathionate (TT) broth, Rappaport-Vassiliadis R10 (RV) broth, and a secondary enrichment (TR) procedure. All 4 methods were compared in 4 different spiked sample matrices: Butterfield's, poultry litter, broiler crops, and carcass rinses. IMS was able to detect Salmonella at 3.66, 2.09, 3.06, and 3.97 log10 cfu/mL in Butterfield's, poultry litter, carcass rinse, and broiler crop matrices, respectively. For the broiler litter and Butterfield's solution, there were no (P > 0.05) differences among the 4 isolation protocols. However, in the carcass rinse and crop samples, there were no differences among the isolation of Salmonella using RV, TR, or TT, but all 3 were (P < or = 0.05) more successful at recovering Salmonella than the IMS method. PMID:15285501

  17. Comparison of CHROMagar Salmonella Medium and Xylose-Lysine-Desoxycholate and Salmonella-Shigella Agars for Isolation of Salmonella Strains from Stool Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Maddocks, Susan; Olma, Tom; Chen, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    The growth and appearance of 115 stock Salmonella isolates on a new formulation of CHROMagar Salmonella (CAS) medium were compared to those on xylose-lysine-desoxycholate agar (XLD), Salmonella-Shigella agar (SS), and Hektoen enteric agar (HEA) media. CAS medium was then compared prospectively to XLD and SS for the detection and presumptive identification of Salmonella strains in 500 consecutive clinical stool samples. All stock Salmonella isolates produced typical mauve colonies on CAS mediu...

  18. Spatio-temporal analysis of Salmonella surveillance data in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho Calado Domingues, Ana Rita; Vieira, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the usefulness of spatio-temporal statistical tools to detect outbreaks using routine surveillance data where limited epidemiological information is available. A dataset from 2002 to 2007 containing information regarding date, origin, source and serotype of 29 586 Salmonella isolates from Thailand was analysed. Data was grouped into human and non-human categories and the analysis was performed for the top five occurring serovars for each year of the study period. A total 91 human and 39 non-human significant spatio-temporal clusters were observed, accounting for 11% and 16% of the isolates, respectively. Serovar-specific associations between human and non-human clusters were also evaluated. Results show that these statistical tools can provide information for use in outbreak prevention and detection, in countries where only limited data is available. Moreover, it is suggested that monitoring non-human reservoirs can be relevant in predicting future Salmonella human cases.

  19. Development of Recombinant Vaccines in Lactobacilli for Elimination of Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAJIKAWA, Akinobu; IGIMI, Shizunobu

    2011-01-01

    Many Lactobacillus and Lactococcus strains are generally regarded as safe for consumption because they are utilized for food fermentation or inhabit the intestinal mucosa as commensals. Recently, vaccine delivery systems using lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been under development. Our research group has been investigating the development of oral mucosal vaccines against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) using Lactobacillus casei IGM393 as an antigen delivery vehicle. Recombinant lactobacilli expressing SE antigens, FliC, SipC, and OmpC, have been constructed and orally administered to mice. Antigen specific immune responses and protective immunity were elicited after the immunization. For adjuvant-delivery, IL-1?-secreting L. casei was also engineered and its effects evaluated in vitro and in vivo. This article reviews a novel approach to the elimination of Salmonella via the development of a vaccine in lactobacilli. PMID:25045314

  20. Poly D,L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanoparticle-encapsulated honeybee (Apis melifera) venom promotes clearance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in experimentally challenged pigs through the up-regulation of T helper type 1 specific immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-A; Jung, Bock-Gie; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Yun-Mi; Park, Min-Ho; Hyun, Pung-mi; Jeon, Jong-woon; Park, Jin-kyu; Cho, Cheong-Weon; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2014-10-15

    Honeybee (Apis melifera) venom (HBV), which includes melittin and lipid-soluble ingredients (chrysin and pinocembrin), elicited increases in the CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio, relative mRNA expression levels of the T helper type 1 (Th 1) cytokines (interferon-? and IL-12) and reinforced viral clearance of an experimental porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus infection in our previous study. On the basis of that previous study, we have now developed poly-d,l-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA)-encapsulated HBV nanoparticles (P-HBV) for longer sustained release of HBV. We administered P-HBV to pigs via the rectal route, and then evaluated the potential immune-enhancing and bacterial clearance effects of P-HBV against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The CD4(+)/CD8(+) lymphocyte ratio, proliferative capacity of peripheral blood lymphocytes and relative mRNA expression levels of IFN-? and IL-12 (produced mainly by Th1 lymphocytes) were significantly increased in the P-HBV group up to 2 weeks post-administration of P-HBV. After S. Typhimurium infection, the P-HBV group showed a marked reduction in microbial burden in feces and all tissue samples (including the ileum, cecum, colon, and mesenteric lymph node (MLN)), a significant increase in Th 1 cytokines (IFN-?, IL-2, and IL-12) and a marked decrease in a Th 2 cytokine (IL-4) in all tissue samples and peripheral blood lymphocytes. Thus, P-HBV may be a promising strategy for immune enhancement and prevention of S. Typhimurium or other bacterial infections. PMID:25193467

  1. Reveal Salmonella 2.0 test for detection of Salmonella spp. in foods and environmental samples. Performance Tested Method 960801.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerner, Rebecca; Feldpausch, Jill; Gray, R Lucas; Curry, Stephanie; Islam, Zahidul; Goldy, Tim; Klein, Frank; Tadese, Theodros; Rice, Jennifer; Mozola, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Reveal Salmonella 2.0 is an improved version of the original Reveal Salmonella lateral flow immunoassay and is applicable to the detection of Salmonella enterica serogroups A-E in a variety of food and environmental samples. A Performance Tested Method validation study was conducted to compare performance of the Reveal 2.0 method with that of the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service or U.S. Food and Drug Administration/Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference culture methods for detection of Salmonella spp. in chicken carcass rinse, raw ground turkey, raw ground beef, hot dogs, raw shrimp, a ready-to-eat meal product, dry pet food, ice cream, spinach, cantaloupe, peanut butter, stainless steel surface, and sprout irrigation water. In a total of 17 trials performed internally and four trials performed in an independent laboratory, there were no statistically significant differences in performance of the Reveal 2.0 and reference culture procedures as determined by Chi-square analysis, with the exception of one trial with stainless steel surface and one trial with sprout irrigation water where there were significantly more positive results by the Reveal 2.0 method. Considering all data generated in testing food samples using enrichment procedures specifically designed for the Reveal method, overall sensitivity of the Reveal method relative to the reference culture methods was 99%. In testing environmental samples, sensitivity of the Reveal method relative to the reference culture method was 164%. For select foods, use of the Reveal test in conjunction with reference method enrichment resulted in overall sensitivity of 92%. There were no unconfirmed positive results on uninoculated control samples in any trials for specificity of 100%. In inclusivity testing, 102 different Salmonella serovars belonging to serogroups A-E were tested and 99 were consistently positive in the Reveal test. In exclusivity testing of 33 strains of non-salmonellae representing 14 genera, 32 were negative when tested with Reveal following nonselective enrichment, and the remaining strain was found to be substantially inhibited by the enrichment media used with the Reveal method. Results of ruggedness testing showed that the Reveal test produces accurate results even with substantial deviation in sample volume or device development time. PMID:22165011

  2. Test resultaten van Salmonella typering door de NRLs-Salmonella in de Lidstaten van de EU en EnterNet Laboratoria - Samenwerkingsstudie VI (2001) over het typeren van Salmonella

    OpenAIRE

    Korver H; Raes M; Hme, Maas; Lr, Ward; Wjb, Wannet; Am, Henken

    2007-01-01

    Test resultaten van Salmonella sero- en faagtypering en antimicrobiele gevoeligheidsbepalingen door de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella in de Lidstaten van de Europese Unie en EnterNet Laboratoria: Ringonderzoek VI (2001) voor Salmonella. Een zesde ringonderzoek betreffende de typering van Salmonella werd georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) in samenwerking met Public Health L...

  3. Cross-protection against Salmonella Typhimurium infection conferred by a live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandre, Rahul M; Lee, Dajeong; Lee, John Hwa

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a genetically engineered live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) vaccine was evaluated for its ability to protect against Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) infection in chickens. The birds were orally primed with the vaccine on the 1st day of life and given an oral booster at 5 wk of age. Control birds were orally inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline. Both groups of birds were orally challenged with a virulent ST strain at 9 wk of age. Compared with the control chickens, the vaccinated chickens had significantly higher levels of systemic IgG and mucosal IgA against specific ST antigens and a significantly greater lymphoproliferative response to ST antigens. The excretion of ST into the feces was significantly lower in the vaccinated group than in the control group on days 9 and 13 d after challenge. In addition, the vaccinated group had significantly fewer pronounced gross lesions in the liver and spleen and lower bacterial counts in the internal organs than the control group after challenge. These data indicate that genetically engineered live attenuated SE may induce humoral and cellular immune responses against ST antigens and may confer protection against virulent ST challenge. PMID:25673904

  4. Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A elaborate distinct systemic metabolite signatures during enteric fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näsström, Elin; Vu Thieu, Nga Tran; Dongol, Sabina; Karkey, Abhilasha; Voong Vinh, Phat; Ha Thanh, Tuyen; Johansson, Anders; Arjyal, Amit; Thwaites, Guy; Dolecek, Christiane; Basnyat, Buddha; Baker, Stephen; Antti, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The host–pathogen interactions induced by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A during enteric fever are poorly understood. This knowledge gap, and the human restricted nature of these bacteria, limit our understanding of the disease and impede the development of new diagnostic approaches. To investigate metabolite signals associated with enteric fever we performed two dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS) on plasma from patients with S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A infections and asymptomatic controls, identifying 695 individual metabolite peaks. Applying supervised pattern recognition, we found highly significant and reproducible metabolite profiles separating S. Typhi cases, S. Paratyphi A cases, and controls, calculating that a combination of six metabolites could accurately define the etiological agent. For the first time we show that reproducible and serovar specific systemic biomarkers can be detected during enteric fever. Our work defines several biologically plausible metabolites that can be used to detect enteric fever, and unlocks the potential of this method in diagnosing other systemic bacterial infections. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03100.001 PMID:24902583

  5. Salmonella brain abscess in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samal Badhuli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain abscess is an uncommon and serious life-threatening infection in children. Focal intracranial infections caused by Salmonella spp. in this age group are also rare. We report the case of a 4-month-old male infant with a frontoparietal brain abscess caused by Salmonella typhimurium , the presence of which was not suspected clinically.

  6. Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Aortitis in a transplant patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-typhoidal salmonella bacteremia may result in extra gastrointestinallocalization of infection. Aortitis due to non-typhoidal salmonella wasreported to be the cause of 38-42% of all infected abdominal aortitis.Underlying atherosclerosis is a frequent site for salmonella aortitis. Wedescribe here a case of possible salmonella aortitis in a renal transplantpatient. (author)

  7. Evolutionary Analysis Points to Divergent Physiological Roles of Type 1 Fimbriae in Salmonella and Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Kisiela, Dagmara I.; Chattopadhyay, Sujay; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Paul, Sandip; Weissman, Scott J.; Medenica, Irena; Clegg, Steven; Sokurenko, Evgeni V.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella and Escherichia coli mannose-binding type 1 fimbriae exhibit highly similar receptor specificities, morphologies, and mechanisms of assembly but are nonorthologous in nature, i.e., not closely related evolutionarily. Their operons differ in chromosomal location, gene arrangement, and regulatory components. In the current study, we performed a comparative genetic and structural analysis of the major structural subunit, FimA, from Salmonella and E. coli and found that FimA pilins u...

  8. Further studies on the feasibility of one-day Salmonella detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    OpenAIRE

    Wyatt, G. M.; Langley, M. N.; Lee, H. A.; Morgan, M. R.

    1993-01-01

    A model system previously developed for the rapid detection of Salmonella typhimurium in foods was improved and extended to many other Salmonella serotypes. The original protocol, which consisted of an overnight nonselective culture followed by a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), was modified and improved. A sandwich ELISA which used polyclonal antibodies for the capture stage and a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies for the detector stage was developed. The assay recognized ...

  9. The Salmonella Kinase SteC Targets the MAP Kinase MEK to Regulate the Host Actin Cytoskeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Odendall, Charlotte; Rolhion, Nathalie; Förster, Andreas; Poh, John; Lamont, Douglas j; Liu, Mei; Freemont, Paul s; Catling, Andrew d; Holden, David w

    2012-01-01

    After host cell entry, Salmonella replicate in membrane-bound compartments, which accumulate a dense meshwork of F-actin through the kinase activity of the Salmonella SPI-2 type III secretion effector SteC. We find that SteC promotes actin cytoskeleton reorganization by activating a signaling pathway involving the MAP kinases MEK and ERK, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and Myosin IIB. Specifically, SteC phosphorylates MEK directly on serine 200 (S200), a previously unstudied phosphorylatio...

  10. A fluorescence in situ hybridization method using a peptide nucleic acid probe for the detection of Salmonella spp. in biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Carina; Azevedo, N. F.; Keevil, C. W.; Vieira, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    A novel peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe for the detection of Salmonella spp. has been developed. The probe was synthesized and the Alexa Fluor dye 594 was attached to the N-terminus in order to allow detection by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Specificity and sensitivity probe matching theoretical estimates were both of 100%. The PNA FISH method was optimized, and laboratory testing on representative strains from the Salmonella genus subspecies and several related bacterial speci...

  11. Assessing risk profiles for Salmonella serotypes in breeding pig operations in Portugal using a Bayesian hierarchical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correia-Gomes Carla

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The EU Regulation No 2160/2003 imposes a reduction in the prevalence of Salmonella in pigs. The efficiency of control programmes for Salmonella in pigs, reported among the EU Member States, varies and definitive eradication seems very difficult. Control measures currently recommended for Salmonella are not serotype-specific. Is it possible that the risk factors for different Salmonella serotypes are different? The aim of this study was to investigate potential risk factors for two groups of Salmonella sp serotypes using pen faecal samples from breeding pig holdings representative of the Portuguese pig sector. Methods The data used come from the Baseline Survey for the Prevalence of Salmonella in breeding pigs in Portugal. A total of 1670 pen faecal samples from 167 herds were tested, and 170 samples were positive for Salmonella. The presence of Salmonella in each sample (outcome variable was classified in three categories: i no Salmonella, ii Salmonella Typhimurium or S. Typhimurium-like strains with the antigenic formula: 1,4,5,12:i:-, , and iii other serotypes. Along with the sample collection, a questionnaire concerning herd management and potential risk factors was utilised. The data have a “natural” hierarchical structure so a categorical multilevel analysis of the dataset was carried out using a Bayesian hierarchical model. The model was estimated using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, implemented in the software WinBUGS. Results The significant associations found (when compared to category “no Salmonella”, for category “serotype Typhimurium or S. Typhimurium-like strains with the antigenic formula: 1,4,5,12:i:-” were: age of breeding sows, size of the herd, number of pigs/pen and source of semen. For the category “other serotypes” the significant associations found were: control of rodents, region of the country, source of semen, breeding sector room and source of feed. Conclusions The risk factors significantly associated with Salmonella shedding from the category “serotype Typhimurium or serotype 1,4,5,12:i:-“ were more related to animal factors, whereas those associated with “other serotypes” were more related to environmental factors. Our findings suggest that different control measures could be used to control different Salmonella serotypes in breeding pigs.

  12. A colanic acid operon deletion mutation enhances induction of early antibody responses by live attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shifeng; Shi, Huoying; Li, Yuhua; Shi, Zhaoxing; Zhang, Xin; Baek, Chang-Ho; Mothershead, Tabor; Curtiss, Roy

    2013-09-01

    Colanic acid (CA) is a common exopolysaccharide produced by many genera in the Enterobacteriaceae. It is critical for biofilm formation on HEp-2 cells and on chicken intestinal tissue by Salmonella. In this study, we generated different CA synthesis gene mutants and evaluated the immune responses induced by these mutants. One of these mutations, ?(wza-wcaM)8, which deleted the whole operon for CA synthesis, was introduced into two Salmonella vaccine strains attenuated by auxotrophic traits or by the regulated delayed attenuation strategy (RDAS). The mice immunized with the auxotrophic Salmonella vaccine strain with the deletion mutation ?(wza-wcaM)8 developed higher vaginal IgA titers against the heterologous protective antigen and higher levels of antigen-specific IgA secretion cells in lungs. In Salmonella vaccine strains with RDAS, the strain with the ?(wza-wcaM)8 mutation resulted in higher levels of protective antigen production during in vitro growth. Mice immunized with this strain developed higher serum IgG and mucosal IgA antibody responses at 2 weeks. This strain also resulted in better gamma interferon (IFN-?) responses than the strain without this deletion at doses of 10(8) and 10(9) CFU. Thus, the mutation ?(wza-wcaM)8 will be included in various recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine (RASV) strains with RDAS derived from Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi to induce protective immunity against bacterial pathogens. PMID:23774599

  13. Significance of salmonella in pork production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabasil Ne?eljko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals, feed, meat and meat products are often transported across long distances, being an important part of international trade, which enables a dissemination of salmonella, including even of some resistant strains. Pigs are animals which are difficult to manipulate because of their temperament, build, sharp teeth, irritability, good sense of smell, bad sight and their sensitivity to stress. Animals coming from different farms should be separated in stock yards to prevent both contamination with pathogens such as salmonella and their irritation and aggressiveness caused by contacts with other pigs. These animals are usually a significant reservoir of salmonella which are 'inside' the gastrointestinal tract and gut associated lymph tissue. In contrast to our country, in the EU, even countries which have always had low salmonella prevalence, e.g. Finland, have a control program. The program has to be based on a guarantee that all relevant factors will participate in the prevention of salmonella contamination.

  14. Simultaneous Detection of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in Raw Salad Vegetables and Vegetarian Burger Patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elexson Nillian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The health risks posed by Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium through the consumption of raw vegetables and vegetarian burger patties necessitates the needs for the optimization of analytical approach for their detection and enumeration in the raw vegetables, which served as potential vehicles for transmission of these pathogenic microorganisms. We sought to establish a rapid, economic and sensitive method to detect and determine the load of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium using the most probable numbers (MPN in combination with the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR. From the naturally contaminated one hundred and seventy five samples tested (n = 175, the overall prevalence of Salmonella spp. was 28%, Salmonella Enteritidis was 20% and Salmonella Typhimurium was 14.3%, respectively. The MPN-MPCR is a quantitative method to determine the density of cell concentration of Salmonella in all the samples (Salmonella spp. ranged from <3 to 53 MPN/g; S. Enteritidis ranged from <3 to 24 MPN/g; and S. Typhimurium ranged from <3 to 15 MPN/g. The combination of the MPN-MPCR is an efficient, simple, fast analytical method for the detection and enumeration of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in vegetables and the vegetarian burger patties since it can significantly reduce time and labour with analysis completed within 2 days, as opposed to the traditional confirmation method that can take up to 5 days for unequivocal identification of species.

  15. Cytokine expression in the gut associated lymphoid tissue after oral administration of attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karem, K L; Kanangat, S; Rouse, B T

    1996-11-01

    The use of attenuated Salmonella vaccine vectors as delivery vehicles for heterologous antigens has been extensive. The majority of work has analyzed the specific immune responses to the recombinant antigen in question. In addition, most analysis has been performed on animals maintained with sterile food, water, and bedding. This report defines the Salmonella specific cytokine responses in the gut associated lymphoid tissue after oral immunization with two highly publicized attenuated Salmonella carrier strains in animals maintained with nonsterile food, water, and bedding. Increases in expression of both IL-4 and IFN-gamma occur following immunization with either Salmonella construct. In addition, other cytokines (IL-6, IL-7, IL-12) increase at similar levels in either BRD509 or KR1 dosed animals. Proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 and TNF-alpha are also present but unchanged at early time points (6, 24, and 72 hours), increasing only after 7 days postimmunization. These data have implications in the generation of immunity to recombinant antigens since the response to Salmonella will dictate the direction of responses in terms of CD4 T cell activation. PMID:9014289

  16. Optical immunosensors for detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritidis from food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Arun K.; Geng, Tao; Lathrop, Amanda; Valadez, Angela; Morgan, Mark T.

    2004-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella are two major foodborne pathogens of significant concern. Two optical evanescent wave immunosensors were evaluated for detection: Antibody-coupled fiber-optic biosensor and a surface plasmon resonant (SPR) immunosensor. In the fiber-optic sensor, polyclonal antibodies for the test organisms were immobilized on polystyrene fiber wave -guides using streptavidin - biotin chemistry. Cyanine 5 -labeled monoclonal antibodies C11E9 (for L. monocytogenes) and SF-11 (for Salmonella Enteritidis) were used to generate a specific fluorescent signal. Signal acquisition was performed by launching a laser-light (635 nm) from an Analyte-2000. This immunosensor was able to detect 103 - 109 cfu/ml of L. monocytogenes or 106-109 cfu/ml of Salmonella Enteritidis and the assays were conducted at near real-time with results obtained within one hour of sampling. The assays were specific and showed signal even in the presence of other microorganisms such as E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis or Salmonella Typhimurium. In the SPR system, IAsys instrument (resonant mirror sensor) was used. Monoclonal antibody-C11E9 was directly immobilized onto a carboxylate cuvette. Whole Listeria cells at various concentrations did not yield any signal while surface protein extracts did. Crude protein extracts from L. monocytogenes and L. innocua had average binding responses of around 150 arc sec (0.25 ng/mm2), which was significantly different from L. grayi, L. ivanovii, or L. welshimeri with average responses of Salmonella Enteritidis.

  17. Rapport van de achtste workshop georganiseerd door CRL-Salmonella

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    De achtste workshop, welke georganiseerd werd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella), vond plaats van 14 tot en met 16 Mei 2003 in Bilthoven (Nederland). De afgevaardigden van de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) van de Kandidaat Landen van de EU woonden de workshop bij op de 14e en 15e Mei 2003. De afgevaardigden van de NRLs-Salmonella van de EU namen deel aan de workshop op 15 en 16 mei. De candidate ...

  18. Transovarian passage, visceral distribution, and pathogenicity of salmonella in snakes.

    OpenAIRE

    Chiodini, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Transovarian passage of salmonella was evaluated in snakes by cesarean delivery and subsequent bacteriological examination of fetuses. In all cases, the same Salmonella serotype was isolated from the feces of gravid females and their fetuses. The visceral distribution of salmonella in normal snakes was found to involve almost all visceral organs. Of nonenteric organs examined, salmonella was recovered most often from the livers and ureters. Experimental infections with Salmonella typhimurium ...

  19. Source attribution of human Salmonella cases in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlstro?m, H.; Andersson, Y.; Plym-forshell, L.; Pires, Sara Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the sources of sporadic domestic Salmonella cases in Sweden and to evaluate the usefulness of a source-attribution model in a country in which food animals are virtually free from Salmonella. The model allocates human sporadic domestic Salmonella cases to different sources according to distribution of Salmonella subtypes in the different sources. Sporadic domestic human Salmonella cases (n=1086) reported between July 2004 and June 2006 were...

  20. Salmonella spp. in raw broiler parts: occurrence, antimicrobial resistance profile and phage typing of the Salmonella Enteritidis isolates Salmonella spp. em cortes de frango: ocorrência, resistência antimicrobiana e fagotipificação dos isolados de Salmonella Enteritidis

    OpenAIRE

    Aldemir Reginato Ribeiro; Aline Kellermann; Luciana Ruschel dos Santos; Marjo Cadó Bessa; Vladimir Pinheiro do Nascimento

    2007-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonellae in raw broiler parts and to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolated strains. Twenty-four (39.3%) broiler parts samples were positive for Salmonella and twenty-five Salmonella strains were isolated, since two different serovars were detected in one single positive sample. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most prevalent serovar. Among Salmonella Enteritidis isolates, 95.2% belonged to Phage Type 4 (...

  1. Epidemiological Investigation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Kedougou in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Pornruangwong, Srirat; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat; Bangstrakulnonth, Aroon; Mikoleit, Matthew; Davies, Rob H.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Migura, Lourdes Garcia

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Salmonella enterica serovar Kedougou is among the top 10 serovars reported in northern Thailand. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella Kedougou infection in Thailand and to compare the molecular types and antimicrobial resistance with Salmonella Kedougou isolates of human origin from United States and of animal origin from the United Kingdom.Methods: Data from 13,976 Salmonella infections of which 253 were Salmonella Kedougou collected ...

  2. Salmonella penetration through eggshells of chickens of different genetic backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathgeber, Bruce M; McCarron, Paige; Budgell, Krista L

    2013-09-01

    Eggs have been identified as a source of salmonellosis, making the transmission of Salmonella to eggs of great concern to the poultry industry. The goal of this experiment was to determine the ability of Salmonella to penetrate the eggshell of 5 different breeds of noncommercial chicken, Barred Plymouth Rock, White Leghorn, Brown Leghorn, Fayoumi, and Light Sussex, and 1 commercial Lohmann LSL-Lite. Egg weight, breaking force, shell weight, and shell thickness measurements were taken for 30 eggs per breed. A 1 cm in diameter hole was cut out from the narrow end of 30 additional eggs per breed. The shells were filled with plate count agar containing tetracycline and 0.1% 2,3,5-triphenyl terazolium chloride and sealed with paraffin wax. Agar-filled eggs were submerged for 1 min in an overnight culture of tetracycline-resistant Salmonella Heidelberg and incubated at 37°C for 40 h. Eggs were candled and visual colonies were counted and reported as cfu per egg and cfu per gram of shell. The SAS mixed model was used to evaluate differences between breeds for egg quality characteristics and the number of cfu per egg and per gram of shell. Commercial layers (62.6 g) and Barred Plymouth Rock (61.5 g) produced the largest eggs, whereas Fayoumi (47.1 g) produced the smallest (P commercial (4.4 kg), White Leghorn (4.4 kg), and Fayoumi (4.2 kg). Bacteria penetrating the shell was lowest (P Brown Leghorn (27.2 cfu/g), with other breeds intermediate. These results indicate that there are breed-specific influences on the ability of an egg to resist Salmonella, which cannot be explained by shell quality measurements. Further investigations are warranted to determine the contributing factors to shell penetration by bacteria. This study highlights the value in maintaining heritage chicken breeds as a genetic resource for the future. PMID:23960130

  3. Short communication: Characterization of the serologic response induced by vaccination of late-gestation cows with a Salmonella Dublin vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geof W; Smith, Feli; Zuidhof, Sjoert; Foster, Derek M

    2015-04-01

    Diarrhea due to Salmonella infection is an important cause of neonatal calf diarrhea. The acquisition of passive immunity in the calf by vaccinating the dam has shown some success in previous studies; however, no data exists on the use of currently licensed vaccines in the United States. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether vaccinating cows in late gestation with a commercially available Salmonella Dublin vaccine would stimulate Salmonella-specific antibodies in the colostrum of cows at calving and whether these antibodies would be transferred to the calf. Thirty Holstein cows were vaccinated 3wk before the end of lactation with a Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin vaccine, with a second dose given at dry-off. An additional 30 cows received only saline. Calves had a blood sample collected immediately after birth and were then fed fresh colostrum from their dam within 2 h of calving. A postcolostrum blood sample was collected 24 to 48 h later. Salmonella Dublin antibodies in colostrum as well as serum from the cows and calves were measured using an ELISA technique. Results of this study showed that vaccinated cattle had elevated Salmonella Dublin antibody titers at the time of calving (40.3±9.1) as compared with control cows (-9.4±1.1). Calves that received colostrum from vaccinated cattle also had a significant increase in Salmonella Dublin antibodies (88.5±8.9) as compared with calves born to unvaccinated cows (-3.2±1.2). This study demonstrated that the use of a commercially available Salmonella Dublin vaccine can stimulate antibodies that are passed on to the calf via colostral transfer. Further studies need to be done to determine whether these antibodies will offer protection against Salmonella challenge. PMID:25648810

  4. Monitoring the efficacy of steam and formaldehyde treatment of naturally Salmonella-infected layer houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; JØrgensen, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To monitor if a temperature-humidity-time treatment found to be effective in eliminating Salmonella in laboratory trials (Gradel et al. 2003) was efficient against Salmonella in naturally infected layer houses. Methods and Results: Six layer houses with natural Salmonella infections were steam treated in a download period, aiming at greater than or equal to60degreesC and 100% relative humidity (RH) during a 24-h period, with or without the addition of 30 ppm formaldehyde. In addition, two control layer houses were disinfected chemically. Salmonella samples taken from predetermined sites before and after treatment were tested qualitatively for Salmonella and coliforms. Samples with indicator bacteria (feed inoculated with Escherichia coli or Enterococcus faecalis and faeces with naturally occurring E. coli and enterococci) were placed during steam-treatment at 12 sites in each house (where the temperature was logged at 5-min intervals) and tested for surviving bacteria. Generally, the field test results confirmed the results of laboratory tests, especially when 30 ppm formaldehyde was added to the steam. In well-sealed houses, the recommended temperature-humidity-time scheme was accomplished at a minimum of 10 cm above floor level within 1 h. Conclusions: A steam treatment of greater than or equal to60degreesC and 100% RH during a 24-h period with the addition of 30 ppm formaldehyde at the beginning of the process is recommended for eliminating Salmonella from naturally infected poultry layer houses. Significance and Impact of the Study: A specific recommendation for the elimination of Salmonella in poultry houses can be given.

  5. Fimbriation genes of Salmonella enteritidis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mu?ller, K. H.; Trust, T. J.; Kay, W. W.

    1989-01-01

    From a cosmid clone, a 5.3-kilobase (kb) HindIII fragment of Salmonella enteritidis DNA containing the fimA gene was subcloned into bacteriophage T7 promoter vectors in both orientations. Predominantly mature fimbrin (14,000 Mr) was produced by clones containing the 5.3-kb insert, whereas the original cosmid clone predominantly accumulated a prefimbrin precursor (16,500 Mr). T7 RNA polymerase-dependent expression of the 5.3-kb insert and of a series of nested deletions revealed several membra...

  6. Abscesos esplénicos por Salmonella Splenic abscesses from Salmonella infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cecilia Gómez

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Los abscesos esplénicos son infrecuentes. Describimos el caso de un paciente de 56 años, quien consultó por diarrea, fiebre, vómito y pérdida de peso; al examen físico presentaba ictericia, hepatomegalia y ascitis. Se demostró por medio de imágenes diagnosticas la presencia de abscesos esplénicos, causados por Salmonella species. Considerando el tipo de abscesos se dio manejo medico sin necesidad de ser intervenido, presentando evolución adecuada. No se encontró ningún factor de riesgo diferente al foco gastrointestinal como precursor de la formación de los abscesos esplénicos.Spleen abscesses are uncommon. We describe the case of a 56 year-old man who presented with diarrhea, fever, vomiting and weight loss. On physical examination, the main findings included jaundice, hepatomegaly and ascites. Diagnostic imaging showed the presence of spleen abscesses, due to Salmonella species. Considering the type of abscess, medical treatment was given without the need for interventional treatment, resulting in a satisfactory outcome. No other risk factor was found, other than the gastrointestinal focus as the precursor of the splenic abscess.

  7. Surveillance and cross contamination of salmonella spp., in pork, with profiles of nalidixic acid resistance in salmonella

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Colm

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen and porcine products are an important source. With this in mind, pork sausages were surveyed for Salmonella prevalence. Sausages were sampled during August-December 2008, none of which were positive for Salmonella. As an alternative porcine source of salmonella, 102 pig ear pet treats were surveyed from October 2008 to September 2009. Salmonella was detected in 24.5% of treats using a culture detection method and 28.4% using peR. As dogs...

  8. Serotyperingsuitslagen van Salmonella stammen in de lidstaten van de Europese Unie (Een ringonderzoek met de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella)

    OpenAIRE

    Voogt N; Hme, Maas; Wj, Leeuwen; Am, Henken

    2007-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium (CRL) voor Salmonella heeft een ringonderzoek voor de serotypering van Salmonella georganiseerd. De Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRLs) voor Salmonella uit 14 van de 15 lidstaten van de Europese Unie deden aan het onderzoek mee. Het doel was te onderzoeken of de NRLs serotypen van Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica correct konden identificeren. Twintig serotypen van Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica werden door het CRL g...

  9. Functional and phenotypic profiling of innate immunity during Salmonella infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Rikke Brandt; Pedersen, Susanne Brix

    2012-01-01

    Salmonellae are food borne pathogens, typically acquired by the oral ingestion of contaminated food or water, causing disease in both healthy and immunocompromised individuals. To gain insight into early immune regulation events caused by Salmonella as well as inflammatory signatures induced by Salmonella and other bacteria in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC), we examined these properties using in vivo and in vitro experimental settings. The outcome of infection with Salmonella depends on the host as well as the infecting serovar. Understanding the relative risks associated with and within different serovars is of major importance for public health. Using an established mouse model, we compared the pathogenicity of two S. Typhimurium strains (SL1344 and DT120) and found that the passage through and the ability to proliferate within the host gastrointestinal system determined the pathogenicity of these strains. Salmonella is a mucosal pathogen, gaining access to host systemic circulation by crossing the gut epithelial barrier and residing intracellularly in DC and M?. Until recently focus has been centred on the involvement of M? and the conventional antigen-presenting DC (mDC) in bacterial infections, whereas the other major dendritic cell subset, plasmacytoid DC (pDC), plays an important part in antiviral responses, and is less well characterised in regard to antibacterial immunity. Using multi-parametric flow cytometry, we were able to show for the first time that pDC accumulated in Peyer’s patches 24 hours after murine oral Salmonella challenge and while M? and mDC exhibited dose-related cellular atrophy, pDC were less susceptible to bacteria-induced cell death, suggesting a role for pDC in early stage Salmonella containment. Furthermore, we identified a number of both DC and M? subsets, two of which following infection, accumulated in Peyer’s patches and lamina propria, respectively. Generally, we tend to set apart pathogenic bacteria from opportunistic pathogens and commensal bacteria based on their abilities to induce disease in different hosts, however, the nature of the inflammatory response they induce in DC that set them apart from commensal bacteria remains largely unclear. In the present study, we developed a system by which we were able to compare the bacteria-induced imprint of important regulatory proteins in DC to bacterial-encoded ligands. We observed that DC responded to six different bacteria in a phyla-specific manner giving rise to similar inflammatory signatures within the groups of proteobacteria, firmicutes and actinobacteria, hence being independent on pathogenic versus non-pathogenic properties, and also on the bacteria-to-cell ratio for most bacteria. The results presented in this thesis add to the current knowledge about innate immunity to Salmonella, suggest new host immune cell subsets important for bacterial containment and provide a basic understanding of bacteria-induced DC inflammatory programs. The two latter could prove important in regard to treatment regimes, as targeted modulation of DC profiles for instance by probiotics, could lead to improved therapy for a number of gut related diseases.

  10. Rapid molecular pathotyping of major salmonella enterica serotypes based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the adenylate cyclase (cyaA) gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Enteriditis (S. Enteriditis) is the leading cause of salmonellosis worldwide, including the USA. Many S. enterica serotypes known to cause foodborne disease are associated with broiler meat contamination. While some serotypes are specific...

  11. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Salmonella typhimurium in food: feasibility of 1-day Salmonella detection.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, H. A.; Wyatt, G. M.; Bramham, S.; Morgan, M. R.

    1990-01-01

    A microtitration plate, antibody-capture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed for detection of Salmonella typhimurium. The assay utilizes a monoclonal detector antibody which shows no cross-reactions with non-Salmonella species and only a slight cross-reaction with one other Salmonella serotype. By using only one cultural stage (in a nonselective, chemically defined medium) prior to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, low numbers of cells in food (10 cells 25 g-1) were detected...

