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Sample records for salmonella specific inva

  1. Detection of Salmonella in Shellfish Using SYBR Green™ I-Based Real-Time Multiplexed PCR Assay Targeting invA and spvB

    KAUST Repository

    Gangwar, Maulshree

    2012-09-23

    A SYBR Green™ I-based real-time multiplexed PCR assay was developed targeting invA and spvB for the detection of Salmonella strains in shellfish after both hns and invA genes were identified in all Salmonella strains. Simultaneously, the 16S rRNA gene was used as a PCR internal amplification control (IAC). All 89 Salmonella strains tested in this study exhibited amplification of invA, whereas only 21 (23. 6 %) were PCR positive for spvB. The sensitivity of detection of all three targeted genes was 1 ng, which is equivalent to approximately 105 colony-forming unit (CFU) of Salmonella enterica. The analysis showed specific PCR products that were identified by reproducible melt temperature profiles (invA, 84. 27 ± 1. 7 °C; spvB, 88. 76 ± 1. 0 °C; and 16S rRNA gene, 87. 16 ± 0. 8 °C). The sensitivity of detection was 10 pg purified DNA (invA) or 105 CFU in 1 mL pure culture of S. enterica ATCC 14028. The above molecular detection method for Salmonella strains was successfully applied to the oyster homogenates (food matrix). An initial inoculum of 106 and 102 CFU Salmonella in 1 ml seeded oyster tissue homogenate was detected by multiplexed PCR for all three genes after 5 and 24 h of enrichment, respectively. Natural oysters isolated from Gulf of Mexico during the winter months exhibited negative PCR amplification results suggesting the absence of Salmonella. In contrast to conventional PCR, real-time multiplex PCR assay developed in this study is rapid and sensitive and will help Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference undertake appropriate measures to monitor Salmonella in oysters, thereby preventing disease outbreaks and consequently protecting consumer health. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  2. Estandarización de una PCR para la detección del gen invA de Salmonella spp. en lechuga / Standardization of a PRC method for the detection of the Salmonella spp. invA gene in lettuce

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luz, Chacón; Kenia, Barrantes; Cristina, García; Achí, Rosario.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. es un patógeno bacteriano muy importante causante de diarreas, que es transmitido tanto por la vía fecal-oral, como por alimentos y agua contaminados. En este trabajo se estandarizó una técnica de PCR en lechuga para la detección del gen invA de Salmonella spp.; dicho gen se relacion [...] a con el proceso de invasión al epitelio intestinal. Con la PCR desarrollada en este trabajo se logró estandarizar un método que permite la amplificación del gen invA con una detección de 10² UFC/25 g. Este método acorta los tiempos de respuesta de los resultados presuntivos y brinda información complementaria al cultivo tradicional del patógeno. El estudio del gen invA establece el potencial patógeno del microorganismo presente en la muestra, lo que puede ser de utilidad para la salud pública. Abstract in english Salmonella spp. is a very important bacterial pathogen that causes diarrhea and which is transmitted both through the fecal-oral pathway, as by contaminated food and water. In this study we standardized a PCR method in lettuce for the detection of the Salmonella spp. invA gene. This gene is related [...] to the invasion of the intestinal epithelium process. With the PCR method developed in this study we were able to standardize a method which permits the amplification of the invA gene with a 10² CFU/25 g detection. This method shortens the response times of the presumptive results and gives complementary information to the traditional culture of the pathogen. The study of the invA gene establishes the pathogenic potential of the microorganism present in the sample, which can be useful for public health purposes.

  3. Detection of Live Salmonella sp. Cells in Produce by a TaqMan-Based Quantitative Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time PCR Targeting invA mRNA? †

    OpenAIRE

    González-Escalona, Narjol; Hammack, Thomas S.; Russell, Mindi; Jacobson, Andrew P.; De Jesús, Antonio J.; Brown, Eric W; Lampel, Keith A.

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella enterica contamination in foods is a significant concern for public health. When DNA detection methods are used for analysis of foods, one of the major concerns is false-positive results from the detection of dead cells. To circumvent this crucial issue, a TaqMan quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay with an RNA internal control was developed. invA RNA standards were used to determine the detection limit of this assay as well as to determine invA mRNA levels in mid-exponent...

  4. Presencia del gen de invasividad inv A en cepas de Salmonella spp: aisladas de alimentos del Caribe Colombiano / Presence of the invasive gene invA in Salmonella spp: strains isolated from food in several cities of the Colombian Caribbean area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paula, Espinal Marin; Edgar, Prieto Suárez; Vanessa, Otero Jiménez; Salim, Máttar Velilla.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: establecer la presencia del gen de invasividad invA en aislamientos de Salmonella spp. obtenidos de alimentos en la región Caribe Colombiana. Métodos: se realizó un estudio microbiológico de control de alimentos en 4 ciudades de la región Caribe entre enero de 2002 y marzo de 2003. Se anal [...] izaron 1 300 muestras de alimentos provenientes de mercados y ventas callejeras. Resultados: se recuperaron 74 aislamientos de Salmonella spp. , en carne de res 30 (40,5 %), embutidos 13 (17,6 %), pollo 12 (16,2 %), queso 9 (12,2 %), cerdo 6 (8,1 %) y otros 4 (5,5 %). Los serotipos más frecuentes fueron: S. anatum 14 (18,9 %), S. uganda 13 (17,6 %), S. newport 9 (12,2 %) y S. typhimurium 7 (9,5 %). El cebador invA amplificó un fragmento de 378 pb, el gen invA se detectó en 72 (97,3 %) aislamientos de Salmonella. Conclusiones: se detectó la presencia del gen invA en los serotipos de Salmonella circulantes en alimentos en la región Caribe Colombiana. Las implicaciones epidemiológicas de estos resultados permiten sugerir a las autoridades sanitarias tomar medidas estrictas en el control, prevención y diagnóstico de la infección por Salmonella en esta región Abstract in english Objective: to establish the presence of invasive gene invA in Salmonella spp. strains obtained from food in several cities of the Colombian Caribbean area. Methods: from January 2002 to March 2003, a microbiological study of quality control of food was carried out in four cities of the Colombian Car [...] ibbean area. One thousand and three hundred food samples were analyzed in fast food outlets located in city squares or markets. Results: seventy four isolates of Salmonella were recovered: 30 (40.5) in meat; 13 (17.6 %) in sausage; 12 (16.2 %) in chicken; 9 (12.2 %) in cheese; 6 (8.1 %) in pork and 4 (5.5 %) in other types of food. The most frequently isolated serotypes were S.anatum in 14 (18.9 %), S.uganda in 13 (17.6 %), S. newport in 9 (12.2 %) y S. typhimurium in 7 (9.5 %). The invA primer amplified 378 pb fragment, invA gene was detected in 72 (97.3 %) Salmonella isolates. Conclusions: it was possible to detect the invA gene in circulating serotypes of Salmonella isolates obtained from food in the Colombian Caribbean area, the epidemiological implications allow the health authorities to take measure for the prevention, control and diagnosis of Salmonella infection in the Colombian Caribbean area

  5. Determination of the invA gene of Salmonella using surface plasmon resonance along with streptavidin aptamer amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a sensitive method for the determination of Salmonella by integrating a streptavidinylated aptamer (SA-aptamer) as a signal amplification unit along with a modified asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique into the surface of an SPR sensor chip. The gold film of the sensor was first modified with a thiolated probe, and the target sequence and SA-aptamer were then induced to form a sandwich structure. If SA is added, the SA-aptamer forms a complex with SA which will amplify the signal. Under optimal conditions, this sensing scheme has a linear response in the 50 pM to 200 nM range, and the lower detection limit is 20 pM (for a synthetic target sequence). This strategy was successfully applied to the determination of Salmonella bacteria at levels as low as 60 CFU mL?1. This biosensor is sensitive, selective and highly stable. These features make this strategy a promising and powerful screening tool to detect pathogens in food, and in clinical and environmental samples. (author)

  6. Inv A gene specific PCR for detection of Salmonella from broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thenmozhi Velayutham

    Full Text Available Poultry meat has been identified as one of the principal foodborne source of Salmonella. In this preliminary study the prevalence of Salmonella spp. contamination of broiler carcasses, were determined. Sixty samples were collected from poultry carcasses from the commercial broiler slaughtering facility in Namakkal, Tamil Nadu. The presence of Salmonella spp in collected samples was assessed by performing the pre-enrichment and enrichment culture, followed by PCR assay. The primers were selected from the invA gene specific for the detection of Salmonella spp. In this study 8.3% of poultry carcasses were found to be contaminated with Salmonella spp. In order to provide a more accurate profile of the prevalence of Salmonella spp in broiler carcasses, it is pertinent to use inv A gene specific PCR method that could be considered as an appropriate alternative to conventional culture method. [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 562-564

  7. Rapid Detection of Salmonella in Food and Beverage Samples by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Radji, M.; MALIK, A; Widyasmara, A.

    2010-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay had been used to detect Salmonella in food and beverage samples using suitable primers which are based on specific invA gene of Salmonella. Twenty nine samples were collected from street food counters and some canteens in Margonda Street, Depok, West Java, Indonesia. It was found that five of twenty nine samples were detected to contain Salmonella and showed the presence of the amplified product of the size 244 bp. The method of PCR demonstrated the spec...

  8. Psoralen photomutagenic specificity in Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytotoxic and mutagenic specificity of two therapeutically employed psoralens was examined in several Ames Salmonella typhimurium strains with near ultraviolet light activation. Photomutagenic activity of 8-methoxypsoralen (8MOP) and 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (TMP) was found to be sequence-specific, and additionally was dependent on the level of DNA-repair proficiency. Phototoxicity was essentially identical in hisC3076, hisD3052 and hisG46 strains; uvrB- excision-repair-deficient bacteria were considerably more susceptible to lethal effects than wild-type parental strains. Finally, the data show that psoralens are potent frameshift photomutagens in Salmonella hisC3076 strains and demonstrate the potential utility of these strains in evaluating photomutagenic and phototoxic activity of new furocoumarin derivatives. (Auth.)

  9. RAPID DETECTION OF Salmonella IN SHRIMP BY POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION [Deteksi Cepat Salmonella pada Udang dengan Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulfah Amalia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp is an important non-oil commodity for foreign trade in Indonesia. However, rejection of shrimp exports by the importing countries is still commonly encountered. In 2011, the USFDA recorded two cases of Salmonella spp. contamination in shrimp products from two shrimp processing companies in Indonesia. Analysis of Salmonella spp. in seafood is generally performed using a conventional method which takes at least 5 days. The objective of the study is to get a Salmonellae rapid detection method in shrimp by PCR. In this study, optimization of PCR protocol method to detect Salmonella invA gene was conducted using six different annealing temperatures (59, 59.5, 60.8, 62, 64 and 64.5°C. The results showed that 64°C was the optimum annealing temperature to detect the 284 bp fragment of Salmonella invA gene. The PCR based detection method has a DNA detection limit of 27.81ug/mL and 10°CFU/mL of viable salmonellae with 100% specificity. The PCR protocol is capable of detecting six different Salmonella serovars (S. Enteritidis, S. Hadar, S. Heidelberg, S. Kentucky, S. Paratyphi and S. Typhimurium but none of the non salmonellae isolates. Application of the PCR assay on Salmonella in shrimp after the selective enrichment step suggested that all 16 samples were positive for Salmonella. At the same time, the conventional method could only detected 3 samples for Salmonella positive.

  10. SPECIFIC CONTROL OF SALMONELLA IN POULTRY

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    Pimenov N.V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientifically based and clinically validated new tools and methods to combat Salmonella infection in poultry, allowing to ensure the safety and health safety products - eggs and poultry meat. The method of selective decontamination involves the use of bivalent bacteriophage that is based on highly selected phages Phagum Salmonella typhimurium and Phagum Salmonella enteritidis, as well as probiotic laktobifadola. The developed tools and methods of selective decontamination followed by immunization with inactivated vaccine associated "Virosalm" allows you to eliminate salmonella infection in poultry.

  11. Detection of InvA Gene in Isolated Salmonella from Broilers by PCR Method

    OpenAIRE

    T Zahraei Salehi; M. Mahzounieh; A. Saeedzadeh

    2005-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella was detected in 192 samples of poultry carcasses from poultry farms in Shiraz province (Iran). A total of 30 Salmonella isolates were found in chicken samples (15.6%), by conventional culturing and confirmed by PCR and serology methods. Strains of serogroup D1 were the most prevalent strains, followed by serogroups C1, B and C2. All strains were subjected to Salmonella-specific gene (invA) and were confirmed as Salmonella positive by the predicted product a ...

  12. Evaluation of different analysis and identification methods for Salmonella detection in surface drinking water sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Bing-Mu, E-mail: bmhsu@ccu.edu.tw [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Kuan-Hao; Huang, Shih-Wei [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tseng, Kuo-Chih [Department of Internal Medicine, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Su, Ming-Jen [Department of Clinical Pathology, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Wei-Chen; Ji, Dar-Der [Research and Diagnostic Center, Centers for Disease Control, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shih, Feng-Cheng; Chen, Jyh-Larng [Department of Environmental Engineering and Health, Yuanpei University of Science and Technology, HsinChu, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kao, Po-Min [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2011-09-15

    The standard method for detecting Salmonella generally analyzes food or fecal samples. Salmonella often occur in relatively low concentrations in environmental waters. Therefore, some form of concentration and proliferation may be needed. This study compares three Salmonella analysis methods and develops a new Salmonella detection procedure for use in environmental water samples. The new procedure for Salmonella detection include water concentration, nutrient broth enrichment, selection of Salmonella containing broth by PCR, isolation of Salmonella strains by selective culture plates, detection of possible Salmonella isolate by PCR, and biochemical testing. Serological assay and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) can be used to identify Salmonella serotype and genotype, respectively. This study analyzed 116 raw water samples taken from 18 water plants and belonging to 5 watersheds. Of these 116, 10 water samples (8.6%) taken from 7 water plants and belonging to 4 watersheds were positive for a Salmonella-specific polymerase chain reaction targeting the invA gene. Guided by serological assay results, this study identified 7 cultured Salmonella isolates as Salmonella enterica serovar: Alnaby, Enteritidis, Houten, Montevideo, Newport, Paratyphi B var. Java, and Victoria. These seven Salmonella serovars were identified in clinical cases for the same geographical areas, but only one of them was 100% homologous with clinical cases in the PFGE pattern. - Research highlights: {yields} A new Salmonella detecting procedure for environmental water is developed. {yields} Salmonella isolates are identified by serological assay and PFGE. {yields} A total of seven Salmonella serovars is isolated from environmental water.

  13. PCR amplification of the fimA gene sequence of Salmonella typhimurium, a specific method for detection of Salmonella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, H J; Mechanda, S M; Lin, W.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the fimA gene amplification by PCR as a specific method for detection of Salmonella strains. Salmonella typhimurium and other pathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae produce morphologically and antigenically related, thin, aggregative, type 1 fimbriae. A single gene, fimA, encodes the major fimbrial unit. In order to obtain higher specificity, we have selected a series of primers internal to the fimA gene sequence and have ...

  14. Comparison of commercial RNA extraction kits for preparation of DNA-free total RNA from Salmonella cells

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    Gonzalez-Escalona Narjol

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The isolation of DNA-free RNA is a crucial step in the reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR. Every RNA extraction procedure results in RNA samples contaminated with genomic DNA, which can cause false-positive outcomes in highly sensitive applications, including a recently developed quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR assay that targets invA mRNA for the detection of live Salmonella cells. The assay of this specific mRNA can be used to indicate the presence of live, as opposed to dead, cells of Salmonella enterica in a food matrix. Findings We evaluated the ability of five RNA extraction kits to produce RNA preparations from exponentially growing Salmonella cells. The acceptability of the preparations for use in downstream applications such as RT-qPCR was judged in terms of the total amount of RNA recovered, the integrity of the RNA molecules, and minimal content of DNA. The five kits produced RNA preparations that differed markedly in yield, integrity of the Salmonella RNA and the amount of contaminant DNA. The greatest RNA recovery was achieved with the MasterPure kit; however, the preparation contained high levels of genomic DNA. The UltraClean extraction kit gave a low level of RNA recovery with a poor level of integrity. The RNeasy Mini, RiboPure and PureLink extraction kits produced high-quality, DNA-free RNA suitable for Salmonella detection by RT-qPCR. Conclusions We showed that the RNeasy Mini and PureLink RNA extraction kits were the most suitable for the detection of Salmonella invA mRNA by RT-qPCR. The use of these two kits will greatly reduce the frequency of false-positive results and might allow fast RT-qPCR determination of invA mRNA produced by viable Salmonella in food samples.

  15. Subunit-specific phenotypes of Salmonella typhimurium HU mutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Hillyard, D R; Edlund, M; Hughes, K. T.; Marsh, M; Higgins, N. P.

    1990-01-01

    Salmonella hupA and hupB mutants were studied to determine the reasons for the high degree of conservation in HU structure in bacteria. We found one HU-1-specific effect; the F'128 plasmid was 25-fold less stable in hupB compared with hupA or wild-type cells. F' plasmids were 120-fold more unstable in hupA hupB double mutants compared with wild-type cells, and the double mutant also had a significant alteration in plasmid DNA structure. pBR322 DNA isolated from hupA hupB strains was deficient...

  16. Multicenter validation of the analytical accuracy of Salmonella PCR: towards an international standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malorny, B.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    As part of a major international project for the validation and standardization of PCR for detection of five major food-borne pathogens, four primer sets specific for Salmonella species were evaluated in-house for their analytical accuracy (selectivity and detection limit) in identifying 43 Salmonella spp. and 47 non-Salmonella strains. The most selective primer set was found to be 139-141 (K. Rahn, S. A. De Grandis, R. C. Clarke, S. A. McEwen, J. E. Galan, C. Ginocchio, R. Curtiss 111, and C. L. Gyles, Mol. Cell. Probes 6:271-279, 1992), which targets the invA gene. An extended determination of selectivity by using 364 strains showed that the inclusivity was 99.6% and the exclusivity was 100% for the invA primer set. To indicate possible PCR inhibitors derived from the sample DNA, an internal amplification control (IAC), which was coamplified with the invA target gene, was constructed. In the presence of 300 DNA copies of the IAC, the detection probability for primer set 139-141 was found to be 100% when a cell suspension containing 10(4) CFU/ml was used as the template in the PCR (50 CFU per reaction). The primer set was further validated in an international collaborative study that included 16 participating laboratories. Analysis with 28 coded ("blind") DNA samples revealed an analytical accuracy of 98%. Thus, a simple PCR assay that is specific for Salmonella spp. and amplifies a chromosomal DNA fragment detected by gel electrophoresis was established through extensive validation and is proposed as an international standard. This study addresses the increasing demand of quality assurance laboratories for standard diagnostic methods and presents findings that can facilitate the international comparison and exchange of epidemiological data.

  17. Animal salmonelloses: a brief review of “host adaptation and host specificity” of Salmonella spp.

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    Grammato Evangelopoulou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica, the most pathogenic species of the genusSalmonella, includes more than 2,500 serovars, many of which are of great veterinary and medical significance. The emergence of food-borne pathogens, such as Salmonella spp., has increased knowledge about the mechanisms helping microorganisms to persist and spread within new host populations. It has also increased information about the properties they acquire for adapting in the biological environment of a new host. Thedifferences observed between serovars in their host preference and clinical manifestations are referred to as “serovar-host specificity” or “serovar-host adaptation”. The genus Salmonella, highly adaptive to vertebrate hosts, has many pathogenic serovars showing host specificity. Serovar Salmonella Typhi, causing disease to man and higher primates, is a good example of host specificity. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that Salmonella serovars use to overcome animal species' barriers or adapt to new hosts is also important for understanding the origins of any other infectious diseases or the emergence of new pathogens. In addition, molecular methods used to study the virulence determinants of Salmonella serovars, could also be used to model ways of studying the virulence determinants used by bacteria in general, when causing disease to a specific animal species

  18. Comparison of PCR-ELISA and LightCycler real-time PCR assays for detecting Salmonella spp. in milk and meat samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perelle, Sylvie; Dilasser, Françoise

    2004-01-01

    In a previous study, we reported the performance of a PCR assay amplifying 285-bp of the invA gene of Salmonella spp. through an international ring-trial involving four participating laboratories [Int. J. Food Microbiol. 89 (2003) 241]. Based on the validated set of primers and recent advancements in PCR technology, we have designed two specific PCR assays for detecting Salmonella spp. We have compared PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA) and LightCycler real-time PCR assay (LC-PCR) with the standard ISO 6579 bacteriological reference method. The two PCR tests incorporated an internal amplification control (IAC) co-amplified with the invA gene of Salmonella to monitor potential PCR inhibitors and ensure successful amplification. The selectivity study involved 84 Salmonella and 44 non-Salmonella strains and the samples tested were represented by 60 artificially-contaminated samples of fish, minced beef and raw milk, and 92 naturally-contaminated milk and meat samples. When using either PCR-ELISA or LC-PCR assays, only Salmonella strains were detected. PCR-ELISA and LC-PCR assays gave with pure Salmonella cultures the same detection limit level of 10(3) CFU/ml, which corresponds respectively to 50 and 10 cells per PCR tube. Data on artificially contaminated samples indicated that both PCR methods were able to detect after enrichment less than five Salmonella cells in 25 g of food, giving 100% concordance with the ISO 6579 reference method. The results on naturally contaminated samples demonstrated that despite certain inhibition problems, LC-PCR and PCR-ELISA assays were highly specific and sensitive, and provide a powerful tool for detection of Salmonella in food samples.

  19. Development and Evaluation of a Multiplex Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Procedure to Clinically Type Prevalent Salmonella enterica Serovars

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, Nélida; Diaz-Osorio, Miguel; MORENO Jaime; Sánchez-Jiménez, Miryan; Cardona-Castro, Nora

    2010-01-01

    A multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction procedure was developed to identify the most prevalent clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. Genes from the rfb, fliC, fljB, and viaB groups that encode the O, H, and Vi antigens were used to design 15 primer pairs and TaqMan probes specific for the genes rfbJ, wzx, fliC, fljB, wcdB, the sdf-l sequence, and invA, which was used as an internal amplification control. The primers and probes were variously combined into six sets....

  20. Comparison of commercial RNA extraction kits for preparation of DNA-free total RNA from Salmonella cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Escalona Narjol; Asamoah Benedicta; Rump Lydia V

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The isolation of DNA-free RNA is a crucial step in the reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Every RNA extraction procedure results in RNA samples contaminated with genomic DNA, which can cause false-positive outcomes in highly sensitive applications, including a recently developed quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) assay that targets invA mRNA for the detection of live Salmonella cells. The assay of this specific mRNA can be used to indicate the presence of live, as oppos...

  1. A novel multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of Salmonella enterica and Shigella species

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Radhika; Majumder, Saugata; H.S., Murali; H.V., Batra.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica and Shigella species are commonly associated with food and water borne infections leading to gastrointestinal diseases. The present work was undertaken to develop a sensitive and reliable PCR based detection system for simultaneous detection of Salmonella enterica and Shigella at [...] species level. For this the conserved regions of specific genes namely ipaH1, ipaH, wbgZ, wzy and invA were targeted for detection of Shigella genus, S. flexneri, S. sonnei, S. boydii and Salmonella enterica respectively along with an internal amplification control (IAC). The results showed that twenty Salmonella and eleven Shigella spp., were accurately identified by the assay without showing non-specificity against closely related other Enterobacteriaceae organisms and also against other pathogens. Further evaluation of multiplex PCR was undertaken on 50 natural samples of chicken, eggs and poultry litter and results compared with conventional culture isolation and identification procedure. The multiplex PCR identified the presence of Salmonella and Shigella strains with a short pre-enrichment step of 5 h in peptone water and the same samples were processed by conventional procedures for comparison. Therefore, this reported multiplex PCR can serve as an alternative to the tedious time-consuming procedure of culture and identification in food safety laboratories.

  2. Refining the LPS-Antigen in Salmonella Antibody Elisa for Poultry Enhanced Specificity without Impairing Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Klara TØlbØl; Lind, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In the Danish serological surveillance for Salmonella in poultry (serum and egg yolk) a mix-ELISA is used, based on S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis antigens (Feld et al., 2000). When we evaluated results of the test retrospectively, over the years an unacceptably large fraction of seropositive findings could not be confirmed by the subsequent confirmatory bacteriological sampling in the herd. Therefore we tried to enhance specificity of the ELISA, without losing sensitivity, by refining the antigens used.

  3. Refining the LPS-Antigen in Salmonella Antibody Elisa for Poultry Enhanced Specificity without Impairing Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøl; Lind, Peter; Klausen, Joan; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2014-01-01

    In the Danish serological surveillance for Salmonella in poultry (serum and egg yolk) a mix-ELISA is used, based on S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis antigens (Feld et al., 2000). When we evaluated results of the test retrospectively, over the years an unacceptably large fraction of seropositive findings could not be confirmed by the subsequent confirmatory bacteriological sampling in the herd. Therefore we tried to enhance specificity of the ELISA, without losing sensitivity, by refining the an...

  4. Prevention of Salmonella Infection in Poultry by Specific Egg-Derived Antibody

    OpenAIRE

    Shaban Rahimi; Zahra Moghadam Shiraz; Taghi Zahraei Salehi; Mohammad A. Karimi Torshizi; Grimes, Jesse L.

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella enteritidis (SE) colonizes the intestinal tract of poultry and causes food born illness in humans. Reduction of (SE) colonization in the intestinal tract of poultry reduces potential carcass contamination during slaughter. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SE-specific yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) on prevention of SE colonization in orally infected broiler chickens. Commercial Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL) hens were hyperimmunized with SE whole cell a...

  5. Determination of specific antibodies titre to salmonella enteritidis by elisa technique in several selected flocks of laying hens

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    Velhner Maja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the antibody titre to Salmonella enteritidis (SE was examined by the ELISA method in two flocks of laying hens, where during routine bacteriological investigations Salmonellae was never isolated, and in one flock where Colysepticemia was diagnosed and Salmonella isolated accidentally. In the flocks were Salmonellae were not isolated, a titre with a high level of specific antibodies to SE was discovered (15 and 45%, while the flock with accidental findings of SE was poorly positive (5%. These results point to the necessity of introducing serological monitoring to SE so that the infection of salmonella may be discovered early and the prevalence in the flock determined, and also for the purpose of applying adequate measures that could reduce the possibility of secretion of SE through eggs.

  6. Highly Specific and Cost-Efficient Detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A Combining Aptamers with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Le Deng; Qin Zhou; Yongzhe Chen; Zhihui Peng; Yi Ning; Ming Yang

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a panel of single-stranded DNA aptamers with high affinity and specificity against Salmonella Paratyphi A was selected from an enriched oligonucleotide pool by a whole-cell-Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) procedure, during which four other Salmonella serovars were used as counter-selection targets. It was determined through a fluorescence assay that the selected aptamers had high binding ability and specificity to this pathogen. The dissociatio...

  7. Detection of Salmonella strain by rapid-cycle multiplex PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Fateme Pourali; Zahra Safiri; Zeynab Ahmadi; Ali Karami

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and objective: Salmonellosis is responsible for large numbers of infections in both humans and animals. Conventional methods of isolation of Salmonella strains take 4-7 days to complete and are therefore laborious and require substantial manpower. Our main objective was to develop a rapid detection method using shortened PCR cycles in a conventional thermal cyclers and fast electrophoresis for Salmonella.Materials and methods: The PCR primers for tyv (rfbE), prt (rfbS) and invA, ...

  8. Study of the presence of specific Salmonella Enteritidis antibodies in chicken egg yolks by competitive cELISA method

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    Radoji?i? Marina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common causes of salmonellosis of man and poultry is Salmonella Enteritidis which is often found in the digestive system of adult birds. The infected birds do not display any evident clinical symptoms and, at the same time, they excrete the bacteria into the surrounding environment. Studies are carried out by standard microbiological procedures which include the isolation of Salmonella spp. in egg yolks and their serologic typization by agglutination on microplates. Along these methods, studies on the possibility to use an enzyme immunoassay, such as cELISA, in order to detect the presence of specific antibodies on Salmonella Enteritidis in egg yolks are carried out intensively. The presence of specific antibodies for Salmonella Enteritidis is detected in egg yolk samples from vaccinated flocks resulted in specific positive for a total of 72.22%. Egg yolk samples originating from hens of an unknown immunologic status were cELISA positive in a total of 1.66%. However, egg yolk samples from non-vaccinated hens were positive on the presence of specific antibodies for Salmonella Enteritidis in 23.07% cases. Bearing in mind that standard bacteriological methods did not confirm the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in egg yolk samples and that cELISA did establish the presence of specific antibodies in the tested samples it can be concluded that cELISA is a more sensitive test.

  9. Inversions of specific DNA segments in flagellar phase variation of Salmonella and inversion systems of bacteriophages P1 and Mu.

    OpenAIRE

    Kutsukake, K; Iino, T

    1980-01-01

    Prophages P1 and Mu produces a trans-acting factor possessing the din+ activity which catalyzes the inversion of the specific DNA segment responsible for flagellar phase variation of Salmonella, din mutants were isolated from PICMclr100 phage by selecting phages that did not suppress the yh2 mutation of Salmonella in prophage state. No inversion loop structure was detected among DNA forms arising after denaturation and rehybridization of DNAs extracted from the din mutants. The DNA fragment c...

  10. Designing of primers for detection of salmonella typhimirium and enteritidis by heminested PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmonella are the main responsible agent for the frequent food borne gastrointestinal diseases. In Tunisia, this pathogen is considered one of the most important causes of toxiinfections and its detection using classical methods is laborious and requires a large amount of time for revelation. To solve this problem, we developed a rapid molecular technique for the detection of the invA virulence gene sequence which is found in the majority of Salmonella spp. This technique is a hemi nested PCR amplification using specific primers designed and by bioinformatics tools. The detection method consisted of pre-enrichment of the sample in buffered peptone water (BPW), followed by a total DNA extraction step prior to single tube hemi nested PCR amplification. This method was found highly specific and sensitive to detect low levels of salmonella typhimurium and salmonella enteritidis (1cfu/ 25g) in naturally contaminated spicy sausage (merguez) samples. These results can benefit the public health agencies concerning microbiological and quality aspects of the commercial and traditional merguez meat production in Tunisia. (Author)

  11. Salmonella Typhimurium-specific bacteriophage ?SH19 and the origins of species specificity in the Vi01-like phage family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Ray

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole genome sequencing of bacteriophages suitable for biocontrol of pathogens in food products is a pre-requisite to any phage-based intervention procedure. Trials involving the biosanitization of Salmonella Typhimurium in the pig production environment identified one such candidate, ?SH19. Results This phage was sequenced and analysis of its 157,785 bp circular dsDNA genome revealed a number of interesting features. ?SH19 constitutes another member of the recently-proposed Myoviridae Vi01-like family of phages, containing S. Typhi-specific Vi01 and Shigella-specific SboM-AG3. At the nucleotide level ?SH19 is highly similar to phage Vi01 (80-98% pairwise identity over the length of the genome, with the major differences lying in the region associated with host-range determination. Analyses of the proteins encoded within this region by ?SH19 revealed a cluster of three putative tail spikes. Of the three tail spikes, two have protein domains associated with the pectate lyase family of proteins (Tsp2 and P22 tail spike family (Tsp3 with the prospect that these enable Salmonella O antigen degradation. Tail spike proteins of Vi01 and SboM-AG3 are predicted to contain conserved right-handed parallel ?-helical structures but the internal protein domains are varied allowing different host specificities. Conclusions The addition or exchange of tail spike protein modules is a major contributor to host range determination in the Vi01-like phage family.

  12. Highly Specific and Cost-Efficient Detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A Combining Aptamers with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Deng

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a panel of single-stranded DNA aptamers with high affinity and specificity against Salmonella Paratyphi A was selected from an enriched oligonucleotide pool by a whole-cell-Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX procedure, during which four other Salmonella serovars were used as counter-selection targets. It was determined through a fluorescence assay that the selected aptamers had high binding ability and specificity to this pathogen. The dissociation constant of these aptamers were up to nanomolar range, and aptamer Apt22 with the lowest Kd (47 ± 3 nM was used in cell imaging experiments. To detect this bacteria with high specificity and cost-efficiently, a novel useful detection method was also constructed based on the noncovalent self-assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs and DNAzyme-labeled aptamer detection probes. The amounts of target bacteria could be quantified by exploiting chemoluminescence intensity changes at 420 nm and the detection limit of the method was 103 cfu/mL. This study demonstrated the applicability of Salmonella specific aptamers and their potential for use in the detection of Salmonella in food, clinical and environmental samples.

  13. A rapid and direct real time PCR-based method for identification of Salmonella spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Lazaro, D.; Hernández, Marta; Esteve, T.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Pla, M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was the validation of a rapid, real-time PCR assay based on TaqMan((R)) technology for the unequivocal identification of Salmonella spp. to be used directly on an agar-grown colony. A real-time PCR system targeting at the Salmonella spp. invA gene was optimized and validated through a four times repeated blind experiment performed in two different laboratories including 50 Salmonella spp. with representative strains from each of the 5 different Salmonella subgenera and 30 no...

  14. Occurrence of Salmonella-specific bacteriophages in swine feces collected from commercial farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella is one of the primary foodborne pathogens associated with swine production and represents a significant threat to human health. Bacteriophage are naturally-occurring viruses that prey on bacteria and have been suggested as a potential intervention strategy to reduce Salmonella in food an...

  15. Structural and enzymatic characterization of a host-specificity determinant from Salmonella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Amanda C. [Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Spanò, Stefania; Galán, Jorge E. [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06536 (United States); Stebbins, C. Erec, E-mail: stebbins@rockefeller.edu [Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The Salmonella effector protein GtgE functions as a cysteine protease to cleave a subset of the Rab-family GTPases and to prevent delivery of antimicrobial agents to the Salmonella-containing vacuole. GtgE is an effector protein from Salmonella Typhimurium that modulates trafficking of the Salmonella-containing vacuole. It exerts its function by cleaving the Rab-family GTPases Rab29, Rab32 and Rab38, thereby preventing the delivery of antimicrobial factors to the bacteria-containing vacuole. Here, the crystal structure of GtgE at 1.65 Å resolution is presented, and structure-based mutagenesis and in vivo infection assays are used to identify its catalytic triad. A panel of cysteine protease inhibitors were examined and it was determined that N-ethylmaleimide, antipain and chymostatin inhibit GtgE activity in vitro. These findings provide the basis for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat Salmonella infections.

  16. Structural and enzymatic characterization of a host-specificity determinant from Salmonella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Salmonella effector protein GtgE functions as a cysteine protease to cleave a subset of the Rab-family GTPases and to prevent delivery of antimicrobial agents to the Salmonella-containing vacuole. GtgE is an effector protein from Salmonella Typhimurium that modulates trafficking of the Salmonella-containing vacuole. It exerts its function by cleaving the Rab-family GTPases Rab29, Rab32 and Rab38, thereby preventing the delivery of antimicrobial factors to the bacteria-containing vacuole. Here, the crystal structure of GtgE at 1.65 Å resolution is presented, and structure-based mutagenesis and in vivo infection assays are used to identify its catalytic triad. A panel of cysteine protease inhibitors were examined and it was determined that N-ethylmaleimide, antipain and chymostatin inhibit GtgE activity in vitro. These findings provide the basis for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat Salmonella infections

  17. Detección de Salmonella spp. en melón Cantaloupe en unidades de producción y unidad de empaque / Detection of Salmonella spp. on Cantaloupe melon production units and packaging facility

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucía, Morales-Hernández; Ana María, Hernández-Anguiano; Cristóbal, Cháidez-Quiroz; Gilberto, Rendón-Sánchez; Trevor, V. Suslow.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El melón Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) grupo reticulatus precortado, proveniente del estado de Guerrero, México, se ha asociado con brotes de salmonelosis en Estados Unidos de América y Canadá, por lo que las exportaciones de melón, a estos países, se suspendieron en 2001. En este trabajo se evaluó l [...] a condición sanitaria del melón Cantaloupe, con la detección e identificación de Salmonella, en dos unidades de producción y una unidad de empaque en Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero. Se analizaron 100 melones Cantaloupe (50 de las unidades de producción y 50 de la unidad de empaque), recolectados en enero y abril de 2005, mediante métodos bacteriológicos convencionales y el crecimiento en medios selectivos para la detección de Salmonella, como indicador de contaminación fecal. La proporción de melones con presencia de Salmonella spp. fue 4%, en una de las unidades de producción y 20% en la unidad de empaque. Salmonella se detectó en frutos irrigados con agua de río filtrada pero no clorada y manejados por trabajadores con poca higiene. En pruebas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR), dos de seis cepas presuntivas de Salmonella dieron amplificaciones positivas con el par de iniciadores Sal-3 y Sal-4 e invA-1 e invA-2; de las otras cuatro, solo dieron amplificación positiva con invA-1 e invA-2. Estos resultados sugieren que en la región de Zirándaro de los Chávez se tiene más de un serotipo de Salmonella y evidencian la importancia de implementar programas preventivos para asegurar la calidad sanitaria del melón Cantaloupe. Abstract in english Fresh Cantaloupe melons (Cucumis melo L.) group reticulatus coming from the state of Guerrero, Mexico, have been associated with outbreaks of salmonellosis in the United States of America and Canada. These countries suspended the importations of Cantaloupe melon from Mexico due to the outbreaks in 2 [...] 001. This study evaluated the food safety quality of Cantaloupe melon, with the detection and identification of Salmonella in two production units and a packing facility unit in Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero. 100 Cantaloupe melons (50 of the production units and 50 of the packaging unit), collected in January and April 2005, were analyzed by conventional bacteriological methods and growth in selective media for detection of Salmonella, as an indicator of fecal contamination. The proportion of melons with presence of Salmonella was 4%, in one of the field production units and 20% in the packing unit. Salmonella was detected in fruits irrigated with filtered but not chlorinated river water and handled by workers with poor hygiene. Characterization by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) demonstrated that, two of six strains of presumptive Salmonella gave positive amplifications with the pair of primers Sal-3 and Sal-4 as with invA-1and invA-2. For four other isolates only two were observed with invA-1 and invA-2. These results suggest that in the region of Zirándaro de los Chávez there are more than one serotype of Salmonella, and demonstrate the importance of implementing prevention programs to ensure the sanitary quality of Cantaloupe melon.

  18. Desarrollo y validación de una reacción en cadena de la polimerasa múltiple para la identificación de los serogrupos B, C2, D y E de Salmonella enterica Development and validation of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for molecular identification of Salmonella enterica serogroups B, C2, D and E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Moreno

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Introducción. El esquema Kaufmann-White para la serotipificación de Salmonella, reconoce 46 antígenos O y 119 antígenos H, los cuales han permitido la caracterización de 2.541 serovares. La serotipificación es una herramienta epidemiológica útil en la identificación de serovares circulantes y estudio de brotes, sin embargo, presenta limitaciones técnicas, de interpretación de resultados y alto costo.
    Objetivo. Desarrollar una prueba de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa múltiple (PCR-M como alternativa para identificar los serogrupos B, C2, D y E de Salmonella enterica.
    Materiales y métodos. Se desarrolló una PCR-M para detectar los genes rfbJ de los serogrupos B y C2 y wzx de los serogrupos D y E. Para estandarizar la PCR-M se probaron cepas de referencia de Salmonella pertenecientes a los serogrupos de estudio. Se incluyó el gen invA específico del género Salmonella como control interno de amplificación. La técnica fue validada con un estudio ciego que incluyó 400 aislamientos de Salmonella previamente serotipificados.
    Resultados. La PCR-M permitió identificar los serogrupos de Salmonella con resultados reproducibles (índice kappa=0,95. La sensibilidad de la prueba estuvo entre 98% y 100% y la especificidad entre 96% y 100%.
    Conclusiones. El polimorfismo de los genes rfbJ y wzx permitió desarrollar un método de tipificación molecular sensible, específico y reproducible, que podría servir de apoyo a la serotipificación para identificar serogrupos de Salmonella.

    Introduction. The scheme Kauffman-White (KW for serotyping of Salmonella recognizes 46 O antigens, and 119 H antigens, thereby permitting the characterization of 2,541 serotypes. The serotyping is a useful epidemiological tool in identifying circulating serotypes and to characterize outbreaks. However, the method presents technical limitations, difficulty in interpretation of results and high costs.
    Objective. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction test (M-PCR was developed as an alternative method for the identification of serogroups B, C2, D, and E of Salmonella enterica.
    Materials and methods. The M-PCR detected Salmonella genes rfbJ of serogroups B and C2 and wzx of serogroups D and E. To standardize the M-PCR, reference strains of Salmonella serogroups were compared. Amplification of invA gender-specific gene of Salmonella was included as internal control of amplification. To validate the test, a blind study was conducted to identify by M-PCR 400 isolates that had been previously characterized by serology.
    Results. The M-PCR detected Salmonella serogroups with reproducible results (Kappa index=0.95. The sensitivity of the test was between 98% to 100% and specificity between 96% to 100%.
    Conclusions. The polymorphisms in the Salmonella genes rfbJ and wzx permitted the development of a method for molecular typing of Salmonella serogroups that was sensitive, specific and reproducible.

  19. Interlaboratory diagnostic accuracy of a Salmonella specific PCR-based method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malorny, B.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    A collaborative study involving four European laboratories was conducted to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of a Salmonella specific PCR-based method, which was evaluated within the European FOOD-PCR project (http://www.pcr.dk). Each laboratory analysed by the PCR a set of independent obtained presumably naturally contaminated samples and compared the results with the microbiological culture method. The PCR-based method comprised a preenrichment step in buffered peptone water followed by a thermal cell lysis using a closed tube resin-based method. Artificially contaminated minced beef and whole broiler carcass-rinse resulted in a detection limit of less than 5 cells per 25 g meat or 100 ml broiler rinse. A total of 435 samples from four countries, including pig carcass swabs (n = 285), whole broiler carcass-rinse (n = 25), various raw meat (n = 33), and environmental samples (n = 92) were investigated. The interlaboratory diagnostic accuracy, i.e. diagnostic specificity and sensitivity, was shown to be 97.5%. The co-amplification of an internal amplification control indicated possible inhibitory substances derived from the sample. This work can contribute to the quality assurance of PCR-based diagnostic methods and is currently proposed as international standard document.

  20. Detection of Salmonella strain by rapid-cycle multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Pourali

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Salmonellosis is responsible for large numbers of infections in both humans and animals. Conventional methods of isolation of Salmonella strains take 4-7 days to complete and are therefore laborious and require substantial manpower. Our main objective was to develop a rapid detection method using shortened PCR cycles in a conventional thermal cyclers and fast electrophoresis for Salmonella.Materials and methods: The PCR primers for tyv (rfbE, prt (rfbS and invA, genes were used for the rapid identification of S. enterica serovars typhi and paratyphi A, with rapid and short cycles of multiplex PCR. By using very fast and simple DNA extraction method in 10mins, rapid PCR cycles with total times of 35mins and rapid electrophoresis procedure with simple and very cheap buffer in 15mins we were able to separate the PCR products. Results: All references and clinical isolates of Salmonella serovars typhi and paratyphi were accurately identified. Specificity analysis revealed no cross reaction with other enterobacterial strains. The sensitivity of the assay was 1-10 cells. The total time of multiplex PCR from sample preparation to final result is 45 to 50mins.Conclusion: These data indicate that the specificity and sensitivity of optimized rapid cycle multiplex PCR is a potentially valuable tool for rapid diagnosis of S. typhi using a conventional thermal cycler. This method cut the time of a PCR reaction from 3.5h to less than 60mins. These findings could also be applied to other PCR programs detecting various genes allowing researchers to significantly shorten their PCR reaction times.

  1. Vaccination and early protection against non-host-specific Salmonella serotypes in poultry: exploitation of innate immunity and microbial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Immerseel, F.; Methner, U.; Rychlik, I.; Nagy, B.; Velge, P.; Martin, G.; Foster, N.; Ducatelle, R.; Barrow, P. A.

    2005-01-01

    A recent European Union Directive required member states to put monitoring and control programmes in place, of which vaccination is a central component. Live Salmonella vaccines generally confer better protection than killed vaccines, because the former stimulate both cell-mediated and humoral immunity. Administering Salmonella bacteria orally to newly hatched chickens results in extensive gut colonization and a strong adaptive immune stimulus but broiler chickens are immunologically immature. However, colonization exerts a variety of rapid (within 24 h) protective effects. These include specific colonization-inhibition (competitive exclusion) in which the protective bacteria exert a profound resistance to establishment and colonization by other related bacteria. This is thought to be primarily a metabolic attribute of the vaccinating bacteria but may also involve competition for attachment sites. The presence of large numbers of bacteria originating from a live Salmonella vaccine in the intestine can also induce infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells into the intestinal wall, which confers resistance to invasion and systemic spread by virulent Salmonella strains. This opens new perspectives for vaccine usage in broilers, layers and breeding poultry but also in other animals which show increased susceptibility to infection because of their young age or for other reasons, such as oral chemoprophylaxis or chemotherapy, where the lack of established normal gut flora is an issue. We recommend that all live vaccines considered for oral administration should be tested for their ability to induce the two protective effects described above. Further developments in live Salmonella vaccines are, however, currently hindered by fears associated with the use and release of live vaccines which may be genetically modified. PMID:16274493

  2. Host specificity of Salmonella infection in chickens and mice is expressed in vivo primarily at the level of the reticuloendothelial system.

    OpenAIRE

    Barrow, P. A.; Huggins, M B; Lovell, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    By experimental infection, host-specific Salmonella serotypes were shown to demonstrate specificities for chickens, mice, and other laboratory animals. Following oral inoculation, four strains of Salmonella gallinarum and two S. pullorum strains, isolated from diseased poultry, were more virulent for chickens than for mice. By contrast, four strains each of S. choleraesuis and S. dublin, isolated from diseased pigs and cattle, respectively, were more virulent for mice than for chickens. These...

  3. Detection of virulence genes in Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from different sources / Detecção de genes de virulência in Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de diferentes fontes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sílvia Dias de, Oliveira; Carla Rosane, Rodenbusch; Geovana B., Michael; Marisa I.R., Cardoso; Cláudio Wageck, Canal; Adriano, Brandelli.

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available A presença de três genes de virulência (invA, spvR e spvC) foi determinada em Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de aves, suínos, humanos e alimentos. Todos os isolados foram positivos para o gene invA, 91,2% também foram positivos para o spvR e 90,2% para o spvC. Não existiu diferença significativa na [...] prevalência dos genes de virulência entre isolados de diferentes origens. Os resultados indicaram que, provavelmente, exista um alto potencial de virulência nos isolados de S. Enteritidis caracterizados. Abstract in english The presence of three virulence genes, invA, spvR, and spvC, was determined in Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from poultry, pigs, humans and food. All isolates were positive for the invA gene, with 91.2% being positive for spvR and 90.2% for spvC. There was no significant difference in the prevalen [...] ce of the virulence genes between isolates from different sources. The results indicate that there is a putative high virulence potential for the S. Enteritidis isolates characterized.

  4. Molecular Detection of Salmonella Serovar Isolated from Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monadi, M. (MSc

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Salmonellosis is the most common type of food poisoning in developed and developing countries that is caused by Salmonella serotype. Hence, we aimed to identify the Salmonella serovars in eggs obtained from Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad province and to evaluate antibiotic resistance of the isolated strains. Material and Methods: In this study, 210 eggs were collected from Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad Province. The bacteria were isolated and identified using biochemical tests. After extraction of genomic DNA, Salmonella gender, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium were investigated by invA, fliC and sefA primers, respectively, using Multiplex PCR method. Results: Of 210, 14 (6.66% were contaminated with Salmonella. Of these, 12 (5.71% were Salmonella typhimurium and 2 (0.95% were related to Salmonella spp. None of the samples were contaminated with Salmonella enteritidis. The highest resistance was related to penicillin (100% and neomycin (78.57%. Conclusion: Salmonella typhimurium is the predominant serovar causing contamination in the eggs of this Province. Given the wide spread of antibiotic resistance in different serotypes of Salmonella, we recommend avoiding of indiscriminate use of antibiotics in livestock and poultry

  5. Application of an Impedimetric Technique for the Detection of Lytic Infection of Salmonella spp. by Specific Phages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula C. Teixeira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the adaption of the impedimetric method to detect the lytic infection by Salmonella-specific bacteriophages and to provide a higher selectivity to this rapid method in detecting Salmonella spp. by using specific agents. Three bacteriophages and twelve strains of Salmonella spp. were tested. Each of the twelve strains was used separately to inoculate TSB together with each one of the phages. The inoculum concentration was between 106 and 107?cfu/mL, at a cell: phage ratio of 1 : 100. From the sample analysis, based on conductance (G measurements (37°C, the infection could be detected, by observation of both detection-time delay and distinct curve trends. The main conclusions were that kinetic detection by impedance microbiology with phage typing constitutes a method of determining whether a test microorganism is sensitive to the bacteriophage and a method to evaluate whether a lytic bacteriophage is present in a sample, by affecting bacterial growth rate/metabolic change.

  6. Molecular characterization of Salmonella strains in individuals with acute diarrhea syndrome in the State of Sucre, Venezuela / Caracterização molecular de cepas de Salmonella em indivíduos com síndrome da diarreia aguda no Estado de Sucre, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hectorina, Rodulfo; Marcos De, Donato; Jesús, Luiggi; Elvia, Michelli; Adriana, Millán; Miriam, Michelli.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Na Venezuela, síndrome da diarreia aguda (SDA) é a principal causa de mórbi-mortalidade, muitas vezes envolvem o gênero Salmonella. Infecções por Salmonella são associadas com gastroenterite aguda, uma das mais comuns intoxicações alimentares causada pelo consumo de água e alimentos cont [...] aminados, principalmente carne. MÉTODOS: Métodos convencionais e moleculares foram usados para detectar cepas de Salmonella em 330 amostras de fezes de indivíduos com SDA de diferentes idades e ambos os sexos. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) foi utilizada para a caracterização molecular de genes Salmonella invA, sefA e fliC para identificar o gênero e os sorotipos Enteritidis e Typhimurium, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: A maior frequência de indivíduos com SDA foi encontrada em crianças de 0-2 (39,4%) anos, e a frequência total de culturas de fezes positiva foi de 76,9%. Um total de 14 (4,2%) cepas foram bioquímica e imunologicamente identificados como Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, dos quais 7 foram classificados como pertencentes ao sorotipo Enteritidis, Typhimurium sorotipo 4 e 3 para outros sorotipos. Cepas S. enterica foram distribuídas mais frequentemente em grupos de 3-4 e 9-10 anos de idade. CONCLUSÕES: O método de caracterização molecular usada provou ser altamente específico para tipificar as estirpes dos S. enterica usando tanto DNA extraído de colônias isoladas e direta e caldos de enriquecimento seletivo inoculados com amostras fecais, o que representa uma ferramenta complementar para a detecção e identificação de bactérias que causam a SDA. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION:In Venezuela, acute diarrheic syndrome (ADS) is a primary cause of morbi-mortality, often involving the Salmonella genus. Salmonella infections are associated with acute gastroenteritis, one of the most common alimentary intoxications, and caused by the consumption of contaminated water [...] and food, especially meat. METHODS: Conventional and molecular methods were used to detect Salmonella strains from 330 fecal samples from individuals of different ages and both sexes with ADS. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the molecular characterization of Salmonella, using invA, sefA, and fliC genes for the identification of this genus and the serotypes Enteritidis and Typhimurium, respectively. RESULTS: The highest frequency of individuals with ADS was found in children 0-2 years old (39.4%), and the overall frequency of positive coprocultures was 76.9%. A total of 14 (4.2%) strains were biochemically and immunologically identified as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, of which 7 were classified as belonging to the Enteritidis serotype, 4 to the Typhimurium serotype, and 3 to other serotypes. The S. enterica strains were distributed more frequently in the age groups 3-4 and 9-10 years old. CONCLUSIONS: The molecular characterization method used proved to be highly specific for the typing of S. enterica strains using DNA extracted from both the isolated colonies and selective enrichment broths directly inoculated with fecal samples, thus representing a complementary tool for the detection and identification of ADS-causing bacteria.

  7. Biomagnetic separation of Salmonella Typhimurium with high affine and specific ligand peptides isolated by phage display technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingroewer, Juliane; Bley, Thomas; Bergemann, Christian; Boschke, Elke

    2007-04-01

    Analyses of food-borne pathogens are of great importance in order to minimize the health risk for customers. Thus, very sensitive and rapid detection methods are required. Current conventional culture techniques are very time consuming. Modern immunoassays and biochemical analysis also require pre-enrichment steps resulting in a turnaround time of at least 24 h. Biomagnetic separation (BMS) is a promising more rapid method. In this study we describe the isolation of high affine and specific peptides from a phage-peptide library, which combined with BMS allows the detection of Salmonella spp. with a similar sensitivity as that of immunomagnetic separation using antibodies.

  8. Natural Anti-Gal and Salmonella-Specific Antibodies in Bile and Plasma of Hens Differing in Diet Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Cotter, P.F.; Eerden, E., van

    2006-01-01

    Specific anti-Salmonella enteritidis (SE) and natural anti-¿-gal epitope (Gal¿1-3Galß-1-4GlcNAc-R; anti-Gal) antibodies were measured in plasma sample pools and individual bile specimens obtained from hens differing in diet efficiency. More SE somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antibodies were found in plasma pools from efficient hens (R¿) compared with nonefficient hens (R+) after oral challenge with live SE. Mean titers of somatic agglutinins in bile were 2.3 in R¿ hens and 1.9 in R+ hens (P = 0...