  12. Occurrence of Salmonella sp in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gama NMSQ

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the presence of Salmonella sp in flocks of white laying hens. In different farms, the transport boxes of twelve flocks were inspected at arrival for the presence of Salmonella. Four positive (A, B, L and M and one negative (I flocks were monitored at each four weeks using bacteriological examination of cecal fresh feces up to 52 weeks. Birds were also evaluated at 52 weeks, when 500 eggs were taken randomly, and at 76 weeks, after forced molt. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica rough strain were isolated from the transport boxes of the four positive flocks (flocks A, B, L and M. Salmonella sp was not isolated from the transport boxes or from the feces after 76 weeks-old in flock I. Salmonella sp was isolated in the 1st, 11th, 34th, 42nd and 76th weeks from flock A; in the 1st, 4th, 11th and 76th weeks from flock B; in the first week and in the 17th to 52nd weeks from flock L; and in the 1st and 76th weeks from flock M. S. Enteritidis, S. enterica rough strain and Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis were isolated from the four positive flocks. Besides, Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana was isolated from flocks B and L, and Salmonella enterica serovar Mbandaka was isolated from flock L. Eggs produced by flock A and by flock L were contaminated with S. Enteritidis and S. enterica rough strain. According to these results, Salmonella-infected flocks may produce contaminated eggs.

  13. Identification of immunogenic proteins and generation of antibodies against Salmonella Typhimurium using phage display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Torsten

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solely in Europoe, Salmonella Typhimurium causes more than 100,000 infections per year. Improved detection of livestock colonised with S. Typhimurium is necessary to prevent foodborne diseases. Currently, commercially available ELISA assays are based on a mixture of O-antigens (LPS or total cell lysate of Salmonella and are hampered by cross-reaction. The identification of novel immunogenic proteins would be useful to develop ELISA based diagnostic assays with a higher specificity. Results A phage display library of the entire Salmonella Typhimurium genome was constructed and 47 immunogenic oligopeptides were identified using a pool of convalescent sera from pigs infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. The corresponding complete genes of seven of the identified oligopeptids were cloned. Five of them were produced in E. coli. The immunogenic character of these antigens was validated with sera from pigs infeced with S. Tyhimurium and control sera from non-infected animals. Finally, human antibody fragments (scFv against these five antigens were selected using antibody phage display and characterised. Conclusion In this work, we identified novel immunogenic proteins of Salmonella Typhimurium and generated antibody fragments against these antigens completely based on phage display. Five immunogenic proteins were validated using a panel of positive and negative sera for prospective applications in diagnostics of Salmonela Typhimurium.

  14. Early epithelial invasion by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 in the swine ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerholz, D K; Stabel, T J; Ackermann, M R; Carlson, S A; Jones, B D; Pohlenz, J

    2002-11-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an important intestinal pathogen in swine. This study was performed to document the early cellular invasion of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium in swine ileum. Ileal gut-loops were surgically prepared in ten 4- to 5-week-old mixed-breed pigs and inoculated for 0-60 minutes. Loops were harvested and prepared for both scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM, respectively). Preferential bacterial adherence to microfold cells (M cells) was seen within 5 minutes, and by 10 minutes bacterial invasion of the apical membrane was seen in M cells, goblet cells, and enterocytes. This multicellular invasion was observed throughout the course of infection. In addition, SEM revealed a specific affinity of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium to sites of cell extrusion. Using TEM, bacteria in these areas were focused in the crevices formed by the extruding cell and the adjacent cells and in the cytoplasm immediately beneath the extruding cell. Our results suggest that early cellular invasion by Salmonella serovar Typhimurium is nonspecific and rapid in swine. Furthermore, the combination of SEM and TEM data suggests that Salmonella serovar Typhimurium may use sites of cell extrusion as an additional mechanism for early invasion. PMID:12450202

  15. Effect of natural microbiota on growth of Salmonella spp. in fresh pork – A predictive microbiology approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØller, Cleide; Ilg, Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to model and predict growth of Salmonella and the dominating natural microbiota, and their interaction in ground pork. Growth of Salmonella in sterile ground pork at constant temperatures between 4 °C and 38 °C was quantified and used for developing predictive models for lag time, max. specific growth rate and max. population density. Data from literature were used to develop growth models for the natural pork microbiota. Challenge tests at temperatures from 9.4 to 24.1 °C and with Salmonella inoculated in ground pork were used for evaluation of interaction models. The existing Jameson-effect and Lotka–Volterra species interaction models and a new expanded Jameson-effect model were evaluated. F-test indicated lack-of-fit for the classical Jameson-effect model at all of the tested temperatures and at 14.1–20.2 °C this was caused by continued growth of Salmonella after the natural microbiota had reached their max. population density. The new expanded Jameson-effect model and the Lotka–Volterra model performed better and appropriately described the continued but reduced growth of Salmonella after the natural microbiota had reached their max. population density. The expanded Jameson-effect model is a new and simple species interaction model, which performed as well as the more complex Lotka–Volterra model.

  16. DETECTION OF FRNA COLIPHAGES IN GROUNDWATER: INTERFERENCE WITH THE ASSAY BY SOMATIC SALMONELLA BACTERIOPHAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groundwater samples from two sites in Alabama, USA were plaque assayed for F-specific RNA (FRNA) coliphages using Salmonella typhimurium WG49 as the host bacterium. While numerous plaques were detected with WG49 (a strain possessing Escherichia coli F pili), plaques were also obs...

  17. Detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis using real time PCR, immunocapture assay, PNA FISH and standard culture methods in different types of food samples

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Carina; Cerqueira, L.; Azevedo, N. F.; Vieira, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Several methods for the rapid and specific detection of Salmonella in food samples have been described. Here, we compare 4 of those methods in terms of assay time, procedure complexity, detection limit, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. Milk, eggs and mayonnaise samples were artificially contaminated with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis cell concentrations ranging from 1 × 10- 2 to 1 × 102 CFU per 25 g or ml of food. Samples were then pre-enriched and analyzed by either: i) rea...

  18. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on a review on the European Union Summary reports on trends and sources zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2009 and 2010 – specifically for the data on Salmonella, Campylobacter, verotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and foodborne outbreaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    2012-01-01

    The European Union (EU) Summary Reports on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2009 and 2010 – specifically for the data on Salmonella, Campylobacter, verotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and foodborne outbreaks was reviewed. The main conclusions and recommendations are reported. Comparison between EU Member States (MSs) was found to be difficult due to the differences of the methods used, sampling schemes and reporting systems. Methods, sampling schemes and reporting systems among MSs should therefore be harmonised. When comparing MS-specific trends, the impact of sample sizes, weight of samples and methodologies should be considered, as these variables could otherwise lead to misinterpretation of the data. Incidence data alone do not provide a full picture of the public health burden of zoonotic diseases. Fatalities provide another important insight. Ultimately, summary measures of public health such as disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and cost-of-illness estimates should be presented. Travel information was found to be still incomplete in many MSs. For many pathogens this hampers source attribution. To better understand the public health problems related to food and animal sources in the EU, it is desirable to differentiate between travel within and outside the EU. This would also be useful to better evaluate the public health impact of EU-wide food safety measures. Whenever possible the data/results should be analysed using proper statistical tools. When data do not allow for this, the text should be kept to presenting the data without implying any patterns or trends.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Bacteriophage SPN1S

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Hakdong; Lee, Ju-hoon; Lim, Jeong-a; Kim, Hyeryen; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2012-01-01

    To understand the interaction between the host of pathogenic Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and its bacteriophage, we isolated the bacteriophage SPN1S. It is a lysogenic phage in the Podoviridae family and uses the O-antigen of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) as a host receptor. Comparative genomic analysis of phage SPN1S and the S. enterica serovar Anatum-specific phage ?15 revealed different host specificities, probably due to the low homology of host specificity-related genes. Here we ...

  20. Division of the Salmonella-Containing Vacuole and Depletion of Acidic Lysosomes in Salmonella-Infected Host Cells Are Novel Strategies of Salmonella enterica To Avoid Lysosomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Eswarappa, Sandeepa M.; Negi, Vidya Devi; Chakraborty, Sangeeta; Chandrasekhar Sagar, B. K.; Chakravortty, Dipshikha

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella has evolved several strategies to counteract intracellular microbicidal agents like reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. However, it is not yet clear how Salmonella escapes lysosomal degradation. Some studies have demonstrated that Salmonella can inhibit phagolysosomal fusion, whereas other reports have shown that the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV) fuses/interacts with lysosomes. Here, we have addressed this issue from a different perspective by investigating if the infected ...

  1. pepM is an essential gene in Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, C. G.; Kukral, A. M.; Miller, J. L.; Movva, N. R.

    1989-01-01

    The pepM gene of Salmonella typhimurium codes for a methionine-specific aminopeptidase that removes N-terminal methionine residues from proteins. This gene was inactivated in vitro by the insertion of a DNA fragment coding for kanamycin resistance. The inactivated gene could not replace the wild-type chromosomal pepM gene unless another functional copy was present in the cell. The lethal effect of the pepM insertion was not a result of polarity on any gene downstream, nor was it affected by t...

  2. Sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos de cepas de salmonella aisladas en granjas porcinas del estado Zulia / Antimicrobial susceptibility of salmonella strains isolated from pig herds in Zulia state

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Willian, Mejia; Derwin, Calatayud Marquez; Denice, Zapata; Armando, Quintero; Damarys, Sánchez; Enric, Mateu.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los patrones de resistencia a los antimicrobianos de diferentes cepas de Salmonella aisladas en granjas de cerdos del estado Zulia. Para este fin se evaluaron mediante la técnica de Bauer-Kirby, 126 cepas de Salmonella aisladas de heces de cerdos portadores [...] asintomáticos. Las pruebas de sensibilidad antimicrobiana demostraron que los más altos niveles de resistencia fueron frente a la sulfamida (54%), tetraciclina (40%), ácido nalidíxico (29%) y ampicilina (23%). Sin embargo, sensibilidad superior al 95% fue encontrada frente a la ceftriaxona, gentamicina, apramicina y colistina. El treinta por ciento de las cepas mostraron multirresistencia (MR) a los antimicrobianos, siendo el patrón de resistencia ASuT (7,14%) el más frecuente. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la proporción de cepas de Salmonella de origen porcino con características de multirresistencia a los agentes antimicrobianos es medianamente elevada (30%) y esta multirresistencia puede afectar a cualquier serotipo. Desde ese punto de vista, la infección de las personas por cepas de Salmonella de origen porcino conlleva a un riesgo potencial de presentar dificultades en el tratamiento específico. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial resintance paterns of different strains of Salmonella isolated in pig farms of the Zulia State. To achieve these goals 126 strain Salmonella were screened by Kirby-Bauer method, colleted from heces of pigs asymptomatic. Antimicrobial susceptibilit [...] y tests showed that the highest level of resistance was against Sulphonamides (54%), Tetracycline (40%), Nalidixic acid (29%) and Amplicillin (23%). However, susceptibility superior to 95% was found to Ceftriaxone, Gentamycin, Apramycin and Colistin. Thrity percent of the strains showed multirresitance, being the patterns resistance ASuT (7.14%) the most frequent. The results indicate the proportion of strain of Salmonella of pig origin with characteristics of multiresistance to the antimicrobial agents is elevated (30%) and this multiresistance could affect to anyone serotype. From this point of view, the infection of the people by isolates of Salmonella from swine origin entails a potential risk to present difficulties in the specific treatment.

  3. Evaluation of VIDAS Immuno-Concentration Salmonella (ICS)/VIDAS Salmonella (SLM) immunoassay method for detection of Salmonella in selected foods (Method Modification 2001.09): collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Wendy A; Schultz, Ann M; Johnson, Ronald L

    2004-01-01

    A new method for detection of Salmonella in foods in a minimum of 24 h was adopted as an AOAC Official First Action Method for selected foods (2001.09) using both the VIDAS Immuno-Concentration Salmonella (ICS) and VIDAS Salmonella (SLM) methods. PMID:15164833

  4. Radiosensitivity study of salmonella enteritidis in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the applications of ionizing radiations in food is the inactivation of vegetative phatogenic bacteria (radicidation) such as Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Vibro and Listeria. These bacteria are associated with the diseases transmitted by food (ETA). Fresh and frozen farmyard fowls can be contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms, between them Salmonella. In Argentine, between years 1987-1990, Salmonella enteritidis was the main cause of salmonellosis. In food irradiation, with the aim of improving and assuring its hygienic quality, it is important to know the radiosensitivity of microorganisms to be inactivated. Inactivation of a determined microorganism shall depend, between others factors, of the species, strain, number and of the irradiation conditions (temperature, media, etc.). D10 value is a very useful data in order to compare radiosensitivities between the microorganisms and the influence of different factors in their sensitivities. In this paper, it was determined the sensitivity to the gamma radiation of Salmonella enteritidis in fresh and frozen chickens

  5. Acalculous cholecystitis due to Salmonella enteritidis

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lourdes Ruiz-rebollo, Gloria Sa?nchez-antoli?n

    2008-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is defined as an acute inflammation of the gallbladder in the absence of stones. We herein report a case of a young man who developed AAC after a Salmonella enteritidis gastrointestinal infection.

  6. ANALYZING BIOSOLIDS FOR FECAL COLIFORM AND SALMONELLAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current federal regulations required monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Standard protocols designed to quantify these organisms in water or wastewater were identified and specified in these regulations. However, proto...

  7. Water Frogs, Aquariums, and Salmonella -- Oh My!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-09

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses how people can get Salmonella from water frogs and aquariums.  Created: 12/9/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 12/9/2009.

  8. CEPHALOSPORIN RESISTANCE AMONG BOVINE SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEROTYPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Extended-spectrum *-lactamases (ESBLs) are important resistance mechanisms which affect *-lactam antibiotics, including cephalosporins. Extended-spectrum 3rd generation cephalosporins are considered drugs of choice for serious Salmonella infections. The emergence of ESBL-producing orga...

  9. A comparative study of culture methods and PCR assay for Salmonella detection in poultry drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, M C; Soria, M A; Bueno, D J

    2013-01-01

    The present work compared 2 culture methods and PCR assays for motile and nonmotile Salmonella detection using artificially contaminated poultry drinking water. The specificity was 1 for all methods studied. The accuracy and sensitivity were 1 for all motile strains, whereas these parameters were between 0 and 0.7 for nonmotile Salmonella strains. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 1 for all motile Salmonella strains in the 3 methods used. Nonmotile Salmonella strains showed a positive predictive value of 1 in the PCR method. However, the positive predictive value was indeterminate in the tetrathionate (TT) methods for both strains tested and in the modified semisolid Rappaport-Vassiliadis (MSRV) method for Salmonella Pullorum. On the other hand, the negative predictive value was between 0.20 and 0.43 for the 3 methods. The detection level of motile strains was 4 to 7 cfu/25 mL for all methods. Nonmotile Salmonella strains could not be detected in the TT method, whereas only Salmonella Gallinarum could be recovered from 1.1 × 10(1) cfu/25 mL in the MSRV method. In relation to the molecular methods, PCR could detect these strains from 1.1 × 10(4) cfu/25 mL. Extending incubation time of the enrichment medium to 6 d in the TT method did not improve the isolation rates. In general, all selective plating media did not show any statistical differences in the parameters of performance studied. The kappa coefficient showed that there was an excellent agreement between the 3 methods for motile strains. For nonmotile strains, the agreement was poor between the MSRV and the PCR; there was no agreement when the TT method was compared with the MSRV and the PCR methods. The difference in detection levels obtained with the methods used for motile and nonmotile Salmonella strains and the difficulty in detecting these last strains represents a potential problem when a poultry water sample is considered negative for the presence of Salmonella. PMID:23243252

  10. Salmonella as a vaccine delivery vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Roland, Kenneth L.; Brenneman, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    Attenuated Salmonella vaccines can be administered orally to deliver recombinant antigens to mucosal surfaces inducing a protective immune response against a variety of targeted pathogens. A number of exciting new approaches and technologies for attenuated Salmonella vaccines have been developed recently. However, there remains a disconnect between results obtained with mice in preclinical studies and results obtained in human clinical trials. This is due to an incomplete understanding of S. ...

  11. Determination of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, Belgode N; Menezes, Godfred A

    2015-01-01

    Infections with Salmonella are an important public health problem worldwide. Salmonella are one of the most common causes of food-borne illness in humans. There are many types of Salmonella but they can be divided into two broad categories: those that cause typhoid and those that do not. The typhoidal Salmonella (TS), such as S. enterica subsp. enterica serovars Typhi and S. Paratyphi only colonize humans and are usually acquired by the consumption of food or water contaminated with human fecal material. The much broader group of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) usually results from improperly handled food that has been contaminated by animal or human fecal material. Antimicrobials are critical to the successful outcome of invasive Salmonella infections and enteric fever. Due to resistance to the older antimicrobials, ciprofloxacin [fluoroquinolone (FQ)] has become the first-line drug for treatment. Nevertheless, switch to FQ has led to a subsequent increase in the occurrence of salmonellae resistant to this antimicrobial agent. The exact mechanism of this FQ resistance is not fully understood. FQ resistance has driven the use of third-generation cephalosporins and azithromycin. However, there are sporadic worldwide reports of high level resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (such as ceftriaxone) in TS and in NTS it has been recognized since 1988 and are increasing in prevalence worldwide. Already there are rare reports of azithromycin resistance leading to treatment failure. Spread of such resistance would further greatly limit the available therapeutic options, and leave us with only the reserve antimicrobials such as carbapenem and tigecycline as possible treatment options. Here, we describe the methods involved in the genotypic characterization of antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of salmonellae. PMID:25253247

  12. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies. PMID:25719872

  13. Application of Real-time PCR for Rapid Petection of Salmonella spp., Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium and Enteritidis in Food Samples of Animal Origin without Pre-enrichment and with Pre-enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Pochop

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was follow the contamination of milk and meat products with Salmonella spp. by using the Step One real-time PCR. We used the PrepSEQ Rapid Spin Sample Preparation Kit for isolation of DNA and Power SYBR Green PCR Master Mix for pursuance the real-time PCR (Applied Biosystems. We were observing the presence of genes stn (Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium DT096, sef and pef (Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis SE7. We could detect strain of Salmonella spp. in the investigated samples without pre-enrichment and after pre-enrichment. Our results indicated that the Step One real-time PCR assay developed in this study could sensitively detect Salmonella spp. in food samples of animal origin (swabs. This Step One real-time PCR assay is extremely useful for any laboratory in possession of a real-time PCR. It is a fast, reproducible, simple, specific and sensitive way to detect nucleic acids, which could be used in clinical diagnostic tests in the future. Our results indicated that the Step One real-time PCR assay developed in this study could sensitively detect Salmonella spp. in ready to eat food. Thus, these results proved real-time PCR to be useful as a rapid diagnostic test for the direct detection of pathogens in food of animal origin, without the need of pre-enrichment steps.

  14. European Food Safety Authority; Analysis of the baseline survey of Salmonella in holdings with breeding pigs, in the EU, 2008; Part B: Analysis of factors potentially associated with Salmonella pen positivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    2011-01-01

    A European Union-wide Salmonella baseline survey was conducted in 2008 in holdings with breeding pigs. A total of 1,609 randomly selected holdings housing and selling mainly breeding pigs (breeding holdings) and 3,508 holdings housing commercial breeding pigs and mainly selling pigs for fattening or slaughter (production holdings) were sampled. In each selected holding, pooled fresh faecal samples were collected from 10 randomly chosen pens of breeding pigs over six months of age, representing the different stages of the breeding herd, and examined for the presence of Salmonella. Analyses at country-level demonstrated a strong positive association between the prevalence of Salmonella-positive breeding holdings and the prevalence of Salmonella-positive production holdings, suggesting a vertical dissemination of Salmonella between the holdings. Based on the combined results from breeding and production holdings, multivariable regression analysis showed that the odds of Salmonella-positive pens with pigs increased with the number of breeding pigs in the holding and with the following pen-level factors: flooring systems other than slatted floors or solid floors with straw, presence of maiden gilts, number of pigs per pen, feed of commercial compound origin or pelleted feed. A tendency towards some Member State group-specific Salmonella serovars was identified, but spatial distribution of other serovars was heterogeneous. S. Typhimurium and S. Derby were widespread and dominant in the EU, in both breeding and production holdings. However, many other serovars were relatively prevalent in Western EU Member States. A complementary within-holding prevalence study indicated that, due to a non-perfect diagnostic test sensitivity, the observed EU-level prevalence of Salmonella-positive holdings with breeding pigs was roughly 80% of the estimated true EU-level prevalence. But this proportion varied between Member States.

  15. SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS – PHENOTYPIC AND GENOTYPIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Miljkovi?-Selimovi?

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Today, Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis represents one of the most common serotypes that causes enterocolitis. Since S. enteritidis identification methods are advanced permanently, the following phenotyping methods could be applied for this purpose: biotyping, phagotyping (phage typing – PT, and resistotyping. From methods for genotyping of S. Enteritidis, plasmid profile analysis (PP, restriction analysis of the virulence plasmid, ribotyping, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, insertion sequences, polymerase chain reaction (PCR, random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD could be applied. On the one hand, S. Enteritidis expresses clearly homogenous structure which is reflected by domination of few phagotypes, presence of one plasmid profile in most of strains, merely three clonal lines, as well as a large number of electrophoretic types in a single dendrogram line. Insufficient discrimination of typing systems of S. Enteritidis suggests the introduction of new typing methods as well as improvement of the old ones.

  16. Evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for the rapid, reliable, and robust detection of Salmonella in produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qianru; Wang, Fei; Jones, Kelly L; Meng, Jianghong; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Ge, Beilei

    2015-04-01

    Rapid, reliable, and robust detection of Salmonella in produce remains a challenge. In this study, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was comprehensively evaluated against real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for detecting diverse Salmonella serovars in various produce items (cantaloupe, pepper, and several varieties of lettuce, sprouts, and tomato). To mimic real-world contamination events, produce samples were surface-inoculated with low concentrations (1.1-2.9 CFU/25 g) of individual Salmonella strains representing ten serovars and tested after aging at 4 °C for 48 h. Four DNA extraction methods were also compared using produce enrichment broths. False-positive or false-negative results were not observed among 178 strains (151 Salmonella and 27 non-Salmonella) used to evaluate assay specificity. The detection limits for LAMP were 1.8-4 CFU per reaction in pure culture and 10(4)-10(6) CFU per 25 g (i.e., 10(2)-10(4) CFU per g) in produce without enrichment, comparable to those obtained by qPCR. After 6-8 h of enrichment, both LAMP and qPCR consistently detected these low concentrations of Salmonella of diverse serovars in all produce items except sprouts. The PrepMan Ultra sample preparation reagent yielded the best results among the four DNA extraction methods. Upon further validation, LAMP may be a valuable tool for routine Salmonella testing in produce. The difficulty of detecting Salmonella in sprouts, whether using LAMP or qPCR, warrants further study. PMID:25475319

  17. Multiplication and motility of Salmonella enterica serovars enteritidis, infantis, and montevideo in in vitro contamination models of eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Toshiyuki; Fujimoto, Kazuhiko; Nakayama, Rui; Otsuki, Koichi

    2006-05-01

    The invasive ability of Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Infantis, and Montevideo in eggs was examined. Strains of these serovars originating from egg contents, laying chicken houses, and human patients were experimentally inoculated (0.1-ml dose containing 78 to 178 cells) onto the vitelline membrane of eggs collected from specific-pathogen-free chickens and incubated at 25 degrees C. The test strains were detected in 25 of 138 yolk contents by day 6, indicating the penetration of Salmonella organisms through the vitelline membrane. There were no significant differences in overall rates of penetration between serovars. The organisms were also detected in the albumen from 125 of 138 eggs tested by day 6. Growth to more than 10(6) CFU/ml was observed in 48 of the 125 albumen samples. An inoculum of 1000 Salmonella cells was added to 15 ml of albumen at the edge of a petri plate. A 10-mm-diameter cylindrical well, the bottom of which was sealed with a polycarbonate membrane with 3.0-microm pores, was filled with egg yolk and placed into the albumen at the center of the dish, which was maintained at 25 degrees C. Experiments were performed in triplicate with each strain. Salmonella organisms in all the albumen samples were detected by day 11. However, motility of the organisms toward the yolk was observed in only two dishes inoculated with the Salmonella Enteritidis strain from a human patient and in one dish inoculated with the Salmonella Infantis strain from liquid egg. The albumen samples obtained from the dishes inoculated with the Salmonella Enteritidis strain had high numbers of bacteria (>10(8) CFU/ml). The present study suggests that Salmonella organisms in egg albumen are unlikely to actively move toward the yolk, although depositionon or near the vitelline membrane can be advantageous for proliferation. PMID:16715797

  18. In vitro assessment of the susceptibility of planktonic and attached cells of foodborne pathogens to bacteriophage p22-mediated salmonella lysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Juhee; Kim, Songrae; Jung, Lae-Seung; Biswas, Debabrata

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the lytic activity of bacteriophage P22 against Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 19585 (Salmonella Typhimurium P22(-)) at various multiplicities of infections (MOIs), the susceptibility of preattached Salmonella cells against bacteriophage P22, and the effect of P22-mediated bacterial lysates (extracellular DNA) on the attachment ability of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli ATCC 700927 to surfaces. The numbers of attached Salmonella Typhimurium P22(-) cells were effectively reduced to below the detection limit (1 log CFU/ml) at the fixed inoculum levels of 3 × 10(-) CFU/ml (MOI = 3.12) and 3 × 10(3) CFU/ml (MOI = 4.12) by bacteriophage P22. The attached Salmonella Typhimurium P22(-) cells remained more than 2 log CFU/ml, with increasing inoculum levels from 3 × 10(4) to 3 × 10(7) CFU/ml infected with 4 × 10(8) PFU/ml of P22. The number of preattached Salmonella Typhimurium P22(-) cells was noticeably reduced by 2.72 log in the presence of P22. The highest specific attachment ability values for Salmonella Typhimurium P22(-), Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 23555 carrying P22 prophage (Salmonella Typhimurium P22(+)), L. monocytogenes, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli were 2.09, 1.06, 1.86, and 1.08, respectively, in the bacteriophage-mediated cell-free supernatants (CFS) containing high amounts of extracellular DNA. These results suggest that bacteriophages could potentially be used to effectively eliminate planktonic and preattached Salmonella Typhimurium P22(-) cells with increasing MOI. However, further research is needed to understand the role of bacteriophage-induced lysates in bacterial attachment, which can provide useful information for the therapeutic use of bacteriophage in the food system. PMID:24290682

  19. Bacteriologische detectie van Salmonella in aanwezigheid van stoorflora. Bacteriologisch ringonderzoek IV voor de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella, het gebruik van MSRV als selectieve ophoping

    OpenAIRE

    Raes M; Nagelkerke N; Am, Henken

    2012-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella heeft een vierde bacteriologisch ringonderzoek georganiseerd betreffende de detectie van Salmonella. De deelnemers waren de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRLs) voor Salmonella uit de lidstaten van de Europese Unie. Dit ringonderzoek had twee doelen: 1) Evaluatie van de resultaten van verschillende besmettingsniveaus van Salmonella Enteritidis (100 en 1000 kve) en Salmonella Typhimurium (10 en 100 kve) in de ...

  20. Characterisation of monoclonal antibodies against a fimbrial structure of Salmonella enteritidis and certain other serogroup D salmonellae and their application as serotyping reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorns, C J; Sojka, M G; Mclaren, I M; Dibb-Fuller, M

    1992-11-01

    A panel of 13 monoclonal antibodies from different hybridomas was produced against a novel salmonella fimbrial antigen expressed predominantly by Salmonella enteritidis strains. The specificity of the monoclonal antibodies to this antigen (SEF14) was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using purified SEF14, immune electron microscopy and, with 11 monoclonal antibodies, the identification of a repeating protein subunit (14,300kDa) on the antigen. Blocking-ELISA with the monoclonal antibodies identified epitopes in at least three, non-overlapping clusters which appeared evenly distributed on SEF14 in immune electron microscopy. The use of the monoclonal antibodies in direct-binding ELISA on a range of salmonella serotypes suggested that the epitopes on SEF14 are highly conserved and were expressed by all the S enteritidis strains examined; some strains of S dublin and the only strain of S moscow available were the only other serotypes that expressed SEF14. A latex agglutination reagent based on a monoclonal antibody was developed and used to test for SEF14 on 280 strains (representing 120 serotypes in 24 serogroups of salmonellae) that had been grown on Sensitest agar for 18 hours at 37 degrees C. All S enteritidis strains (64) and most S dublin strains (28 of 33) produced SEF14 as did the two strains representing S blegdam and S moscow. SEF14 was not detected in any other strains of serotypes from serogroup D or from any other serogroup examined. PMID:1361237

  1. Salmonella: Dry Pet Foods and Pet Treats (FAQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Literature Reviews Market Research Statistics Reference Guides Reports Salmonella: Dry Pet Foods and Pet Treats (FAQ) Originally ... 2008, there was a prolonged multistate outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Schwarzengrund infections in humans. A total ...

  2. Risk of Human Salmonella Infections from Live Baby Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button CDC Features Risk of Human Salmonella Infections from Live Baby Poultry Recommend on Facebook ... messages, and helpful resources. How do people get Salmonella infections from live baby poultry? Live poultry may ...

  3. Visualization of gold and platinum nanoparticles interacting with Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sawosz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Ewa Sawosz1, André Chwalibog2, Jacek Szeliga3, Filip Sawosz2, Marta Grodzik1, Marlena Rupiewicz1, Tomasz Niemiec1, Katarzyna Kacprzyk11Division of Biotechnology and Biochemistry of Nutrition, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; 2Department of Basic Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Division of Microbiology of Analytical Centre, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, PolandPurpose: Rapid development of nanotechnology has recently brought significant attention to the extraordinary biological features of nanomaterials. The objective of the present ­investigation was to evaluate morphological characteristics of the assembles of gold and platinum nanoparticles (nano-Au and nano-Pt respectively, with Salmonella Enteritidis (Gram-negative and Listeria monocytogenes (Gram-positive, to reveal possibilities of constructing bacteria-nanoparticle vehicles.Methods: Hydrocolloids of nano-Au or nano-Pt were added to two bacteria suspensions in the following order: nano-Au + Salmonella Enteritidis; nano-Au + Listeria monocytogenes; nano-Pt + Salmonella Enteritidis; nano-Pt + Listeria monocytogenes. Samples were inspected by transmission electron microscope.Results: Visualization of morphological interaction between nano-Au and Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes, showed that nano-Au were aggregated within flagella or biofilm network and did not penetrate the bacterial cell. The analysis of morphological effects of interaction of nano-Pt with bacteria revealed that nano-Pt entered cells of Listeria monocytogenes and were removed from the cells. In the case of Salmonella Enteritidis, nano-Pt were seen inside bacteria cells, probably bound to DNA and partly left bacterial cells. After washing and centrifugation, some of the nano-Pt-DNA complexes were observed within Salmonella Enteritidis.Conclusion: The results indicate that the bacteria could be used as a vehicle to deliver nano-Pt to specific points in the body.Keywords: morphology, nanoparticles, gold, platinum, bacteria

  4. Prevalence of Salmonella on chicken carcasses from retail markets in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Yen T; Nguyen, Trung Thanh; To, Phuong Bich; Pham, Da Xuan; Le, Hao Thi Hong; Alali, Walid Q; Walls, Isabel; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo M A; Doyle, Michael P

    2012-10-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on chicken carcasses collected from six regions in Vietnam. A total of 1,000 whole, dressed chicken carcasses were collected from five cities and seven provinces across the six regions in Vietnam. Of these, 900 samples were collected from wet markets and 100 from supermarkets. All samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella according to a method recommended by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service. The overall Salmonella prevalence was 45.9%. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in Salmonella prevalence by (i) location (Ha Noi city, 51.1%; Hai Phong city, 45.6%; Da Nang and Can Tho cities, 45.5%; Bac Ninh province and Ho Chi Minh city, 44.7%; Dong Nai province, 44.6%; Ha Tinh province, 44.4%; Phu Tho province, 43.8%; Lao Cai province, 43.5%; Kien Giang province, 41.9%; and Lam Dong province, 40.9%), (ii) market type (wet market, 46.2%; supermarket samples, 43.0%), and (iii) storage temperature at retail (ambient storage, 46.4%; chilled storage, 45.1%). Hence, Salmonella presence on poultry meat in Vietnam was not associated with a specific city or province, market type, or storage temperature at retail. Strategies to reduce Salmonella levels on raw poultry in Vietnam should be undertaken to improve the safety of poultry products and reduce the incidence of human salmonellosis from poultry consumption. PMID:23043836

  5. Salmonella surveillance and control for finisher pigs and pork in Denmark — A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alban, L.; Baptista, F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella can either be controlled pre-harvest, post-harvest or by a combination of both approaches. This paper describes the lessons learned in Danish Salmonella surveillance and control programme for finisher pigs and pork. Initially, main focus was on pre-harvest initiatives and correct identification of herds with respect to the risk for Salmonella that they represented. However, an analysis of risk-mitigating actions applied along the chain from stable to table showed that it would be more cost-effective to deal with Salmonella on the abattoirs than in the herds. This knowledge moved focus from pre- to post-harvest without giving up on pre-harvest surveillance. First of all, this meant increased attention on slaughter hygiene and individual interventions in the abattoirs. In brief, we learned that for a programme to be successful it must be based on standardised methods for sampling and testing to be able to evaluate and compare performance of the programme. More specifically, meat-juice samples taken from finisher pigs at the time of slaughter are an effective way of identifying high-risk herds for Salmonella. In addition, a penalty system might act as an incentive for farmers to deal with Salmonella in their herd. Additionally, common targets for all abattoirs allowing for unique control solutions should be adapted. Finally, decontamination techniques like hot water decontamination are a feasible way of dealing with high-risk pigs (Level-3 pigs). The current prevalence in Danish pork is around 1.2%, and a target is set to

  6. Mannanoligosaccharide agglutination by Salmonella enterica strains isolated from carrier pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Borowsky, Luciane; Corc?a?o, Gertrudes; Cardoso, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    Type-1 fimbriae are associated with most Salmonella enterica serovars and are an essential factor for host colonization. Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS), a prebiotic that is agglutinated by type-1 fimbriae, are proposed for the control of enterobacteria colonization and may be an alternative to Salmonella control in pigs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of porcine Salmonella strains to adhere to MOS in vitro. A total of 108 strains of Salmonella sp. isolated from carrier pig...

  7. Detectie van Salmonella in referentiemonsters. BCR-Food Trial 1

    OpenAIRE

    Ph, Veld In Apos T.; Ja, Hoekstra; Hj, Beckers

    2012-01-01

    De Salmonella referentiemonsters werden getest in 31 laboratoria. De laboratoria onderzochten elk 25 monsters, 20 Salmonella referentiemonsters en 5 Salmonella negatieve monsters. De werkwijze was gebaseerd op het ISO-voorschrift voor de aantoning van Salmonella. Er werden 3 selectieve ophopingsmedia gebruikt: - tetrathionaat briljant-groen gal bouillon (TBB) - malachiet-groen magnesium-chloride bouillon (RV) - Een op het deelnemende laboratorium gebruikelijk medium (O...

  8. Salmonella enterica Serovar Senftenberg Human Clinical Isolates Lacking SPI-1?

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Qinghua; Coburn, Bryan; Deng, Wanyin; Li, Yuling; Shi, Xiaolu; Lan, Quanxue; Wang, Bing; Coombes, Brian K.; Finlay, B. Brett

    2008-01-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella species cause gastrointestinal disease worldwide. The prevailing theory of Salmonella enteropathogenesis is that bacterial invasion of the intestinal epithelium is essential for virulence and that this requires the virulence-associated genomic region Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1). Recent studies of Salmonella enterica infection models have demonstrated that enterocolitis and diarrhea in mice and cows can occur independently of SPI-1. In this study, we sough...

  9. Presence of Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in shellfish.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, I. G.; Moore, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Bivalve molluscs, (cockles, mussels, scallops and oysters) were examined according to EC shellfish bed classification regulations for faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and salmonella, and for coliforms and campylobacter which are not specified by these regulations. Salmonella serotypes were detected in 8% of 433 molluscs. Seven salmonella isolations (2%) were made from category A beds, nominally suitable for immediate consumption according to E. coli counts. A higher percentage of salmonella...

  10. Salmonellae in Avian Wildlife in Norway from 1969 to 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Refsum, Thorbjørn; Handeland, Kjell; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Holstad, Gudmund; Kapperud, Georg

    2002-01-01

    Postmortem records of wild-living birds in Norway with laboratory-confirmed findings of salmonella infection were summarized for the period from 1969 to 2000. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 470 birds belonging to 26 species. The salmonella-positive birds included 441 small passerines, 15 gulls, 5 waterfowl, 4 birds of prey, 3 doves, and 2 crows. The bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) was by far the most frequently recorded species (54% of the cases). Salmonella enterica serover Typhimurium was...

  11. Comparison of early ileal invasion by Salmonella enterica serovars Choleraesuis and Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerholz, D K; Stabel, T J

    2003-07-01

    The mechanisms of Salmonella serovar-host specificity are not well defined. Pig ileal loops were used to compare phenotypic differences in early cellular invasion between non-host-adapted Salmonella serovar Typhimurium (SsT) and host-adapted Salmonella serovar Choleraesuis (SsC). By 10 minutes postinoculation, both serovars invaded a small number of M cells, enterocytes, and goblet cells. Multiple SsC organisms (up to 6 per cell) simultaneously invaded M cells, whereas SsT often invaded as one to two organisms per M cell. Internalization of both serovars resulted in vacuoles containing a single bacterium. The follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) of SsC-inoculated loops responded with more filopodia and lamellipodia although exhibiting less cell swelling than SsT. Additionally, SsT showed an enhanced affinity for sites of cell extrusion compared with SsC at 60 minutes. These results suggest: 1) both SsC and SsT exhibit non-cell-specific invasion as early as 10 minutes postinoculation, 2) Salmonella serovars exhibit differences in early invasion of FAE and M cells, and 3) cells undergoing extrusion may provide a site for preferential adherence by SsT and SsC. PMID:12824508

  12. Salmonella detection in poultry meat and meat products by the Vitek immunodiagnostic assay system easy Salmonella method, a LightCycler polymerase chain reaction system, and the International Organization for Standardization method 6579.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temelli, S; Eyigor, A; Carli, K T

    2012-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the capability of the Vitek immunodiagnostic assay system easy Salmonella (VIDAS ESLM) method and a specific real-time PCR system (LightCycler, LCPCR) to complement the International Organization for Standardization Method 6579 (ISO) in detecting Salmonella from a total of 105 naturally contaminated samples comprised of poultry meat and poultry meat products. The detection limit of ISO and LCPCR was 9 cfu/mL for both poultry meat and poultry meat products, whereas that of VIDAS ESLM with both sample types was determined to be 90 cfu/mL. Twelve (33.33%), 11 (30.55%), and 18 (50.00%) out of 36 poultry meat samples were positive for Salmonella by ISO, VIDAS ESLM, and LCPCR, respectively. Salmonella detection rates from poultry meat products were 5.80% for ISO and 8.69% for LCPCR, whereas none of these products tested positive by VIDAS ESLM. In poultry meat samples, VIDAS ESLM and LCPCR detection results were in substantial agreement with ISO, with the relative accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity rates of 97.2, 91.7, and 100%, respectively, for VIDAS ESLM and 83.3, 100, and 75%, respectively, for LCPCR. This is the first report on the evaluation of both VIDAS ESLM and LCPCR to complement ISO for the rapid detection of Salmonella in poultry meat and meat products. We determined that both VIDAS ESLM and LCPCR have the potential to complement the ISO standard culture method in the rapid screening of Salmonella from naturally contaminated poultry meats. For the poultry meat products, VIDAS ESLM and LCPCR can be used for rapid primary screening, and they should be complemented absolutely by ISO. Although LCPCR can preferentially be used for initial screening poultry meat products, the results should definitely be confirmed by ISO. Also, the VIDAS ESLM did not seem to be a suitable method for detecting Salmonella in poultry meat products. PMID:22334749

  13. Diffuse abdominal gallium-67 citrate uptake in salmonella infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two pediatric patients with salmonella infections (one with typhoid fever and the second with salmonella C2 gastroenteritis), had a diffuse abdominal uptake of Ga-67 citrate. The possible explanation for this finding is discussed. Salmonella infection should be included as a cause in the differential diagnosis of diffuse accumulation of Ga-67 citrate

  14. Salmonella serovars in the herpetofauna of Indiana County, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David L; Hulse, Arthur C

    2006-05-01

    Herpetofaunal Salmonella enterica serovars have not been fully examined in any U.S. region. Thirty-three Salmonella serovars were isolated from 156 samples from 34 species, all within Indiana County, Pennsylvania. Results suggest that herpetofaunas could potentially pose a threat to humans. Further understanding of Salmonella in herpetofaunas may prevent future human cases. PMID:16672533

  15. Salmonella Serovars in the Herpetofauna of Indiana County, Pennsylvania

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, David L.; Hulse, Arthur C.

    2006-01-01

    Herpetofaunal Salmonella enterica serovars have not been fully examined in any U.S. region. Thirty-three Salmonella serovars were isolated from 156 samples from 34 species, all within Indiana County, Pennsylvania. Results suggest that herpetofaunas could potentially pose a threat to humans. Further understanding of Salmonella in herpetofaunas may prevent future human cases.

  16. Extended Spectrum Beta-lactam Resistance among Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella is an important food bourn pathogen capable of infecting both humans and animals. One of the most effective treatments for Salmonella infections is beta-lactam antibiotics, particularly extended spectrum beta-lactams; however, Salmonella resistant to these antibiotics have been recovered ...

  17. Genetic flux over time in the Salmonella lineage

    OpenAIRE

    Vernikos, Georgios S.; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Parkhill, Julian

    2007-01-01

    From a whole-genome comparative analysis of Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Shigella strains, the relative time of insertion of putative horizontally acquired genes in three Salmonella strains were inferred, highlighting the major impact of horizontal transfer in the evolution of the salmonellae.

  18. Diffuse abdominal gallium-67 citrate uptake in salmonella infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garty, I.; Koren, A.

    1987-11-01

    Two pediatric patients with salmonella infections (one with typhoid fever and the second with salmonella C2 gastroenteritis), had a diffuse abdominal uptake of Ga-67 citrate. The possible explanation for this finding is discussed. Salmonella infection should be included as a cause in the differential diagnosis of diffuse accumulation of Ga-67 citrate.

  19. Salmonella virulence, genomics and interactions with the immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    “Every living thing has two ultimate goals—to survive and reproduce, and Salmonella is no exception,” said Harhay. “If we think about that as we try to understand this pathogen, it may help us in developing effective controls.” Harhay discussed the evolution of Salmonella to Salmonella enterica, the...

  20. Salmonella surrogate reduction using industrial peanut dry roasting parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of industrial peanut dry roasting parameters in Salmonella reduction using a Salmonella surrogate, Enterococcus faecium, which is slightly more heat tolerant than Salmonella. Runner-type peanuts were inoculated with E. faecium and roasted in a lab...

  1. 76 FR 16425 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Testing for Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ...Guidance for Industry: Testing for Salmonella Species...Direct-Human-Contact Animal Foods; Availability...industry entitled ``Testing for Salmonella Species...Direct-Human-Contact Animal Foods.'' The draft...industry entitled ``Testing for Salmonella Species...Human-Contact Animal Foods.'' The...

  2. Cystic Meningiomas With Dural Invas?on In Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel AVCI

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Cystic meningiomas are rare tumors. There is no clear prevalence between cystic meningiomas and histologic type. MRI has allowed a correct diagnosis of cystic meningiomas as much as 80%. However, the differentiation is not easy pre-operatively in some cases. In this study, 3 patient who had cystic meningiomas with dural invasion were discussed from radiological, operatively and histopathologically.

  3. Serotyperingsuitslagen van Salmonella stammen in de lidstaten van de Europese Unie (Derde ringonderzoek met de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella)

    OpenAIRE

    Voogt N; Hme, Maas; Wj, Leeuwen; Am, Henken

    2007-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium (CRL) voor Salmonella heeft een derde ringonderzoek voor de serotypering van Salmonella georganiseerd. Alle Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRLs) voor Salmonella van de Europese Unie deden aan het onderzoek mee. Het belangrijkste doel was het vergelijken van de serotyperingsresultaten van de NRLs. In totaal werden er door het CRL 20 serotypen van Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica geselecteerd. Deze moesten door de NRLs met d...

  4. Towards standardization of microarray-based genotyping of Salmonella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; GrØnlund, Hugo Ahlm

    2010-01-01

    Genotyping is becoming an increasingly important tool to improve risk assessments of Salmonella. DNA microarray technology is a promising diagnostic tool that can provide high resolution genomic profile of many genes simultaneously. However, standardization of DNA microarray analysis is needed before it can be used as a tool in source attribution models for comparable characterization of isolates across laboratories and countries. The reproducibility of data was evaluated for a simple and single-dye DNA microarray (Huehn et al., Appl Environ Microbiol, 2009, 75:1011-1020) for genotyping of Salmonella at two different laboratories. The low-density array contained 281 of 57-60-mer oligonucleotide probes for detecting a wide range of specific genomic markers associated with antibiotic resistance, cell envelope structures, mobile genetic elements and pathogenicity. Several test parameters that differed between the two labs were identified: printing facilities and equipment, choice of hybridization buffer, wash buffers used following hybridization and the choice of procedure for purifying genomic DNA. These critical parameters were randomized in a four-factorial experiment and statistical measures of inter-lab consistency and agreement were performed based on the kappa coefficient. A high level of agreement (kappa = 0.7-1.0) was obtained even when using different printing and hybridization facilities, different procedures for purifying genomic DNA and different wash buffers. However, less agreement (Kappa = 0.2-0.6) between microarray results were observed when using different hybridization buffers, indicating this as the most critical factor for standardization between laboratories. In conclusion, this study indicates that it is possible to set up an international standard for a decentralized and simple-to-implement DNA microarray as part of a pan-European source-attribution model for risk assessment of Salmonella.

  5. Sensitivity pattern of Salmonella serotypes in Northern India

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vikas, Gautam; Naveen Kumar, Gupta; Uma, Chaudhary; D. R., Arora.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Enteric fever continues to be a major public health problem, especially in the developing countries of the tropics. We determined the incidence of Salmonella bloodstream infections and their antimicrobial resistance patterns from May to August in the years 1997-2001 in Haryana, a large s [...] tate of India. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also determined for 60 isolates of S. typhi to various commonly used antimicrobial agents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Blood cultures of 6,956 patients (PUO/septicemia) were processed by standard procedures and the Salmonella spp. isolates were identified with specific antisera and with standard biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by Stokes disc diffusion method. The MIC of 60 randomly isolated strains of S. typhi was determined by agar dilution method using Mueller Hinton Agar medium. RESULTS: Isolation rates of Salmonella spp. increased in 2000 and 2001. Multidrug resistance (MDR) in S. typhi had increased while in S. paratyphi it had decreased markedly. Ninety per cent chloramphenicol sensitivity was seen in S. typhi by MIC method. There was a decrease in the susceptibility to ciprofloxacin of S. typhi with MIC showing an upward trend. All S. typhi tested were sensitive to third generation cephalosporins and aminoglycosides with MIC well below the breakpoint. DISCUSSION: Our study indicates that MDR in S. typhi is on the rise in our area. There is also re-emergence of chloramphenicol sensitivity. Rising MIC values of ciprofloxacin may lead to prolonged treatment, delayed recovery or pose treatment failure. Thus, sensitivity pattern of causative organism must be sought before instituting appropriate therapy to prevent further emergence of drug resistance.

  6. Development of a novel cross-streaking method for isolation, confirmation, and enumeration of Salmonella from irrigation ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhiyao; Gu, Ganyu; Giurcanu, Mihai C; Adams, Paige; Vellidis, George; van Bruggen, Ariena H C; Wright, Anita C

    2014-06-01

    The 2013 Produce Safety Rules in Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) require regular testing for generic Escherichia coli in agricultural water intended for pre-harvest contact with the edible portion of fresh produce. However, the use of fecal contamination indicators frequently does not correctly reflect distribution of foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella enterica, and ensuring food safety may require direct detection and enumeration of pathogens in agricultural settings. Herein we report the evaluation of different cost-effective methods for quantification, isolation, and confirmation of Salmonella in irrigation pond water and sediment samples. A most probably number (MPN) dual enrichment culture method was used in combination with differential and selective agars, XLT4 and CHROMagar™ Salmonella plus (CSP). The necessity for PCR confirmation was evaluated, and methods were compared by cost and performance measures (i.e., sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value). Statistical analyses showed that using XLT4 as the initial selective agar to isolate Salmonella colonies improved recovery compared to CSP agar; however, PCR confirmation was required to avoid false positive results on either agar. Therefore, a novel cross-streaking method utilizing CHROMagar™ agar for individual colony confirmation of Salmonella presence/absence on XLT4 was developed. This method classifies the colony as positive if typical Salmonella appearance is observed on both agars. Statistical analysis showed that this method was as effective as PCR for species confirmation of pure individual strains isolated from enrichment cultures (sensitivity=0.99, specificity=1.00, relative to PCR). This method offers a cost-effective alternative to PCR that would increase the capacity and sensitivity of Salmonella evaluation. PMID:24732066

  7. Inactivation of Salmonella Enteriditis and Salmonella Senftenberg in liquid whole egg using generally recognized as safe additives, ionizing radiation and heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of combining irradiation followed by heat on Salmonella Enteriditis and Salmonella Senftenberg inoculated into liquid whole egg (LWE) with added nisin, EDTA, sorbic acid, carvacrol, or combinations of these GRAS additives was investigated. Synergistic reductions of Salmonella populations ...

  8. Hemagglutinating properties of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolated from different sources / Propriedades hemaglutinantes de Salmonella enterica sorotipo Enteritidis isoladas de diferentes fontes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jane M.G., Mikcha; Antonio J. Piantino, Ferreira; Claudete S. Astolfi, Ferreira; Tomomasa, Yano.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foram estudadas 25 amostras de Salmonella enterica sorotipo Enteritidis isoladas de diferentes fontes, em testes de hemaglutinação. Amostras bacterianas cultivadas em diferentes meios de cultura causavam hemaglutinação na presença de hemácias humanas, entretanto, não foi observada reação com hemácia [...] s de outras espécies. A expressão da atividade hemaglutinante foi melhor em ágar CFA a 37ºC. A hemaglutinação foi inibida por D-manose, D-manitol, melibiose, D-rafinose, L-ramnose e sacarose. A análise ultraestrutural não revelou a presença de estruturas filamentosas na superfície bacteriana, sugerindo que a hemaglutinina de Salmonella Enteritidis seja de natureza não fimbrial. Os dados sugerem que Salmonella Enteritidis produz uma hemaglutinina não fimbrial manose-sensível, específica para hemácias humanas, que pode ser extraída na forma solúvel. Abstract in english Twenty-five strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolated from different sources were examined for hemagglutinating activity. Bacteria cultured in different media induced hemagglutination of human erythrocytes, but no reaction was observed with erythrocytes from other animal species. T [...] he hemagglutinating expression activity was better for cultures on CFA agar at 37ºC than other conditions examined. The hemagglutination was inhibited by D-mannose, D-mannitol, melibiose, D-raffinose, L-rhamnose and sucrose. The absence of cell-surface appendages in electron microscope examinations suggested a nonfimbrial hemagglutinin. The data suggest that Salmonella Enteritidis produces nonfimbrial mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin, specific for human erythrocytes, which could be extracted in soluble form.

  9. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  10. Protection against salmonella typhimurium, salmonella gallinarum, and salmonella enteritidis infection in layer chickens conferred by a live attenuated salmonella typhimurium strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John Hwa

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated the protection conferred by a live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) strain against Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Gallinarum (SG), and Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infection in layer chickens. Birds were orally primed with the attenuated ST strain at 7 days of age and then boosted at 4 weeks post prime immunization (PPI). Sequential monitoring of plasma IgG and mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA) levels revealed that inoculation with ST induced a significant antibody response to antigens against ST, SE, and SG. Moreover, significant lymphoproliferative responses to the 3 Salmonella serovars were observed in the immunized group. We also investigated protection against virulent ST, SE, and SG strain challenge. Upon virulent SG challenge, the immunized group showed significantly reduced mortality compared to the non-immunized group. The reduced persistence of the virulent ST and SE challenge strains in the liver, spleen, and cecal tissues of the immunized group suggests that immunization with the attenuated ST strain may not only protect against ST infection but can also confer cross protection against SE and SG infection. PMID:25713506

  11. Prevalence of Salmonella in a poultry slaughterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M G R; Fiorese, M L; Moretto, G; López, M C; Jordano, R

    2007-07-01

    The prevalence of Salmonella on surfaces, water, and broiler chicken (carcasses, parts, viscera, and spoils) taken from a poultry slaughterhouse located in the south of Brazil was studied. The automated mini-VIDAS system (a variation of the basic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) was used to screen for the presence of this microorganism in 615 samples, and the traditional culture method was used in 470 samples. We detected Salmonella in the following sampling points by the VIDAS Salmonella test: transport cages (16.7%), boxes (10%), scalding water (16.7%), chilled water (6.7%), carcass before evisceration (6.7%), carcass after chilling (3.3%), fresh breast (3.3%), fresh leg (10%), frozen wing (13.3%), frozen leg (13.3%), intestines (6.7%), skin of breast and leg (10%), and skin of neck (6.7%). Nevertheless, with the traditional culture method we only detected salmonellae in the following sampling points: scalding water (10%), fresh leg (6.7%), frozen wing (10%), skin of breast and leg (20%), and skin of neck (10%). Finally, 5.4% (33 of 615) of the samples analyzed by the VIDAS Salmonella system were positive, whereas the positive percentage with the traditional method was 2.6% (12 of 470). The results showed that transport cages, scalding water, frozen wing, frozen leg, and skin of breast and leg were the sampling points that demonstrated the greatest prevalence. PMID:17685349

  12. 15-Deoxy-?12,14-Prostaglandin J2 Inhibits Macrophage Colonization by Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Michelle M. C.; Antunes, L. Caetano M; Gill, Navkiran; Russell, Shannon L.; Shames, Stephanie R.; Finlay, B. Brett

    2013-01-01

    15-deoxy-?12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) is an anti-inflammatory downstream product of the cyclooxygenase enzymes. It has been implicated to play a protective role in a variety of inflammatory mediated diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, neural damage, and myocardial infarctions. Here we show that 15d-PGJ2 also plays a role in Salmonella infection. Salmonella enterica Typhimurium is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that is able to survive and replicate inside phagocytic immune cells, allowing for bacterial dissemination to systemic sites. Salmonella species cause a wide range of morbidity and mortality due to gastroenteritis and typhoid fever. Previously we have shown that in mouse models of typhoid fever, Salmonella infection causes a major perturbation in the prostaglandin pathway. Specifically, we saw that 15d-PGJ2 production was significantly increased in both liver and feces. In this work we show that 15d-PGJ2 production is also significantly increased in macrophages infected with Salmonella. Furthermore, we show that the addition of 15d-PGJ2 to Salmonella infected RAW264.7, J774, and bone marrow derived macrophages is sufficient to significantly reduce bacterial colonization. We also show evidence that 15d-PGJ2 is reducing bacterial uptake by macrophages. 15d-PGJ2 reduces the inflammatory response of these infected macrophages, as evidenced by a reduction in the production of cytokines and reactive nitrogen species. The inflammatory response of the macrophage is important for full Salmonella virulence, as it can give the bacteria cues for virulence. The reduction in bacterial colonization is independent of the expression of Salmonella virulence genes SPI1 and SPI2, and is independent of the 15d-PGJ2 ligand PPAR-?. 15d-PGJ2 also causes an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in infected macrophages. In conclusion, we show here that 15d-PGJ2 mediates the outcome of bacterial infection, a previously unidentified role for this prostaglandin. PMID:23922794

  13. Influence of Vector-Encoded Cytokines on Anti-Salmonella Immunity: Divergent Effects of Interleukin-2 and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha

    OpenAIRE

    Al-ramadi, Basel K.; Al-dhaheri, Mariam H.; Mustafa, Nada; Abouhaidar, Mounir; Xu, Damu; Liew, F. Y.; Lukic, Miodrag L.; Fernandez-cabezudo, Maria J.

    2001-01-01

    Attenuated Salmonella strains are of interest as new vaccine candidates and as vectors of cloned genes of other organisms. Attenuated strains expressing specific cytokines were constructed as a means of manipulating the immune response in various disease settings. In the present study, interleukin-2 (IL-2)-expressing (GIDIL2) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?)-expressing (GIDTNF) strains were compared with the parent strain (BRD509) for the effect of cytokines on anti-Salmonella immunity...

  14. Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis for outbreak studies of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis

    OpenAIRE

    Helmuth Reiner; Junker Ernst; Malorny Burkhard

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Enteritidis is known as an important and pathogenic clonal group which continues to cause worldwide sporadic cases and outbreaks in humans. Here a new multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) method is reported for highly-discriminative subtyping of Salmonella Enteritidis. Emphasis was given on the most predominant phage types PT4 and PT8. The method comprises multiplex PCR specifically amplifying repeated se...

  15. Report of Neonatal Meningitis Due to Salmonella enterica Serotype Agona and Review of Breast Milk-Associated Neonatal Salmonella Infections?

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Fiona J.; Ginwalla, Sara; Hampton, Michael D.; Wain, John; Ross-russell, Robert; Lever, Andrew; Farrington, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We present the first documented case of Salmonella enterica serotype Agona meningitis in a 6-day-old baby. S. enterica serotype Agona was isolated concurrently from infant cerebrospinal fluid and parental fecal samples, and Salmonella was isolated from breast milk. The role of breast milk in transmission of Salmonella enterica is discussed.

  16. Report of Neonatal Meningitis Due to Salmonella enterica Serotype Agona and Review of Breast Milk-Associated Neonatal Salmonella Infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Fiona J.; Ginwalla, Sara; Hampton, Michael D.; Wain, John; Ross-Russell, Robert; Lever, Andrew; Farrington, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We present the first documented case of Salmonella enterica serotype Agona meningitis in a 6-day-old baby. S. enterica serotype Agona was isolated concurrently from infant cerebrospinal fluid and parental fecal samples, and Salmonella was isolated from breast milk. The role of breast milk in transmission of Salmonella enterica is discussed. PMID:19605582

  17. Report of neonatal meningitis due to Salmonella enterica serotype Agona and review of breast milk-associated neonatal Salmonella infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Fiona J; Ginwalla, Sara; Hampton, Michael D; Wain, John; Ross-Russell, Robert; Lever, Andrew; Farrington, Mark

    2009-09-01

    We present the first documented case of Salmonella enterica serotype Agona meningitis in a 6-day-old baby. S. enterica serotype Agona was isolated concurrently from infant cerebrospinal fluid and parental fecal samples, and Salmonella was isolated from breast milk. The role of breast milk in transmission of Salmonella enterica is discussed. PMID:19605582

  18. Een ringonderzoek met de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella om de resultaten van bacteriologische detectiemethodes voor Salmonella te vergelijken

    OpenAIRE

    Voogt N; Ph, Veld In T.; Shw, Notermans; Am, Henken

    2007-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium (CRL) voor Salmonella heeft een bacteriologisch ringonderzoek georganiseerd waaraan alle Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRLs) voor Salmonella deelnamen. Doel van het ringonderzoek was om de resultaten te vergelijken van de voorgestelde referentiemethode voor de detectie van Salmonella (ISO 6579 methode) tussen en binnen de laboratoria en om de resultaten van de referentie en eigen methode binnen een laboratorium te vergelijk...

  19. Bacteriologische detectie van Salmonella in aanwezigheid van storingsflora (Een ringonderzoek met de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella)

    OpenAIRE

    Voogt N; Ph, Veld In Apos T.; Nagelkerke N; Am, Henken

    2012-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella heeft een tweede bacteriologisch ringonderzoek georganiseerd met deelname van de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella. Het belangrijkste doel van dit onderzoek was verschillen tussen de NRLs in de resultaten van Salmonella detectie in aanwezigheid van storingsflora te evalueren. Hiervoor werden de ISO 6579 methode (voorgestelde referentiemethode) en, facultatief, de eigen methode van een laboratorium ...

  20. Salmonella enteritidis and other Salmonella in laying hens and eggs from flocks with Salmonella in their environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Poppe, C.; Johnson, R. P.; Forsberg, C. M.; Irwin, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Seven Canadian layer flocks with Salmonella enteritidis in their environment were investigated to determine the numbers of hens infected with S. enteritidis, the localization of S. enteritidis in organs of infected hens and the numbers of S. enteritidis-infected eggs produced by two affected flocks. By a microagglutination test (MAT) using S. pullorum antigens, these flocks had more seropositive hens (mean 51.9 +/- 16.9%) than two Salmonella-free flocks (mean 13.0 +/- 4.2%). Culture of tissue...

  1. [Epidemiology of salmonella infections in Algeria. Evolution of the salmonella serovars isolated from 1986 to 1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guechi, Z; Hamza, A

    1992-01-01

    The serovars evolution of 3340 Salmonella strains isolated from 1986 to 1990 in Algeria have been studied. Among Salmonella responsible for typhoid-paratyphoid fevers, 98% are S. typhi; the prevalence of this serovar is observed every year. Among the other Salmonella, 50 different serovars have been isolated from 1986 to 1990. The predominant serovars change every year but 98% out of the total belong to 8 groups of Kauffmann White scheme; the most frequent are: groups O: 6, 7-O: 8-O: 4 and O: 9. PMID:1285027

  2. Oral immunization with attenuated Salmonella expressing human sperm antigen induces antibodies in serum and the reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, J; Tinge, S; Wright, R; Herr, J C; Curtiss, R

    1995-08-01

    Induction of immune responses in the reproductive tract will be crucial for a functional gamete antigen-based antifertility vaccine. Here we describe the construction and development of an avirulent Salmonella as an oral vaccine delivery vector to elicit sperm-specific immune responses in reproductive tract secretions. A cDNA sequence encoding the human sperm antigen SP10 was cloned on an asd+vector and expressed to a high level in an avirulent delta cya, delta crp, and delta asd vaccine strain of Salmonella typhimurium. Oral immunization of female BALB/c mice with this recombinant Salmonella elicited high-titer anti-SP10 IgG antibodies in serum and IgA antibodies in vaginal secretions. Anti-SP10 antibody titers could be increased by secondary and tertiary oral administrations of the recombinant Salmonella. Induction of sperm-specific antibodies in the reproductive tract following oral administration of a recombinant Salmonella could lead to the development of a simple, safe, efficient, and easy-to-use antifertility vaccine. PMID:7492701

  3. Inactivation of Salmonellae in Frozen Catfish by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on salmonellae viability in frozen catfish was investigated using fresh cut of catfish artificially contaminated with stationary phase cells of salmonellae, frozen at-18 ?C and irradiated with does ranging from 0.0 to 2.4 kGy. The D10 values for ten serovars of salmonellae ranged from 0.47 to 0.77 kGy. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most resistant serovars found in frozen catfish. Dosage at 2.5 kGy would be sufficient to kill 103.2 Salmonella Enteritidis that may occasionally present in frozen catfish

  4. Septic arthritis of the ankle due to Salmonella enteritidis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dineen, Patrick F

    2011-06-01

    Salmonella septic arthritis in healthy, immunocompetent patients is extremely rare. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with a one-day history of painful swelling of his ankle from which was aspirated pus which subsequently grew Salmonella enteritidis. There was no history of trauma or symptoms consistent with Salmonella enterocolitis. Our patient recovered fully after two weeks on intravenous ceftriaxone and six weeks on oral ciprofloxacin. Salmonella is a notifiable disease in the European Union and the United States of America, and is associated with outbreaks as a result of food contamination. The nature of Salmonella arthritis and its appropriate management are outlined.

  5. Salmonella enterica in reptiles of German and Austrian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geue, L; Löschner, U

    2002-01-01

    Captive reptiles are routinely identified as reservoirs of Salmonella spp. and the number of reports about reptile-associated salmonellosis is increasing. In the present study, Salmonella were detected in 86 of 159 (54.1%) faecal reptile samples cultured. The percentage of Salmonella positive samples was significantly lower in turtles as compared with lizards and snakes, as Salmonella were only detected in one sample from a single turtle out of 38 turtles investigated. In all, 42 different Salmonella serovars were found. All isolated Salmonella belonged to the species enterica, predominantly to the subspecies I (n=46) and IIIb (n=30), but also to subspecies II (n=3), IIIa (n=6) and IV (n=2). All isolates were sensitive to the antimicrobials examined. A comparison between the reptile owners indicated that either no Salmonella were found, or that Salmonella could be isolated from all or nearly all animals of the respective owners. A significantly higher percentage of Salmonella positive reptiles was detected in the group of owners who purchase reptiles in comparison with pure breeders. A total of 88.9% of Salmonella isolates were found in samples of reptiles bought in pet shops and 58.8% in samples from wild-caught animals. The high percentage of Salmonella in reptiles in our study confirms the risk for the transmission of the infection to humans. PMID:11731161

  6. Identification of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genes regulated during biofilm formation on cholesterol gallstone surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Escobedo, Geoffrey; Gunn, John S

    2013-10-01

    Salmonella spp. are able to form biofilms on abiotic and biotic surfaces. In vivo studies in our laboratory have shown that Salmonella can form biofilms on the surfaces of cholesterol gallstones in the gallbladders of mice and human carriers. Biofilm formation on gallstones has been demonstrated to be a mechanism of persistence. The purpose of this work was to identify and evaluate Salmonella sp. cholesterol-dependent biofilm factors. Differential gene expression analysis between biofilms on glass or cholesterol-coated surfaces and subsequent quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that type 1 fimbria structural genes and a gene encoding a putative outer membrane protein (ycfR) were specifically upregulated in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium biofilms grown on cholesterol-coated surfaces. Spatiotemporal expression of ycfR and FimA verified their regulation during biofilm development on cholesterol-coated surfaces. Surprisingly, confocal and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that a mutant of type 1 fimbria structural genes (?fimAICDHF) and a ycfR mutant showed increased biofilm formation on cholesterol-coated surfaces. In vivo experiments using Nramp1(+/+) mice harboring gallstones showed that only the ?ycfR mutant formed extensive biofilms on mouse gallstones at 7 and 21 days postinfection; ?fimAICDHF was not observed on gallstone surfaces after the 7-day-postinfection time point. These data suggest that in Salmonella spp., wild-type type 1 fimbriae are important for attachment to and/or persistence on gallstones at later points of chronic infection, whereas YcfR may represent a specific potential natural inhibitor of initial biofilm formation on gallstones. PMID:23897604

  7. Rapid radiometric method for detection of Salmonella in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiometric method for the detection of Salmonella in foods has been developed which is based on Salmonella poly H agglutinating serum preventing Salmonella from producing 14CO2 from [14C] dulcitol. The method will detect the presence or absence of Salmonella in a product within 30 h compared to 4 to 5 days by routine culture methods. The method has been evaluated against a routine culture method using 58 samples of food. The overall agreement was 91%. Five samples negative for Salmonella by the routine method were positive by the radiometric method. These may have been false positives. However, the routine method may have failed to detect Salmonella due to the presence of large numbers of lactose-fermenting bacteria which hindered isolation of Salmonella colonies on the selective agar plates

  8. Growth of Salmonella on chilled meat.

    OpenAIRE

    Mackey, B. M.; Roberts, T. A.; Mansfield, J.; Farkas, G.

    1980-01-01

    Growth rates of a mixture of Salmonella serotypes inoculated on beef from a commercial abattoir were measured at chill temperatures. The minimum recorded mean generation times were 8.1 h at 10 degrees C; 5.2 h at 12.5 degrees C and 2.9 h at 15 degrees C. Growth did not occur at 7-8 degrees C. From these data the maximum extent of growth of Salmonella during storage of meat for different times at chill temperatures was calculated. Criteria for deciding safe handling temperatures for meat are ...

  9. Evolution of antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enteritidis (1972-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumalo, Jermaine; Saidi, Bamusi; Mbanga, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    With the extensive use of antibiotics in livestock production, surveillance revealed an increase in Salmonella resistance to the commonly used antimicrobials in veterinary and public health. This serious threat to health care is further exacerbated by the limited epidemiological information about the common zoonotic agent, Salmonella enteritidis, required to determine antibiotic therapy. The aim was to characterise the antimicrobial resistance patterns of S. enteritidis isolates across different timelines (1972-2005) with accompanying genetic changes being investigated. Thirty-seven stored S. enteritidis isolates were collected from the Central Veterinary Laboratory, Harare, with antimicrobial susceptibility determined against eight antibiotics. Plasmids were isolated to analyse any genetic variation. An overall significant increase in resistance (p < 0.05) to nalidixic acid (0% - 10%), ampicillin (14.3% - 50%), tetracycline (14.3% - 30%) and erythromycin (71.4% - 100%) was observed across the timeline. However, the highest rates of susceptibility were maintained for gentamicin, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim, kanamycin and chloramphenicol. We report an increase in multidrug resistance (MDR) of 14.2% - 50% with an increase in resistotypes and plasmid profiles across the timeline. Eleven plasmid profiles were obtained in the 37 isolates studied with a minority of isolates (21.6%, 8/37) harbouring a 54 kb plasmid, commonly serovar-specific. A concerning increase in antimicrobial resistance to commonly administered drugs was observed across the timeline. The surge in MDR is of great concern and implies the need for consistent antimicrobial stewardship. No correlation was observed between the plasmid and antibiotic profiles. PMID:25686362

  10. Global burden of invasive nontyphoidal salmonella disease, 2010(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Trong T; Feasey, Nicholas A; Gordon, Melita A; Keddy, Karen H; Angulo, Frederick J; Crump, John A

    2015-06-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella is a major cause of bloodstream infections worldwide, and HIV-infected persons and malaria-infected children are at increased risk for the disease. We conducted a systematic literature review to obtain age group-specific, population-based invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) incidence data. Data were categorized by HIV and malaria prevalence and then extrapolated by using 2010 population data. The case-fatality ratio (CFR) was determined by expert opinion consensus. We estimated that 3.4 (range 2.1-6.5) million cases of iNTS disease occur annually (overall incidence 49 cases [range 30-94] per 100,000 population). Africa, where infants, young children, and young adults are most affected, has the highest incidence (227 cases [range 152-341] per 100,000 population) and number of cases (1.9 [range 1.3-2.9] million cases). An iNTS CFR of 20% yielded 681,316 (range 415,164-1,301,520) deaths annually. iNTS disease is a major cause of illness and death globally, particularly in Africa. Improved understanding of the epidemiology of iNTS is needed. PMID:25860298

  11. Evaluation of a serological Salmonella Mix-ELISA for poultry used in a national surveillance programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feld, Niels Christian; Ekeroth, Lars

    2000-01-01

    A Mix-ELISA using lipopolysaccharide antigens from Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis and Typhimurium? was evaluated using samples collected over time in the Danish salmonella surveillance programme for poultry. Serological samples (n = 42813) taken from broiler-breeder flocks after a year of bacteriological monitoring with negative results were used for calculating the flock and individual test specificities, which were 0.997 and 0.999, respectively. Layer flocks from the table egg sector were used for calculation of positive predictive values. In the survey, flocks were examined for salmonella by Mix-ELISA and by faecal culture, and in case of a positive result in either of these a repeated, serological testing was performed, and 60 animals were organ-cultured. If one of these samplings was positive, the flock was declared salmonella infected. In a period of 3 months, 35 flocks were found to be positive in the routine samples. Of these, 32 were serologically positive, 2 both serologically and faecallypositive and 1 flock only faecally positive. For flocks serologically positive in the surveillance programme, a positive-predictive value of 0.62 for organ culture positivity was found, and while considering serological follow-up samples, the value was 0.95.