  9. Rapid Detection of Campylobacter coli, C. jejuni, and Salmonella enterica on Poultry Carcasses by Using PCR-Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Yang; Berrang, Mark E; Liu, Tongrui; Hofacre, Charles L.; Sanchez, Susan; Wang, Lihua; John J. Maurer

    2003-01-01

    Contamination of retail poultry by Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella enterica is a significant source of human diarrheal disease. Isolation and identification of these microorganisms require a series of biochemical and serological tests. In this study, Campylobacter ceuE and Salmonella invA genes were used to design probes in PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), as an alternative to conventional bacteriological methodology, for the rapid detection of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobac...

  10. Visualization of specific gene expression in individual Salmonella typhimurium cells by in situ PCR.

    OpenAIRE

    Tolker-Nielsen, T.; Holmstrøm, K; Molin, S.

    1997-01-01

    An in situ PCR protocol by which we can monitor the presence or absence of lac mRNA in individual cells of a Salmonella typhimurium F' lac+ strain has been developed. In this protocol, fixed cells are permeabilized with lysozyme and subjected to a seminested reverse transcriptase PCR using reporter molecule-labeled primers, and subsequently, intracellular reporter molecules are detected microscopically at the individual-cell level by use of a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated antifluorescein ...

  11. Visualization of specific gene expression in individual Salmonella typhimurium cells by in situ PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Holmstrøm, Kim; Molin, Søren

    1997-01-01

    An in situ PCR protocol by which we can monitor the presence or absence of lac mRNA in individual cells of a Salmonella typhimurium F' lac(+) strain has been developed. In this protocol, fixed cells are permeabilized with lysozyme and subjected to a seminested reverse transcriptase PCR using reporter molecule-labeled primers, and subsequently, intracellular reporter molecules are detected microscopically at the individual-cell level by use of a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated antifluorescein a...

  12. Quantitative detection of Salmonella enterica and the specific interaction with Lactuca sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Klerks, M. M.

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella is among the most commonly known bacterial pathogens to cause human illness. Often Salmonellosis is associated with the consumption of contaminated foods like meat, eggs or egg products. However, during the last decades an increase of outbreaks is recognized to be caused by human pathogenic bacteria in association with fresh produce. The use of manure for production of vegetables, e.g. lettuce, contributes significantly to the risk of contamination of fresh produce. Enteric pathoge...

  13. Rapid and Specific Detection of Salmonella spp. in Animal Feed Samples by PCR after Culture Enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Löfström, Charlotta; Knutsson, Rickard; Axelsson, CE; Rådström, Peter

    2004-01-01

    A PCR procedure has been developed for routine analysis of viable Salmonella spp. in feed samples. The objective was to develop a simple PCR-compatible enrichment procedure to enable DNA amplification without any sample pretreatment such as DNA extraction or cell lysis. PCR inhibition by 14 different feed samples and natural background flora was circumvented by the use of the DNA polymerase Tth. This DNA polymerase was found to exhibit a high level of resistance to PCR inhibitors present in t...

  14. Characterization and specificity of probiotics to prevent salmonella infection in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Andino; Nan Zhang; Sandra Diaz-Sanchez; Carrie Yard; Sean Pendleton; Irene Hanning

    2014-01-01

    Background: Probiotic strains of bacteria can prevent Salmonella from causing disease by preventing the pathogen from colonizing the intestines. Two strains of probiotics, Lactobacillus acidophilius and Pediococcus spp, that were obtained from poultry fecal samples have been shown to be efficacious in poultry. The objective of this study was to determine if these strains of probiotics could prevent salmonellosis in a mouse model. Methods: First, both strains of probiotics we...

  15. Survival of Salmonella enterica in poultry feed is strain dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andino, Ana; Pendleton, Sean; Zhang, Nan; Chen, Wei; Critzer, Faith; Hanning, Irene

    2014-02-01

    Feed components have low water activity, making bacterial survival difficult. The mechanisms of Salmonella survival in feed and subsequent colonization of poultry are unknown. The purpose of this research was to compare the ability of Salmonella serovars and strains to survive in broiler feed and to evaluate molecular mechanisms associated with survival and colonization by measuring the expression of genes associated with colonization (hilA, invA) and survival via fatty acid synthesis (cfa, fabA, fabB, fabD). Feed was inoculated with 1 of 15 strains of Salmonella enterica consisting of 11 serovars (Typhimurium, Enteriditis, Kentucky, Seftenburg, Heidelberg, Mbandanka, Newport, Bairely, Javiana, Montevideo, and Infantis). To inoculate feed, cultures were suspended in PBS and survival was evaluated by plating samples onto XLT4 agar plates at specific time points (0 h, 4 h, 8 h, 24 h, 4 d, and 7 d). To evaluate gene expression, RNA was extracted from the samples at the specific time points (0, 4, 8, and 24 h) and gene expression measured with real-time PCR. The largest reduction in Salmonella occurred at the first and third sampling time points (4 h and 4 d) with the average reductions being 1.9 and 1.6 log cfu per g, respectively. For the remaining time points (8 h, 24 h, and 7 d), the average reduction was less than 1 log cfu per g (0.6, 0.4, and 0.6, respectively). Most strains upregulated cfa (cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis) within 8 h, which would modify the fluidity of the cell wall to aid in survival. There was a weak negative correlation between survival and virulence gene expression indicating downregulation to focus energy on other gene expression efforts such as survival-related genes. These data indicate the ability of strains to survive over time in poultry feed was strain dependent and that upregulation of cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis and downregulation of virulence genes were associated with a response to desiccation stress. PMID:24570467

  16. Substrate Specificity Classes and the Recognition Signal for Salmonella Type III Flagellar Export

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Takanori; Minamino, Tohru; Namba, Keiichi; Macnab, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    Most flagellar proteins of Salmonella are exported to their assembly destination via a specialized apparatus. This apparatus is a member of the type III superfamily, which is widely used for secretion of virulence factors by pathogenic bacteria. Extensive studies have been carried out on the export of several of the flagellar proteins, most notably the hook protein (FlgE), the hook-capping protein (FlgD), and the filament protein flagellin (FliC). This has led to the concept of two export spe...

  17. The impact of a specific blend of essential oil components and sodium butyrate in feed on growth performance and Salmonella counts in experimentally challenged broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerisuelo, A; Marín, C; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, F; Gómez, E A; de la Fuente, J M; Durán, R; Fernández, C

    2014-03-01

    Essential oils (EO) and short-chain fatty acids have potential antimicrobial activity in broilers. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a specific blend of EO and a combination of this blend of EO with sodium-butyrate on growth performance and Salmonella colonization in broilers. A total of 480 one-day-old male broilers were distributed into 5 treatments (8 pens per treatment and 12 birds per pen) and reared during 42 d in experimental conditions. Dietary treatments consisted of the addition of different doses of EO (0 mg/kg, control; 50 mg/kg, EO50 and 100 mg/kg, EO100) or a combination of EO with 1 g/kg of sodium-butyrate (B; EO50 + B, EOB50 and EO100 + B, EOB100) to a basal diet. All birds were orally infected with 10(8) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis on d 7 of study. Individual BW and feed intake per pen were measured at arrival and on a weekly basis. The prevalence and enumeration of Salmonella in feces was determined per treatment at 72 h postinfection and on d 23 and 37 of study. At slaughter, cecal content and liver samples from 16 birds per treatment were cultured for Salmonella and cecal pH was measured. No differences were observed on growth performance among treatments. All fecal samples analyzed were positive for Salmonella from d 10 to the end of the rearing period. At slaughter, Salmonella contamination (positive samples) in cecum was lower in birds fed EOB50 compared with the other treatments (P Salmonella control, especially when low doses of EO were combined with sodium-butyrate (EOB50). PMID:24604853

  18. An oral recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mutant elicits systemic antigen-specific CD8+ T cell cytokine responses in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin'ombe Nyasha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The induction of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell cytokine responses against an attenuated, oral recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP model antigen was investigated. A GFP expression plasmid was constructed in which the gfp gene was fused in-frame with the 5' domain of the Escherichia coli ?-galactosidase ?-gene fragment with expression under the lac promoter. Groups of mice were orally immunized three times with the bacteria and systemic CD8+ T cell cytokine responses were evaluated. Results High level of the GFP model antigen was expressed by the recombinant Salmonella vaccine vector. Systemic GFP-specific CD8+ T cell cytokine (IFN-? and IL-4 immune responses were detected after mice were orally vaccinated with the bacteria. It was shown that 226 net IFN-? and 132 net IL-4 GFP-specific SFUs/10e6 splenocytes were formed in an ELISPOT assay. The level of IFN-? produced by GFP peptide-stimulated cells was 65.2-fold above background (p Conclusion These results suggested that a high expressing recombinant Salmonella vaccine given orally to mice would elicit antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the spleen. Salmonella bacteria may, therefore, be used as potential mucosal vaccine vectors.

  19. Detection of Salmonella enteritidis in pooled poultry environmental samples using a serotype-specific real-time-polymerase chain reaction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Derek R; Stensland, Wendy R; Wang, Chong H; O'Connor, Annette M; Trampel, Darrell W; Harmon, Karen M; Strait, Erin L; Frana, Timothy S

    2013-03-01

    While real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR) has been used as a rapid test for detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in recent years, little research has been done to assess the feasibility of pooling poultry environmental samples with a Salmonella Enteritidis-specific RT PCR assay. Therefore the objective of this study was to compare RT PCR Salmonella Enteritidis detection in individual and pooled (in groups of two, three, and four) poultry environmental drag swab samples to traditional cultural methods. The drag swabs were collected from poultry facilities previously confirmed positive for Salmonella Enteritidis and were cultured according to National Poultry Improvement Plan guidelines. Initial, Salmonella Enteritidis-specific RT PCR assay threshold cycle cutoff values of Salmonella Enteritidis was cultured in 7 of 208 environmental samples (3.4%). Individual samples were 99.0%, 100%, and 100% in agreement with the RT PCR at threshold cycle (C(t)) cutoff values of < or = 36, < or = 30, and < or = 28 respectively. The agreement for pooled samples also followed the same trend with highest agreement at C(t) < or = 28 (pool of 2 = 100.0%, pool of 3 = 100.0%, pool of 4 = 100.0%), midrange agreement at C(t) < or = 30 (pool of 2 = 99.0%, pool of 3 = 100.0%, pool of 4 = 100.0%), and lowest agreement at C(t) < or = 36 (pool of 2 = 98.1%, pool of 3 = 97.1%, pool of 4 = 98.1%). In conclusion, regardless of the level of pooling after tetrathionate enrichment, sensitivity was very good, and results would be comparable to what would have been found with individual culture or individual RT PCR at C(t) < or = 36. PMID:23678725

  20. Salmonella Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specific type of chicken has more or less Salmonella bacteria than other poultry. [ Top of Page ] Q. What is FSIS doing ... in controlling the contamination of raw meat and poultry products with disease-causing bacteria, like Salmonella . FSIS inspectors make sure the establishments are meeting ...

  1. Isolation and identification of Salmonella from diarrheagenic infants and young animals, sewage waste and fresh vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amruta Nair

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence, distribution, and identification of Salmonella serotypes in diarrheagenic infants and young animals, including sewage waste and fresh vegetables. Materials and Methods: A total of 550 samples were processed for the isolation of Salmonella spp., using standard microbiological and biochemical tests. Further polymerase chain reaction (PCR detection of Salmonella genus was carried out using self-designed primers targeting invA gene and thereafter identification of important serotypes namely Salmonella Enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella Enterica serovar Enteritidis, Salmonella Enterica serovar Typhi was performed using published standardized multiplex PCR. Results: An overall low prevalence of 2.5% (14/550 was observed. The observed prevalence of Salmonella spp. in diarrheagenic infants was 1.2% (05/400, diarrheagenic young animals 4% (02/50, sewage waste 10% (05/50, and fresh vegetables 4% (02/50, respectively. In diarrheagenic infants, of the five Salmonella isolates identified, two were Salmonella Typhimurium, two Salmonella Enteritidis, and one was unidentified and hence designated as other Salmonella serovar. All the Salmonella isolates identified from diarrheagenic young animals and sewage waste belonged to other Salmonella serovar, whereas, of the two isolates recovered from fresh vegetables, one was identified as other Salmonella serovar, and one as Salmonella Typhimurium, respectively. Conclusion: Isolation of Salmonella spp. especially from sewage waste and fresh vegetable is a matter of great concern from public health point of view because these sources can accidentally serve as a potential vehicle for transmission of Salmonella spp. to animals and human beings.

  2. Standardization of a quantification method for Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in specific liquid media / Estandarización de un método de recuento para Salmonella spp. y Shigella spp. en medios de cultivo líquidos especializados

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra Patricia, Rivera; Liliana Janeth, Flórez; Janeth, Sanabria.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La cloración es el método más usado para desinfectar aguas de consumo. La formación de subproductos cancerígenos y las intoxicaciones por manipulación directa en pequeñas comunidades, han motivado el estudio de procesos alternativos. Los procesos de oxidación avanzada (PAOS), han arroj [...] ado resultados prometedores, utilizando el indicador bacteriano Escherichia coli (E. coli), con el método recuento en placa. Sin embargo, también se ha demostrado que E. coli es menos resistente a la desinfección que otras bacterias entéricas como Shigella y Salmonella y que estos procesos generan bacterias viables que no se cultivan durante el proceso, y no se descubren en medios sólidos. Objetivo: Estandarizar un método de recuento de Salmonella sp. y Shigella sp., en medios de cultivo líquidos especializados, que permita valorar de forma confiable el riesgo bacteriológico en procesos de desinfección PAOS. Métodos: En el presente trabajo se ensayaron y seleccionaron medios líquidos especializados, con los que se estandarizó el recuento de Salmonella sp. y Shigella sp., mediante un diseño experimental aleatorizado bifactorial y la prueba de comparaciones múltiples de Duncan. Resultados: Se encontró que el mejor caldo para recuperar a S. typhimurium a diferentes concentraciones, en cultivos puros y mezclas, fue el caldo Rappaport de Merck (RP). El caldo de enriquecimiento para entero bacterias de Oxoid (EE), permitió un buen crecimiento de las dos especies objeto de esta investigación. Lo cual sugiere el empleo de pruebas adicionales cuando se use caldo EE para NMP. Discusión: Se observó una variación en el recuento cuando se usaron cultivos puros, comparado con la obtenida a partir de mezclas de microorganismos. Sin embargo, S. typhimurium. y Shigella sonnei logran ser recuperadas de concentraciones mínimas en los caldos RP, respectivamente. Conclusión: Se pudo estandarizar un método de fácil aplicación a aguas y otros ambientes contaminados para recuento de Salmonella sp y Shigella sp. Los medios líquidos seleccionados fueron capaces de recuperar concentraciones de menos de 10 bacterias. Abstract in english Introduction: Chlorination is the most widely used disinfection process for drinking water production. The formation of chlorination carcinogenic by-products and chlorine intoxication by direct manipulation in small communities has motivated the study of alternative disinfection processes. In this s [...] ense, processes of advanced oxidation (PAOs) have yielded promising results. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is customarily used as faecal bacterial indicator to determine the efficiency of disinfection processes. However, it has been shown that E. coli is less resistant to disinfection than other enteric bacteria such as Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. Additionally, the viable non-culturable (VNC) state yields bacteria which are not detectable on many culture media. Objective: The main objective is to standardize a method for counting Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in specific liquid media to reliably quantify the bacteriological potential risk related to disinfection processes based on PAO. Methods: The study followed a randomized bi-factorial experimental design and the Duncan multiple comparison test. This design allowed the selection of specific liquid media to fittingly standardize the counting of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. Results: We found that the best broth for counting Salmonella typhimurium strain at different concentrations in pure and mixed cultures was the Rappaport broth RP, the EE broth also allowed growing the two bacterial species tested in this research. Nonetheless, the latter results suggest the use of additional tests for this particular broth. Discussion: There was a variation in the counting results when pure cultures were used compared to those obtained from mixtures of microorganisms. It was also noted that Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella sonnei, were recovered from minimal concentrations in both RP and EE broths, respecti

  3. THE USE OF THE ANTI-SALLMONELA SPECIFIC POLYCLONAL ANTIBODIES ISOLATED FROM HEN EGGS FOR INIBITING THE GROWING OF THE SALMONELLA GENUS BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTE ADRIANA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-Salmonella specific antibodies could be used in food andfeedstuffs for the control of the salmonellosis, with large applications.The emphasize of the ”in vitro” effect of the specific anti-Salmonellaantibodies on the development of Salmonella gallinarum culture wasthe aim of our paper. The use of the specific anti-Salmonellaantibodies reduces the bacterial development. Due to theagglutination on the antibodies from the culture media, the bacteriahave lower mobility and low opportunitry to rach the nutrients. Itdetermines the inhibation or reducing the bacteria multiplication. Theaddition of the specific antibodies inhibates the development of thesalmonella and reduces the risk of salmonellosis, if they are used asfood or feed additives.

  4. Visualization of specific gene expression in individual Salmonella typhimurium cells by in situ PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; HolmstrØm, Kim

    1997-01-01

    An in situ PCR protocol by which we can monitor the presence or absence of lac mRNA in individual cells of a Salmonella typhimurium F' lac(+) strain has been developed. In this protocol, fixed cells are permeabilized with lysozyme and subjected to a seminested reverse transcriptase PCR using reporter molecule-labeled primers, and subsequently, intracellular reporter molecules are detected microscopically at the individual-cell level by use of a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated antifluorescein antibody assay. In order to determine the sensitivity of the in situ PCR assay, the ability to detect lac mRNA in suboptimally isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside-induced cells was investigated. By use of a single-cell beta-galactosidase assay, it was confirmed that homogeneous suboptimally induced cultures of S. typhimurium F' lacY cells could be established, and the number of functional lac mRNAs in individual cells was estimated from standard population level beta-galactosidase assays, Cells estimated to contain asingle lac mRNA were detected as containing lac mRNA by the in situ PCR method. Conclusively, we demonstrate the potential of in situ PCR for detection of even poorly expressed mRNA in individual bacterial cells.

  5. Antibiotic resistance and diversity of Salmonella enterica serovars associated with broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, Moussa Sory; Delaquis, Pascal; Rempel, Heidi; Bach, Susan; Harlton, Colleen; Aslam, Mueen; Pritchard, Jane; Topp, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the antibiotic resistance phenotype and genotype of Salmonella isolated from broiler production facilities. A total of 193 Salmonella isolates recovered from commercial farms in British Columbia, Canada, were evaluated. Susceptibility to antibiotics was determined with the Sensititre system. Virulence and antibiotic resistance genes were detected by PCR assay. Genetic diversity was determined by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing. Seventeen serovars of Salmonella were identified. The most prevalent Salmonella serovars were Kentucky (29.0% of isolates), Typhimurium (23.8%), Enteritidis (13.5%), and Hadar (11.9%); serovars Heidelberg, Brandenburg, and Thompson were identified in 7.7, 4.1, and 3.6% of isolates, respectively. More than 43% of the isolates were simultaneously resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, cefoxitim, and ceftriaxone. This ?-lactam resistance pattern was observed in 33 (58.9%) of the Salmonella Kentucky isolates; 2 of these isolates were also resistant to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline. Genes associated with resistance to aminoglycosides (aadA1, aadA2, and strA), ?-lactams (blaCMY-2, blaSHV, and blaTEM), tetracycline (tetA and tetB), and sulfonamide (sul1) were detected among corresponding resistant isolates. The invasin gene (invA) and the Salmonella plasmid virulence gene (spvC) were found in 97.9 and 25.9% of the isolates, respectively, with 33 (71.7%) of the 46 Salmonella Typhimurium isolates and 17 (65.4%) of the 26 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates carrying both invA and spvC. PGFE typing revealed that the antibiotic-resistant serovars were genetically diverse. These data confirm that broiler chickens can be colonized by genetically diverse antibiotic-resistant Salmonella isolates harboring virulence determinants. The presence of such strains is highly relevant to food safety and public health. PMID:24405997

  6. Salmonella typhimurium IroN and FepA Proteins Mediate Uptake of Enterobactin but Differ in Their Specificity for Other Siderophores

    OpenAIRE

    Rabsch, Wolfgang; Voigt, Wolfgang; Reissbrodt, Rolf; Tsolis, Renée M.; Bäumler, Andreas J

    1999-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium possesses two outer membrane receptor proteins, IroN and FepA, which have been implicated in the uptake of enterobactin. To determine whether both receptors have identical substrate specificities, fepA and iroN mutants and a double mutant were characterized. While both receptors transported enterobactin, the uptake of corynebactin and myxochelin C was selectively mediated by IroN and FepA, respectively.

  7. Pathogenicity of Salmonella enteritidis Phage Type 1 Isolate of Malaysia in 21 Day Old Specific-Pathogen Free Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    S. Khairani-Bejo; Z. Zunita; Hair-Bejo, M.; S. Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enteritidis (SE) has always been related to subclinical infection in the chickens infected after 2 weeks of hatching. However, few pathogenic phage types were proven for their ability to manifest systemic infection and cause the organism to be shed into the surrounding environment. It was the objective of the study to determine the pathogenicity of SE Phage Type (PT) 1 in Specific-Pathogen-Free (SPF) chickens. About 93, 21 day old SPF chickens where divided into 3 groups namely the...

  8. Identification of cognate host targets and specific ubiquitylation sites on the Salmonella SPI-1 effector SopB/SigD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogers, Lindsay D; Kristensen, Anders R; Boyle, Erin C; Robinson, Dale P; Ly, Richard T; Finlay, B Brett; Foster, Leonard J

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a bacterial pathogen responsible for enteritis and typhoid fever. Virulence is linked to two Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI-1 and SPI-2) on the bacterial chromosome, each of which encodes a type III secretion system. While both the SPI-1 and SPI-2 systems secrete an array of effectors into the host, relatively few host proteins have been identified as targets for their effects. Here we use stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and quantita...

  9. Prevalence of Salmonella Serovars Isolated from Turkey Carcasses and Giblets in Meknès-Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. El Allaoui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and the serotypes involved the virulence gene (InvA and SpvC of Salmonella isolates recovered from the raw meat and giblets (liver and gizzard of the turkey in various outlets in the Moroccan market. From November 2011 to November 2012 a total of 192 samples of turkey meat (included 48 breasts, 48 legs, 48 gizzards and 48 livers were collected every ten days from retail outlets in Meknès. Of these, 48 were from popular market, 48 from artisanal slaughterhouses, 48 from poulterers’shops and 48 from a supermarket at Meknes, Morocco. Of the total of 192 samples examined, 24.5% (47/192 were contaminated with Salmonella. Out of the total 48 samples analysed from popular market, 19 (40.42% proved to be Salmonella positive whereas from 48 samples obtained from traditional slaughterhouses and 48 from poulterers’shops 14 (29.87% and 8 (17% contained Salmonella, respectively. Compared to other outlets, a low level of Salmonella contamination was found in samples obtained from Supermarket 6 (12.7%. Among the 47 Salmonella isolates, 6 different serotypes were identified of which S. Saintpaul (46.8% was the most frequent, followed by S. Agona (17% and S. Kentucky (17%, S. Typhimurium (8.5%, S. Infantis (6.3% and S. Bredeney (4.2%.The high level of contamination, especially in popular market and artisanal slaughterhouses of turkey meat and giblets with Salmonella observed in this paper indicates the need for an improvement in the microbiological quality of retail turkey. Examination of Salmonella for invA gene was detected in all the strains (n=47, only three isolates were positive for the gene SpvC: S. Agona, S. Kentucky and S. Infantis.

  10. SYBR®Green qPCR Salmonella detection system allowing discrimination at the genus, species and subspecies levels

    OpenAIRE

    Barbau-Piednoir, Elodie; Bertrand, Sophie; Mahillon, Jacques; Roosens, Nancy H.; Botteldoorn, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a three-level Salmonella detection system based on a combination of seven SYBR®Green qPCR was developed. This detection system discriminates Salmonella at the genus, species and subspecies levels using a single 96-well plate. The SYBR®Green qPCR assays target the invA, rpoD, iroB and safC genes, as well as the STM0296 locus, putatively coding for a cytoplasmic protein. This study includes the design of primer pairs, in silico and in situ selectivity, sensitivity, repeatability a...

  11. Salmonella Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Laboratory Exposure Salmonella Infections Linked to Chia Powder Human Salmonella Typhimurium Infections Linked to Frozen Feeder ... Linked to Alfalfa Sprouts Enteritidis Infections Associated with Shell Eggs Chester Infections Associated with Cheesy Chicken & Rice ...

  12. Molecular characterization of antibiotic resistant Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Kentucky isolated from pre- and post-chill whole broilers carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Tagelsir; Zhao, Shaohua; White, David G; Parveen, Salina

    2014-04-01

    There is conflicting data regarding whether commercial chilling has any effect on persistence of Salmonella serovars, including antibiotic resistant variants, on chicken carcasses. A total of 309 Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Kentucky isolates recovered from pre- and post-chill whole broiler carcasses were characterized for genetic relatedness using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and for the presence of virulence factors (invA, pagC, spvC) by PCR and for aerobactin and colicin production by bioassays. A subset of these isolates (n = 218) displaying resistance to either sulfisoxazole and/or ceftiofur [S. Typhimurium (n = 66) and S. Kentucky (n = 152)] were further tested for the presence of associated antibiotic resistance elements (class-I integrons and blaCMY genes) by PCR. All 145 ceftiofur resistant S. Kentucky and S. Typhimurium isolates possessed blaCMY genes. Class-I integrons were only detected in 6.1% (n = 4/66) of sulfisoxazole resistant S. Typhimurium isolates. The PFGE analysis revealed the presence of genetically diverse populations within the recovered isolates but clusters were generally concordant with serotypes and antimicrobial resistance profiles. At a 100% pattern similarity index, thirty-six percent of the undistinguishable S. Typhimurium and 22% of the undistinguishable S. Kentucky isolates were recovered from the same chilling step. All isolates possessed the invA and pagC genes, but only 1.4%possessed spvC. Irrespective of the chilling step, there was a significant difference (P Salmonella clonal groups but had no effect on the presence of class-I integrons, blaCMY genes, and tested virulence factors. PMID:24290620

  13. THE USE OF THE SPECIFIC ANTI-SALMONELLA POLYCLONAL ANTIBODIES ISOLATED FROM HEN EGGS, IN SALMONELLOSIS PROPHYLAXIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA CRISTE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The administration of increased doses of antibodies in groups experimentallyinfected with Salmonella gallinarum, in order to record the efficiency of theiradministration in salmonellosis prophylaxis was the aim of our research. When alow infection dose, 1x107 CFU Salmonella gallinarum, was used theadministration of IgY polyclonal antibodies as immunoglobulin extract, or evenyolk administration had a protective effect against germs invasion. This effect wasnot recorded when a 10 folds higher dose was administered (1x108 CFU. Theprophylactic effect of the administration of polyclonal antibodies is demonstrated.

  14. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantification of Salmonella enteritidis-specific antibodies in egg yolk

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    IT, Tayeb; P, Nehme; L, Jaber; EK, Barbour.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at developing an indirect ELISA to quantify yolk antibodies specific to all surface proteins of the invasive Salmonella Enteritidis (SE), which acquired the 1.8, 14.1, and ~ 50 Kb plasmids. An ELISA checkerboard was used in four different experiments to account for the differe [...] nt parameters included in the preliminary ELISA procedure, and consequently to maximize the difference in Optical Density (OD) values between control positive and negative yolk samples. The first experiment aimed at studying the impact of 5% Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) dissolved in distilled water as a blocking reagent on a 28 µg/well SE antigen-coated plate, while applying the positive and negative control yolk samples to different concentrations of Phosphate-Buffered Saline (PBS).Conjugate application was maintained constant at a dilution of 1:500 in PBS. The second experiment was similar to the first one, but the positive and negative control yolk samples were diluted in PBS-Tween 20, and the conjugate dilution was changed to 1:1500 in PBS-Tween 20. In the third experiment, the conjugate was diluted at 1:1500 in 5% BSA/PBS-Tween 20 diluent or PBS-Tween 20 diluent with no 5% BSA. The objective of the fourth experiment was to study the impact of four different concentrations of SE-coated antigen levels (28µg/well, 56µg/well, 84µg/well, and 112µg/well), while fixing the blocking step with 5% BSA in distilled water, and the conjugate dilution set at 1:1000 in 5% BSA/PBSTween 20, and fixing the control yolk samples dilution at 1% in PBS-Tween 20. This last experimental procedure allowed the highest difference in mean absorbance OD values of the positive control minus the negative control samples, which was equivalent to 0.381. In addition, the final protocol for this ELISA was applied on individual egg yolk samples of two groups of chicken layers: one challenged in the esophagus at 11 days with 5.4 x 10(10) CFU/ml/bird of SE, and the second group was not challenged. The mean OD values of the egg yolk of antibodies specific against SE of the two groups were significantly different (0.8578 versus 0.5250; p

  15. Serotype-specific and serotype-independent strategies for pre-harvest control of foodborne Salmonella in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Of more than 2500 identified Salmonella serotypes, only a small proportion are common in poultry flocks. However, there is an epidemiologically important connection between poultry products and human infections, as many of the serotypes that are most prevalent in humans (such as S. Typhimurium and S...

  16. MUTATION SPECTRA OF GLU-P-1 IN SALMONELLA: INDUCTION OF HOTSPOT FRAMESHIFTS AND SITE-SPECIFIC BASE SUBSTITUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mutations induced in approximately 2,000 mutants of Salmonella by the heterocyclic@ amine Glu-P-1 were determined by colony probe hybridization and PCR/DNA sequence analysis. ll of the mutations were at sites containing guanine, which is the base at which Glu-P-1 forms DNA ad...

  17. Interaction Mediated by the Putative Tip Regions of MdsA and MdsC in the Formation of a Salmonella-Specific Tripartite Efflux Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Saemee; Hwang, Soonhye; Lee, Seunghwa; Ha, Nam-Chul; Lee, KangSeok

    2014-01-01

    To survive in the presence of a wide range of toxic compounds, gram-negative bacteria expel such compounds via tripartite efflux pumps that span both the inner and outer membranes. The Salmonella-specific MdsAB pump consists of MdsB, a resistance-nodulation-division (RND)-type inner membrane transporter (IMT) that requires the membrane fusion protein (MFP) MdsA, and an outer membrane protein (OMP; MdsC or TolC) to form a tripartite efflux complex. In this study, we investigated the role of th...

  18. A study of Salmonella in pigs from birth to carcass: serotypes, genotypes, antibiotic resistance and virulence profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Declan J; Ivory, Claire; McDowell, David

    2013-01-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate Salmonella in pigs at each step from birth to carcass. Environmental and/or pig samples were taken at birth, farrowing, 1st weaning, 2nd weaning, finishing, transport, lairage, bleeding and chilling of carcasses and tested for Salmonella. All isolates were characterised in terms of serotype, phage type (where relevant) and subtyping with pulsed field gel electrophosesis (PFGE). Isolates were tested for antibiotic resistance, resistance (intI1, bla(CIT), bla(Tem), bla(PSE-1), bla(OXA-1), floR, catA1, aadA1, aadA2, tetA, tetB, tetG, sul1and aphA1) and virulence (invA, rck, spvC and pefA) genes. PCR was also performed to test for the presence of the left junction, thdF-S001 and the right junction, S004-int2 or S004-yidY of Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1). Overall 4.3%, 27.5% and 5% of environmental, throat/rectal and carcass samples were Salmonella positive, respectively. S. Typhimurium DT193 was detected during production, while S. Typhimurium DT17 and U311 were present in lairage at the abattoir, where strain characterisation suggested cross contamination of the live animals occurred. The carcasses were also cross contaminated with S. Brandenburg during processing. PFGE grouped the isolates by serotype and/or phage type. The DT193 isolates displayed the ACSSuTTmMn/Gm resistance phenotype and carried the invA, spvC, rck, bla-tem, aadA2, tetA, strA virulence/antibiotic resistance markers; U311 showed an ASSuTMn resistance pattern and carried invA and tetB; DT17 was sensitive to all antibiotics tested but invA, spv and rck positive while S. Brandenburg displayed neither resistance nor virulence gene carriage. None of the isolates possessed class 1 integrons and all isolates were negative for the left and right junctions of SGI1. It was concluded that control activities should target improved biosecurity at farm level and better sanitation in lairage. This study also provides further evidence that multiple drug resistance may be associated with non-SGI1 Salmonella strains. The continued emergence of non-DT104 S. Typhimurium isolates exhibiting multidrug resistance is a cause for concern as is the persistence of highly virulent Salmonella strains in the abattoir environment. PMID:23290238

  19. Detection of Salmonella spp. in oysters by PCR.

    OpenAIRE

    Bej, A.K.; Mahbubani, M H; Boyce, M. J.; Atlas, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    PCR DNA amplification of a region of the himA gene of Salmonella typhimurium specifically detected Salmonella spp. In oysters, 1 to 10 cells of Salmonella spp. were rapidly detected by the PCR following a pre-enrichment step to increase sensitivity and to ensure that detection was based on the presence of viable Salmonella spp.

  20. Salmonella: Salmonellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Trine

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella remains one of the most important zoonotic pathogenic bacteria and is the causative agents of salmonellosis. The aim of this article is to give an overview of Salmonella and salmonellosis, starting by describing the characteristics of the microorganism Salmonella, including biochemical properties, physiology, classification, and nomenclature. Thereafter, the epidemiology of the organism is introduced, including the routes of transmission. Finally, the disease salmonellosis, the virulence mechanisms, and the occurrence in different types of food are described.

  1. Comparison of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium LT2 and Non-LT2 Salmonella Genomic Sequences, and Genotyping of Salmonellae by Using PCR†

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Joong; Park, Si-Hong; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2006-01-01

    Genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 expected to be specifically present in Salmonella were selected using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) program. The 152 selected genes were compared with 11 genomic sequences of Salmonella serovars, including Salmonella enterica subsp. I and IIIb and Salmonella bongori (V), and were clustered into 17 groups by their comparison patterns. A total of 38 primer pairs were constructed to represent each of the 17 groups, and PCR was ...

  2. Salmonella enterica serotypes isolated from squabs reveal multidrug resistance and a distinct pathogenicity gene repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, K M; Marouf, S H; Mehana, O A; AlAtfeehy, N

    2014-12-01

    The consumption of squab (young unfledged pigeons) as part of the cuisine of many countries, together with the observation that squabs are vectors of zoonotic agents, may make them a public health risk. This study was designed to determine the serotypes, distribution of 11 virulence genes (invA, avrA, ssaQ, mgtC, siiD, sopB, gipA, sodC1, sopE1, spvC, bcfC) and the antimicrobial resistance profiles of salmonellae recovered from squabs. Six isolates were identified from among 45 (13.3%) squabs sampled. Three serotypes were identified according to the Kauffmann-White serotyping scheme: Salmonella Typhimurium (4/6; 66.7%), S. Braenderup (1/6; 16.7%) and S. Lomita (1/6; 16.7%). Polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed the presence of invA, sopB and bcfC in all six isolates, whereas sopE1 and gipA were absent. All six isolates were resistant to lincomycin and streptomycin, but all were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, colistin sulphate and gentamicin. Among the S. Typhimurium isolates, seven resistance profiles were identified: penicillins,aminoglycosides,fluoroquinolones, lincosamides,phenicols, tetracyclines and sulphonamides; four resistance profiles were identified in the isolates of S. Braenderup and S. Lomita: aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, lincosamides and polymyxin. Thus, the distribution of resistance to the antibiotics was largely dependent on serotype identity. The presence of invA, avrA, ssaQ, mgtC, siiD, sopB and bcfC was associated with resistance to chloramphenicol; invA, sopB and bcfC with resistance to streptomycin and lincosamide; and invA and sodC1 with resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The identification of serotypes S. Typhimurium, S. Braenderup and S. Lomita in the squab samples has important implications because these serotypes are significant causes of food poisoning and enteric fever in humans. PMID:25812222

  3. Pathogenicity of Salmonella enteritidis Phage Type 1 Isolate of Malaysia in 21 Day Old Specific-Pathogen Free Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khairani-Bejo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enteritidis (SE has always been related to subclinical infection in the chickens infected after 2 weeks of hatching. However, few pathogenic phage types were proven for their ability to manifest systemic infection and cause the organism to be shed into the surrounding environment. It was the objective of the study to determine the pathogenicity of SE Phage Type (PT 1 in Specific-Pathogen-Free (SPF chickens. About 93, 21 day old SPF chickens where divided into 3 groups namely the Control, SE and Mortality groups. The chickens were raised separately in caging system and given free access to antibiotic-free ration and water. The SE and Mortality groups were inoculated orally (1.0 mL with SE PT 1 (1x108 cfu mL-1. The chickens in the SE and Control groups were sacrificed at various intervals throughout the trial. Samples were collected for bacterial isolation and histological examination. The mortality percentage of the chickens in the Mortality group was recorded. The study showed that no mortality was recorded throughout the trial in the mortality as well as the SE group. Body weight was lower in the SE group when compared to the Control group throughout the trial except at days 2, 3 and 5 post inoculation (pi reaching its peak at day 14 pi when the SE group body weight was 26% lower than the controls. Clinical signs observed in the SE and Mortality group were represented by diarrhoea, inappetance, ruffled feather and stunted chickens while no abnormal clinical signs where recorded in the Control group. Grossly mild airsacculitis, mild peritonitis and hepatic congestion where recorded in the SE group at day 2 pi until day 5 pi while no gross lesions where recorded in the Control group. SE was first isolated in the caecum (66% at 12 h pi. At day 1 pi SE was isolated from the caecum and spleen (33% whilst at day 2, SE was isolated from the caecum (100% and caecal tonsil (66%. No SE was isolated from the cloacal swabs throughout the trial. The villi height was generally lower in the SE group when compared to the Controls, however it was significantly lower (p<0.05 in the duodenum at 12 h, days 1, 3, 5, 10, 14 and 21 pi; in the jejunum at 6 h, days 2, 14 and 21 pi while in the ileum at days 1, 3 and 5 pi. The crypts depth measurement was fluctuating however it ended up by being higher in the SE group, nevertheless it was significantly lower (p<0.05 in the SE group when compared to the Control group in the duodenum at 6 h and day 14 pi in the jejunum at day 10 pi; in the ileum at 12 h pi. Histopathological changes recorded included hepatitis, congestion and focal areas of necrosis; splenitis, congestion and oedema in the adenoid sheathed arteries; congestion and areas of necrosis in the lymphoi follicles of the bursa of Fabricius; enteritis, congestion and sloughing of necrotic enterocytes in the intestinal villi with presence of bacterial clusters in the villi surface and intestinal lumen. SE rods present in the caecal tonsils were seen to be engulfed by macrophages at days 1 and 2 pi, necrosis of the enterocytes on the villi surface and infiltration of the bacteria was recorded at day 2 pi while at days 5 pi the bacteria multiplication were seen and often located upon the M-like M cells however, no actual engulfment was recorded.

  4. The invA gene of Brucella melitensis is involved in intracellular invasion and is required to establish infection in a mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Alva-Pérez, Jorge; Arellano-Reynoso, Beatriz; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Suárez-Güemes, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Some of the mechanisms underlying the invasion and intracellular survival of B. melitensis are still unknown, including the role of a subfamily of NUDIX enzymes, which have been described in other bacterial species as invasins and are present in Brucella spp. We have generated a mutation in the coding gene of one of these proteins, the invA gene (BMEI0215) of B. melitensis strain 133, to understand its role in virulence. HeLa cell invasion results showed that mutant strain survival was decrea...

  5. Fast and efficient three-step target-specific curing of a virulence plasmid in Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Marcos H; Teplitski, Max

    2015-12-01

    Virulence plasmids borne by serovars of Salmonella enterica carry genes involved in its pathogenicity, as well as other functions. Characterization of phenotypes associated with virulence plasmids requires a system for efficiently curing strains of their virulence plasmids. Here, we developed a 3-step protocol for targeted curing of virulence plasmids. The protocol involves insertion of an I-SecI restriction site linked to an antibiotic resistance gene into the target plasmid using ?-Red mutagenesis, followed by the transformation with a temperature-sensitive auxiliary plasmid which carries I-SecI nuclease expressed from a tetracycline-inducible promoter. Finally, the auxiliary plasmid is removed by incubation at 42 °C and the plasmid-less strains are verified on antibiotic-containing media. This method is fast and very efficient: over 90 % of recovered colonies lacked their virulence plasmid. PMID:26272479

  6. Salmonella enterocolitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reduce the risk. Good handwashing when handling eggs, poultry, and other foods is important. If you own a reptile, wear gloves when handling the animal or its feces because salmonella can easily pass to humans.

  7. Sensitivity, Specificity, and Predictive Values of Three Salmonella Rapid Detection Kits Using Fresh and Frozen Poultry Environmental Samples versus Those of Standard Plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplow, Melissa O.; Correa-Prisant, Maria; Stebbins, Martha E.; Jones, Frank; Davies, Peter

    1999-01-01

    To reduce human exposure to Salmonella spp. in poultry products, broiler chicken flocks have been tested by culture methods. Since the standard techniques may take 3 to 5 days, rapid detection methods have been developed. In this study we tested the performance of three rapid tests originally developed for food samples by using environmental samples obtained from poultry houses. These rapid tests were Reveal, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from Neogen Corp.; BIND, a bacterial ice nucleation detection method from Idetek Corp.; and a filter monitor method from Future Medical Technologies, Inc. For the standard culture, brilliant green with novabiocin and xylose–lysine–tergitol-4 agar were used for presumptive identification, and identities were confirmed by using poly-O antisera. Environmental samples were collected from farms belonging to an integrated poultry company prior to chick placement and 1 week before slaughter. Sensitivities, specificities, and predictive values with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Statistical differences were determined by using McNemar’s chi square test. The sensitivities of the different tests were not stable, varying widely between sample times, and were affected by freezing of the samples. All of the rapid tests had low sensitivities, which led to many false-negative results. All tests were able to detect Salmonella spp. at a concentration of 10 CFU/ml in at least one of four trials. The BIND and Reveal tests were simple to use with multiple samples and reduced laboratory time by up to 1 day. Based on our results, we do not recommend that any of these rapid tests, in their present state of development, be utilized with environmental samples collected with drag swabs. PMID:10049863

  8. Immunization with the conjugate vaccine Vi-CRM??? against Salmonella typhi induces Vi-specific mucosal and systemic immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Fabio; Ciabattini, Annalisa; Rondini, Simona; Pozzi, Gianni; Martin, Laura B; Medaglini, Donata

    2012-09-21

    Typhoid fever is a public health problem, especially among young children in developing countries. To address this need, a glycoconjugate vaccine Vi-CRM???, composed of the polysaccharide antigen Vi covalently conjugated to the non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin CRM???, is under development. Here, we assessed the antibody and cellular responses, both local and systemic, following subcutaneous injection of Vi-CRM???. The glycoconjugate elicited Vi-specific serum IgG titers significantly higher than unconjugated Vi, with prevalence of IgG1 that persisted for at least 60 days after immunization. Vi-specific IgG, but not IgA, were present in intestinal washes. Lymphocytes proliferation after restimulation with Vi-CRM??? was observed in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. These data confirm the immunogenicity of Vi-CRM??? and demonstrate that the vaccine-specific antibody and cellular immune responses are present also in the intestinal tract, thus strengthening the suitability of Vi-CRM??? as a promising candidate vaccine against Salmonella Typhi. PMID:22705173

  9. Detección de Salmonella y coliformes fecales en agua de uso agrícola para la producción de melón "Cantaloupe" / Detection of Salmonella and fecal coliforms in water for agricultural use destined to melon"Cantaloupe"

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carmela, Hernández-Domínguez; Ana María, Hernández-Anguiano; Cristóbal, Cháidez-Quiroz; Gilberto, Rendón-Sánchez; Trevor, Suslow.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available El agua que se utiliza en la producción de cultivos hortofrutícolas representa una fuente potencial de microorganismos que ocasionan enfermedades de transmisión alimentaria. Con el objetivo de evaluar la calidad sanitaria de diferentes fuentes de agua empleadas en la producción de melón Cantaloupe ( [...] Cucumis melo L. [grupo reticulatus] cv. Ovación y Caminos), en Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero, se analizaron 71 muestras de agua provenientes de dos unidades de campo (23) y de una unidad de empaque (48) mediante métodos bacteriológicos convencionales para la detección deSalmonella spp, y por el método de filtración en membrana y el crecimiento en medios selectivos, para la detección de coliformes fecales, como indicadores de contaminación fecal. Del total de muestras de agua analizadas sólo tres muestras de campo resultaron positivas a la presencia de Salmonella spp. y nueve muestras, siete de campo y dos de la unidad de empaque, resultaron positivas a coliformes fecales. Salmonella spp. y coliformes fecales se detectaron principalmente en muestras de agua no clorada a 29 °C y 7.5 de pH, en promedio. En pruebas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR), dos de cuatro cepas presuntivas de Salmonella ssp. dieron amplificaciones positivas con los iniciadores Sal-3 y Sal-4, y invA-1 e invA-2; de las otras dos, sólo dieron amplificación positiva con Sal-3 y Sal-4. Aparentemente se tiene más de una raza o serovar de Salmonella en la región. Estos resultados sugieren que algunas de las fuentes de agua empleadas en la producción de melón Cantaloupe en Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero, no cumplen con la normatividad sanitaria por lo que estas fuentes deben establecerse como puntos prerequisitos de control para evitar la contaminación de melones frescos con patógenos de humanos. Abstract in english Water used in the production of horticultural crops represents a potential source of microorganisms that cause food-transmitted diseases. In order to evaluate the sanitary quality of different agricultural water sources used in the production of Cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo L. [group reticulatus] [...] cv. Ovacion and Caminos), in Zirandaro Chavez, Guerrero, 71 water samples were analyzed from two field units (23) and one packaging house unit (48) through traditional bacteriological methods, to detect Salmonella spp, and the filtering membrane method and growth selective media, to detect fecal coliforms, as fecal contamination indicators. Of the total analyzed water samples only three field samples were positive to Salmonella spp. and nine samples, seven coming from the field and two from the packaging house, were positive to fecal coliforms. Salmonella spp. and fecal coliforms were detected mainly in non-chlorinated water samples at 29 °C and pH of 7.5, on average. Two out of four presumptive Salmonella spp. isolates were confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers Sal-3 and Sal-4, and invA-1 and invA-2; the other two were only confirmed with Sal-3 y Sal-4. Apparently more than one race or serovar of Salmonella spp. are present in this region. Results suggest that some water sources used in the Cantaloupe melon production in Zirandaro Chavez, Guerrero, do not meet sanitary standards therefore these sources should be considered as critical control points to prevent fresh melon contamination with human pathogens.

  10. Chloramphenicol and tetracycline decrease motility and increase invasion and attachment gene expression in specific isolates of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is one of the most common serovars isolated from humans and livestock, and over 35 percent of these isolates are resistant to three or more antibiotics. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella is a public health concern as it is associated with i...

  11. Molecular typing, antibiotic resistance, virulence gene and biofilm formation of different Salmonella enterica serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Yousra; Mehr, Ines; Ouzari, Hadda; Khessairi, Amel; Hassen, Abdennaceur

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica isolates representing commonly isolated serotypes in Tunisia were analyzed using genotyping and phenotyping methods. ERIC and ITS-PCR applied to 48 Salmonella spp. isolates revealed the presence of 12 and 10 different profiles, respectively. The distribution of profiles among serotypes demonstrated the presence of strains showing an identical fingerprinting pattern. All Salmonella strains used in this study were positive for the sdiA gene. Three Salmonella isolates belonging to serotypes Anatum, Enteritidis and Amsterdam were negative for the invA gene. The spvC gene was detected in thirteen isolates belonging to serotypes Anatum, Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Gallinarum and Montevideo. Antibiotic resistance was frequent among the recovered Salmonella isolates belonging to serotypes Anatum, Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Zanzibar and Derby. The majority of these isolates exhibited resistance to at least two antibiotic families. Four multidrug-resistant isolates were recovered from food animals and poultry products. These isolates exhibited not only resistance to tetracycline, sulphonamides, and ampicillin, but also have shown resistance to fluoroquinolones. Common resistance to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin in two S. Anatum and S. Zanzibar strains isolated from raw meat and poultry was also obtained. Furthermore, wastewater and human isolates exhibited frequent resistance to nalidixic acid and tetracycline. Of all isolates, 33.5% were able to form biofilm. PMID:25273985

  12. Activation of Salmonella Typhi-Specific Regulatory T Cells in Typhoid Disease in a Wild-Type S. Typhi Challenge Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Monica A.; Fresnay, Stephanie; Magder, Laurence S.; Darton, Thomas C.; Jones, Claire; Waddington, Claire S.; Blohmke, Christoph J.; Dougan, Gordon; Angus, Brian; Levine, Myron M.; Pollard, Andrew J.; Sztein, Marcelo B.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi), the causative agent of typhoid fever, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently available vaccines are moderately efficacious, and identification of immunological responses associated with protection or disease will facilitate the development of improved vaccines. We investigated S. Typhi-specific modulation of activation and homing potential of circulating regulatory T cells (Treg) by flow and mass cytometry using specimens obtained from a human challenge study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from volunteers pre- and at multiple time-points post-challenge with wild-type S. Typhi. We identified differing patterns of S. Typhi-specific modulation of the homing potential of circulating Treg between volunteers diagnosed with typhoid (TD) and those who were not (No TD). TD volunteers demonstrated up-regulation of the gut homing molecule integrin ?4ß7 pre-challenge, followed by a significant down-regulation post-challenge consistent with Treg homing to the gut. Additionally, S. Typhi-specific Treg from TD volunteers exhibited up-regulation of activation molecules post-challenge (e.g., HLA-DR, LFA-1). We further demonstrate that depletion of Treg results in increased S. Typhi-specific cytokine production by CD8+ TEM in vitro. These results suggest that the tissue distribution of activated Treg, their characteristics and activation status may play a pivotal role in typhoid fever, possibly through suppression of S. Typhi-specific effector T cell responses. These studies provide important novel insights into the regulation of immune responses that are likely to be critical in protection against typhoid and other enteric infectious diseases. PMID:26001081

  13. A comparison of cecal colonization of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in white leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomolnaya Lydia M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial food borne illnesses worldwide. A major source of infection for humans is consumption of chicken or egg products that have been contaminated with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, however our knowledge regarding colonization and persistence factors in the chicken is small. Results We compared intestinal and systemic colonization of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant CBA/J mice during infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028, one of the most commonly studied isolates. We also studied the distribution of wild type serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028 and an isogenic invA mutant during competitive infection in the cecum of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and 8-week-old CBA/J mice. We found that although the systemic levels of serotype Typhimurium in both infected animal models are low, infected mice have significant splenomegaly beginning at 15 days post infection. In the intestinal tract itself, the cecal contents are the major site for recovery of serotype Typhimurium in the cecum of 1-week-old chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice. Additionally we show that only a small minority of Salmonellae are intracellular in the cecal epithelium of both infected animal models, and while SPI-1 is important for successful infection in the murine model, it is important for association with the cecal epithelium of 1-week-old chicks. Finally, we show that in chicks infected with serotype Typhimurium at 1 week of age, the level of fecal shedding of this organism does not reflect the level of cecal colonization as it does in murine models. Conclusion In our study, we highlight important differences in systemic and intestinal colonization levels between chick and murine serotype Typhimurium infections, and provide evidence that suggests that the role of SPI-1 may not be the same during colonization of both animal models.

  14. Salmonella Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infections with bacteria of the genus Salmonella are responsible for both acute and chronic poultry diseases. These diseases cause economically significant losses for poultry producers in many nations and absorb large investments of public and private resources in testing and control efforts. Infect...

  15. 78 FR 42526 - Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ...FDA-2013-D-0254] Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food; Withdrawal of Compliance...690.700 Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food.'' This CPG is obsolete...690.700 Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food (CPG...

  16. Salmonella enterica in imported and domestic day-old turkey poults in Egypt: repertoire of virulence genes and their antimicrobial resistance profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, K M; Marouf, S H; Erfan, A M; AlAtfeehy, N

    2014-12-01

    Globalisation and international trade facilitate the rapid spread and transmission of foodborne pathogens. This study was designed to determine the serovars, distribution of virulence genes (invA, avrA, ssaQ, mgtC, siiD, sopB, gipA, sodC1, sopE1, spvC, bcfC) and antibiotic resistance profiles in salmonellae recovered from imported and domestic day-old turkey poults in Egypt. The prevalence of salmonellae in the imported poults was 4% (6/150): S. Enteritidis was the most frequent isolate (1.3%; 2/150), followed by Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle and a non-typeable strain, each with 0.7% (1/150) prevalence. The prevalence of salmonellae in the domestic poults was < 2% (2/150) and serotyping indicated a prevalence of 1.3% (1/150) for both Typhimurium and Altona. In polymerase chain reaction screening, the genes invA, sopB and bcfC were detected in all the Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle, Altona and non-typeable isolates (100%); the gene gipA was absent from all isolates. Carriage of invA, sopB and bcfC among the Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle, Altona and non-typeable isolates was associated with a core pattern of resistance to three antibiotics: streptomycin, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol. The detection of S. Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle, and Altona in turkey poults has important implications because these serovars are a significant cause of foodborne illness and enteric fever in humans. PMID:25812224

  17. Infection with Salmonella typhimurium has no effect on the composition and cleavage specificity of the 20S proteasome in human lymphoid cells

    OpenAIRE

    Marcilla Goldaracena, Miguel; López de Castro Álvarez, José Antonio; Castaño, José G.; Álvarez, Iñaki

    2007-01-01

    Human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 is strongly associated with spondyloarthropathies, including reactive arthritis. Several Gram-negative bacteria, such as Salmonella typhimurium, can trigger this disease. It has been suggested that peptides derived from bacterial proteins and presented by HLA-B27 to cytotoxic T lymphocytes might show molecular mimicry with autologous peptides, leading to T-cell cross-reaction and autoimmunity. Antigen presentation in Salmonella-infected cells could be modulat...