  12. Serological Survey Of Salmonella gallinarum Antibody In Chickens Around Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okwori AEJ

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A serological survey of the prevalence of antibodies to Salmonella gallinarum among chickens under two different management systems around Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria was carried out using the standard plate agglutination test. The objective of this study was to determine serologically the prevalence of antibodies against Salmonella gallinarum among apparently healthy chickens around Jos. A total of 700 serum samples made up of 450 exotic and 250 local breed of chickens were used for this study with 37.9% seropositvity. In the free range system (19.3% of the flocks sampled were seropositive for Salmonella gallinarium antibodies while in the semi intensive, 18.6% of the flock tested positive. The serum agglutination test (SAT was adapted to the microtitre format used to determine somatic and flagella titres. The antigen used for this study was specific for S. gallinarum, hence differentiation between species infection was assessed in this study. Perhaps the most feasible way to eradicate the disease is to encourage farmers (both small and large scale to break the disease cycle at their levels by embarking on prompt and regular vaccination programmes. It is thus concluded that Salmonella gallinarum (fowl typhoid is present in the area investigated. Fowl typhoid may continue to have a negative effect on the economy of poultry production in Nigeria if not controlled. A statistical analysis was precluded due to inadequate data sets.

  13. Salmonella enterica prevalence in leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in St. Kitts, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Clayton S; Revan, Floyd; Wang, Chengming; Xu, Chuanling; Norton, Terry M; Stewart, Kimberly M; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Soto, Esteban

    2013-09-01

    Salmonella spp. are gram-negative bacteria capable of causing diseases in a wide range of aquatic and terrestrial animals, including humans. Sea and terrestrial turtles have been recognized as carriers of this zoonotic pathogen. In this project, conventional and molecular diagnostic methods were combined to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella enterica in leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) that used the island of St. Kitts, West Indies as a nesting ground during 2011 (n = 21). Isolates obtained from selective media were screened and colonies suspected of being Salmonella spp. were confirmed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence of S. enterica within this sample population during this period was found to be 14.2%. Moreover, due to the increasing risk of antibiotic resistance in enteric bacteria, antimicrobial susceptibility was investigated in all recovered Salmonella spp. isolates utilizing the broth microdilution method. All isolates were susceptible to the lowest concentration of kanamycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole tested. Further research should be pursued to understand the interaction of this bacterial pathogen with the environment, host, and other microbial communities, and to further develop faster, more sensitive, and more specific diagnostic methods. PMID:24063110

  14. Empiema causado por Salmonella typhimurium Pleural empyema caused by Salmonella typhimurium: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA DEL MAR TACCHINI A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El género Salmonella se caracteriza por causar infecciones en el tracto gastrointestinal, debido a la ingesta de alimentos o agua contaminada. También puede causar, con menor frecuencia, infecciones localizadas en diferentes órganos; esto se asocia con inmunodepresión. En este caso se describe un paciente con infección pleuropulmonar por Salmonella typhimurium, que no reportó antecedentes de diarrea previa. Evolucionó favorablemente con tratamiento adecuado.Salmonella species are commonly associated with acute gastroenteritis due to ingestion of contaminated food or water. Extraintestinal infections are less frequent, and most of them occur in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of pleural empyema caused by Salmonella typhimurium, without previous diarrhea or fever. The patient evolved favorably after receiving adequate treatment.

  15. Assessing the Differences in Public Health Impact of Salmonella Subtypes Using a Bayesian Microbial Subtyping Approach for Source Attribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hald, Tine

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella is a major cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. To prioritize interventions and assess the effectiveness of efforts to reduce illness, it is important to attribute salmonellosis to the responsible sources. Studies have suggested that some Salmonella subtypes have a higher health impact than others. Likewise, some food sources appear to have a higher impact than others. Knowledge of variability in the impact of subtypes and sources may provide valuable added information for research, risk management, and public health strategies. We developed a Bayesian model that attributes illness to specific sources and allows for a better estimation of the differences in the ability of Salmonella subtypes and food types to result in reported salmonellosis. The model accommodates data for multiple years and is based on the Danish Salmonella surveillance. The number of sporadic cases caused by different Salmonella subtypes is estimated as a function of the prevalence of these subtypes in the animal-food sources, the amount of food consumed, subtype-related factors, and source-related factors. Our results showed relative differences between Salmonella subtypes in their ability to cause disease. These differences presumably represent multiple factors, such as differences in survivability through the food chain and/or pathogenicity. The relative importance of the source-dependent factors varied considerably over the years, reflecting, among others, variability in the surveillance programs for the different animal sources. The presented model requires estimation of fewer parameters than a previously developed model, and thus allows for a better estimation of these factors to result in reported human disease. In addition, a comparison of the results of the same model using different sets of typing data revealed that the model can be applied to data with less discriminatory power, which is the only data available in many countries. In conclusion, the model allows for the estimation of relative differences between Salmonella subtypes and sources, providing results that will benefit future risk assessment or risk ranking purposes.

  16. Salmonella Gene rma (ramA) and Multiple-Drug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    OpenAIRE

    Straaten, T.; Janssen, R.; Mevius, D. J.; Dissel, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    MarA and its homologue, RamA, have been implicated in multidrug resistance (MDR). RamA overexpression in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli conferred MDR independently of marA. Inactivation of ramA did not affect the antibiotic susceptibilities of wild-type S. enterica serovar Typhimurium or 15 unrelated clinical MDR isolates. Thus, ramA overexpression is not a common MDR mechanism in Salmonella.

  17. Limited Interleukin-18 Response in Salmonella-Infected Murine Macrophages and in Salmonella-Infected Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Elhofy, Adam; Bost, Kenneth L.

    1999-01-01

    Optimal immune responses against an intracellular bacterial pathogen, such as Salmonella, involve the production of gamma interferon (IFN-?), which activates macrophages. It has recently been suggested that, interleukin-18 (IL-18), in addition to IL-12, contributes to the induction of IFN-? following infection. Given this hypothesis, an optimal host immune response against intracellular bacterial pathogens would include the induction of IL-18 secretion by macrophages due to Salmonella infec...

  18. Patogenia de Salmonella enteritidis FT 13a y Salmonella enteritidis biovar Issatschenko en pollos de engorda

    OpenAIRE

    Griselda Ruiz Flores; Fernando Constantino Casas; Pez, Jos U. E. Antonio Quintana L. U. F.; Ez, Carlos Cedillo Pel U. E.; Odette Urquiza Bravo

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la patogenia de Salmonella enteritidis fagotipo 13a (SE FT 13a) y de Salmonella enteritidis biovar Issatschenko fagotipo 6a (SI) en pollitos de engorda de cuatro días de edad. Veintiocho aves por tratamiento fueron inoculadas con dosis de 1 × 108 (SE FT 13a) y 1 × 109 (SI), respectivamente, y 14 pollitos fueron inoculados con solución salina fi siológica (SSF), como testigos negativos. Se tomaron muestras de hígado, bazo, corazón...

  19. Deciphering why Salmonella Gallinarum is less invasive in vitro than Salmonella Enteritidis

    OpenAIRE

    Rossignol, Aurore; Roche, Sylvie; Virlogeux-payant, Isabelle; Wiedemann, Agne?s; Gre?pinet, Olivier; Fredlund, Jennifer; Trotereau, Je?ro?me; Marche?s, Olivier; Que?re?, Pascale; Enninga, Jost; Velge, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella Gallinarum and Salmonella Enteritidis are genetically closely related however associated with different pathologies. Several studies have suggested that S. Gallinarum is less invasive in vitro than S. Enteritidis. In this study we confirm that the S. Gallinarum strains tested were much less invasive than the S. Enteritidis strains tested in cells of avian or human origin. In addition, the S. Gallinarum T3SS-1-dependent ability to invade host cells was delayed by two to three hours ...

  20. Antibiotic Resistance Genes and Salmonella Genomic Island 1 in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Isolated in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Carattoli, Alessandra; Filetici, Emma; Villa, Laura; Dionisi, Anna Maria; Ricci, Antonia; Luzzi, Ida

    2002-01-01

    Fifty-four epidemiologically unrelated multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates, collected between 1992 and 2000 in Italy, were analyzed for the presence of integrons. Strains were also tested for Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1), carrying antibiotic resistance genes in DT104 strains. A complete SGI1 was found in the majority of the DT104 strains. Two DT104 strains, showing resistance to streptomycin-spectinomycin and sulfonamides, carried a partially deleted SGI...

  1. Conservation of Salmonella typhimurium virulence plasmid maintenance regions among Salmonella serovars as a basis for plasmid curing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinge, S A; Curtiss, R

    1990-09-01

    The association of large plasmids with virulence in invasive Salmonella serovars has led to a number of studies designed to uncover the role of these plasmids in virulence. This study addresses two aspects of virulence-associated plasmids. The first is the distribution of the replication and maintenance regions among the plasmids of different Salmonella serovars, and the second is the use of the conserved virulence plasmid par region to provide a rapid method for eliminating the virulence plasmids specifically. Colony blots revealed that the par and repB regions of the S. typhimurium virulence plasmid hybridized with 80% of the isolates of S. choleraesuis, S. dublin, S. enteritidis, S. gallinarum, S. pullorum, and S. typhimurium, while the repC region was not detected in any of the isolates of S. dublin, S. gallinarum, or S. pullorum. None of these maintenance regions was found in any of the 30 additional serovars tested. The large plasmids of those serovars that hybridized with par were labeled with a Kmr insert within parA via P22HTint or P1L4 transduction, which destabilized the plasmids and allowed the rapid isolation of plasmid-free derivatives for all of the serovars, except for S. dublin, which exhibited weak homology with par. PMID:2167294

  2. Salmonella osteomyelitis by sickle cell anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case report of a 28 year old black sickle cell anemia patient with salmonella osteomyelitis of the radius. Aside from sickle cell anemia patients this skeletal complication of enteric salmonellosis is an extreme rarity. Description of the typical roentgenological features includes intracortical fissures and sequestration. (orig.)

  3. Colicinogeny in Salmonella serovars isolated in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Carvalho Campos

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of colicinogeny was made in 748 strains of Salmonella (97 serovars isolated from different sources; human (291, animal (119, environmental (141, food (102 and animal feed (95. Colicin production was detected in 64 strains (8.6%, particularly isolated from foods (30.4%. Col. E1 (53 and Ia (44 were the most frequently observed, especially in S. agona for environment and food sources. Col V production was identified in 5 strains of S. typhimurium within 8 producer cultures isolated from humans. Its relationship with the sources and serovars of Salmonella are discussed.Investigou-se a produção de colicina em 748 amostras de Salmonella (97 sorovares advindas de díferentes fontes: humana (291, animal (119, ambiental (141, de alimentos (102 e rações (95. Detectaram-se 64 amostras (8,6% colicinogênicas, particularmente isoladas de alimentos (30,4%. ColE1 (53 e Ia (44 foram as mais freqüentes, especialmente no sorovar S, agona, de origem ambiental e de alimentos. Identificou-se também a produção de col V em 5 amostras de S. typhimurium dentre 8 culturas produtoras de origem humana. Discute-se a relação entre a capacidade colicinogênica e as fontes e sorovares de Salmonella.

  4. Meningism following Salmonella virchow food poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, P. G.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty six patients were admitted to hospital as a result of Salmonella virchow infection during an outbreak of food poisoning in Essex in 1984. Out of 12 patients with evidence of bloodstream invasion, one third presented primarily with meningism and attention is drawn to this unusual clinical picture.

  5. ALIPHATIC HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS PRODUCE VOLATILE 'SALMONELLA' MUTAGENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production of volatile mutagenic metabolites from 5 halogenated promutagens was examined by a simple modification of the conventional Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay. This method incorporates the taping together of 2 agar plates face to face during the initial portion of ...

  6. Simultaneous detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. in dairy products using real time PCR-melt curve analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Jitender; Batish, Virender K.; Grover, Sunita

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation reports development of post real time PCR (RTi-PCR) - melt curve analysis for simultaneous detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. The optimal Sybr Green I (SG-I) concentration of 1.6 ?M resulted in two specific peaks with melting temperature (Tm) of 79.90?±?0.39 °C and 86.29?±?0.13 °C for L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp respectively. The detection sensitivity of the assay in reconstituted non-fat dried milk (NFDM; 11%) spiked with...

  7. [Mortality in free living siskins (Spinus spinus Linnaeus, 1758) due to Salmonella typhimurium, phage type DT104 and DT013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Alexandra; Redmann, Thomas; Sommer, Dagmar; Antakli, Ali; Kaleta, Erhard F

    2009-09-01

    This report deals with an enzootic due to Salmonella Typhimurium in two free living Eurasian siskins (Spinus spinus Linnaeus, 1758). Other birds in the vicinity of the siskins were not affected. Clinical signs consisted of non-specific symptoms such as ruffled plumage, apathy and reduced food intake. During necropsy, gross lesions were enlarged livers with focal necrosis, pale spleens, enlarged kidneys, pneumonia and enteritis. Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from internal organs in pure culture. Using the polymerase chain reaction, the detection of Salmonella according to EN ISO 6579:2002 was confirmed. The detailed characterisation of both isolates in the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment and in the Robert Koch Institute yielded for the first siskin Salmonella Typhimurium, 4, 5, 12: i : 1, 2, LT DT104, BT a and for the second siskin Salmonella Typhimurium, 4,12 i : 1, 2, LT DT013, BT c. These phage types were identified for the first time in siskins. The detected phage types have importance as causes of disease not only for free living siskins but also as infectious and zoonotic agents for domestic poultry and poultry products. PMID:19813449

  8. Salmonella typhimurium infections in BALB/c mice: a comparison of tissue bioluminescence, tissue cultures and mice clinical scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkaya, Halit; Akcan, Abdullah Baris; Aydemir, Gökhan; Aydinöz, Secil; Razia, Yasmin; Gammon, S T; McKinney, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    In response to systemic infection, mice usually present specific behaviors such as reduced activity and feeding, ruffled fur, hunched position, ataxia and tremor. We aimed to compare tissue bioluminescence, tissue cultures and clinical scores of BALB/c mice as potentially complementary outcome measures of Salmonella disease progression In Balb/c mice. The clinical status of the mice was assessed by visual examination for motility, ruffled fur, hunched position, feeding, ataxia and tremor. Patterns of bioluminescent light emission indicated the progression of infection from the abdominal region (initial site) to secondary tissue sites, which was indicative of systemic infection. As the severity and progression of infection increased, the bioluminescence signal became both more prominent and more anatomically disseminated. Bioluminescent Imaging (BLI) of Salmonella that have been genetically engineered to be bioluminescent is a new method that gives the opportunity to track Salmonella dissemination in mice. BLI is a helpful method to estimate tissue Salmonella concentration and may reduce the number of mice used in experiments, providing the opportunity to obtain serial assessments of disease progression in a single mouse subject. Clinical scores helped us to assess the clinical status of BALB/c mice in systemic Salmonella infections. PMID:22378553

  9. Comparison between VIDAS automatic enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay and culture method for Salmonella recovery from pork carcass sponge samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Kuang-Sheng; Tsai, Chin-En; Chen, Shih-Ping; Liao, Chao-Wei

    2002-10-01

    VIDAS Salmonella (VIDAS-SLM) is an automated system that uses the enzyme-linked fluorescent assay method to detect Salmonella species. This study evaluated the efficacy of the VIDAS-SLM method in detecting Salmonella species in pork carcass sponge samples gathered from 10 slaughter plants in Taiwan. Two hundred fifty-seven pork carcass sponge samples were screened by the VIDAS-SLM method and by the culture method in parallel. While 18 sponge samples were found to test positive by both methods, the VIDAS-SLM method detected four additional positive samples for which the culture method failed to recover Salmonella. The specificity of the VIDAS-SLM method was found to be 0.98, and its sensitivity was 1.0, since no false-negative results occurred. Artificially inoculated Salmonella at concentrations as low as 5.0 x 10(0) CFU/ml was detected in the heat-inactivated sponge sample in the presence or absence of 5.0 x 10(4) CFU of Citrobacter freundii per ml. Thus, the VIDAS-SLM method is a rapid screening method and a potential alternative to the time- and labor-intensive culture method. PMID:12380756

  10. Identification of the domain which determines the g,m serotype of the flagellin of Salmonella enteritidis.

    OpenAIRE

    Asten, A. J.; Zwaagstra, K. A.; Baay, M. F.; Kusters, J. G.; Huis In T Veld, J. H.; Zeijst, B. A.

    1995-01-01

    Clones expressing fragments of the flagellin protein of Salmonella enteritidis were constructed and screened with a g,m-specific monoclonal antibody. Results showed that the g,m epitope is localized between amino acids 258 and 348 of the flagellin. The fliC gene, encoding the flagellin of S. enteritidis, was proven to be the only flagellin gene present in S. enteritidis.

  11. Increasing prevalence of hydrogen sulfide negative Salmonella in retail meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dachuan; Yan, Meiying; Lin, Song; Chen, Sheng

    2014-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production is considered a typical characteristic of Salmonella and an important marker for Salmonella isolation. In this study, a total of 82 (26%) Salmonella strains were isolated from 113 chicken and 204 pork samples, within which 49 Salmonella strains were H2S positive and 33 were H2S negative. Salmonella enterica serovar Derby was most prevalent in both pork and chicken followed by S. Typhimurium in pork and S. Heidelberg in chicken. Salmonella isolated from pork exhibited a much higher H2S positive rate than those from chicken (68% versus 31%). The most prevalent H2S negative serotypes were S. Derby (40%) and S. Heidelberg (30%) in chicken, and S. Typhimurium (23%) and S. Enteritidis (23%) in pork. spvC, a plasmid-encoded virulence marker, was detected in 51% and 42% of the H2S positive and negative Salmonella respectively. The presence of the two most important serotypes, S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, as well as a virulence plasmid in H2S negative Salmonella suggested that H2S negative Salmonella is also a significant public health concern. Such finding warrants the development of an improved method for effective coverage of H2S negative Salmonella. PMID:24929875

  12. Prevalence of salmonella in neck skin and bone of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Diezhang; Alali, W Q; Harrison, M A; Hofacre, C L

    2014-07-01

    Bone-in and boneless parts, such as drumsticks, are used in ground chicken production. In addition, neck skin is used as a source of fat in ground products. Contaminated chicken neck skin and bones containing internalized Salmonella are potential sources of this pathogen in ground chicken. This study determined the prevalence of Salmonella and serotype distribution in drumstick bones and neck skin of postchill chicken carcasses. One week prior to slaughter, chicken houses (n = 26) at nine farms were tested for the presence of Salmonella, using the boot sock method. Chicken flocks from these houses originated from Salmonella-positive breeders. Eight Salmonella-positive chicken flocks and one flock with undetermined Salmonella status were monitored through processing. Three hundred postchill drumsticks and 299 neck skin samples were analyzed for Salmonella prevalence. Skin samples were rinsed and stomached prior to analysis. Bones were extracted from the drumsticks, external surfaces were sterilized, and bones were crushed for analysis. One Salmonella isolate from each positive sample was serogrouped. Half of the isolates representing different sample types were serotyped. Overall, Salmonella was found in 0.8, 21.4, and 80.1% of bone marrow, neck skin, and farms, respectively. Prevalence of Salmonella on rinsed skin samples (2.3%) and stomached skin samples (20.7%) differed significantly (P ? 0.05). Serogroups B, C2, D, and E were found at 23.4, 31.9, 11.7, and 29.8%, respectively. Six Salmonella serotypes were identified: Liverpool (37.9%), Kentucky (27.6%), and Typhimurium (27.6%) were isolated most frequently from neck skin; the two bone isolates were Kentucky; and more than 50% of the farm isolates were Kentucky and Ouakam. Salmonella-contaminated neck skin might be a more significant source of this contamination in ground chicken than Salmonella internalized in bones. PMID:24988028

  13. 21 CFR 500.35 - Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms. 500.35 Section 500.35 ...feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms. (a) Investigations...to be contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms: Bone meal, blood meal, crab...

  14. 77 FR 50372 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ...Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production...Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production...producers to implement measures to prevent Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) from...

  15. 76 FR 41157 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ...Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production...Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production...final rule entitled ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During...

  16. Assessing the potential impact of Salmonella vaccines in an endemically infected dairy herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella spp. in cattle are contributing to bacterial foodborne disease for humans. Reduction of Salmonella prevalence in herds is important to prevent human Salmonella infections. Typical control measures are culling of infectious animals, vaccination, and improved hygiene management. Vaccines ha...

  17. Intranasal immunogenicity of a Delta cya Delta crp-pabA mutant of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium for the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheoran, A S; Timoney, J F; Tinge, S A; Sundaram, P; Curtiss, R

    2001-06-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the intranasal immunogenicity for the horse of a Deltacya Deltacrp-pabA mutant (MGN-707) of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. typhimurium). MGN-707 caused no sign of disease, was not detected in feces and a single administration induced strong Salmonella-specific serum and nasal mucosal antibody responses. All ponies had made strong salmonella specific serum IgGa, IgGb, IgA and IgM antibody responses by day 25 after the first immunization. IgM responses to salmonella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were short lived whereas salmonella specific serum IgGa and IgGb persisted at high levels in all ponies until 83 and 140 days, respectively. Specific nasal mucosal antibody responses dominated by IgA and IgM were evident by day 25 in all ponies except one in which only specific IgGa and IgGb were evident. Specific nasal mucosal IgA persisted in most ponies until day 69. A second immunization on day 140 boosted antibody responses, and stimulated a strong nasal mucosal IgA response in the pony that failed to make an IgA response after primary immunization. At the termination of the experiment, IgA and IgGb dominated jejunal antibody responses whereas vaginal responses were mainly IgA. The latter response unequivocally confirms the existence of a common mucosal immune system in equids. The results indicate that a S. typhimurium Deltacya Deltacrp-pabA mutant has potential as an intranasal vaccine against salmonellosis in the horse. PMID:11395214

  18. Risk assessment of Salmonella in Danish meatballs produced in the catering sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØller, Cleide Oliveira de Almeida; Nauta, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    A modular process risk model approach was used to assess health risks associated with Salmonella spp. after consumption of the Danish meatball product (frikadeller) produced with fresh pork in a catering unit. Meatball production and consumption were described as a series of processes (modules), starting from 1.3 kg meat pieces through conversion to 70 g meatballs, followed by a dose response model to assess the risk of illness from consumption of these meatballs. Changes in bacterial prevalence, concentration, and unit size were modelled within each module. The risk assessment was built using observational data and models that were specific for Salmonella spp. in meatballs produced in the catering sector. Danish meatballs are often pan-fried followed by baking in an oven before consumption, in order to reach the core temperature of 75 degrees C recommended by the Danish Food Safety Authority. However, in practice this terminal heat treatment in the oven may be accidentally omitted. Eleven production scenarios were evaluated with the model, to test the impact of heat treatments and cooling rates at different room temperatures. The risk estimates revealed that a process comprising heat treatment of meatballs to core temperatures higher than 70 degrees C, and subsequent holding at room temperatures lower than 20 degrees C, for no longer than 3.5 h, were very effective in Salmonella control. The current Danish Food Safety Authority recommendation of cooking to an internal temperature of 75 degrees C is conservative, at least with respect to Salmonella risk. Survival and growth of Salmonella during cooling of meatballs not heat treated in oven had a significant impact on the risk estimates, and therefore, cooling should be considered a critical step during meatball processing. (c) 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Oral immunization using live attenuated Salmonella spp. as carriers of foreign antigens.

    OpenAIRE

    Ca?rdenas, L.; Clements, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of techniques, including the use of live oral vaccines, have been used to deliver antigens to the gut-associated lymphoid tissues in an attempt to initiate production of specific secretory immunoglobulin A for protection against pathogens that colonize or cross mucosal surfaces to initiate infection. A number of attenuated Salmonella mutants are able to interact with the lymphoid tissues in the Peyer's patches but are not able to cause systemic disease. Some of these mutants are eff...

  20. Sensitive and rapid molecular detection assays for Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Heidelberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Noelle; Reen, F Jerry; Buckley, James F; Frye, Jonathan G; Boyd, E Fidelma; Gilroy, Deirdre

    2009-11-01

    Salmonella enterica is a significant cause of gastroenteritis worldwide, with serovars Typhimurium and Heidelberg being particularly prevalent, which have broad host ranges infecting poultry, dairy animals, and humans. Traditional methods used for the detection of Salmonella from contaminated food products are time-consuming and labor-intensive. The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive and rapid PCR-based detection method with optimized specificity for high-throughput screening of food and clinical samples. We used bioinformatics to identify potential serovar-specific regions from the available S. enterica sequenced genomes. We designed primer pairs to targeted regions unique to Typhimurium and Heidelberg. A primer pair targeting a putative cytoplasmic protein STM4492 amplified a 759-bp product specific to Typhimurium, and a primer pair targeting a putative inner membrane protein STM2745 amplified a 199-bp product from both Typhimurium and Heidelberg. A primer pair for the oriC locus was used to identify all Salmonella. We screened 217 isolates including the Salmonella reference collections A and B, validating the specificity of each primer set. Next, a multiplex PCR (mPCR) assay and quantitative real-time PCR assay were optimized for identification and differentiation of Typhimurium and Heidelberg. An mPCR assay was developed and successfully detected S. enterica isolates from inoculated Cheddar cheese, raw turkey, and cooked turkey at concentrations as low as 1 CFU/g of food. The reaction conditions for this mPCR have significantly reduced the time needed to identify S. enterica Typhimurium and Heidelberg, making this a rapid selective tool. PMID:19903399

  1. Mimotopes of the Vi Antigen of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Identified from Phage Display Peptide Library

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Swee-seong; Tan, Wen-siang; Devi, Shamala; Wang, Lin-fa; Pang, Tikki; Thong, Kwai-lin

    2003-01-01

    The capsular polysaccharide Vi antigen (ViCPS) is an essential virulence factor and also a protective antigen of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. A random 12-mer phage-displayed peptide library was used to identify mimotopes (epitope analogues) of this antigen by panning against a ViCPS-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb) ATVi. Approximately 75% of the phage clones selected in the fourth round carried the peptide sequence TSHHDSHGLHRV, and the rest of the clones harbored ENHSPVNIAHKL and oth...

  2. Proteome analysis of serovars Typhimurium and Pullorum of Salmonella enterica subspecies I.

    OpenAIRE

    Encheva, V.; Wait, R.; Gharbia, Se; Begum, S.; Shah, Hn

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica subspecies I includes several closely related serovars which differ in host ranges and ability to cause disease. The basis for the diversity in host range and pathogenic potential of the serovars is not well understood, and it is not known how host-restricted variants appeared and what factors were lost or acquired during adaptations to a specific environment. Differences apparent from the genomic data do not necessarily correspond to functional proteins and mo...

  3. Proteome analysis of serovars Typhimurium and Pullorum of Salmonella enterica subspecies I

    OpenAIRE

    Begum Shajna; Gharbia Saheer E; Wait Robin; Encheva Vesela; Shah Haroun N

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Salmonella enterica subspecies I includes several closely related serovars which differ in host ranges and ability to cause disease. The basis for the diversity in host range and pathogenic potential of the serovars is not well understood, and it is not known how host-restricted variants appeared and what factors were lost or acquired during adaptations to a specific environment. Differences apparent from the genomic data do not necessarily correspond to functional protein...

  4. The Role of the st313-td Gene in Virulence of Salmonella Typhimurium ST313

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero-fresno, Ana; Wallrodt, Inke; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ST313 has emerged in sub-Saharan Africa causing severe infections in humans. Therefore, it has been speculated that this specific sequence type, ST313, carries factors associated with increased pathogenicity. We assessed the role in virulence of a gene with a yet unknown function, st313-td, detected in ST313 through comparative genomics. Additionally, the structure of the genomic island ST313-GI, harbouring the gene was determined. T...

  5. A comparative study on the pathogenesis of egg contamination by different serotypes of Salmonella

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Salmonella Enteritidis is the predominant serovar associated with egg-borne salmonellosis in humans. Apparently this serotype possesses particular characteristics that increase its chance to contaminate eggs. To identify these characteristics, 2 Salmonella serotype Enteritidis strains as well as 1 Salmonella Typhimurium, 1 Salmonella Heidelberg, 1 Salmonella Virchow and 1 Salmonella Hadar strain were used to examine different aspects related to egg contamination. After an ...

  6. Use of Rambach Propylene Glycol Containing Agar for identification of Salmonella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Gruenewald, R.; Henderson, R. W.; Yappow, S.

    1991-01-01

    When grown on Rambach Propylene Glycol Containing Agar (Rambach agar), 216 of 230 (93.9%) Salmonella organisms isolated from patients and 54 of 62 (87.1%) Salmonella stock cultures produced a crimson-colored growth. Of the 14 clinical Salmonella isolates which displayed colors other than crimson, 8 were Salmonella typhi, 2 were Salmonella paratyphi A, and 4 belonged to other commonly isolated serotypes. All eight Salmonella stock cultures which failed to produce a crimson color belonged to ra...

  7. Comparing human–Salmonella with plant–Salmonella protein–protein interaction predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleker, Sylvia; Kshirsagar, Meghana; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis is the most frequent foodborne disease worldwide and can be transmitted to humans by a variety of routes, especially via animal and plant products. Salmonella bacteria are believed to use not only animal and human but also plant hosts despite their evolutionary distance. This raises the question if Salmonella employs similar mechanisms in infection of these diverse hosts. Given that most of our understanding comes from its interaction with human hosts, we investigate here to what degree knowledge of Salmonella–human interactions can be transferred to the Salmonella–plant system. Reviewed are recent publications on analysis and prediction of Salmonella–host interactomes. Putative protein–protein interactions (PPIs) between Salmonella and its human and Arabidopsis hosts were retrieved utilizing purely interolog-based approaches in which predictions were inferred based on available sequence and domain information of known PPIs, and machine learning approaches that integrate a larger set of useful information from different sources. Transfer learning is an especially suitable machine learning technique to predict plant host targets from the knowledge of human host targets. A comparison of the prediction results with transcriptomic data shows a clear overlap between the host proteins predicted to be targeted by PPIs and their gene ontology enrichment in both host species and regulation of gene expression. In particular, the cellular processes Salmonella interferes with in plants and humans are catabolic processes. The details of how these processes are targeted, however, are quite different between the two organisms, as expected based on their evolutionary and habitat differences. Possible implications of this observation on evolution of host–pathogen communication are discussed. PMID:25674082

  8. Comparing human-Salmonella with plant-Salmonella protein-protein interaction predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleker, Sylvia; Kshirsagar, Meghana; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis is the most frequent foodborne disease worldwide and can be transmitted to humans by a variety of routes, especially via animal and plant products. Salmonella bacteria are believed to use not only animal and human but also plant hosts despite their evolutionary distance. This raises the question if Salmonella employs similar mechanisms in infection of these diverse hosts. Given that most of our understanding comes from its interaction with human hosts, we investigate here to what degree knowledge of Salmonella-human interactions can be transferred to the Salmonella-plant system. Reviewed are recent publications on analysis and prediction of Salmonella-host interactomes. Putative protein-protein interactions (PPIs) between Salmonella and its human and Arabidopsis hosts were retrieved utilizing purely interolog-based approaches in which predictions were inferred based on available sequence and domain information of known PPIs, and machine learning approaches that integrate a larger set of useful information from different sources. Transfer learning is an especially suitable machine learning technique to predict plant host targets from the knowledge of human host targets. A comparison of the prediction results with transcriptomic data shows a clear overlap between the host proteins predicted to be targeted by PPIs and their gene ontology enrichment in both host species and regulation of gene expression. In particular, the cellular processes Salmonella interferes with in plants and humans are catabolic processes. The details of how these processes are targeted, however, are quite different between the two organisms, as expected based on their evolutionary and habitat differences. Possible implications of this observation on evolution of host-pathogen communication are discussed. PMID:25674082

  9. Large outbreaks of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in Denmark in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethelberg, S; Wingstrand, A; Jensen, T; Sorensen, G; Muller, L; Lisby, M; Nielsen, Em; Molbak, K

    2008-10-30

    An outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type U292 has been ongoing in Denmark since 1 April, with 1,054 cases registered until 23 October 2008. Extensive investigations including hypothesis-generating interviews, matched case-control studies, cohort studies in embedded outbreaks, shopping list analyses, analyses of food samples from patient's homes, trace-back analyses and extensive microbiological analysis of products have not provided clear indications of a specific source of infection but the main hypothesis is that the vehicle of the outbreak are different pork products. In addition to the large U292 outbreak, at least four other S. Typhimurium outbreaks (caused by phage types U288, DT120, DT3 and DT135) have been investigated in Denmark in 2008. PMID:19000563

  10. Large outbreaks of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in Denmark in 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethelberg, S.; Wingstrand, Anne

    2008-01-01

    An outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type U292 has been ongoing in Denmark since 1 April, with 1,054 cases registered until 23 October 2008. Extensive investigations including hypothesis-generating interviews, matched case-control studies, cohort studies in embedded outbreaks, shopping list analyses, analyses of food samples from patient's homes, trace-back analyses and extensive microbiological analysis of products have not provided clear indications of a specific source of infection but the main hypothesis is that the vehicle of the outbreak are different pork products. In addition to the large U292 outbreak, at least four other S. Typhimurium outbreaks (caused by phage types U288, DT120, DT3 and DT135) have been investigated in Denmark in 2008.

  11. Salmonella induces prominent gene expression in the rat colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosing Susanne

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella enteritidis is suggested to translocate in the small intestine. In vivo it induces gene expression changes in the ileal mucosa and Peyer's patches. Stimulation of Salmonella translocation by dietary prebiotics fermented in colon suggests involvement of the colon as well. However, effects of Salmonella on colonic gene expression in vivo are largely unknown. We aimed to characterize time dependent Salmonella-induced changes of colonic mucosal gene expression in rats using whole genome microarrays. For this, rats were orally infected with Salmonella enteritidis to mimic a foodborne infection and colonic gene expression was determined at days 1, 3 and 6 post-infection (n = 8 rats per time-point. As fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS affect colonic physiology, we analyzed colonic mucosal gene expression of FOS-fed versus cellulose-fed rats infected with Salmonella in a separate experiment. Colonic mucosal samples were isolated at day 2 post-infection. Results Salmonella affected transport (e.g. Chloride channel calcium activated 6, H+/K+ transporting Atp-ase, antimicrobial defense (e.g. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein, Defensin 5 and phospholipase A2, inflammation (e.g. calprotectin, oxidative stress related genes (e.g. Dual oxidase 2 and Glutathione peroxidase 2 and Proteolysis (e.g. Ubiquitin D and Proteosome subunit beta type 9. Furthermore, Salmonella translocation increased serum IFN? and many interferon-related genes in colonic mucosa. The gene most strongly induced by Salmonella infection was Pancreatitis Associated Protein (Pap, showing >100-fold induction at day 6 after oral infection. Results were confirmed by Q-PCR in individual rats. Stimulation of Salmonella translocation by dietary FOS was accompanied by enhancement of the Salmonella-induced mucosal processes, not by induction of other processes. Conclusion We conclude that the colon is a target tissue for Salmonella, considering the abundant changes in mucosal gene expression.

  12. Salmonella enterica induces and subverts the plant immune system

    OpenAIRE

    AnaVictoriaGarcia; HeribertHirt

    2014-01-01

    Infections with Salmonella enterica belong to the most prominent causes of food poisoning and infected fruits and vegetables represent important vectors for salmonellosis. Whereas it was shown that plants raise defense responses against Salmonella, these bacteria persist and proliferate in various plant tissues. Recent reports shed light into the molecular interaction between plants and Salmonella, highlighting the defense pathways induced and the means used by the bacteria to escape the plan...

  13. Pathomicrobial studies on Salmonella Gallinarum infection in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Divya Kumari,; Mishra, S. K.; Deepika Lather

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To conduct detailed pathomicrobial studies on Salmonella Gallinarum infection in broiler chickens.Materials and Methods: Bacteriological and pathological studies were conducted on 134 dead poultry birds collected from 23 different farms suspected to be infected with S. Gallinarum.Results: Mortality pattern revealed that maximum mortality occurred in 1-2 week aged birds. Out of 23 Salmonella isolates, 19 samples were identified as S. Gallinarum (9, 12) and 4 samples as Salmonella Enteriti...

  14. Test resultaten van Salmonella typering door de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella in de Lidstaten van de Europese Unie en de EnterNet Laboratoria

    OpenAIRE

    Korver H; Hme, Maas; Lr, Ward; Wjb, Wannet; Am, Henken

    2012-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) organiseerde in samenwerking met Public Health Laboratory Services (PHLS), London, Verenigd Koninkrijk een zevende ringonderzoek aangaande de typering van Salmonella. Zeventien Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) en 15 EnterNet Laboratoria (ENLs) namen deel aan deze studie. Drie van de NRLs zijn eveneens ENL. De resultaten van deze drie NRL-EN...

  15. Characterization of multidrug-resistant, qnrB2-positive and extended-spectrum-b-lactamase-producing Salmonella Concord and Salmonella Senftenberg isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Veldman, K.; Dierikx, C.; Essen-zandbergen, A.; Pelt, W.; Mevius, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To characterize plasmids and resistance genes of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella Senftenberg and Salmonella Concord isolated from patients in the Netherlands. Methods: The resistance genes of four MDR Salmonella isolates (three Salmonella Concord and one Salmonella Senftenberg) were identified by miniaturized microarray, PCR and sequencing. Plasmids were characterized by S1 nuclease-PFGE and PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT). Linkage between plasmids and genes was ...

  16. Characterization of multidrug-resistant, qnrB2-positive and extended-spectrum-?-lactamase-producing Salmonella Concord and Salmonella Senftenberg isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Veldman, K. T.; Dierikx, C. M.; Essen-zandbergen, A.; Pelt, W.; Mevius, D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To characterize plasmids and resistance genes of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella Senftenberg and Salmonella Concord isolated from patients in the Netherlands. Methods The resistance genes of four MDR Salmonella isolates (three Salmonella Concord and one Salmonella Senftenberg) were identified by miniaturized microarray, PCR and sequencing. Plasmids were characterized by S1 nuclease-PFGE and PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT). Linkage between plasmids and genes was determined by ...

  17. Test resultaten van Salmonella typering door de NRLs-Salmonella in de Lidstaten van de EU en door de EnterNet Laboratoria

    OpenAIRE

    Korver H; Hme, Maas; Ka, Mooijman; Lr, Ward; Dj, Mevius; Wjb, Wannet; Am, Henken

    2007-01-01

    The eighth collaborative typing study for Salmonella was organised by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, The Netherlands) in collaboration with the Public Health Laboratory Services (PHLS, London, United Kingdom) and the Central Institute for Animal Disease Control - Section Infectious Diseases (CIDC, Lelystad, The Netherlands).Seventeen National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) and fifteen Enter-Net laborator...

  18. Evaluation of three commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of antibodies against Salmonella spp. in meat juice from finishing pigs in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico, J P; Engel, B; Buist, W G; Mainar-Jaime, R C

    2010-11-01

    The control of animal salmonellosis is considered as a major objective in Europe and indirect ELISAs will be important tools for the implementation of control programs for this infection in pigs. We analyse the results yielded by three commercial ELISAs (Herdcheck Swine Salmonella, SALMOTYPE Pig Screen, and PrioCHECK Salmonella) on meat juice samples from a population of slaughter pigs of Aragon, NW Spain, to assess their efficacy using traditional and latent-class approaches. Overall, the Herdcheck Swine Salmonella detected more Salmonella-infected pigs than the other two tests, but its relative sensitivity was low (65.9%). A similar result was observed when only serotypes detectable by this test were considered (69.1%). When a Bayesian approach was used the Herdcheck Swine Salmonella showed also the highest overall accuracy (sensitivity = 88% and specificity = 74%). Our results suggest that a relatively small proportion of the observed prevalence in herds would be explained by using these ELISAs. Also, this study points out that when different ELISA tests are used within the same herd, results may differ substantially. Thus, caution is advised if it is decided to use these assays for herd health classification in Spanish Salmonella control programs. PMID:21083824

  19. Salmonella profile in chickens determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and bacteriology from years 2000 to 2003 in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyigor, Aysegul; Goncagul, Gulsen; Gunaydin, Elcin; Carli, K Tayfun

    2005-04-01

    From years 2000 to 2003, Salmonella was investigated from a total of 1785 samples comprised of chicken intestinal samples, cloacal swabs, drag swabs, litter samples and chick dust samples collected from 191 poultry breeding flocks belonging to 15 different chicken breeding stock companies in the Marmara region, Turkey by a SYBR green-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (SGBRT-PCR), by a probe-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PSRT-PCR) and by standardized bacteriology as described in the manual of National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxillary Provisions, United States Department of Agriculture. Between January 2000 and July 2001, Salmonella was detected at the rates of 5.87% and 4.10% out of a total of 1242 samples by SGBRT-PCR and bacteriology, respectively. From July 2001 until December 2003, Salmonella was found at rates of 11.42% and 5.52% from a total of 543 samples by PSRT-PCR and bacteriology, respectively. The dominant Salmonella serovar was determined as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis), while serogroup C1 and C2 in 2001 and serogroup E1 in 2002 were isolated as additional serovars. As a conclusion, S. Enteritidis seems to be the major problem in poultry breeding flocks in Turkey, and both of the real-time polymerase chain reaction methods were found more sensitive than standard bacteriology for the detection of Salmonella from poultry samples. PMID:16191689

  20. Detecção de Salmonella Anatum em ema (Rhea americana) / Detection of Salmonella Anatum in the Greater Rhea (Rhea americana)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosecler Alves, Pereira; Cláudio Wageck, Canal; Verônica, Schmidt.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Para pesquisa de Salmonella spp. foram coletadas amostras de fígado e conteúdo cecal de 70 emas (Rhea americana) abatidas no Rio Grande do Sul - Brasil. Uma colônia morfológica e bioquimicamente compatível com Salmonella spp., isolada de uma amostra de fígado, foi sorotipada como Salmonella Anatum. [...] Considerando-se o alto potencial zoonótico deste microrganismo, destaca-se a relevância do controle microbiológico efetivo em frigoríficos que abatem espécies silvestres, assim como no produto final. Abstract in english In aiming to investigate the Salmonella spp. presence in one slaughterhouse in Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil, liver and cecum samples from 70 Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) were collected. One Salmonella-like colonie was serologically typed and identified as Salmonella Anatum. Considering the high zoono [...] tical potential of this microorganism, an effective microbiological control of wild animal slaughterhouses and the final product is needed.

  1. Detecção de Salmonella Anatum em ema (Rhea americana Detection of Salmonella Anatum in the Greater Rhea (Rhea americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosecler Alves Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Para pesquisa de Salmonella spp. foram coletadas amostras de fígado e conteúdo cecal de 70 emas (Rhea americana abatidas no Rio Grande do Sul - Brasil. Uma colônia morfológica e bioquimicamente compatível com Salmonella spp., isolada de uma amostra de fígado, foi sorotipada como Salmonella Anatum. Considerando-se o alto potencial zoonótico deste microrganismo, destaca-se a relevância do controle microbiológico efetivo em frigoríficos que abatem espécies silvestres, assim como no produto final.In aiming to investigate the Salmonella spp. presence in one slaughterhouse in Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil, liver and cecum samples from 70 Greater Rhea (Rhea americana were collected. One Salmonella-like colonie was serologically typed and identified as Salmonella Anatum. Considering the high zoonotical potential of this microorganism, an effective microbiological control of wild animal slaughterhouses and the final product is needed.

  2. Detection of Salmonella bacterium in drinking water using microring resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadoran, Mahdi; Noorden, Ahmad Fakhrurrazi Ahmad; Mohajer, Faeze Sadat; Abd Mubin, Mohamad Helmi; Chaudhary, Kashif; Jalil, Muhammad Arif; Ali, Jalil; Yupapin, Preecha

    2014-08-18

    A new microring resonator system is proposed for the detection of the Salmonella bacterium in drinking water, which is made up of SiO2-TiO2 waveguide embedded inside thin film layer of the flagellin. The change in refractive index due to the binding of the Salmonella bacterium with flagellin layer causes a shift in the output signal wavelength and the variation in through and drop port's intensities, which leads to the detection of Salmonella bacterium in drinking water. The sensitivity of proposed sensor for detecting of Salmonella bacterium in water solution is 149 nm/RIU and the limit of detection is 7 × 10(- 4)RIU. PMID:25133457

  3. Reduction of Salmonella on inoculated almonds exposed to hot oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wen-Xian; Abd, Shirin J; McCarthy, Kathryn L; Harris, Linda J

    2010-07-01

    The heat resistance of Salmonella inoculated onto almonds was determined after immersion in hot oil. Whole almonds were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 or Salmonella Senftenberg 775W and heated in oil. After heating, almonds were drained, transferred to cold tryptic soy broth, and mixed with a stomacher, and samples were plated onto tryptic soy and bismuth sulfite agars. Salmonella survivor inactivation curves were upwardly concave. Rapid reductions of 2.9, 3.0, or 3.6 log CFU/g for Salmonella Enteritidis were observed after 30 s of exposure to oil at 116, 121, or 127 degrees C, respectively. Thereafter, reduction occurred at a much slower rate. Similar reductions were observed at 127 degrees C for Salmonella Senftenberg. The Weibull model was used to predict 4- and 5-log reductions of Salmonella Enteritidis after 0.74 and 1.3 min at 127 degrees C, respectively. Neither Salmonella serovar could be recovered by enrichment of 1-g samples after almonds inoculated at 5 log CFU/g were exposed to oil at 127 degrees C for 1.5 min. Standard oil roasting times and temperatures that achieve acceptable kernel color and texture should result in much greater than 5-log reductions of Salmonella in almonds. PMID:20615336

  4. Bacillus subtilis (DSM17299) significantly reduces Salmonella in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knap, I; Kehlet, A B; Bennedsen, M; Mathis, G F; Hofacre, C L; Lumpkins, B S; Jensen, M M; Raun, M; Lay, A

    2011-08-01

    Salmonella continues to be a major public health burden worldwide. Poultry are known to be one of the main reservoirs for this zoonotic pathogen. It has previously been shown that a single dose of Bacillus subtilis reduces fecal shedding of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, whereas no effect on long-term colonization of the cecum has been observed. Here we report experiments that were undertaken to test the efficacy of a conventional diet supplemented with a probiotic (B. subtilis DSM17299) on 1) Salmonella colonization in the intestinal tract of broiler chickens, and 2) fecal shedding of Salmonella under production-like conditions. The trial birds fed the B. subtilis diet showed a significant 58% reduction in Salmonella-positive drag swabs compared with control birds, which had 100% presence of Salmonella. Feeding B. subtilis significantly reduced the average Salmonella load of cecum samples of the chickens, by 3 log units. This reduction in Salmonella colonization might not only positively affect broilers on the live production side by reducing the risk of infection between birds, but could also aid on the processing side by decreasing the amount of Salmonella entering the facility and improving food safety. Furthermore, numerical, but not statistically significant, improvements in feed conversion rate and BW gain at d 42 were observed in the B. subtilis-treated group compared with control birds. PMID:21753205

  5. Isolation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis from Houseflies (Musca domestica) Found in Rooms Containing Salmonella Serovar Enteritidis-Challenged Hens?

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Peter S.; Geden, Christopher J.; Moore, Randle W.; Gast, Richard K.

    2007-01-01

    Houseflies (Musca domestica) released into rooms containing hens challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella serovar Enteritidis) rapidly became contaminated with Salmonella serovar Enteritidis. Forty to 50% of the flies were contaminated at 48 h, and the percentage increased to 50 to 70% at 4 and 7 days postexposure and then decreased to 30% at day 15. Initial attempts at recovering surface organisms for culture using an aqueous rinse were largely unsuccessful, while ...

  6. Cholestatic hepatitis due to Salmonella typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Seda Gunbey

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella infection occurs worldwide and is still an important public health problem in many developing countries. The infection can affect almost all major organs including the liver. Severe hepatic involvement with a clinical feature of acute hepatitis is a rare complication. In this paper, a 39-year-old male with acute cholestatic typhoid hepatitis is presented. The case had a tender hepatomegaly and elevated serum alanine and aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma glutamyl transferase levels; these features cannot been distinguished from those of acute viral hepatitis. Serological and viral markers of acute viral hepatitis were negative. No pathology could be determined in abdomen Ultrasonography (USG or Magnetic Reso - nance (MR Cholangiography. As enteric fever is a common infection, the recognition of salmonella hepatitis is of clinical importance. When patients from an endemic or outbreak area present acute febrile hepatitis, typhoid fever should be a consideration.

  7. Faecal Salmonella shedding in fattening pigs in relation to the presence of Salmonella antibodies in three pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marianne Kjær; SØrensen, Jan Tind

    2012-01-01

    Human salmonellosis originating from pork is an important zoonotic disease, and the production of outdoor pigs may increase the risk of contaminating the food chain with Salmonella from environmental sources. The prevalence of faecal Salmonella shedding has therefore been compared in organic, conventional outdoor and indoor finishing pig herds in a Danish survey with participation of 34 herds. Individual faecal samples were collected from 30 to 50 pigs per herd before and after transport to slaughter and analysed for the presence of Salmonella. Further meat juice samples were collected from the pigs at slaughter and analysed for the presence of Salmonella antibodies. The results showed a low level of on-farm Salmonella shedding (overall prevalence 0.8%), while 2.3% of the pigs were shedding Salmonella at slaughter, with no significant differences between systems. The overall seroprevalence was 5.4% with no significant differences between systems. Pigs with Salmonella shedding on farm were more likely to also be shedding Salmonella at slaughter (P<0.001). The serological test result was a significant predictor of Salmonella shedding at slaughter in indi-vidual pigs from conventional systems, but not in organic pigs (P<0.05). © 2012.

  8. Signatures of Adaptation in Human Invasive Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 Populations from Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Chinyere K.; Barquist, Lars; Connor, Thomas R.; Harris, Simon R.; Clare, Simon; Stevens, Mark P.; Arends, Mark J.; Hale, Christine; Kane, Leanne; Pickard, Derek J.; Hill, Jennifer; Harcourt, Katherine; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon; Kingsley, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Two lineages of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) of multi-locus sequence type ST313 have been linked with the emergence of invasive Salmonella disease across sub-Saharan Africa. The expansion of these lineages has a temporal association with the HIV pandemic and antibiotic usage. We analysed the whole genome sequence of 129 ST313 isolates representative of the two lineages and found evidence of lineage-specific genome degradation, with some similarities to that observed in S. Typhi. Individual ST313 S. Typhimurium isolates exhibit a distinct metabolic signature and modified enteropathogenesis in both a murine and cattle model of colitis, compared to S. Typhimurium outside of the ST313 lineages. These data define phenotypes that distinguish ST313 isolates from other S. Typhimurium and may represent adaptation to a distinct pathogenesis and lifestyle linked to an-immuno-compromised human population. PMID:25803844

  9. Enterotoxigenicity of diarrhoeal isolates of Salmonella bareilly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashisht, N; Sharma, K D; Saxena, M

    1991-07-01

    Whole cell cultures, cell-free supernatants, and cell sonicates from ten strains of Salmonella bareilly induced fluid accumulation in ligated rabbit and rat ileal loops. All strains had an intracellular vascular permeability factor, half were suckling mouse positive indicating the presence of a heat-stable type of activity. The toxin(s), however, were Immunologically distinct from the heat-labile toxin of Escherichia coll LT and cholera toxin. Besides enterotoxigenicity, all strains exhibited potential Invasive character. PMID:24425137

  10. Contrasting persistence strategies in Salmonella and Mycobacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Tischler, Anna D.; Mckinney, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term survival of persistent bacterial pathogens in mammalian hosts critically depends on their ability to avoid elimination by innate and adaptive immune responses. The persistent human pathogens that cause typhoid fever and tuberculosis exemplify alternative strategies for survival in the host: immune evasion and immune adaptation, respectively. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi evades host innate immune responses and inflammation by expressing factors that interfere with its detection...

  11. Certificatie van Salmonella in melkpoeder, een voorstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Ph, Veld In Apos T.; Ngwm, Strijp-lockefeer; Ja, Hoekstra

    2012-01-01

    A feasibility study was undertaken for the certification of a reference material containing low numbers of Salmonella. A batch of 8800 capcules was prepared and eleven laboratories each enumerated 50 capsules from this batch, according to a standardized procedure. The results from four laboratories were excluded from the analysis of data after the first step of the statistical analysis based on their results found for homogeneity and mean contamination level. The ...

  12. Alfalfa Seed Decontamination in Salmonella Outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Christopher J.; Keene, William E.; Mohle-boetani, Janet C.; Farrar, Jeff A.; Waller, Patti L.; Hahn, Christine G.; Cieslak, Paul R.

    2003-01-01

    Based on in vitro data, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommends chemical disinfection of raw sprout seeds to reduce enteric pathogens contaminating the seed coats. However, little is known about the effectiveness of decontamination at preventing human disease. In 1999, an outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Mbandaka occurred in Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and California. Based on epidemiologic and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis evidence from 87 confirmed cases, the outbreak was...

  13. Salmonella-based Rodenticides and Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Painter, John A.; Mølbak, Ka?re; Sonne-hansen, Jacob; Barrett, Tim; Wells, Joy G.; Tauxe, Robert V.

    2004-01-01

    Several countries still permit strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis, a leading cause of gastrointestinal illness in humans, to be used in rat baits. To assess the human health risk associated with such rat bait, we first reviewed historic data on health hazards associated with Ratin, a rodenticide that was used in Europe until the early 1960s. Ratin caused outbreaks of human illness, including several deaths. We then compared S. Enteritidis isolated from a current commercial pr...

  14. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology of Salmonella Rissen from animals, food products, and patients in Thailand and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Bangtrakulnonth, Aroon

    2008-01-01

    Recently we reported increases in both the number of Salmonella infections due to Salmonella Rissen in Thailand and the isolation of this serovar from pork products in Thailand. The objectives of the present study were to determine the genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella Rissen isolates recovered from humans, food products, and animals in Denmark and Thailand. Additionally, risk factors due to travel and consumption of specific food products were analyzed and evaluated. A total of 112 Salmonella Rissen isolates were included in this study from Thailand and Denmark. Thai isolates were recovered from humans, uncooked food, and ready-to-eat food. Danish isolates were obtained from humans (with and without a history of travel to Thailand prior to the infection), Danish pig or pork products, imported pig or pork products, turkeys, and animal feed. A total of 63 unique XbaIPFGE patterns were observed. The predominant pattern was shared by 22 strains. Limited antimicrobial resistance was observed in the Danish strains, and a higher degree of resistance was observed in strains originating from Thailand. Virtually all isolates were resistant to tetracycline. The tetA gene was detected in tetracycline-resistant isolates. Statistical analysis and molecular subtyping identified the combination of travel to Thailand and consumption of imported pig or pork products as well consumption of as pig or pork products produced in Denmark as risk factors for Salmonella Rissen infection among the Danish patients. The outcome of this study might be used as a supplement for future Salmonella Rissen investigations and outbreak detection.

  15. Vidas UP-enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay based on recombinant phage protein and fluorescence in situ hybridization as alternative methods for detection of Salmonella enterica serovars in meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadernowska, Anna; Chaj?cka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta; K??bukowska, Lucyna

    2014-09-01

    Several methods for the rapid and specific detection of Salmonella spp. in meat have been described. This study was conducted to evaluate the capability of the VIDAS(®) UP (SPT [Salmonella Phage Technology]), an enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay method, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to complement the International Organization for Standardization Method 6579 (ISO) in detecting Salmonella spp. from beef, pork, and poultry meat samples. The meat was inoculated with a mixture of Salmonella spp. on three levels of contamination. It was also checked that the tests did not produce cross-reactions with other Enterobacteriaceae rods. On the basis of the results, the relative specificity, relative accordance, and relative sensitivity of the method were determined. In meat samples, Vidas UP and FISH detection results were in substantial agreement with ISO, with relative specificity, accordance, and sensitivity rates of 90%, 96.3%, and 100%, respectively, for Vidas UP and 100%, 100%, and 99.4%, respectively, for FISH. This is the first report on the evaluation of both Vidas UP and FISH compared to ISO for the rapid detection of Salmonella enterica serovars in meat. PMID:24971928

  16. Distribution of virulence plasmids within Salmonellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, M J; McLaren, I; Wray, C

    1989-03-01

    The virulence region of the Salmonella dublin 50 MDa plasmid shared homology with 678 of 1021 salmonellae tested in colony hybridization experiments. The majority of S. dublin, S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis isolates tested hybridized with the region whereas, with the exception of S. hessarek, S. pullorum and S. gallinarum, other serotypes did not. Homologous virulence regions were plasmid encoded. In S. typhimurium a common 60 MDa plasmid was present in all phage types tested but not in DT4, DT37 and DT170. Smaller plasmids showing partial homology were found in DT12, DT18, DT193 and DT204C. In S. enteritidis a distinct plasmid profile for each of eight phage types was observed. Hybridizing plasmids were found in DT3, DT4, DT8, DT9 and DT11 whereas DT7, which was plasmid free, and DT10 and DT14, which harboured plasmids, did not hybridize. The extent of homology shared between S. dublin, S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis virulence plasmids was about 10 MDa and appeared conserved. Virulence plasmids from S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis did not show homology with a region of the S. dublin 50 MDa plasmid which was not associated with virulence functions whereas plasmids of about 24 MDa and 38 MDa in some S. typhimurium phage types did. The association of conserved virulence regions upon differing plasmids within salmonellae is discussed with reference to possible mechanisms of distribution and evolution of virulence genes. PMID:2621439

  17. Isolation of Salmonella typhimurium from outbreak-associated cake mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guodong; Ma, Li; Patel, Nehal; Swaminathan, Bala; Wedel, Stephanie; Doyle, Michael P

    2007-04-01

    During May and June of 2005, 26 persons in several states were infected by a single strain (isolates indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium after eating cake batter ice cream. The cake mix used to prepare the cake batter in the ice cream was implicated by epidemiologic investigation as the source of Salmonella contamination. Initial tests did not detect Salmonella in cake mix collected during the outbreak investigation. The objective of this study was to evaluate different procedures to isolate Salmonella from the implicated cake mix, cake, and ice cream. All outbreak-associated food samples (14 samples) were collected during the outbreak investigation by health departments of several of the states involved. Different combinations of Salmonella isolation procedures, including sample size, preenrichment broth, enrichment broth, enrichment temperature, and isolation medium, were used. Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from two cake mix samples; the food isolates were indistinguishable from the outbreak pattern by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis subtyping. Universal preenrichment broth was substantially better than was lactose broth for preenrichment, and tetrathionate broth was better than was Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth for isolating Salmonella from the two positive cake mix samples. Although more typical Salmonella colonies were observed on plates from enrichment cultures grown at 35 degrees C, more confirmed Salmonella isolates were obtained from plates of enrichment cultures grown at 42 degrees C. Brilliant green agar, xylose lysine tergitol 4 agar, xylose lysine desoxycholate agar, Hektoen enteric agar, and bismuth sulfite agar plates were equally effective in isolating Salmonella from cake mix. The best combination of preenrichment-enrichment conditions for isolating the outbreak strain of Salmonella was preenrichment of cake mix samples in universal preenrichment broth at 35 degrees C for 24 h, followed by enrichment in tetrathionate broth at 42 degrees C for 24 h. PMID:17477273

  18. Lipopolysaccharides belonging to different Salmonella serovars are differentially capable of activating Toll-like receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessa, Daniela; Spiga, Luisella; De Riu, Nicola; Delaconi, Paola; Mazzarello, Vittorio; Ganau, Giulia; Rubino, Salvatore

    2014-11-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar (serotype) Abortusovis is a member of the Enterobacteriaceae. This serotype is naturally restricted to ovine species and does not infect humans. Limited information is available about the immune response of sheep to S. Abortusovis. S. Abortusovis, like Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi, causes a systemic infection in which, under natural conditions, animals are not able to raise a rapid immune response. Failure to induce the appropriate response allows pathogens to reach the placenta and results in an abortion. Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are specific to bacteria and are not synthesized by the host. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of receptors that specifically recognize PAMPs. As a first step, we were able to identify the presence of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on the ovine placenta by using an immunohistochemistry technique. To our knowledge, this is the first work describing the interaction between S. Abortusovis LPS and TLR4. Experiments using an embryonic cell line (HEK293) transfected with human and ovine TLR4s showed a reduction of interleukin 8 (IL-8) production by S. Abortusovis and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Paratyphi upon LPS stimulation compared to Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Identical results were observed using heat-killed bacteria instead of LPS. Based on data obtained with TLR4 in vitro stimulation, we demonstrated that the serotype S. Abortusovis is able to successfully evade the immune system whereas S. Typhimurium and other serovars fail to do so. PMID:25135686

  19. Simultaneous detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. in dairy products using real time PCR-melt curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jitender; Batish, Virender K; Grover, Sunita

    2012-04-01

    The present investigation reports development of post real time PCR (RTi-PCR) - melt curve analysis for simultaneous detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. The optimal Sybr Green I (SG-I) concentration of 1.6 ?M resulted in two specific peaks with melting temperature (Tm) of 79.90?±?0.39 °C and 86.29?±?0.13 °C for L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp respectively. The detection sensitivity of the assay in reconstituted non-fat dried milk (NFDM; 11%) spiked with the target pathogens at different levels was 3 log cfu per ml of each pathogen. However, the sensitivity was improved up to 1 log cfu per ml by including pre-enrichment step of 6 h. On application of assay on 60 market samples, one sample each of raw milk and ice cream was detected positive for L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. Assay was quite specific as no cross reactivity with non target cultures could be observed. The developed assay can find valuable application in monitoring dairy products for the presence of L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. to ensure their microbiological quality and safety. PMID:23572847

  20. Cambios epidemiológicos de las salmonelosis en Chile: Desde Salmonella typhi a Salmonella enteritidis CHANGES IN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PATTERNS OF SALMONELLOSIS IN CHILE: SINCE Salmonella typhi TO Salmonella enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERTO FICA C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Chile ha experimentado un cambio epidemiológico en la última década con la desaparición progresiva de la fiebre tifoidea causada mayoritariamente por Salmonella typhi y la emergencia epidémica de Salmonella enteritidis, un agente de diarrea sin tratamiento específico eficaz y ligado estrechamente a productos avícolas contaminados e inadecuadamente preparados. La fiebre tifoidea ha disminuido su importancia debido al desarrollo humano experimentado en Chile que ha significado un alto grado de cobertura de agua potable y de manejo de excretas, en conjunto con un mayor nivel de educación, factores que limitan la contaminación del ambiente por este agente y la adquisición de él por huéspedes susceptibles. A pesar de este notable avance, un nuevo serotipo de salmonela ha irrumpido en Chile, denominado enteritidis, que ha logrado aprovechar el nuevo escenario logrado con la industrialización avícola donde miles de aves ahora conviven en pequeños espacios facilitando la infección cruzada entre ellas. La contaminación intermitente de huevos por vía transovárica o superficial permite la llegada de este agente en forma errática pero persistente al ser humano. Este nuevo escenario y la ausencia de un tratamiento antimicrobiano eficaz para este agente, obligan a que nuestro país adopte nuevas estrategias de prevención que involucran a productores, distribuidores y consumidores de productos avícolasChile has experienced a dramatic epidemiologic change in the last decade with a progressive decline in typhoid fever, -a disease mainly associated to Salmonella typhi- and the parallel emergence of Salmonella enteritidis. This pathogen causes diarrhea by the ingestion of contaminated avian products, and differs from S. typhi because it does not have an effective antibiotic treatment. Typhoid fever rates have declined due to global human development in Chile that has reached a high coverage in tap water provision, higher educational rates, and feces and solid waste disposal. These factors limit the spread of S. typhi in the environment or the adquisition of this pathogen by susceptible hosts. Despite this remarkable achievement, another Salmonella serotype has irrupted and has taken advantage of the new scenario where thousand of lay hens share closed spaces facilitating the horizontal transfer of S. enteritidis. Intermitent inoculation of eggs either by a transovaric route or by simple superficial contamination allow that this agent reaches human hosts in an sporadic but persistent way. The new epidemiological condition requires adoption of different preventive strategies that should involve health authorities, producers, retail-market distributors and consumers of the avian food industry

  1. Cambios epidemiológicos de las salmonelosis en Chile: Desde Salmonella typhi a Salmonella enteritidis / CHANGES IN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PATTERNS OF SALMONELLOSIS IN CHILE: SINCE Salmonella typhi TO Salmonella enteritidis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ALBERTO, FICA C.; MARCELA, ALEXANDRE S.; SOLEDAD, PRAT M.; ALDA, FERNÁNDEZ R.; JORGE, FERNÁNDEZ O.; INGRID, HEITMANN G..

    Full Text Available Chile ha experimentado un cambio epidemiológico en la última década con la desaparición progresiva de la fiebre tifoidea causada mayoritariamente por Salmonella typhi y la emergencia epidémica de Salmonella enteritidis, un agente de diarrea sin tratamiento específico eficaz y ligado estrechamente a [...] productos avícolas contaminados e inadecuadamente preparados. La fiebre tifoidea ha disminuido su importancia debido al desarrollo humano experimentado en Chile que ha significado un alto grado de cobertura de agua potable y de manejo de excretas, en conjunto con un mayor nivel de educación, factores que limitan la contaminación del ambiente por este agente y la adquisición de él por huéspedes susceptibles. A pesar de este notable avance, un nuevo serotipo de salmonela ha irrumpido en Chile, denominado enteritidis, que ha logrado aprovechar el nuevo escenario logrado con la industrialización avícola donde miles de aves ahora conviven en pequeños espacios facilitando la infección cruzada entre ellas. La contaminación intermitente de huevos por vía transovárica o superficial permite la llegada de este agente en forma errática pero persistente al ser humano. Este nuevo escenario y la ausencia de un tratamiento antimicrobiano eficaz para este agente, obligan a que nuestro país adopte nuevas estrategias de prevención que involucran a productores, distribuidores y consumidores de productos avícolas Abstract in english Chile has experienced a dramatic epidemiologic change in the last decade with a progressive decline in typhoid fever, -a disease mainly associated to Salmonella typhi- and the parallel emergence of Salmonella enteritidis. This pathogen causes diarrhea by the ingestion of contaminated avian products, [...] and differs from S. typhi because it does not have an effective antibiotic treatment. Typhoid fever rates have declined due to global human development in Chile that has reached a high coverage in tap water provision, higher educational rates, and feces and solid waste disposal. These factors limit the spread of S. typhi in the environment or the adquisition of this pathogen by susceptible hosts. Despite this remarkable achievement, another Salmonella serotype has irrupted and has taken advantage of the new scenario where thousand of lay hens share closed spaces facilitating the horizontal transfer of S. enteritidis. Intermitent inoculation of eggs either by a transovaric route or by simple superficial contamination allow that this agent reaches human hosts in an sporadic but persistent way. The new epidemiological condition requires adoption of different preventive strategies that should involve health authorities, producers, retail-market distributors and consumers of the avian food industry

  2. Comparison of DNA probe, PCR amplification, ELISA and culture methods for the rapid detection of Salmonella in poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The detection of foodborne microorganisms has traditionally been done using microbiologically based methods. Such methods are generally reliable but have the disadvantage of being labor intensive, subjective, and time consuming. This study was conducted to compare molecular techniques and immunoassay to the culture methods for detection of Salmonella in food. The identification of Salmonella sp. from poultry meat was studied by comparing bacterial detection using the Gene-Trak colorimetric hybridization method, PCR amplification kit and ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay), compared to the conventional methodology proposed by US FDA for detection of Salmonella in food samples. A total of forty samples which included positive and negative controls, were studied. The detection limits of the PCR assay were 10''2 and 10''1 CFU/ml after enrichment at 37 deg. C for 6 and 9 hr, respectively. When the assay was validated, S. enteric in artificially inoculated meat, 101 CFU/g was detected. The hybridization assay was able to detect as little as 100 pg of purified chromosomal DNA of S. typhimurium and 10 CFU g-l of artificially contaminated food sample. The sensitivity and specificity value of ELISA compared to the DNA amplification were 91.3% and 100%, respectively. Good enrichment procedures are very important to achieve a detection limit of approx. 10''5 cell/ml. All the three methods investigated demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for Salmonella ensitivity and specificity for Salmonella in comparison to conventional standard bacteriological methods. Economic reasons may determine whether these alternative methods can be used routinely in food inspection. (author)

  3. The Molecular Epidemiological Characteristics and Genetic Diversity of Salmonella Typhimurium in Guangdong, China, 2007–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanhui; He, Dongmei; Li, Xiaocui; Liang, Zhaoming; Ke, Changwen

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is the most important serovar associated with human salmonellosis worldwide. Here we aimed to explore the molecular epidemiology and genetic characteristics of this serovar in Guangdong, China. Methodology We evaluated the molecular epidemiology and genetic characteristics of 294 endemic Salmonella Typhimurium clinical isolates which were collected from 1977 to 2011 in Guangdong, China, and compared them with a global set of isolates of this serovar using epidemiological data and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) analysis. Principal Finding The 294 isolates were assigned to 13 Sequencing types (STs) by MLST, of which ST34 and ST19 were the most common in Guangdong. All the STs were further assigned to two eBurst Groups, eBG1 and eBG138. The eBG1 was the major group endemic in Guangdong. Nucleotide and amino acid variability were comparable for all seven MLST loci. Tajima’s D test suggested positive selection in hisD and thrA genes (p0.05). In addition, The Tajima’s D test within each eBG using the global set of isolates showed positive selection in eBG1 and eBG138 (p0.05). We also analyzed the phylogenetic structure of Salmonella Typhimurium from worldwide sources and found that certain STs are geographically restricted. ACSSuT was the predominant multidrug resistance pattern for this serovar. The resistant profiles ACSSuTTmNaG, ACSSuTTmNa and ACSuTTmNaG seem to be specific for ST34, and ASSuTNa for ST19. Conclusion Here we presented a genotypic characterization of Salmonella Typhimurium isolates using MLST and found two major STs are endemic in Guangdong. Our analyses indicate that genetic selection may have shaped the Salmonella Typhimurium populations. However, further evaluation with additional isolates from various sources will be essential to reveal the scope of the epidemiological characteristics of Salmonella Typhimurium in Guangdong, China. PMID:25380053

  4. Evaluation of the Thermo Scientific SureTect Salmonella species assay. AOAC Performance Tested Method 051303.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloke, Jonathan; Clark, Dorn; Radcliff, Roy; Leon-Velarde, Carlos; Larson, Nathan; Dave, Keron; Evans, Katharine; Crabtree, David; Hughes, Annette; Simpson, Helen; Holopainen, Jani; Wickstrand, Nina; Kauppinen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    The Thermo Scientific SureTect Salmonella species Assay is a new real-time PCR assay for the detection of Salmonellae in food and environmental samples. This validation study was conducted using the AOAC Research Institute (RI) Performance Tested Methods program to validate the SureTect Salmonella species Assay in comparison to the reference method detailed in International Organization for Standardization 6579:2002 in a variety of food matrixes, namely, raw ground beef, raw chicken breast, raw ground pork, fresh bagged lettuce, pork frankfurters, nonfat dried milk powder, cooked peeled shrimp, pasteurized liquid whole egg, ready-to-eat meal containing beef, and stainless steel surface samples. With the exception of liquid whole egg and fresh bagged lettuce, which were tested in-house, all matrixes were tested by Marshfield Food Safety, Marshfield, WI, on behalf of Thermo Fisher Scientific. In addition, three matrixes (pork frankfurters, lettuce, and stainless steel surface samples) were analyzed independently as part of the AOAC-RI-controlled laboratory study by the University of Guelph, Canada. No significant difference by probability of detection or McNemars Chi-squared statistical analysis was found between the candidate or reference methods for any of the food matrixes or environmental surface samples tested during the validation study. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing was conducted with 117 and 36 isolates, respectively, which demonstrated that the SureTect Salmonella species Assay was able to detect all the major groups of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica (e.g., Typhimurium) and the less common subspecies of S. enterica (e.g., arizoniae) and the rarely encountered S. bongori. None of the exclusivity isolates analyzed were detected by the SureTect Salmonella species Assay. Ruggedness testing was conducted to evaluate the performance of the assay with specific method deviations outside of the recommended parameters open to variation (enrichment time and temperature, and lysis temperature), which demonstrated that the assay gave reliable performance. Accelerated stability testing was additionally conducted, validating the assay shelf life. PMID:24830166

  5. Immunochemical analyses of serum antibodies from pig herds in a Salmonella non-endemic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiuff, Camilla; Thorberg, Britt-Marie

    2002-01-01

    In a large comparative survey of Danish and Swedish slaughter pig herds performed prior to this work, it was unexpectedly found that some Swedish herds harbored seropositive pigs. Serum samples from the Swedish herds had moderate responses in the Salmonella rnix-ELISA (detecting serogroup B and C I infections) compared to the Danish herds classifying some of them as seropositive using a cut-off value at 40 OD%. In Sweden, extensive Salmonella control is carried out by bacteriological screening of feces and lymph nodes, and the overall prevalence has been proven to be below 0.1%. The serological positive results were therefore unexpected; hence the reactivities of the Swedish sera were studied by a number of immunochemical analyses (Western blot, indirect ELISA, inhibition ELISA, avidity ELISA) and compared to sera from Danish pig herds with verified Salmonella infections ("the reference sera"). In Western blot, the Swedish sera had high binding reactivities against Salmonella Typhimurium LPS of different molecular weights, and gave binding patterns similar to that of the reference sera. Pre-incubation with free S. Typhimurium LPS or PS (the polysaccharide part of LPS) was able to inhibit the reactivity of the Swedish sera in the mix-ELISA. Reactivities against other related bacterial LPS such as Citrobacter freundii LPS and Yersinia enterocolitica 0:3 LPS were observed in the Swedish sera, but these LPS antigens were unable to inhibit the reactivities in: the m_ix-ELISA as efficiently as S. Typhimurium LPS. Furthermore, the Swedish sera did not bind Salmonella LPS of another serogroup (S. Meleagridis LPS, serogroup El) or rough Salmonella LPS, both lacking the specific O-antigenic parts of S. Typhimurium LPS. The avidity of the Swedish sera was much lower than the avidity of the reference sera, which could indicate the presence: of transient low-dose infections or stimulation by inactivated bacteria in. feed. The results obtained in this investigation strongly indicate that the Swedish sera contain antibodies directed against the O-antigenic part of LPS from S. Typhimurium or possibly on as yet unknown bacterium.