  18. Oral vaccination with a recombinant Salmonella vaccine vector provokes systemic HIV-1 subtype C Gag-specific CD4+ Th1 and Th2 cell immune responses in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williamson Anna-Lise

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant Salmonella vaccine vectors may potentially be used to induce specific CD4+ T cell responses against foreign viral antigens. Such immune responses are required features of vaccines against pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1. The aim of this study was to investigate the induction of systemic HIV-1-specific CD4+ T helper (Th responses in mice after oral immunization with a live attenuated Salmonella vaccine vector that expressed HIV-1 subtype C Gag. Groups of BALB/c mice were vaccinated orally three times (4 weeks apart with this recombinant Salmonella. At sacrifice, 28 days after the last immunization, systemic CD4+ Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunospot assay and cytometric bead array. HIV-1 Gag-specific IgG1 and IgG2a humoral responses in the serum were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Mice vaccinated with the recombinant Salmonella elicited both HIV-1-specific Th1 (interferon-gamma (IFN-? and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-? and Th2 (interleukin-4 (IL-4 and interleukin-5 (IL-5 cytokine responses. The vaccine induced 70 (IFN-? spot-forming units (SFUs/10e6 splenocytes and 238 IL-4 SFUs/10e6 splenocytes. Splenocytes from vaccinated mice also produced high levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines upon stimulation with a Gag CD4 peptide. The levels of IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-4 and IL-5 were 7.5-, 29.1-, 26.2- and 89.3-fold above the background, respectively. Both HIV-1 Gag-specific IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies were detected in the sera of vaccinated mice. Conclusion The study highlights the potential of orally-delivered attenuated Salmonella as mucosal vaccine vectors for HIV-1 Subtype C Gag to induce Gag-specific CD4+ Th1 and Th2 cellular immune responses and antibodies which may be important characteristics required for protection against HIV-1 infection.

  19. Salmonella typhi

    OpenAIRE

    Mochammad, Hatta

    2008-01-01

    Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis differentiated 297 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi blood culture isolates from Makassar in 76 genotypes and a single unique S. Typhi genotype was isolated from the cholecystectomy specimens of four patients with cholelithiasis. The high diversity in S. Typhi genotypes circulating in Makassar indicates that the number of carriers could be very large, which may complicate disease prevention and control.

  20. Detection of Salmonella spp. from chevon, mutton and its environment in retail meat shops in Anand city (Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Makwana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was (i To attempt isolation and identification of Salmonella species from samples. (ii Serotyping of Salmonella isolates. (iii Detection of virulence factor associated genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and Methods: A total of 284 samples comprised of chevon and mutton (112 samples each as well as 60 samples (20 each of retail meat shops environment samples viz. Butchers’ hands, knives and log swabs were collected from the retail meat shops in and around Anand City under aseptic precautions. Rappaport-vassiliadis soy bean meal broth and tetrathionate broth was used for the enrichment of all the samples and inoculation was done on brilliant green agar and xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. This was followed by the confirmation of isolates using biochemical tests. For the serotyping, isolates were sent to the National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre, Central Research Institute, Kasauli, Himachal Pradesh. Detection of virulence genes was performed by PCR technique using previously reported primer. Result: Of 284 meats and retail meat shops environment samples, 13 (4.58% samples were found positive for Salmonella. It was interesting to know that incidence of Salmonella was more in mutton (6.25% than chevon (3.57%. In case of meat shop environmental samples 1 (5.00% sample observed positive for Salmonella separately among the butchers’ hands and knives swabs (Each of 20 samples examined. Out of 13, eleven isolates detected as Salmonella Typhimurium, whereas only two isolates were detected as Salmonella Enteritidis. All Salmonella isolates possess invA and stn genes, whereas nine isolates had a presence of spvR gene while only five of the isolates revealed the presence of spvC gene as shown by in vitro detection of virulence genes by PCR. Conclusion: Therefore, might be suggested that the good hygiene practices and effective control measures should be taken to encourage clean meat production with prolonged shelf-life.

  1. Occurrence of Salmonella in retail beef and related meat products in Zaria, Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafida, S.Y.; Kabir, J.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella is among the most important food borne pathogens worldwide contaminating a wide range of animal products including meat products. Human illnesses due to this pathogen are attributed to poor biosecurity in production, improper processing and handling of meat and meat products. This is more likely where surveillance and regulatory control is weak. There is however limited information on the occurrence of these pathogens in foods in Nigeria. The extent of contamination of retail-beef and related meat products with Salmonellae in Zaria was evaluated. A total of 435 retailed beef and related meat products consisting of muscle meat, offal and processed meat products were tested for the presence of Salmonella species. Sample types included raw meat, ‘suya’ (roasted meat), ‘balangu’ (barbequed meat), ‘Kilishi’ (spiced sun dried meat) and ‘dambu’ (shredded fried meat). Samples were derived from four major markets and Zango abattoir in Zaria, Nigeria and cultured using selective isolation method with prior enrichment. Suspected isolates were identified and characterised using conventional biochemical methods and Microbact 12E (Oxoid, UK) identification kit. The isolates were serotyped. Confirmed isolates were evaluated in vitro for susceptibilities to 18 commonly used antimicrobial agents. Ten samples (2.3%) were positive for Salmonella. Raw beef samples had the highest isolation rates (2.43%). All the 10 Salmonella isolates were found to carry the invA gene. All the isolates exhibited multiple drug resistance. Simultaneous resistance to up to 8 antibiotics was found amongst the Salmonellae. The isolates exhibited more commonly resistance to members of ?-lactam family and other antibiotic classes including lincosamides, macrolides, aminoglycosides and nitrofurans. Meat and meat products including ready-to-eat meat in Zaria were contaminated with multidrug and virulent Salmonella species. Meat and meat products in Nigeria are thus a hazardous group of foods that can potentially transmit this pathogen to humans.

  2. PREVALENCE OF DRUG RESISTANCE AND VIRULENCE FEATURES IN Salmonella spp. ISOLATED FROM FOODS ASSOCIATED OR NOT WITH SALMONELLOSIS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Estela Gravato Rowlands

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is the most common etiological agent of cases and outbreaks of foodborne diarrheal illnesses. The emergence and spread of Salmonella spp., which has become multi-drug resistant and potentially more pathogenic, have increased the concern with this pathogen. In this study, 237 Salmonella spp., associated or not with foodborne salmonellosis in Brazil, belonging mainly to serotype Enteritidis, were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of the virulence genes spvC, invA, sefA and pefA. Of the isolates, 46.8% were sensitive to all antimicrobials and 51.9% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent was observed in 10.5% of the strains. The highest rates of resistance were observed for streptomycin (35.9% and nalidixic acid (16.9%. No strain was resistant to cefoxitin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, amikacin, ciprofloxacin and imipenem. The invA gene was detected in all strains. Genes spvC and pefA were found in 48.1% and 44.3% of strains, respectively. The gene sefA was detected in 31.6% of the strains and only among S. Enteritidis. Resistance and virulence determinants were detected in Salmonella strains belonging to several serotypes. The high rates of antibiotic-resistance in strains isolated from poultry products demonstrate the potential risk associated with the consumption of these products and the need to ensure good food hygiene practices from farm to table to reduce the spread of pathogens relevant to public health.

  3. PERFIL SOROLÓGICO E DE ISOLAMENTO DE Salmonella sp. EM SUÍNOS NO INÍCIO DA TERMINAÇÃO E AO ABATE SEROLOGY AND ISOLATION OF SALMONELLA SP. IN PIGS AT THE FINISHING SITE AND AT SLAUGHTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Müller

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudos que elucidem a cadeia de transmissão de Salmonella enterica nos sistemas de produção de suínos são importantes para que seja possível implementar programas de controle da infecção. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o índice de animais positivos para Salmonella sp. no início da fase de terminação e ao abate e identificar possíveis fontes de contaminação no período. Em três granjas terminadoras, coletaram-se: suabes de superfície nas baias e nos silos durante o vazio sanitário; amostras de fezes e sangue dos animais no dia do alojamento; alíquotas de todos os lotes de ração e amostras de sangue, linfonodos mesentéricos (LM e conteúdo intestinal (CI ao abate. As amostras de sangue foram submetidas a teste de ELISA-LPS para Salmonella Typhimurium. Nas demais amostras, pesquisou-se a presença de Salmonella sp. As amostras de ração foram adicionalmente submetidas à técnica da Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR amplificando o gene invA. Todos os animais foram negativos para presença de Salmonella sp. nas fezes no início da terminação; entretanto, em duas granjas havia animais soropositivos (12% e 28%, respectivamente. Em duas granjas havia contaminação residual no ambiente e na terceira granja, em um dos lotes de ração, detectou-se a presença de Salmonella sp. pela PCR. Ao abate, acima de 90% dos animais foram positivos no teste de ELISA-LPS, sendo que em todos os lotes encontrou-se um número variável (12-92% de portadores em LM e CI. A partir disso, concluiu-se que a terminação foi a fase crítica para a amplificação da infecção por Salmonella sp., sendo a presença residual do microrganismo na granja e o fornecimento de ração contaminada fontes prováveis de infecção.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Abate, isolamento, Salmonella, sorologia, suíno, terminação.
    Studies assessing the Salmonella transmission chain in pig herds are the first step to start a control program.  The aims of this study were to compare the prevalence of Salmonella positive pigs at the beginning of the finishing phase and at slaughter, and to identify the possible sources of contamination in the farms. In three finishing farms, environmental swabs from the barns and from the feed silos were collected during the sanitary emptiness. Furthermore, samples of feces and blood from the animals on the day of housing; and aliquots from all feed lots were taken. At slaughter, blood, mesenteric lymph nodes (LM and intestinal content (CI were sampled. Blood samples were submitted to a S. Typhimurium ELISA-LPS test. All other samples were submitted to a Salmonella isolation protocol. Feed samples were also submitted to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR targeting the invA gene. Feces samples from all pigs were Salmonella negative at the beginning of the finishing phase, in two farms seropositive animals were found. In two farms, residual environmental contamination was detected, and, in the third farm, one of the feed batches was Salmonella positive on the PCR assay. At slaughter, over 90% of the animals were positive on the ELISA-LPS test and, in all cohorts, a variable number (12%-92% of carriers in LM and CI was detected. From this on, it was concluded that the finishing phase was critical for the amplification of Salmonella infection, and the residual environmental contamination in the farms as well as Salmonella positive feed batches were the probable infection sources.

    KEY WORDS: Isolation, finishing and slaughter, Salmonella, serology, swine.

  4. Multiplex real-time PCR assay for the specific detection and quantification of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground pork samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 are food borne-pathogens capable of causing serious gastrointestinal illness. We previously described simultaneous detection of these pathogens by multiplex PCR in 44 types of spiked food samples, including meat, produce, fish, an...

  5. USING BASE-SPECIFIC SALMONELLA TESTER STRAINS TO CHARACTERIZE THE TYPES OF MUTATION INDUCED BY BENZIDINE AND BENZIDINE CONGENERS AFTER REDUCTIVE METABOLISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine HCl, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine, 3,3'- dimethoxybenzidine and benzidine congener-based dye trypan blue were mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TAl 00 only with metabolic activation. It was found that a hamster liver 89 ...

  6. Rapid Detection of Campylobacter coli, C. jejuni, and Salmonella enterica on Poultry Carcasses by Using PCR-Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yang; Berrang, Mark E.; Liu, Tongrui; Hofacre, Charles L.; Sanchez, Susan; Wang, Lihua; Maurer, John J.

    2003-01-01

    Contamination of retail poultry by Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella enterica is a significant source of human diarrheal disease. Isolation and identification of these microorganisms require a series of biochemical and serological tests. In this study, Campylobacter ceuE and Salmonella invA genes were used to design probes in PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), as an alternative to conventional bacteriological methodology, for the rapid detection of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and S. enterica from poultry samples. With PCR-ELISA (40 cycles), the detection limits for Salmonella and Campylobacter were 2 × 102 and 4 × 101 CFU/ml, respectively. ELISA increased the sensitivity of the conventional PCR method by 100- to 1,000-fold. DNA was extracted from carcass rinses and tetrathionate enrichments and used in PCR-ELISA for the detection of Campylobacter and S. enterica, respectively. With PCR-ELISA, Salmonella was detected in 20 of 120 (17%) chicken carcass rinses examined, without the inclusion of an enrichment step. Significant correlation was observed between PCR-ELISA and cultural methods (kappa = 0.83; chi-square test, P Salmonella. With PCR-ELISA, we observed a positive correlation between the ELISA absorbance (optical density at 405 nm) and the campylobacter cell number in carcass rinse, as determined by standard culture methods. Overall, PCR-ELISA is a rapid and cost-effective approach for the detection and enumeration of Salmonella and Campylobacter bacteria on poultry. PMID:12788755

  7. Genes de virulência e diversidade genética em Salmonella spp. isoladas de amostras de origem suína / Virulence genes and genetic diversity in Salmonella spp. isolated from samples of swine origin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.S., Moura; R.P., Oliveira; R.T., Melo; E.P., Mendonça; B.B., Fonseca; D.A., Rossi.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A diversificação da produção industrial de alimentos de origem suína e o intercâmbio comercial de animais e seus derivados destinados ao consumo humano podem ser importantes disseminadores de sorovares de Salmonella spp. na cadeia alimentar. Objetivou-se avaliar em 86 cepas de Salmonella spp., isola [...] das em granja de terminação e no abate de suínos, a ocorrência de três genes de virulência (invA, agfA e lpfA), bem como a similaridade genética entre elas. A ocorrência do gene invA foi verificada em 100% das amostras. O gene lpfA foi detectado em 80,23% (69/86) das cepas, não foi detectado em S. Panama e estava presente em todas as cepas de S. Infantis. O gene agfA foi detectado em 63,95% (55/86) das amostras. S. Agona apresentou positividade para todos os genes de virulência estudados. A análise de homologia entre as cepas agrupou os diferentes sorovares em clusters. A similaridade foi independente do local de isolamento, o que demonstra a presença de clones ao longo da cadeia de produção e a existência de multiplicidade de fontes para a infecção dos animais, como a ração, e a contaminação cruzada das carcaças. A pesquisa de genes de virulência e a avaliação da proximidade gênica permitem a caracterização e um maior entendimento sobre cepas de Salmonella circulantes na cadeia produtiva de suínos e, assim, podem subsidiar medidas de controle durante o processo produtivo com o objetivo de garantir a saúde do consumidor. Abstract in english The diversification of industrial food production of swine origin and trade of animals and their derivatives for human consumption may be important disseminators of serovars of Salmonella spp. in the food chain. This study aimed to evaluate 86 strains of Salmonella spp. isolated form in the finishin [...] g and slaughter of pigs, the occurrence of three virulence genes (invA, agfa and lpfA), as well as the genetic similarity between them. The occurrence of gene invA was observed in 100% of the samples. The gene lpfA was detected in 80.23% (69/86) strains and is not detected in S. Panama, but present in all strains of S. Infantis. The gene agfA was detected in 63.95% (55/86). S. Agona was positive for all virulence genes studied. The analysis of homology between the different serovars grouped the isolates in clusters. The similarity was regardless of the location of isolation, demonstrating the presence of clones along the production chain and that there are multiple sources for the infection of animals, such as feed, and cross-contamination of carcasses. A survey of virulence genes and evaluation of gene proximity allow characterization and better understanding of Salmonella strains circulating in the pig production chain, thus being able to support control measures during the production process in order to ensure consumer health.

  8. Tentative Colistin Epidemiological Cut-Off Value for Salmonella spp.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    AgersØ, Yvonne; Torpdahl, Mia

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) population distributions for colistin for Salmonella on subtype level. Furthermore, we wanted to determine if differences in MIC for colistin could be explained by mutations in pmrA or pmrB encoding proteins involved in processes that influence the binding of colistin to the cell membrane. During 2008–2011, 6,583 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica isolates of human origin and 1931 isolates of animal/meat origin were collected. The isolates were serotyped, and susceptibility was tested towards colistin (range 1–16 mg/L). Moreover, 37 isolates were tested for mutations in pmrA and pmrB by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. MIC distribution for colistin at serotype level showed that Salmonella Dublin (n=198) followed by Salmonella Enteritidis (n=1247) were less susceptible than “other” Salmonella serotypes originating from humans (n=5,274) and Salmonella Typhimurium of animal/meat origin (n=1794). MIC was ?1 mg/L for 98.9% of “other” Salmonella serotypes originating from humans, 99.4% of Salmonella Typhimurium, 61.3% of Salmonella Enteritidis, and 12.1% of Salmonella Dublin isolates. Interestingly, Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Enteritidis belong to the same O-group (O:1, 9,12), suggesting that surface lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of the cell (O-antigen) play a role in colistin susceptibility. The epidemiological cut-off value of >2 mg/L for colistin suggested by European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) is placed inside the distribution for both Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Enteritidis. All tested Salmonella Dublin isolates, regardless of MIC colistin value, had identical pmrA and pmrB sequences. Missense mutations were found only in pmrA in one Salmonella Reading and in pmrB in one Salmonella Concord isolate, both with MIC of ?1 for colistin. In conclusion, our study indicates that missense mutations are not necessarily involved in increased MICs for colistin. Increased MICs for colistin seemed to be linked to specific serotypes (Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Enteritidis). We recommend that Salmonella with MIC of >2 mg/L for colistin be evaluated on the serovar level.

  9. Salmonella Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Follow Salmonella RSS Diagnosis and Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... patient’s sample. If Salmonella bacteria grow, then the diagnosis is confirmed, or in laboratory-terms, “culture confirmed.” ...

  10. A carbon nanotube immunosensor for Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell B. Lerner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibody-functionalized carbon nanotube devices have been suggested for use as bacterial detectors for monitoring of food purity in transit from the farm to the kitchen. Here we report progress towards that goal by demonstrating specific detection of Salmonella in complex nutrient broth solutions using nanotube transistors functionalized with covalently-bound anti-Salmonella antibodies. The small size of the active device region makes them compatible with integration in large-scale arrays. We find that the on-state current of the transistor is sensitive specifically to the Salmonella concentration and saturates at low concentration (<1000 cfu/ml. In contrast, the carrier mobility is affected comparably by Salmonella and other bacteria types, with no sign of saturation even at much larger concentrations (108 cfu/ml.

  11. Sensitivity, Specificity, and Predictive Values of Three Salmonella Rapid Detection Kits Using Fresh and Frozen Poultry Environmental Samples versus Those of Standard Plating

    OpenAIRE

    Peplow, Melissa O.; Correa-Prisant, Maria; Stebbins, Martha E.; Jones, Frank; Davies, Peter

    1999-01-01

    To reduce human exposure to Salmonella spp. in poultry products, broiler chicken flocks have been tested by culture methods. Since the standard techniques may take 3 to 5 days, rapid detection methods have been developed. In this study we tested the performance of three rapid tests originally developed for food samples by using environmental samples obtained from poultry houses. These rapid tests were Reveal, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from Neogen Corp.; BIND, a bacterial ice nuclea...

  12. Specificity of the complement resistance and cell association phenotypes encoded by the outer membrane protein genes rck from Salmonella typhimurium and ail from Yersinia enterocolitica.

    OpenAIRE

    Heffernan, E J; Wu, L.; Louie, J.; Okamoto, S.; Fierer, J; Guiney, D G

    1994-01-01

    Virulence-associated phenotypes of an outer membrane protein gene family of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were compared by means of pBR322 constructs transformed into Escherichia coli HB101.rck (Salmonella typhimurium) and ail (Yersinia enterocolitica) promote serum resistance and eukaryotic cell invasion, properties not shared by other members of the gene family, pagC, ompX, and lom.

  13. Influence of oral boost immunizations with recombinant Salmonella vaccine strains on the antigen-specific CD8 T-cell induction

    OpenAIRE

    Sevil, Victoria

    2007-01-01

    Salmonellen verfügen über ein sogenanntes Typ III-Sekretionssystem (T3SS), mit dessen Hilfe Effektormoleküle mit zellmodulatorischer Funktion durch die Wirtszellmembran direkt in das Zytosol von Makrophagen, dendritischen Zellen oder Epithelzellen transloziert werden. Das Salmonella-T3SS kann verwendet werden, um heterologe Proteine in den endogenen MHC Klasse I-Antigenpräsentationsweg von eukaryontischen Zellen einzuschleusen. Als T3SS-Trägerprotein hat sich das „Yersinia outer protein E“ (Y...

  14. Perioperative dissemination of Salmonella.

    OpenAIRE

    Uhari, M.; Rantala, H; Herva, E

    1987-01-01

    A hypophyseal adenoma was operated on in a patient who was a carrier of Salmonella typhimurium. A chronic salmonella osteitis developed in her calvarium at the site of operation. Our case and reported experience emphasise that asymptomatic carriers of salmonella should be given perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis, especially if they are immunosuppressed.

  15. Evaluation of two colored latex kits, the Wellcolex Colour Salmonella Test and the Wellcolex Colour Shigella Test, for serological grouping of Salmonella and Shigella species.

    OpenAIRE

    Bouvet, P J; Jeanjean, S

    1992-01-01

    Two colored latex kits (the Wellcolex Colour Salmonella Test [WCT-Salmonella] and the Wellcolex Colour Shigella Test [WCT-Shigella]; Division Diagnostics, Laboratories Wellcome S.A., Paris, France), which allow identification of the most frequently encountered Salmonella serogroups and Shigella species, respectively, were evaluated. WCT-Salmonella and WCT-Shigella yielded sensitivities of 98.4 and 98%, respectively, and a specificity of 100% when they were tested on pure cultures received at ...

  16. Recovery of Salmonella group B from blood and Salmonella group C2 from feces and serological evidence of dual infection in one patient.

    OpenAIRE

    Papasian, C J; Bartholomew, W R; Neter, E.; Amsterdam, D

    1984-01-01

    A patient with a dual Salmonella infection is described. Salmonella group B was recovered from three blood culture sets but was not detected in seven stool cultures. Salmonella group C2 was isolated from three of seven stool cultures but was not recovered from blood cultures. Specific, non-cross-reactive antibodies to Salmonella groups B and C2 were detected in the sera of the patient by passive hemagglutination assays.

  17. Development of a real-time PCR melt curve assay for simultaneous detection of virulent and antibiotic resistant Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant; Mustapha, Azlin

    2014-12-01

    Multiple drug resistance in Salmonella is an emerging problem in the area of food safety. Depending on the virulence and antibiotic resistance characteristics of the Salmonella strain, infections of varying severity could result. In this study, a multiplex melt curve real-time PCR assay for the detection of virulent and antibiotic resistance strains of Salmonella was developed with two primer sets. The first set targets the virulence gene, invasin (invA), and tetracycline (tetG), streptomycin (aadA2) and sulphonamide (sulI) antibiotic resistance genes, and the second set amplifies ampicillin (blaPSE,blaTEM) and chloramphenicol (floR) resistance genes. The multiplex assay was evaluated using 41 Salmonella strains and was further tested on eight different artificially inoculated food samples. The fluorescent DNA intercalating dye, SYTO9, generated high resolution melt curve peaks and, hence, was used for the development of the assay. This multiplex assay worked efficiently over a DNA concentration range of 20 ng-200 fg and showed a sensitivity of 290 CFU/mL with serially diluted broth cultures. The detection limit for un-enriched artificially inoculated food samples was 10(4) CFU/g, but an enrichment period of 6 h allowed for detection of 10 CFU/g of cells in the samples. PMID:25084639

  18. Bacteriophage Therapy To Reduce Salmonella Colonization of Broiler Chickens?

    OpenAIRE

    Atterbury, R.J.; van Bergen, M. A. P.; Ortiz, F.; M.A. Lovell; Harris, J. A.; Boer, A.G. de; Wagenaar, J. A.; V. M.; Allen; Barrow, P. A.

    2007-01-01

    Acute enteric infections caused by salmonellas remain a major public health burden worldwide. Poultry, particularly chickens, are known to be the main reservoir for this zoonotic pathogen. Although some progress has been made in reducing Salmonella colonization of broiler chickens by using biosecurity and antimicrobials, it still remains a considerable problem. The use of host-specific bacteriophages as a biocontrol is one possible intervention by which Salmonella colonization could be reduce...

  19. Screening of poultry samples for Salmonella Typhimurium by PCR assay

    OpenAIRE

    V K Anumolu; V R Lakkineni

    2012-01-01

    Poultry samples viz., cloacal swabs, egg swabs, poultry faeces and feed were screened for Salmonella Typhimurium. A set of primers derived from fli C gene were employed to standardize PCR for detection of Salmonella Typhimurium from poultry samples, which gave specific amplification of a 620 bp fragment. Boiling and snap chilling method used for template preparation. Screening of 112 samples revealed that 12 samples positive for Salmonella Typhimurium by PCR assay. [Vet. World 2012; 5(3.000):...

  20. PREVALENCE OF DRUG RESISTANCE AND VIRULENCE FEATURES IN Salmonella spp. ISOLATED FROM FOODS ASSOCIATED OR NOT WITH SALMONELLOSIS IN BRAZIL / Prevalência de resistência antimicrobiana e características de virulência em Salmonella spp. isoladas de alimentos associados ou não com salmonelose no Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ruth Estela Gravato, Rowlands; Christiane Asturiano, Ristori; Alice A., Ikuno; Maria Luisa, Barbosa; Miyoko, Jakabi; Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo, Franco.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella é o agente etiológico mais comumente envolvido em casos e surtos de doenças diarréicas de origem alimentar. A preocupação com este patógeno é, ainda, maior quando se verifica o surgimento e a disseminação de cepas multirresistentes e potencialmente mais patogênicas. Neste estudo, 237 cepa [...] s Salmonella spp., associadas ou não com casos ou surtos de salmonelose e pertencentes, principalmente, ao sorovar Enteritidis, foram avaliadas quanto ao perfil de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana e presença dos genes de virulência spvC, invA, sefA e pefA. Entre as cepas avaliadas, 46,8% foram sensíveis a todos os agentes antimicrobianos e 51,9% foram resistentes a pelo menos uma droga. Multirresistência foi observada em 10,5% das cepas. As maiores taxas de resistência foram observadas para estreptomicina (35,9%) e ácido nalidíxico (16,9%). Não foram detectadas cepas resistentes à cefoxitina, cefalotina, cefotaxima, amicacina, ciprofloxaxina e imipenem. O gene invA foi detectado em todas as cepas de Salmonella. Os genes spvC e pefA foram encontrados em 48,1% e 44,3% das cepas, respectivamente. O gene sefA foi detectado em 31,6% das cepas, estando presente somente entre as cepas de S. Enteritidis. Resistência antimicrobiana e marcadores de virulência foram detectados em cepas de Salmonella pertencentes a diversos sorovares. A alta taxa de resistência antimicrobiana verificada em cepas isoladas de frangos e derivados demonstra o potencial risco associado ao consumo destes produtos e a necessidade de se assegurar boas práticas de higiene em toda cadeia produtiva para reduzir a disseminação de patógenos relevantes para a saúde pública. Abstract in english Salmonella is the most common etiological agent of cases and outbreaks of foodborne diarrheal illnesses. The emergence and spread of Salmonella spp., which has become multi-drug resistant and potentially more pathogenic, have increased the concern with this pathogen. In this study, 237 Salmonella sp [...] p., associated or not with foodborne salmonellosis in Brazil, belonging mainly to serotype Enteritidis, were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of the virulence genes spvC, invA, sefA and pefA. Of the isolates, 46.8% were sensitive to all antimicrobials and 51.9% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent was observed in 10.5% of the strains. The highest rates of resistance were observed for streptomycin (35.9%) and nalidixic acid (16.9%). No strain was resistant to cefoxitin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, amikacin, ciprofloxacin and imipenem. The invA gene was detected in all strains. Genes spvC and pefA were found in 48.1% and 44.3% of strains, respectively. The gene sefA was detected in 31.6% of the strains and only among S. Enteritidis. Resistance and virulence determinants were detected in Salmonella strains belonging to several serotypes. The high rates of antibiotic-resistance in strains isolated from poultry products demonstrate the potential risk associated with the consumption of these products and the need to ensure good food hygiene practices from farm to table to reduce the spread of pathogens relevant to public health.

  1. Secreted Effector Proteins of Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium Elicit Host-Specific Chemokine Profiles in Animal Models of Typhoid Fever and Enterocolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shuping; Adams, L. Garry; Nunes, Jairo; Khare, Sangeeta; Tsolis, Renée M.; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2003-01-01

    Infection of bovine ligated loops with the Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium wild type but not a sipA sopABDE2 mutant resulted in fluid accumulation, polymorphonuclear cell infiltration, and expression of CXC chemokines, particularly GRO?. None of these sipA sopABDE2-dependent responses was observed in murine-ligated loops. The majority of GRO? transcripts localized to bovine intestinal epithelium. Thus, different disease outcomes between mice (i.e., no diarrhea) and calves (i.e., diar...

  2. 76 FR 15282 - New Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... controlling for Salmonella in carcasses (73 FR 4767). Salmonella Posting Rationale Several comments expressed... Service (FSIS) published a Federal Register Notice on May 14, 2010 (75 FR 27288) in which it announced the... recovery. The FSWG specifically charged FSIS with ``cutting Salmonella risk in Poultry Products''...

  3. Assessment of various treatments to reduce carriage of Salmonella in swine.

    OpenAIRE

    Letellier, A; Messier, S.; Lessard, L; Quessy, S.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, different strategies to reduce carriage of Salmonella spp. in pigs were evaluated. Probiotics, prebiotics, vaccination, and acidification of drinking water were assessed as means of reducing Salmonella. Acidification of water, use of egg yolk-specific immunoglobulins, and vaccination with an endotoxin vaccine did not reduce Salmonella excretion in experimentally infected pigs. A reduction of Salmonella in the colonization of mesenteric lymph nodes was observed with the use of b...

  4. Acute diarrhea associated with Salmonella enterica in Belo Horizonte-MG: prevalence and characterization of isolates / Diarreia aguda associada a Salmonella enterica em Belo Horizonte-MG: prevalência e caracterização das amostras isoladas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mireille Ângela Bernardes, Sousa; Edilberto Nogueira, Mendes; Francisco José, Penna; Luciano Amedée, Péret-Filho; Paula Prazeres, Magalhães.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A diarreia infecciosa aguda é considerada um problema de saúde pública associado a uma ampla gama de agentes etiológicos, entre os quais destaca-se Salmonella enterica, causa importante de diarreia inflamatória em países desenvolvidos e em desenvolvimento. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a distribuiç [...] ão de S. enterica em crianças com diarreia aguda em Belo Horizonte e caracterizar as amostras isoladas. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: O grupo de estudo consistiu de 157 crianças de nível socioeconômico baixo. Espécimes fecais foram empregados para pesquisa de leucóc itos e cultivo de Salmonella. As amostras isoladas foram sorotipadas e submetidas à avaliação do perfil de suscetibilidade a antimicrobianos, da produção de betalactamases de amplo espectro (ESBL) e da presença de marcadores de virulência (invA, iroB e spvC). RESULTADOS: Cinco/3,2% crianças apresentaram-se infectadas por S. enterica; três/60%, por S. enterica Typhimurium; uma/20%, por S. enterica Enteritidis; e uma/20%, por S. enterica subsp. enterica sorotipo 8,20:z4,z23:-. Leucócitos fecais foram detectados em dois dos cinco espécimes positivos para S. enterica. As amostras isoladas de três crianças apresentaram resistência a ácido nalidíxico, ácido nalidíxico + cloranfenicol e ácido nalidíxico + cloranfenicol + ampicilina. Nenhuma amostra produziu ESBL. Todas as amostras albergavam os genes invA e iroB. O marcador spvC foi observado em amostras isoladas de duas crianças infectadas por S. Typhimurium e S. Enteritidis. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados demonstram que diarreia associada a S. enterica é raramente observada entre crianças da nossa região e indicam a necessidade de avaliação periódica do perfil de suscetibilidade a antimicrobianos da bactéria para orientar o estabelecimento de antibioticoterapia, quando indicada. Abstract in english Introduction: Acute infectious diarrhea is still regarded as a public health problem associated with a wide range of etiologic agents, from which Salmonella enterica is particularly worth mentioning inasmuch as it is a major cause of inflammatory diarrhea in both developed and developing countries. [...] Objective: To assess the distribution of S. enterica among children with acute diarrhea in Belo Horizonte and to characterize bacterium isolates. Material and methods: The study group comprised a total of 157 children from low socioeconomic background. Stool samples were collected for leukocyte analysis and Salmonella bacterial culture. The isolates were serotyped and evaluated as to antimicrobial susceptibility profile, extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBL) production, and presence of virulence markers (invA, iroB, and spvC). RESULTS: A total of 5/3.2% children were infected by S. enterica, 3/60% by S. enterica Typhimurium, 1/20% by S. enterica Enteritidis and 1/20% S. enterica subsp. enterica serotype 8.20:z4,z23:-. Fecal leucocytes were detected in two out of five fecal specimens positive for S. enterica. Isolates from three children were resistant to nalidixic acid, nalidixic acid + chloramphenicol, and nalidixic acid + chloramphenicol + ampicillin. ESBL production was not detected. All samples presented invA and iroB genes. spvC marker was observed in isolates from two children infected by S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that S. enterica infection is uncommon among children from our region. Furthermore, they indicate the need for periodic monitoring of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility profile in order to establish suitable antimicrobial therapy when required.

  5. Detection of Salmonella spp, Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium in naturally infected broiler chickens by a multiplex PCR-based assay

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.G., Paião; L.G.A., Arisitides; L.S., Murate; G.T., Vilas-Bôas; L.A., Vilas-Boas; M., Shimokomaki.

    Full Text Available The presence of Salmonella in the intestinal tract, on the chickens skin and among their feathers, may cause carcasses contamination during slaughtering and processing and possibly it is responsible by the introduction of this microorganism in the slaughterhouses. A rapid method to identify and moni [...] tor Salmonella and their sorovars in farm is becoming necessary. A pre-enriched multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) assay employing specific primers was developed and used to detect Salmonella at the genus level and to identify the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) in broiler chicken swab samples. The method was validated by testing DNA extract from 90 fresh culture cloacal swab samples from poultry chicken cultured in phosphate buffer peptone water at 37 ºC for 18 h. The final results showed the presence of Salmonella spp. in 25% of samples, S. Enteritidis was present in 12% of the Salmonella-positive samples and S. Typhimurium in 3% of the samples. The m-PCR assay developed in this study is a specific and rapid alternative method for the identification of Salmonella spp. and allowed the observation of specific serovar contamination in the field conditions within the locations where these chickens are typically raised.

  6. Detection of Salmonella spp, Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium in naturally infected broiler chickens by a multiplex PCR-based assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Paião

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Salmonella in the intestinal tract, on the chickens skin and among their feathers, may cause carcasses contamination during slaughtering and processing and possibly it is responsible by the introduction of this microorganism in the slaughterhouses. A rapid method to identify and monitor Salmonella and their sorovars in farm is becoming necessary. A pre-enriched multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR assay employing specific primers was developed and used to detect Salmonella at the genus level and to identify the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium in broiler chicken swab samples. The method was validated by testing DNA extract from 90 fresh culture cloacal swab samples from poultry chicken cultured in phosphate buffer peptone water at 37 ºC for 18 h. The final results showed the presence of Salmonella spp. in 25% of samples, S. Enteritidis was present in 12% of the Salmonella-positive samples and S. Typhimurium in 3% of the samples. The m-PCR assay developed in this study is a specific and rapid alternative method for the identification of Salmonella spp. and allowed the observation of specific serovar contamination in the field conditions within the locations where these chickens are typically raised.

  7. Salmonella Infections in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bula-Rudas, Fernando J; Rathore, Mobeen H; Maraqa, Nizar F

    2015-08-01

    Salmonella are gram-negative bacilli within the family Enterobacteriaceae. They are the cause of significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Animals (pets) are an important reservoir for nontyphoidal Salmonella, whereas humans are the only natural host and reservoir for Salmonella Typhi. Salmonella infections are a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. They account for an estimated 2.8 billion cases of diarrheal disease each year. The transmission of Salmonella is frequently associated with the consumption of contaminated water and food of animal origin, and it is facilitated by conditions of poor hygiene. Nontyphoidal Salmonella infections have a worldwide distribution, whereas most typhoidal Salmonella infections in the United States are acquired abroad. In the United States, Salmonella is a common agent for food-borne–associated infections. Several outbreaks have been identified and are most commonly associated with agricultural products. Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection is usually characterized by a self-limited gastroenteritis in immunocompetent hosts in industrialized countries, but it may also cause invasive disease in vulnerable individuals (eg, children less than 1 year of age, immunocompromised). Antibiotic treatment is not recommended for treatment of mild to moderate gastroenteritis by nontyphoidal Salmonella in immunocompetent adults or children more than 1 year of age. Antibiotic treatment is recommended for nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in infants less than 3 months of age, because they are at higher risk for bacteremia and extraintestinal complications. Typhoid (enteric) fever and its potential complications have a significant impact on children, especially those who live in developing countries. Antibiotic treatment of typhoid fever has become challenging because of the emergence of Salmonella Typhi strains that are resistant to classically used first-line agents: ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and chloramphenicol. The choice of antibiotics for the management of typhoid fever should be guided by the local resistance pattern. Recommendations include using an extended spectrum cephalosporin, azithromycin, or a fluoroquinolone. Fecal carriage of Salmonella is an important factor in the spread of the organism to healthy individuals. The most important measures to prevent the spread and outbreaks of Salmonella infections and typhoid fever are adequate sanitation protocols for food processing and handling as well as hand hygiene. In the United States, 2 vaccines are commercially available against Salmonella Typhi. The WHO recommends the use of these vaccines in endemic areas and for outbreak control. PMID:26205108

  8. Salmonella enterica: Survival, Colonization, and Virulence Differences among Serovars

    OpenAIRE

    Andino, A.; Hanning, I.

    2015-01-01

    Data indicate that prevalence of specific serovars of Salmonella enterica in human foodborne illness is not correlated with their prevalence in feed. Given that feed is a suboptimal environment for S. enterica, it appears that survival in poultry feed may be an independent factor unrelated to virulence of specific serovars of Salmonella. Additionally, S. enterica serovars appear to have different host specificity and the ability to cause disease in those hosts is also serovar dependent. These...

  9. Three new serotypes of Salmonella.

    OpenAIRE

    Sutch, K E; Blackburn, B O

    1980-01-01

    Three new Salmonella serotypes belonging to Kauffmann's subgenus I (F. Kauffmann, The Bacteriology of Enterobacteriaceae, 1966) were identified. These serotypes were Salmonella brazos 6,14,18:a:e,n,z15, Salmonella midway 6,14,24:d:1,7, and Salmonella balboa 48a, 48b:z41:monophasic.

  10. Specific proteolysis of native alanine racemases from Salmonella typhimurium: identification of the cleavage site and characterization of the clipped two-domain proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Native DadB and Alr alanine racemases (M/sub r/ 39,000) from Salmonella typhimurium are proteolyzed at homologous positions by ?-chymotrypsin, trypsin, and subtilisin to generate in all cases two nonoverlapping polypeptides of M/sub r/ 28,000 and 11,000. Under nondenaturing conditions, chymotryptic digest results in an associated form of the two fragments which possesses 3% of the original catalytic activity, incorporates 0.76 equiv of the mechanism-based inactivator ?-chloro-[14C]-D-alanine, and exhibits a UV circular dichroism profile identical with that of native enzyme. Protein sequence analysis of the denatured chymotryptic fragments indicates the presence of a tetrapeptide interdomain hinge (DadB, residues 254-257; Alr, residues 256-259) that is attacked at both ends during proteolysis. Under the previously employed digest conditions, NaB3H4-reduced DadB holoenzyme is resistant to ?-chymotrypsin and trypsin and is labile only toward subtilisin. These data suggest that the hinge structure is essential for a catalytically efficient enzyme species and is sensitive to active site geometry. The sequence at the hinge region is also conserved in alanine racemases from Gram-positive bacteria

  11. Study on the incidence of Salmonella enteritidis in Poultry and meat Samples by Cultural and PCR Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putturu Ramya

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the incidence of S.enteritidis in poultry and meat samples by cultural and PCR methods. Materials and Methods: A total of 130 samples (25 each of chicken, mutton, poultry faeces, cloacal samples and 10 each of liver, spleen and kidney collected from different sources were subjected to cultural and PCR methods for the presence of Salmonella and Salmonella enteritidis. Primers for invA and sefA gene were used for Salmonella and S.enteritidis respectively. Results: Out of 130 samples, 87 were positive for Salmonella spp. i.e. chicken-16(64%, mutton-12(48%, faeces-23(92%, cloacal swabs-23(92%, liver-5(50%, spleen and kidney samples-4(40% each by PCR methods, whereas 77 were positive by cultural method i.e. chicken-14(56%, mutton-10(40%, faeces-22(88%, cloacal swabs-21(84%, liver-4(40%, spleen and kidney-3(30% each. Out of 87 positive for Salmonella by PCR method, 59(chicken-12, mutton-7, faeces-17, cloacal swabs-15, liver-3, spleen-2, kidney-3 were positive for S.enteritidis. High incidence of S.enteritidis (68% in all the above samples are indicative of unhygienic conditions in poultry farms. Selective enrichment with Rappaport-Vassilidias (RV broths and Tetrathionate (TT broths were superior over Selenite-F (SF and Selenite cysteine (SC broths. Conclusions: High incidence of S.enteritidis was seen in most of poultry samples like chicken, kidney, liver and it's faeces than mutton, which was indicative of contamination of S.enteritidis is more prevalent in poultry farms. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 541-545

  12. Evaluation of an indirect ELISA for the detection of Salmonella in chicken meat Avaliação de um ELISA indireto para detecção de Salmonella em carne de frango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa dos Santos Schneid

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an indirect ELISA based on a monoclonal antibody (MAb specific for an outer membrane protein of Salmonellaenterica serovar Enteritidis was used for detection of Salmonella in 154 samples of chicken meat. Its efficiency was determined through comparison with the results obtained from the conventional method. The prevalence of samples contaminated with Salmonella was 23% with the conventional culture method, and 26% with the ELISA. From thirty-five samples positive for Salmonella by the conventional method, 33 were also positive by ELISA. Seven other samples were only positive in the ELISA. Comparison of the results obtained in the two methods showed an ELISA sensitivity and specificity of 94%, and positive and negative predictive values of 82% and 98% respectively. The serotyping of the isolates revealed 31 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, 2 Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg, 1 Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis and 1 Salmonella enterica sorovar 6,7:-:-.Neste trabalho, um ELISA indireto baseado em um anticorpo monoclonal (MAb especifico para proteína de membrane externa de Salmonellaenterica serovar Enteritidis foi usado para detecção de Salmonella em 154 amostras de carne de frango. Sua eficiência foi determinada através de comparação com os resultados obtidos pela metodologia convencional. A prevalência de amostras contaminadas com Salmonella foi de 23% pelo método de cultivo convencional, e 26% pelo ELISA. De 35 amostras positivas para Salmonella pela metodologia convencional, 32 também foram positivas no ELISA. Outras sete amostras foram positivas somente no ELISA. Comparando os resultados obtidos nos dois métodos, o ELISA demonstrou sensibilidade e especificidade de 94%, e valor preditivo positivo e negativo de 82% e 98% respectivamente. A sorotipagem dos isolados revelou 31 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, 2 Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg, 1 Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis e 1 Salmonella enterica sorovar 6,7:-:-.

  13. Evaluation of an indirect ELISA for the detection of Salmonella in chicken meat / Avaliação de um ELISA indireto para detecção de Salmonella em carne de frango

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andréa dos Santos, Schneid; Kelly Lameiro, Rodrigues; Davi, Chemello; Eduardo Cesar, Tondo; Marco Antônio Zacchia, Ayub; José Antonio Guimarães, Aleixo.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, um ELISA indireto baseado em um anticorpo monoclonal (MAb) especifico para proteína de membrane externa de Salmonellaenterica serovar Enteritidis foi usado para detecção de Salmonella em 154 amostras de carne de frango. Sua eficiência foi determinada através de comparação com os resu [...] ltados obtidos pela metodologia convencional. A prevalência de amostras contaminadas com Salmonella foi de 23% pelo método de cultivo convencional, e 26% pelo ELISA. De 35 amostras positivas para Salmonella pela metodologia convencional, 32 também foram positivas no ELISA. Outras sete amostras foram positivas somente no ELISA. Comparando os resultados obtidos nos dois métodos, o ELISA demonstrou sensibilidade e especificidade de 94%, e valor preditivo positivo e negativo de 82% e 98% respectivamente. A sorotipagem dos isolados revelou 31 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, 2 Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg, 1 Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis e 1 Salmonella enterica sorovar 6,7:-:-. Abstract in english In this work, an indirect ELISA based on a monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific for an outer membrane protein of Salmonellaenterica serovar Enteritidis was used for detection of Salmonella in 154 samples of chicken meat. Its efficiency was determined through comparison with the results obtained from t [...] he conventional method. The prevalence of samples contaminated with Salmonella was 23% with the conventional culture method, and 26% with the ELISA. From thirty-five samples positive for Salmonella by the conventional method, 33 were also positive by ELISA. Seven other samples were only positive in the ELISA. Comparison of the results obtained in the two methods showed an ELISA sensitivity and specificity of 94%, and positive and negative predictive values of 82% and 98% respectively. The serotyping of the isolates revealed 31 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, 2 Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg, 1 Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis and 1 Salmonella enterica sorovar 6,7:-:-.

  14. Meta-analysis of Chicken – Salmonella infection experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    te Pas Marinus FW

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken meat and eggs can be a source of human zoonotic pathogens, especially Salmonella species. These food items contain a potential hazard for humans. Chickens lines differ in susceptibility for Salmonella and can harbor Salmonella pathogens without showing clinical signs of illness. Many investigations including genomic studies have examined the mechanisms how chickens react to infection. Apart from the innate immune response, many physiological mechanisms and pathways are reported to be involved in the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of diverse experiments to identify general and host specific mechanisms to the Salmonella challenge. Results Diverse chicken lines differing in susceptibility to Salmonella infection were challenged with different Salmonella serovars at several time points. Various tissues were sampled at different time points post-infection, and resulting host transcriptional differences investigated using different microarray platforms. The meta-analysis was performed with the R-package metaMA to create lists of differentially regulated genes. These gene lists showed many similarities for different chicken breeds and tissues, and also for different Salmonella serovars measured at different times post infection. Functional biological analysis of these differentially expressed gene lists revealed several common mechanisms for the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The meta-analysis-specific genes (i.e. genes found differentially expressed only in the meta-analysis confirmed and expanded the biological functional mechanisms. Conclusions The meta-analysis combination of heterogeneous expression profiling data provided useful insights into the common metabolic pathways and functions of different chicken lines infected with different Salmonella serovars.

  15. MÉTODOS DE EXTRAÇÃO DE DNA PARA A DETECÇÃO DE Salmonella EM OVOS DE GALINHAS, COM E SEM CASCA, ATRAVÉS DA REAÇÃO EM CADEIA PELA POLIMERASE / DNA EXTRACTION METHODS FOR Salmonella DETECTION IN CHICKEN EGGS, INSHELL AND OUTSHELL, BY POLIMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maristela Lovato, Flôres; Vladimir Pinheiro do, Nascimento; Ivonyr Irene Troglio Abdel, Kader; Luciana Ruschel dos, Santos; Alexandre Pontes, Pontes; Carlos Tadeu Pippi, Salle; Rui Fernando Felix, Lopes.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico microbiológico de Salmonella sp em amostras de alimentos é demorado, com cinco diferentes etapas, levando cerca de 120 horas até o resultado final. A utilização da técnica da Reação em Cadeia pela Polimerase (PCR) pode diminuir esse período, porém sofre influência de substâncias presen [...] tes na amostra que afetam a reação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar dois métodos de extração de DNA, a extração por tratamento térmico e a pelo fenol-clorofórmio, em amostras de 100 ovos de galinhas domésticas artificialmente contaminados com uma cepa de Salmonella enterica sorovar typhimurium em fase estacionária. O material obtido com as extrações foi submetido à PCR, utilizando-se um par de iniciadores que amplificam um fragmento de 284pb do gene InvA de Salmonella sp. Comparando os métodos de extração, observou-se uma diferença na capacidade de detecção de 12% a favor do método do fenol-clorofórmio, quando a extração foi realizada a partir do ovo com casca. No momento em que a mesma metodologia foi usada apenas com a parte interna dos ovos, essa diferença subiu para 26% o que foi significativo (P Abstract in english The Salmonella sp detection in feed samples is time consuming, it has five stages and requires 120 hours for final results. The use of polimerase chain reaction technique can reduce this time considerably, however it can be affected by substances from the sample. This study had the objective of comp [...] aring two methods of DNA extraction, by heating process and by phenol-chloroform in samples of 100 chicken eggs experimentally infected with a sample of Salmonella enterica sorovar typhimurium in stationary phase. After the two extraction methods a PCR was done using a pair of oligonucleotides that amplifies a fragment of 284pb in the InvA gene de Salmonella sp. Comparing the extraction methods it was noted a difference of 12% favorably to the phenol-chloroform method when the extraction was done from eggs with shell. The same method using just the egg internal part resulted in a difference of 26% with high significance (P

  16. Development of Recombinant Flagellar Antigens for Serological Detection of Salmonella enterica Serotypes Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, and Typhimurium in Poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Hofacre, Charles L.; Holt, Peter S.; Lee, Margie D; Susan Sanchez; Joseph Minicozzi; John J. Maurer

    2013-01-01

    Accurate and fast detection of harmful Salmonella is a major concern of food safety. Common Salmonella serotypes responsible for human associated foodborne outbreaks are S. Enteritidis, S. Hadar, S. Heidelberg, and S. Typhimurium are also commonly isolated from poultry. Serology is commonly used to monitor disease in poultry, therefore application of Salmonella serotype-specific test will have added value in Salmonella surveillance or monitoring vaccine efficacy. Recombinant flagellins were p...

  17. Reptiles, Amphibians, and Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are still found in some pet stores, flea markets, with street vendors, or sold over the Internet. ... t Kiss a Frog! [PODCAST - 3:50 minutes] Digital Press Kit: Multistate Outbreaks of Human Salmonella Infections ...

  18. SALMONELLA SEROTYPES FROM ANIMALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: This session will provide insight into foodborne transmission and direct transmission of salmonella from a variety of sources to humans. An understanding of the various modes of transmission will enable a more effective intervention strategy to be developed....

  19. Excreción fecal de Salmonella Albany, su aislamiento en la ración alimenticia y repercusión en el estado de salud de un ocelote (Leopardus pardalis) en cautiverio / Fecal excretion of Salmonella Albany, its isolation in the diet and health repercussion on an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in captivity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriela, Silva-Hidalgo; Héctor Samuel, López-Moreno; Vianney F., Ortiz-Navarrete; Felipe, Juárez-Barranco; Martín, López-Valenzuela.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los serotipos de Salmonella especie enterica son los responsables del 99% de las salmonelosis en humanos y animales, en particular, Salmonella enterica serovariedad Albany se ha identificado en canales de pollo, por lo que representa un riesgo para la salud humana y animal. Se aisló Salmonella enter [...] ica serovariedad Albany a partir de heces de un ocelote macho (Leopardus pardalis), cautivo en el zoológico de Culiacán, Sinaloa, México, y de pollo crudo (alimento del felino). El patrón por electroforesis en campo pulsado (PFGE) con la enzima Xba I fue idéntico en ambos aislados, lo que indica que la fuente de infección fue el pollo crudo. Cinco meses después de haber aislado las bacterias de las heces, se realizó estudio post mortem del felino anteriormente mencionado, y se observó macroscópicamente: enterocolitis hemorrágica severa y fibrosis renal; y microscópicamente: necrosis de vellosidades y de criptas e infiltrado mononuclear linfocitario severo en íleon, además nefritis intersticial severa multifocal y fibrosis en riñón. A partir de muestras intestinales se amplificó el gen invA que confirma la infección por Salmonella. Los diagnósticos microbiológico, molecular e histopatológico sugieren que la muerte del felino se debió a la infección causada por la ingesta de pollo crudo contaminado con Salmonella enterica serovariedad Albany. Este caso clínico confirma la importancia que tienen los animales que excretan Salmonella vía fecal y describe la relación epidemiológica-molecular de los aislamientos obtenidos de heces y alimento, lo que permitió esclarecer la fuente primaria de infección. Abstract in english Salmonella enterica serotypes are 99% responsible for salmonellosis in human and animals, especially Salmonella enterica serovar Albany that has been identified in chicken carcass representing a risk for human and animal health. Salmonella enterica serovar Albany was isolated from the feces of a mal [...] e ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), at the zoo in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico, and from raw chicken (feline's diet). The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern (PFGE) generated by Xba I enzyme was identical in both isolates, indicating that the source of infection was the raw chicken. Five months after having isolated the bacteria from the feces, a post mortem study was carried out on the feline. Macroscopically, severe hemorrhagic enterocolitis and renal fibrosis was observed and microscopically, there was evidence of severe mononuclear lymphocytic infiltration in the ileum, as well as necrosis of intestinal villi and crypts, besides severe multifocal interstitial nephritis and fibrosis in both kidneys. The invA gene was amplified from intestinal samples confirming an infection by Salmonella. The microbiologic, molecular and histopathology diagnoses suggest that death of the feline was caused by ingestion of raw chicken contaminated with Salmonella enterica serovar Albany. This clinical case highlights the importance of persistent fecal Salmonella shedding animals and describes the molecular epidemiological relationships of isolates from feces and food, which allowed to find the primary source of infection.