  6. Comentario ao esquema de classificação das Salmonellas de Kauffmann-White

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Genesio, Pacheco; Gobert Araujo, Costa.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The classification of salmonellae in accordance with the Kauffmann-White schema accepted by the presents various inconveniences and difficulties to application. Among these is the necessity of preparing, dosing and preserving a considerable number of specific sera whose va [...] lidity as is well known, is limited. The criterion of Kauffmann’s classification is exclusively, for it abandoned cultural tests, leaving therefore only a unilateral criterion. By following it one might include Chromobacterium typhi-flavum in the Salmonella genus as well as other bacteria which differ completely from the Salmonella, as long as they are antigenically related. On the other hand, the chart approximates or separates in the different groups of antigen O species or types of salmonellae which are biologically close or almost indistinguishable. The chart has given rise to an excessive number of species and lypes of salmonellae which from 44 in the chart approved by the in 1934 rose ro 60 in Bergey’s Manual and everything leads one to believe that the end is not yet for every day new lypes or species are found. And perforce this must be so for new antigenic factors have been found which give rise to new structural combinations. Applying the formula of combinations (formule) to the factors already known, there are probable possibilities of having 260 different antigenic combinations in group A, or 3260 lypes or species if all the flagellate antigens of the other groups should be found, in it combined 2 and 2. Futher applying the formula of combinations to the other groups there would be possibility of so many combinations that the number of salmonellae would exceed the number of known bacterian species or perhaps the number of those existing on earth. Undoubledly Kauffmann-White’s chart is an improvement, but the bacterian analysis made with it was exaggerated and exceeded the limit of the present possibilities of the realities of life. It revealed interesting aspects of the somatic complexity of bacteria but seems untenable because of its use in pratical sense.

  7. Salmonella Enteritidis em Aves: Retrospectiva no Brasil / Salmonella Enteritidis in Poultry: Retrospective in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    EN, Silva; A, Duarte.

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) emergiu como um grande problema avícola e de saúde pública no Brasil a partir de 1993. Os estudos epidemiológicos, incluindo a fagotipagem e sonda complementar de rRNA, sugerem a entrada de SE no Brasil via importação de material genético avícola contaminado, provavelment [...] e no final da década de 80. As taxas de crescimento da avicultura brasileira na década de 90 criaram condições favoráveis para a manutenção e proliferação da SE nos plantéis avícolas. Além disso, o uso indiscriminado de antibióticos em aves, particularmente as quinolonas, encorajou a manutenção de lotes positivos para SE. As cepas de SE isoladas de aves têm mostrado alta sensibilidade aos antibióticos de uso comum em avicultura, incluindo as quinolonas. Entretanto, o aumento da resistência antimicrobiana e multirresistência tem sido observado em cepas de origem humana. Os últimos levantamentos realizados no ano de 2001 continuam a mostrar que a SE em materiais avícolas é o principal sorovar responsável pelas infecções humanas. Embora as carcaças de frangos apresentem altas taxas de contaminação por SE, são os ovos e seus derivados - principalmente a maionese caseira - os principais responsáveis pelos surtos humanos. O uso de vacinas específicas em poedeiras e reprodutoras tem se mostrado uma ferramenta auxiliar no controle de SE. O procedimento mais indicado para o controle de SE na avicultura está na aquisição e produção de lotes livres do agente. As rações e matérias primas de origem animal parecem não ser tão importantes na perpetuação do problema de SE, porém, os roedores parecem ser reservatórios ambientais importantes de SE em granjas contaminadas. Abstract in english In Brazil, Salmonella enteritidis (SE) emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health as from 1993. Epidemiological studies, including fagotyping and complementary rRNA probe, suggest that SE entered Brazil via the importation of contaminated poultry genetic material, probably at the end [...] of the eighties. The rate of growth of the Brazilian poultry industry in the nineties created favorable conditions for the maintenance and proliferation of SE in poultry production. Also, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in chickens, especially quinolones, encouraged the maintenance of SE positive flocks. SE strains isolated from chickens have shown great sensitivity to the antibiotics commonly used in poultry, including the quinolones. However, an increase in antimicrobial resistance and multiresistance has been observed in strains of human origin. The latest surveys carried out in 2001 continue showing the presence of SE in poultry materials as the main serovar responsible for human food infections. Although chicken carcasses show high levels of contamination by SE, it is eggs and egg products - mainly home made mayonnaise - which are the products mostly responsible for outbreaks in humans. The use of specific vaccines in layers and parent stock has been used as an auxiliary tool in the control of SE. However, the most indicated procedure for the control of SE in poultry is the acquisition and production of SE free flocks. Animal feed and raw materials of animal origin are apparently of lesser importance in the perpetuation of the SE problem, although rodents appear to be important environmental reservoirs of SE in contaminated farms.

  8. Salmonella Enteritidis em Aves: Retrospectiva no Brasil Salmonella Enteritidis in Poultry: Retrospective in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EN Silva

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Enteritidis (SE emergiu como um grande problema avícola e de saúde pública no Brasil a partir de 1993. Os estudos epidemiológicos, incluindo a fagotipagem e sonda complementar de rRNA, sugerem a entrada de SE no Brasil via importação de material genético avícola contaminado, provavelmente no final da década de 80. As taxas de crescimento da avicultura brasileira na década de 90 criaram condições favoráveis para a manutenção e proliferação da SE nos plantéis avícolas. Além disso, o uso indiscriminado de antibióticos em aves, particularmente as quinolonas, encorajou a manutenção de lotes positivos para SE. As cepas de SE isoladas de aves têm mostrado alta sensibilidade aos antibióticos de uso comum em avicultura, incluindo as quinolonas. Entretanto, o aumento da resistência antimicrobiana e multirresistência tem sido observado em cepas de origem humana. Os últimos levantamentos realizados no ano de 2001 continuam a mostrar que a SE em materiais avícolas é o principal sorovar responsável pelas infecções humanas. Embora as carcaças de frangos apresentem altas taxas de contaminação por SE, são os ovos e seus derivados - principalmente a maionese caseira - os principais responsáveis pelos surtos humanos. O uso de vacinas específicas em poedeiras e reprodutoras tem se mostrado uma ferramenta auxiliar no controle de SE. O procedimento mais indicado para o controle de SE na avicultura está na aquisição e produção de lotes livres do agente. As rações e matérias primas de origem animal parecem não ser tão importantes na perpetuação do problema de SE, porém, os roedores parecem ser reservatórios ambientais importantes de SE em granjas contaminadas.In Brazil, Salmonella enteritidis (SE emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health as from 1993. Epidemiological studies, including fagotyping and complementary rRNA probe, suggest that SE entered Brazil via the importation of contaminated poultry genetic material, probably at the end of the eighties. The rate of growth of the Brazilian poultry industry in the nineties created favorable conditions for the maintenance and proliferation of SE in poultry production. Also, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in chickens, especially quinolones, encouraged the maintenance of SE positive flocks. SE strains isolated from chickens have shown great sensitivity to the antibiotics commonly used in poultry, including the quinolones. However, an increase in antimicrobial resistance and multiresistance has been observed in strains of human origin. The latest surveys carried out in 2001 continue showing the presence of SE in poultry materials as the main serovar responsible for human food infections. Although chicken carcasses show high levels of contamination by SE, it is eggs and egg products - mainly home made mayonnaise - which are the products mostly responsible for outbreaks in humans. The use of specific vaccines in layers and parent stock has been used as an auxiliary tool in the control of SE. However, the most indicated procedure for the control of SE in poultry is the acquisition and production of SE free flocks. Animal feed and raw materials of animal origin are apparently of lesser importance in the perpetuation of the SE problem, although rodents appear to be important environmental reservoirs of SE in contaminated farms.

  9. Development of bioluminescent Salmonella strains for use in food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey R Hartford

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella can reside in healthy animals without the manifestation of any adverse effects on the carrier. If raw products of animal origin are not handled properly during processing or cooked to a proper temperature during preparation, salmonellosis can occur. In this research, we developed bioluminescent Salmonella strains that can be used for real-time monitoring of the pathogen's growth on food products. To accomplish this, twelve Salmonella strains from the broiler production continuum were transformed with the broad host range plasmid pAKlux1, and a chicken skin attachment model was developed. Results Salmonella strains carrying pAKlux1 constitutively expressed the luxCDABE operon and were therefore detectable using bioluminescence. Strains were characterized in terms of bioluminescence properties and plasmid stability. To assess the usefulness of bioluminescent Salmonella strains in food safety studies, we developed an attachment model using chicken skin. The effect of washing on attachment of Salmonella strains to chicken skin was tested using bioluminescent strains, which revealed the attachment properties of each strain. Conclusion This study demonstrated that bioluminescence is a sensitive and effective tool to detect Salmonella on food products in real-time. Bioluminescence imaging is a promising technology that can be utilized to evaluate new food safety measures for reducing Salmonella contamination on food products.

  10. ENHANCED PHAGE PLAQUE ASSAYS IN H2S+ SALMONELLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) and sodium thiosulfate (ST) have traditionally been used in selective media to aid identification of Salmonella. The chemistry supporting this application is well known. Sulfate-reducing strains of Salmonella convert thiosulfate to sulfite and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) g...

  11. Evaluation of gallium maltolate on fecal Salmonella shedding in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness in humans and causes over a third of all cases of gastroenteritis in the United States. Human foodborne outbreaks due to Salmonella have been traced to milk, beef, pork, and poultry. Fecal contamination of the carcass and hide is thought to be a maj...

  12. Isolation and characterization of Salmonella from broiler carcasses or parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokanyi, R P; Stephens, J F; Foster, D N

    1990-04-01

    A study was conducted to determine and characterize Salmonella contamination on ready-to-cook broilers or parts in the Columbus, OH, metropolitan area. Ten to twelve samples per store were examined, using a whole-carcass rinse method. The Salmonella cultures isolated were tested for resistance to a series of nine drugs and, subsequently, were sent to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory at Ames, IA for serotype identification. Cultures identified as Salmonella were also examined for the presence of plasmids. Salmonella was isolated from one or more samples obtained from 11 of the 12 stores, and from 43% of the 142 samples examined. The serotypes isolated most often were Salmonella hadar, Salmonella heidelberg, and Salmonella johannesburg. Of the 55 cultures tested for drug resistance, 32.7% were sensitive to all nine drugs. The most-common patterns of drug resistance were triple sulfa (41.8% of the cultures) and tetracycline (34.5% of the cultures). Plasmids were found in 41.7% of the 36 cultures analyzed. The results of the present study indicate that the probability is high that carcasses from retail stores will have at least a few drug-resistant Salmonella cells. PMID:2356175

  13. Salmonella in lymph nodes of cattle presented for harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Salmonella can invade and survive within host immune cells. Once internalized, these pathogens have the potential to disseminate throughout the lymphatic system and reside within lymph nodes. If so, because some lymph nodes are located within muscle and fat tissues, Salmonella-positiv...

  14. Inactivation of Salmonella spp. on tomatoes by plant molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of carvacrol (CAR), trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), eugenol (EUG) and ß-resorcylic acid (BR) as a wash treatment for reducing Salmonella spp. on tomatoes was investigated. Plum tomatoes inoculated with a six-serotype mixture of Salmonella (108 CFU) were subjected to washing in sterile deion...

  15. Salmonella enterica Strains with Reduced Susceptibility to Quarternary Ammonium Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Salmonella spp. are responsible for 76 million illnesses per year in the U.S. Quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) are commonly used antimicrobial agents. Reduced susceptibility to these compounds by a broad spectrum of organisms is a concern. Methods: Salmonella enterica strains with r...

  16. Involvement of TIP60 acetyltransferase in intracellular Salmonella replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xueqin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella enterica is a facultative intracellular pathogen that replicates within a membrane-bound compartment termed Salmonella containing vacuole (SCV. The biogenesis of SCV requires Salmonella type III protein secretion/translocation system and their effector proteins which are translocated into host cells to exploit the vesicle trafficking pathways. SseF is one of these effectors required for SCV formation and Intracellular Salmonella replication through unknown mechanisms. Results In an attempt to identify host proteins that interact with SseF, we conduct a yeast two-hybrid screening of human cell cDNA library using SseF as the bait. We identified that TIP60, an acetyltransferase, interacts with SseF. We showed that the TIP60 acetylation activity was increased in the presence of SseF, and TIP60 was upregulated upon Salmonella infection. In addition, TIP60 is required for efficient intracellular Salmonella replication in macrophages. Conclusion Taken together, our data suggest that Salmonella may use SseF to exploit the host TIP60 acetyltransferase activity to promote efficient Salmonella replication inside host cells.

  17. THE PREVALENCE OF CAMPYLOBACTER AND SALMONELLA THROUGHOUT TURKEY BROODER PRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously surveyed market weight turkeys for the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella and have reported that whereas the prevalence of Campylobacter is >60% at slaughter the Salmonella prevalence varies from 0 to 97%. The purpose of this study was to determine the temporal point of ent...

  18. Complete Genome of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Myophage Marshall

    OpenAIRE

    Luna, Adrian J.; Wood, Thammajun L.; Chamakura, Karthik R.; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is a food-borne pathogen that causes salmonellosis in the United States. Bacteriophages are emerging as viable biocontrol agents against this pathogen. Here, we present the complete annotated genome sequence of Salmonella Enteritidis T4-like myophage Marshall, which has potential as a phage therapy agent.

  19. Salmonella typhimurium epidural empyema in an HIV-infected patient

    OpenAIRE

    Hachfi, Wissem; Bellazreg, Foued; Ladib, Mohamed; Kaabia, Naoufel; Khalifa, Mabrouk; Krifa, Hedi; Letaief, Amel

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella focal intracranial infections are reported rarely. They tend to occur in immunocompromised patients. We present here a case of Salmonella typhimurium epidural empyema, with osteomyelitis of the adjacent frontal bone, in a 37-year-old human immunodeficiency virus positive man who presented with a three-day history of headache, fever, and sweats. He was treated successfully with antibiotics and surgical drainage.

  20. Salmonella typhimurium epidural empyema in an HIV infected patient

    OpenAIRE

    Amel Letaief; Hedi Krifa; Mabrouk Khalifa; Naoufel Kaabia; Mohamed Ladib; Foued Bellazreg; Wissem Hachfi

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella focal intracranial infections are reported rarely. They tend to occur in immunocompromised patients. We present here a case of Salmonella typhimurium epidural empyema, with osteomyelitis of the adjacent frontal bone, in a 37-year-old human immunodeficiency virus positive man who presented with a three-day history of headache, fever, and sweats. He was treated successfully with antibiotics and surgical drainage.

  1. Salmonella-associated Deaths, Sweden, 1997–2003

    OpenAIRE

    Ternhag, Anders; To?rner, Anna; Ekdahl, Karl; Giesecke, Johan

    2006-01-01

    We examined excess deaths after infection with Salmonella in a registry-based matched cohort study of 25,060 persons infected abroad and 5,139 infected within Sweden. The domestically infected have an increased standardized mortality ratio, whereas those who acquired Salmonella infection abroad had no excess risk of death.

  2. Validation of a same-day real-time PCR method for screening of meat and carcass swabs for Salmonella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Krause, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background: One of the major sources of human Salmonella infections is meat. Therefore, efficient and rapid monitoring of Salmonella in the meat production chain is necessary. Validation of alternative methods is needed to prove that the performance is equal to established methods. Very few of the published PCR methods for Salmonella have been validated in collaborative studies. This study describes a validation including comparative and collaborative trials, based on the recommendations from the Nordic organization for validation of alternative microbiological methods (NordVal) of a same-day, non-commercial real-time PCR method for detection of Salmonella in meat and carcass swabs. Results: The comparative trial was performed against a reference method (NMKL-71:5, 1999) using artificially and naturally contaminated samples (60 minced veal and pork meat samples, 60 poultry neck-skins, and 120 pig carcass swabs). The relative accuracy was 99%, relative detection level 100%, relative sensitivity 103% and relative specificity 100%. The collaborative trial included six laboratories testing minced meat, poultry neck-skins, and carcass swabs as un-inoculated samples and samples artificially contaminated with 1–10 CFU/25 g, and 10–100 CFU/25 g. Valid results were obtained from five of the laboratories and used for the statistical analysis. Apart from one of the non-inoculated samples being false positive with PCR for one of the laboratories, no false positive or false negative results were reported. Partly based on results obtained in this study, the method has obtained NordVal approval for analysis of Salmonella in meat and carcass swabs. The PCR method was transferred to a production laboratory and the performance was compared with the BAX Salmonella test on 39 pork samples artificially contaminated with Salmonella. There was no significant difference in the results obtained by the two methods. Conclusion: The real-time PCR method for detection of Salmonella in meat and carcass swabs was validated in comparative and collaborative trials according to NordVal recommendations. The PCR method was found to perform well. The test is currently being implemented for screening of several hundred thousand samples per year at a number of major Danish slaughterhouses to shorten the post-slaughter storage time and facilitate the swift export of fresh meat.

  3. Detection of Salmonella enterica subpopulations by phenotype microarray antibiotic resistance patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guard-Bouldin, Jean; Morales, Cesar A; Frye, Jonathan G; Gast, Richard K; Musgrove, Michael

    2007-12-01

    Three strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis were compared to Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg, Salmonella enterica serotype Newport, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium for growth in the presence of 240 antibiotics arranged within a commercial high-throughput phenotype microarray. The results show that antibiotic resistances were different for subpopulations of serotype Enteritidis separated only by genetic drift. PMID:17965201

  4. Detection of Salmonella enterica Subpopulations by Phenotype Microarray Antibiotic Resistance Patterns? †

    OpenAIRE

    Guard-bouldin, Jean; Morales, Cesar A.; Frye, Jonathan G.; Gast, Richard K.; Musgrove, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Three strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis were compared to Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg, Salmonella enterica serotype Newport, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium for growth in the presence of 240 antibiotics arranged within a commercial high-throughput phenotype microarray. The results show that antibiotic resistances were different for subpopulations of serotype Enteritidis separated only by genetic drift.

  5. Salmonella spp. in raw broiler parts: occurrence, antimicrobial resistance profile and phage typing of the Salmonella Enteritidis isolates / Salmonella spp. em cortes de frango: ocorrência, resistência antimicrobiana e fagotipificação dos isolados de Salmonella Enteritidis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aldemir Reginato, Ribeiro; Aline, Kellermann; Luciana Ruschel dos, Santos; Marjo Cadó, Bessa; Vladimir Pinheiro do, Nascimento.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi conduzido para avaliar a ocorrência de Salmonella em cortes de frango e para determinar o perfil de resistência antimicrobiana das cepas isoladas. Vinte e quatro (39,3%) cortes de frango foram positivas para Salmonella, tendo sido isoladas vinte e cinco cepas de Salmonella, uma vez [...] que em uma amostra isolaram-se dois sorovares. Salmonella Enteritidis foi o sorovar prevalente. Entre as Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas, 95,2% pertencem ao Fagotipo 4 (PT4) (20/21) e 4,8% ao PT7 (1/21). Vinte e duas (88%) cepas de Salmonella foram resistentes a pelo menos um agente antimicrobiano e oito diferentes padrões de resistência foram observados. S. Typhimurium (n:1) e S. Hadar (n: 3), apresentaram múltipla resistência. Três cepas de S. Enteritidis foram sensíveis a todos os antimicrobianos e duas resistentes somente a tetraciclina. A elevada ocorrência de Salmonella nos cortes de frango utilizados no presente estudo reforça a importância das normas de boas práticas de fabricação, bem como dos controles de perigos e pontos críticos de controle. No tocante aos níveis de resistência a antimicrobianos, os resultados enfatizam a necessidade do uso responsável dos mesmos na produção animal. Abstract in english The present study was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonellae in raw broiler parts and to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolated strains. Twenty-four (39.3%) broiler parts samples were positive for Salmonella and twenty-five Salmonella strains were isolated, sin [...] ce two different serovars were detected in one single positive sample. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most prevalent serovar. Among Salmonella Enteritidis isolates, 95.2% belonged to Phage Type 4 (PT4) (20/21) and 4.8% to PT7 (1/21). Twenty-two (88%) strains of Salmonella were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent, generating eight different resistance patterns. The S. Typhimurium (n: 1) and S. Hadar (n: 3) isolates presented multiple resistance. Three S. Enteritidis isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, two were resistant only to tetracycline. The high prevalence of Salmonella in the broiler parts strenghtens the importance of the use of good manufacturing practices (GMP), and HACCP. The results also emphasize the need for the responsible use of antimicrobials in animal production.

  6. Salmonella spp. in raw broiler parts: occurrence, antimicrobial resistance profile and phage typing of the Salmonella Enteritidis isolates Salmonella spp. em cortes de frango: ocorrência, resistência antimicrobiana e fagotipificação dos isolados de Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldemir Reginato Ribeiro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonellae in raw broiler parts and to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolated strains. Twenty-four (39.3% broiler parts samples were positive for Salmonella and twenty-five Salmonella strains were isolated, since two different serovars were detected in one single positive sample. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most prevalent serovar. Among Salmonella Enteritidis isolates, 95.2% belonged to Phage Type 4 (PT4 (20/21 and 4.8% to PT7 (1/21. Twenty-two (88% strains of Salmonella were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent, generating eight different resistance patterns. The S. Typhimurium (n: 1 and S. Hadar (n: 3 isolates presented multiple resistance. Three S. Enteritidis isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, two were resistant only to tetracycline. The high prevalence of Salmonella in the broiler parts strenghtens the importance of the use of good manufacturing practices (GMP, and HACCP. The results also emphasize the need for the responsible use of antimicrobials in animal production.Este trabalho foi conduzido para avaliar a ocorrência de Salmonella em cortes de frango e para determinar o perfil de resistência antimicrobiana das cepas isoladas. Vinte e quatro (39,3% cortes de frango foram positivas para Salmonella, tendo sido isoladas vinte e cinco cepas de Salmonella, uma vez que em uma amostra isolaram-se dois sorovares. Salmonella Enteritidis foi o sorovar prevalente. Entre as Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas, 95,2% pertencem ao Fagotipo 4 (PT4 (20/21 e 4,8% ao PT7 (1/21. Vinte e duas (88% cepas de Salmonella foram resistentes a pelo menos um agente antimicrobiano e oito diferentes padrões de resistência foram observados. S. Typhimurium (n:1 e S. Hadar (n: 3, apresentaram múltipla resistência. Três cepas de S. Enteritidis foram sensíveis a todos os antimicrobianos e duas resistentes somente a tetraciclina. A elevada ocorrência de Salmonella nos cortes de frango utilizados no presente estudo reforça a importância das normas de boas práticas de fabricação, bem como dos controles de perigos e pontos críticos de controle. No tocante aos níveis de resistência a antimicrobianos, os resultados enfatizam a necessidade do uso responsável dos mesmos na produção animal.

  7. Salmonella enterica isolated from wildlife at two Ohio rehabilitation centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jijón, Steffani; Wetzel, Amy; LeJeune, Jeffrey

    2007-09-01

    Between May and September 2004, fecal samples from various wildlife species admitted to two rehabilitation centers in Ohio were cultured for Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Eight of 71 (11%) samples, including specimens from three opossums (Didelphis virginiana), two gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), a woodchuck (Marmota monax), a Harris hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus), and a screech owl (Otus asio) tested positive for Salmonella serovars Braenderup, Senftenberg, Oranienburg, and Kentucky. The Salmonella Oranienburg isolates were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Most isolates were susceptible to commonly used antibiotics; however, the Salmonella Kentucky isolate was resistant to multiple beta-lactam antibiotics (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ampicillin), cefoxitin, and ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was not isolated from any sample. Transmission of Salmonella from wildlife may occur between animals at rehabilitation centers. PMID:17939349

  8. Effects of propolis from Brazil and Bulgaria on Salmonella serovars

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R. O., Orsi; J. M., Sforcin; S. R. C., Funari; A., Fernandes-JR.; P., Rodrigues; V., Bankova.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Propolis shows biological properties such as antibacterial action. This bee product has a complex chemical composition, which depends on the local flora where it is produced. Salmonella serovars are responsible for human diseases that range from localized gastroenteritis to systemic infections. The [...] aim of the present study was to investigate the susceptibility of Salmonella strains, isolated from food and infectious processes, to the antibacterial action of Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis, as well as to determine the behavior of these bacteria, according to the incubation period, in medium plus propolis. Dilution of ethanolic extract of propolis in agar was the used method. Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis showed an antibacterial action against all Salmonella serovars. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of propolis were similar, although they were collected in different geographic regions. Salmonella typhimurium, isolated from human infection, was more resistant to propolis than Salmonella enteritidis.

  9. Salmonella and Campylobacter Contamination of Ready-to-Eat Street-Vended Pork Meat Dishes in Antananarivo, Madagascar: A Risk for the Consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Eric; Abat, Cédric; Bénédicte, Contamin; Vincent, Porphyre; Michel, Rakotoharinome; Muriel, Maeder

    2015-03-01

    Street-food vending has been increasing in many developing countries and particularly in Madagascar since 2000. Gastroenteric diseases cause 37% of all deaths each year, and 50% of children <5 years are infected with intestinal pathogens. However, there has been little information regarding the incidence of street-food-related diseases, or foodborne pathogens in pork, which is the most commonly eaten meat, along with chicken. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the safety of traditional ready-to-eat street-vended pork dishes and to assess the association of restaurant characteristics and cooking practices with Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of these meals. Sixty street-restaurants were studied from March 2012 to August 2012 in Antananarivo. A questionnaire was submitted to the managers, and samples of ready-to-eat pork dishes were bought. Salmonella spp. were isolated in 10% of the 60 street-restaurants studied and in 5% samples of pork dishes. The most prevalent serovars isolated were Salmonella Typhimurium (44%) and Senftenberg (33%). Campylobacter was not detected. Only 4 of the 43 variables tested in the screening analysis were significantly associated with Salmonella spp. contamination of the street-restaurants. The risk for a restaurant to be Salmonella positive decreased when there were specific premises for the restaurant and when the staff was wearing specific clothes when working. Conversely, that risk increased when the temperature of ready-to-eat pork was <52°C and when tablecloths were used in the restaurant. PMID:25764444

  10. Presence of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella gallinarum in commercial laying hens diagnosed with fowl typhoid disease in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Landínez, Martha; Sánchez-Ingunza, Roxana; Guard, Jean; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2014-03-01

    A severe outbreak of salmonellosis in commercial brown table egg layers first occurred in Colombia in 2006. From 2008 to 2012, 35 samples collected from commercial layers farms in the states of Cundinamarca, Santander, Bolivar, and San Andres, were positive for Salmonella enterica. Salmonella was isolated from liver and spleen (71.42%), pools of organs (liver, spleen, and ovarian follicles; 25.71%), and drag swabs (2.85%). Serotype was assigned using single nucleotide polymorphisms or DNA microarray hybridization. Sixteen strains of Salmonella Enteritidis, and 13 of Salmonella Gallinarum were identified. Seven strains yielded three unique sequences, and they were designated as UN0038, UN0052, and UN0054 by intergenic sequence ribotyping. These strains were later identified as Salmonella serotypes Isangi, Braenderup, and Yoruba, respectively, by DNA microarray hybridization. The discovery that a common human pathogen (Salmonella Enteritidis) was coisolated from farms with an avian pathogen (Salmonella Gallinarum) in similar commercial brown layer hens and in different regions indicates that it is important to investigate the dynamics of Salmonella infection and determine the serotypes circulating within the same ecologic niche. PMID:24758131

  11. Epidemiological Investigation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Kedougou in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pornruangwong, Srirat; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Salmonella enterica serovar Kedougou is among the top 10 serovars reported in northern Thailand. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella Kedougou infection in Thailand and to compare the molecular types and antimicrobial resistance with Salmonella Kedougou isolates of human origin from United States and of animal origin from the United Kingdom.Methods: Data from 13,976 Salmonella infections of which 253 were Salmonella Kedougou collected in Thailand between 2002 and 2008 were analyzed by logistic regression. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed on selected Salmonella Kedougou strains causing infections in Thailand (n = 66), and compared to isolates from the United States (n = 5) and the United Kingdom (n = 20).Results: Logistic analysis revealed season (hot/dry; p = 0.023), region (northern Thailand; p <0.001), and specimen (stool; p <0.001) as significant risk factors associated with Salmonella Kedougou infection compared to other nontyphoid Salmonella. Of the Salmonella Kedougou isolates of human origin, 84% exhibited resistance to at least three antimicrobial classes. Three strains recovered from human stool in Thailand were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins: two harbored blaCTX-M-63 and one blaCMY-2. PFGE revealed 45 unique clusters. Isolates obtained from humans in Thailand and the United States presented identical PFGE profiles suggesting a travel association, whereas the majority of the animal isolates from United Kingdom clustered separately.Conclusions: This study reveals Salmonella Kedougou as a major cause of human infections in northern Thailand especially during the hot period and suggests a global spread probably due to travel. The clonal types causing infections in humans differed from those observed in animals in United Kingdom, which suggests the absence of an epidemiological link and could suggest differences in virulence. The high frequency of antimicrobial resistance, including emergence of resistance to fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins, might pose problems for treatment of infections.

  12. Determinación de Salmonella spp. por PCR en tiempo real y método convencional en canales de bovinos y en alimentos de la vía pública de Montería, Córdoba Detection of Salmonella spp. by real time PCR and standard methods in cattle carcasses and public fast food outlets in Montería, Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Yánez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Detectar Salmonella spp. por PCR en tiempo real (PCR-TR y el método convencional en alimentos de la vía pública y canales de bovino de una planta certificada de beneficio animal con sistema HACCP de Montería. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron 311 muestras de alimentos: 256 de la vía pública y 55 de una planta de beneficio animal. Los análisis microbiológicos se realizaron por el método estándar convencional y la PCR-TR con LightCycler® foodproof Salmonella detection kit (Roche Diagnostics. Resultados. Se aisló Salmonella spp. en 16,1% de las muestras. La prueba de ?²mostró significancia estadística entre las técnicas (pObjective: To establish Salmonella spp. by real-time PCR (RT-PCR and standard microbiological method in public fastfood outlets and cattle carcasses from a profit animal plant (PBA-slaughterhouse certified with the HACCP system in the city of Montería. Materials and methods: 311 food samples were analyzed: 256 from public fastfood outlets and 55 from a PBA (slaughterhouse. The microbiological tests were conducted by the standard method, the molecular detection RTPCR was carried out by LightCycler® foodproof Salmonella detection kit (Roche Diagnostics. Results: Salmonella spp. was isolated in 16.1% of the samples. The ?2 test showed statistical significance between techniques (p<0.001, with RT-PCR was obtained by 68% of positive cases and 48% with the conventional method. The fastfood sold in public streets had higher contamination by Salmonella spp. SausageS had Salmonella in 28.1% of the samples by RT-PCR and 12.3% by the conventional method; cheese, 18.4% by RT-PCR, and 5.3% by the conventional method: pork meat, 23.1% by RT-PCR, and 15.4% by the conventional method, and ground meat, 9.3% by RT-PCR, and 15.6% by the conventional method. Cattle carcasses showed a 1.8% of Salmonella spp., a significant difference was observed with respect to spent time for each technique, RT-PCR yielded results within 24 hours as compared to four days for the conventional method. Conclusions: The study showed that RTPCR is a valuable alternative to determine Salmonella spp. in foods for their specificity and promptness, furthermore, the high presence of Salmonella in public fastfood outlets is a public health problem for consumers.

  13. Control panels of meat juice samples for a Salmonella enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, H.; SØrensen, Vibeke

    2006-01-01

    In the Danish pig production system, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of antibodies in meat juice is used for Salmonella surveillance. Quality control (QC) of this ELISA was previously based on repeated testing of control serum samples. The purpose of the study reported here was to collect, characterize, and implement a panel of meat juice pools for supplemental internal QC. Muscle samples for extraction of meat juice were collected from slaughter pigs of 5 herds infected with Salmonella spp. and from 4 herds without Salmonella infection. A QC panel with 39 pools of meat juice, yielding ELISA optical density (OD) values covering the full range of expected OD values, was prepared and tested repeatedly to determine mean and SD OD values. Each pool was tested twice on each microtitration plate, and the results were used to determine limits for validity of future tests. This QC panel was included as an internal QC to be tested every month. Besides the QC panel, 2 panels containing 100 samples of meat juice with OD above the positive cut-off value and 100 samples with OD below that value were prepared for quarterly control of the diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) and the diagnostic specificity (DSp) of the ELISA. The inclusion of these panels in the QC system will provide information about drifts in DSe and DSp of the test. The procedures described here can be applied to other tests where meat juice samples are used for testing.

  14. Italian experience in Salmonella enteritidis 1978-1988: characterization of isolates from food and man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantasia, M; Filetici, E; Anastasio, M P; Marcozzi, M D; Gramenzi, M P; Aureli, P

    1991-04-01

    Salmonella enteritidis accounted for 5.45% of the 118.685 Salmonella isolates from man and for 2.65% of the 3.315 Salmonella isolates from food in Italy in the eleven year period 1978 to 1988. In the years 1978-1982 no S. enteritidis strain was isolated from eggs and poultry; in the years 1983-1988 the 53% of S. enteritidis isolates from food were from eggs and poultry. In 1989 S. enteritidis accounted for 744 isolates from man and 22 from food of which 80% were from eggs and poultry (partial data). In that year 18 outbreaks caused by S. enteritidis were reported to the National Centre of Enteric Pathogens in Rome. Characteristics of 81 S. enteritidis isolates were examined of which 27 were from sporadic cases involving humans and 40 from outbreaks in humans; 14 isolates were from food, all but one connected with the outbreaks. All the isolates studied were sensitive to the antibiotics tested; plasmid profile analysis showed a predominant profile pattern in both epidemic and non-epidemic strains; lysine decarboxylase was present in all the strains tested. Although in at least three epidemics a common supplier of eggs was proved, the source was not identified. Unfortunately it was not possible to determine the phage type of isolates because of the unavailability of specific phages. PMID:1854603

  15. Evaluation of the BAX® system for the detection of Salmonella spp. in naturally contaminated chicken meat

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Harissa Silvério El Ghoz, Frausto; Juliane, Alves; Tereza Cristina Rocha Moreira De, Oliveira.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to verify the efficiency of the BAX® system for the detection of Salmonella spp. in raw chicken meat. The conventional culture method (IN 62, MAP) was used as a reference method. A total of 8,813 chicken carcass samples were analyzed. In the first part of the study, 1,200 s [...] amples were analyzed using the BAX® System and the conventional culture method. In the second part, 7,613 samples were analyzed by the BAX® system, and the conventional method was used only for samples that tested positive for Salmonella spp. by the BAX® system. The sensitivity, specificity, relative accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value obtained in the first part of this study were 100%, 92.3%, 96.4%, 53.3% and 100%, respectively. The BAX® system showed no false-negative results and reduced the time to obtain presumptive positive results. It is a suitable method for use in laboratories that perform a large number of food samples analyses daily. However, the conventional method is still required to confirm the presence of Salmonella spp. in samples that test positive using the BAX® system.

  16. Comparison of Conventional and Rapid Methods for Salmonella Detection in Artisanal Minas Cheese

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    Gardênia M. S. C. Mata

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal cheeses traditionally produced from raw milk have a diverse microbiota and, due the varied changes that occur in this type of food matrix during the maturation, pathogens detection’s may be impaired. In this study, the conventional method established by ISO 6579:2005 to evaluate the presence of Salmonella was compared with two alternative rapid methods, PCR-BAX® (DuPont and VIDAS®-SLM (BioMérieux, to analyze artisanal Minas cheese, a typical Brazilian product. Salmonella was not detected by conventional or PCR-BAX® in 63 artisanal Minas cheese samples analyzed. Although highly specific and accurate, the immunoassay (VIDAS®-SLM presented 3.17% of false positives. Good manufactures practices were absent in some producers of Minas artisanal cheese and, the fact of Salmonella was not detected in analyzed samples should be related with presence of high and diverse endogenous microbiota, including approximately, 107 CFU.g-1 of lactic bacteria, and a low pH and water activity, conditions that can minimize pathogens growth, provide cellular injury and hamper the recovery strategies.

  17. Applications of immunomagnetic capture and time-resolved fluorescence to detect outbreak Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella in alfalfa sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shu-I.; Gordon, Marsha; Fett, William F.; Gehring, Andrew G.; Irwin, Peter L.

    2004-03-01

    Commercially available alfalfa seeds were inoculated with low levels (~ 4 CFU/g) of pathogenic bacteria. The inoculated seeds were then allowed to sprout in sterile tap water at 22°C. After 48 hours, the irrigation water and sprouts were separately transferred to bovine heart infusion (BHI) media. The microbes in the BHI samples were allowed to grow for 4 hours at 37°C and 160 rpm. Specific immunomagnetic beads (IMB) were then applied to capture the E.coli O157 and/or Salmonella in the growth media. Separation and concentration of IMB-captured pathogens were achieved using magnetic separators. The captured E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp were further tagged with europium (Eu) labeled anti-E. coli O157 antibodies and samarium (Sm) labeled anti-Salmonella antibodies, respectively. After washing, the lanthanide labels were extracted out from the complexes by specific chelators to form strongly fluorescent chelates. The specific time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) associated with Eu or Sm was measured to estimate the extent of capture of the E. coli O157 and Salmonella, respectively. The results indicated that the approach could detect E. coli O157 and Salmonella enterica from the seeds inoculated with ~ 4 CFU/g of the pathogens. Non-targeted bacteria, e.g., Aeromonas and Citrobacter exhibited essentially no cross reactivity. Since the pathogen detection from the sprouts was achieved within 6 hours, the developed methodology could be use as a rapid, sensitive and specific screening process for E. coli O157 and Salmonella enterica in this popular salad food.

  18. Massively parallel sequencing of enriched target amplicons for high-resolution genotyping of Salmonella serovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pallavi; Foley, Steven L; Nayak, Rajesh; Kwon, Young Min

    2013-04-01

    With next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, it is now possible to carry out in-depth, large-scale sequencing projects, such as whole genome sequencing, in a fast and inexpensive manner. However, often it is more practical and convenient to sequence and analyze multiple, smaller regions of the bacterial genome to gain valuable information about an organism. One such application is genotyping of bacterial strains by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) that involves PCR and sequencing analysis of typically 7 housekeeping genes. Recently, we described a novel MLST method, called MLST-seq that combines a PCR-based target enrichment method and NGS technology to simultaneously analyze numerous target gene sequences, thereby improving the resolution and high-throughput capacity of current MLST approaches. However, the performance of the MLST-seq method was hampered from a substantial bias in target enrichment step. In this study, we used an improved target enrichment method using hairpin selectors to amplify 21 target genes simultaneously from each of 41 Salmonella strains. The resulting amplicons tagged with strain-specific barcodes were pooled and sequenced en masse by 454 pyrosequencing. Analysis of sequence data from 38 Salmonella strains using combinations of 3, 7 and 14 target genes resulted in 23, 32 and 37 distinct allelic profiles, respectively. These results demonstrated that MLST-seq with an increased number of target genes is an efficient way to improve discrimination among closely-related strains of Salmonella. With the rapidly increasing sequencing capacity of NGS technologies combined with further improvements in target capturing methods, MLST-seq could become a promising approach to perform high-resolution strain typing of a large collection of Salmonella, and likely other genera in a labor- and cost-efficient manner in the future. PMID:23201627

  19. Detection of antibodies to Salmonella lipopolysaccharide in muscle fluid from cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Wedderkopp, A.

    1997-01-01

    Objective-To compare muscle fluid with serum samples for detection of antibodies to Salmonella lipopolysaccharide. Sample Population-Muscle fluid and serum samples from 2 cattle populations: 1 from the island of Bornholm with no history of salmonellosis (n = 39), and the other from the S dublin-enzootic areas of Jutland (n = 144). Procedure-Salmonella dublin (O:1,9,12), S typhimurium (O:1,4,5,12), and Salmonella O:9-blocking ELISA were used for testing the samples. Results-In the S dublin ELISA, all serum and muscle fluid samples from cattle on the island of Bornholm had OD450 values well below the cutoff value (0.5). For samples obtained from cattle in the enzootic areas of jutland, high correlation was found between serum and muscle fluid samples (r(s) = 0.89, P <0.001). In addition, 19% (28/144) of the cattle had ELISA-positive muscle fluid and serum samples; 2% (3/144) had positive results for muscle fluid only, whereas 1 animal had positive results for serum only (kappa = 0.91, P <0.0001; sensitivity andspecificity of 97%). The same samples had similar significant correlation in the S typhimurium ELISA (r(s) = 0.88, P <0.001, kappa = 0.7, P <0.001; sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 98%) and the O:9-blocking ELISA (r(s) = 0.49, P <0.001). Conclusion and Clinical Relevance-Muscle fluid samples taken at slaughter can be used as a practical alternative to serum samples for surveillance of Salmonella infections in cattle.

  20. Improved diagnostic and real-time pcr in rapid screening for Salmonella in the poultry food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmolka, Annamária; Kaszanyitzky, Eva; Nagy, B

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this study was to improve the diagnostic applicability of genus- and serovar- (S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium) specific PCR systems in screening faecal and caecal samples of poultry, poultry feed and poultrymeat for Salmonella, by keeping the opportunity to obtain Salmonella cultures from positive samples. Peptone broth pre-enrichment cultures of the samples were tested by PCR. In faecal and caecal samples from broiler chicks a strong inhibitory action was frequently observed. This could be reduced markedly by the addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) acting as amplification facilitator. The results of testing pre-enrichment cultures from artificially contaminated faecal, poultry feed and poultrymeat samples (using S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium and S. Hadar as contaminants) suggest that the sensitivity of the above systems is 10(1)-10(2) CFU g(-1) sample. The testing of 95 caecal samples from slaughtered chicks resulted in 49% culture-positive and 76% PCR-positive samples. The suitability of a generic real-time PCR for testing faecal samples of poultry was also studied. Its detection limit for these samples was found to be lower than that of the diagnostic PCR system. Both methods reduced the time required for Salmonella detection to 24-30 h, and the advantage of the real-time PCR was its increased sensitivity. We have established a diagnostic and a real-time PCR system for rapid and reliable genus- and serovar- (S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium) specific detection of Salmonella for monitoring purposes in the poultry food chain. Sensitivity is equal to, or higher than, that of the standard bacterial culture method, and the method still provides the Salmonella culture if needed. PMID:17020134

  1. Comparison of culture, ELISA and PCR techniques for salmonella detection in faecal samples for cattle, pig and poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspan Anna

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Performances of different salmonella detection methods were evaluated by applying them to of artificially contaminated faecal specimens from cattle, pigs and poultry. The NMKL71 method, being the standard reference method for detection of salmonella in the official Swedish control program, was compared with the proposed ISO method using MSRV-selective enrichment for culturing, and also with three commercial ELISA- based systems, Bioline Selecta, Bioline Optima and Vidas, a commercial PCR-based method, BAX® system, and three different strategies using PCR detection using a non-commercial PCR system. Results Altogether, 391 samples were tested, and the overall results clearly indicate that, when faeces from all animal species and all serotypes were included, the MSRV performed best, with a calculated accuracy of 99% and a calculated sensitivity of 98%. The second most sensitive and specific method was the BAX® system, using the modified enrichment protocol as recommended by the manufacturer for faecal samples. However, this protocol includes one additional day of work, as compared with the standard procedure for food sample analysis by the same method. The different strategies for salmonella detection using non-commercial PCR showed a sensitivity and specificity in the same range as the BAX® method; furthermore, results were obtained more quickly. The various commercial ELISA methods and the NMKL method showed the poorest performance of the methods included in the study, and were closely dependent on the origin of the faeces used and on which salmonella strain was to be detected. Conclusion The study showed that the sensitivity of the different methods depended to a great extent on the origin of the faecal matrices and the salmonella strains used to "spike" the samples.

  2. Cytotoxic T cell adjuvant effects of three Salmonella enterica flagellins / Efeitos adjuvantes para células T citotóxicas de três flagelinas de Salmonella enterica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Catarina J.M., Braga; Liliana M., Massis; Bruna C.G., Alencar; Maurício M., Rodrigues; M.E., Sbrogio-Almeida; Luís C.S., Ferreira.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As flagelinas bacterianas são importantes fatores associados à virulência e potentes indutores de resposta inflamatória em mamíferos. Estas moléculas são também investigadas como potencial adjuvante para uso em vacinas na indução de resposta imune humoral e celular para diferentes antígenos alvo. No [...] presente estudo investigamos as propriedades adjuvantes de três tipos de flagelinas de Salmonella enterica (FliCd, FliCi e FljB) para um epítopo derivado da ovalbumina específico para células T CD8+. As três flagelinas testadas induziram respostas de células T CD8+ específicas em camundongos imunizados, porém, somente animais imunizados com as flagelinas FliCi e FliCd co-administradas com ovalbumina montaram resposta citotóxica específica in vivo para células-alvo pulsadas com peptídeo OVA. Os resultados apresentados indicam que flagelinas de Salmonella são dotadas de efeitos adjuvantes tipo-específico frente a células T CD8+ in vivo, uma característica que pode gerar impactos no uso dessas proteínas como adjuvantes em vacinas profiláticas ou terapêuticas. Abstract in english Bacterial flagellins are important virulence-associated factors and strong inducers of inflammatory responses in mammalian hosts. Flagellins have also been investigated as potential vaccine adjuvants, either for induction of humoral or cellular immune responses, to different target antigens. In this [...] study we investigated the adjuvant properties of three Salmonella enterica flagellins types (FliCd, FliCi and FljB) to an ovalbumin-derived CD8+ T cell-restricted epitope (OVA257264). Although mice immunized with the three tested flagellins elicited antigen-specific activated CD8+ T cells, only animals immunized with FliCi and FliCd flagellins admixed with ovalbumin mounted specific in vivo cytotoxic responses to peptide-pulsed target cells. The present results indicate that Salmonella flagellins are endowed with type-specific adjuvant effects toward murine CD8+ T cells, a feature that may impact their use as adjuvants for prophylatic or therapeutic vaccines.

  3. Control of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in laying hens by inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines "Controle de Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis em poedeiras comerciais com a utilização de vacinas inativadas"

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveiro Caetano de Freitas Neto; Aline Lopes Mesquita; Jaqueline Boldrin de Paiva; Fábio Zotesso; Angelo Berchieri Júnior

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is one of the agents that is responsible for outbreaks of human foodborne salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis and is generally associated with the consumption of poultry products. Inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis cell vaccine is one of the available methods to control Salmonella Enteritidis in breeders and laying hens, however results in terms of efficacy vary. This vaccine has never been tested in Brazil, therefore, the present work was carried out to asse...

  4. Simultaneous Detection of <i>Salmonella</i> spp., <i>Salmonella</i> Enteritidis and <i>Salmonella</i> Typhimurium in Raw Salad Vegetables and Vegetarian Burger Patties

    OpenAIRE

    Elexson Nillian; Chai Lay Ching; Pui Chai Fung; Tunung Robin; Ubong Anyi; Tuan Zainazor Tuan Chilek; Son Radu; Mitsuaki Nishibuchi

    2011-01-01

    The health risks posed by Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium through the consumption of raw vegetables and vegetarian burger patties necessitates the needs for the optimization of analytical approach for their detection and enumeration in the raw vegetables, which served as potential vehicles for transmission of these pathogenic microorganisms. We sought to establish a rapid, economic and sensitive method to detect and determine the load of Salmonella spp., Sal...

  5. [Evaluation of PremiTest Salmonella kit for identification of not-typable by conventional methods Salmonella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madajczak, Grzegorz; Szych, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    Despite the downward trend, Salmonella is still one of the most important bacterial intestinal infections agents. For example, in 2007 y. in Poland over 14 thousands human salmonelosis cases were notified, in 2008 y.--over 10 thousands. Among all Salmonella isolated from human source, most common (more then 80%) are two serotypes--S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, but every year the number of non-typable (because of the lack I or II phase flagellar antigens, autoagglutinative or non-motility properties) Salmonella is growing. This work describes the results of the evaluation of commercially available kit PremiTest Salmonella (DSM, Netherlands), which uses the microarray hybridization in ArrayTube, for serological identification of non-typable Salmonella strains. All 37 researched strains were submitted to the Department of Bacteriology in 2007-2008 y, were reidentified according to standard operating procedures and serotyped by slide agglutination for somatic and flagellar antigens if it was possible. All strains were tested using the PremiTest Salmonella Kit, according to manufacturer instructions. In 21 cases (56%) full identification were achieved, in 5 cases (14%) additional tests were required for precise identification (Salmonella Choleraesuis or Paratyphi C, what was detailed using examination of additional biochemical features), 5 strains (14%) achieved an incomplete identification (three of them--S. diarizonae were confirmed in National Reference Laboratory for Salmonella) and 6 cases (16%) were not identified at all. The total number of recognized strains is 30 (81%). The results of present studies show, that PremiTest Salmonella Kit is useful for non-typable Salmonella identification. PMID:20564968

  6. Testing for Salmonella in raw meat and poultry products collected at federally inspected establishments in the United States, 1998 through 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Bonnie E; Hill, Walter E; Umholtz, Robert; Ransom, Gerri M; James, William O

    2002-06-01

    The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) issued Pathogen Reduction; Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Systems; Final Rule (the PR/HACCP rule) on 25 July 1996. To verify that industry PR/HACCP systems are effective in controlling the contamination of raw meat and poultry products with human disease-causing bacteria, this rule sets product-specific Salmonella performance standards that must be met by slaughter establishments and establishments producing raw ground products. These performance standards are based on the prevalence of Salmonella as determined from the FSIS's nationwide microbial baseline studies and are expressed in terms of the maximum number of Salmonella-positive samples that are allowed in a given sample set. From 26 January 1998 through 31 December 2000, federal inspectors collected 98,204 samples and 1,502 completed sample sets for Salmonella analysis from large, small, and very small establishments that produced at least one of seven raw meat and poultry products: broilers, market hogs, cows and bulls, steers and heifers, ground beef, ground chicken, and ground turkey. Salmonella prevalence in most of the product categories was lower after the implementation of PR/HACCP than in pre-PR/HACCP baseline studies and surveys conducted by the FSIS. The results of 3 years of testing at establishments of all sizes combined show that >80% of the sample sets met the following Salmonella prevalence performance standards: 20.0% for broilers, 8.7% for market hogs, 2.7% for cows and bulls, 1.0% for steers and heifers, 7.5% for ground beef, 44.6% for ground chicken, and 49.9% for ground turkey. The decreased Salmonella prevalences may partly reflect industry improvements, such as improved process control, incorporation of antimicrobial interventions, and increased microbial-process control monitoring, in conjunction with PR/HACCP implementation. PMID:12092726

  7. Construction of genetic markers for the study of Salmonella Typhimurium infection of murine macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsbak, Lotte; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

      Salmonella pathogenesis is dependent on its ability to invade and replicate within a variety of host cells. Upon bacterial uptake by macrophages, maturation of the Salmonella Containing Vacuole (the SCV) initiates. The process of SCV maturation depends on the interactions between Salmonella effectors and host cell regulators and is a prokaryotic developmental program that follows a strict temporal and spatial path. Immediately following invasion, individual Salmonella cells are found within discrete vacuoles. Subsequently, intracellular bacterial replication begins after an initial lag period and is accompanied by the formation of extensive membrane tubules (Salmonella-induced filaments, Sifs), which project from the SCVs and extend throughout the host cell. These events are coupled to interactions with host cell components and can be divided into discrete temporal and spatial steps: (1) Initial contact with the host cell, (2) Formation of early SCV, (3) Maturation into late SCV, (4) Initiation of bacterial replication, (5) Formation of Sifs. In this project, we have constructed a set of reporter fusions which are temporally and spatially regulated during the progression of SCV maturation. The reporter fusions were constructed using Red-mediated recombination (1) and the promoters were selected from the recently published expressional data of Salmonella infection of murine macrophages (2). As reporter proteins we both use a stable GFPmut3 variant as well as an unstable GFP variant (3). Using these fusions in combination with available host markers it will be possible to estimate the time-point at which a specific gene is required for progression of SCV maturation. These developmentally regulated reporter fusions constitute a set of novel developmental markers for the study of Salmonella Typhimurium infection of murine macrophages.     Reference List    1.   R. G. Gerlach, S. U. Holzer, D. Jackel, M. Hensel, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73, 4234 (2007).    2.   S. Eriksson, S. Lucchini, A. Thompson, M. Rhen,J. C. Hinton, Mol. Microbiol. 47, 103 (2003).    3.   J. B. Andersen et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64, 2240 (1998).  

  8. Plasmid-associated virulence of Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Gulig, P. A.; Curtiss, R.

    1987-01-01

    We investigated the role of the 100-kilobase (kb) plasmid of Salmonella typhimurium in the virulence of this organism for mice. Three strains, LT2-Z, SR-11, and SL1344, which possessed 100-kb plasmids with identical restriction enzyme digestion profiles, were cured of their respective 100-kb plasmids after Tnmini-tet was used to label plasmids. Curing wild-type virulent strains SR-11 and SL1344 raised peroral 50% lethal doses from 3 x 10(5) and 6 x 10(4) CFU, respectively, to greater than 10(...

  9. Salmonella typhi time to change empiric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, C.; Engberg, J.

    2008-01-01

    In the present case series report we describe seven recent cases of typhoid fever. All the patients were travellers returning from Pakistan, where typhoid is endemic. Salmonella typhi isolated from the patients by blood culture were reported as intermediary susceptible to fluoroquinolones in six out of seven cases. We recommend that empiric treatment of suspected cases of typhoid fever includes a third generation cephalosporin such as ceftriaxon. Furthermore, the present report stresses the importance of typhoid vaccination of travellers to areas where typhoid is endemic Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/29

  10. Evaluation of VIDAS Immuno-Concentration Salmonella (ICS) plus selective plate method (Hektoen enteric, bismuth sulfite, Salmonella identification) for detection of Salmonella in selected foods (Method Modification 2001.07): collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Wendy A; Schultz, Ann M; Johnson, Ronald L

    2004-01-01

    A new method for detection of Salmonella in foods in 48 h has been granted AOAC First Action approval in selected foods (Official Method 2001.07) using both the VIDAS Immuno-Concentration Salmonella (ICS) method and a combination of 3 selective plates: Hektoen enteric (HE), bismuth sulfite (BS), and Salmonella Identification (SMID). PMID:15164831

  11. Elimination of salmonella from fermented pork by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fermented pork product, locally known as ''Nham'', is usually contaminated with salmonella and occasionally with Trichinella spiralis and Taenea solium. This product is always eaten raw as cooking destroys its delicate flavour. A survey made on the MPN of salmonella revealed that much less than 100 salmonella was found in one gram of the product. Nham was inoculated with S. derby, S. anatum, S. newport, or S. paratyphi B, the most common serotypes of salmonella found in this product, at 106, 104, or 102 per gram. The inoculated product was irradiated by the gamma beam-650 Co-60 irradiator at 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 or 0.4 Mrad. Dosage at 0.4 Mrad eliminated salmonella as much as 106 per g; 0.3 Mrad eliminated 106/g of S. newport and S. paratyphi B and 104/g of S. derby and S. anatum; and 0.2 Mrad eliminated 102/g of all serotypes of salmonella in the product. No changes in the organoleptic properties of irradiated Nham was found when irradiated at 0.3 Mrad or less. Dosage at 0.2 Mrad appeared to be sufficient for commercial irradiation of Nham for the elimination of salmonella

  12. Source attribution of human Salmonella cases in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, H.; Andersson, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the sources of sporadic domestic Salmonella cases in Sweden and to evaluate the usefulness of a source-attribution model in a country in which food animals are virtually free from Salmonella. The model allocates human sporadic domestic Salmonella cases to different sources according to distribution of Salmonella subtypes in the different sources. Sporadic domestic human Salmonella cases (n=1086) reported between July 2004 and June 2006 were attributed to nine food-animal and wildlife sources. Of all Salmonella cases, 82% were acquired abroad and 2.9% were associated with outbreaks. We estimated that 6.4% were associated with imported food, 0.5% with food-producing animals, and 0.6% with wildlife. Overall, 7.7% could not be attributed to any source. We concluded that domestic food-producing animals are not an important source for Salmonella in humans in Sweden, and that the adapted model is useful also in low-prevalence countries.

  13. Salmonella-induced enteritis. Clinical, serotypes and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, F; Unni, A G; Hablas, R; Rizk, M S

    1992-01-01

    Salmonella-induced enteritis is a widespread cause of morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries. The frequency of different Salmonella serotypes in different areas varies according to time and locality. The prevalence of different Salmonella serotypes in Yanbu area was studied in 136 stool cultures from patients admitted with gastroenteritis, to the medical ward of Royal Commission Hospital in the period 1/6/1991 to 30/10/1991. Fifteen different Salmonella serotypes were determined among 31 positive Salmonella isolates and all were of the gastroenteric group, diarrhoeagenic but noninvasive. The most common serotype was S. typhimurium (45.16%) followed by S. enteritidis (9.62%) then S. virchow (6.46%). Other forms of Salmonella were isolated from one patient each 3.23%, S. paratyphi B java, S. heidelberg, S. livingstone, S. infantis, S. bovis morbificans, S. corvallis, S. eastbourne, S. give, S. senftenberg, S. poona, S. adelaide, and S. johannesburg. Saudi patients comprised about 71% and 29% were patients of four different nationalities. Antibiograms of these cultures proved to be all sensitive to norfloxacin with different forms of resistance to chloramphenicol, ampicillin and trimethoprim. Norfloxacin proved to be effective in the treatment of resistant forms of Salmonella with negligible side effects and wide safety range. PMID:1296967

  14. Orange peel products can reduce Salmonella populations in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, Todd R; Carroll, Jeffery A; Arthington, John D; Edrington, Tom S; Anderson, Robin C; Rossman, Michelle L; Carr, Mandy A; Genovese, Ken J; Ricke, Steve C; Crandall, Phil; Nisbet, David J

    2011-10-01

    Salmonella can live undetected in the gut of food animals and be transmitted to humans. Animal diets can impact intestinal populations of foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella spp. Orange juice production results in a waste product, orange peel and orange pulp, which has a high nutritive value and is often included in cattle diets as a least-cost ration ingredient. Here we show that the inclusion of orange peel products reduced Salmonella Typhimurium populations in the gut of experimentally inoculated sheep. Sheep (n=24) were fed a cracked corn grain-based high grain diet that was supplemented with a 50%/50% (dry matter [DM], w/w) mixture of dried orange pellet and fresh orange peel to achieve a final concentration (DM, basis) of 0%, 10%, or 20% orange product (OP) for 10 days before inoculation with Salmonella Typhimurium. Sheep were experimentally inoculated with 10(10) colony forming units Salmonella Typhimurium, and fecal samples were collected every 24 h after inoculation. Sheep were humanely euthanized at 96 h after oral Salmonella inoculation. Populations of inoculated Salmonella Typhimurium were numerically reduced by OP treatment throughout the gastrointestinal tract, and this reduction only reached significant levels in the cecum (ppeel and pellets are environmentally friendly and low-cost products that can be used as a pre-harvest intervention as part of an integrated pathogen reduction scheme. PMID:21651339

  15. High level ciprofloxacin resistance in Salmonella enterica isolated from blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raveendran R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Over the last few years, resistance to ciprofloxacin in Salmonella enterica has become a global concern. The present study was undertaken to find out the susceptibility pattern of Salmonella enterica isolates in our hospital. Methods: Blood cultures were done using BacT/ALERT 3D system. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method using CLSI breakpoints. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for ciprofloxacin-resistant strains using E-test and Vitek-1 automated system. Results: A total of 25,953 samples of blood culture yielded 431 Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi and 198 serotype Paratyphi A isolates. Twenty-two isolates of serotype Typhi were resistant to ciprofloxacin, while two isolates of Typhi and two Paratyphi A were intermediately susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin resistance is 5.6% (24 isolates among Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi. Ampicillin, chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi appears to have decreased to 14.9% (64/431 in comparison to the 27% (55/205 during 2003. All isolates were sensitive to ceftriaxone. Conclusions: Ciprofloxacin can no longer be considered as the drug of choice in treating Salmonella infections. While first-line antimicrobials may still have a role to play in the treatment of enteric fever, ceftriaxone remains the sole defence against ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella infections.

  16. Detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis using real time PCR, immunocapture assay, PNA FISH and standard culture methods in different types of food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, C; Cerqueira, L; Azevedo, N F; Vieira, M J

    2013-01-15

    Several methods for the rapid and specific detection of Salmonella in food samples have been described. Here, we compare 4 of those methods in terms of assay time, procedure complexity, detection limit, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. Milk, eggs and mayonnaise samples were artificially contaminated with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis cell concentrations ranging from 1×10(-2) to 1×10(2) CFU per 25 g or ml of food. Samples were then pre-enriched and analyzed by either: i) real-time PCR, using the iQ-Check Salmonella kit; ii) immunocapture, using the RapidChek SELECT Salmonella; iii) a peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) method and iv) the traditional bacteriological method ISO 6579:2002. All methods were able to detect Salmonella in the different types of food matrixes and presented a similar detection level of 1CFU per 25 g or ml of food sample. The immunocapture and the PNA FISH methods proved to be very reliable, as their results were 100% in agreement with the ISO method. However, real-time PCR presented a significant number of false positives, which resulted in a specificity of 55.6% (CI 95%, 31.3-77.6) and an accuracy of 82.2% (CI 95%, 63.2-91.4) for this method. Sensitivity was 100% since no false negative results were observed. In conclusion, the implementation of these molecular techniques, mainly the immunocapture and PNA-FISH methods, provides a reliable and less time-consuming alternative for the detection of Salmonella spp. in food samples. PMID:23246608

  17. Optimization of the reactional medium and a food impact study for a colorimetric in situ Salmonella spp. detection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junillon, Thomas; Mosticon, David; Mallen, Benoît; Baril, Florent; Morand, Lucie; Michel, Déborah; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre

    2014-07-01

    Foodborne pathogens are still a major concern for public health authorities. In this paper, we describe the optimization of a previously reported method which combines a highly specific capture of targeted food pathogens with an intracellular staining method. The reaction medium was optimized to simultaneously allow specific enrichment of Salmonella and maximize the staining of the target pathogen. This in situ colorimetric concept was evaluated with a broad range of food samples artificially contaminated with low levels of stressed Salmonella to mimic natural contamination conditions. This direct detection method compared favorably to a commercially available immunoassay system (Vidas® UP Salmonella), for cooked meat, dry milk powder and egg products. Globally 88% agreement was obtained between the two methods with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 100% for the tested method. Main discordances were obtained with food matrices having high levels of competitive Gram negative microflora. These observations show that the design of an adapted culture medium is necessary to enhance the specific in situ capture and revelation system. PMID:24819412

  18. Mannanoligosaccharide agglutination by Salmonella enterica strains isolated from carrier pigs Aglutinação de cepas de Salmonella enterica isoladas de suínos portadores ao mananoligossacarídeo

    OpenAIRE

    Luciane Borowsky; Gertrudes Corção; Marisa Cardoso

    2009-01-01

    Type-1 fimbriae are associated with most Salmonella enterica serovars and are an essential factor for host colonization. Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS), a prebiotic that is agglutinated by type-1 fimbriae, are proposed for the control of enterobacteria colonization and may be an alternative to Salmonella control in pigs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of porcine Salmonella strains to adhere to MOS in vitro. A total of 108 strains of Salmonella sp. isolated from carrier pig...

  19. Behavior of Salmonella heidelberg and Salmonella enteritidis strains following broiler chick inoculation: evaluation of cecal morphometry, liver and cecum bacterial counts and fecal excretion patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Anderlise Borsoi; Luciana Ruschel do Santos; Laura Beatriz Rodrigues; Hamilton Luiz de Souza Moraes; Carlos Tadeu Pippi Salle; Vladimir Pinheiro do Nascimento

    2011-01-01

    Over the years, Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) has gained prominence in North America poultry production and in the poultry production of other countries. Salmonella Heidelberg has been isolated and reported from poultry and poultry products in Brazil since 1962, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) has only emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health since 1993. These strains of Salmonella can cause intestinal problems in newly hatched chicks, and infection may persist until adultho...

  20. Prosthetic joint infection due to Salmonella species: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arjun; Berbari, Elie F; Osmon, Douglas R; Virk, Abinash

    2014-11-26

    BackgroundProsthetic joint infection (PJI) due to Salmonella is rare. Numerous outbreaks of Salmonella have been reported throughout the United States in the last decade. We reviewed and analyzed cases of Salmonella PJI seen at our institution.MethodsThe medical records of all patients diagnosed with a Salmonella PJI between 1969¿2013 were reviewed. Patients were followed till death, treatment failure or loss to follow-up.ResultsSix patients of Salmonella PJI were identified during the 44 year study period. Five were male; median age was 63.5 years (range 52¿76). Five patients were immunodeficient. Five had a total hip arthroplasty infection, while one had a total knee arthroplasty infection. Median prosthesis age at the time of diagnosis of first episode of Salmonella PJI was 5 years (range 4 months-9 years). Four presented with fever and constitutional signs within two weeks of symptom onset. Two patients each had gastrointestinal symptoms and Salmonella bacteremia. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis was the most common organism isolated (4 patients). None were Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Initial management included aspiration and antimicrobial therapy only (3), debridement and component retention (1) and two-staged exchange (2). All four patients treated without resection failed treatment a median of 2.5 months (range 2¿11) after diagnosis and required resection arthroplasty. All six patients who underwent prosthesis removal (and exchange or arthrodesis) had successful outcome with a median duration of follow-up of 11 years (range 4¿21). Three of these received oral antimicrobial therapy for a median duration eight weeks (range 4¿8) and three received parenteral antimicrobial therapy for a median duration of six weeks (range 4¿6).ConclusionsThe increase in Salmonella outbreaks does not seem to lead to increased Salmonella PJI. PJIs due to Salmonella remain rare, and the presentation is often acute with fever. It frequently occurs in immunocompromised patients. In our patient population, removal of prosthesis with or without reimplantation, along with 4¿6 weeks of effective parenteral antimicrobial therapy was most often associated with successful eradication of infection. PMID:25424009

  1. Salmonella contamination of hatching and table eggs: a comparison.

    OpenAIRE

    Poppe, C.; Duncan, C. L.; Mazzocco, A.

    1998-01-01

    This study determined and compared Salmonella contamination rates of pools of surplus, early and culled hatching eggs from layer and broiler breeder flocks, and of pools of early and regular table eggs from layer flocks. Each pool contained 6 eggs. Five methods were used for the isolation of Salmonella. Nine of 126 pools of culled layer hatching eggs, 2 of 126 pools of surplus layer hatching eggs, and one of 126 pools of early layer hatching eggs were contaminated with Salmonella. All 126 poo...

  2. Elisa indireto na detecção de Salmonella spp. em lingüiça suína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loguercio Andrea Pinto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Um teste ELISA, baseado em um anticorpo monoclonal (MAb específico para uma proteína de membrana externa de Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis foi comparado com o método de cultivo tradicional na detecção de Salmonella spp. em 110 amostras de lingüiça suína frescal. A prevalência do patógeno nas amostras foi de 11,82% de acordo com o cultivo tradicional. O teste ELISA revelou sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos positivos e negativos de 100%, 98%, 87% e 100%, respectivamente. Tais achados indicam que, comparado ao sistema tradicional, o teste imunológico foi bastante eficaz na determinação de Salmonella spp. em amostras de lingüiças naturalmente contaminadas.