  20. Screening of poultry samples for Salmonella Typhimurium by PCR assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Anumolu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Poultry samples viz., cloacal swabs, egg swabs, poultry faeces and feed were screened for Salmonella Typhimurium. A set of primers derived from fli C gene were employed to standardize PCR for detection of Salmonella Typhimurium from poultry samples, which gave specific amplification of a 620 bp fragment. Boiling and snap chilling method used for template preparation. Screening of 112 samples revealed that 12 samples positive for Salmonella Typhimurium by PCR assay. [Vet. World 2012; 5(3.000: 169-172

  1. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on a review on the European Union Summary reports on trends and sources zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2009 and 2010 – specifically for the data on Salmonella, Campylobacter, verotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and foodborne outbreaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    2012-01-01

    The European Union (EU) Summary Reports on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2009 and 2010 – specifically for the data on Salmonella, Campylobacter, verotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and foodborne outbreaks was reviewed. The main conclusions and recommendations are reported. Comparison between EU Member States (MSs) was found to be difficult due to the differences of the methods used, sampling schemes and reporting systems. Methods, ...

  2. Improvement of bacterial clearance and relief of clinical signs of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in pigs through upregulation of Th 1-specific responses by administration of a combination of two silicate minerals, biotite and bentonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-A; Jung, Bock-Gie; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Yun-Mi; Koh, Hong-Bum; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2015-10-01

    Biotite and bentonite are phyllosilicate minerals that were originally used in industrial applications. Several beneficial activities of them have recently been reported, especially regulation of the immune system and antimicrobial effects. Therefore, we investigated the immune-enhancing and bacterial clearance effects of a biotite and bentonite mixture (BBM) on experimental infection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) to determine whether the BBM could be used as an alternative antibiotic. We administered 1% or 2% BBM as a feed supplement. We then evaluated the bacterial clearance effects of the BBM against S. Typhimurium. We also evaluated the immune-enhancing effect of the BBM through several immunological experiments that included examination of the lysozyme activity, CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio and the T-helper type 1 (Th 1) cytokine profile. The clinical signs of S. Typhimurium and the number of viable bacteria in feces and tissues were significantly decreased in both BBM groups, especially in the 2% BBM group. The BBM also markedly enhanced the lysozyme activity, CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio and expression levels of IFN-? and IL-12 in S. Typhimurium-challenged pigs. Therefore, the BBM could be a good candidate as an alternative antibiotic that improves Th 1-specific immune responses and the bacterial clearance effect. PMID:25947887

  3. Phagocyte Roulette in Salmonella Killing

    OpenAIRE

    Fenlon, Luke A.; Slauch, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella propagate in macrophages to cause life-threatening infections, but the role of neutrophils in combating Salmonella has been controversial. In this issue, Burton et al. (2013) use single cell analyses and modeling to explain the ability of Salmonella to survive in macrophages, while being killed by neutrophils.

  4. Detection of virulence-associated genes in Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from chicken in South of Brazil / Detecção de genes associados à virulência em cepas de Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de frangos na região sul do Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karen A., Borges; Thales Q., Furian; Anderlise, Borsoi; Hamilton L.S., Moraes; Carlos T.P., Salle; Vladimir P., Nascimento.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. estão entre os principais agentes causadores de doenças transmitidas por alimentos, e o sorovar Salmonella Enteritidis é o mais frequentemente isolado no mundo. A virulência de Salmonella spp. e a sua interação com o hospedeiro são processos complexos que envolvem fatores de virulênc [...] ia para sobreviver às defesas do hospedeiro. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar genes de virulência em cepas de S. Enteritidis isoladas a partir de fontes avícolas no sul do Brasil. Ensaios de PCR foram desenvolvidos para a detecção de nove genes (lpfA, agfA, sefA, invA, hilA, avrA, sopE, sivH e spvC) associados à virulência em oitenta e quatro amostras de S. Enteritidis. Os genes invA, hilA, sivH, sefA e avrA estavam presentes em 100% dos isolados; lpfA e sopE estavam presentes em 99%; agfA em 96%; e o gene spvC estava presente em 92%. Foi possível caracterizar os isolados em quatro perfis genéticos distintos (P1, P2, P3 e P4), sendo P1 positivo para todos os genes; P2 negativo apenas para spvC; P3 negativo para agfA e P4 negativo para lpfA, spvC e sopE. O perfil de maior frequência foi P1, presente em 88% dos isolados. Apesar de todos os isolados pertencerem ao mesmo sorovar, foi possível observar variações na presença de genes associados à virulência entre os mesmos. A caracterização dos mecanismos de virulência circulantes na população de Salmonella Enteritidis é importante para um maior entendimento da sua biologia e patogenicidade. A frequência destes genes e o estabelecimento de perfis genéticos podem ser utilizados para determinar os padrões de virulência dos isolados. Estes padrões, associados a estudos in vivo, podem auxiliar na elaboração de ferramentas que permitam predizer a capacidade de virulência das diferentes cepas. Abstract in english Salmonella spp. are considered the main agents of foodborne disease and Salmonella Enteritidis is one of the most frequently isolated serovars worldwide. The virulence of Salmonella spp. and their interaction with the host are complex processes involving virulence factors to overcome host defenses. [...] The purpose of this study was to detect virulence genes in S. Enteritidis isolates from poultry in the South of Brazil. PCR-based assays were developed in order to detect nine genes (lpfA, agfA, sefA, invA, hilA, avrA, sopE, sivH and spvC) associated with the virulence in eighty-four isolates of S. Enteritidis isolated from poultry. The invA, hilA, sivH, sefA and avrA genes were present in 100% of the isolates; lpfA and sopE were present in 99%; agfA was present in 96%; and the spvC gene was present in 92%. It was possible to characterize the isolates with four different genetic profiles (P1, P2, P3 and P4), as it follows: P1, positive for all genes; P2, negative only for spvC; P3, negative for agfA; and P4, negative for lpfA, spvC and sopE. The most prevalent profile was P1, which was present in 88% of the isolates. Although all isolates belong to the same serovar, it was possible to observe variations in the presence of these virulence-associated genes between different isolates. The characterization of the mechanisms of virulence circulating in the population of Salmonella Enteritidis is important for a better understanding of its biology and pathogenicity. The frequency of these genes and the establishment of genetic profiles can be used to determine patterns of virulence. These patterns, associated with in vivo studies, may help develop tools to predict the ability of virulence of different strains.

  5. Salmonella Enteritidis bacteriophage candidates for phage therapy of poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Sillankorva, Sanna; Pleteneva, E. A.; Shaburova, O. V.; Santos, Sílvio; Carvalho, Carla A. O. C. M.; Azeredo, Joana; Krylov, V N

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Salmonella is a worldwide foodborne pathogen causing acute enteric infections in humans. In the recent years, the use of bacteriophages has been suggested as a possible tool to combat this zoonotic pathogen in poultry farms. This work aims to isolate and perform comparative studies of a group of phages active against a collection of specific Salmonella Enteritidis strains from Portugal and England. Also, suitable phage candidates for therapy of poultry will be selected. Methods an...

  6. Detection of Salmonella spp, Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium in naturally infected broiler chickens by a multiplex PCR-based assay

    OpenAIRE

    Paião, F.G.; L.G.A. Arisitides; L.S. Murate; G.T. Vilas-Bôas; Vilas-Boas, L.A.; Shimokomaki, M.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella in the intestinal tract, on the chickens skin and among their feathers, may cause carcasses contamination during slaughtering and processing and possibly it is responsible by the introduction of this microorganism in the slaughterhouses. A rapid method to identify and monitor Salmonella and their sorovars in farm is becoming necessary. A pre-enriched multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) assay employing specific primers was developed and used to detect Salmone...

  7. PCR Method To Identify Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, and Paratyphi B among Salmonella Isolates from the Blood of Patients with Clinical Enteric Fever?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Haim; Diallo, Souleymane; Tennant, Sharon M.; Livio, Sofie; Sow, Samba O.; Tapia, Milagritos; Fields, Patricia I.; Mikoleit, Matthew; Tamboura, Boubou; Kotloff, Karen L.; Lagos, Rosanna; Nataro, James P.; Galen, James E.; Levine, Myron M.

    2008-01-01

    PCR methodology was developed to identify Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, and Paratyphi B. One multiplex PCR identifies serogroup D, A, and B and Vi-positive strains; another confirms flagellar antigen “d,” “a,” or “b.” Blinded testing of 664 Malian and Chilean Salmonella blood isolates demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity. PMID:18367574

  8. Identification of Novel Factors Involved in Modulating Motility of Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium

    OpenAIRE

    Bogomolnaya, Lydia M.; Aldrich, Lindsay; Ragoza, Yuri; Talamantes, Marissa; Andrews, Katharine D.; McClelland, Michael; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene L.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium can move through liquid using swimming motility, and across a surface by swarming motility. We generated a library of targeted deletion mutants in Salmonella Typhimurium strain ATCC14028, primarily in genes specific to Salmonella, that we have previously described. In the work presented here, we screened each individual mutant from this library for the ability to move away from the site of inoculation on swimming and swarming motility agar. Mutants in ...

  9. Identification of Genes Associated with Survival of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis in Chicken Egg Albumen

    OpenAIRE

    Clavijo, Raul I.; Loui, Cindy; Andersen, Gary L.; Riley, Lee W.; Lu, Sangwei

    2006-01-01

    Salmonella enterica consists of over 2,000 serovars that are major causes of morbidity and mortality associated with contaminated food. Despite similarities among serovars of Salmonella enterica, many demonstrate unique host specificities, epidemiological characteristics, and clinical manifestations. One of the unique epidemiological characteristics of the serovar Enteritidis is that it is the only bacterium routinely transmitted to humans through intact chicken eggs. Therefore, Salmonella en...

  10. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis reports investigations using gamma-radiation to decontaminate poultry carcasses. The application to foods of doses of ionizing radiation sufficient to reduce the number of viable specific non-sporeforming pathogenic microorganisms so that none is detectable in the treated food by any standard method is termed radicidation. The doses used in this study were at such a level that no undesirable or unfavourable side-effects occurred. The effects of these doses were studied on salmonellae and other microorganisms present in, or associated with poultry carcasses and in liquid and on solid culture media as well. Decimal reduction (D10) values were estimated. These represent the dose (kGy) required to achieve a reduction in initial colony count from N0 to 0.1 N0. Together with the estimation of the numbers of Salmonella present per carcass the data were used to predict the effect of an ionizing radiation treatment of poultry. Data on the effect of ionizing radiation on the total microflora of poultry carcasses were also collected. (Auth.)

  11. Mutations in Flk, FlgG, FlhA, and FlhE That Affect the Flagellar Type III Secretion Specificity Switch in Salmonella enterica?

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Takanori; Mizuno, Shino; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi; Hughes, Kelly T.

    2009-01-01

    Upon completion of the flagellar hook-basal body (HBB) structure, the flagellar type III secretion system switches from secreting rod/hook-type to filament-type substrates. The secretion specificity switch has been reported to occur prematurely (prior to HBB completion) in flk-null mutants (P. Aldridge, J. E. Karlinsey, E. Becker, F. F. Chevance, and K. T. Hughes, Mol. Microbiol. 60:630-643, 2006) and in distal rod gene gain-of-function mutants (flgG* mutants) that produce filamentous rod str...

  12. Application of bioinformatics on the detection of pathogens by Pcr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmonellas are the main responsible agent for the frequent food-borne gastrointestinal diseases. Their detection using classical methods are laborious and their results take a lot of time to be revealed. In this context, we tried to set up a revealing technique of the invA virulence gene, found in the majority of Salmonella species. After amplification with PCR using specific primers created and verified by bioinformatics programs, two couples of primers were set up and they appeared to be very specific and sensitive for the detection of invA gene. (Author)

  13. Salmonella enterica: survival, colonization, and virulence differences among serovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andino, A; Hanning, I

    2015-01-01

    Data indicate that prevalence of specific serovars of Salmonella enterica in human foodborne illness is not correlated with their prevalence in feed. Given that feed is a suboptimal environment for S. enterica, it appears that survival in poultry feed may be an independent factor unrelated to virulence of specific serovars of Salmonella. Additionally, S. enterica serovars appear to have different host specificity and the ability to cause disease in those hosts is also serovar dependent. These differences among the serovars may be related to gene presence or absence and expression levels of those genes. With a better understanding of serovar specificity, mitigation methods can be implemented to control Salmonella at preharvest and postharvest levels. PMID:25664339

  14. Thermal inactivation of eight Salmonella serotypes on dry corn flour.

    OpenAIRE

    Vancauwenberge, J E; Bothast, R J; Kwolek, W F

    1981-01-01

    Dry heat was used to inactivate Salmonella newington, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella anatum, Salmonella kentucky, Salmonella cubana, Salmonella seftenberg, Salmonella thompson, and Salmonella tennessee in corn flour at 10 and 15% moisture. The flour was spray inoculated at 10(5) Salmonella cells per g and then stored at 49 degrees C (120 degrees F); viable Salmonella cells were counted on Trypticase (BBL Microbiology Systems) soy agar plates every 30 min for the first 4 h and then at 4-h ...

  15. Salmonella – A Brief Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurmi Esko

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Salmonellosis is the main cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in most European countries. Infections with Salmonella is usually subclinical, whereas clinical cases show symptoms with a wide range of severity. Infection is most commonly associated with the consumption of meat, especially poultry or pork, and eggs and their products. Salmonella can enter the food chain at any point throughout its length. The principal reservoir of Salmonellae is the gastrointestinal tract of mammals and birds, but Salmonellae are able to survive and even multiply in many external environments. In Norway, Sweden and Finland cost effective prevention methods have been used for several years to prevent and control Salmonellea infections. In addition, competitive exclusion (CE and vaccination might be relevant as biological methods to prevent colonisation of bird intestines by enteropathogens, especially Salmonella. Antibiotic drug resistance has been a problem since the start of the antibiotic era. The cause for anxiety is that more and more bacteria are becoming resistant, often to a whole range of antibiotics. The debate on the use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine and animal production dates back almost as long as the use itself. There is a clear evidence to show that antibacterial agents given to animals for growth promotion, prophylactic purposes or treatment induce a rise in the number of antibiotic resistant strains isolated from the animals. These bacteria may be transmitted to humans by several possible routes. There are thus strong arguments for preventive efforts which have to be directed towards identifying real critical control points (HACCP throughout the whole food chain, which starts from the farm and ends at the consumer's table.

  16. Molecular Characterisation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Isolated from Typhoidial Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunava Das

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is the major causative agent for typhoidial fever around the globe among human population reported till date. Present research work was carried out for detection and molecular characterisation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolated from humans with Typhoidial fever by biochemical, phenotypical and virulence gene based polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. The isolated strains were also investigated for antibiotic susceptibility patterns as a control measure. Methodology and Results: A total of 16 clinical samples were collected from the same numbers of patients (7 males and 9 females from Coimbatore, Erode and Salem districts of Tamil Nadu and were processed via broth enrichment methods for isolation and identification of the causative agent S. enterica serovar Typhi. Microbiological and biochemical investigations revealed the presence of S. Typhi from 16 samples. The biotyping of the isolates showed that all the isolates belonged to biotype IV. The PCR analysis confirmed the presence of invA (Invasion gene, 244bp, tyv (Tyveloseepimerase gene, 615 bp, fliC-d (Phage-1 flagellin gene for d-antigen, 750 bp and viaB (Vi antigen gene, 439bp in all 16 clinical samples. The antibiotic susceptibility test that was carried out among the isolates against 12 antimicrobial agents, showed 100 % resistance to only ampicillin and 100 % sensitivity to carbenicillin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, gentamycin, kanamycin and tetracycline.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This study confirmed the association of virulent strains of S. enterica serovar Typhi from Typhoidial fever among human population and suggested that PCR based diagnostic could be very useful for the rapid detection of S. Typhi isolates. Present study emphasized the use of antibiotic like chloramphenicol or in combination with other antibiotics for the effective control of S. Typhi.

  17. Bacteriophage cocktail for biocontrol of Salmonella in dried pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyse, Serena; Hanna, Leigh Farris; Woolston, Joelle; Sulakvelidze, Alexander; Charbonneau, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Human salmonellosis has been associated with contaminated pet foods and treats. Therefore, there is interest in identifying novel approaches for reducing the risk of Salmonella contamination within pet food manufacturing environments. The use of lytic bacteriophages shows promise as a safe and effective way to mitigate Salmonella contamination in various food products. Bacteriophages are safe, natural, highly targeted antibacterial agents that specifically kill bacteria and can be targeted to kill food pathogens without affecting other microbiota. In this study, we show that a cocktail containing six bacteriophages had a broadspectrum activity in vitro against a library of 930 Salmonella enterica strains representing 44 known serovars. The cocktail was effective against 95% of the strains in this tested library. In liquid culture dose-ranging experiments, bacteriophage cocktail concentrations of ?10(8) PFU/ml inactivated more than 90% of the Salmonella population (10(1) to 10(3) CFU/ml). Dried pet food inoculated with a mixture containing equal proportions of Salmonella serovars Enteritidis (ATCC 4931), Montevideo (ATCC 8387), Senftenberg (ATCC 8400), and Typhimurium (ATCC 13311) and then surface treated with the six-bacteriophage cocktail (?2.5 ± 1.5 × 10(6) PFU/g) achieved a greater than 1-log (P dog food that tested positive for Salmonella. Our results indicate that bacteriophage biocontrol of S. enterica in dried pet food is technically feasible. PMID:25581183

  18. Immunomagnetic nanoparticle based quantitative PCR for rapid detection of Salmonella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a rapid and sensitive method for immunomagnetic separation (IMS) of Salmonella along with their real time detection via PCR. Silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles were functionalized with carboxy groups to which anti-Salmonella antibody raised against heat-inactivated whole cells of Salmonella were covalently attached. The immuno-captured target cells were detected in beverages like milk and lemon juice by multiplex PCR and real time PCR with a detection limit of 104 cfu.mL?1 and 103 cfu.mL?1, respectively. We demonstrate that IMS can be used for selective concentration of target bacteria from beverages for subsequent use in PCR detection. PCR also enables differentiation of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A using a set of four specific primers. In addition, IMS—PCR can be used as a screening tool in the food and beverage industry for the detection of Salmonella within 3–4 h which compares favorably to the time of several days that is needed in case of conventional detection based on culture and biochemical methods. (author)

  19. Evanescent Wave Fiber Optic Biosensor for Salmonella Detection in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K. Bhunia

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica is a major food-borne pathogen of world-wide concern. Sensitive and rapid detection methods to assess product safety before retail distribution are highly desirable. Since Salmonella is most commonly associated with poultry products, an evanescent wave fiber-optic assay was developed to detect Salmonella in shell egg and chicken breast and data were compared with a time-resolved fluorescence (TRF assay. Anti-Salmonella polyclonal antibody was immobilized onto the surface of an optical fiber using biotin-avidin interactions to capture Salmonella. Alexa Fluor 647-conjugated antibody (MAb 2F-11 was used as the reporter. Detection occurred when an evanescent wave from a laser (635 nm excited the Alexa Fluor and the fluorescence was measured by a laser-spectrofluorometer at 710 nm. The biosensor was specific for Salmonella and the limit of detection was established to be 103 cfu/mL in pure culture and 104 cfu/mL with egg and chicken breast samples when spiked with 102 cfu/mL after 2–6 h of enrichment. The results indicate that the performance of the fiber-optic sensor is comparable to TRF, and can be completed in less than 8 h, providing an alternative to the current detection methods.

  20. Antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella spp.: a comparison of two surveys with a 5 years interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Mijovi?

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella infections are one of the major global public health problems. During the last decade, antibiotic resistance and multiresistance of Salmonella spp. have increased a great deal, especially in developing countries with an increased and indiscriminate use of antibiotics in the treatment of humans and animals. This study aims to investigate and compare antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella during 2005 and 2010.A total of 186 Salmonella strain during 2005 and 140 Salmonella strain during 2010 were isolated from stool specimens using standard methods. The isolates were confirmed as Salmonella by using a battery of biochemical reactions. Specific antisera were used for serologic characterization of Salmonella strain. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by standard disk diffusion method using ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxasole, ceftriaxon, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin.One hundred eighty (96.8% of 186 isolated Salmonella strains in 2005, and 133 (95% of 140 isolated Salmonella strain in 2010 are recognized as Salmonella Enteritidis. Sensitivity of Salmonella isolates during 2005 and 2010 were 91.9% and 92.9% to ampicillin, 95.7% and 97.1% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxasole, 99.5% and 100% to chloramphenicol, 99.5% and 100% to ciprofloxacin, 98.9% and 97.1% to ceftriaxon, 73.1% and 95.7% to nalidixic acid, respectively.Sensitivity of Salmonella isolates to all tested antimicrobial agents except to ceftriaxon was been slightly improved over testing period. Resistance rate to ceftriaxon was higher in 2010 than in 2005, and this fact deserves attention. Significantly increase susceptibility rate to nalidixic acid was observed between the two surveys

  1. Detección de Salmonella spp y Listeria monocytogenes en quesos frescos y semimadurados que se expenden en vía pública en la ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia D. Alcázar Montañez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la inocuidad bacteriológica de los quesos frescos y semimadurados que se venden en algunos ?mercados sobre ruedas? en la ciudad de México, se realizó la detección simultánea de Salmonella spp y de Listeria monocytogenes, mediante la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR, así como con los métodos bacteriológicos convencionales, según la normatividad correspondiente para cada microorganismo; es decir, la NOM-114-SSA1-1994 mexicana, que constituye un método para la determinación de Salmonella en alimentos; de igual manera la NOM-143-SSA1-1995 mexicana, que representa un método de prueba microbiológica para alimentos y determinación de L. monocytogenes. Se analizaron 120 muestras seleccionadas al azar, provenientes de cuatro ?mercados sobre ruedas? de una zona del sur de la ciudad de México. La metodología propuesta para la PCR múltiple se basó en la amplifi cación simultánea de los genes InvA e Iap procedentes de los genomas de Salmonella spp y de L. monocytogenes, respectivamente; de igual forma, la metodología para la extracción de ADN bacteriano a partir de las muestras se desarrolló con el fi n de eliminar o disminuir la posible interferencia de inhibidores propios del alimento mediante centrifugación previa de las muestras y se comprobó que la amplifi cación de ambos resultó positiva, aun cuando los patógenos se encuentren presentes en las muestras a una concentración de por lo menos 30 UFC/g. Del total de muestras analizadas con la técnica de PCR, sólo tres resultaron positivas a la presencia de Salmonella spp, en ninguna estuvo presente L. monocytogenes, en contraste con los resultados de los métodos bacteriológicos, por medio de los cuales no se obtuvo ningún resultado positivo.

  2. MyD88 signaling is not essential for induction of antigen-specific B cell responses but is indispensable for protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection following oral vaccination with attenuated Salmonella expressing PspA antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sung-Moo; Ko, Hyun-Jung; Shim, Doo-Hee; Yang, Jin-Young; Park, Yong-Ho; Curtiss, Roy; Kweon, Mi-Na

    2008-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) directly induce innate host defense responses, but the mechanisms of TLR-mediated adaptive immunity remain subject to debate. In this study, we clarified a role of TLR-mediated innate immunity for induction of adaptive immunity by oral vaccination with a live recombinant attenuated Salmonella enteric serovar typhimurium vaccine (RASV) strain expressing Streptococcus pneumoniae surface protein A (PspA) antigen. Of note, oral or intranasal vaccination with RASV expres...

  3. Regulatory principles governing Salmonella and Yersinia virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Marc; Dersch, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Enteric pathogens such as Salmonella and Yersinia evolved numerous strategies to survive and proliferate in different environmental reservoirs and mammalian hosts. Deciphering common and pathogen-specific principles for how these bacteria adjust and coordinate spatiotemporal expression of virulence determinants, stress adaptation, and metabolic functions is fundamental to understand microbial pathogenesis. In order to manage sudden environmental changes, attacks by the host immune systems and microbial competition, the pathogens employ a plethora of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control elements, including transcription factors, sensory and regulatory RNAs, RNAses, and proteases, to fine-tune and control complex gene regulatory networks. Many of the contributing global regulators and the molecular mechanisms of regulation are frequently conserved between Yersinia and Salmonella. However, the interplay, arrangement, and composition of the control elements vary between these closely related enteric pathogens, which generate phenotypic differences leading to distinct pathogenic properties. In this overview we present common and different regulatory networks used by Salmonella and Yersinia to coordinate the expression of crucial motility, cell adhesion and invasion determinants, immune defense strategies, and metabolic adaptation processes. We highlight evolutionary changes of the gene regulatory circuits that result in different properties of the regulatory elements and how this influences the overall outcome of the infection process. PMID:26441883

  4. Development of Rapid Detection and Genetic Characterization of Salmonella in Poultry Breeder Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarquin, Robin; Hanning, Irene; Ahn, Soohyoun; Ricke, Steven C.

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, with poultry and poultry products being a primary source of infection to humans. Poultry may carry some Salmonella serovars without any signs or symptoms of disease and without causing any adverse effects to the health of the bird. Salmonella may be introduced to a flock by multiple environmental sources, but poultry feed is suspected to be a leading source. Detecting Salmonella in feed can be challenging because low levels of the bacteria may not be recovered using traditional culturing techniques. Numerous detection methodologies have been examined over the years for quantifying Salmonella in feeds and many have proven to be effective for Salmonella isolation and detection in a variety of feeds. However, given the potential need for increased detection sensitivity, molecular detection technologies may the best candidate for developing rapid sensitive methods for identifying small numbers of Salmonella in the background of large volumes of feed. Several studies have been done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and commercial kits to detect Salmonella spp. in a wide variety of feed sources. In addition, DNA array technology has recently been utilized to track the dissemination of a specific Salmonella serotype in feed mills. This review will discuss the processing of feeds and potential points in the process that may introduce Salmonella contamination to the feed. Detection methods currently used and the need for advances in these methods also will be discussed. Finally, implementation of rapid detection for optimizing control methods to prevent and remove any Salmonella contamination of feeds will be considered. PMID:22346699

  5. Development of Rapid Detection and Genetic Characterization of Salmonella in Poultry Breeder Feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C. Ricke

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, with poultry and poultry products being a primary source of infection to humans. Poultry may carry some Salmonella serovars without any signs or symptoms of disease and without causing any adverse effects to the health of the bird. Salmonella may be introduced to a flock by multiple environmental sources, but poultry feed is suspected to be a leading source. Detecting Salmonella in feed can be challenging because low levels of the bacteria may not be recovered using traditional culturing techniques. Numerous detection methodologies have been examined over the years for quantifying Salmonella in feeds and many have proven to be effective for Salmonella isolation and detection in a variety of feeds. However, given the potential need for increased detection sensitivity, molecular detection technologies may the best candidate for developing rapid sensitive methods for identifying small numbers of Salmonella in the background of large volumes of feed. Several studies have been done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays and commercial kits to detect Salmonella spp. in a wide variety of feed sources. In addition, DNA array technology has recently been utilized to track the dissemination of a specific Salmonella serotype in feed mills. This review will discuss the processing of feeds and potential points in the process that may introduce Salmonella contamination to the feed. Detection methods currently used and the need for advances in these methods also will be discussed. Finally, implementation of rapid detection for optimizing control methods to prevent and remove any Salmonella contamination of feeds will be considered.

  6. 40 CFR 79.68 - Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recommendations as specified under 40 CFR 79.60, the following specific information shall be reported: (i... consulted. (1) 40 CFR 798.5265, The Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation asay. (2) Ames, B.N., McCann, J... mutation assay. 79.68 Section 79.68 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  7. Probability of identifying different salmonella serotypes in poultry samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent work has called attention to the unequal competitive abilities of different Salmonella serotypes in standard broth culture and plating media. Such serotypes include Enteritidis and Typhimurium that are specifically targeted in some regulatory and certification programs because they cause a l...

  8. Comparison of Six Culture Methods for Salmonella Isolation from Poultry Fecal Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morshed, R. (PhD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Salmonellosis is one of the most important food-borne bacterial zoonotic diseases worldwide, and poultry and its products are the major sources for salmonella transmission to human. Isolation of Salmonella enterica from poultry needs bacteriologic enrichment and selected cultures of fecal samples. In this study, different culture methods for the isolation of salmonella from fecal samples were compared. Material and Methods: Forty- five positive samples from infected farms and 45 negative samples from normal farms were processed using enrichment media including tetrathionate broth, selenite cistine and Rappaport-Vassiliadis. Then the samples were incubated in selective cultures, and after 24 h, their results were compared with standard method. Results: Specificity of all methods for salmonella isolation was 100%, and salmonella was not isolated from the negative samples. The highest susceptibility was related to the method in which the sample first in Selenite cistine and later in Rappaport-Vassiliadis was enriched (100%. Enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis could isolate 41 salmonella from 45 positive samples (91% while the result of enrichment in tetrathionate was 6 isolates (13.3%. Conclusion: This study shows that enrichment in selenite cistine and then in Rappaport-Vassiliadis is currently the best method for isolating salmonella from fecal samples of poultry. Key words: Salmonella; Bacteriologic Culture; Diagnosis; Isolation; Enrichment; Poultry

  9. Effect of Low Dose of Fumonisins on Pig Health: Immune Status, Intestinal Microbiota and Sensitivity to Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Fravalo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure the effects of chronic exposure to fumonisins via the ingestion of feed containing naturally contaminated corn in growing pigs infected or not with Salmonella spp. This exposure to a moderate dietary concentration of fumonisins (11.8 ppm was sufficient to induce a biological effect in pigs (Sa/So ratio, but no mortality or pathology was observed over 63 days of exposure. No mortality or related clinical signs, even in cases of inoculation with Salmonella (5 × 104 CFU, were observed either. Fumonisins, at these concentrations, did not affect the ability of lymphocytes to proliferate in the presence of mitogens, but after seven days post-inoculation they led to inhibition of the ability of specific Salmonella lymphocytes to proliferate following exposure to a specific Salmonella antigen. However, the ingestion of fumonisins had no impact on Salmonella translocation or seroconversion in inoculated pigs. The inoculation of Salmonella did not affect faecal microbiota profiles, but exposure to moderate concentrations of fumonisins transiently affected the digestive microbiota balance. In cases of co-infection with fumonisins and Salmonella, the microbiota profiles were rapidly and clearly modified as early as 48 h post-Salmonella inoculation. Therefore under these experimental conditions, exposure to an average concentration of fumonisins in naturally contaminated feed had no effect on pig health but did affect the digestive microbiota balance, with Salmonella exposure amplifying this phenomenon.

  10. Detection of salmonella sp in chicken cuts using immunomagnetic separation Detecção de salmonella sp em cortes de frango usando separação imunomagnética

    OpenAIRE

    Rita de Cássia dos Santos da Conceição; Ângela Nunes Moreira; Roberta Juliano Ramos; Fabiana Lemos Goularte; José Beiro Carvalhal; José Antonio Guimarães Aleixo

    2008-01-01

    The immunomagnetic separation (IMS) is a technique that has been used to increase sensitivity and specificity and to decrease the time required for detection of Salmonella in foods through different methodologies. In this work we report on the development of a method for detection of Salmonella in chicken cuts using in house antibody-sensitized microspheres associated to conventional plating in selective agar (IMS-plating). First, protein A-coated microspheres were sensitized with polyclonal ...

  11. A multiplex real-time PCR for differential detection and quantification of Salmonella spp., Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Enteritidis in meats

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Su Hwa; Jung, Byeong Yeal; Rayamahji, Nabin; Lee, Hee Soo; Jeon, Woo Jin; Choi, Kang Seuk; Kweon, Chang Hee; Yoo, Han Sang

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella (S.) Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis are the major causative agents of food-borne illnesses worldwide. Currently, a rapid detection system using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been applied for other food-borne pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp. A multiplex real-time PCR was developed for the simultaneous detection of Salmonella spp., especially S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis, in beef and pork. For the specific...

  12. Salmonella Control Programs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Hald, Tine

    2003-01-01

    We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk. In 2001, the Danish society saved U.S.$25.5 million by controlling Salmonella. The total annual Salmonella control costs in year 2001 were U.S.$14.1 million (U.S.$0.075/kg of pork and U.S.$0.02/kg of broiler or egg). These costs are paid almost exclusively by the industry. The control principles described are applicable to most industrialized countries with modern intensive farming systems.

  13. Salmonella control programs in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Henrik C; Hald, Tine; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo; Madsen, Mogens; Korsgaard, Helle; Bager, Flemming; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Mølbak, Kåre

    2003-07-01

    We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk. In 2001, the Danish society saved U.S.$25.5 million by controlling Salmonella. The total annual Salmonella control costs in year 2001 were U.S.$14.1 million (U.S.$0.075/kg of pork and U.S.$0.02/kg of broiler or egg). These costs are paid almost exclusively by the industry. The control principles described are applicable to most industrialized countries with modern intensive farming systems. PMID:12890316

  14. Salmonella Control Programs in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Wegener, Henrik C.; Hald, Tine; Wong, Lo Fo; Madsen, Mogens; Korsgaard, Helle; Bager, Flemming; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Mølbak, Kåre

    2003-01-01

    We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk....

  15. Detection of Salmonella in Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Flemming; Mansdal, Susanne; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Cost-effective and rapid monitoring of Salmonella in the meat production chain can contribute to food safety. The objective of this study was to validate an easy-to-use pre-PCR sample preparation method based on a simple boiling protocol for screening of Salmonella in meat and carcass swab samples using a real-time PCR method. The protocol included incubation in buffered peptone water, centrifugation of an aliquot, and a boiling procedure. The validation study included comparative and interlabor...

  16. Salmonella Control Programs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Hald, Tine; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Madsen, M.; Korsgaard, Helle; Bager, Flemming; Gerner-Smidt, P.; Mølbak, K.

    2003-01-01

    We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk. In...

  17. Salmonella typhimurium meningitis in infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikary, Ranjeeta; Joshi, Sangeeta; Ramakrishnan, Meera

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of meningitis due to Salmonella typhimurium in a four-month-old female infant. The child was brought to the pediatric emergency department with complaints of fever, cold, and generalized convulsion. On examination, the child was febrile and was having seizures. The anterior fontanelle was not bulging. Lumbar puncture was done and Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid. Initially the infant improved clinically with appropriate management, but had a fatal ...

  18. Salmonella bacteremia in Kenyan children.

    OpenAIRE

    Brent, AJ; Oundo, JO; Mwangi, I.; Ochola, L; Lowe, B.; Berkley, JA

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. are among the leading causes of childhood bacteremia in sub-Saharan Africa, yet there are few published clinical series, and the risk factors for acquiring infection are not fully understood. METHODS: We examined data from 166 cases of nontyphoidal Salmonella bacteremia identified during a large prospective study of bacteremia among all children admitted to a district hospital in Kenya. We also investigated the importance of comorbidities, including cu...

  19. Farm and slaughterhouse characteristics affecting the occurrence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in the broiler supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, E; van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Thissen, J; van Asselt, E D

    2012-09-01

    Based on a data set on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence in the broiler supply chain, collected during the period 2002 through 2005 in the Netherlands, farm- and slaughterhouse-specific characteristics were tested for their effect on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence at different stages of the broiler supply chain. Three different sampling points were considered: departure from the farm, arrival at the slaughterhouse, and the end of the slaughterline. Strong associations were found between Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence at a particular sampling point and their prevalence at the preceding point of the chain. Statistical analyses showed that the country of origin of the broiler farm had a significant effect on the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter at slaughterhouse arrival. The feeding company delivering to the farm also showed a significant effect on the occurrence of both pathogens at departure from the broiler farm. The prevalence of Campylobacter decreased with an increasing number of birds per flock, whereas the prevalence of Salmonella increased with an increasing number of birds per flock. The number of flocks processed within a specific slaughterhouse was not associated with an increased or decreased prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella. The results provide more insight into factors related to the occurrence of both pathogens and in understanding their epidemiology. The results can be supportive in decision making on measures to reduce the contamination of broiler products with Salmonella and Campylobacter. PMID:22912476

  20. Evaluation of virulence and antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates from humans and chicken- and egg-associated sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Gokulan, Kuppan; Barnette, Dustyn; Khare, Sangeeta; Rooney, Anthony W; Deck, Joanna; Nayak, Rajesh; Stefanova, Rossina; Hart, Mark E; Foley, Steven L

    2013-12-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is a leading cause of salmonellosis throughout the world and is most commonly associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry and egg products. Salmonella Enteritidis has enhanced ability to colonize and persist in extraintestinal sites within chickens. In this study, 54 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from human patients (n=28), retail chicken (n=9), broiler farms (n=9), and egg production facilities (n=8) were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, plasmid analysis, genetic relatedness using XbaI and AvrII pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the presence of putative virulence genes. Nine isolates were evaluated for their abilities to invade and survive in intestinal epithelial and macrophage cell lines. Overall, 56% (n=30) of isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent tested, yet no isolates showed resistance to more than three antimicrobials. All isolates carried a common ?55-kb plasmid, with some strains containing additional plasmids ranging from 3 to 50?kb. PFGE analysis revealed five XbaI and AvrII clusters. There were significant overlaps in the PFGE patterns of the isolates from human, chicken, and egg houses. All isolates tested PCR positive for iacP, purR, ttrB, spi4H, rmbA, sopE, invA, sopB, spvB, pagC, msgA, spaN, orgA, tolC, and sifA, and negative for iss, virB4, and sipB. Of the isolates selected for virulence testing, those containing the iron acquisition genes, iutA, sitA, and iucA, and ?50-kb plasmids demonstrated among the highest levels of macrophage and epithelial cell invasion, which may indicate their importance in pathogenesis. PMID:24102082

  1. Een ringonderzoek voor de serotypering van Salmonella met de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella

    OpenAIRE

    Voogt N; Maas HME; van Leeuwen WJ; Henken AM

    2007-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella heeft een ringonderzoek voor de serotypering van Salmonella georganiseerd met deelname van alle Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRLs) voor Salmonella. Het doel van dit ringonderzoek was meer informatie te krijgen over de resultaten van de serotypering van Salmonella enterica in de NRLs. De deelnemende laboratoria moesten de stammen identificeren volgens de serotyperingsmethode die routinematig in hun laboratori...

  2. A novel Salmonella serovar isolated from Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in Sweden: Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Pajala (Salmonella Pajala)

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Hernández; Peter Lindberg; Jonas Waldenström; Mirva Drobni; Björn Olsen

    2012-01-01

    A novel Salmonella serovar was isolated from Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in northern Sweden in 2006. Three isolates of the same clone was retrieved from three falcon siblings and characterized as Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica: O-phase 13, 23:-: e, n, z 15 and the H-phase was not present. We propose the geographical name Salmonella enterica, sub-species enterica serovar Pajala to this novel Salmonella.

  3. Salmonella identification from foods in eight hours: A prototype study with Salmonella Typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koluman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The significant rise in food borne infections is mainly caused by Campylobacter spp., Salmonella serovars and Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli. As the emerging food borne pathogens cause disease, more studies have been conducted for rapid detection of these pathogens. The combination of immunomagnetic separation and polymerase chain reaction (IMS-PCR is the most accurate and rapid test preferred by almost every researcher. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR is preferred for being a new, user friendly and rapid technique in microbiological analyses. The main aim of this study is to detect application of IMS-FTIR for Salmonella identification from foods in a short time with a higher sensitivity.Materials and Methods: Conventional Culture Technique (CC, IMS-CC, IMS-PCR and IMS-FTIR techniques were compared with each other for rapid detection in artificially contaminated minced beef with Salmonella Typhimurium, as of the 2nd, 4th and 8th hours of contamination. The method was evaluated in different food matrices and sensitivity, specifity and overall recovery was calculated.Results: The results indicate that IMS-FTIR can detect S. Typhimurium as of the 8th hour with sensitivity of 95.6667, accuracy of 91.69329, false positive ratio of 0.04333 and overall recovery of 95.66%.Conclusion: It can be suggested that the IMS-FTIR method is capable of detecting S.Typhimurium in a short time with lower cost.

  4. Inhibitory Effects of Several Essential Oils towards Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella paratyphi B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Mazhar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant essential oils are natural products extracted from plants and because of their antimicrobial properties can be used as natural additives in foods. They are also useful for decontamination of food-borne pathogens and can be a safe additive in foods. The antimicrobial activities of essential oils belonging to Saturiea hortensis, Thymus vulgaris, Mentha polegium, Cuminum cyminum, Lavandula officinalis and Mentha viridis L. (spearmint were investigated at different concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10%v/v against Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella paratyphi B by using the agar well diffusion method. Essential oils showed inhibitory effect on Salmonella spp. in the agar well diffusion assay. In addition, the capability of essential oils for decontamination of minced row beef, ground beef, minced raw chicken and minced raw fish inoculated with Salmonella spp. at 0.1 and 0.5%v/v were assessed. Reduction of the Salmonella spp. population was observed following the inoculation of the cultures with 0.1 and 0.5%v/v essential oils.

  5. Recovery of Salmonella from Incubated Eggs, Newly Hatched Chicks and Contaminated Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N.M. Rahman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 400 hatchery samples comprised of yolk interior (100, paper pad (100, shell membrane (100 and fecal swab of newly hatched chicks (100 were tested to detect the presence of Salmonella organism by bacteriological agar plate test. Positive cases recorded in this study were 37 (37, 12 (12, 3 (3 and 19 (19% from each sample (100 of yolk interior, paper pad, shell membrane and fecal swab of newly hatched chicks, respectively. A representative numbers of 50 isolates were used for the identification of serogoups of Salmonella prevailing in selected area by using polyvalent antisera. The result indicated that the test isolates 45(90% were typed to a specific serogroup of "O". All 45 isolated Salmonella serogroup ?O? were then characterized by different specific biochemical media. Based on these tests, the selective isolates were identified as Salmonella gallinarum.

  6. Research and identification of pathogenic bacteria 'Salmonella and Listeria' in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sums propose to evaluate the bacterial contamination of certain food taken randomly by two pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella and Listeria) considering the evolution of the diseases of food oignon. For that 78 food samples of different origins were analysed. 2 stocks of the Listeria kind and 3 stocks of the salmonella kind were insulated and identified by biochemical and molecular tests. The pathogenic isolates were identified by coloration gram, test catalase, insulation on specific culture media and Api (20 E for Salmonella and Api listeria. At the end, the PCR were realized to amplify the gene iap which codes for the protein p60 at listeria as well as a sequence clonee randomly specific of Salmonella.

  7. The prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis and other Salmonella spp. among Canadian registered commercial layer flocks.

    OpenAIRE

    Poppe, C; Irwin, R J; Forsberg, C. M.; Clarke, R. C.; Oggel, J.

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis and other salmonellas among Canadian commercial egg producing flocks. Environmental (faecal and eggbelt) samples from 152 of 295 (52.9%) randomly selected flocks were contaminated with salmonellas. Thirty-five different salmonella serovars were isolated. Eggbelt samples were more often contaminated with salmonellas than faecal samples (25.7 v. 10.1%). The most prevalent serovars were S. heidelberg, S. infantis, S. had...

  8. The prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis and other Salmonella sp. among Canadian registered commercial chicken broiler flocks.

    OpenAIRE

    Poppe, C; Irwin, R J; Messier, S.; Finley, G G; Oggel, J.

    1991-01-01

    A nation-wide survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis and other salmonellas among Canadian commercial broiler flocks. Environmental (litter and/or water) samples from 226 of 294 (76.9%) randomly selected flocks were contaminated with salmonellas. Litter samples were more often contaminated with salmonellas than water samples (47.4 v. 12.3%). Fifty different salmonella serovars were isolated. The most prevalent serovars were S. hadar, S. infantis, and S. schwa...

  9. [Evaluation of Salmonella 1977 to 1982].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemiri, F; Hassine, M; Jekov, S; Bel Hadj, A; Bel Hadj, N

    1983-01-01

    Between 1977 and 1982, the National Center of Salmonella of the Institute Pasteur of Tunis has isolated; received and/or identified 1715 Salmonella strains. In typhoid and paratyphoid fevers group Salmonella typhi represent the predominant species with a frequency of 99.6%. In the enteric group, Salmonella wien is the most frequent (50,26%). 11 serotypes appeared in 1982, although 5 serotypes have not been met since 1977. PMID:6428337

  10. Nachweis von Salmonella spp. bei Landschildkröten

    OpenAIRE

    Schramme, Karola Christine

    2003-01-01

    In the present study an efficient procedure for detecting salmonellas in feces of tortoises should be established. First of all a survey of occurrence of salmonellas in reptiles and their importance for reptiles as well as for man is given. Next an appropriate incubation temperature for multiplying salmonellas of reptilian origin in a selective enrichment medium was evaluated. Furthermore 86 salmonella strains isolated from reptiles were tested on nine different selec-tive solid me...

  11. Screening for Salmonella in backyard chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Johanna; Gole, Vaibhav; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2015-06-15

    Salmonellosis is a significant zoonotic disease which has a considerable economic impact on the egg layer industry. There is limited information about the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in backyard chickens, and the associated virulence of any serovars identified. Hundred and fifteen pooled samples from 30 backyard flocks in South Australia were screened. Four flocks tested positive for Salmonella spp. The overall Salmonella isolation rate in the current study was 10.4%. The estimated prevalence at individual bird level was 0.02% (95% CI 0.025-0.975). The serovars isolated were Salmonella Agona, Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) and Salmonella Bovismorbificans. All Salmonella isolates tested positive for the prgH, orfL and spiC genes. The Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) had the most antibiotic resistance, being resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin and having intermediate resistance to florphenicol. All of the Salmonella Agona had intermediate resistance to the ampicillin, while the Salmonella Bovismorbificans were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. With the increased interest of keeping backyard chickens, the current study highlights the zoonotic risk from Salmonella spp. associated with home flocks. PMID:25899620

  12. Splenic abscess due to Salmonella enteritidis

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice Çabadak; Kerem Karaman; Süha ?en; Ay?e Erbay; Yasemin Tezer Tekçe

    2012-01-01

    Splenic abscess is a very rare complication of non-typhoidal Salmonella infections. We report a case of splenic abscess caused by Salmonella enteritidis. The patient is a 63-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus and underwent splenectomy. This case suggests that the patients with comorbities are at increased risk for invasive infections in non-typhoidal Salmonella infections.

  13. Mixed salmonella infection - A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi S.; Wattal C; Sharma A; Prasad K.

    2002-01-01

    Mixed infection with multiple Salmonella serotypes in the same patient is an unusual finding. We present a case of enteric fever in which the blood culture was sterile and Widal test was negative. The culture of the bone marrow yielded Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A.

  14. Twelve-hours PCR-based method for detection of Salmonella spp. in food

    OpenAIRE

    COCOLIN, Luca Simone

    2001-01-01

    A PCR-based method for the detection of Salmonella spp. in food was developed. The method, set up on typical salami from the Italian region of Marche, is sensitive and specific and shows excellent correlation with the conventional method of reference when naturally contaminated foods are analyzed. Moreover, it can be easily performed within a maximum of 12 h from food sampling, thus allowing prompt detection of Salmonella spp. in the food stocks analyzed.

  15. Molecular modelling, docking and interaction studies of human-plasmogen and salmonella enolase with enolase inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Digvijay Singh; Chandra, Sharat; Gupta, Arun; Singh, Tiratha Raj

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enteric serovar Typhi Ty2 is a human specific pathogen and an etiological agent for typhoid fever. Most of Salmonella serotypes produce glycogen which has a comparatively minor role in virulence and colonization, but has a more significant role in survival. Enzymes present in glycolytic pathway of bacteria help bacteria to survive by activating other factors inside host. Numerous pathogenic bacteria species intervene with the plasminogen system, and this plasminogen–enolas...

  16. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with a Salmonella enteritidis antigen for differentiating infected from vaccinated poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Solano, Cristina; Galindo, Julia; Sesma, Begoña; Alvarez, Miguel; Solsona, María; Gamazo, Carlos

    2000-01-01

    The specificity and sensitivity of indirect ELISA, based on the use of four different antigenic extracts obtained from a clinical isolate of Salmonella enteritidis, were compared with those obtained with the gm-flagellin based ELISA (IDEXX). A total of 116 serum samples from salmonellae free, naturally infected and vaccinated hens were studied. The results showed that the indirect ELISA, based on lipopolysaccharide (LPS), O-polysaccharide (PS) or membrane sediment (SD) antigens, enable the id...

  17. Evaluation of a serological Salmonella Mix-ELISA for poultry used in a national surveillance programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feld, Niels Christian; Ekeroth, Lars; Gradel, K.O.; Kabell, Susanne; Madsen, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    A Mix-ELISA using lipopolysaccharide antigens from Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis and Typhimurium? was evaluated using samples collected over time in the Danish salmonella surveillance programme for poultry. Serological samples (n = 42813) taken from broiler-breeder flocks after a year of bacteriological monitoring with negative results were used for calculating the flock and individual test specificities, which were 0.997 and 0.999, respectively. Layer flocks from the table egg sector...

  18. Development of a user-friendly interface version of the Salmonella source-attribution model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Lund, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Project developed on the procurement project NP/EFSA/BIOHAZ/2011/04 EFSA has been working on a series of Scientific Opinions originating from a mandate received by the European Commission (EC) in July 2008 on the review of Salmonella targets in poultry primary production. For evaluating targets in the broiler and turkey production, specific Salmonella source attribution models have been developed by external contractors. Both models were based on the Hald model and use a Bayesian approach employ...

  19. The use of organic acids to combat Salmonella in poultry : a mechanistic explanation of the efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Van Immerseel, Filip; Russell, James; Flythe, Michael; Gantois, Inne; Timbermont, Leen; Pasmans, Frank; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Salmonella is a human pathogen that is commonly found in poultry products. It is possible to decrease chicken carcass and egg contaminations by adding organic acids to the feed or drinking water at appropriate times. Medium chain fatty acids are be more antibacterial against Salmonella than short-chain fatty acids. The antibacterial effect of these acids is species specific. Bacteria that are unable to decrease intracellular pH accumulate organic acid anions in accordance...

  20. Production of potent Salmonella H antisera by immunization with polymeric flagellins.

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, G F; Fleet, G.H.; Lyons, M. J.; Walker, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Highly purified polymeric flagellin preparations from 10 different Salmonella serotypes were used to produce specific Salmonella H antisera with high titers by the immunization of rabbits. Antigen emulsions in complete Freund adjuvant were administered at the rate of 50 micrograms per rabbit by multiple intradermal injection. Booster injections were given 110 days after the primary immunization. The immune response was monitored regularly over a period of 200 days. The results showed that the...