  3. [Salmonella m'bandaka isolated in a nursery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merad, B; Hamza, A; Guechi, Z; Rahal, K

    1992-01-01

    A epidemic of enteric pathogens bacteria occurred in december 1989 and caused two deaths in a nursery. There were many investigations between december 1989 and september 1990 trying to clarify this epidemic context. A new serovar of Salmonella had for the first time been isolated from babies' feces in Algeria. Salmonella m'bandaka has been identified in more than 50% of analysis. During an hygienic investigation in this nursery the above Salmonella m'bandaka was isolated in a open physiologic solution flask. PMID:1339248

  4. Salmonella outbreak among railway and airline passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakka, M

    1992-01-01

    A widespread outbreak by Salmonella infantis, infecting a total of 226 people, occurred in Finland at the beginning of August 1986. Of those infected, 107 were railway passengers, 91 were airline passengers and 28 were employed in a food processing establishment. The outbreak among the railway passengers was caused by egg sandwiches, the airline passengers were infected by a meal served on board and the catering employees by the breakfast served in the establishment. The outbreak was caused by food prepared in the establishment's kitchen. The employees' breakfasts had probably been contaminated by an employee who was a symptom-free Salmonella infantis carrier, and a number of the employees subsequently became infected, leading to widespread contamination of the food prepared in the establishment. The spread of the outbreak was further influenced by a heatwave at the time and by shortcomings in the cold storage facilities. The kitchen's hygiene supervision and the quality control of its output were reorganized after the outbreak. PMID:1488941

  5. Whole Genome Epidemiological Typing of Salmonella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella is one of the most common foodborne pathogens worldwide. In the US alone, salmonellosis was estimated to cause 1.4 million cases effecting 17,000 hospitalization and almost 600 deaths each year. Particularly, Salmonella enterica is a common cause of minor and large food borne outbreaks. Technological advances and effective price in high throughput genome sequencing are making whole genome sequencing (WGS) available as a routine tool for bacterial typing. Typing of Salmonella, especially sub-typing within the same serotype or even the same clone, the genetic variation of the target genes being used for typing is crucial for successful discrimination. The core genes or the genes that are conserved in all members of a genus or species are potentially good candidates for investigating genomic variation in phylogeny and epidemiology. A total of 2,882 core genes have been observed among 73 available Salmonella enterica genomes (accessed in April 2011). A consensus tree based on variation of the core genes gives better resolution than 16S rRNA and MLST that rarely provide separation between closely related strains. The performance of the pan-genome tree which is based on the presence/absence of all genes across genomes, is similar to the consensus tree but with higher branching confidence value. The core genes can be divided into two categories: a few highly variable genes and a larger set of conserved core genes, with low variance. These core genes are useful for investigating molecular evolution and remain useful as candidate genes for bacterial genome typing-even if they cannot be expected to differentiate highly clonal isolates e.g. outbreak cases of Salmonella [I]. To achieve successful ‘real-time’ monitoring and identification of outbreaks, rapid and reliable sub-typing is essential. A collection of thirty-four human S. Typhimurium strains from six different outbreaks together with background strains plus eight S. Enteritidis isolates from two outbreaks and five S. Derby isolates from a single outbreak were used to evaluate the strengths and drawbacks of different WGS approaches compared to the traditional typing, PFGE, for retrospectively outbreak typing of Salmonella. The resulting outcome showed that SNP analysis and nucleotide difference approach seem to be the superior methods for outbreak detection compared to other phylogenetic analytic approaches of WGS. Furthermore, WGS approaches were also superior to the more classical typing method, PFGE. Meanwhile, k-mer method constructs a tree in high speed and giving high accuracy in clade level [II]. SNP analysis has successfully applied in recent epidemiological studies of Salmonella. Currently, there are different tools and methods to identify SNPs including various cut-off values. In addition, all the tools require bioinformatics skill. In order to apply WGS in routine typing, an automatic and user-friendly tool is needed. Therefor, snpTree has been developed as a server for online-automatic SNP analysis. snpTree can identify SNPs and construct phylogenetic tree from WGS raw reads as well as from assembled genomes or contigs. The tool is freely accessible at http://cge.cbs.dtu.dk/services/snpTree/ [III]. Globally, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is the most commonly isolated serovar. S. Typhimurium consists of a number of subtypes that conventionally have been divided by phagetyping. During the last three decades, S. Typhimurium phage type DT104 emerged as the most prevalent phage type and one of the best-studied because of its rapid global dissemination. Nonetheless, the origin and transmission route of this particular phage type have not been revealed. To bridge the gaps in epidemiology of DT104, WGS and temporally structured sequence analysis within Bayesian framework have been incorporated for reconstructing temporal and spatial phylogenies, estimating rate of mutation and divergence time of global and local S. Typhimurium DT104 isolates sampled from 1969 to 2012 from twenty-one countries in six continents. The DT104 was estimated to initiall

  6. Avaliação clínica da infecção experimental de bezerros com Salmonella Dublin / Clinical evaluation of experimental Salmonella Dublin infection in calves

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D.G., Silva; P.R.L., Silva; J.J., Fagliari; F.A, Ávila; A.C., Alessi; R.G., Oliveira.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english The clinical conditions of healthy calves infected with experimental 10(8)CFU of Salmonella Dublin were evaluated and the viability of the experimental model in disease induction in calves was verified. Twelve 10 to 15-day-old male Holstein calves were examined. They were allocated into two groups, [...] control and experimentally infected with 10(8)CFU of Salmonella Dublin. Animals were submitted to clinical examination after inoculation and at every 12 hours, during seven days after the experimental infection. Samples of rectal swabs were collected for Salmonella Dublin isolation. All animals had severe diarrhea, with mucus and bleeding, 12 to 84 hours after the experimental infection with Salmonella Dublin, accompanied by fever, dehydration and respiratory signs. The isolation of Salmonella Dublin from rectal swabs occurred 12 hours after the infection. Two out of the six animals inoculated with Salmonella Dublin died with symptoms of enteritis, fibrinous pneumonia, centrilobular hepatic steatosis, hepatocyte necrosis, spleen congestion, interstitial nephritis, and tubular degeneration. Thus, the oral administration of 10(8)CFU of Salmonella Dublin induced clinical signs of salmonellosis in 10 to 15-day-old calves.

  7. A microfluidic nano-biosensor for the detection of pathogenic Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Giyoung; Moon, Ji-Hea; Moh, Chang-Yeon; Lim, Jong-guk

    2015-05-15

    Rapid detection of pathogenic Salmonella in food products is extremely important for protecting the public from salmonellosis. The objective of the present study was to explore the feasibility of using a microfluidic nano-biosensor to rapidly detect pathogenic Salmonella. Quantum dot nanoparticles were used to detect Salmonella cells. For selective detection of Salmonella, anti-Salmonella polyclonal antibodies were covalently immobilized onto the quantum dot surface. To separate and concentrate the cells from the sample, superparamagnetic particles and a microfluidic chip were used. A portable fluorometer was developed to measure the fluorescence signal from the quantum dot nanoparticles attached to Salmonella in the samples. The sensitivity for detection of pathogenic Salmonella was evaluated using serially diluted Salmonella Typhimurium in borate buffer and chicken extract. The fluorescence response of the nano-biosensor increased with increasing cell concentration. The detection limit of the sensor was 10(3) CFU/mL Salmonella in both borate buffer and food extract. PMID:25172028

  8. 78 FR 68461 - Guidance for Industry: Studies To Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ...of Anti- Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in Feeds; Request for Comments...of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in Feeds,'' and is seeking...of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in Feeds (GFI 80) is to...

  9. European outbreak of Salmonella Strathcona caused by small tomatoes, August – November 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Luise; Kjelsoe, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In September 2011 a small cluster of Salmonella Strathcona was identified in Denmark. An urgent inquiry was posted on the Epidemic Intelligence Information System (EPIS) for the Food and Waterborne Disease Network and cases were reported from Germany and Austria. An outbreak investigation was initiated to reveal the source in order to stop the outbreak. METHODS: A case was defined as a laboratory confirmed Salmonella Strathcona patient in Europe with a specific pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern ill between August and November 2011. Hypothesis-generating interviews were performed in Denmark, Germany and Austria, and further studies in Denmark included comparative analyses of patients’ shopping lists obtained from supermarket computers, and a case-control study with 25 cases and 56 population register controls matched on age, sex and municipality. RESULTS: In total, 43 cases of Salmonella Strathcona were reported in Denmark, 13 in Germany, two in Italy and one in Austria with the same PFGE. The comparative analyses of patients’ shopping lists showed that 8/10 cases had bought a specific type of Datterino tomatoes prior to disease onset. In a case-control study illness was associated with a specific supermarket chain, mOR=16.9 [2.2-130], and having consumed elongated small tomatoes, mOR=28, 95% CI [2,6-300]. Trace-back investigation showed that the tomatoes came from an Italian producer and had been sold both in Germany and Austria, although a detailed European trace-back investigation could not be performed. CONCLUSIONS: Non-animal food vehicles are increasingly recognized as causing outbreaks in Europe. This outbreak emphasizes the challenges in investigating contaminated food items across borders in Europe. We recommend that cooperation between epidemiological investigators and food authorities within Europe are strengthened to address such outbreaks.

  10. Vacuole Acidification Is Not Required for Survival of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium within Cultured Macrophages and Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Steele-mortimer, Olivia; St-louis, Maryse; Olivier, Martin; Finlay, B. Brett

    2000-01-01

    Phagosome acidification is an important component of the microbicidal response by infected eukaryotic cells. Thus, intracellular pathogens that reside within phagosomes must either block phagosome acidification or be able to survive at low pH. In this work, we studied the effect of phagosomal acidification on the survival of intracellular Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in different cell types. Bafilomycin A1, a specific inhibitor of the vacuolar proton-ATPases, was used to block acid...

  11. Outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in Switzerland, May – June 2008, implications for production and control of meat preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, H.; Ha?chler, H.; Stephan, R.; Baumgartner, A.; Boubaker, K.

    2008-01-01

    An increased number of Salmonella Typhimurium cases were reported in Switzerland between May and June 2008. Investigations involved 72 cases. Results of PFGE typing identified several outbreak strains, the dominating one present in 43 of the 72 isolates. Strains affecting one third of the cases were also found in animal samples, in particular pork. However, no specific food source could be identified. Outbreaks described in this paper highlight the importance of food safety regulations such a...

  12. Identification of the phosphocarrier protein enzyme IIIgut: essential component of the glucitol phosphotransferase system in Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Grenier, F. C.; Hayward, I.; Novotny, M. J.; Leonard, J. E.; Saier, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphorylation of glucitol has been shown to require four distinct proteins in Salmonella typhimurium: two general energy-coupling proteins, enzyme I and HPr, and two glucitol-specific proteins, enzyme IIgut and enzyme IIIgut. The enzyme IIgut was solubilized from the membrane and purified about 100-fold, free of the other protein constituents of the phosphotransferase system. Enzyme IIIgut was found in both the soluble and the membrane fractions. The solubl...

  13. Phage amplification assay as rapid method for Salmonella detection / Amplificação de bacteriófagos como um método rápido de detecção de Salmonella

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Regina Silva de, Siqueira; Christine E.R., Dodd; Catherine E.D., Rees.

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A aplicação de métodos rápidos é crucial para a implantação de programas de HACCP em indústrias de alimentos. Neste contexto, o método de amplificação de bacteriófagos é um instrumento de diagnóstico importante porque está baseado na interação dos bacteriófagos com suas células hospedeiras. Este mét [...] odo, usando o bacteriófago P22, foi aplicado para detectar Salmonella em peito de frango. Amostras de 25 g de peito de frango foram diluídas e as diluições apropriadas foram usadas no método de amplificação de bacteriófagos na detecção de Salmonella. Após 3-4 horas de incubação, foi observado uma titulação de partículas virais de, aproximadamente, 10(4) ufp mL-1 (unidades formadoras de placas virais), indicando a presença de células de Salmonella na carne de frango. A comprovação da presença de Salmonella neste produto foi verificada usando-se plaqueamento direto em ágar XLD e procedimento de enriquecimento convencional. As colônias suspeitas de Salmonella foram sorologicamente testadas e identificadas como pertencendo aos sorogrupos B (grupo de S. typhimurium) e D (grupo de S. enteritidis). Portanto, concluiu-se que este método pode ser aplicado, na detecção de Salmonella em alimentos, porque fornece rápido e conclusivo resultado, reduzindo o tempo de análise e o trabalho laboratorial para 3-4 horas. Abstract in english The application of rapid methods is crucial for the HACCP program implantation in food industry. In this context, Phage Amplification Assay is a good candidate because is based on the interactions of phage and their host bacteria. This method using phage P22 was applied with to detect Salmonella cel [...] ls in chicken breast. Samples of 25 g of chicken breast were diluted and the appropriate dilutions were used in phage amplification assay for Salmonella detection. After 3-4 h of incubation, it was observed a phage titre of approximately 10(4) pfu mL-1, indicating that there were Salmonella cells which were naturally present in the meat. The presence of Salmonella cells were verified by using direct plating on XLD agar and by conventional enrichment procedure. The colonies suspected to be Salmonella were serologically tested and were identified as belonging to the serogroups B (S. typhimurium group) and D (S. enteritidis group). It can be concluded that this method provides a rapid and alternative application for Salmonella detection in food samples reducing both time and laboratory work to 3-4 hours.

  14. Phage amplification assay as rapid method for Salmonella detection Amplificação de bacteriófagos como um método rápido de detecção de Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Silva de Siqueira

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of rapid methods is crucial for the HACCP program implantation in food industry. In this context, Phage Amplification Assay is a good candidate because is based on the interactions of phage and their host bacteria. This method using phage P22 was applied with to detect Salmonella cells in chicken breast. Samples of 25 g of chicken breast were diluted and the appropriate dilutions were used in phage amplification assay for Salmonella detection. After 3-4 h of incubation, it was observed a phage titre of approximately 10(4 pfu mL-1, indicating that there were Salmonella cells which were naturally present in the meat. The presence of Salmonella cells were verified by using direct plating on XLD agar and by conventional enrichment procedure. The colonies suspected to be Salmonella were serologically tested and were identified as belonging to the serogroups B (S. typhimurium group and D (S. enteritidis group. It can be concluded that this method provides a rapid and alternative application for Salmonella detection in food samples reducing both time and laboratory work to 3-4 hours.A aplicação de métodos rápidos é crucial para a implantação de programas de HACCP em indústrias de alimentos. Neste contexto, o método de amplificação de bacteriófagos é um instrumento de diagnóstico importante porque está baseado na interação dos bacteriófagos com suas células hospedeiras. Este método, usando o bacteriófago P22, foi aplicado para detectar Salmonella em peito de frango. Amostras de 25 g de peito de frango foram diluídas e as diluições apropriadas foram usadas no método de amplificação de bacteriófagos na detecção de Salmonella. Após 3-4 horas de incubação, foi observado uma titulação de partículas virais de, aproximadamente, 10(4 ufp mL-1 (unidades formadoras de placas virais, indicando a presença de células de Salmonella na carne de frango. A comprovação da presença de Salmonella neste produto foi verificada usando-se plaqueamento direto em ágar XLD e procedimento de enriquecimento convencional. As colônias suspeitas de Salmonella foram sorologicamente testadas e identificadas como pertencendo aos sorogrupos B (grupo de S. typhimurium e D (grupo de S. enteritidis. Portanto, concluiu-se que este método pode ser aplicado, na detecção de Salmonella em alimentos, porque fornece rápido e conclusivo resultado, reduzindo o tempo de análise e o trabalho laboratorial para 3-4 horas.

  15. Development of a sanitary risk index for Salmonella seroprevalence in Belgian pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautekiet, Veerle; Geert, Verbeke; Marc, Vandebroeck; Rony, Geers

    2008-08-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a scientifically based Sanitary Risk Index (SRI), defined as an objective measure of the Salmonella seroprevalence in a pig herd based on the risk factors being present on the farm. Therefore, an observational epidemiological study was adopted to infer risk factors for the Salmonella seroprevalence of market pigs. A total of 204 Belgian farrow-to-finish pig herds were included in this cross-sectional study. The antibody titre to Salmonella in sera was analysed by means of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for an average of 58 finisher pigs on each farm. A detailed questionnaire, covering an extensive range of potential risk factors was completed by each participating pig producer. Pearson correlation coefficients between the average sample to positive ratio (S/P)-value of a herd and the within-herd proportion of seropositive pigs were high. Significant risk factors associated with the average S/P-value of a herd were identified by a general linear mixed model. Feeding of meal, providing wet feed, having a hygienic-lock facility, using boot baths, applying the strict all in/all out procedure, programming the temperature in the zone of thermal neutrality and disinfecting between batches were all associated with lower average S/P-values. Sampling in summer, using a clean downtime, decreasing floor space per animal as well as increasing herd size were related with higher average S/P-values. The SRI consists of the above-specified risk factors together with their relative weight. Determining the Salmonella risk of a new herd by the SRI is primarily based on the quantification of the farm specific risk factors present and results in an average S/P-value of the herd. The model was validated using a set of conventional farms. In conclusion, the SRI is a useful preliminary screening tool which forms the basis for targeted sampling but cannot replace the serological herd classification with regard to Salmonella prevalence. PMID:18453017

  16. An oral vaccine for type 1 diabetes based on live attenuated Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husseiny, Mohamed I; Rawson, Jeffrey; Kaye, Alexander; Nair, Indu; Todorov, Ivan; Hensel, Michael; Kandeel, Fouad; Ferreri, Kevin

    2014-04-25

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a metabolic disease that is initiated by the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells that is accompanied by the development of antigen-specific antibodies and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Several studies have shown that vaccination with diabetic autoantigens provides some protection against this process. In this report we describe a new oral vaccine that utilizes live attenuated Salmonella for simultaneous delivery of autoantigens in conjunction with immunomodulatory cytokine genes to immune cells in the gut mucosa. Recent data showed that live attenuated Salmonella is a safe, simple and effective vector for expression of antigens and cytokines by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of gut-associated lymphatic tissue (GALT). This novel strategy was tested by fusion of the diabetic autoantigen preproinsulin with Salmonella secretory effector protein (SseF) of pathogenicity island-2 (SPI2). In this way the autoantigen is only expressed inside the host immune cells and translocated to the host cell cytosol. In addition Salmonella was used to deliver the gene for the immunomodulatory cytokine transforming growth factor beta (TGF?) for host cell expression. Oral co-vaccination of 8 week-old non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice with three weekly doses of both the autoantigen and cytokine significantly reduced the development of diabetes, improved the response to glucose challenge, preserved beta cell mass, and reduced the severity of insulitis compared with controls and autoantigen alone. Combination therapy also resulted in increased circulating levels of IL10 four weeks post-vaccination and IL2 for 12 weeks post-vaccination, but without effect on proinflammatory cytokines IL6, IL12(p70), IL17 and IFN?. However, in non-responders there was a significant rise in IL12 compared with responders. Future studies will examine the mechanism of this vaccination strategy in more detail. In conclusion, Salmonella-based oral vaccines expressing autoantigens combined with imunomodulatory cytokines appears to be a promising therapy for prevention of T1D. PMID:24631074

  17. Occurrence of small Hsd plasmids in Salmonella typhi, Shigella boydii, and Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Y.; Mise, K.

    1986-01-01

    The natural occurrence of small Hsd (host specificity for DNA) plasmids was demonstrated in restriction endonuclease-producing strains of Salmonella typhi, Shigella boydii, and Escherichia coli. The five Hsd plasmids isolated were between 5.0 and 12.2 kilobases long. The copy number of all the Hsd plasmids was high (more than 10 copies per cell). Introduction of these small plasmids into E. coli strain 0 drastically lowered the efficiency of plating of the lambda.0 phages (the efficiency of p...

  18. The N4-hydroxycytidine reduction system in toluenized cells of Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzymatic reduction of N4-hydroxycytidine to cytidine in Salmonella typhimurium is highly specific. The reaction occurs only at the nucleoside level. Free base or its 1-methyl analogue is not reduced. The pH optimum shows a broad plateau with a maximum at pH 7.0. The apparent Ksub(m) value, estimated in the toluene-treated cells, is 4.8mM and Vsub(max) 1.4nmoles/min/mg of wet bacterial weight. The reaction is NADH-dependent, although in toluenized bacterial cells it can occur without addition of any exogenous factor. (author)

  19. Studies on the lactose character in Salmonella S:41:z10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajgopalan D

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available A number of plasmids carrying the Lac+ character have been reported. Lac+ character of salmonella S:41:z10:- studied for transfer of Lac+ character to standard Escherichia coli K12 Lac-F- Nalr and Escherichia coli K12 F- Lac- Rifr, failed to transfer in in vitro experiments. Similarly, identification and characterisation of plasmid DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis technique did not show specific plasmid DNA as compared to standard molecular weight plasmids. Plasmid DNA appeared to have been embedded with chromosomal DNA molecule.

  20. Comparison of different selective enrichment steps to isolate Salmonella sp. from feces of finishing swine / Comparação de diferentes etapas de enriquecimento seletivo no isolamento de Salmonella sp. de fezes de suínos de terminação

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Geovana Brenner, Michael; Roselis, Simoneti; Marisa da, Costa; Marisa, Cardoso.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Através de um estudo em duas fases comparou-se a eficiência de etapas de enriquecimento seletivo, associadas a diferentes meios seletivos, na recuperação de Salmonella sp. de fezes de suínos de terminação. Em uma primeira fase, as amostras foram contaminadas artificialmente e os caldos Rappaport-Vas [...] siliadis (RV) incubado a 42ºC, Tetrationato Müller-Kauffmann a 37ºC (TMK37) e 42ºC (TMK42), e Selenito Cistina (SC) a 37ºC foram testados, em associação com meios sólidos seletivos: ágar Rambach (RA), ágar Xilose-Lisina-Tergitol 4 (XLT4), e ágar Verde-brilhante Vermelho-neutro Lactose Sacarose (VB). Na segunda fase os caldos RV, TMK37, and TMK42, semeados nos meios XLT4 and VB, foram testados com amostras naturalmente contaminadas. No isolamento de Salmonella sp. em amostras artificialmente contaminadas o RV, TMK42 e TMK37 foram superiores ao SC. Na segunda fase o TMK42 e RV foram mais eficientes que o TMK37. O desempenho destas etapas de enriquecimento seletivo influenciou diretamente a capacidade seletiva e indicadora dos meios sólidos seletivos utilizados. No presente estudo, a associação TMK42/XLT4 demonstrou ser a mais sensível, e a RV/XLT4 a mais específica. O uso do meio VB também é recomendado para aumentar a probabilidade do isolamento de colônias atípicas de Salmonella - produtoras tardias ou não produtoras de H2S. No presente estudo, RV e TMK42 foram as etapas de enriquecimento seletivo mais eficientes para o isolamento de Salmonella de fezes de suínos. Abstract in english A two-phase study was conducted to compare the efficacy of several enrichment selective-broth steps associated to different plating media for recovery of Salmonella sp. from finishing swine feces. In a first phase, Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth (RV) incubated at 42ºC, Tetrathionate Müller-Kauffmann br [...] oth at 37ºC (TMK37) and 42ºC (TMK42), and Selenite Cystine broth (SC) at 37ºC, in combination with three selective plating media Rambach agar (RA), Xylose-Lysine-Tergitol 4 agar (XLT4), and Brilliant-Green Phenol-Red Lactose Sucrose agar (VB) were compared for recovery of Salmonella from artificially contaminated swine feces. In a second phase, RV, TMK37, and TMK42, associated with XLT4 and VB , were tested with naturally contaminated swine feces. In this study RV, TMK42 and TMK37 were superior to SC for isolating Salmonella sp. from artificially contaminated feces. TMK42 and RV were more productive than TMK37 for recovery of Salmonella from naturally contaminated feces samples. Selectivity and indication capability of the plating media were remarkably affected by the selective enrichment step effectiveness. The TMK42/XLT4 association was the most sensitive and RV/XLT4 the most specific. The use of VB agar is also recommended to increase the likelihood of isolating atypical H2S-late producing/ non-producing Salmonella. In this study RV and TMK42 were the most efficient selective enrichment for recovery of Salmonella sp. from swine feces.

  1. Cytotoxic mechanism of cytolethal distending toxin in nontyphoidal salmonella serovar (salmonella javiana) during macrophage infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Katherine; Gokulan, Kuppan; Shelman, Diamond; Akiyama, Tatsuya; Khan, Ashraf; Khare, Sangeeta

    2015-02-01

    Cytolethal distending toxin B (cdtB) is a conserved virulence factor in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Here we report the presence and functionality of cdtB in some nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars, including Salmonella Javiana (cdtB+wt S. Javiana), isolated from imported food. To understand the role of cdtB in NTS serovars, a deletion mutant (cdtB(-)?S. Javiana) was constructed. Macrophages were infected with cdtB+wt S. Javiana (wild type), cdtB(-)? S. Javiana (mutant), and cdtB-negative NTS serovar (S. Typhimurium). Cytotoxic activity and transcription level of genes involved in cell death (apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis) were assessed in infected macrophages. The cdtB+wt S. Javiana caused cellular distension as well as high degree of vacuolization and presence of the autophagosome marker LC3 in infected macrophages as compared with cdtB(-)?S. Javiana. The mRNA expression of genes involved in the induction of autophagy in response to toxin (Esr1 and Pik3C3) and coregulators of autophagy and apoptosis (Bax and Cyld) were significantly upregulated in cdtB(+)wt S. Javiana-infected macrophages. As autophagy destroys internalized pathogens in addition to the infected cell, it may reduce the spread of infection. PMID:25389664

  2. Comparison of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg Susceptibility Testing Results

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Rajesh; Call, Veronica; Kaldhone, Pravin; Tyler, Cynthia; Anderson, Gwendolyn; Phillips, Sarah; Kerdahi, Khalil; Foley, Steven L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Disk diffusion and broth dilution assays are conventionally used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of bacteria. The goal of this study was to determine the correlation of results from different AST methods for the Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg.

  3. Biological effect of plutonium 239 on Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmonella typhimurium cells were exposed in a 239Pu citrate solution. Cell death and induction of gene mutations were an exponential fucntion of ?-radiation dose. LD37 was 34.8 Gy; mutation doubling dose, 19 Gy

  4. AMES SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY ASSAY PROCEDURE FOR WATER SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes methods for water and wastewater sample collection and processing for the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay. uidelines are provided for sampling equipment, composite sample collection, storage, and handling; sample filtration and extraction and concentratio...

  5. A malignant pleural effusion infected with Salmonella enteritidis.

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, G. V.; Holden, A.

    1996-01-01

    A patient is described with a unilateral pleural effusion persistently infected with Salmonella enteritidis. The infection was eventually eradicated with ciprofloxacin. A computed tomographic scan and mediastinal lymph node biopsy demonstrated an underlying small cell bronchogenic carcinoma.

  6. Outbreak of Salmonella food poisoning at Junior World Rowing Championships.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes an outbreak of Salmonella enteriditis occurring at the Junior World Rowing Championships at Poznan, Poland, in August 1995 which was to have a significant effect on the performance of several of the largest national teams.

  7. Salmonella Is a Sneaky Germ: Seven Tips for Safer Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a Sneaky Germ: Seven Tips for Safer Eating Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... know the risks. You can get Salmonella from eating a wide variety of foods, not just from ...

  8. Radiation processing for the control of Salmonella in frog legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large consignments of frogs legs are exported annually from India. Failure to satisfy some of the strict microbiological standards, especially in relating to Salmonellae contamination, has resulted in the rejection of large quantities of the product in recent years. This has emphasised the need for better and more effective methods than those currently in use for the elimination of Salmonellae. With a view to developing an irradiation process for the control of this public health problem, commercial samples of frog legs have been screened to assess the incidence of Salmonella. The various serotypes have been identified and their radiation sensitivities determined. Based on these data, a radiation treatment of frozen frog legs for the elimination of Salmonella has been developed. (author)

  9. Monitoring bacteriolytic therapy of salmonella typhimurium with optical imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systemically administrated Salmonella has been studied for targeting tumor and developed as an anticancer agent. In Salmonella, because msbB gene plays role in the terminal myristoylation of lipid A and induces tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-a) -mediated septic shock, Salmonella msbB mutant strain is safe and useful for tumor-targeting therapy. Here we report that Salmonella msbB mutant strain induce onco lysis after intravenous injection in tumor bearing mice. The CT26 mouse colon cancer cells were stably transfected with firefly luciferase gene and subcutaneously implantated in Balb/C mice. After establishing subcutaneous tumor mass, we intravenously injected 1x108 cfu Salmonella msbB mutant strain or MG1655 E coli strain. Not only tumor size but also total photon flux from the tumor mass were monitored. everyday and compared among experimental groups (No treatment, Salmonella treatment, E. coli MG1655 treatment group). After intraperitoneal injection of D-Iuciferin (3 mg/animal), in vivo optical imaging for firefly luciferase was performed using cooled CCD camera. Imaging signal from Salmonella injected group were significantly lower than that of no treatment or E. coli treatment group on day 2 after injection. On day 4 after injection, imaging signal of salmonella-injected group was 43.8 or 20.7 times lower than that of no treatment or E. coli treatment group, respectively (no treatment: 2.78E+07 p/s/cm2/sr, Salmonella treatment: 6.35E+05 p/s/cm22/sr, E. coli treatment: 1.29E+07 p/s/cm2/sr, P<0.05). However. when we injected E. coli MG1655 into tumor bearing mice, the intensity of imaging signal was not different from no treatment group. These findings suggest that Salmonella msbB mutant strain retains its tumor-targeting properties and have therapeutical effect. Bioluminescent tumor bearing animal model was useful for assessing tumor viability after bacteriolytic therapy using Salmonella

  10. Recombination of Salmonella phase 1 flagellin genes generates new serovars.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, N. H.; Beltran, P.; Selander, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    To determine the evolutionary mechanisms generating serotypic diversity in Salmonella strains, we sequenced the central, antigen-determining part of the phase 1 flagellin gene (fliC) in strains of several serovars for which estimates of chromosomal genomic relatedness had been obtained by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. The nucleotide sequence of this region was identical in several chromosomally divergent strains of Salmonella heidelberg (phase 1 antigen r) but differed by 19% from the co...

  11. Salmonella enterica Diversity in Central Californian Coastal Waterways

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, Sarah P.; Gonza?lez-escalona, Narjol; Son, Insook; Melka, David C.; Sassoubre, Lauren M.; Boehm, Alexandria B.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most important bacterial enteric pathogens worldwide. However, little is known about its distribution and diversity in the environment. The present study explored the diversity of 104 strains of Salmonella enterica isolated over 2 years from 12 coastal waterways in central California. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing were used to probe species diversity. Seventy-four PFGE patterns and 38 sequence types (STs) were found, i...

  12. Accessory replicons of species of Salmonella and Shigella.

    OpenAIRE

    Dhillon, T. S.; Hui, Y. W.; Teoh-chan, C. H.; Dhillon, E. K.

    1982-01-01

    Shigella and Salmonella strains isolated from clinical samples were examined. Out of 42 Shigella strains tested, 17 (40%) were found to be colicinogenic and another 3 were lysogenic. All three lysogens yielded a phage antigenically homologous to coliphage P2. Out of 30 strains tested, only 1 was found to be resistant to both neomycin and sulfamethoxazole. Out of 48 strains of Salmonella tested for drug resistance, only 2 showed multiple drug resistance. In contrast to Shigella isolates, the S...

  13. ANTIMICROBIAL INVESTIGATION OF PIPER NIGRUM L. AGAINST SALMONELLA TYPHI

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal Kumar Deshwal

    2013-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of different extracts of Piper nigrum L. against Salmonella typhi. Widal (serological) test positive patients were selected. Salmonella strains were isolated from blood of infected persons. 10 samples were analyzed for present study. Strains were cultured on blood agar medium and Bismuth Sulfite Agar medium. Pure isolated strains were characterized on the basis of Bergey’s Manual of determinative bacteriology. Three extracts such ...

  14. Salmonella typhimurium virulence in a burned-mouse model.

    OpenAIRE

    Carsiotis, M.; Stocker, B. A.; Holder, I. A.

    1989-01-01

    Various features of salmonellosis were examined in a burned-mouse model. In this model, which uses an outbred mouse strain, a challenge dose of ca. 100 CFU with any of several strains of Salmonella typhimurium caused a fatal infection. A variety of mutated strains attenuated for virulence in Salmonella-susceptible parenterally infected mice were also attenuated in the burned-mouse model. When administered as live vaccines injected intraperitoneally the same attenuated strains provided between...

  15. Effect of beef product physical structure on Salmonella thermal inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogollón, María Avelina; Marks, Bradley P; Booren, Alden M; Orta-Ramirez, Alicia; Ryser, Elliot T

    2009-09-01

    Numerous studies have assessed thermal inactivation of Salmonella in beef. However, the impact of muscle structure has been considered only recently, with several studies reporting enhanced thermal resistance in whole-muscle as compared to ground meat. The functional relationship between meat product physical structure and Salmonella thermal resistance has not been reported; therefore, it is not known whether thermal resistance is affected by the degree of grinding (that is, size of resulting particles). The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between thermal resistance of Salmonella and degree of grinding (whole-muscle, coarsely ground, finely ground, and beef puree). Each of the 4 product types was irradiated to sterility and inoculated with a marinade containing an 8-serovar Salmonella cocktail to achieve approximately 10(7.8) CFU/g. Samples (5 g each) were packed into sterile brass tubes, which were sealed, held at 60 degrees C in a water bath, and removed at 30 s intervals. Samples were then serially diluted and plated on Petrifilm aerobic count plates to enumerate surviving salmonellae. All samples had the same composition, thermal history, and initial Salmonella counts; therefore, differences in thermal resistance were due entirely to the degree of grinding. Overall, thermal resistance of Salmonella was highest (P meat products should also consider the structure of the product (which in this study was changed by the physical act of grinding). Salmonella was more resistant to heat in whole-muscle beef than in ground products; however, the degree of grinding did not affect the resistance. PMID:19895479

  16. Automated 5? Nuclease PCR Assay for Identification of Salmonella enterica

    OpenAIRE

    Hoorfar, J.; Ahrens, P.; Ra?dstro?m, P.

    2000-01-01

    A simple and ready-to-go test based on a 5? nuclease (TaqMan) PCR technique was developed for identification of presumptive Salmonella enterica isolates. The results were compared with those of conventional methods. The TaqMan assay was evaluated for its ability to accurately detect 210 S. enterica isolates, including 100 problematic “rough” isolates. An internal positive control was designed to use the same Salmonella primers for amplification of a spiked nonrelevant template (116 bp) ...

  17. Elisa indireto na detecção de Salmonella spp. em lingüiça suína

    OpenAIRE

    Loguercio Andrea Pinto; Aleixo José Antonio Guimarães; Vargas Agueda Castagna de; Costa Mateus Matiuzzi da

    2002-01-01

    Um teste ELISA, baseado em um anticorpo monoclonal (MAb) específico para uma proteína de membrana externa de Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis foi comparado com o método de cultivo tradicional na detecção de Salmonella spp. em 110 amostras de lingüiça suína frescal. A prevalência do patógeno nas amostras foi de 11,82% de acordo com o cultivo tradicional. O teste ELISA revelou sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos positivos e negativos de 100%, 98%, 87% e 100%, resp...

  18. Effect of Chitosan on Salmonella Typhimurium in Broiler Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Menconi, Anita; Pumford, Neil R.; Morgan, Marion J.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Kallapura, Gopala; Latorre, Juan D.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Hernandez-velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.; Tellez, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Public concern with the incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly among foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, has been challenging the poultry industry to find alternative means of control. The purposes of the present study were to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effects of chitosan on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) infection in broiler chicks. For in vitro crop assay experiments, tubes containing feed, water, and ST were treated with either saline as a control or...

  19. Fitness Effects of Replichore Imbalance in Salmonella enterica?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, T. David; Maloy, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    A fitness cost due to imbalanced replichores has been proposed to provoke chromosome rearrangements in Salmonella enterica serovars. To determine the impact of replichore imbalance on fitness, the relative fitness of isogenic Salmonella strains containing transposon-held duplications of various sizes and at various chromosomal locations was determined. Although duplication of certain genes influenced fitness, a replichore imbalance of up to 16° did not affect fitness.

  20. Suitability of Rapid Detection Methods for Salmonella in Poultry Slaughterhouses

    OpenAIRE

    Eijkelkamp, J. M.; Aarts, H. J. M.; Fels-klerx, H. J.

    2009-01-01

    In the perspective of an announced prohibition to bring Salmonella-contaminated fresh poultry meat on the retail market as of December 2010, requirements are postulated for rapid methods for detection of Salmonella in poultry meat. These rapid methods should deliver reliable results in time to make it possible to steer the finished products in poultry slaughterhouses into the direction of the fresh poultry market or into the direction of industrial treatment. The most important requirements a...