  1. A colonisation-inhibition culture consisting of Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium ?hilAssrAfliG strains protects against infection by strains of both serotypes in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cort, W; Mot, D; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Van Immerseel, F

    2014-08-01

    Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is still an important cause of Salmonella infections in humans and there is a need for control methods that protect broilers from day-of-hatch until slaughter age against infection with Salmonella. Colonisation-inhibition, a concept in which a live Salmonella strain is orally administered to day-old chickens and protects against subsequent challenge, can potentially be used as control method. In this study, the efficacy of a Salmonella Typhimurium ?hilAssrAfliG strain as a colonisation-inhibition strain for protection of broilers against Salmonella Typhimurium was evaluated. Administration of a Salmonella Typhimurium ?hilAssrAfliG strain to day-old broiler chickens decreased faecal shedding and strongly reduced caecal and internal organ colonisation of a Salmonella Typhimurium challenge strain administered one day later using a seeder bird model. In addition, it was verified whether a colonisation-inhibition culture could be developed that protects against both Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium. Therefore, the Salmonella Typhimurium ?hilAssrAfliG strain was orally administered simultaneously with a Salmonella Enteritidis ?hilAssrAfliG strain to day-old broiler chickens, which resulted in a decreased caecal and internal organ colonisation for both a Salmonella Enteritidis and a Salmonella Typhimurium challenge strain short after hatching, using a seeder bird model. The combined culture was not protective against Salmonella Paratyphi B varietas Java challenge, indicating serotype-specific protection mechanisms. The data suggest that colonisation-inhibition can potentially be used as a versatile control method to protect poultry against several Salmonella serotypes. PMID:24975814

  2. Salmonella impairs CD8 T cell response through PD-1: PD-L axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Medina, Marcela; Carrillo-Martín, Ismael; Leyva-Rangel, Jessica; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney

    2015-12-01

    We have shown that Salmonella remains for a long period of time within B cells, plasma cells, and bone marrow B cell precursors, which might allow persistence and dissemination of infection. Nonetheless, how infected cells evade CD8 T cell response has not been characterized. Evidence indicates that some pathogens exploit the PD-1: PD-L (PD-L1 and PD-L2) interaction to inhibit CD8 T cells response to contribute the chronicity of the infection. To determine whether the PD-1: PD-L axis plays a role during Salmonella infection; we evaluated PD-1 expression in antigen-specific CD8 T cells and PD-1 ligands in Salmonella-infected cells. Our results show that infected B cells and macrophages express continuously co-stimulatory (CD40, CD80, and CD86) and inhibitory molecules (PD-L1 and PD-L2) in early and late stages of chronic Salmonella infection, while antigen-specific CD8 T cells express in a sustained manner PD-1 in the late stages of infection. Blocking this axis restores the ability of the CD8 T cells to proliferate and eliminate primary infected APCs. Therefore, a continuous PD-1: PDL interaction might be a mechanism employed by Salmonella to negatively regulate Salmonella-specific CD8 T cell cytotoxic response in order to remain within the host for a long period of time. PMID:26210046

  3. Prevalence, concentrations, and antibiotic sensitivities of Salmonella serovars in poultry from retail establishments in Seattle, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazengia, E; Samadpour, M; Hill, H W; Greeson, K; Tenney, K; Liao, G; Huang, X; Meschke, J S

    2014-06-01

    Poultry have been identified as one of the major sources of salmonellosis, with estimates ranging from 10 to 22% of total cases. Despite several advances in the industry and new performance standards, the incidence of salmonellosis in the population has not declined over the last 15 years. Salmonella is pervasive in a wide variety of foods, and thus, estimating its burden resulting from specific food categories has been challenging and plagued with uncertainty due to critical data gaps. The objective of this study was to conduct a year-long market survey (1,322 samples) to help bridge the data gaps on the contamination rates and levels of Salmonella on raw poultry by product type (i.e., breast, thighs, drums, wings, and split breast) and production method (conventional versus organic). The isolates recovered were serotyped and tested for antibiotic sensitivities. A PCR method was utilized for initial screening of samples after an overnight enrichment in tryptic soy broth. Three-tube most-probable-number (MPN) assays and anti-Salmonella immunomagnetic separation methods were utilized to determine the levels of Salmonella and aid with the recovery of Salmonella species, respectively. Eleven percent of the samples were positive for Salmonella. Significant differences in percent positive rates by product type included up to a 4-fold difference in percent positive rates between establishments, ranging from 7 to 31%. Of the samples positive for Salmonella species, 94% had Salmonella. On the other hand, all of the Salmonella isolates that were resistant to two or more antibiotics originated from conventional processing establishments where antibiotics were utilized. In addition, a significant proportion of isolates from conventionally processed products were serotypes clinically relevant to humans. PMID:24853509

  4. Effect Of Colony Numbers Selected From Plating Media On Salmonella Serogroup Detection From Naturally Contaminated Chicken Carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Attribution studies are being undertaken to link Salmonella serotypes associated with human illness to food sources. However, studies have demonstrated that culture techniques often influence the sensitivity and specificity associated with bacterial recovery. Purpose: This study ...

  5. Comparison of DNA probe, PCR amplification, ELISA and culture methods for the rapid detection of Salmonella in poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The identification of Salmonella spp. from poultry meat was studied by comparing bacterial detection using the Gene-Trak colorimetric hybridization method, a PCR amplification kit and an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and these methods were compared with the conventional methodology proposed by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) for detection of Salmonella in food samples. Forty positive and negative samples were studied. The three methods yielded similar results with levels of Salmonella greater than 10 CFU per sample, even when the samples were highly contaminated with competing bacteria. In contrast, 20 CFU of seed inoculum per sample was the lowest level of Salmonella detectable with all three methods and the standard culture method. The detection limits of the PCR and ELISA assays were 5 CFU/g after enrichment at 37 deg. C for 6 and 9 hours, respectively. Compared with conventional bacteriology, all three methods here demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for Salmonella. (author)

  6. Large outbreaks of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in Denmark in 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethelberg, S.; Wingstrand, Anne; Jensen, T.; Sørensen, Gitte; Müller, L.; Lisby, M.; Nielsen, E.M.; Mølbak, K.

    2008-01-01

    An outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type U292 has been ongoing in Denmark since 1 April, with 1,054 cases registered until 23 October 2008. Extensive investigations including hypothesis-generating interviews, matched case-control studies, cohort studies in embedded outbreaks, shopping list analyses, analyses of food samples from patient's homes, trace-back analyses and extensive microbiological analysis of products have not provided clear indications of a specific source of infection but...

  7. O:2-CRM197 Conjugates against Salmonella Paratyphi A

    OpenAIRE

    Micoli, Francesca; Rondini, Simona; Gavini, Massimiliano; Lanzilao, Luisa; Medaglini, Donata; Saul, Allan; Martin, Laura B

    2012-01-01

    Enteric fevers remain a common and serious disease, affecting mainly children and adolescents in developing countries. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was believed to cause most enteric fever episodes, but several recent reports have shown an increasing incidence of S. Paratyphi A, encouraging the development of a bivalent vaccine to protect against both serovars, especially considering that at present there is no vaccine against S. Paratyphi A. The O-specific polysaccharide (O:2) of S. Par...

  8. Salmonella Infection and Water Frogs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-01-12

    This podcast, featuring lead investigator Shauna Mettee, discusses the first known outbreak of Salmonella in people due to contact with water frogs.  Created: 1/12/2010 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 1/12/2010.

  9. Salmonella Paratyphi A Rates, Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Ochiai, R Leon; Wang, XuanYi; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Yang, Jin; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bhattacharya, Sujit K.; Agtini, Magdarina; Deen, Jacqueline L; Wain, John; Kim, Deok Ryun; Ali, Mohammad; Acosta, Camilo J.; Jodar, Luis; Clemens, John D.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about the causes of enteric fever in Asia. Most cases are believed to be caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and the remainder by S. Paratyphi A. We compared their incidences by using standardized methods from population-based studies in China, Indonesia, India, and Pakistan.

  10. Cellulitis Due to Salmonella infantis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish R Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Salmonella are highly adapted for the growth in both humans and animals and cause a wide spectrum of disease. The growth of Serotypes S. typhi and S. paratyphi is restricted to human hosts, in whom these organisms cause enteric (typhoid fever. The remaining Serotypes (non typhoidal Salmonella or NTS can colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of the broad range of animals, including mammals, reptiles, birds and insects. The usual clinical presentation of non-typhoidal salmonellae (NTS infection is self limited gastroenteritis; however bacteremia and focal extra intestinal infection may occur. However salmonella localization to the skin presenting as cutaneous ulceration is regarded as a rare event. Rates of morbidity and mortality associated with NTS are highest among the elderly, infants, and immunocompromised individuals, including those with hemoglobinopathies, HIV infection, or infections that cause blockade of the reticuloendothelial system. We isolated S.infantis in 50 years old man with left leg cellulitis. The serotype was confirmed at Central Research Institute, Kasauli.

  11. Salmonella Source Attribution in Japan by a Microbiological Subtyping Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyofuku, Hajime; Pires, Sara Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    In order to estimate the number of human Salmonella infections attributable to each of major animal-food source, and help identifying the best Salmonella intervention strategies, a microbial subtyping approach for source attribution was applied. We adapted a Bayesian model that attributes illnesses to specific sources and allows for the estimation of the differences in the ability of Salmonella subtypes and food types to result in reported salmonellosis. The number of human cases caused by different Salmonella subtypes is estimated as a function of the prevalence of these subtypes in the animal-food sources, subtype-related factors, and source-related factors. National-surveillance serotyping data from 1998 to 2007 were applied to the model. Results suggested that the relative contribution of the sources to salmonellosis varied during the 10 year period, and that eggs are the most important source of disease, being responsible for over 50 % of the cases in most years. Broilers followed in importance in 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2005, while swine was the second most important source in 2000, 2004 and 2007. Salmonella was seldom isolated from cattle and few cases were attributed to this source. The proportion of cases attributed to an unknown source varied substantially between years. We conclude that this is valid approach to attribute salmonellosis in Japan, and that and improved dataset would substantially improve results. This is the first indication of the relative contribution of different foods for human salmonellosis, and results may be used for further research, risk management and public health strategies.

  12. 40 CFR 79.68 - Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay. 79.68 Section 79.68 Protection...Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay. (a) Purpose. The Salmonella typhimurium...his) reversion system is a microbial assay which measures his? ? his+...

  13. 76 FR 81513 - Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ...Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production...industry entitled ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production...FDA's final rule ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During...

  14. 75 FR 48973 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ...Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production...guidance entitled ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production...FDA's final rule ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During...

  15. 78 FR 42451 - Animal Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ...FDA-2013-N-0253] Animal Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella Microorganisms AGENCY...opinion on animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms. This...for use in animal feed may be contaminated with Salmonella bacteria, an...

  16. New Salmonella serotype: Salmonella enteritidis serotype Grandhaven (30(1):r:1,2).

    OpenAIRE

    McDougal, D L; Treleaven, B E; Renshaw, E C

    1982-01-01

    A new Salmonella serotype, Salmonella enteritidis serotype Grandhaven (30(1):r:1,2), was isolated from the stool of a 35-year-old man with mild gastroenteritis. He had just returned from Sudan, Africa.

  17. Identification of Salmonellae with the 4-methylumbelliferyl caprilate fluorescence test.

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, M; Syk, A; Wollin, R.

    1991-01-01

    We have tested 750 Salmonella strains and 130 strains of other species of the family Enterbacteriaceae with the 4-methylumbelliferyl caprilate reagent (MUCAP) test. The MUCAP test is a fluorescence test for rapid identification of Salmonella strains. The non-Salmonella strains were strains sent for identification as suspected Salmonella strains and thus have phenotypes similar to those of Salmonella strains. All 748 tested Salmonella strains of subgroups I, II, III, and IV were positive in th...

  18. Occurrence of a Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104-Like Antibiotic Resistance Gene Cluster Including the floR Gene in S. enterica Serovar Agona

    OpenAIRE

    Cloeckaert, Axel; Sidi Boumedine, Karim; Flaujac, Geraldine; Imberechts, Hein; D'Hooghe, Inge; Chaslus-Dancla, Elisabeth

    2000-01-01

    Recently a chromosomal locus possibly specific for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 has been reported that contains a multiple antibiotic resistance gene cluster. Evidence is provided that Salmonella enterica serovar Agona strains isolated from poultry harbor a similar gene cluster including the newly described floR gene, conferring cross-resistance to chloramphenicol and florfenicol.

  19. Control of Salmonella infections in animals and prevention of human foodborne Salmonella infections. WHO Consultation.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    In many countries the incidence of human salmonella infections has markedly increased in recent years. To discuss recent developments and current understanding on the control of salmonella infections in animals, WHO organized a Consultation on the Control of Salmonella Infections in Animals: Prevention of Foodborne Salmonella Infections in Humans, held in Jena, Germany, on 21-26 November 1993. The present article summarizes the recommendations made by the participants on the pathoimmunogenesi...

  20. Calidad microbiológica y análisis de patógenos (Shigella y Salmonella) en lechuga / Microbiological quality and pathogen analysis (Shigella and Salmonella) of lettuce

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kenia, Barrantes; Rosario, Achí.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la calidad microbiológica en 37 muestras de lechuga variedad criolla (Lactuca sativa var. Capitata L.) de distintos intermediarios en las provincias de San José y Cartago, en Costa Rica. Las muestras se recolectaron mediante muestreo no probabilístico por selección intencional. Se cuantif [...] icó Escherichia coli (NMP/g) como indicador de contaminación fecal y se determinó la presencia de patógenos específicos (Shigella y Salmonella), por cultivo y por PCR-Múltiple. En el 65% de las muestras analizadas se detectó E. coli, aunque no se encontró Shigella ni Salmonella por PCR-Múltiple o cultivo. Una posible explicación es que los niveles de contaminación de Shigella y Salmonella están por debajo de los límites de detección de ambos métodos (menos de 10(4) UFC/g para Shigella y menos de 10² UFC/g para Salmonella). Estos resultados establecen una base importante para continuar con este tema de investigación y analizar otras fuentes de transmisión de Shigella y Salmonella, dado que ambos patógenos son frecuentes en la región. Abstract in english The microbiological quality of 37 lettuce samples of the creole variety (Lactuca sativa var. Capitata L.) obtained from different intermediaries at the provinces of San José and Cartago, in Costa Rica was analyzed. The samples were collected through a non-probabilistic sampling with intentional sele [...] ction. Escherichia coli (NMP/g) was quantified as indicator of fecal contamination and the presence of specific pathogens (Shigella and Salmonella) was determined by culture and Multiplex-PCR. In 65% of the samples analyzed we detected E. coli, even though we did not find Shigella or Salmonella by Multiplex-PCR or culture. A possible explanation is that the Shigella or Salmonella contamination levels may have been under the detection limits for both methods (less than 10(4) CFU/g for Shigella, and less than 10² CFU/g for Salmonella). These results establish an important basis for continuing with this research subject and analyzing other sources of transmission of Shigella and Salmonella contamination, since both pathogens are frequent in the region.

  1. Development of Recombinant Flagellar Antigens for Serological Detection of Salmonella enterica Serotypes Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, and Typhimurium in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L. Hofacre

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and fast detection of harmful Salmonella is a major concern of food safety. Common Salmonella serotypes responsible for human associated foodborne outbreaks are S. Enteritidis, S. Hadar, S. Heidelberg, and S. Typhimurium are also commonly isolated from poultry. Serology is commonly used to monitor disease in poultry, therefore application of Salmonella serotype-specific test will have added value in Salmonella surveillance or monitoring vaccine efficacy. Recombinant flagellins were purified to be used as antigens in an ELISA. In this study, an ELISA was developed for the serological detection of S. Enteritidis. Once optimized, 500 ng of purified recombinant S. Enteritidis flagellin and a 1:64 dilution were determined to be optimal for testing sera. A negative baseline cutoff was calculated to be an optical density (OD of 0.35. All sera from birds with history of S. Enteritidis exposure tested positive and all sera from chickens with no exposure tested negative to this Salmonella serotype. Current ELISA for serological detection of Salmonella suffers from cross reactivity inherent in lipopolysaccharide (LPS or whole cell antigen based serological tests. This new ELISA eliminates common cross reactivity by focusing specifically on the flagellins of the Salmonella serotypes common in poultry and associated with foodborne outbreaks.

  2. A Markov model to estimate Salmonella morbidity, mortality, illness duration, and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Robert L; Buchberger, Steven G; Clark, Robert M; Kupferle, Margaret; Murray, Regan; Succop, Paul

    2012-10-01

    Approximately 690000-1790000 Salmonella cases, 20000 hospitalizations, and 400 deaths occur in the USA annually, costing approximately $2.6bn. Existing models estimate morbidity, mortality, and cost solely from incidence. They do not estimate illness duration or use time as an independent cost predictor. Existing models may underestimate physician visits, hospitalizations, deaths, and associated costs. We developed a Markov chain Monte Carlo model to estimate illness duration, physician/emergency room visits, inpatient hospitalizations, mortality, and resultant costs for a given Salmonella incidence. Interested parties include society, third-party payers, health providers, federal, state and local governments, businesses, and individual patients and their families. The marginal approach estimates individual disease behavior for every patient, explicitly estimates disease duration and calculates separate time-dependent costs. The aggregate approach is a Markov equivalent of the existing models; it assumes average disease behavior and cost for a given morbidity/mortality. Transition probabilities were drawn from a meta-analysis of 53 Salmonella studies. Both approaches were tested using the 1993 Salmonella typhimurium outbreak in Gideon, Missouri. This protocol can be applied to estimate morbidity, mortality and cost of specific outbreaks, provide better national Salmonella burden estimates, and estimate the benefits of reducing Salmonella risk. PMID:21887809

  3. Subtyping of Salmonella Food Isolates Suggests the Geographic Clustering of Serotype Telaviv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durul, Bora; Acar, Sinem; Bulut, Ece; Kyere, Emmanuel O; Soyer, Ye?im

    2015-12-01

    Salmonella is commonly found in a variety of food products and is a major cause of bacterial foodborne illness throughout the world. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and diversity of Salmonella in eight different food types: sheep ground meat, cow ground meat, chicken meat, cow offal, traditional Sanliurfa cheese, unripened feta cheese, pistachios, and isot (a spice blend of dried red peppers specific to Sanliurfa), traditionally and commonly consumed in Turkey. Among 192 food samples, Salmonella was detected in 59 samples, with the highest prevalence in raw poultry parts (58%) and offal (58%) samples, while Salmonella was not detected in pistachios and dried red pepper. Resultant Salmonella isolates were characterized by serotyping, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ten different serotypes represented 10 MLST sequence types (STs) with 1 novel ST and 17 PFGE types. Antimicrobial resistance profiling revealed that 30.5% of the isolates were resistant to two or more antimicrobials. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Telaviv, which is rare throughout the world, was the second most common serotype isolated from food samples in this study, suggesting that this serotype might be one of the subtypes that is endemic to Turkey. PMID:26489049

  4. Visualization of gold and platinum nanoparticles interacting with Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Rapid development of nanotechnology has recently brought significant attention to the extraordinary biological features of nanomaterials. The objective of the present ­investigation was to evaluate morphological characteristics of the assembles of gold and platinum nanoparticles (nano-Au and nano-Pt respectively), with Salmonella Enteritidis (Gram-negative) and Listeria monocytogenes (Gram-positive), to reveal possibilities of constructing bacteria-nanoparticle vehicles. Methods: Hydrocolloids of nano-Au or nano-Pt were added to two bacteria suspensions in the following order: nano-Au + Salmonella Enteritidis; nano-Au + Listeria monocytogenes; nano-Pt + Salmonella Enteritidis; nano-Pt + Listeria monocytogenes. Samples were inspected by transmission electron microscope. Results: Visualization of morphological interaction between nano-Au and Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes, showed that nano-Au were aggregated within flagella or biofilm network and did not penetrate the bacterialcell. The analysis of morphological effects of interaction of nano-Pt with bacteria revealed that nano-Pt entered cells of Listeria monocytogenes and were removed from the cells. In the case of Salmonella Enteritidis, nano-Pt were seen inside bacteria cells, probably bound to DNA and partly left bacterial cells. After washing and centrifugation, some of the nano-Pt-DNA complexes were observed within Salmonella Enteritidis. Conclusion: The results indicate that the bacteria could be used as a vehicle to deliver nano-Pt to specific points in the body.

  5. Whole Genome Epidemiological Typing of Salmonella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella is one of the most common foodborne pathogens worldwide. In the US alone, salmonellosis was estimated to cause 1.4 million cases effecting 17,000 hospitalization and almost 600 deaths each year. Particularly, Salmonella enterica is a common cause of minor and large food borne outbreaks. Technological advances and effective price in high throughput genome sequencing are making whole genome sequencing (WGS) available as a routine tool for bacterial typing. Typing of Salmonella, especial...

  6. Prevalence and Characterization of Motile Salmonella in Commercial Layer Poultry Farms in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Himel; Biswas, Paritosh K.; Olsen, Katharina E. P.; Christensen, Jens P.

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella is a globally widespread food-borne pathogen having major impact on public health. All motile serovars of Salmonella enterica of poultry origin are zoonotic, and contaminated meat and raw eggs are an important source to human infections. Information on the prevalence of Salmonella at farm/holding level, and the zoonotic serovars circulating in layer poultry in the South and South-East Asian countries including Bangladesh, where small-scale commercial farms are predominant, is limited. To investigate the prevalence of Salmonella at layer farm level, and to identify the prevalent serovars we conducted a cross-sectional survey by randomly selecting 500 commercial layer poultry farms in Bangladesh. Faecal samples from the selected farms were collected following standard procedure, and examined for the presence of Salmonella using conventional bacteriological procedures. Thirty isolates were randomly selected, from the ninety obtained from the survey, for serotyping and characterized further by plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results of the survey showed that the prevalence of motile Salmonella at layer farm level was 18% (95% confidence interval 15–21%), and Salmonella Kentucky was identified to be the only serovar circulating in the study population. Plasmid analysis of the S. Kentucky and non-serotyped isolates revealed two distinct profiles with a variation of two different sizes (2.7 and 4.8 kb). PFGE of the 30 S. Kentucky and 30 non-serotyped isolates showed that all of them were clonally related because only one genotype and three subtypes were determined based on the variation in two or three bands. This is also the first report on the presence of any specific serovar of Salmonella enterica in poultry in Bangladesh. PMID:22558269

  7. Competitive exclusion of Salmonella enteritidis by Salmonella gallinarum in poultry.

    OpenAIRE

    Rabsch, W; Hargis, B. M.; Tsolis, R M; Kingsley, R. A.; Hinz, K H; Tschäpe, H; Bäumler, A J

    2000-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis emerged as a major egg-associated pathogen in the late 20th century. Epidemiologic data from England, Wales, and the United States indicate that S. Enteritidis filled the ecologic niche vacated by eradication of S. Gallinarum from poultry, leading to an epidemic increase in human infections. We tested this hypothesis by retrospective analysis of epidemiologic surveys in Germany and demonstrated that the number of human S. Enteritidis cases is inversely related to the pr...

  8. Spatio-temporal analysis of Salmonella surveillance data in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho Calado Domingues, Ana Rita; Vieira, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the usefulness of spatio-temporal statistical tools to detect outbreaks using routine surveillance data where limited epidemiological information is available. A dataset from 2002 to 2007 containing information regarding date, origin, source and serotype of 29 586 Salmonella isolates from Thailand was analysed. Data was grouped into human and non-human categories and the analysis was performed for the top five occurring serovars for each year of the study period. A total 91 human and 39 non-human significant spatio-temporal clusters were observed, accounting for 11% and 16% of the isolates, respectively. Serovar-specific associations between human and non-human clusters were also evaluated. Results show that these statistical tools can provide information for use in outbreak prevention and detection, in countries where only limited data is available. Moreover, it is suggested that monitoring non-human reservoirs can be relevant in predicting future Salmonella human cases.

  9. Test resultaten van Salmonella typering door de NRLs-Salmonella in de Lidstaten van de EU en EnterNet Laboratoria - Samenwerkingsstudie VI (2001) over het typeren van Salmonella

    OpenAIRE

    Korver H; Raes M; Maas HME; Ward LR; Wannet WJB; Henken AM

    2007-01-01

    Test resultaten van Salmonella sero- en faagtypering en antimicrobiele gevoeligheidsbepalingen door de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella in de Lidstaten van de Europese Unie en EnterNet Laboratoria: Ringonderzoek VI (2001) voor Salmonella. Een zesde ringonderzoek betreffende de typering van Salmonella werd georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) in samenwerking met Public Health L...

  10. Salmonella-like bioadhesive nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Hesham H; Gamazo, Carlos; Campanero, Miguel A; Irache, Juan M

    2005-08-18

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the bioadhesive potential of a polymeric vector obtained by the association between Gantrez AN nanoparticles and flagella-enriched Salmonella enteritidis extract. Fluorescently labelled nanoparticles (SE-NP) were prepared, after incubation between the polymer and the extract, by a solvent displacement method and cross-linkage with 1,3-diaminopropane. SE-NP displayed a size close to 280 nm and the amount of associated bacterial extract was 18 mug/mg nanoparticle. Flagellin represents more than 80% of the total proteins associated with SE-NP, which was identified by SDS-PAGE and confirmed by Western blotting. Concerning the bioadhesive properties, SE-NP shows an important tropism for the ileum. In fact, about 50% of the given dose of SE-NP was found in this gut region for at least 3 h. Interestingly, the bioadhesive ability of SE-NP correlated well with the described colonisation profile for Salmonella enteritidis. This fact was corroborated by competitive tissue distribution studies. Thus, when SE-NP and Salmonella cells were administered together by the oral route, both the bacteria and the nanoparticles displayed a similar distribution within the intestinal mucosa. However, the ability of SE-NP to be taken up by Peyer's patches appeared to be negatively affected by the presence of the bacteria. Similarly, when SE-NP was administered 30 min before cells, SE-NP were found broadly distributed in Peyer's patches, whereas the bacteria were neither able to adhere to nor penetrate this lymphoid tissue. In summary, SE-NP demonstrated their Salmonella-like gut colonization, which can be a useful vector for oral targeting strategies. PMID:15970347

  11. Significance of Salmonella typhi bacteriuria.

    OpenAIRE

    Mathai, E; John, T. J.; RANI M.; Mathai, D.; Chacko, N; Nath, V; Cherian, A M

    1995-01-01

    Bacteriuria due to Salmonella typhi usually occurs following recent typhoid fever or in chronic carrier states. Data from 18 patients with S. typhi bacteriuria, seen during 5 years, were analyzed. Fourteen patients had localized urinary tract infection due to S. typhi. Four others had bacteriuria, probably associated with typhoid fever. Localized abnormalities of the urinary tract and kidneys and also systemic diseases were found to predispose patients to S. typhi bacteriuria. Local abnormali...

  12. Role of the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI-1) Protein InvB in Type III Secretion of SopE and SopE2, Two Salmonella Effector Proteins Encoded Outside of SPI-1

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrbar, Kristin; Friebel, Andrea; Miller, Samuel I.; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2003-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies 1 serovar Typhimurium encodes a type III secretion system (TTSS) within Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1). This TTSS injects effector proteins into host cells to trigger invasion and inflammatory responses. Effector proteins are recognized by the TTSS via signals encoded in their N termini. Specific chaperones can be involved in this process. The chaperones InvB, SicA, and SicP are encoded in SPI-1 and are required for transport of SPI-1-encoded effector...

  13. Caracterização de sorotipos em linhagens do gênero Salmonella isoladas de diferentes afecções em animais domésticos

    OpenAIRE

    Márcio G Ribeiro; Marta C Fernandes; Antonio C. Paes; Amanda K. Siqueira; José P.A.N. Pinto; Borges, Alexandre S.

    2010-01-01

    Foram caracterizados os sorotipos, o perfil de sensibilidade microbiana e os achados clínico-epidemiológicos em 53 linhagens do gênero Salmonella isoladas de 41 cães, nove equinos e três bovinos, acometidos por diferentes manifestações clínicas entre 1997 e 2007. Salmonella Typhimurium (45,3%), Salmonella enterica (22,6%), Salmonella Enteritidis (7,5%), Salmonella enterica subsp enterica 4,5,12i (5,7%), Salmonella Newport (5,7%), Salmonella Dublin (3,8%), Salmonella Agona (3,8%), Salmonella G...

  14. Hemagglutinating properties of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolated from different sources / Propriedades hemaglutinantes de Salmonella enterica sorotipo Enteritidis isoladas de diferentes fontes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jane M.G., Mikcha; Antonio J. Piantino, Ferreira; Claudete S. Astolfi, Ferreira; Tomomasa, Yano.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas 25 amostras de Salmonella enterica sorotipo Enteritidis isoladas de diferentes fontes, em testes de hemaglutinação. Amostras bacterianas cultivadas em diferentes meios de cultura causavam hemaglutinação na presença de hemácias humanas, entretanto, não foi observada reação com hemácia [...] s de outras espécies. A expressão da atividade hemaglutinante foi melhor em ágar CFA a 37ºC. A hemaglutinação foi inibida por D-manose, D-manitol, melibiose, D-rafinose, L-ramnose e sacarose. A análise ultraestrutural não revelou a presença de estruturas filamentosas na superfície bacteriana, sugerindo que a hemaglutinina de Salmonella Enteritidis seja de natureza não fimbrial. Os dados sugerem que Salmonella Enteritidis produz uma hemaglutinina não fimbrial manose-sensível, específica para hemácias humanas, que pode ser extraída na forma solúvel. Abstract in english Twenty-five strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolated from different sources were examined for hemagglutinating activity. Bacteria cultured in different media induced hemagglutination of human erythrocytes, but no reaction was observed with erythrocytes from other animal species. T [...] he hemagglutinating expression activity was better for cultures on CFA agar at 37ºC than other conditions examined. The hemagglutination was inhibited by D-mannose, D-mannitol, melibiose, D-raffinose, L-rhamnose and sucrose. The absence of cell-surface appendages in electron microscope examinations suggested a nonfimbrial hemagglutinin. The data suggest that Salmonella Enteritidis produces nonfimbrial mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin, specific for human erythrocytes, which could be extracted in soluble form.

  15. AOAC Official MethodSM Matrix Extension Validation Study of Assurance GDSTM for the Detection of Salmonella in Selected Spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldsine, Philip; Kaur, Mandeep; Shah, Khyati; Immerman, Amy; Jucker, Markus; Lienau, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Assurance GDSTM for Salmonella Tq has been validated according to the AOAC INTERNATIONAL Methods Committee Guidelines for Validation of Microbiological Methods for Food and Environmental Surfaces for the detection of selected foods and environmental surfaces (Official Method of AnalysisSM 2009.03, Performance Tested MethodSM No. 050602). The method also completed AFNOR validation (following the ISO 16140 standard) compared to the reference method EN ISO 6579. For AFNOR, GDS was given a scope covering all human food, animal feed stuff, and environmental surfaces (Certificate No. TRA02/12-01/09). Results showed that Assurance GDS for Salmonella (GDS) has high sensitivity and is equivalent to the reference culture methods for the detection of motile and non-motile Salmonella. As part of the aforementioned validations, inclusivity and exclusivity studies, stability, and ruggedness studies were also conducted. Assurance GDS has 100% inclusivity and exclusivity among the 100 Salmonella serovars and 35 non-Salmonella organisms analyzed. To add to the scope of the Assurance GDS for Salmonella method, a matrix extension study was conducted, following the AOAC guidelines, to validate the application of the method for selected spices, specifically curry powder, cumin powder, and chili powder, for the detection of Salmonella. PMID:26268975

  16. Protective effect of probiotics on Salmonella infectivity assessed with combined in vitro gut fermentation-cellular models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zihler Annina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate assessment of probiotics with targeted anti-Salmonella activity requires suitable models accounting for both, microbe-microbe and host-microbe interactions in gut environments. Here we report the combination of two original in vitro intestinal models closely mimicking the complex in vivo conditions of the large intestine. Effluents from continuous in vitro three-stage fermentation colonic models of Salmonella Typhimurium infection inoculated with immobilized child microbiota and Salmonella were directly applied to confluent mucus-secreting HT29-MTX cell layers. The effects of Salmonella, addition of two bacteriocinogenic strains, Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67 (thermophilicin B67 and Escherichia coli L1000 (microcin B17, and inulin were tested on Salmonella growth and interactions with epithelial cell layers. Salmonella adhesion and invasion were investigated and epithelial integrity assessed by transepithelial electrical resistance (TER measurements and confocal microscopy observation. Data from complex effluents were compared with pure Salmonella cultures. Results Salmonella in effluents of all reactors of the colonic fermentation model stabilized at mean values of 5.3 ± 0.8 log10 cfu/ml effluent. Invasion of cell-associated Salmonella was up to 50-fold lower in complex reactor samples compared to pure Salmonella cultures. It further depended on environmental factors, with 0.2 ± 0.1% being measured with proximal, 0.6 ± 0.2% with transverse and 1.3 ± 0.7% with distal reactor effluents, accompanied by a similar high decrease of TER across cell monolayers (minus 45% and disruption of tight junctions. Subsequent addition of E. coli L1000 stimulated Salmonella growth (6.4 ± 0.6 log10 cfu/ml effluent of all 3 reactors and further decreased TER, but led to 10-fold decreased invasion efficiency when tested with distal reactor samples. In contrast, presence of B. thermophilum RBL67 revealed a protective effect on epithelial integrity compared to previous E. coli L1000 periods, as reflected by a significant mean increase of TER by 58% in all reactors. Inulin addition enhanced Salmonella growth and invasion when tested with distal and proximal reactor samples, respectively, but induced a limited decrease of TER (minus 18% in all reactors. Conclusions Our results highlight the benefits of combining suitable cellular and colonic fermentation models to assess strain-specific first-level host protection properties of probiotics during Salmonella infection, providing an efficient system biology tool for preclinical development of new antimicrobials.

  17. Manure microbes may stop Salmonella in lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella causes an estimated 1.4 million cases of human food-borne illness and more than 500 food-related human deaths in the United States annually. People infected with Salmonella, whether they experience typical symptoms of gastroenteritis and diarrhea or not, may be reservoirs fr...

  18. Cephalosporin and Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Salmonella, Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Jing-Jou; Chiou, Chien-Shun; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling Yang; Tsai, Shu-Huei; Wu, Jiunn-Jong

    2005-01-01

    We report the prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella strains resistant to ciprofloxacin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Taiwan from January to May 2004. All isolates resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins carried blaCMY-2, and all ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis isolates were genetically related.

  19. [Antibiotic resistance of Salmonella during 1982 and 1983].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemiri, F; Boujaafar, N; Aloui, M

    1984-03-01

    The antibiotics susceptibility of 480 Salmonella collected in 1982 and 1983, in the National Center of Salmonella of Pasteur Institute of Tunis was tested. High levels of resistance were found. Nalidix acid, colistin and gentamicin were the most active. Resistance and multiple resistance was most frequently found in strains of Salmonella wien and Salmonella saint paul. PMID:6535510

  20. Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Aortitis in a transplant patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-typhoidal salmonella bacteremia may result in extra gastrointestinallocalization of infection. Aortitis due to non-typhoidal salmonella wasreported to be the cause of 38-42% of all infected abdominal aortitis.Underlying atherosclerosis is a frequent site for salmonella aortitis. Wedescribe here a case of possible salmonella aortitis in a renal transplantpatient. (author)

  1. Dose Determination for Acute Salmonella Infection in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Loynachan, A. T.; Harris, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    Pigs were exposed to various levels of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium by either intranasal inoculation or by subjecting them to a contaminated environment. More than 103 salmonellae were required to induce acute Salmonella infection. These results indicate that intervention against acute Salmonella infection in lairage may be more readily achieved than previously thought.

  2. Optical immunosensors for detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritidis from food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Arun K.; Geng, Tao; Lathrop, Amanda; Valadez, Angela; Morgan, Mark T.

    2004-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella are two major foodborne pathogens of significant concern. Two optical evanescent wave immunosensors were evaluated for detection: Antibody-coupled fiber-optic biosensor and a surface plasmon resonant (SPR) immunosensor. In the fiber-optic sensor, polyclonal antibodies for the test organisms were immobilized on polystyrene fiber wave -guides using streptavidin - biotin chemistry. Cyanine 5 -labeled monoclonal antibodies C11E9 (for L. monocytogenes) and SF-11 (for Salmonella Enteritidis) were used to generate a specific fluorescent signal. Signal acquisition was performed by launching a laser-light (635 nm) from an Analyte-2000. This immunosensor was able to detect 103 - 109 cfu/ml of L. monocytogenes or 106-109 cfu/ml of Salmonella Enteritidis and the assays were conducted at near real-time with results obtained within one hour of sampling. The assays were specific and showed signal even in the presence of other microorganisms such as E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis or Salmonella Typhimurium. In the SPR system, IAsys instrument (resonant mirror sensor) was used. Monoclonal antibody-C11E9 was directly immobilized onto a carboxylate cuvette. Whole Listeria cells at various concentrations did not yield any signal while surface protein extracts did. Crude protein extracts from L. monocytogenes and L. innocua had average binding responses of around 150 arc sec (0.25 ng/mm2), which was significantly different from L. grayi, L. ivanovii, or L. welshimeri with average responses of detection of foodborne L. monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis.

  3. An Uncommon Cause of Paraplegia: Salmonella Spondylodiskitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Cagatay; Tezer, Mehmet; Mirzanli, Cuneyt; Bilen, F. Erkal; Aydogan, Mehment; Hamzaoglu, Azmi

    2006-01-01

    Background/Objective: Salmonella spondylodiskitis is an uncommon type of vertebral infection. The aim of this study was to present a case of progressive paraplegia caused by Salmonella spondylodiskitis and epidural abscess after endoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: The patient underwent posterior instrumentation and posterior fusion between T6 and T12, hemilaminotomies at levels T8-T9-T10, and drainage of the abscess. Through a left thoracotomy, anterior T8–T10 corpectomy, debridement, anterior stabilization, and fusion were conducted. Results: Fifteen months later, final follow-up showed no complications secondary to the vertebral and hip surgeries, and neurological status improved to Frankel grade E. Laboratory investigations showed no evidence of Salmonella infection. Conclusion: Immunocompromised patients who undergo endoscopic intervention are vulnerable to Salmonella infections. One must consider Salmonella infection in those who develop acute progressive spondylodiskitis. PMID:16859227

  4. Pathogenesis of Salmonella-induced enteritis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.L., Santos; R.M., Tsolis; A.J., Bäumler; L.G., Adams.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections with Salmonella serotypes are a major cause of food-borne diseases worldwide. Animal models other than the mouse have been employed for the study of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections because the murine model is not suitable for the study of Salmonella-induced diarrhea. The microbe has de [...] veloped mechanisms to exploit the host cell machinery to its own purpose. Bacterial proteins delivered directly into the host cell cytosol cause cytoskeletal changes and interfere with host cell signaling pathways, which ultimately enhance disease manifestation. Recently, marked advances have been made in our understanding of the molecular interactions between Salmonella serotypes and their hosts. Here, we discuss the molecular basis of the pathogenesis of Salmonella-induced enteritis.

  5. Significance of salmonella in pork production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabasil Ne?eljko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals, feed, meat and meat products are often transported across long distances, being an important part of international trade, which enables a dissemination of salmonella, including even of some resistant strains. Pigs are animals which are difficult to manipulate because of their temperament, build, sharp teeth, irritability, good sense of smell, bad sight and their sensitivity to stress. Animals coming from different farms should be separated in stock yards to prevent both contamination with pathogens such as salmonella and their irritation and aggressiveness caused by contacts with other pigs. These animals are usually a significant reservoir of salmonella which are 'inside' the gastrointestinal tract and gut associated lymph tissue. In contrast to our country, in the EU, even countries which have always had low salmonella prevalence, e.g. Finland, have a control program. The program has to be based on a guarantee that all relevant factors will participate in the prevention of salmonella contamination.

  6. Remarkable diversity of Salmonella bacteriophages in swine and poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Pilar; Spricigo, Denis A; Bardina, Carlota; Llagostera, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of 55 Salmonella-specific bacteriophages isolated from 191 fecal samples of poultry and swine from farms located in diverse geographic areas of Spain was determined using lysis profiling, DNA restriction and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR). Among them, lysis profiling and RAPD-PCR exhibited 100% typeability and DNA restriction 96%, with discriminatory power of 0.978 (± 0.016), 0.938 (± 0.028) and 0.982 (± 0.013), respectively. The highest concordance (0.974) was that between RAPD-PCR and lysis profiling. None of the bacteriophages isolated from poultry and swine shared any DNA restriction or RAPD-PCR patterns and only two lysis profiles were common to bacteriophages isolated from poultry and swine. The major part of the lysis and RAPD-PCR profiles from the bacteriophages isolated from poultry included only one or two bacteriophages, while those obtained from swine contained more than two bacteriophages. Overall, our results provide evidence of the remarkable diversity exhibited by bacteriophages of Salmonella in farm animals. Moreover, they also show that RAPD-PCR may also be suitable for the pre-screening of the diversity of Salmonella bacteriophages for further use in biocontrol and therapeutic strategies. PMID:25670704

  7. Competitive exclusion of Salmonella enteritidis by Salmonella gallinarum in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabsch, W.; Hargis, B. M.; Tsolis, R. M.; Kingsley, R. A.; Hinz, K. H.; Tschäpe, H.; Bäumler, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis emerged as a major egg-associated pathogen in the late 20th century. Epidemiologic data from England, Wales, and the United States indicate that S. Enteritidis filled the ecologic niche vacated by eradication of S. Gallinarum from poultry, leading to an epidemic increase in human infections. We tested this hypothesis by retrospective analysis of epidemiologic surveys in Germany and demonstrated that the number of human S. Enteritidis cases is inversely related to the prevalence of S. Gallinarum in poultry. Mathematical models combining epidemiology with population biology suggest that S. Gallinarum competitively excluded S. Enteritidis from poultry flocks early in the 20th century. PMID:10998373

  8. Salmonella Sofia differs from other poultry-associated Salmonella serovars with respect to cell surface hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, T W R; Fegan, N; McMeekin, T A; Dykes, G A

    2008-12-01

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most important foodborne pathogens. Salmonella enterica subsp. II 4,12:b:- (Salmonella Sofia) is commonly found in Australian poultry. It has been suggested that physicochemical properties such as surface charge and hydrophobicity may affect bacterial attachment to surfaces and their ability to persist in food systems. A possible link between hydrophobicity cell surface charge and persistence of Salmonella from the poultry system was examined. Hydrophobicity of Salmonella Sofia (n = 14), Salmonella Typhimurium (n = 6), Salmonella Infantis (n = 3), and Salmonella Virchow (n = 2) was assayed using hydrophobic interaction chromatography, bacterial adherence to hydrocarbons (BATH), using xylene or hexadecane, and the contact angle method (CAM). Cellular surface charge (CSC) of the isolates was determined using zeta potential measurements. The majority (12 of 14) of Salmonella Sofia isolates were found to be hydrophobic when assayed using BATH with xylene, except isolates S1635 and S1636, and the other serovars were found to be hydrophilic. Salmonella Sofia isolates were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from isolates of other serovars as measured by hydrophobic interaction, BATH with hexadecane, or the CAM. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in zeta potential measurements were observed between isolates. Principal component analysis using results from all four measures of hydrophobicity allowed clear differentiation between isolates of the serovar Salmonella Sofia (except S1635 and S1636) and those of other Salmonella serovars. Differences in physicochemical properties may be a contributing factor to the Salmonella Sofia serovar's ability to attach to surfaces and persist in a food system. PMID:19244894

  9. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on a review on the European Union Summary reports on trends and sources zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2009 and 2010 – specifically for the data on Salmonella, Campylobacter, verotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and foodborne outbreaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    2012-01-01

    The European Union (EU) Summary Reports on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2009 and 2010 – specifically for the data on Salmonella, Campylobacter, verotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and foodborne outbreaks was reviewed. The main conclusions and recommendations are reported. Comparison between EU Member States (MSs) was found to be difficult due to the differences of the methods used, sampling schemes and reporting systems. Methods, sampling schemes and reporting systems among MSs should therefore be harmonised. When comparing MS-specific trends, the impact of sample sizes, weight of samples and methodologies should be considered, as these variables could otherwise lead to misinterpretation of the data. Incidence data alone do not provide a full picture of the public health burden of zoonotic diseases. Fatalities provide another important insight. Ultimately, summary measures of public health such as disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and cost-of-illness estimates should be presented. Travel information was found to be still incomplete in many MSs. For many pathogens this hampers source attribution. To better understand the public health problems related to food and animal sources in the EU, it is desirable to differentiate between travel within and outside the EU. This would also be useful to better evaluate the public health impact of EU-wide food safety measures. Whenever possible the data/results should be analysed using proper statistical tools. When data do not allow for this, the text should be kept to presenting the data without implying any patterns or trends.

  10. Epidemiological Investigation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Kedougou in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pornruangwong, Srirat; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat; Bangstrakulnonth, Aroon; Mikoleit, Matthew; Davies, Rob H.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Migura, Lourdes Garcia

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Salmonella enterica serovar Kedougou is among the top 10 serovars reported in northern Thailand. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella Kedougou infection in Thailand and to compare the molecular types and antimicrobial resistance with Salmonella Kedougou isolates of human origin from United States and of animal origin from the United Kingdom. Methods: Data from 13,976 Salmonella infections of which 253 were Salmonella Kedougou collected in...

  11. Transovarian passage, visceral distribution, and pathogenicity of salmonella in snakes.

    OpenAIRE

    Chiodini, R J

    1982-01-01

    Transovarian passage of salmonella was evaluated in snakes by cesarean delivery and subsequent bacteriological examination of fetuses. In all cases, the same Salmonella serotype was isolated from the feces of gravid females and their fetuses. The visceral distribution of salmonella in normal snakes was found to involve almost all visceral organs. Of nonenteric organs examined, salmonella was recovered most often from the livers and ureters. Experimental infections with Salmonella typhimurium ...

  12. Significance of the Bacteriophage Treatment Schedule in Reducing Salmonella Colonization of Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardina, Carlota; Spricigo, Denis A.; Cortés, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella remains the major cause of food-borne diseases worldwide, with chickens known to be the main reservoir for this zoonotic pathogen. Among the many approaches to reducing Salmonella colonization of broilers, bacteriophage offers several advantages. In this study, three bacteriophages (UAB_Phi20, UAB_Phi78, and UAB_Phi87) obtained from our collection that exhibited a broad host range against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were characterized with respect to morphology, genome size, and restriction patterns. A cocktail composed of the three bacteriophages was more effective in promoting the lysis of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium cultures than any of the three bacteriophages alone. In addition, the cocktail was able to lyse the Salmonella enterica serovars Virchow, Hadar, and Infantis. The effectiveness of the bacteriophage cocktail in reducing the concentration of S. Typhimurium was tested in two animal models using different treatment schedules. In the mouse model, 50% survival was obtained when the cocktail was administered simultaneously with bacterial infection and again at 6, 24, and 30 h postinfection. Likewise, in the White Leghorn chicken specific-pathogen-free (SPF) model, the best results, defined as a reduction of Salmonella concentration in the chicken cecum, were obtained when the bacteriophage cocktail was administered 1 day before or just after bacterial infection and then again on different days postinfection. Our results show that frequent treatment of the chickens with bacteriophage, and especially prior to colonization of the intestinal tract by Salmonella, is required to achieve effective bacterial reduction over time. PMID:22773654

  13. Monitoring the efficacy of steam and formaldehyde treatment of naturally Salmonella-infected layer houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; JØrgensen, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To monitor if a temperature-humidity-time treatment found to be effective in eliminating Salmonella in laboratory trials (Gradel et al. 2003) was efficient against Salmonella in naturally infected layer houses. Methods and Results: Six layer houses with natural Salmonella infections were steam treated in a download period, aiming at greater than or equal to60degreesC and 100% relative humidity (RH) during a 24-h period, with or without the addition of 30 ppm formaldehyde. In addition, two control layer houses were disinfected chemically. Salmonella samples taken from predetermined sites before and after treatment were tested qualitatively for Salmonella and coliforms. Samples with indicator bacteria (feed inoculated with Escherichia coli or Enterococcus faecalis and faeces with naturally occurring E. coli and enterococci) were placed during steam-treatment at 12 sites in each house (where the temperature was logged at 5-min intervals) and tested for surviving bacteria. Generally, the field test results confirmed the results of laboratory tests, especially when 30 ppm formaldehyde was added to the steam. In well-sealed houses, the recommended temperature-humidity-time scheme was accomplished at a minimum of 10 cm above floor level within 1 h. Conclusions: A steam treatment of greater than or equal to60degreesC and 100% RH during a 24-h period with the addition of 30 ppm formaldehyde at the beginning of the process is recommended for eliminating Salmonella from naturally infected poultry layer houses. Significance and Impact of the Study: A specific recommendation for the elimination of Salmonella in poultry houses can be given.

  14. Role of Host Cell-Derived Amino Acids in Nutrition of Intracellular Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Jasmin; Noster, Janina; Busch, Kim; Kehl, Alexander; Zur Hellen, Gero; Hensel, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica resides in a specific membrane-bound compartment termed the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). Despite being segregated from access to metabolites in the host cell cytosol, Salmonella is able to efficiently proliferate within the SCV. We set out to unravel the nutritional supply of Salmonella in the SCV with focus on amino acids. We studied the availability of amino acids by the generation of auxotrophic strains for alanine, asparagine, aspartate, glutamine, and proline in a macrophage cell line (RAW264.7) and an epithelial cell line (HeLa) and examined access to extracellular nutrients for nutrition. Auxotrophies for alanine, asparagine, or proline attenuated intracellular replication in HeLa cells, while aspartate, asparagine, or proline auxotrophies attenuated intracellular replication in RAW264.7 macrophages. The different patterns of intracellular attenuation of alanine- or aspartate-auxotrophic strains support distinct nutritional conditions in HeLa cells and RAW264.7 macrophages. Supplementation of medium with individual amino acids restored the intracellular replication of mutant strains auxotrophic for asparagine, proline, or glutamine. Similarly, a mutant strain deficient in succinate dehydrogenase was complemented by the extracellular addition of succinate. Complementation of the intracellular replication of auxotrophic Salmonella by external amino acids was possible if bacteria were proficient in the induction of Salmonella-induced filaments (SIFs) but failed in a SIF-deficient background. We propose that the ability of intracellular Salmonella to redirect host cell vesicular transport provides access of amino acids to auxotrophic strains and, more generally, is essential to continuously supply bacteria within the SCV with nutrients. PMID:26351287

  15. Evolutionary history of Salmonella typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumagnac, Philippe; Weill, François-Xavier; Dolecek, Christiane; Baker, Stephen; Brisse, Sylvain; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Le, Thi Anh Hong; Acosta, Camilo J; Farrar, Jeremy; Dougan, Gordon; Achtman, Mark

    2006-11-24

    For microbial pathogens, phylogeographic differentiation seems to be relatively common. However, the neutral population structure of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi reflects the continued existence of ubiquitous haplotypes over millennia. In contrast, clinical use of fluoroquinolones has yielded at least 15 independent gyrA mutations within a decade and stimulated clonal expansion of haplotype H58 in Asia and Africa. Yet, antibiotic-sensitive strains and haplotypes other than H58 still persist despite selection for antibiotic resistance. Neutral evolution in Typhi appears to reflect the asymptomatic carrier state, and adaptive evolution depends on the rapid transmission of phenotypic changes through acute infections. PMID:17124322

  16. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1982-01-01

    Validity of methodsExperiments were carried out In which it was assessed which Salmonella isolation method is the most productive one In the examination of broiler carcasses. Refrigerated, refrigerated and radiated (2.50 kGy), frozen and frozen and radiated (2.50 kGy) samples of broilers were examined. After evaluation of all results It was concluded that the following method was the most productive one:1. pre-enrichment in buffered peptone water at 37 °C for 20 hours2. enrichment in selenite...

  17. Surveillance and cross contamination of salmonella spp., in pork, with profiles of nalidixic acid resistance in salmonella

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Colm

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen and porcine products are an important source. With this in mind, pork sausages were surveyed for Salmonella prevalence. Sausages were sampled during August-December 2008, none of which were positive for Salmonella. As an alternative porcine source of salmonella, 102 pig ear pet treats were surveyed from October 2008 to September 2009. Salmonella was detected in 24.5% of treats using a culture detection method and 28.4% using peR. As dogs...

  18. Comparison of an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with bacterial culture for detection of Salmonella in poultry-hatchery environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Brian W; Lutze-Wallace, Cheryl L; Devenish, John; Elmufti, Mohamed; Burke, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    An antigen-capture, monoclonal-antibody-based enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) that detects a broad range of Salmonella serovars in various serogroups was developed and compared with standard culture procedures for detection of Salmonella in 1055 field samples collected from poultry-hatchery environments. The diagnostic sensitivity of the ELISA relative to culture was 99.9% and the diagnostic specificity 99.6%. The extensive culture procedure included nonselective enrichment (NSE) as well as primary selective enrichment (PSE) and delayed secondary enrichment (DSE) with Hajna tetrathionate (TT) and Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) selective-enrichment broths. Significantly more Salmonella-positive samples were detected by ELISA and culture at the DSE stage than at the NSE and PSE stages (P Salmonella by culture and ELISA by the DSE stage (P Salmonella in hatchery samples. PMID:24396183

  19. Functional and phenotypic profiling of innate immunity during Salmonella infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Rikke Brandt; Pedersen, Susanne Brix

    2012-01-01

    Salmonellae are food borne pathogens, typically acquired by the oral ingestion of contaminated food or water, causing disease in both healthy and immunocompromised individuals. To gain insight into early immune regulation events caused by Salmonella as well as inflammatory signatures induced by Salmonella and other bacteria in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC), we examined these properties using in vivo and in vitro experimental settings. The outcome of infection with Salmonella depends on the host as well as the infecting serovar. Understanding the relative risks associated with and within different serovars is of major importance for public health. Using an established mouse model, we compared the pathogenicity of two S. Typhimurium strains (SL1344 and DT120) and found that the passage through and the ability to proliferate within the host gastrointestinal system determined the pathogenicity of these strains. Salmonella is a mucosal pathogen, gaining access to host systemic circulation by crossing the gut epithelial barrier and residing intracellularly in DC and M?. Until recently focus has been centred on the involvement of M? and the conventional antigen-presenting DC (mDC) in bacterial infections, whereas the other major dendritic cell subset, plasmacytoid DC (pDC), plays an important part in antiviral responses, and is less well characterised in regard to antibacterial immunity. Using multi-parametric flow cytometry, we were able to show for the first time that pDC accumulated in Peyer’s patches 24 hours after murine oral Salmonella challenge and while M? and mDC exhibited dose-related cellular atrophy, pDC were less susceptible to bacteria-induced cell death, suggesting a role for pDC in early stage Salmonella containment. Furthermore, we identified a number of both DC and M? subsets, two of which following infection, accumulated in Peyer’s patches and lamina propria, respectively. Generally, we tend to set apart pathogenic bacteria from opportunistic pathogens and commensal bacteria based on their abilities to induce disease in different hosts, however, the nature of the inflammatory response they induce in DC that set them apart from commensal bacteria remains largely unclear. In the present study, we developed a system by which we were able to compare the bacteria-induced imprint of important regulatory proteins in DC to bacterial-encoded ligands. We observed that DC responded to six different bacteria in a phyla-specific manner giving rise to similar inflammatory signatures within the groups of proteobacteria, firmicutes and actinobacteria, hence being independent on pathogenic versus non-pathogenic properties, and also on the bacteria-to-cell ratio for most bacteria. The results presented in this thesis add to the current knowledge about innate immunity to Salmonella, suggest new host immune cell subsets important for bacterial containment and provide a basic understanding of bacteria-induced DC inflammatory programs. The two latter could prove important in regard to treatment regimes, as targeted modulation of DC profiles for instance by probiotics, could lead to improved therapy for a number of gut related diseases.

  20. Molecular Epidemiology of Nontyphoidal Salmonella in Poultry and Poultry Products in India: Implications for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Sellappan; Purushothaman, Venketaraman; Murthy, Thippichettypalayam Ramasamy Gopala Krishna; Sukumar, Kuppannan; Srinivasan, Palani; Gowthaman, Vasudevan; Balusamy, Mohan; Atterbury, Robert; Kuchipudi, Suresh V

    2015-09-01

    Human infections with non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars are increasingly becoming a threat to human health globally. While all motile Salmonellae have zoonotic potential, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium are most commonly associated with human disease, for which poultry are a major source. Despite the increasing number of human NTS infections, the epidemiology of NTS in poultry in India has not been fully understood. Hence, as a first step, we carried out epidemiological analysis to establish the incidence of NTS in poultry to evaluate the risk to human health. A total of 1215 samples (including poultry meat, tissues, egg and environmental samples) were collected from 154 commercial layer farms from southern India and screened for NTS. Following identification by cultural and biochemical methods, Salmonella isolates were further characterized by multiplex PCR, allele-specific PCR, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In the present study, 21/1215 (1.73 %) samples tested positive for NTS. We found 12/392 (3.06 %) of tissue samples, 7/460 (1.52 %) of poultry products, and 2/363 (0.55 %) of environmental samples tested positive for NTS. All the Salmonella isolates were resistant to oxytetracycline, which is routinely used as poultry feed additive. The multiplex PCR results allowed 16/21 isolates to be classified as S. Typhimurium, and five isolates as S. Enteritidis. Of the five S. Enteritidis isolates, four were identified as group D Salmonella by allele-specific PCR. All of the isolates produced different banding patterns in ERIC PCR. Of the thirteen macro restriction profiles (MRPs) obtained by PFGE, MRP 6 was predominant which included 6 (21 %) isolates. In conclusion, the findings of the study revealed higher incidence of contamination of NTS Salmonella in poultry tissue and animal protein sources used for poultry. The results of the study warrants further investigation on different type of animal feed sources, food market chains, processing plants, live bird markets etc., to evaluate the risk factors, transmission and effective control measures of human Salmonella infection from poultry products. PMID:26063942

  1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization method using a peptide nucleic acid probe for identification of Salmonella spp. in a broad spectrum of samples

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Carina; Azevedo, N. F.; Fernandes, R.M.; Keevil, C. W.; Vieira, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    A fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method for the rapid detection of Salmonella spp. using a novel peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe was developed. The probe theoretical specificity and sensitivity were both 100%. The PNA-FISH method was optimized, and laboratory testing on representative strains from the Salmonella genus subspecies and several related bacterial species confirmed the predicted theoretical values of specificity and sensitivity. The PNA-FISH method has been successfully...

  2. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Salmonella typhimurium in food: feasibility of 1-day Salmonella detection.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, H. A.; G. M.; Wyatt; Bramham, S; Morgan, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    A microtitration plate, antibody-capture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed for detection of Salmonella typhimurium. The assay utilizes a monoclonal detector antibody which shows no cross-reactions with non-Salmonella species and only a slight cross-reaction with one other Salmonella serotype. By using only one cultural stage (in a nonselective, chemically defined medium) prior to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, low numbers of cells in food (10 cells 25 g-1) were detected...

  3. Assessment of attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains in controlling experimental Salmonella Typhimurium infection in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Pei, Yanlong; Parreira, Valeria R; Roland, Kenneth L.; Curtiss, Roy; Prescott, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella hold considerable promise as vaccine delivery vectors for heterologous antigens in chickens. Such vaccines have the potential additional benefit of also controlling Salmonella infection in immunized birds. As a way of selecting attenuated strains with optimal immunogenic potential as antigen delivery vectors, this study screened 20 novel Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strains, differing in mutations associated with delayed antigen synthesis and delayed attenuation, for their effica...

  4. Occurrence of Salmonella sp in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gama NMSQ

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the presence of Salmonella sp in flocks of white laying hens. In different farms, the transport boxes of twelve flocks were inspected at arrival for the presence of Salmonella. Four positive (A, B, L and M and one negative (I flocks were monitored at each four weeks using bacteriological examination of cecal fresh feces up to 52 weeks. Birds were also evaluated at 52 weeks, when 500 eggs were taken randomly, and at 76 weeks, after forced molt. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica rough strain were isolated from the transport boxes of the four positive flocks (flocks A, B, L and M. Salmonella sp was not isolated from the transport boxes or from the feces after 76 weeks-old in flock I. Salmonella sp was isolated in the 1st, 11th, 34th, 42nd and 76th weeks from flock A; in the 1st, 4th, 11th and 76th weeks from flock B; in the first week and in the 17th to 52nd weeks from flock L; and in the 1st and 76th weeks from flock M. S. Enteritidis, S. enterica rough strain and Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis were isolated from the four positive flocks. Besides, Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana was isolated from flocks B and L, and Salmonella enterica serovar Mbandaka was isolated from flock L. Eggs produced by flock A and by flock L were contaminated with S. Enteritidis and S. enterica rough strain. According to these results, Salmonella-infected flocks may produce contaminated eggs.

  5. One-Step Identification of Five Prominent Chicken Salmonella Serovars and Biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunhong; Yue, Min; Rankin, Shelley; Weill, François-Xavier; Frey, Joachim; Schifferli, Dieter M

    2015-12-01

    Based on bacterial genomic data, we developed a one-step multiplex PCR assay to identify Salmonella and simultaneously differentiate the two invasive avian-adapted S. enterica serovar Gallinarum biotypes Gallinarum and Pullorum, and the most frequent, specific, and asymptomatic colonizers of chickens, serovars Enteritidis, Heidelberg, and Kentucky. PMID:26378281

  6. Previously uncharacterized Salmonella enterica genes required for swarming play a role in seedling colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incidences of bacterial foodborne illness caused by ingestion of fresh produce are rising. Instead of being a case of incidental contamination, the animal pathogen Salmonella enterica utilizes specific molecular mechanisms to attach to and colonize plants. This work characterizes two S. enterica gen...

  7. Sequential Acquisition of T Cells and Antibodies to Nontyphoidal Salmonella in Malawian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Nyirenda, Tonney S.; Gilchrist, James J.; Feasey, Nicholas A; Glennie, Sarah J.; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Gordon, Melita A.; MacLennan, Calman A.; Mandala, Wilson L.; Heyderman, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Background.?Salmonella Typhimurium (STm) remain a prominent cause of bacteremia in sub-Saharan Africa. Complement-fixing antibodies to STm develop by 2 years of age. We hypothesized that STm-specific CD4+ T cells develop alongside this process.

  8. Bacteriophage P1 as a vehicle for Mu mutagenesis of Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenfeld, S A; Brenchley, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    We developed a procedure using bacteriophage P1 as a vector for transferring Mu phage deoxyribonucleic acid into Salmonella typhimurium. Mu phage transferred in this manner yielded lysogenic auxotrophs, and we demonstrated that specific deletions and lac gene fusions can be selected.

  9. The identification of Salmonella enteritidis-infected poultry flocks associated with an outbreak of human salmonellosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Giessen, A.W., van de; Dufrenne, J. B.; Ritmeester, W.S.; Berkers, P. A.; Leeuwen, W.J. van; Notermans, S H

    1992-01-01

    In the summer of 1991 a human outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis infection occurred following a barbecue in which about 100 persons were involved. Eggs, supplied by one or more of 10 different layer farms, were the most probable source of the infection. To identify the S. enteritidis-positive flocks, an immunoassay was used to detect salmonella serogroup D-specific antibodies in the yolk of hens eggs. Antibody titres in the eggs from two layer farms, farm A and B, clearly exceeded the titres ...

  10. Effect of natural microbiota on growth of Salmonella spp. in fresh pork – A predictive microbiology approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØller, Cleide; Ilg, Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to model and predict growth of Salmonella and the dominating natural microbiota, and their interaction in ground pork. Growth of Salmonella in sterile ground pork at constant temperatures between 4 °C and 38 °C was quantified and used for developing predictive models for lag time, max. specific growth rate and max. population density. Data from literature were used to develop growth models for the natural pork microbiota. Challenge tests at temperatures from 9.4 to 24.1 °C and with Salmonella inoculated in ground pork were used for evaluation of interaction models. The existing Jameson-effect and Lotka–Volterra species interaction models and a new expanded Jameson-effect model were evaluated. F-test indicated lack-of-fit for the classical Jameson-effect model at all of the tested temperatures and at 14.1–20.2 °C this was caused by continued growth of Salmonella after the natural microbiota had reached their max. population density. The new expanded Jameson-effect model and the Lotka–Volterra model performed better and appropriately described the continued but reduced growth of Salmonella after the natural microbiota had reached their max. population density. The expanded Jameson-effect model is a new and simple species interaction model, which performed as well as the more complex Lotka–Volterra model.

  11. Molecular modelling, docking and interaction studies of human-plasmogen and salmonella enolase with enolase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Digvijay Singh; Chandra, Sharat; Gupta, Arun; Singh, Tiratha Raj

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enteric serovar Typhi Ty2 is a human specific pathogen and an etiological agent for typhoid fever. Most of Salmonella serotypes produce glycogen which has a comparatively minor role in virulence and colonization, but has a more significant role in survival. Enzymes present in glycolytic pathway of bacteria help bacteria to survive by activating other factors inside host. Numerous pathogenic bacteria species intervene with the plasminogen system, and this plasminogen-enolase association may play a critical role in the virulence of S. Typhi by causing direct damage to the host cell extracellular matrix, possibly by enzymic degradation of extracellular matrix proteins or other protein constituents. In this study, molecular modelling of enolase of Salmonella has been accomplished in silico by comparative modelling; we have then analyzed Human alpha enolase which is a homodimer and serves on epithelial cells with our model. Both Structures were docked by D-tartronate semialdehyde phosphate (TSP) and 3-aminoenolpyruvate phosphate (AEP) enolase inhibitors. Our study shows that salmonella enolase and human enolase have different active sites in their structure. This will help in development of new ligands, more suitable for inhibiting bacterial survival inside host as vaccines for typhoid fever are not fully protective. The study also confirmed that enolase Salmonella and Human Plasminogen suggested direct physical interaction between both of them as the activation loop of plasminogen residues showed conformational changes similar to the tissue type plasminogen activator. Various computational biology tools were used for our present study such as Modeller, Molegro Virtual Docker, Grommacs. PMID:22419838

  12. Bacterial clearance reverses a skewed T-cell repertoire induced by Salmonella infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Rangel, Jessica P; de los Angeles Hernández-Cueto, Maria; Galan-Enriquez, Carlos-Samuel; López-Medina, Marcela; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium invades the spleen, liver, and peripheral lymph nodes and has recently been detected in the bone marrow and thymus, resulting in a reduced thymic size and a decline in the total number of thymic cells. A specific deletion of the double-positive cell subset has been characterized, yet the export of mature T cells to the periphery remains normal. We analyzed Salmonella pathogenesis regarding thymic structure and the T-cell maturation process. We demonstrate that, despite alterations in the thymic structure, T-cell development is maintained during Salmonella infection, allowing the selection of single-positive T-cell clones expressing particular T-cell receptor beta chains (TCR-V?). Moreover, the treatment of infected mice with an antibiotic restored the normal thymic architecture and thymocyte subset distribution. Additionally, the frequency of TCR-V? usage after treatment was comparable to that in non-infected mice. However, bacteria were still recovered from the thymus after 1 month of treatment. Our data reveal that a skewed T-cell developmental process is present in the Salmonella-infected thymus that alters the TCR-V? usage frequency. Likewise, the post-treatment persistence of Salmonella reveals a novel function of the thymus as a potential reservoir for this infectious agent. PMID:26417438

  13. Prevalence of Salmonella serovars from captive reptiles from Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13% of the animals, among them 48.4% lizards, 8.9% snakes, and 3.8% turtles. Representatives of five of the six Salmonella enterica subspecies were identified with the following proportions in the total number of isolates: Salmonella enterica enterica 34.6%, Salmonella enterica houtenae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence of Salmonella is considerable in captive reptiles in Croatia, indicating that these animals may harbor serovars not commonly seen in veterinary or human microbiologic practice. This should be addressed in the prevention and diagnostics of human reptile-transmitted infections.

  14. Prevalence of salmonella in captive reptiles from Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13% of the animals, among them 48.4% lizards, 8.9% snakes, and 3.8% turtles. Representatives of five of the six Salmonella enterica subspecies were identified with the following proportions in the total number of isolates: Salmonella enterica enterica 34.6%, Salmonella enterica houtenae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence of Salmonella is considerable in captive reptiles in Croatia, indicating that these animals may harbor serovars not commonly seen in veterinary or human microbiologic practice. This should be addressed in the prevention and diagnostics of human reptile-transmitted infections.

  15. PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA IN CAPTIVE REPTILES FROM CROATIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-06-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13% of the animals, among them 48.4% lizards, 8.9% snakes, and 3.8% turtles. Representatives of five of the six Salmonella enterica subspecies were identified with the following proportions in the total number of isolates: Salmonella enterica enterica 34.6%, Salmonella enterica houtenae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence of Salmonella is considerable in captive reptiles in Croatia, indicating that these animals may harbor serovars not commonly seen in veterinary or human microbiologic practice. This should be addressed in the prevention and diagnostics of human reptile-transmitted infections. PMID:26056873

  16. PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA IN CAPTIVE REPTILES FROM CROATIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13% of the animals, among them 48.4% lizards, 8.9% snakes, and 3.8% turtles. Representatives of five of the six Salmonella enterica subspecies were identified with the following proportions in the total number of isolates: Salmonella enterica enterica 34.6%, Salmonella enterica houtenae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence of Salmonella is considerable in captive reptiles in Croatia, indicating that these animals may harbor serovars not commonly seen in veterinary or human microbiologic practice. This should be addressed in the prevention and diagnostics of human reptile-transmitted infections.

  17. Division of the Salmonella-Containing Vacuole and Depletion of Acidic Lysosomes in Salmonella-Infected Host Cells Are Novel Strategies of Salmonella enterica To Avoid Lysosomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Eswarappa, Sandeepa M; Negi, Vidya Devi; Chakraborty, Sangeeta; Chandrasekhar Sagar, B. K.; Chakravortty, Dipshikha

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella has evolved several strategies to counteract intracellular microbicidal agents like reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. However, it is not yet clear how Salmonella escapes lysosomal degradation. Some studies have demonstrated that Salmonella can inhibit phagolysosomal fusion, whereas other reports have shown that the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV) fuses/interacts with lysosomes. Here, we have addressed this issue from a different perspective by investigating if the infected ...

  18. Sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos de cepas de salmonella aisladas en granjas porcinas del estado Zulia / Antimicrobial susceptibility of salmonella strains isolated from pig herds in Zulia state

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Willian, Mejia; Derwin, Calatayud Marquez; Denice, Zapata; Armando, Quintero; Damarys, Sánchez; Enric, Mateu.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los patrones de resistencia a los antimicrobianos de diferentes cepas de Salmonella aisladas en granjas de cerdos del estado Zulia. Para este fin se evaluaron mediante la técnica de Bauer-Kirby, 126 cepas de Salmonella aisladas de heces de cerdos portadores [...] asintomáticos. Las pruebas de sensibilidad antimicrobiana demostraron que los más altos niveles de resistencia fueron frente a la sulfamida (54%), tetraciclina (40%), ácido nalidíxico (29%) y ampicilina (23%). Sin embargo, sensibilidad superior al 95% fue encontrada frente a la ceftriaxona, gentamicina, apramicina y colistina. El treinta por ciento de las cepas mostraron multirresistencia (MR) a los antimicrobianos, siendo el patrón de resistencia ASuT (7,14%) el más frecuente. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la proporción de cepas de Salmonella de origen porcino con características de multirresistencia a los agentes antimicrobianos es medianamente elevada (30%) y esta multirresistencia puede afectar a cualquier serotipo. Desde ese punto de vista, la infección de las personas por cepas de Salmonella de origen porcino conlleva a un riesgo potencial de presentar dificultades en el tratamiento específico. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial resintance paterns of different strains of Salmonella isolated in pig farms of the Zulia State. To achieve these goals 126 strain Salmonella were screened by Kirby-Bauer method, colleted from heces of pigs asymptomatic. Antimicrobial susceptibilit [...] y tests showed that the highest level of resistance was against Sulphonamides (54%), Tetracycline (40%), Nalidixic acid (29%) and Amplicillin (23%). However, susceptibility superior to 95% was found to Ceftriaxone, Gentamycin, Apramycin and Colistin. Thrity percent of the strains showed multirresitance, being the patterns resistance ASuT (7.14%) the most frequent. The results indicate the proportion of strain of Salmonella of pig origin with characteristics of multiresistance to the antimicrobial agents is elevated (30%) and this multiresistance could affect to anyone serotype. From this point of view, the infection of the people by isolates of Salmonella from swine origin entails a potential risk to present difficulties in the specific treatment.

  19. A comparative study of culture methods and PCR assay for Salmonella detection in poultry drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, M C; Soria, M A; Bueno, D J

    2013-01-01

    The present work compared 2 culture methods and PCR assays for motile and nonmotile Salmonella detection using artificially contaminated poultry drinking water. The specificity was 1 for all methods studied. The accuracy and sensitivity were 1 for all motile strains, whereas these parameters were between 0 and 0.7 for nonmotile Salmonella strains. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 1 for all motile Salmonella strains in the 3 methods used. Nonmotile Salmonella strains showed a positive predictive value of 1 in the PCR method. However, the positive predictive value was indeterminate in the tetrathionate (TT) methods for both strains tested and in the modified semisolid Rappaport-Vassiliadis (MSRV) method for Salmonella Pullorum. On the other hand, the negative predictive value was between 0.20 and 0.43 for the 3 methods. The detection level of motile strains was 4 to 7 cfu/25 mL for all methods. Nonmotile Salmonella strains could not be detected in the TT method, whereas only Salmonella Gallinarum could be recovered from 1.1 × 10(1) cfu/25 mL in the MSRV method. In relation to the molecular methods, PCR could detect these strains from 1.1 × 10(4) cfu/25 mL. Extending incubation time of the enrichment medium to 6 d in the TT method did not improve the isolation rates. In general, all selective plating media did not show any statistical differences in the parameters of performance studied. The kappa coefficient showed that there was an excellent agreement between the 3 methods for motile strains. For nonmotile strains, the agreement was poor between the MSRV and the PCR; there was no agreement when the TT method was compared with the MSRV and the PCR methods. The difference in detection levels obtained with the methods used for motile and nonmotile Salmonella strains and the difficulty in detecting these last strains represents a potential problem when a poultry water sample is considered negative for the presence of Salmonella. PMID:23243252

  20. Radiosensitivity study of salmonella enteritidis in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the applications of ionizing radiations in food is the inactivation of vegetative phatogenic bacteria (radicidation) such as Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Vibro and Listeria. These bacteria are associated with the diseases transmitted by food (ETA). Fresh and frozen farmyard fowls can be contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms, between them Salmonella. In Argentine, between years 1987-1990, Salmonella enteritidis was the main cause of salmonellosis. In food irradiation, with the aim of improving and assuring its hygienic quality, it is important to know the radiosensitivity of microorganisms to be inactivated. Inactivation of a determined microorganism shall depend, between others factors, of the species, strain, number and of the irradiation conditions (temperature, media, etc.). D10 value is a very useful data in order to compare radiosensitivities between the microorganisms and the influence of different factors in their sensitivities. In this paper, it was determined the sensitivity to the gamma radiation of Salmonella enteritidis in fresh and frozen chickens

  1. 75 FR 18751 - Prevention of Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 118 [Docket No. FDA-2000-N-0190] Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation; Change of Registration Date, Address, and...

  2. Water Frogs, Aquariums, and Salmonella -- Oh My!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-09

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses how people can get Salmonella from water frogs and aquariums.  Created: 12/9/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 12/9/2009.

  3. The sensitivity of real-time PCR amplification targeting invasive Salmonella serovars in biological specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau Tran

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCR amplification for the detection of pathogens in biological material is generally considered a rapid and informative diagnostic technique. Invasive Salmonella serovars, which cause enteric fever, can be commonly cultured from the blood of infected patients. Yet, the isolation of invasive Salmonella serovars from blood is protracted and potentially insensitive. Methods We developed and optimised a novel multiplex three colour real-time PCR assay to detect specific target sequences in the genomes of Salmonella serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. We performed the assay on DNA extracted from blood and bone marrow samples from culture positive and negative enteric fever patients. Results The assay was validated and demonstrated a high level of specificity and reproducibility under experimental conditions. All bone marrow samples tested positive for Salmonella, however, the sensitivity on blood samples was limited. The assay demonstrated an overall specificity of 100% (75/75 and sensitivity of 53.9% (69/128 on all biological samples. We then tested the PCR detection limit by performing bacterial counts after inoculation into blood culture bottles. Conclusions Our findings corroborate previous clinical findings, whereby the bacterial load of S. Typhi in peripheral blood is low, often below detection by culture and, consequently, below detection by PCR. Whilst the assay may be utilised for environmental sampling or on differing biological samples, our data suggest that PCR performed directly on blood samples may be an unsuitable methodology and a potentially unachievable target for the routine diagnosis of enteric fever.

  4. Interactions of Salmonella enterica with dendritic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Swart, A. Leoni; Hensel, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) form an important link between innate and adaptive immunity. However, DCs are also deployed as vehicles for systemic spread of pathogens. Salmonella is an important gastrointestinal pathogen causing diseases ranging from gastroenteritis to typhoid fever. DCs play an important role in the immunity against Salmonella infection, but this pathogen has also evolved efficient mechanisms to persist after phagocytosis by DCs, to spread using DCs as vehicles and to interfere with...

  5. Anaerobiosis induced virulence of Salmonella typhi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapoor, Sarika; Singh, R D; Sharma, P C; Khullar, Madhu

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Anaerobic conditions are frequently encountered by pathogens invading the gastrointestinal tract due to low/limiting oxygen conditions prevalent in the small intestine. This anaerobic stress has been suggested to enhance the virulence of gut pathogens. In the present study, we examined the effect of anaerobiosis on the virulence of Salmonella Typhi, a Gram negative bacteria which invades through the gut mucosa and is responsible for typhoid fever. METHODS: Salmonella Typ...

  6. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies. PMID:25719872

  7. Salmonella kingabwa meningitis in a neonate

    OpenAIRE

    Olariu, Adina; Jain, Sangita; Gupta, Ajay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A 23-day-old male baby was admitted with 1 day history of high temperature, irritability and poor feeding. His general examination was unremarkable. Salmonella species grew from CSF culture and subsequent identification revealed Salmonella kingabwa, a serotype which rarely causes human illness. The child lived with his parents and regularly visited his grandmother for 4 h every day. Grandmother kept five snakes and five water dragons as pets. They lived in tanks and crawled freely around the ...

  8. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    OpenAIRE

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the prod...

  9. Interference with lysosomal biogenesis by Salmonella Typhimurium

    OpenAIRE

    McGourty, Kieran D.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that replicates within membrane-bound vacuoles by delivering virulence (effector) proteins across the vacuolar membrane by the SPI-2 type III secretion system (T3SS). In this thesis I show that through the action of this T3SS, Salmonella selectively interferes with a subset of endosome-to-trans-Golgi network (TGN) traffic that is involved in mannose-6-phosphate receptor (MPR) recycling. Two pathways of endosome-to-TGN t...

  10. European Food Safety Authority; Analysis of the baseline survey of Salmonella in holdings with breeding pigs, in the EU, 2008; Part B: Analysis of factors potentially associated with Salmonella pen positivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    2011-01-01

    A European Union-wide Salmonella baseline survey was conducted in 2008 in holdings with breeding pigs. A total of 1,609 randomly selected holdings housing and selling mainly breeding pigs (breeding holdings) and 3,508 holdings housing commercial breeding pigs and mainly selling pigs for fattening or slaughter (production holdings) were sampled. In each selected holding, pooled fresh faecal samples were collected from 10 randomly chosen pens of breeding pigs over six months of age, representing the different stages of the breeding herd, and examined for the presence of Salmonella. Analyses at country-level demonstrated a strong positive association between the prevalence of Salmonella-positive breeding holdings and the prevalence of Salmonella-positive production holdings, suggesting a vertical dissemination of Salmonella between the holdings. Based on the combined results from breeding and production holdings, multivariable regression analysis showed that the odds of Salmonella-positive pens with pigs increased with the number of breeding pigs in the holding and with the following pen-level factors: flooring systems other than slatted floors or solid floors with straw, presence of maiden gilts, number of pigs per pen, feed of commercial compound origin or pelleted feed. A tendency towards some Member State group-specific Salmonella serovars was identified, but spatial distribution of other serovars was heterogeneous. S. Typhimurium and S. Derby were widespread and dominant in the EU, in both breeding and production holdings. However, many other serovars were relatively prevalent in Western EU Member States. A complementary within-holding prevalence study indicated that, due to a non-perfect diagnostic test sensitivity, the observed EU-level prevalence of Salmonella-positive holdings with breeding pigs was roughly 80% of the estimated true EU-level prevalence. But this proportion varied between Member States.

  11. A novel electrochemical sensing strategy for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of Salmonella by rolling circle amplification and DNA–AuNPs probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel electrochemical sensing strategy was developed for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of Salmonella by combining the rolling circle amplification with DNA–AuNPs probe. - Highlights: • This paper presented a novel sensing strategy for the rapid and ultrasensitive detection for Salmonella. • Combination of rolling circle amplification and DNA–AuNPs probe is the first time for Salmonella electrochemical detection. • The method displayed excellent sensitivity and specificity for detection of Salmonella. • The fabricated biosensor was successfully applied to detect Salmonella in milk samples. - Abstract: A novel electrochemical sensing strategy was developed for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of Salmonella by combining the rolling circle amplification with DNA–AuNPs probe. The target DNA could be specifically captured by probe 1 on the sensing interface. Then the circularization mixture was added to form a typical sandwich structure. In the presence of dNTPs and phi29 DNA polymerase, the RCA was initiated to produce micrometer-long single-strand DNA. Finally, the detection probe (DNA–AuNPs) could recognize RCA product to produce enzymatic electrochemical signal. Under optimal conditions, the calibration curve of synthetic target DNA had good linearity from 10 aM to 10 pM with a detection limit of 6.76 aM (S/N = 3). The developed method had been successfully applied to detect Salmonella as low as 6 CFU mL?1 in real milk sample. This proposed strategy showed great potential for clinical diagnosis, food safety and environmental monitoring

  12. A novel electrochemical sensing strategy for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of Salmonella by rolling circle amplification and DNA–AuNPs probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Dan; Yan, Yurong; Lei, Pinhua; Shen, Bo [Key Laboratory of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics (Ministry of Education), College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Cheng, Wei [Key Laboratory of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics (Ministry of Education), College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); The Center for Clinical Molecular Medical detection, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Ju, Huangxian [Key Laboratory of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics (Ministry of Education), College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ding, Shijia, E-mail: dingshijia@163.com [Key Laboratory of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics (Ministry of Education), College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China)

    2014-10-10

    A novel electrochemical sensing strategy was developed for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of Salmonella by combining the rolling circle amplification with DNA–AuNPs probe. - Highlights: • This paper presented a novel sensing strategy for the rapid and ultrasensitive detection for Salmonella. • Combination of rolling circle amplification and DNA–AuNPs probe is the first time for Salmonella electrochemical detection. • The method displayed excellent sensitivity and specificity for detection of Salmonella. • The fabricated biosensor was successfully applied to detect Salmonella in milk samples. - Abstract: A novel electrochemical sensing strategy was developed for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of Salmonella by combining the rolling circle amplification with DNA–AuNPs probe. The target DNA could be specifically captured by probe 1 on the sensing interface. Then the circularization mixture was added to form a typical sandwich structure. In the presence of dNTPs and phi29 DNA polymerase, the RCA was initiated to produce micrometer-long single-strand DNA. Finally, the detection probe (DNA–AuNPs) could recognize RCA product to produce enzymatic electrochemical signal. Under optimal conditions, the calibration curve of synthetic target DNA had good linearity from 10 aM to 10 pM with a detection limit of 6.76 aM (S/N = 3). The developed method had been successfully applied to detect Salmonella as low as 6 CFU mL{sup ?1} in real milk sample. This proposed strategy showed great potential for clinical diagnosis, food safety and environmental monitoring.

  13. Evaluation of nonpathogenic surrogate bacteria as process validation indicators for Salmonella enterica for selected antimicrobial treatments, cold storage, and fermentation in meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebuhr, S E; Laury, A; Acuff, G R; Dickson, J S

    2008-04-01

    Prerigor lean and adipose beef carcass tissues were artificially inoculated individually with stationary-phase cultures of five nonpathogenic Escherichia coli cultures that had been previously identified as surrogates for E. coli O157:H7 or a mixture of five Salmonella strains in a fecal inoculum. Each tissue sample was processed with microbial interventions comparable with those used in the meat industry. The log reductions of the E. coli isolates were generally not statistically different from the salmonellae inoculum within a specific treatment. Inoculation experiments were also conducted with ground beef stored at either 4 or -20 degrees C. When compared with the Salmonella inoculum, at least three of the five E. coli strains survived in a manner that was not statistically different from the salmonellae. The E. coli strains and the Salmonella mixed culture were also inoculated into summer sausage batter, and the population enumerated both before and after fermentation. Four of the E. coli strains showed a lower population reduction (higher survival) than the Salmonella mixed culture. The five nonpathogenic E. coli strains may be used as individually or collectively for specific process validation indicators for Salmonella. PMID:18468024

  14. Sources and risk factors for contamination, survival, persistence, and heat resistance of Salmonella in low-moisture foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolak, Richard; Enache, Elena; Stone, Warren; Black, Darryl G; Elliott, Philip H

    2010-10-01

    Sources and risk factors for contamination, survival, persistence, and heat resistance of Salmonella in low-moisture foods are reviewed. Processed products such as peanut butter, infant formula, chocolate, cereal products, and dried milk are characteristically low-water-activity foods and do not support growth of vegetative pathogens such as Salmonella. Significant food safety risk might occur when contamination takes place after a lethal processing step. Salmonella cross-contamination in low-moisture foods has been traced to factors such as poor sanitation practices, poor equipment design, and poor ingredient control. It is well recognized that Salmonella can survive for long periods in low-moisture food products. Although some die-off occurs in low-moisture foods during storage, the degree of reduction depends on factors such as storage temperature and product formulation. The heat resistance of Salmonella is affected by many factors, mostly by strain and serotypes tested, previous growth and storage conditions, the physical and chemical food composition, test media, and the media used to recover heat-damaged cells. Salmonella heat resistance generally increases with reducing moisture. Care must be taken when applying published D- and z-values to a specific food process. The product composition and heating medium and conditions should not be significantly different from the product and process parameters used by the processors. PMID:21067682

  15. Study on phenotypic characteristics of Salmonella gallinarum and Sallmonella pullorum isolates based on biochemical and antimicrobial susceptibility tests in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradi Bidhendi, S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is a very important disease of avian species because of its huge economic impact, worldwide distribution and difficulty posed in its control. Fowl typhoid and pullorum disease, is caused by Salmonella enterica subsp enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum and Pullorum. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biochemical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella gallinarum and Salmonella pullorum. A total of 13 Salmonella isolates, identified by biochemical tests and specific antisera including Salmonella gallinarum (n=10 and Salmonella pullorum (n=3. All were found to be susceptible to gentamicin. Also 7 (53.8 %, 6 (46.1% and 5 (38.4% isolates were resistant to streptomycin, cephalexin and nalidixic acid respectively. Multidrug resistance to three or more antibiotics was observed in 6 (46.1% isolates and overall 9 antibiotic resistance patterns were recorded. The results showed that poultries as a source of antimicrobial resistance could pose a serious risk to public health via food chain transfer. Hence more epidemiological surveillance programs and antibiotic susceptibility investigations are advised.

  16. Prevalence and characterization of motile Salmonella in commercial layer poultry farms in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barua, Himel; Biswas, Paritosh K.

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella is a globally widespread food-borne pathogen having major impact on public health. All motile serovars of Salmonella enterica of poultry origin are zoonotic, and contaminated meat and raw eggs are an important source to human infections. Information on the prevalence of Salmonella at farm/holding level, and the zoonotic serovars circulating in layer poultry in the South and South-East Asian countries including Bangladesh, where small-scale commercial farms are predominant, is limited. To investigate the prevalence of Salmonella at layer farm level, and to identify the prevalent serovars we conducted a cross-sectional survey by randomly selecting 500 commercial layer poultry farms in Bangladesh. Faecal samples from the selected farms were collected following standard procedure, and examined for the presence of Salmonella using conventional bacteriological procedures. Thirty isolates were randomly selected, from the ninety obtained from the survey, for serotyping and characterized further by plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results of the survey showed that the prevalence of motile Salmonella at layer farm level was 18% (95% confidence interval 15-21%), and Salmonella Kentucky was identified to be the only serovar circulating in the study population. Plasmid analysis of the S. Kentucky and non-serotyped isolates revealed two distinct profiles with a variation of two different sizes (2.7 and 4.8 kb). PFGE of the 30 S. Kentucky and 30 non-serotyped isolates showed that all of them were clonally related because only one genotype and three subtypes were determined based on the variation in two or three bands. This is also the first report on the presence of any specific serovar of Salmonella enterica in poultry in Bangladesh.

  17. Salmonella recovery from broilers and litter following gavage with Salmonella colonized darkling beetles and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transmission of Salmonella to broiler chicks with Salmonella colonized darkling beetles or larvae was evaluated by sampling litter and ceca during growout. In two trials, 1 or 2 day-of-hatch broiler chicks (in a pen of 40) were gavaged with either 4 darkling beetles, 4 beetle larvae, or 0.1 mL pept...

  18. Visualization of gold and platinum nanoparticles interacting with Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sawosz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Ewa Sawosz1, André Chwalibog2, Jacek Szeliga3, Filip Sawosz2, Marta Grodzik1, Marlena Rupiewicz1, Tomasz Niemiec1, Katarzyna Kacprzyk11Division of Biotechnology and Biochemistry of Nutrition, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; 2Department of Basic Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Division of Microbiology of Analytical Centre, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, PolandPurpose: Rapid development of nanotechnology has recently brought significant attention to the extraordinary biological features of nanomaterials. The objective of the present ­investigation was to evaluate morphological characteristics of the assembles of gold and platinum nanoparticles (nano-Au and nano-Pt respectively, with Salmonella Enteritidis (Gram-negative and Listeria monocytogenes (Gram-positive, to reveal possibilities of constructing bacteria-nanoparticle vehicles.Methods: Hydrocolloids of nano-Au or nano-Pt were added to two bacteria suspensions in the following order: nano-Au + Salmonella Enteritidis; nano-Au + Listeria monocytogenes; nano-Pt + Salmonella Enteritidis; nano-Pt + Listeria monocytogenes. Samples were inspected by transmission electron microscope.Results: Visualization of morphological interaction between nano-Au and Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes, showed that nano-Au were aggregated within flagella or biofilm network and did not penetrate the bacterial cell. The analysis of morphological effects of interaction of nano-Pt with bacteria revealed that nano-Pt entered cells of Listeria monocytogenes and were removed from the cells. In the case of Salmonella Enteritidis, nano-Pt were seen inside bacteria cells, probably bound to DNA and partly left bacterial cells. After washing and centrifugation, some of the nano-Pt-DNA complexes were observed within Salmonella Enteritidis.Conclusion: The results indicate that the bacteria could be used as a vehicle to deliver nano-Pt to specific points in the body.Keywords: morphology, nanoparticles, gold, platinum, bacteria

  19. 2nd Death Reported in Nationwide Salmonella Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_154561.html 2nd Death Reported in Nationwide Salmonella Outbreak Tainted cucumbers also ... THURSDAY, Sept. 10, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A second death has been reported in a salmonella outbreak that ...

  20. Enjoying Homemade Ice Cream without the Risk of Salmonella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contaminants Buy, Store & Serve Safe Food Enjoying Homemade Ice Cream without the Risk of Salmonella Infection Share Tweet ... it Email Print August 2004 Every year homemade ice cream causes several outbreaks of Salmonella infection with up ...

  1. 21 CFR 118.4 - Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention...OF SHELL EGGS § 118.4 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention...remove dust, feathers, and old feed; and (iii) Following...remove dust, feathers, and old feed; and (3) Following...

  2. Differential activation and function of Rho GTPases during Salmonella–host cell interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Jayesh C.; Galán, Jorge E

    2006-01-01

    Salmonella enterica, the cause of food poisoning and typhoid fever, has evolved sophisticated mechanisms to modulate Rho family guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) to mediate specific cellular responses such as actin remodeling, macropinocytosis, and nuclear responses. These responses are largely the result of the activity of a set of bacterial proteins (SopE, SopE2, and SopB) that, upon delivery into host cells via a type III secretion system, activate specific Rho family GTPases either dire...

  3. Salmonellae in Avian Wildlife in Norway from 1969 to 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Refsum, Thorbjørn; Handeland, Kjell; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Holstad, Gudmund; Kapperud, Georg

    2002-01-01

    Postmortem records of wild-living birds in Norway with laboratory-confirmed findings of salmonella infection were summarized for the period from 1969 to 2000. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 470 birds belonging to 26 species. The salmonella-positive birds included 441 small passerines, 15 gulls, 5 waterfowl, 4 birds of prey, 3 doves, and 2 crows. The bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) was by far the most frequently recorded species (54% of the cases). Salmonella enterica serover Typhimurium was...

  4. Salmonellae in avian wildlife in Norway from 1969 to 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsum, T.; Handeland, K.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Holstad, G.; Kapperud, G.

    2002-01-01

    Postmortem records of wild-living birds in Norway with laboratory-confirmed findings of salmonella infection were summarized for the period from 1969 to 2000. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 470 birds belonging to 26 species. The salmonella-positive birds included 441 small passerines, 15 gulls, 5 waterfowl, 4 birds of prey, 3 doves, and 2 crows. The bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) was by far the most frequently recorded species (54% of the cases). Salmonella enterica serover Typhimurium was re...

  5. Functional and phenotypic profiling of innate immunity during Salmonella infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Brandt; Pedersen, Susanne Brix

    2012-01-01

    Salmonellae are food borne pathogens, typically acquired by the oral ingestion of contaminated food or water, causing disease in both healthy and immunocompromised individuals. To gain insight into early immune regulation events caused by Salmonella as well as inflammatory signatures induced by Salmonella and other bacteria in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC), we examined these properties using in vivo and in vitro experimental settings. The outcome of infection with Salmonella depend...

  6. Phylogenetic relationships of Salmonella based on rRNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H.; Nordentoft, Steen; Olsen, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    To establish the phylogenetic relationships between the subspecies of Salmonella enterica (official name Salmonella choleraesuis), Salmonella bongori and related members of Enterobacteriaceae, sequence comparison of rRNA was performed by maximum-likelihood analysis. The two Salmonella species were separated by 16S rRNA analysis and found to be closely related to the Escherichia coli and Shigella complex by both 16S and 23S rRNA analyses. The diphasic serotypes S. enterica subspp. I and VI were s...

  7. Evanescent Wave Fiber Optic Biosensor for Salmonella Detection in Food

    OpenAIRE

    Bhunia, Arun K; Mark T. Morgan; Shu-I Tu; Angela M. Valadez; Lana, Carlos A.

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a major food-borne pathogen of world-wide concern. Sensitive and rapid detection methods to assess product safety before retail distribution are highly desirable. Since Salmonella is most commonly associated with poultry products, an evanescent wave fiber-optic assay was developed to detect Salmonella in shell egg and chicken breast and data were compared with a time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) assay. Anti-Salmonella polyclonal antibody was immobilized onto the surface ...

  8. Resistance of broiler outbred lines to infection with Salmonella enteritidis

    OpenAIRE

    Bolder, N. M.; Janss, L.L.G.; Putirulan, F.F.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Salmonella infections originating from poultry are one of the major causes of food-borne disease. For the control of salmonella in poultry a multifactorial approach is more likely to be effective, and the genetic resistance of poultry breeds to salmonella infections may be a valuable contribution. Experimental Salmonella enteritidis infections were examined in three different broiler outbred lines: the FC line, which had been selected for feed conversion efficiency; the R line, which had been...

  9. Dissemination and tracking of Salmonella spp. in integrated broiler operation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Aeran; Lee, Young Ju; Kang, Min Su; Kwag, Sang Ick; Cho, Jae Keun

    2007-01-01

    Controlling Salmonella in integrated broiler operation is complicated because there are numerous potential sources of Salmonella contamination, including chicks, feed, rodents, wild poultry operations, and the processing plant. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of Salmonella through all phases of two integrated broiler operations and to determine the key areas related to the control of all known sources of infection. Two different Salmonella serotypes were observ...

  10. Mannanoligosaccharide agglutination by Salmonella enterica strains isolated from carrier pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Luciane Borowsky; Gertrudes Corção; Marisa Cardoso

    2009-01-01

    Type-1 fimbriae are associated with most Salmonella enterica serovars and are an essential factor for host colonization. Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS), a prebiotic that is agglutinated by type-1 fimbriae, are proposed for the control of enterobacteria colonization and may be an alternative to Salmonella control in pigs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of porcine Salmonella strains to adhere to MOS in vitro. A total of 108 strains of Salmonella sp. isolated from carrier pig...

  11. Ingress of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium into Tomato Leaves through Hydathodes

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Ganyu; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2013-01-01

    Internal contamination of Salmonella in plants is attracting increasing attention for food safety reasons. In this study, three different tomato cultivars “Florida Lanai”, “Crown Jewel”, “Ailsa Craig” and the transgenic line Sp5 of “Ailsa Craig” were inoculated with 1 µl GFP-labeled Salmonella Typhimurium through guttation droplets at concentrations of 109 or 107 CFU/ml. Survival of Salmonella on/in tomato leaves was detected by both direct plating and enrichment methods. Salmonella cells sur...

  12. Diffuse abdominal gallium-67 citrate uptake in salmonella infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two pediatric patients with salmonella infections (one with typhoid fever and the second with salmonella C2 gastroenteritis), had a diffuse abdominal uptake of Ga-67 citrate. The possible explanation for this finding is discussed. Salmonella infection should be included as a cause in the differential diagnosis of diffuse accumulation of Ga-67 citrate

  13. Salmonella Serovars in the Herpetofauna of Indiana County, Pennsylvania

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, David L.; Hulse, Arthur C.

    2006-01-01

    Herpetofaunal Salmonella enterica serovars have not been fully examined in any U.S. region. Thirty-three Salmonella serovars were isolated from 156 samples from 34 species, all within Indiana County, Pennsylvania. Results suggest that herpetofaunas could potentially pose a threat to humans. Further understanding of Salmonella in herpetofaunas may prevent future human cases.

  14. Risk of Human Salmonella Infections from Live Baby Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Risk of Human Salmonella Infections from Live Baby Poultry Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Risk of ... messages, and helpful resources. How do people get Salmonella infections from live baby poultry? Live poultry may have Salmonella germs in their ...

  15. Antibiotic Resistant Salmonella and Vibrio Associated with Farmed Litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Sanjoy; Ooi, Mei Chen; SHARIFF, Mohamed; KHATOON, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella and Vibrio species were isolated and identified from Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in shrimp farms. Shrimp samples showed occurrence of 3.3% of Salmonella and 48.3% of Vibrio. The isolates were also screened for antibiotic resistance to oxolinic acid, sulphonamides, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, norfloxacin, ampicillin, doxycycline hydrochloride, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and nitrofurantoin. Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis isolated from shrimp showed indiv...

  16. Towards standardization of microarray-based genotyping of Salmonella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; GrØnlund, Hugo Ahlm

    2010-01-01

    Genotyping is becoming an increasingly important tool to improve risk assessments of Salmonella. DNA microarray technology is a promising diagnostic tool that can provide high resolution genomic profile of many genes simultaneously. However, standardization of DNA microarray analysis is needed before it can be used as a tool in source attribution models for comparable characterization of isolates across laboratories and countries. The reproducibility of data was evaluated for a simple and single-dye DNA microarray (Huehn et al., Appl Environ Microbiol, 2009, 75:1011-1020) for genotyping of Salmonella at two different laboratories. The low-density array contained 281 of 57-60-mer oligonucleotide probes for detecting a wide range of specific genomic markers associated with antibiotic resistance, cell envelope structures, mobile genetic elements and pathogenicity. Several test parameters that differed between the two labs were identified: printing facilities and equipment, choice of hybridization buffer, wash buffers used following hybridization and the choice of procedure for purifying genomic DNA. These critical parameters were randomized in a four-factorial experiment and statistical measures of inter-lab consistency and agreement were performed based on the kappa coefficient. A high level of agreement (kappa = 0.7-1.0) was obtained even when using different printing and hybridization facilities, different procedures for purifying genomic DNA and different wash buffers. However, less agreement (Kappa = 0.2-0.6) between microarray results were observed when using different hybridization buffers, indicating this as the most critical factor for standardization between laboratories. In conclusion, this study indicates that it is possible to set up an international standard for a decentralized and simple-to-implement DNA microarray as part of a pan-European source-attribution model for risk assessment of Salmonella.

  17. Comparison of an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with bacterial culture for detection of Salmonella in poultry-hatchery environmental samples

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Brian W.; Lutze-Wallace, Cheryl L.; Devenish, John; Elmufti, Mohamed; Burke, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    An antigen-capture, monoclonal-antibody-based enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) that detects a broad range of Salmonella serovars in various serogroups was developed and compared with standard culture procedures for detection of Salmonella in 1055 field samples collected from poultry-hatchery environments. The diagnostic sensitivity of the ELISA relative to culture was 99.9% and the diagnostic specificity 99.6%. The extensive culture procedure included nonselective enrichment (NSE) as well as...

  18. Serotyperingsuitslagen van Salmonella stammen in de lidstaten van de Europese Unie (Derde ringonderzoek met de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella)

    OpenAIRE

    Voogt N; Maas HME; van Leeuwen WJ; Henken AM

    2007-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium (CRL) voor Salmonella heeft een derde ringonderzoek voor de serotypering van Salmonella georganiseerd. Alle Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRLs) voor Salmonella van de Europese Unie deden aan het onderzoek mee. Het belangrijkste doel was het vergelijken van de serotyperingsresultaten van de NRLs. In totaal werden er door het CRL 20 serotypen van Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica geselecteerd. Deze moesten door de NRLs met d...

  19. PREVALENCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF SALMONELLA ISOLATED FROM CARCASSES, PROCESSING FACILITIES AND THE ENVIRONMENT SURROUNDING SMALL SCALE POULTRY SLAUGHTERHOUSES IN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotinun, Suwit; Rojanasthien, Suvichai; Unger, Fred; Tadee, Pakpoom; Patchanee, Prapas

    2014-11-01

    Salmonella is a major food-borne pathogen worldwide, including Thai- land, and poultry meat plays a role as a vehicle for the spread of the disease from animals to humans. The prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella isolated from 41 small scale poultry slaughterhouses in Chiang Mai, Thailand were determined during July 2011 through May 2012. Salmonella's prevalence in live poultry, car- casses, waste water, and soil around processing plants were 3.2%, 7.3%, 22.0% and 29.0%, respectively. Eighteen different serotypes were identified, the most common being Corvallis (15.2%), followed by Rissen (13.9%), Hadar (12.7%), Enteritidis (10.1%), [I. 4,5,12:i:-] (8.8%), Stanley (8.8%), and Weltevreden (8.8%). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests revealed that 68.4% of the Salmonella spp were resistant to at least one antimicrobial while 50.6% showed multiple drug resis- tance (MDR). Specifically, 44.3% of Salmonella were resistant to nalidixic acid, followed by streptomycin (41.8%), ampicillin (34.2%), tetracycline (34.2%), and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (20.3%). Salmonella contamination was found in processing lines, carcasses, and in the environment around the processing sta- tions. These findings indicate that improving hygiene management in small scale poultry slaughterhouses as well as prudent use of antimicrobial drugs is urgently needed if Salmonella contamination is to be reduced. PMID:26466425

  20. Cloning and sequencing of hfq (host factor required for synthesis of bacteriophage Q beta RNA gene of Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthasarathi Behera

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to clone and sequence hfq gene of Salmonella Typhimurium strain PM-45 and compare its sequence with hfq gene of other serovar of Salmonella. Materials and Methods: Salmonella Typhimurium strain PM-45 was procured from the G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, India. The genomic DNA was isolated from Salmonella Typhimurium. Hfq gene was polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplified from the DNA using specific primers, which was subsequently cloned into pET32a vector and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 pLys cells. The recombinant plasmid was isolated and subjected to restriction enzyme digestion as well as PCR. The clone was then sequenced. The sequence was analyzed and submitted in GenBank. Results: PCR produced an amplicon of 309 bp. Restriction digestion of the recombinant plasmid released the desired insert. The hfq sequence shows 100% homology with similar sequences from other Salmonella Typhimurium isolates. Both nucleotide and amino acid sequences are highly conserved. The submitted sequence is having Genbank accession no KM998764. Conclusion: Hfq, the hexameric RNA binding protein is one of the most important post-transcriptional regulator of bacteria. The sequence of hfq gene of Salmonella Typhimurium is highly conserved within and between Salmonella enterica serovars. This gene sequence is probably under heavy selection pressure to maintain the conformational integrity of its product in spite of its being not a survival gene.

  1. Distribution of Salmonella serovars and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella Enteritidis from poultry in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makaya, P V; Matope, G; Pfukenyi, D M

    2012-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Salmonella serovars from chickens from large-scale commercial (LSC), small-scale commercial (SSC), and rural free-range (RFR) farms of Zimbabwe. Pooled cloacal swabs were collected for culture and isolation of Salmonella spp. A chi-square test was used to assess distribution differences of salmonellas among the farming sectors. Approximately 10% (283/2833) of the swabs were positive for Salmonella enterica, with only subspecies enterica (98.6%) and arizonae (1.4%) being detected. The prevalence of S. enterica varied significantly (Pfarms, with the former having a significantly (Pfarms while none were obtained from the RFR farms. The serovars isolated were Salmonella Enteritidis (72.8%), Group C (20.1%), Group B (4.2%), Salmonella Typhimurium (1.1%) and Salmonella Gallinarum (0.4%). S. Enteritidis predominated in the urban/periurban areas. Approximately 26% (53/206) of S. Enteritidis isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. Resistance to tetracycline was the most common, while no resistance was detected for furazolidone, neomycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. There were 12.1% multi-drug-resistant S. Enteritidis isolates, and the resistance to ampicillin/kanamycin was predominant. The identification of multi-drug-resistant S. Enteritidis is of public health concern. Thus, stringent control of S. Enteritidis will reduce the public health risk of human salmonellosis. PMID:22515540

  2. Salmonella and eggs: from production to plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption. PMID:25730295

  3. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  4. Een ringonderzoek met de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella om de resultaten van bacteriologische detectiemethodes voor Salmonella te vergelijken

    OpenAIRE

    Voogt N; Veld PH in 't; Notermans SHW; Henken AM

    2012-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium (CRL) voor Salmonella heeft een bacteriologisch ringonderzoek georganiseerd waaraan alle Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRLs) voor Salmonella deelnamen. Doel van het ringonderzoek was om de resultaten te vergelijken van de voorgestelde referentiemethode voor de detectie van Salmonella (ISO 6579 methode) tussen en binnen de laboratoria en om de resultaten van de referentie en eigen methode binnen een laboratorium te vergelijk...

  5. Comparison of 3 culture methods and PCR assays for Salmonella gallinarum and Salmonella pullorum detection in poultry feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, M Cecilia; Soria, Mario A; Bueno, Dante J; Terzolo, Horacio R

    2013-06-01

    To detect Salmonella gallinarum or Salmonella pullorum in artificially contaminated poultry feed, 9 culture combinations were compared, including 3 preenrichment/enrichment methods (tryptic soy broth plus ferrous sulfate/tetrathionate Hajna, tryptic soy broth plus ferrous sulfate/selenite cystine broth, and Salmosyst) in combination with 3 selective agars (xylose lysine desoxicholate agar added with tergitol 4, EF-18, and Önöz), respectively. Additionally, a single PCR technique was applied combined with 2 different preenrichment media (tryptic soy broth plus ferrous sulfate and Salmosyst). The specificity and positive predictive value were 1 for all methods. There were some differences among Salmonella strains for sensitivity and accuracy in the culture and Salmosyst-PCR methods. The sensitivity and accuracy values were less than 0.60 and 0.64, respectively, whereas the negative predictive values were between 0.12 and 0.23. Two PCR methods did not show any difference in the parameters of performance evaluated. Kappa coefficients showed good agreement between both methods. None of the culture combinations was able to detect S. gallinarum or S. pullorum when the inoculum was less than 3 × 10² cfu/25 g, except the Salmosyst broth method, which could recover S. gallinarum from 3 × 10¹ cfu/25 g onward. Overall, there were differences in the detection limits among the strains and methods used. In general, the 3 selective plating media did not show any significant difference in the parameters of performance studied for each strain. On the other hand, the agreements were slight to fair when culture methods were compared among them and with both PCR methods. The differences in the detection levels that were obtained using these methods and the difficulty in detecting S. gallinarum or S. pullorum in feed represent a potential problem when a poultry feed sample is considered to be negative. It is highly recommended to use at least 2 methods to increase the chances of detecting S. gallinarum or S. pullorum in poultry feed. PMID:23687146

  6. Salmonella enteritidis and other Salmonella in laying hens and eggs from flocks with Salmonella in their environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Poppe, C; Johnson, R. P.; Forsberg, C. M.; Irwin, R J

    1992-01-01

    Seven Canadian layer flocks with Salmonella enteritidis in their environment were investigated to determine the numbers of hens infected with S. enteritidis, the localization of S. enteritidis in organs of infected hens and the numbers of S. enteritidis-infected eggs produced by two affected flocks. By a microagglutination test (MAT) using S. pullorum antigens, these flocks had more seropositive hens (mean 51.9 +/- 16.9%) than two Salmonella-free flocks (mean 13.0 +/- 4.2%). Culture of tissue...

  7. Septic arthritis of the ankle due to Salmonella enteritidis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dineen, Patrick F

    2011-06-01

    Salmonella septic arthritis in healthy, immunocompetent patients is extremely rare. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with a one-day history of painful swelling of his ankle from which was aspirated pus which subsequently grew Salmonella enteritidis. There was no history of trauma or symptoms consistent with Salmonella enterocolitis. Our patient recovered fully after two weeks on intravenous ceftriaxone and six weeks on oral ciprofloxacin. Salmonella is a notifiable disease in the European Union and the United States of America, and is associated with outbreaks as a result of food contamination. The nature of Salmonella arthritis and its appropriate management are outlined.

  8. Inactivation of Salmonellae in Frozen Catfish by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on salmonellae viability in frozen catfish was investigated using fresh cut of catfish artificially contaminated with stationary phase cells of salmonellae, frozen at-18 ?C and irradiated with does ranging from 0.0 to 2.4 kGy. The D10 values for ten serovars of salmonellae ranged from 0.47 to 0.77 kGy. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most resistant serovars found in frozen catfish. Dosage at 2.5 kGy would be sufficient to kill 103.2 Salmonella Enteritidis that may occasionally present in frozen catfish

  9. Cytotoxic T cell adjuvant effects of three Salmonella enterica flagellins / Efeitos adjuvantes para células T citotóxicas de três flagelinas de Salmonella enterica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Catarina J.M., Braga; Liliana M., Massis; Bruna C.G., Alencar; Maurício M., Rodrigues; M.E., Sbrogio-Almeida; Luís C.S., Ferreira.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available As flagelinas bacterianas são importantes fatores associados à virulência e potentes indutores de resposta inflamatória em mamíferos. Estas moléculas são também investigadas como potencial adjuvante para uso em vacinas na indução de resposta imune humoral e celular para diferentes antígenos alvo. No [...] presente estudo investigamos as propriedades adjuvantes de três tipos de flagelinas de Salmonella enterica (FliCd, FliCi e FljB) para um epítopo derivado da ovalbumina específico para células T CD8+. As três flagelinas testadas induziram respostas de células T CD8+ específicas em camundongos imunizados, porém, somente animais imunizados com as flagelinas FliCi e FliCd co-administradas com ovalbumina montaram resposta citotóxica específica in vivo para células-alvo pulsadas com peptídeo OVA. Os resultados apresentados indicam que flagelinas de Salmonella são dotadas de efeitos adjuvantes tipo-específico frente a células T CD8+ in vivo, uma característica que pode gerar impactos no uso dessas proteínas como adjuvantes em vacinas profiláticas ou terapêuticas. Abstract in english Bacterial flagellins are important virulence-associated factors and strong inducers of inflammatory responses in mammalian hosts. Flagellins have also been investigated as potential vaccine adjuvants, either for induction of humoral or cellular immune responses, to different target antigens. In this [...] study we investigated the adjuvant properties of three Salmonella enterica flagellins types (FliCd, FliCi and FljB) to an ovalbumin-derived CD8+ T cell-restricted epitope (OVA257264). Although mice immunized with the three tested flagellins elicited antigen-specific activated CD8+ T cells, only animals immunized with FliCi and FliCd flagellins admixed with ovalbumin mounted specific in vivo cytotoxic responses to peptide-pulsed target cells. The present results indicate that Salmonella flagellins are endowed with type-specific adjuvant effects toward murine CD8+ T cells, a feature that may impact their use as adjuvants for prophylatic or therapeutic vaccines.

  10. Evaluation of a serological Salmonella mix-ELISA for poultry used in a national surveillance programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, N. C.; Ekeroth, L.; Gradel, K. O.; Kabell, S.; Madsen, M.

    2000-01-01

    A Mix-ELISA using lipopolysaccharide antigens from Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis and Typhimurium was evaluated using samples collected over time in the Danish salmonella surveillance programme for poultry. Serological samples (n = 42,813) taken from broiler-breeder flocks after a year of bacteriological monitoring with negative results were used for calculating the flock and individual test specificities, which were 0.997 and 0.999, respectively. Layer flocks from the table egg sector were used for calculation of positive predictive values. In the survey, flocks were examined for salmonella by Mix-ELISA and by faecal culture, and in case of a positive result in either of these a repeated, serological testing was performed, and 60 animals were organ-cultured. If one of these samplings was positive, the flock was declared salmonella infected. In a period of 3 months, 35 flocks were found to be positive in the routine samples. Of these, 32 were serologically positive, 2 both serologically and faecally positive and 1 flock only faecally positive. For flocks serologically positive in the surveillance programme, a positive-predictive value of 0.62 for organ culture positivity was found, and while considering serological follow-up samples, the value was 0.95. PMID:11117948

  11. Rapid radiometric method for detection of Salmonella in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiometric method for the detection of Salmonella in foods has been developed which is based on Salmonella poly H agglutinating serum preventing Salmonella from producing 14CO2 from [14C] dulcitol. The method will detect the presence or absence of Salmonella in a product within 30 h compared to 4 to 5 days by routine culture methods. The method has been evaluated against a routine culture method using 58 samples of food. The overall agreement was 91%. Five samples negative for Salmonella by the routine method were positive by the radiometric method. These may have been false positives. However, the routine method may have failed to detect Salmonella due to the presence of large numbers of lactose-fermenting bacteria which hindered isolation of Salmonella colonies on the selective agar plates

  12. Salmonella vaccines in poultry: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desin, Taseen S; Köster, Wolfgang; Potter, Andrew A

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella species are important zoonotic pathogens that cause gastrointestinal disease in humans and animals. Poultry products contaminated with these pathogens are one of the major sources of human Salmonella infections. Vaccination of chickens, along with other intervention measures, is an important strategy that is currently being used to reduce the levels of Salmonella in poultry flocks, which will ultimately lead to lower rates of human Salmonella infections. However, despite numerous studies that have been performed, there is still a need for safer, well-defined Salmonella vaccines. This review examines the different classes of Salmonella vaccines that have been tested, highlighting the merits and problems of each, and provides an insight into the future of Salmonella vaccines and the platforms that can be used for delivery. PMID:23256741

  13. Salmonellae in foods and animal feeding stuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the problem of Salmonella infections in foods and feeding stuffs is emphasized, an account is given of the current ways of manufacturing bone meal, meat meal, blood meal, fish meal, fish flour, egg products and coconut. The effectiveness in eliminating salmonellae and the chance and possible sources of recontamination are described for each production method. Besides heat treatment, fumigation by ethylene oxide and irradiation with gamma rays are considered. The bacteriological tests required to establish the effectiveness of treatment are also discussed, as well as the effect of the treatment on the nutritive value of the product. (author). 50 refs, 4 tabs

  14. Factors influencing salmonella shedding in broiler chickens.

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafson, R H; Kobland, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Three variables were included in a study to determine their effect on the incidence of Salmonella typhimurium in broilers challenged at four days of age. Variables included the presence or absence of a feed additive, avoparcin; the use of new or used litter and the initiating dose of salmonella. Cloacal swabs were taken from approximately 600 chicks at weekly intervals for 45 days. At 10(4), 10(6) and 10(8) c.f.u./chick there was a direct association of challenge dose and the incidence of pos...

  15. DNA-based diagnostic tests for Salmonella species targeting agfA, the structural gene for thin, aggregative fimbriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, J L; Collinson, S K; Burian, J; Sarlós, G; Todd, E C; Munro, C K; Kay, C M; Banser, P A; Peterkin, P I; Kay, W W

    1993-09-01

    Salmonella enteritidis 27655-3b and a few diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains produce morphologically and antigenically related, thin, aggregative fimbriae, collectively named GVVPQ fimbriae (S. K. Collinson, L. Emödy, T. J. Trust, and W. W. Kay, J. Bacteriol. 174:4490-4495, 1992). To determine whether GVVPQ fimbriae are common to Salmonella spp. and other enteropathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 113 isolates were phenotypically screened for Congo red binding and aggregative colony morphology. Presumptive positive and representative negative strains were examined by Western blotting (immunoblotting) by using antiserum to SEF 17, the native GVVPQ fimbria of S. enteritidis. Only four S. enteritidis strains and six E. coli isolates possessed substantial amounts of GVVPQ fimbriae after 24 h of incubation on T medium. Following 5 days of incubation, 56 of 93 Salmonella isolates (60%) and 1 of 7 additional E. coli clinical isolates possessed detectable levels of GVVPQ fimbriae. Since variable expression of GVVPQ fimbriae was observed among Salmonella isolates and some E. coli strains produced scant amounts, as revealed by immunoelectron microscopy, the ability to produce these fimbriae was evaluated by genotypic screening. The structural gene for the SEF 17 fimbrin, agfA, was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, cloned, and sequenced to provide a characterized DNA probe. An agfA DNA fragment hybridized strongly to 603 of 604 (99.8%) Salmonella isolates but very weakly to 31 of 266 other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae including 26 of 137 E. coli strains, 3 of 14 Citrobacter spp., and single isolates of Shigella sonnei and Enterobacter cloacae. The agfA DNA probe proved to be a valuable diagnostic tool for Salmonella isolates arrayed on hydrophobic grid membrane filters. Unique agfA sequences were targeted in the development of a polymerase chain reaction assay specific for Salmonella spp. PMID:8104955

  16. Detection of salmonella sp in chicken cuts using immunomagnetic separation / Detecção de salmonella sp em cortes de frango usando separação imunomagnética

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rita de Cássia dos Santos da, Conceição; Ângela Nunes, Moreira; Roberta Juliano, Ramos; Fabiana Lemos, Goularte; José Beiro, Carvalhal; José Antonio Guimarães, Aleixo.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A separação imunomagnética (IMS) é uma técnica que tem sido associada a diferentes métodos de detecção de Salmonella em alimentos para aumentar a sensibilidade e a especificidade e diminuir o tempo de análise. Neste trabalho é comunicada a obtenção de microesferas magnéticas sensibilizadas com antic [...] orpos anti-Salmonella e seu uso em associação com a metodologia de cultivo convencional para desenvolver um método de detecção de salmonelas em cortes de frango (IMS-plaqueamento). Inicialmente, microesferas cobertas com proteína A foram sensibilizadas com anticorpos policlonais contra lipopolissacarídeo e flagelo de salmonelas e usadas na padronização de um procedimento que captura Salmonella Enteritidis em cultivo puro e faz posterior detecção em ágar seletivo. A seguir, amostras de carne de frango experimentalmente contaminadas com S. Enteritidis foram analisadas imediatamente após a contaminação e após 24h de refrigeração utilizando três protocolos de enriquecimento. O limite de detecção foi cerca de 2x10 UFC/mL. O protocolo que incluiu enriquecimento não-seletivo por 6-8h, enriquecimento seletivo por 16-18h e pós-enriquecimento por 4h foi o que proporcionou melhor resultado na detecção de S. Enteritidis em carne de frango experimentalmente contaminada. Este protocolo foi comparado à metodologia convencional em estudo de detecção de salmonelas em cortes de frango naturalmente contaminados e obteve 100% de sensibilidade e 94% de especificidade. O método desenvolvido foi capaz de diminuir em pelo menos um dia o tempo de detecção de salmonelas em cortes de frango pela metodologia convencional. Abstract in english The immunomagnetic separation (IMS) is a technique that has been used to increase sensitivity and specificity and to decrease the time required for detection of Salmonella in foods through different methodologies. In this work we report on the development of a method for detection of Salmonella in c [...] hicken cuts using in house antibody-sensitized microspheres associated to conventional plating in selective agar (IMS-plating). First, protein A-coated microspheres were sensitized with polyclonal antibodies against lipopolysacharide and flagella from salmonellae and used to standardize a procedure for capturing Salmonella Enteritidis from pure cultures and detection in selective agar. Subsequently, samples of chicken meat experimentally contaminated with S. Enteritidis were analyzed immediately after contamination and after 24h of refrigeration using three enrichment protocols. The detection limit of the IMS-plating procedure after standardization with pure culture was about 2x10 CFU/mL. The protocol using non-selective enrichment for 6-8h, selective enrichment for 16-18h and a post-enrichment for 4h gave the best results of S. Enteritidis detection by IMS-plating in experimentally contaminated meat. IMS-plating using this protocol was compared to the standard culture method for salmonellae detection in naturally contaminated chicken cuts and yielded 100% sensitivity and 94% specificity. The method developed using in house prepared magnetic microespheres for IMS and plating in selective agar was able to diminish by at least one day the time required for detection of Salmonella in chicken products by the conventional culture method.

  17. Detection of salmonella sp in chicken cuts using immunomagnetic separation Detecção de salmonella sp em cortes de frango usando separação imunomagnética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia dos Santos da Conceição

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The immunomagnetic separation (IMS is a technique that has been used to increase sensitivity and specificity and to decrease the time required for detection of Salmonella in foods through different methodologies. In this work we report on the development of a method for detection of Salmonella in chicken cuts using in house antibody-sensitized microspheres associated to conventional plating in selective agar (IMS-plating. First, protein A-coated microspheres were sensitized with polyclonal antibodies against lipopolysacharide and flagella from salmonellae and used to standardize a procedure for capturing Salmonella Enteritidis from pure cultures and detection in selective agar. Subsequently, samples of chicken meat experimentally contaminated with S. Enteritidis were analyzed immediately after contamination and after 24h of refrigeration using three enrichment protocols. The detection limit of the IMS-plating procedure after standardization with pure culture was about 2x10 CFU/mL. The protocol using non-selective enrichment for 6-8h, selective enrichment for 16-18h and a post-enrichment for 4h gave the best results of S. Enteritidis detection by IMS-plating in experimentally contaminated meat. IMS-plating using this protocol was compared to the standard culture method for salmonellae detection in naturally contaminated chicken cuts and yielded 100% sensitivity and 94% specificity. The method developed using in house prepared magnetic microespheres for IMS and plating in selective agar was able to diminish by at least one day the time required for detection of Salmonella in chicken products by the conventional culture method.A separação imunomagnética (IMS é uma técnica que tem sido associada a diferentes métodos de detecção de Salmonella em alimentos para aumentar a sensibilidade e a especificidade e diminuir o tempo de análise. Neste trabalho é comunicada a obtenção de microesferas magnéticas sensibilizadas com anticorpos anti-Salmonella e seu uso em associação com a metodologia de cultivo convencional para desenvolver um método de detecção de salmonelas em cortes de frango (IMS-plaqueamento. Inicialmente, microesferas cobertas com proteína A foram sensibilizadas com anticorpos policlonais contra lipopolissacarídeo e flagelo de salmonelas e usadas na padronização de um procedimento que captura Salmonella Enteritidis em cultivo puro e faz posterior detecção em ágar seletivo. A seguir, amostras de carne de frango experimentalmente contaminadas com S. Enteritidis foram analisadas imediatamente após a contaminação e após 24h de refrigeração utilizando três protocolos de enriquecimento. O limite de detecção foi cerca de 2x10 UFC/mL. O protocolo que incluiu enriquecimento não-seletivo por 6-8h, enriquecimento seletivo por 16-18h e pós-enriquecimento por 4h foi o que proporcionou melhor resultado na detecção de S. Enteritidis em carne de frango experimentalmente contaminada. Este protocolo foi comparado à metodologia convencional em estudo de detecção de salmonelas em cortes de frango naturalmente contaminados e obteve 100% de sensibilidade e 94% de especificidade. O método desenvolvido foi capaz de diminuir em pelo menos um dia o tempo de detecção de salmonelas em cortes de frango pela metodologia convencional.

  18. Isolation and molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis from poultry house and clinical samples during 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezal, Ezat H; Sabol, Ashley; Khan, Mariam A; Ali, Nawab; Stefanova, Rossina; Khan, Ashraf A

    2014-04-01

    A total of 60 Salmonella enterica serovar (ser.) Enteritidis isolates, 28 from poultry houses and 32 from clinical samples, were isolated during 2010. These isolates were subjected to testing and analyzed for antibiotic resistance, virulence genes, plasmids and plasmid replicon types. To assess genetic diversity, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) fingerprinting, using the XbaI restriction enzyme, Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) and plasmid profiles were performed. All isolates from poultry, and 10 out of 32 clinical isolates were sensitive to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, sulfisoxazole, streptomycin, and tetracycline. Twenty-one of thirty-two clinical isolates were resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline, and one isolate was resistant to nalidixic acid. PFGE typing of sixty ser. Enteritidis isolates by XbaI resulted in 10-12 bands and grouped into six clusters each with similarity from 95% to 81%. The MLVA analysis of sixty isolates gave 18 allele profiles with the majority of isolates displayed in three groups, and two clinical isolates found to be new in the PulseNet national MLVA database. All isolates were positive for 12 or more of the 17 virulence genes mostly found in S. enterica (spvB, spiA, pagC, msgA, invA, sipB, prgH, spaN, orgA, tolC, iroN, sitC, IpfC, sifA, sopB, and pefA) and negative for one gene (cdtB). All isolates carried a typical 58 kb plasmid, type Inc/FIIA. Three poultry isolates and one clinical isolate carried small plasmids with 3.8, 6, 7.6 and 11.5 kb. Ten of the clinical isolates carried plasmids, with sizes 36 and 38 kb, types IncL/M and IncN, and one isolate carried an 81 kb plasmid, type IncI. Southern hybridization of a plasmid with an Inc/FIIA gene probe hybridized one large 58 kb plasmid in all isolates. Several large and small plasmids from poultry isolates were not typed by our PCR-based method. These results confirmed that PFGE fingerprinting has limited discriminatory power for ser. Enteritidis in both poultry and clinical sources. However, the plasmid and MLVA allele profiles were a useful and important epidemiology tool to discriminate outbreak strains of ser. Enteritidis from poultry and clinical samples. PMID:24290628

  19. Evaluation of the respiratory route as a viable portal of entry for Salmonella in poultry via intratracheal challenge of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallapura, G; Morgan, M J; Pumford, N R; Bielke, L R; Wolfenden, A D; Faulkner, O B; Latorre, J D; Menconi, A; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Kuttappan, V A; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

    2014-02-01

    Experimental and epidemiological evidence suggests that primary infection of Salmonella is by the oral-fecal route for poultry. However, the airborne transmission of Salmonella and similar enteric zoonotic pathogens has been historically neglected. Increasing evidence of Salmonella bioaerosol generation in production facilities and studies suggesting the vulnerabilities of the avian respiratory architecture together have indicated the possibility of the respiratory system being a potential portal of entry for Salmonella in poultry. Presently, we evaluated this hypothesis through intratracheal (IT) administration of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, as separate challenges, in a total of 4 independent trials, followed by enumeration of cfu recovery in ceca-cecal tonsils and recovery incidence in liver and spleen. In all trials, both Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, challenged IT colonized cecae to a similar or greater extent than oral administration at identical challenge levels. In most trials, chickens cultured for cfu enumeration from IT-challenged chicks at same dose as orally challenged, resulted in an increase of 1.5 log higher Salmonella Enteritidis from ceca-cecal tonsils and a much lower dose IT of Salmonella Enteritidis could colonize ceca to the same extent than a higher oral challenge. This trend of increased cecal colonization due to IT challenge was observed with all trails involving week-old birds (experiment 2 and 3), which are widely considered to be more difficult to infect via the oral route. Liver-spleen incidence data showed 33% of liver and spleen samples to be positive for Salmonella Enteritidis administered IT (10(6) cfu/chick), compared with 0% when administered orally (experiment 2, trial 1). Collectively, these data suggest that the respiratory tract may be a largely overlooked portal of entry for Salmonella infections in chickens. PMID:24570455

  20. Prediction of Salmonella carcass contamination by a comparative quantitative analysis of E. coli and Salmonella during pig slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten; Barfod, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Faecal contamination of carcasses in the slaughterhouse is generally considered to be the source of Salmonella on pork. In this study the hygiene indicator Escherichia coli is used to quantify faecal contamination of carcasses and it is hypothesized that it can be used to predict the quantitative carcass contamination with Salmonella, when the distribution of Salmonella concentrations in faeces is known. Paired pig sample data (faecal samples and carcass swabs) were obtained from five slaughterhouses and analysed for prevalence and concentrations of E. coli and Salmonella. A simple model was developed to describe the faecal contamination of carcasses using the E. coli data. The E. coli results suggested different hygiene performances in different slaughterhouses, and showed that a model assuming that carcasses are predominantly contaminated by their own faeces was not appropriate. Observed Salmonella prevalences were low (on average 1.9% on carcasses) and between slaughterhouses the prevalences ranked differently than the hygiene performance based on the E. coli data suggested. Also, the Salmonella concentrations predicted using E. coli as a faecal indicator were lower than the observed Salmonella concentrations. It is concluded that the faecal carriage of Salmonella together with the faecal contamination of carcasses, as predicted from E. coli data in the animal faeces and hygiene performance of the slaughterhouse, is not sufficient to explain carcass contamination with Salmonella. Our extensive data set showed that other factors than the observed faecal carriage of Salmonella by the individual animals brought to slaughter, play a more important role in the Salmonella carcass contamination of pork.

  1. Salmonella Gene rma (ramA) and Multiple-Drug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    OpenAIRE

    Straaten, T.; Janssen, R.; Mevius, D. J.; Dissel, J.T. van

    2004-01-01

    MarA and its homologue, RamA, have been implicated in multidrug resistance (MDR). RamA overexpression in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli conferred MDR independently of marA. Inactivation of ramA did not affect the antibiotic susceptibilities of wild-type S. enterica serovar Typhimurium or 15 unrelated clinical MDR isolates. Thus, ramA overexpression is not a common MDR mechanism in Salmonella.

  2. Comparing human–Salmonella with plant–Salmonella protein–protein interaction predictions

    OpenAIRE

    Schleker, Sylvia; Kshirsagar, Meghana; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis is the most frequent foodborne disease worldwide and can be transmitted to humans by a variety of routes, especially via animal and plant products. Salmonella bacteria are believed to use not only animal and human but also plant hosts despite their evolutionary distance. This raises the question if Salmonella employs similar mechanisms in infection of these diverse hosts. Given that most of our understanding comes from its interaction with human hosts, we investigate here to wha...

  3. Role of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 Protein IacP in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Pathogenesis?

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin Seok; Eom, Jeong Seon; Jang, Jung Im; Kim, Hyeon Guk; SEO, DOO WON; Bang, Iel-Soo; Bang, Seong Ho; Lee, In Soo; Park, Yong Keun

    2011-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria, including Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, exploit type III secretion systems (T3SSs) through which virulence proteins are delivered into the host cytosol to reinforce invasive and replicative niches in their host. Although many secreted effector proteins and membrane-bound structural proteins in the T3SS have been characterized, the functions of many cytoplasmic proteins still remain unknown. In this study, we found that IacP, encoded by Salmonella pathogenici...

  4. Salmonella bacteriuria in a cat fed a Salmonella-contaminated diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauth, Erika; Freeman, Lisa M; Cornjeo, Lilian; Markovich, Jessica E; Janecko, Nicol; Weese, J Scott

    2015-09-01

    Case Description-A 9-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of hematuria and weight loss after an 8-year history of intermittent signs of feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD). A complete diet history revealed that the cat was eating a commercial diet that does not undergo the same processing procedures as most pet foods and so might be at increased risk for bacterial contamination owing to a nonstandard industry cooking procedure. Clinical Findings-The cat had a history consistent with FLUTD, but bacteriologic culture of the urine revealed Salmonella organisms. Additional analysis revealed Salmonella enterica serotype I:ROUGH-O:g,m,s:- in samples of urine and feces as well as Salmonella enterica serotype Johannesburg and Salmonella enterica serotype Senftenberg in the diet. Treatment and Outcome-The cat responded positively to antimicrobial treatment for the Salmonella bacteriuria as well as to dietary and environmental management for the clinical signs associated with FLUTD. Clinical Relevance-Findings in this case highlighted an additional health consequence associated with ingestion of Salmonella-contaminated food. Such contamination is of particular concern with raw meat-based diets or diets that have not undergone standard industry cooking practices. Veterinarians should obtain a diet history for every companion animal during every evaluation to help with diagnosis and optimal treatment. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;247:525-530). PMID:26295559

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Give, Isolated from an Imported Chili Powder Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Ayers, Sherry; Melka, David; Laasri, Anna; Payne, Justin S.; Zheng, Jie; Son, Insook; Timme, Ruth; Kastanis, George; Hammack, Thomas S.; Strain, Errol; Allard, Marc W.; Evans, Peter S.; Brown, Eric W.

    2015-01-01

    We report the genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Give (CFSAN012622), isolated from imported chili powder in 2014. This genome contains genes previously reported to be specific only to S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. This strain shows a unique pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern clustering with serovar Enteritidis (JEG X01.0005). PMID:26139723

  6. Transportation and mixing with unfamiliar pigs increase the susceptibility of market-weight pigs to Salmonella enterica

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increasing evidence that stress can have a significant deleterious effect on food safety through a variety of potential mechanisms. However, there is very little research conducted to determine the potential effects of specific pre-slaughter stressors on Salmonella infection and carriage in...

  7. Isotype of protective anti-Salmonella antibodies in experimental mouse salmonellosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Saxén, H; Mäkelä, O.; Svenson, S B

    1984-01-01

    Mice and a rabbit were immunized with heat-killed Salmonella typhimurium bacteria or with an O-4,12 antigen-specific octasaccharide-protein conjugate. Immunoglobulin isotypes of the antisera were tested for their capacity to protect mice against experimental salmonellosis. Antibodies of immunoglobulin M + A isotypes were more protective than the immunoglobulin G antibodies in each of the two pools of mouse sera. The same protective pattern was also seen with a rabbit antiserum elicited by the...

  8. An epidemiological study of Salmonella enterica serovar 4, 12 : b :- in broiler chickens in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chadfield, M.; Skov, Marianne; Christensen, J.; Madsen, Mogens; Bisgaard, M.

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations of isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar 4, 12:b:- were carried out to establish particular molecular markers to assign isolates to a common origin. Plasmid profiling demonstrated that over 50% of 291 isolates, obtained between 1991 and 1996, were plasmid-free. The remaining isolates exhibited a common trend in plasmid content of 105 and 2 kb. Although no specific correlation to any particular source within the poultry industry was discernible using plasmid analy...

  9. Nation-wide Salmonella enterica surveillance and control in Danish slaughter swine herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousing, Jan; Jensen, P.T.; Halgaard, C.; Bager, Flemming; Feld, Niels Christian; Nielsen, B.; Nielsen, J.P.; BechNielsen, S.

    1997-01-01

    A nation-wide Salmonella enterica surveillance and control programme was initiated in Danish finishing herds over the first quarter of 1995, In Denmark, all swine for slaughter are identifiable by a unique herd code. For each herd code, and depending on the herd's annual kill, random samples ranging from four to more than 60 swine are obtained quarterly at the abattoir. A meat sample from each pig is frozen, and meat juice (harvested after thawing) is examined for specific antibodies against S. ...

  10. The Role of the st313-td Gene in Virulence of Salmonella Typhimurium ST313

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Wallrodt, Inke; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ST313 has emerged in sub-Saharan Africa causing severe infections in humans. Therefore, it has been speculated that this specific sequence type, ST313, carries factors associated with increased pathogenicity. We assessed the role in virulence of a gene with a yet unknown function, st313-td, detected in ST313 through comparative genomics. Additionally, the structure of the genomic island ST313-GI, harbouring the gene was determined. The ...

  11. Characterization of genes encoding type 1 fimbriae of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhimurium, and Serratia marcescens.

    OpenAIRE

    Clegg, S.; Purcell, B K; Pruckler, J.

    1987-01-01

    With a minicell system, the organization of genes encoding type 1 fimbriae of Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens was determined. In all cases multiple gene products were necessary for the phenotypic expression of fimbriae; thus fimbrial expression in these strains is similar to that in Escherichia coli. The type 1 fimbrial subunit gene was detected by the ability of its product to react with specific antiserum. At least six genes were found to be involved i...

  12. RIG-I Detects mRNA of Intracellular Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium during Bacterial Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Schmolke, Mirco; Patel, Jenish R.; de Castro, Elisa; Sánchez-Aparicio, Maria T; Uccellini, Melissa B; Miller, Jennifer C; Manicassamy, Balaji; Satoh, Takashi; Kawai, Taro; Akira, Shizuo; Merad, Miriam; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    The cytoplasmic helicase RIG-I is an established sensor for viral 5'-triphosphorylated RNA species. Recently, RIG-I was also implicated in the detection of intracellular bacteria. However, little is known about the host cell specificity of this process and the bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) that activates RIG-I. Here we show that RNA of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium activates production of beta interferon in a RIG-I-dependent fashion only in nonphagocytic cel...

  13. Colicinogeny in Salmonella serovars isolated in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Carvalho Campos

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of colicinogeny was made in 748 strains of Salmonella (97 serovars isolated from different sources; human (291, animal (119, environmental (141, food (102 and animal feed (95. Colicin production was detected in 64 strains (8.6%, particularly isolated from foods (30.4%. Col. E1 (53 and Ia (44 were the most frequently observed, especially in S. agona for environment and food sources. Col V production was identified in 5 strains of S. typhimurium within 8 producer cultures isolated from humans. Its relationship with the sources and serovars of Salmonella are discussed.Investigou-se a produção de colicina em 748 amostras de Salmonella (97 sorovares advindas de díferentes fontes: humana (291, animal (119, ambiental (141, de alimentos (102 e rações (95. Detectaram-se 64 amostras (8,6% colicinogênicas, particularmente isoladas de alimentos (30,4%. ColE1 (53 e Ia (44 foram as mais freqüentes, especialmente no sorovar S, agona, de origem ambiental e de alimentos. Identificou-se também a produção de col V em 5 amostras de S. typhimurium dentre 8 culturas produtoras de origem humana. Discute-se a relação entre a capacidade colicinogênica e as fontes e sorovares de Salmonella.

  14. Colicinogeny in Salmonella serovars isolated in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leila Carvalho, Campos; Ernesto, Hofer.

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se a produção de colicina em 748 amostras de Salmonella (97 sorovares) advindas de díferentes fontes: humana (291), animal (119), ambiental (141), de alimentos (102) e rações (95). Detectaram-se 64 amostras (8,6%) colicinogênicas, particularmente isoladas de alimentos (30,4%). ColE1 (53) [...] e Ia (44) foram as mais freqüentes, especialmente no sorovar S, agona, de origem ambiental e de alimentos. Identificou-se também a produção de col V em 5 amostras de S. typhimurium dentre 8 culturas produtoras de origem humana. Discute-se a relação entre a capacidade colicinogênica e as fontes e sorovares de Salmonella. Abstract in english A study of colicinogeny was made in 748 strains of Salmonella (97 serovars) isolated from different sources; human (291), animal (119), environmental (141), food (102) and animal feed (95). Colicin production was detected in 64 strains (8.6%), particularly isolated from foods (30.4%). Col. E1 (53) a [...] nd Ia (44) were the most frequently observed, especially in S. agona for environment and food sources. Col V production was identified in 5 strains of S. typhimurium within 8 producer cultures isolated from humans. Its relationship with the sources and serovars of Salmonella are discussed.

  15. [Lumbar spondylodiscitis caused by Salmonella enteritidis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, A; Schaumann, D; Manns, M P; Koch, K M

    1994-10-14

    A 19-year-old boy developed paravertebral muscular pain in the lumbar region after an episode of extremely arduous sporting activity, with fever followed by meningism. The cerebrospinal fluid showed a reactive pleocytosis. Initially, no acute inflammatory changes were present on serum and blood analysis, although the erythrocyte sedimentation rate was moderately increased to 25/60 mm. Pyrexia of up to 38.5 degrees C developed 6 days after admission. Because Borrelia IgM and IgG titres were positive, the diagnosis was at first thought to be atypical borreliosis and the patient was treated with antibiotics. However, after a further episode of fever. Salmonella antibody titres, which had initially been normal, rose to 1: 3200 (Salmonella typhi O and H antigens) and 1: 12800 (Salmonella enteritidis, H antigen). At this stage, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate rose to 86/120 mm and the C-reactive protein to 77 mg/dl. The white cell count remained normal throughout. Blood cultures grew Salmonella enteritidis. Abnormalities on bone scintigraphy were confirmed by CT and MRI scans, showing spondylodiscitis of lumbar vertebrae 1 and 2 with limited osteolysis. The lesion resolved completely on 6 week's treatment with ciprofloxacin (200 mg twice a day intravenously) and conservative supportive treatment. Spondylodiscitis is an uncommon complication of salmonellosis and may occur long after the diarrhoea. Cross reactions with Borrelia flagellin antigens may lead to the wrong diagnosis being made. PMID:7924947

  16. Risk assessment of Salmonella in Danish meatballs produced in the catering sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØller, Cleide Oliveira de Almeida; Nauta, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    A modular process risk model approach was used to assess health risks associated with Salmonella spp. after consumption of the Danish meatball product (frikadeller) produced with fresh pork in a catering unit. Meatball production and consumption were described as a series of processes (modules), starting from 1.3 kg meat pieces through conversion to 70 g meatballs, followed by a dose response model to assess the risk of illness from consumption of these meatballs. Changes in bacterial prevalence, concentration, and unit size were modelled within each module. The risk assessment was built using observational data and models that were specific for Salmonella spp. in meatballs produced in the catering sector. Danish meatballs are often pan-fried followed by baking in an oven before consumption, in order to reach the core temperature of 75 degrees C recommended by the Danish Food Safety Authority. However, in practice this terminal heat treatment in the oven may be accidentally omitted. Eleven production scenarios were evaluated with the model, to test the impact of heat treatments and cooling rates at different room temperatures. The risk estimates revealed that a process comprising heat treatment of meatballs to core temperatures higher than 70 degrees C, and subsequent holding at room temperatures lower than 20 degrees C, for no longer than 3.5 h, were very effective in Salmonella control. The current Danish Food Safety Authority recommendation of cooking to an internal temperature of 75 degrees C is conservative, at least with respect to Salmonella risk. Survival and growth of Salmonella during cooling of meatballs not heat treated in oven had a significant impact on the risk estimates, and therefore, cooling should be considered a critical step during meatball processing. (c) 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Quantitative evaluation of E. coli F4 and Salmonella Typhimurium binding capacity of yeast derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganner, Anja; Stoiber, Christian; Uhlik, Jakob Tizian; Dohnal, Ilse; Schatzmayr, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    The target of the present study was to quantify the capacity of different commercially available yeast derivatives to bind E. coli F4 and Salmonella Typhimurium. In addition, a correlation analysis was performed for the obtained binding numbers and the mannan-, glucan- and protein contents of the products, respectively. In a subsequent experiment, different yeast strains were fermented and treated by autolysis or French press to obtain a concentrated yeast cell wall. The capacity of yeast cell wall products to bind E. coli F4 and Salmonella Typhimurium was assessed with a quantitative microbiological microplate-based assay by measuring the optical density (OD) as the growth parameter of adhering bacteria. Total mannan and glucan were determined by HPLC using an isocratic method and a Refractive Index (RI) Detector. Total protein was determined by Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN). Statistical analyses were performed with IBM SPSS V19 using Spearman correlation and Mann Whitney U Test.Different yeast derivatives show different binding numbers, which indicate differences in product quality.Interestingly, the binding numbers for Salmonella Typhimurium are consistently higher (between one and two orders of magnitude) than for E. coli F4.We could demonstrate some statistical significant correlations between the mannan- and glucan content of different yeast derivatives and pathogen binding numbers; however, for the different yeast strains fermented under standardized laboratory conditions, no statistically significant correlations between the mannan- and glucan content and the binding numbers for E. coli and Salmonella Typhimurium were found.Interestingly, we could demonstrate that the yeast autolysis had a statistically significant difference on E. coli binding in contrast to the French press treatment. Salmonella binding was independent of these two treatments.As such, we could not give a clear statement about the binding factors involved. We propose that many more factors apart from mannan- and glucan content, such as cell wall structure, strain diversity, structural diversity, structural surroundings, and non-specific interactions play important roles in pathogen immobilization. PMID:24148308

  18. Risk assessment of Salmonella in Danish meatballs produced in the catering sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Cleide O de A; Nauta, Maarten J; Schaffner, Donald W; Dalgaard, Paw; Christensen, Bjarke B; Hansen, Tina B

    2015-03-01

    A modular process risk model approach was used to assess health risks associated with Salmonella spp. after consumption of the Danish meatball product (frikadeller) produced with fresh pork in a catering unit. Meatball production and consumption were described as a series of processes (modules), starting from 1.3kg meat pieces through conversion to 70g meatballs, followed by a dose response model to assess the risk of illness from consumption of these meatballs. Changes in bacterial prevalence, concentration, and unit size were modelled within each module. The risk assessment was built using observational data and models that were specific for Salmonella spp. in meatballs produced in the catering sector. Danish meatballs are often pan-fried followed by baking in an oven before consumption, in order to reach the core temperature of 75°C recommended by the Danish Food Safety Authority. However, in practice this terminal heat treatment in the oven may be accidentally omitted. Eleven production scenarios were evaluated with the model, to test the impact of heat treatments and cooling rates at different room temperatures. The risk estimates revealed that a process comprising heat treatment of meatballs to core temperatures higher than 70°C, and subsequent holding at room temperatures lower than 20°C, for no longer than 3.5h, were very effective in Salmonella control. The current Danish Food Safety Authority recommendation of cooking to an internal temperature of 75°C is conservative, at least with respect to Salmonella risk. Survival and growth of Salmonella during cooling of meatballs not heat treated in oven had a significant impact on the risk estimates, and therefore, cooling should be considered a critical step during meatball processing. PMID:25540860

  19. 40 CFR 798.5265 - The salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay. 798.5265 Section 798.5265 ...salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay. (a) Purpose. The Salmonella typhimurium...his) reversion system is a microbial assay which measures his? ? his=...

  20. 76 FR 41157 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ...Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production...Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production...final rule entitled ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During...

  1. 77 FR 50372 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ...Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production...Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production...producers to implement measures to prevent Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) from...

  2. 75 FR 45130 - Draft Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 690.800 Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ...Policy Guide Sec. 690.800 Salmonella in Animal Feed; Availability AGENCY...Policy Guide Sec. 690.800 Salmonella in Animal Feed'' (the draft CPG...Policy Guide Sec. 690.800 Salmonella in Animal Feed.'' The draft CPG...

  3. 21 CFR 500.35 - Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms...500.35 Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms...for use in animal feed may be contaminated with Salmonella bacteria, an...

  4. 75 FR 66769 - Draft Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 690.800 Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ...Sec. 690.800 Salmonella in Animal Feed; Availability...animal feed or feed ingredients that...the presence of Salmonella. The Agency is...animal feed or feed ingredients that...the presence of Salmonella. The Agency...

  5. Large outbreaks of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in Denmark in 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethelberg, S.; Wingstrand, Anne

    2008-01-01

    An outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type U292 has been ongoing in Denmark since 1 April, with 1,054 cases registered until 23 October 2008. Extensive investigations including hypothesis-generating interviews, matched case-control studies, cohort studies in embedded outbreaks, shopping list analyses, analyses of food samples from patient's homes, trace-back analyses and extensive microbiological analysis of products have not provided clear indications of a specific source of infection but the main hypothesis is that the vehicle of the outbreak are different pork products. In addition to the large U292 outbreak, at least four other S. Typhimurium outbreaks (caused by phage types U288, DT120, DT3 and DT135) have been investigated in Denmark in 2008.

  6. Use of Rambach Propylene Glycol Containing Agar for identification of Salmonella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Gruenewald, R; Henderson, R W; Yappow, S

    1991-01-01

    When grown on Rambach Propylene Glycol Containing Agar (Rambach agar), 216 of 230 (93.9%) Salmonella organisms isolated from patients and 54 of 62 (87.1%) Salmonella stock cultures produced a crimson-colored growth. Of the 14 clinical Salmonella isolates which displayed colors other than crimson, 8 were Salmonella typhi, 2 were Salmonella paratyphi A, and 4 belonged to other commonly isolated serotypes. All eight Salmonella stock cultures which failed to produce a crimson color belonged to ra...

  7. Identification and sequence analysis of lpfABCDE, a putative fimbrial operon of Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Bäumler, A J; Heffron, F

    1995-01-01

    A chromosomal region present in Salmonella typhimurium but absent from related species was identified by hybridization. A DNA probe originating from 78 min on the S. typhimurium chromosome hybridized with DNA from Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella heidelberg, and Salmonella dublin but not with DNA from Salmonella typhi, Salmonella arizonae, Escherichia coli, and Shigella serotypes. Cloning and sequence analysis revealed that the corresponding region of the S. typhimurium chromosome encodes a...

  8. Effect of grinding intensity and feed physical form on in vitro adhesion of Salmonella Typhimurium and mannose residues in intestinal mucus receptors for salmonellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callies, A; Sander, S J; Verspohl, J; Beineke, A; Kamphues, J

    2012-12-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that feeding a fine, pelleted diet (FP) compared to a coarse meal diet (CM) results in a higher mannose content in the intestinal mucus of pigs and therefore an increased in vitro adhesion of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 L to the mucus. The 2 diets were fed to a total of 24 weaned pigs for 6 wk after which mannose content in the mucus was evaluated histochemically using the ?1-3-d-mannose-specific lectin Galanthus nivalis agglutinin. The crypt width was determined as an indirect measure for the amount of secreted mucus. Ileal and cecal tissue samples were incubated with approximately 7.77 × 10(7) cfu Salmonella Typhimurium and numbers of salmonellae adhering to the mucus and/or mucosa were determined by culture techniques. There was no effect of feed physical form on the in vitro adhesion of S. Typhimurium either in the ileum (7.1 ± 0.19 log(10) cfu/g tissue) or in the cecum (6.8 ± 0.26 log(10) cfu/g). The mannose content of the mucus also did not differ between the treatment groups. The crypts of the duodenum, jejunum, and cecum were wider (P feeding the CM diet. This might be an indication for a higher mucus production in these pigs. PMID:23365353

  9. Organic acids for control of Salmonella in different feed materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyuncu, Sevinc; Andersson, Mats Gunnar; Löfström, Charlotta; Skandamis, Panagiotis N.; Gounadaki, Antonia; Zentek, Jürgen; Häggblom, Per

    2013-01-01

    Background Salmonella control in animal feed is important in order to protect animal and public health. Organic acids is one of the control measures used for treatment of Salmonella contaminated feed or feed ingredients. In the present study, the efficacy of formic acid (FA) and different blends of FA, propionic acid (PA) and sodium formate (SF) was investigated. Four Salmonella strains isolated from feed were assayed for their acid tolerance. Also, the effect of lower temperatures (5°C and 15°C...

  10. Interaction of Salmonella spp. with the Intestinal Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmer, Brian M. M.; Gunn, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella spp. are major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Upon entry into the human host, Salmonella spp. must overcome the resistance to colonization mediated by the gut microbiota and the innate immune system. They successfully accomplish this by inducing inflammation and mechanisms of innate immune defense. Many models have been developed to study Salmonella spp. interaction with the microbiota that have helped to identify factors necessary to overcome colonization resist...

  11. Isolation of multidrug-resistant Salmonella in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoon, Yee Wei; Chan, Yuen Yue Candice; Koh, Tze Hsien

    2015-08-01

    Multidrug-resistant Salmonella is a well-recognised problem worldwide, especially in developing countries such as India, where non-typhoidal Salmonella infections and enteric fever are endemic. Antimicrobial resistance, particularly to fluoroquinolones, is common and leads to the frequent use of alternative agents, such as azithromycin. We herein describe the first reported case of azithromycin-resistant Salmonella gastroenteritis in a Singaporean patient. PMID:26311915

  12. Salmonella enterica Serotype Arizonae Meningitis in a Neonate

    OpenAIRE

    Wubishet Lakew; Abayneh Girma; Elizabeth Triche

    2013-01-01

    Typhoidal and nontyphoidal salmonella infections are common causes of gastroenteritis in the community. However, salmonella only rarely causes invasive infections like meningitis. We report a 13-day-old female neonate with signs and symptoms of meningitis whose cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture showed Salmonella enterica serotype Arizonae that was sensitive to ceftriaxone. She presented with fever and failure to feed for 2 days. Despite prompt treatment with ampicillin, gentamicin, and ceftri...

  13. Use of ribotyping for characterization of Salmonella serotypes.

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban, E; Snipes, K.; Hird, D; Kasten, R; Kinde, H

    1993-01-01

    Forty-five isolates of Salmonella serotype reading, 20 isolates of Salmonella serotype senftenberg, and 56 isolates of Salmonella serotype typhimurium from domestic and wild animals were characterized genotypically to differentiate within serotypes for epidemiologic studies. The genotypic method of characterization used was ribotyping, a method for highlighting highly conserved rRNA genes and associated sequences. Isolates were obtained from diverse geographic sources (farms located in Fresno...

  14. The occurrence and epidemiology of Salmonella in European pig slaughterhouses

    OpenAIRE

    Hald, T.; Wingstrand, A.; Swanenburg, M.; Altrock, A., von; Thorberg, B.M.

    2003-01-01

    This study was part of an international research project entitled SALINPORK (FAIR CT-950400) initiated in 1996. The objectives were to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella in pig slaughterhouses and to identify risk factors associated with the contamination of pig carcasses. Data was collected from 12 slaughterhouses in five European countries. Isolates were characterized by serotyping, phage typing and antimicrobial susceptibility. In one country, no Salmonella was found. Salmonella was ...

  15. Incidence of Salmonella Contamination in Broiler Chickens in Saskatchewan

    OpenAIRE

    Bhargava, K.K.; O'Neil, J B; Prior, M.G.; Dunkelgod, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    The incidence of Salmonella contamination in ten Saskatchewan broiler flocks varying in size from 6 200 to 14 000 was investigated from February, 1977 to April, 1979. Prior to the initial chick placement, brooding equipment, feed, water and fresh litter samples were found to be free of Salmonellae. Samples obtained from the clean and disinfected processing plant equipment before the commencement of daily operation were negative except the isolation for Salmonella anatum from the fingers of th...

  16. Pathomicrobial studies on Salmonella Gallinarum infection in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Divya Kumari; S. K. Mishra; Deepika Lather

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To conduct detailed pathomicrobial studies on Salmonella Gallinarum infection in broiler chickens.Materials and Methods: Bacteriological and pathological studies were conducted on 134 dead poultry birds collected from 23 different farms suspected to be infected with S. Gallinarum.Results: Mortality pattern revealed that maximum mortality occurred in 1-2 week aged birds. Out of 23 Salmonella isolates, 19 samples were identified as S. Gallinarum (9, 12) and 4 samples as Salmonella Enteriti...

  17. Identification and characterization of Salmonella isolates from captured house sparrows

    OpenAIRE

    MIRZAIE, Sara; Hassanzadeh, Mohammad; ASHRAFI, Iradj

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in a population of house sparrows, which are commonly found around poultry houses, and to characterize the obtained Salmonella isolates via serotyping, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and antibiotic resistance analysis. Samples of visceral organs (gastrointestinal tract, liver, and heart) from 470 house sparrows were subjected to culture and the results show that 18 (3.8%) were positive for Salmonella. Of t...

  18. Prevalence of Salmonella in Apparently Healthy Chickens in Mymensingh, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sejuti Naurin; Md. Ariful Islam; Mst. Minara Khatun

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella spp. are the most frequently reported cause of food-borne illnesses worldwide that are closely associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry and egg products. This study was designed to isolate and identify Salmonella, and evaluate its prevalence in chickens of different lines and ages during summer and rainy seasons. Cloacal swab samples (n=200) of apparently healthy chickens were collected. Isolated Salmonella were characterized using cultural, biochemical and serologic...

  19. Nuevos Perfiles Genéticos de Salmonella Enteritidis identificados en Luján, Argentina / New Genetic Profiles of Salmonella Enteritidis identified in Lujan, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo J, Anselmo; Hebe A, Barrios.

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue aislar y seleccionar bacteriófagos salvajes de aguas del río Luján en Argentina, contra Salmonella Enteritidis, fagotipificar 86 cepas de esta serovariedad y evaluar los perfiles genéticos de representantes de los grupos de especificidad surgidos. La concentració [...] n de bacteriófagos de agua de río se realizó mediante el hisopo de Moore con 60 minutos de exposición a la corriente de agua. El aislamiento y purificación se efectuó por la técnica de doble capa de agar. Al fagotipificar los 86 aislamientos por metodología estandarizada surgieron cuatro grupos de especificidad. La subtipificación por electroforesis en campo pulsado realizada a un representante de cada grupo, estableció que dos grupos correspondieron al fagotipo PT4, predominante en Latinoamérica. Los dos grupos restantes presentaron dos perfiles genéticos que no se habían encontrado antes en la base de datos de la Red PulseNet de América Latina y el Caribe. Abstract in english The aim of this study was isolating and selecting wild bacteriophages from waters of the Lujan river in Argentina, against Salmonella Enteritidis, phage typing 86 strains of this serovariety and evaluating the genetic profiles of samples from the emerged specific groups. Bacteriophages concentration [...] of river water was performed using the Moore swab with 60 minutes of exposure to water flow. Isolation and purification was carried out by the technique of double-layer agar. Eighty six isolates were phage-typed by standardized methodology and four groups of specificity appeared. Subtyping by pulsed field gel electrophoresis conducted on one sample of each group, establishing that two phage group corresponded to PT4 phagotype, which is the most common in Latin America. The other two groups had two genetic profiles that were not previously found in the database Latin America and the Caribbean PulseNet Network

  20. Characterization of multidrug-resistant, qnrB2-positive and extended-spectrum-?-lactamase-producing Salmonella Concord and Salmonella Senftenberg isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Veldman, K.T.; Dierikx, C.M.; van Essen-Zandbergen, A; Pelt, W. van; Mevius, D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To characterize plasmids and resistance genes of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella Senftenberg and Salmonella Concord isolated from patients in the Netherlands. Methods The resistance genes of four MDR Salmonella isolates (three Salmonella Concord and one Salmonella Senftenberg) were identified by miniaturized microarray, PCR and sequencing. Plasmids were characterized by S1 nuclease-PFGE and PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT). Linkage between plasmids and genes was determined by ...

  1. Salmonella enterica induces and subverts the plant immune system

    KAUST Repository

    García, Ana V.

    2014-04-04

    Infections with Salmonella enterica belong to the most prominent causes of food poisoning and infected fruits and vegetables represent important vectors for salmonellosis. Although it was shown that plants raise defense responses against Salmonella, these bacteria persist and proliferate in various plant tissues. Recent reports shed light into the molecular interaction between plants and Salmonella, highlighting the defense pathways induced and the means used by the bacteria to escape the plant immune system and accomplish colonization. It was recently shown that plants detect Salmonella pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as the flagellin peptide flg22, and activate hallmarks of the defense program known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Interestingly, certain Salmonella strains carry mutations in the flg22 domain triggering PTI, suggesting that a strategy of Salmonella is to escape plant detection by mutating PAMP motifs. Another strategy may rely on the type III secretion system (T3SS) as T3SS mutants were found to induce stronger plant defense responses than wild type bacteria. Although Salmonella effector delivery into plant cells has not been shown, expression of Salmonella effectors in plant tissues shows that these bacteria also possess powerful means to manipulate the plant immune system. Altogether, these data suggest that Salmonella triggers PTI in plants and evolved strategies to avoid or subvert plant immunity. 2014 Garca and Hirt.

  2. Radiation Resistance of Salmonellae and their Occurrence in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have been undertaken to determine the salmonellae contamination of different food and feed products in Thailand. The radioresistance of different isolated strains was determined. Of the examined samples, 0.5% beef meat, 0.7% pork meat, 2.5% pork liver, 4% beef liver and 2% fish meal were contaminated with salmonellae. Salmonella derby and S. anatum were predominant. The D-values for different Salmonella serotypes in minced beef irradiated at 4 to 10°C varied from 27 to 50 krads. (author)

  3. Salmonella and Campylobacter: Antimicrobial resistance and bacteriophage control in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ar'Quette; Hashem, Fawzy; Parveen, Salina

    2016-02-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are major causes of foodborne related illness and are traditionally associated with consuming undercooked poultry and/or consuming products that have been cross contaminated with raw poultry. Many of the isolated Salmonella and Campylobacter that can cause disease have displayed antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Although poultry producers have reduced on-the-farm overuse of antimicrobials, antimicrobial resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter strains still persist. One method of bio-control, that is producing promising results, is the use of lytic bacteriophages. This review will highlight the current emergence and persistence of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter recovered from poultry as well as bacteriophage research interventions and limitations. PMID:26678136

  4. Salmonella in Wastes Produced at Commercial Poultry Farms1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, D. J.; Olechowski-Gerhardt, Carolyn; Berkowitz, J.; Finstein, M. S.

    1969-01-01

    Composite samples of freshly voided excreta from 91 poultry houses were tested qualitatively for Salmonella; 26 (29%) were positive. The houses were located on 36 farms, 18 of which (50%) yielded one or more positive samples. In a separate, quantitative study, Salmonella densities ranged from less than 1 to over 34,000 per g of excreta (dry weight). High densities were noted in waste from cage houses, but not in waste from floor houses (litter or wire floors). Salmonella-shedding chickens were located in only one small area of the row of cages examined in detail. A total of 15 Salmonella serotypes were identified during the study. PMID:5370457

  5. Salmonella in food animals and humans in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padungtod, Pawin; Kaneene, John B

    2006-05-01

    A study was conducted to describe the epidemiology of Salmonella spp. in chickens, pigs, dairy cows, farm workers with and without livestock contact, and children with diarrhea. Samples were collected in the Chiangmai and Lampoon provinces of northern Thailand during 2000-2003. A total of 2141 samples were processed. The prevalences of Salmonella in chickens at the farm, slaughterhouse and chicken meat at the market were 4%, 9% and 57%, respectively. In pigs, the prevalence at the farm, slaughterhouse and pork at the market were 6%, 28% and 29%, respectively. The prevalence of Salmonella in dairy cows was 3%. Salmonella was isolated from 36% of farm workers with livestock contact and 33% of those with no livestock contact, and from 7% of diarrheal children at the hospital. The longitudinal study of Salmonella in pigs showed that the incidences of Salmonella isolation at the farm, slaughterhouse, and market were 7%, 50% and 20%, respectively. The most frequently isolated serotypes of Salmonella were Weltevreden in chickens and humans, and Rissen in pigs. Serotypes varied between farm, slaughterhouse and market for isolates from chickens and pigs. Antimicrobial resistance was present in isolates from all types of animals and humans in the study, with widespread resistance to tetracycline and nalidixic acid. The proportions of resistant organisms among Salmonella from diarrheal children were high, and higher proportions of multi-drug resistant organisms were observed among Salmonella isolates from farm workers with livestock contact than among isolates from workers with no livestock contact. PMID:16488041

  6. Detection of salmonellae from fish in a natural river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, James; Wheeler, Phil E; Obafemi, Shola; Valdez, Jessica; Forstner, Michael R J; Bonner, Timothy H; Hahn, Dittmar

    2008-09-01

    Sediment, water, and fish gut samples taken at three sites near the headwaters of the San Marcos River, Texas, were analyzed for salmonellae Salmonella spp. by culture and molecular techniques. While enrichment cultures from sediment and water samples from the two uppermost sites were negative for salmonellae in polymerase chain reaction analyses, both sediment and water samples were positive at the downstream site. At all sites, salmonellae were present in the guts of different fishes (e.g., largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and suckermouth catfish Hypostomus plecostomus). The highest percentage of detection (33% of analyzed fish) occurred at the downstream site, whereas detection percentages at the upper two sites were 18% and 17%. Detection of salmonellae was usually limited to one segment of the gut (i.e., upper or lower part). Serovars were highly variable among individuals and differed between the upper and lower gut in the only individual (a common carp) that had salmonellae in both gut segments. In situ hybridization demonstrated that salmonellae were normally associated with particulate material in the gut and occurred in highly variable numbers ranging from an occasional organism to a majority of the gut microbe population. These results demonstrate the presence of different serovars of potentially human pathogenic salmonellae among four ecologically distinct fishes within natural environments. They also suggest that salmonellae are not components of the indigenous microbial community in fish intestines but rather are ingested with particulate material. PMID:18942591

  7. Ocorrência de Salmonella spp. em carcaças de frangos recém abatidos em feiras e mercados da cidade de Manaus-AM / Occurrence of Salmonella spp. in chicken carcasses commercialized in open markets in the city of Manaus - Amazonas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Izabel Cristina Campos, Tirolli; Cristóvão Alves da, Costa.

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa avaliou a contaminação em carcaças de frango por salmonelas. O estudo foi realizado em feiras e mercados nas diferentes zonas da Cidade de Manaus-AM, por um período de 11 semanas (março a maio de 1998). Sessenta amostras foram examinadas; destas, trinta (50%) resultaram positivas [...] para Salmonella spp., das quais foram isoladas 67 cepas, incluídas em 11 sorotipos diversos. Entre os sorotipos identificados, a S. panama, S. mbandaka, S. schwarzengrund, S. typhimurium, S. albany e S. agona, foram as predominantes, representando 85% do total isolado. A contaminação de Salmonella é dependente de vários fatores, e a sua ocorrência pode estar relacionada com as condições de higiene da granja. A metodologia empregada para a detecção microbiológica foi a recomendada pela "Food and Drug Administration", dos Estados Unidos da América. Abstract in english This research evaluates the levels of salmonella that are present in chicken carcasses commercialized in shops and public markets in different zones in the city of Manaus, Amazonas Brazil. Sixty samples were randomly collected in a period of eleven weeks and examined specifically for Salmonella pres [...] ence. Fifty percent of the samples were positive for Salmonella, and 67 serovars were isolated and distributed mainly among 11 different sorotypes. Those identified,S. panama, S. mbandaka, S. schwarzengrund, S. typhimurium, S. albany, S. agona, corresponded to 85%. The contamination of Salmonella is dependent on various factors, and its occurrence may berelated to the hygeine conditions of the poultry farm. The methodology used for the microbiological detection was that recommende by the "Food and Drugs Administration" of the United States of America.

  8. Characterization of Salmonella enterica Serovar 4,[5],12:i:- Isolates from Korean Food Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Aeran; Lim, Suk-Kyung; Lee, Kichan; Jung, Suk-Chan; Cho, Yun Sang; Yun, Seon-Jong; Song, Chang-Seon; Jung, Byeong Yeal

    2015-09-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:-, a monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium, has emerged as one of the most common serotypes related to human salmonellosis. In this study, the 22 isolates of S. 4,[5],12:i:- from food animals were identified by a specific multiplex polymerase chain reaction between 2009 and 2012. The isolation rate of S. 4,[5],12:i:- accounted for 1.7% (22/1271) of Salmonella spp. isolates from food animal origins: more specifically, 7.6% (18/235) from pigs and 0.6% (4/686) from chickens. The predominant S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates in Korea belonged to phage type DT193 (12/22) with ampicillin-streptomycin-sulfonamide-tetracycline (ASSuT) resistance pattern (9/22). The XbaI-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis revealed 11 different pulsotypes, and the major X-1 pattern was shared by 8 isolates. The isolates belonging to pattern X-1 were further subdivided into three BlnI-PFGE patterns and four variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) allele combinations. The combining of MLVA and PFGE data could be valuable in characterizing highly clonal strains and discriminating their epidemiological relationship. PMID:26192872

  9. Rapid identification of novel antigens of Salmonella Enteritidis by microarray-based immuno screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on an approach to rapidly screen thousands of Salmonella Enteritidis proteins with the goal of identifying novel immunodominant proteins. We used a microarray-based system that warrants high throughput and easy handling. Seven immunogenic candidates were selected after screening. Comparative analyses by ELISA and microarrays manifested their immunodominant character. The large repetitive protein (SEN4030) that plays a role as a putative adhesin in initial cell surface interaction and is highly specific to Salmonella is considered to be the most suitable protein for a diagnostic approach. The results further demonstrate that the strategy applied herein is convenient for specifically identifying immunogenic proteins of pathogenic microorganisms. Consequently, it enables a sound assessment of promising candidates for diagnostic applications and vaccine development. Moreover, the elucidation of immunogenic proteins may assist in unveiling unknown virulence-associated factors, thus furthering the understanding of the underlying pathogenicity of Salmonella in general, and of S. Enteritidis, one of the most frequently detected serovars of this pathogen, in particular. (author)

  10. Induction of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 under different growth conditions can affect Salmonella–host cell interactions in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Ibarra, J Antonio; Knodler, Leigh A.; Sturdevant, Daniel E.; Virtaneva, Kimmo; Carmody, Aaron B; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Steele-Mortimer, Olivia

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella invade non-phagocytic cells by inducing massive actin rearrangements, resulting in membrane ruffle formation and phagocytosis of the bacteria. This process is mediated by a cohort of effector proteins translocated into the host cell by type III secretion system 1, which is encoded by genes in the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI) 1 regulon. This network is precisely regulated and must be induced outside of host cells. In vitro invasive Salmonella are prepared by growth in synth...

  11. Isolamento de Salmonella Braenderup em arara-azul (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) Salmonella Braenderup isolation in Hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus)

    OpenAIRE

    Mariangela Costa Allgayer; Sérgio José de Oliveira; Vanessa Daniele Mottin; Márcia Regina Loiko; Fernanda Abilleira; Neiva Maria Robaldo Guedes; Daniel Thompsen Passos; Tania de Azevedo Weimer

    2009-01-01

    O monitoramento sanitário de populações de arara-azul (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) de vida livre visa a permitir ajustes de manejo em ambiente natural alterado. Para avaliar a ocorrência de Salmonella spp. em filhotes dessa espécie, foram coletados swabs de cloaca no Pantanal de Miranda, Mato Grosso do Sul (MS). Uma colônia morfológica e bioquimicamente compatível com Salmonella spp. foi isolada e sorotipada como Salmonella Braenderup. Devido ao alto potencial zoonótico desse microrganismo, é...

  12. Pontos críticos de controle de Salmonella spp. no abate de frangos Critical control points for Salmonella spp. in poultry slaughter

    OpenAIRE

    D.A.S. Von Rückert; P. S. A. Pinto; B. M. Santos; M.A.S Moreira; A.C.A. Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Avaliou-se a presença de Salmonella spp. em esfregaços superficiais em 135 carcaças de frangos, coletadas em cinco diferentes fases do abate, utilizando os métodos de microbiologia convencional, reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR) e imunoanálise. Os três métodos resultaram em tendência semelhante de detecção de Salmonella spp. nas carcaças de frango, ao longo da linha de abate. A maior frequência de Salmonella spp. foi determinada após o chuveiro de lavagem das carcaças, localizado entre a e...

  13. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology of Salmonella Rissen from animals, food products, and patients in Thailand and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Bangtrakulnonth, Aroon

    2008-01-01

    Recently we reported increases in both the number of Salmonella infections due to Salmonella Rissen in Thailand and the isolation of this serovar from pork products in Thailand. The objectives of the present study were to determine the genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella Rissen isolates recovered from humans, food products, and animals in Denmark and Thailand. Additionally, risk factors due to travel and consumption of specific food products were analyzed and evaluated. A total of 112 Salmonella Rissen isolates were included in this study from Thailand and Denmark. Thai isolates were recovered from humans, uncooked food, and ready-to-eat food. Danish isolates were obtained from humans (with and without a history of travel to Thailand prior to the infection), Danish pig or pork products, imported pig or pork products, turkeys, and animal feed. A total of 63 unique XbaIPFGE patterns were observed. The predominant pattern was shared by 22 strains. Limited antimicrobial resistance was observed in the Danish strains, and a higher degree of resistance was observed in strains originating from Thailand. Virtually all isolates were resistant to tetracycline. The tetA gene was detected in tetracycline-resistant isolates. Statistical analysis and molecular subtyping identified the combination of travel to Thailand and consumption of imported pig or pork products as well consumption of as pig or pork products produced in Denmark as risk factors for Salmonella Rissen infection among the Danish patients. The outcome of this study might be used as a supplement for future Salmonella Rissen investigations and outbreak detection.

  14. Faecal Salmonella shedding in fattening pigs in relation to the presence of Salmonella antibodies in three pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marianne Kjær; SØrensen, Jan Tind

    2012-01-01

    Human salmonellosis originating from pork is an important zoonotic disease, and the production of outdoor pigs may increase the risk of contaminating the food chain with Salmonella from environmental sources. The prevalence of faecal Salmonella shedding has therefore been compared in organic, conventional outdoor and indoor finishing pig herds in a Danish survey with participation of 34 herds. Individual faecal samples were collected from 30 to 50 pigs per herd before and after transport to slaughter and analysed for the presence of Salmonella. Further meat juice samples were collected from the pigs at slaughter and analysed for the presence of Salmonella antibodies. The results showed a low level of on-farm Salmonella shedding (overall prevalence 0.8%), while 2.3% of the pigs were shedding Salmonella at slaughter, with no significant differences between systems. The overall seroprevalence was 5.4% with no significant differences between systems. Pigs with Salmonella shedding on farm were more likely to also be shedding Salmonella at slaughter (P<0.001). The serological test result was a significant predictor of Salmonella shedding at slaughter in indi-vidual pigs from conventional systems, but not in organic pigs (P<0.05). © 2012.

  15. lac Repressor Is an Antivirulence Factor of Salmonella enterica: Its Role in the Evolution of Virulence in Salmonella

    OpenAIRE

    Eswarappa, Sandeepa M; Karnam, Guruswamy; Nagarajan, Arvindhan G.; Chakraborty, Sangeeta; Chakravortty, Dipshikha

    2009-01-01

    The genus Salmonella includes many pathogens of great medical and veterinary importance. Bacteria belonging to this genus are very closely related to those belonging to the genus Escherichia. lacZYA operon and lacI are present in Escherichia coli, but not in Salmonella enterica. It has been proposed that Salmonella has lost lacZYA operon and lacI during evolution. In this study, we have investigated the physiological and evolutionary significance of the absence of lacI in Salmonella e...

  16. Salmonella-based Rodenticides and Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Painter, John A.; Mølbak, Kåre; Sonne-Hansen, Jacob; Barrett, Tim; Wells, Joy G.; Tauxe, Robert V.

    2004-01-01

    Several countries still permit strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis, a leading cause of gastrointestinal illness in humans, to be used in rat baits. To assess the human health risk associated with such rat bait, we first reviewed historic data on health hazards associated with Ratin, a rodenticide that was used in Europe until the early 1960s. Ratin caused outbreaks of human illness, including several deaths. We then compared S. Enteritidis isolated from a current commercial pr...

  17. Transport of trehalose in Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Postma, P.W.; Keizer, H G; Koolwijk, P.

    1986-01-01

    We have studied trehalose uptake in Salmonella typhimurium and the possible involvement of the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) in this process. Two transport systems could recognize and transport trehalose, the mannose PTS and the galactose permease. Uptake of trehalose via the latter system required that it be expressed constitutively (due to a galR or galC mutation). Introduction of a ptsM mutation, resulting in a defective IIMan/IIIMan system, in S. typhimu...

  18. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B

    1989-01-01

    The course of experimentally induced Salmonella typhimurium infection was studied in three groups of inbred LEW rats: homozygous +/+, athymic rnu/rnu and isogeneic thymus-grafted rnu/rnu rats. In the first experiment the animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(8) bacteria and all animals became severely septicemic and died within a week of inoculation, irrespective of presence or absence of thymus. In the second experiment the animals were inoculated with 10(6) bacteria, and both euthy...

  19. Serovars of Salmonella from captive reptiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Lassen-Nielsen, Anne Marie; Nordentoft, Steen; Hammer, Anne Sofie

    2009-01-01

    The distribution on serovars of 60 Salmonella isolates from reptiles kept in captivity in Denmark during the period 1995–2006 was investigated. The isolates were all recovered from clinical specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Institute. A majority of the samples were from reptiles in zoological gardens or similar, while a minor number was from reptiles kept in private homes. A total of 43 serovars were detected, most of them being what is usually called exotic serotypes, and many not ...

  20. Salmonella Muenster infection in a dairy herd

    OpenAIRE

    Radke, Brian R.; McFall, Margaret; Radostits, Steve M.

    2002-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to provide information on animal and occupational health associated with the infection of a dairy herd with Salmonella Muenster that would be useful in the management of dairy herds so infected. This retrospective, longitudinal report records a 2-year infection of a 140-cow dairy herd with S. Muenster, which was likely introduced by additions to the herd. Six cows aborted or had diarrhea due to salmonellosis in the last trimester of pregnancy. Additions t...

  1. Attachment of Salmonella spp. to pork meat

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Trine; Riber, Leise; Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Five strains of Salmonella, one wildtype and four knock-out mutants (the prg, flhDC, yhjH and fliC genes) were investigated based on their probability to attach and subsequently detach from a surface of pork fillet. The attachment followed by detachment was measured and modelled for two different contact times using cells coming from either a planktonic or an immobilized state of growth. The results showed that the probability of detachment generally decreased when the contact tim...

  2. Development of immunosensors for salmonella typhimurium

    OpenAIRE

    Salam, Faridah

    2010-01-01

    The accidental contamination of Salmonella in raw and processed foods is a major problem for the food and feed industries worldwide. Rapid detection methods for monitoring and identification are required to solve the health and safety problems related to these pathogenic bacteria. Current detection methods require extensive sample preparation and prolonged assay procedures, thus, this research project focused on developing rapid methods which are capable of sensing these microorganisms at a h...

  3. Salmonella Enteritidis em Aves: Retrospectiva no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva EN; Duarte A

    2002-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) emergiu como um grande problema avícola e de saúde pública no Brasil a partir de 1993. Os estudos epidemiológicos, incluindo a fagotipagem e sonda complementar de rRNA, sugerem a entrada de SE no Brasil via importação de material genético avícola contaminado, provavelmente no final da década de 80. As taxas de crescimento da avicultura brasileira na década de 90 criaram condições favoráveis para a manutenção e proliferação da SE nos plantéis avícolas. Além disso, o...

  4. Hypermutator Salmonella Heidelberg induces an early cell death in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall-David, Sandrine; Zenbaa, Neila; Bouchard, Damien; Lavault, Marie-Thérèse; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Bousarghin, Latifa

    2015-10-22

    We have previously described that a strain of Salmonella Heidelberg with a hypermutator phenotype, B182, adhered strongly to HeLa cells. In this work, we showed that this hypermutator Salmonella strain invaded HeLa epithelial cells and induced cytoskeleton alteration. Those changes lead to HeLa cell death which was characteristic of apoptosis. For the first time, we showed that this hypermutator strain induced apoptosis associated with the activation of caspases 2, 9 and 3. Complementation of B182 strain showed a decrease in cells death induction. In the presence of other Salmonella Heidelberg with a normomutator phenotype, such as WT and SL486, cell death and caspase 3 were undetectable. These results suggested that early apoptosis and caspase 3 activation were specific to B182. Besides, B182 induced LDH release and caspase 3 activation in CaCo-2 and HCT116 cells. Heat-treated B182 and diffusible products failed to induce this phenotype. Epithelial cells treatment with cytochalasin D caused the inhibition of B182 internalisation and caspase 3 activation. These results showed that this cell death required active S. Heidelberg B182 protein synthesis and bacterial internalisation. However sipB and sopB, usually involved in apoptosis induced by Salmonella were not overexpressed in B182, contrary to fimA and fliC. Comparative genome analysis showed numerous mutations as in rpoS which would be more investigated. The role of the hypermutator phenotype might be suspected to be implicated in these specific features. This result expands our knowledge about strong mutators frequently found in bacterial organisms isolated from clinical specimens. PMID:26320605

  5. Microarray on digital versatile disc for identification and genotyping of Salmonella and Campylobacter in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortajada-Genaro, Luis Antonio; Rodrigo, Alejandro; Hevia, Elizabeth; Mena, Salvador; Niñoles, Regina; Maquieira, Ángel

    2015-09-01

    Highly portable, cost-effective, and rapid-response devices are required for the subtyping of the most frequent food-borne bacteria; thereby the sample rejection strategies and hygienization techniques along the food chain can be tailor-designed. Here, a novel biosensor is presented for the generic detection of Salmonella and Campylobacter and the discrimination between their most prevalent serovars (Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium) and species (Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli), respectively. The method is based on DNA microarray developed on a standard digital versatile disc (DVD) as support for a hybridization assay and a DVD driver as scanner. This approach was found to be highly sensitive (detection limit down to 0.2 pg of genomic DNA), reproducible (relative standard deviation 4-19 %), and high working capacity (20 samples per disc). The inclusivity and exclusivity assays indicated that designed oligonucleotides (primers and probes) were able to discriminate targeted pathogens from other Salmonella serovars, Campylobacter species, or common food-borne pathogens potentially present in the indigenous microflora. One hundred isolates from meat samples, collected in a poultry factory, were analyzed by the DVD microarraying and fluorescent real-time PCR. An excellent correlation was observed for both generic and specific detection (relative sensitivity 93-99 % and relative specificity 93-100 %). Therefore, the developed assay has been shown to be a reliable tool to be used in routine food safety analysis, especially in settings with limited infrastructure due to the excellent efficiency-cost ratio of compact disc technology. Graphical Abstract DNA microarray performed by DVD technology for pathogen genotyping. PMID:26198111

  6. Survival and growth of Salmonella in salsa and related ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Zhang, Guodong; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Tauxe, Robert V; Doyle, Michael P

    2010-03-01

    A large outbreak of Salmonella Saintpaul associated with raw jalapeño peppers, serrano peppers, and possibly tomatoes was reported in the United States in 2008. During the outbreak, two clusters of illness investigated among restaurant patrons were significantly associated with eating salsa. Experiments were performed to determine the survival and growth characteristics of Salmonella in salsa and related major ingredients, i.e., tomatoes, jalapeño peppers, and cilantro. Intact and chopped vegetables and different formulations of salsas were inoculated with a five-strain mixture of Salmonella and then stored at 4, 12, and 21 degrees C for up to 7 days. Salmonella populations were monitored during storage. Salmonella did not grow, but survived on intact tomatoes and jalapeño peppers, whereas significant growth at 12 and 21 degrees C was observed on intact cilantro. In general, growth of Salmonella occurred in all chopped vegetables when stored at 12 and 21 degrees C, with chopped jalapeño peppers being the most supportive of Salmonella growth. Regardless of differences in salsa formulation, no growth of Salmonella (initial inoculation ca. 3 log CFU/g) was observed in salsa held at 4 degrees C; however, rapid or gradual decreases in Salmonella populations were only observed in formulations that contained both fresh garlic and lime juice. Salmonella grew at 12 and 21 degrees C in salsas, except for those formulations that contained both fresh garlic and lime juice, in which salmonellae were rapidly or gradually inactivated, depending on salsa formulation. These results highlight the importance of preharvest pathogen contamination control of fresh produce and proper formulation and storage of salsa. PMID:20202327

  7. Assessment of serological response of chickens to Salmonella Gallinarum and Salmonella Pullorum by Elisa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GH de< A NAME=" nt01a" > < /A> , Oliveira; Â, Berchieri Júnior; HJ, Montassier; AC, Fernandes.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to assess an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect chicken serological response against Salmonella enterica serotypes Gallinarum and Pullorum. The assays have used soluble bacterial proteins of Salmonella Gallinarum strain 9 (AgSG) as detecting antigen and peroxidas [...] e and alkaline phosphatase conjugates. According to the results, the antigen, sera and conjugate concentrations were optimized. In addition, the assay using alkaline phosphatase and peroxidase conjugates was helpful to distinguish positive serological reaction to serotypes Gallinarum and Pullorum from Enteritidis.

  8. Assessment of serological response of chickens to Salmonella Gallinarum and Salmonella Pullorum by Elisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH de Oliveira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to assess an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect chicken serological response against Salmonella enterica serotypes Gallinarum and Pullorum. The assays have used soluble bacterial proteins of Salmonella Gallinarum strain 9 (AgSG as detecting antigen and peroxidase and alkaline phosphatase conjugates. According to the results, the antigen, sera and conjugate concentrations were optimized. In addition, the assay using alkaline phosphatase and peroxidase conjugates was helpful to distinguish positive serological reaction to serotypes Gallinarum and Pullorum from Enteritidis.

  9. Immunochemical analyses of serum antibodies from pig herds in a Salmonella non-endemic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiuff, Camilla; Thorberg, Britt-Marie

    2002-01-01

    In a large comparative survey of Danish and Swedish slaughter pig herds performed prior to this work, it was unexpectedly found that some Swedish herds harbored seropositive pigs. Serum samples from the Swedish herds had moderate responses in the Salmonella rnix-ELISA (detecting serogroup B and C I infections) compared to the Danish herds classifying some of them as seropositive using a cut-off value at 40 OD%. In Sweden, extensive Salmonella control is carried out by bacteriological screening of feces and lymph nodes, and the overall prevalence has been proven to be below 0.1%. The serological positive results were therefore unexpected; hence the reactivities of the Swedish sera were studied by a number of immunochemical analyses (Western blot, indirect ELISA, inhibition ELISA, avidity ELISA) and compared to sera from Danish pig herds with verified Salmonella infections ("the reference sera"). In Western blot, the Swedish sera had high binding reactivities against Salmonella Typhimurium LPS of different molecular weights, and gave binding patterns similar to that of the reference sera. Pre-incubation with free S. Typhimurium LPS or PS (the polysaccharide part of LPS) was able to inhibit the reactivity of the Swedish sera in the mix-ELISA. Reactivities against other related bacterial LPS such as Citrobacter freundii LPS and Yersinia enterocolitica 0:3 LPS were observed in the Swedish sera, but these LPS antigens were unable to inhibit the reactivities in: the m_ix-ELISA as efficiently as S. Typhimurium LPS. Furthermore, the Swedish sera did not bind Salmonella LPS of another serogroup (S. Meleagridis LPS, serogroup El) or rough Salmonella LPS, both lacking the specific O-antigenic parts of S. Typhimurium LPS. The avidity of the Swedish sera was much lower than the avidity of the reference sera, which could indicate the presence: of transient low-dose infections or stimulation by inactivated bacteria in. feed. The results obtained in this investigation strongly indicate that the Swedish sera contain antibodies directed against the O-antigenic part of LPS from S. Typhimurium or possibly on as yet unknown bacterium.

  10. T-2 toxin induced Salmonella Typhimurium intoxication results in decreased Salmonella numbers in the cecum contents of pigs, despite marked effects on Salmonella-host cell interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbrugghe Elin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mycotoxin T-2 toxin and Salmonella Typhimurium infections pose a significant threat to human and animal health. Interactions between both agents may result in a different outcome of the infection. Therefore, the aim of the presented study was to investigate the effects of low and relevant concentrations of T-2 toxin on the course of a Salmonella Typhimurium infection in pigs. We showed that the presence of 15 and 83 ?g T-2 toxin per kg feed significantly decreased the amount of Salmonella Typhimurium bacteria present in the cecum contents, and a tendency to a reduced colonization of the jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and colon contents was noticed. In vitro, proteomic analysis of porcine enterocytes revealed that a very low concentration of T-2 toxin (5 ng/mL affects the protein expression of mitochondrial, endoplasmatic reticulum and cytoskeleton associated proteins, proteins involved in protein synthesis and folding, RNA synthesis, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and regulatory processes. Similarly low concentrations (1-100 ng/mL promoted the susceptibility of porcine macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells to Salmonella Typhimurium invasion, in a SPI-1 independent manner. Furthermore, T-2 toxin (1-5 ng/mL promoted the translocation of Salmonella Typhimurium over an intestinal porcine epithelial cell monolayer. Although these findings may seem in favour of Salmonella Typhimurium, microarray analysis showed that T-2 toxin (5 ng/mL causes an intoxication of Salmonella Typhimurium, represented by a reduced motility and a downregulation of metabolic and Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 genes. This study demonstrates marked interactions of T-2 toxin with Salmonella Typhimurium pathogenesis, resulting in bacterial intoxication.

  11. Cambios epidemiológicos de las salmonelosis en Chile: Desde Salmonella typhi a Salmonella enteritidis / CHANGES IN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PATTERNS OF SALMONELLOSIS IN CHILE: SINCE Salmonella typhi TO Salmonella enteritidis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ALBERTO, FICA C.; MARCELA, ALEXANDRE S.; SOLEDAD, PRAT M.; ALDA, FERNÁNDEZ R.; JORGE, FERNÁNDEZ O.; INGRID, HEITMANN G..

    Full Text Available Chile ha experimentado un cambio epidemiológico en la última década con la desaparición progresiva de la fiebre tifoidea causada mayoritariamente por Salmonella typhi y la emergencia epidémica de Salmonella enteritidis, un agente de diarrea sin tratamiento específico eficaz y ligado estrechamente a [...] productos avícolas contaminados e inadecuadamente preparados. La fiebre tifoidea ha disminuido su importancia debido al desarrollo humano experimentado en Chile que ha significado un alto grado de cobertura de agua potable y de manejo de excretas, en conjunto con un mayor nivel de educación, factores que limitan la contaminación del ambiente por este agente y la adquisición de él por huéspedes susceptibles. A pesar de este notable avance, un nuevo serotipo de salmonela ha irrumpido en Chile, denominado enteritidis, que ha logrado aprovechar el nuevo escenario logrado con la industrialización avícola donde miles de aves ahora conviven en pequeños espacios facilitando la infección cruzada entre ellas. La contaminación intermitente de huevos por vía transovárica o superficial permite la llegada de este agente en forma errática pero persistente al ser humano. Este nuevo escenario y la ausencia de un tratamiento antimicrobiano eficaz para este agente, obligan a que nuestro país adopte nuevas estrategias de prevención que involucran a productores, distribuidores y consumidores de productos avícolas Abstract in english Chile has experienced a dramatic epidemiologic change in the last decade with a progressive decline in typhoid fever, -a disease mainly associated to Salmonella typhi- and the parallel emergence of Salmonella enteritidis. This pathogen causes diarrhea by the ingestion of contaminated avian products, [...] and differs from S. typhi because it does not have an effective antibiotic treatment. Typhoid fever rates have declined due to global human development in Chile that has reached a high coverage in tap water provision, higher educational rates, and feces and solid waste disposal. These factors limit the spread of S. typhi in the environment or the adquisition of this pathogen by susceptible hosts. Despite this remarkable achievement, another Salmonella serotype has irrupted and has taken advantage of the new scenario where thousand of lay hens share closed spaces facilitating the horizontal transfer of S. enteritidis. Intermitent inoculation of eggs either by a transovaric route or by simple superficial contamination allow that this agent reaches human hosts in an sporadic but persistent way. The new epidemiological condition requires adoption of different preventive strategies that should involve health authorities, producers, retail-market distributors and consumers of the avian food industry

  12. Salmonella Enteritidis em Aves: Retrospectiva no Brasil / Salmonella Enteritidis in Poultry: Retrospective in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    EN, Silva; A, Duarte.

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) emergiu como um grande problema avícola e de saúde pública no Brasil a partir de 1993. Os estudos epidemiológicos, incluindo a fagotipagem e sonda complementar de rRNA, sugerem a entrada de SE no Brasil via importação de material genético avícola contaminado, provavelment [...] e no final da década de 80. As taxas de crescimento da avicultura brasileira na década de 90 criaram condições favoráveis para a manutenção e proliferação da SE nos plantéis avícolas. Além disso, o uso indiscriminado de antibióticos em aves, particularmente as quinolonas, encorajou a manutenção de lotes positivos para SE. As cepas de SE isoladas de aves têm mostrado alta sensibilidade aos antibióticos de uso comum em avicultura, incluindo as quinolonas. Entretanto, o aumento da resistência antimicrobiana e multirresistência tem sido observado em cepas de origem humana. Os últimos levantamentos realizados no ano de 2001 continuam a mostrar que a SE em materiais avícolas é o principal sorovar responsável pelas infecções humanas. Embora as carcaças de frangos apresentem altas taxas de contaminação por SE, são os ovos e seus derivados - principalmente a maionese caseira - os principais responsáveis pelos surtos humanos. O uso de vacinas específicas em poedeiras e reprodutoras tem se mostrado uma ferramenta auxiliar no controle de SE. O procedimento mais indicado para o controle de SE na avicultura está na aquisição e produção de lotes livres do agente. As rações e matérias primas de origem animal parecem não ser tão importantes na perpetuação do problema de SE, porém, os roedores parecem ser reservatórios ambientais importantes de SE em granjas contaminadas. Abstract in english In Brazil, Salmonella enteritidis (SE) emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health as from 1993. Epidemiological studies, including fagotyping and complementary rRNA probe, suggest that SE entered Brazil via the importation of contaminated poultry genetic material, probably at the end [...] of the eighties. The rate of growth of the Brazilian poultry industry in the nineties created favorable conditions for the maintenance and proliferation of SE in poultry production. Also, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in chickens, especially quinolones, encouraged the maintenance of SE positive flocks. SE strains isolated from chickens have shown great sensitivity to the antibiotics commonly used in poultry, including the quinolones. However, an increase in antimicrobial resistance and multiresistance has been observed in strains of human origin. The latest surveys carried out in 2001 continue showing the presence of SE in poultry materials as the main serovar responsible for human food infections. Although chicken carcasses show high levels of contamination by SE, it is eggs and egg products - mainly home made mayonnaise - which are the products mostly responsible for outbreaks in humans. The use of specific vaccines in layers and parent stock has been used as an auxiliary tool in the control of SE. However, the most indicated procedure for the control of SE in poultry is the acquisition and production of SE free flocks. Animal feed and raw materials of animal origin are apparently of lesser importance in the perpetuation of the SE problem, although rodents appear to be important environmental reservoirs of SE in contaminated farms.

  13. Salmonella Enteritidis em Aves: Retrospectiva no Brasil Salmonella Enteritidis in Poultry: Retrospective in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EN Silva

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Enteritidis (SE emergiu como um grande problema avícola e de saúde pública no Brasil a partir de 1993. Os estudos epidemiológicos, incluindo a fagotipagem e sonda complementar de rRNA, sugerem a entrada de SE no Brasil via importação de material genético avícola contaminado, provavelmente no final da década de 80. As taxas de crescimento da avicultura brasileira na década de 90 criaram condições favoráveis para a manutenção e proliferação da SE nos plantéis avícolas. Além disso, o uso indiscriminado de antibióticos em aves, particularmente as quinolonas, encorajou a manutenção de lotes positivos para SE. As cepas de SE isoladas de aves têm mostrado alta sensibilidade aos antibióticos de uso comum em avicultura, incluindo as quinolonas. Entretanto, o aumento da resistência antimicrobiana e multirresistência tem sido observado em cepas de origem humana. Os últimos levantamentos realizados no ano de 2001 continuam a mostrar que a SE em materiais avícolas é o principal sorovar responsável pelas infecções humanas. Embora as carcaças de frangos apresentem altas taxas de contaminação por SE, são os ovos e seus derivados - principalmente a maionese caseira - os principais responsáveis pelos surtos humanos. O uso de vacinas específicas em poedeiras e reprodutoras tem se mostrado uma ferramenta auxiliar no controle de SE. O procedimento mais indicado para o controle de SE na avicultura está na aquisição e produção de lotes livres do agente. As rações e matérias primas de origem animal parecem não ser tão importantes na perpetuação do problema de SE, porém, os roedores parecem ser reservatórios ambientais importantes de SE em granjas contaminadas.In Brazil, Salmonella enteritidis (SE emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health as from 1993. Epidemiological studies, including fagotyping and complementary rRNA probe, suggest that SE entered Brazil via the importation of contaminated poultry genetic material, probably at the end of the eighties. The rate of growth of the Brazilian poultry industry in the nineties created favorable conditions for the maintenance and proliferation of SE in poultry production. Also, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in chickens, especially quinolones, encouraged the maintenance of SE positive flocks. SE strains isolated from chickens have shown great sensitivity to the antibiotics commonly used in poultry, including the quinolones. However, an increase in antimicrobial resistance and multiresistance has been observed in strains of human origin. The latest surveys carried out in 2001 continue showing the presence of SE in poultry materials as the main serovar responsible for human food infections. Although chicken carcasses show high levels of contamination by SE, it is eggs and egg products - mainly home made mayonnaise - which are the products mostly responsible for outbreaks in humans. The use of specific vaccines in layers and parent stock has been used as an auxiliary tool in the control of SE. However, the most indicated procedure for the control of SE in poultry is the acquisition and production of SE free flocks. Animal feed and raw materials of animal origin are apparently of lesser importance in the perpetuation of the SE problem, although rodents appear to be important environmental reservoirs of SE in contaminated farms.

  14. Distribution and Molecular Characterization of Salmonella enterica Hypermutators in Retail Food in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin; Liu, Chongyang; Zhang, Zengfeng; Hu, Yuanyuan; Cao, Chenyang; Wang, Xin; Xi, Meili; Xia, Xiaodong; Yang, Baowei; Meng, Jianghong

    2015-08-01

    Hypermutable pathogens can easily acquire mutation opportunities, as well as antimicrobial resistance, and are tremendous hazards to food safety and public health. In this study, a total of 96 (7.6%) hypermutators were identified from 1,264 Salmonella isolates recovered from retail foods. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that hypermutators were genetically diverse. Amino acid substitution of Val421Phe was detected in MutS in one hypermutator and Val246Ala in 56 other hypermutators, while no mutation in MutS was found among the remaining 39 hypermutators. Hypermutators in Salmonella isolates recovered in 2010 (9.3%) and 2008 (7.7%) were significantly more prevalent than those in 2007 (1.4%). The rate of hypermutators in mutton (22.2%) was significantly higher than that in chicken (7.9%) and pork (4.7%). In Salmonella Leimo isolates (60.0%), hypermutators were most frequently detected, followed by Salmonella Essen (50.0%), Salmonella Indiana (36.6%), Salmonella Kallo (25.0%), Salmonella Heidelberg (23.8%), Salmonella Typhimurium (14.0%), Salmonella Shubra (13.0%), Salmonella Albany (11.1%), Salmonella Agona (7.0%), Salmonella Gueuletapee (6.3%), and Salmonella Enteritidis (1.7%). Salmonella hypermutators in isolates recovered from retail food stored at ambient temperature (15.7%) were significantly more prevalent than those stored in chilled (3.1%) and frozen (5.4%) condition. The overall distributions of mutation frequencies of the 96 hypermutators (selected by rifampin) were from 2.16 × 10(-5) to 4.25 × 10(-1). Mutation frequencies of hypermutators of Salmonella Leimo, Salmonella Essen, Salmonella Kallo, and Salmonella Agona were relative low, while those of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Indiana, and Salmonella Shubra were extremely high. No significant correlation was found between mutation frequency and antimicrobial resistance of the hypermutators. PMID:26219361

  15. Prevalence of Salmonella in Apparently Healthy Chickens in Mymensingh, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejuti Naurin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. are the most frequently reported cause of food-borne illnesses worldwide that are closely associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry and egg products. This study was designed to isolate and identify Salmonella, and evaluate its prevalence in chickens of different lines and ages during summer and rainy seasons. Cloacal swab samples (n=200 of apparently healthy chickens were collected. Isolated Salmonella were characterized using cultural, biochemical and serological examinations. A total of 104 samples (52% were found to be positive for Salmonella spp. The prevalence of Salmonella spp. was significantly higher (p<0.01 during summer (67.78% as opposed to rainy season (39.09%. Prevalence of Salmonella was 71.11% in broiler, 38.89% in layer and 25% in indigenous chicken. Broilers showed significantly higher prevalence of Salmonella as compared to layer and indigenous chickens (p<0.01. Among the five age groups, the highest prevalence was observed in chickens of 18-week of age (65% and the lowest was in chickens of 2-week age (16.67%. The data of this study showed higher prevalence of Salmonella in broilers and underscored the need for detail epidemiological investigations as well as strict hygienic practices in farm and live bird markets all over Bangladesh.

  16. Salmonella serotype shift during an endemic dairy infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy farms are known reservoirs for Salmonella spp. and control of this organism is challenging. Salmonellae have been shown to be endemic in herds in part because they are easily spread between animals and throughout the farm environment. The impact of the infection on the herd is variable and dep...

  17. Involvement of TIP60 acetyltransferase in intracellular Salmonella replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xueqin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella enterica is a facultative intracellular pathogen that replicates within a membrane-bound compartment termed Salmonella containing vacuole (SCV. The biogenesis of SCV requires Salmonella type III protein secretion/translocation system and their effector proteins which are translocated into host cells to exploit the vesicle trafficking pathways. SseF is one of these effectors required for SCV formation and Intracellular Salmonella replication through unknown mechanisms. Results In an attempt to identify host proteins that interact with SseF, we conduct a yeast two-hybrid screening of human cell cDNA library using SseF as the bait. We identified that TIP60, an acetyltransferase, interacts with SseF. We showed that the TIP60 acetylation activity was increased in the presence of SseF, and TIP60 was upregulated upon Salmonella infection. In addition, TIP60 is required for efficient intracellular Salmonella replication in macrophages. Conclusion Taken together, our data suggest that Salmonella may use SseF to exploit the host TIP60 acetyltransferase activity to promote efficient Salmonella replication inside host cells.

  18. Development of bioluminescent Salmonella strains for use in food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey R Hartford

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella can reside in healthy animals without the manifestation of any adverse effects on the carrier. If raw products of animal origin are not handled properly during processing or cooked to a proper temperature during preparation, salmonellosis can occur. In this research, we developed bioluminescent Salmonella strains that can be used for real-time monitoring of the pathogen's growth on food products. To accomplish this, twelve Salmonella strains from the broiler production continuum were transformed with the broad host range plasmid pAKlux1, and a chicken skin attachment model was developed. Results Salmonella strains carrying pAKlux1 constitutively expressed the luxCDABE operon and were therefore detectable using bioluminescence. Strains were characterized in terms of bioluminescence properties and plasmid stability. To assess the usefulness of bioluminescent Salmonella strains in food safety studies, we developed an attachment model using chicken skin. The effect of washing on attachment of Salmonella strains to chicken skin was tested using bioluminescent strains, which revealed the attachment properties of each strain. Conclusion This study demonstrated that bioluminescence is a sensitive and effective tool to detect Salmonella on food products in real-time. Bioluminescence imaging is a promising technology that can be utilized to evaluate new food safety measures for reducing Salmonella contamination on food products.

  19. Survival of Salmonella spp. In Waste Egg Wash Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The survival of salmonellae under various environmental conditions has been subject of numerous research studies. Due to low densities of these organisms in natural samples, laboratory or clinical cultures were used to ensure that the initial density of salmonellae was sufficien...

  20. Complete Genome of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Myophage Marshall

    OpenAIRE

    Luna, Adrian J.; Wood, Thammajun L.; Chamakura, Karthik R.; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is a food-borne pathogen that causes salmonellosis in the United States. Bacteriophages are emerging as viable biocontrol agents against this pathogen. Here, we present the complete annotated genome sequence of Salmonella Enteritidis T4-like myophage Marshall, which has potential as a phage therapy agent.

  1. Split marketing: A risk factor for Salmonella in market pigs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine if split marketing affects Salmonella prevalence in market pigs, by comparing the Salmonella prevalence in the first group of pigs selected for slaughter (i.e., “First pull”) versus the last group of pigs selected for slaughter (i.e., “Close out”) from typical co...

  2. Differences in attachment of Salmonella to fresh produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of fresh produce. The produce may be contaminated with Salmonella at any point throughout the food continuum. To develop effective strategies to minimize the risk of foodborne disease caused by this organism, it is essential to examine i...

  3. Orange peel products can reduce Salmonella populations in ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella can live undetected in the gut of food animals and be spread to humans directly and indirectly. Diet can impact intestinal populations of foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella spp. Orange juice production results in a waste product, orange peel and orange pulp, which has a high nutr...

  4. EFFECT OF EXPERIMENTAL CHLORATE PRODUCT ON SALMONELLA CONTAMINATION OF POULTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. coli and Salmonella are members of the family Enterobacteriacea, a common commensal family of bacteria. Salmonella and E. coli have a nitrate reductase enzyme that allows respiration in anaerobic conditions. Nitrate reductase can also co-metabolize chlorate to chlorite which will kill the bacte...

  5. Evaluation of gallium maltolate on fecal Salmonella shedding in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness in humans and causes over a third of all cases of gastroenteritis in the United States. Human foodborne outbreaks due to Salmonella have been traced to milk, beef, pork, and poultry. Fecal contamination of the carcass and hide is thought to be a maj...

  6. Prevalence of Salmonella in dairy herds in Alberta

    OpenAIRE

    Sorensen, Ole; McFall, Margaret; Manninen, Ken

    2003-01-01

    Fifty dairy herds in Alberta were tested for the presence of Salmonella. Four (8%) dairy herds had at least 1 cow shedding Salmonella. Different isolates were identified by serotyping, phage typing, and antibiotic resistance patterns. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were determined for unique isolates.

  7. Salmonella prevalence in “first pull” versus “close out” market pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying potential risk factors to direct intervention strategies is fundamental to reduce the risk of pork contamination with Salmonella. This study was designed to compare the Salmonella prevalence in the first group of pigs selected for slaughter (“First pull”) versus the last group of pigs se...

  8. Salmonella in lymph nodes of cattle presented for harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Salmonella can invade and survive within host immune cells. Once internalized, these pathogens have the potential to disseminate throughout the lymphatic system and reside within lymph nodes. If so, because some lymph nodes are located within muscle and fat tissues, Salmonella-positiv...

  9. 21 CFR 118.4 - Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... National Poultry Improvement Plan's standards for “U.S. S. Enteritidis Clean” status (9 CFR 145.23(d)) or... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures....4 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. You must follow the SE prevention measures...

  10. Tips to Reduce Your Risk of Salmonella from Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Salmonella infection from eggs. A type of bacterium, Salmonella , can be on both the outside and inside of eggs that appear to be normal, and if the eggs are eaten raw or lightly cooked, the bacterium can cause illness. Eggs, poultry, meat, milk, and other foods are safe when ...

  11. Salmonella Is a Sneaky Germ: Seven Tips for Safer Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safer Eating Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Salmonella can contaminate more than poultry and eggs. It sneaks its way into many ... not just from eggs and undercooked poultry. Although poultry and eggs are primary culprits, Salmonella can be found in a variety of foods ...

  12. Salmonella spp. in raw broiler parts: occurrence, antimicrobial resistance profile and phage typing of the Salmonella Enteritidis isolates Salmonella spp. em cortes de frango: ocorrência, resistência antimicrobiana e fagotipificação dos isolados de Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldemir Reginato Ribeiro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonellae in raw broiler parts and to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolated strains. Twenty-four (39.3% broiler parts samples were positive for Salmonella and twenty-five Salmonella strains were isolated, since two different serovars were detected in one single positive sample. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most prevalent serovar. Among Salmonella Enteritidis isolates, 95.2% belonged to Phage Type 4 (PT4 (20/21 and 4.8% to PT7 (1/21. Twenty-two (88% strains of Salmonella were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent, generating eight different resistance patterns. The S. Typhimurium (n: 1 and S. Hadar (n: 3 isolates presented multiple resistance. Three S. Enteritidis isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, two were resistant only to tetracycline. The high prevalence of Salmonella in the broiler parts strenghtens the importance of the use of good manufacturing practices (GMP, and HACCP. The results also emphasize the need for the responsible use of antimicrobials in animal production.Este trabalho foi conduzido para avaliar a ocorrência de Salmonella em cortes de frango e para determinar o perfil de resistência antimicrobiana das cepas isoladas. Vinte e quatro (39,3% cortes de frango foram positivas para Salmonella, tendo sido isoladas vinte e cinco cepas de Salmonella, uma vez que em uma amostra isolaram-se dois sorovares. Salmonella Enteritidis foi o sorovar prevalente. Entre as Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas, 95,2% pertencem ao Fagotipo 4 (PT4 (20/21 e 4,8% ao PT7 (1/21. Vinte e duas (88% cepas de Salmonella foram resistentes a pelo menos um agente antimicrobiano e oito diferentes padrões de resistência foram observados. S. Typhimurium (n:1 e S. Hadar (n: 3, apresentaram múltipla resistência. Três cepas de S. Enteritidis foram sensíveis a todos os antimicrobianos e duas resistentes somente a tetraciclina. A elevada ocorrência de Salmonella nos cortes de frango utilizados no presente estudo reforça a importância das normas de boas práticas de fabricação, bem como dos controles de perigos e pontos críticos de controle. No tocante aos níveis de resistência a antimicrobianos, os resultados enfatizam a necessidade do uso responsável dos mesmos na produção animal.

  13. Salmonella spp. in raw broiler parts: occurrence, antimicrobial resistance profile and phage typing of the Salmonella Enteritidis isolates / Salmonella spp. em cortes de frango: ocorrência, resistência antimicrobiana e fagotipificação dos isolados de Salmonella Enteritidis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aldemir Reginato, Ribeiro; Aline, Kellermann; Luciana Ruschel dos, Santos; Marjo Cadó, Bessa; Vladimir Pinheiro do, Nascimento.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido para avaliar a ocorrência de Salmonella em cortes de frango e para determinar o perfil de resistência antimicrobiana das cepas isoladas. Vinte e quatro (39,3%) cortes de frango foram positivas para Salmonella, tendo sido isoladas vinte e cinco cepas de Salmonella, uma vez [...] que em uma amostra isolaram-se dois sorovares. Salmonella Enteritidis foi o sorovar prevalente. Entre as Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas, 95,2% pertencem ao Fagotipo 4 (PT4) (20/21) e 4,8% ao PT7 (1/21). Vinte e duas (88%) cepas de Salmonella foram resistentes a pelo menos um agente antimicrobiano e oito diferentes padrões de resistência foram observados. S. Typhimurium (n:1) e S. Hadar (n: 3), apresentaram múltipla resistência. Três cepas de S. Enteritidis foram sensíveis a todos os antimicrobianos e duas resistentes somente a tetraciclina. A elevada ocorrência de Salmonella nos cortes de frango utilizados no presente estudo reforça a importância das normas de boas práticas de fabricação, bem como dos controles de perigos e pontos críticos de controle. No tocante aos níveis de resistência a antimicrobianos, os resultados enfatizam a necessidade do uso responsável dos mesmos na produção animal. Abstract in english The present study was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonellae in raw broiler parts and to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolated strains. Twenty-four (39.3%) broiler parts samples were positive for Salmonella and twenty-five Salmonella strains were isolated, sin [...] ce two different serovars were detected in one single positive sample. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most prevalent serovar. Among Salmonella Enteritidis isolates, 95.2% belonged to Phage Type 4 (PT4) (20/21) and 4.8% to PT7 (1/21). Twenty-two (88%) strains of Salmonella were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent, generating eight different resistance patterns. The S. Typhimurium (n: 1) and S. Hadar (n: 3) isolates presented multiple resistance. Three S. Enteritidis isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, two were resistant only to tetracycline. The high prevalence of Salmonella in the broiler parts strenghtens the importance of the use of good manufacturing practices (GMP), and HACCP. The results also emphasize the need for the responsible use of antimicrobials in animal production.

  14. Salmonella enterica Serotype Arizonae Meningitis in a Neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, Wubishet; Girma, Abayneh; Triche, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Typhoidal and nontyphoidal salmonella infections are common causes of gastroenteritis in the community. However, salmonella only rarely causes invasive infections like meningitis. We report a 13-day-old female neonate with signs and symptoms of meningitis whose cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture showed Salmonella enterica serotype Arizonae that was sensitive to ceftriaxone. She presented with fever and failure to feed for 2 days. Despite prompt treatment with ampicillin, gentamicin, and ceftriaxone, she developed communicating hydrocephalus, frequent seizures, and coma that progressed to death after 2 weeks of hospitalization. Salmonella enterica serotype Arizonae is a rare cause of human infection known to leading to meningitis symptoms similar to those caused by other salmonella species. This is the first report of it as a cause of meningitis in a child under one month of age. Therefore, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of Gram-negative bacillary meningitis in immunocompromised children, neonates, and those with contacts with reptiles. PMID:24187642

  15. Effects of propolis from Brazil and Bulgaria on Salmonella serovars

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R. O., Orsi; J. M., Sforcin; S. R. C., Funari; A., Fernandes-JR.; P., Rodrigues; V., Bankova.

    Full Text Available Propolis shows biological properties such as antibacterial action. This bee product has a complex chemical composition, which depends on the local flora where it is produced. Salmonella serovars are responsible for human diseases that range from localized gastroenteritis to systemic infections. The [...] aim of the present study was to investigate the susceptibility of Salmonella strains, isolated from food and infectious processes, to the antibacterial action of Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis, as well as to determine the behavior of these bacteria, according to the incubation period, in medium plus propolis. Dilution of ethanolic extract of propolis in agar was the used method. Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis showed an antibacterial action against all Salmonella serovars. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of propolis were similar, although they were collected in different geographic regions. Salmonella typhimurium, isolated from human infection, was more resistant to propolis than Salmonella enteritidis.

  16. Salmonella enterica isolated from wildlife at two Ohio rehabilitation centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jijón, Steffani; Wetzel, Amy; LeJeune, Jeffrey

    2007-09-01

    Between May and September 2004, fecal samples from various wildlife species admitted to two rehabilitation centers in Ohio were cultured for Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Eight of 71 (11%) samples, including specimens from three opossums (Didelphis virginiana), two gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), a woodchuck (Marmota monax), a Harris hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus), and a screech owl (Otus asio) tested positive for Salmonella serovars Braenderup, Senftenberg, Oranienburg, and Kentucky. The Salmonella Oranienburg isolates were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Most isolates were susceptible to commonly used antibiotics; however, the Salmonella Kentucky isolate was resistant to multiple beta-lactam antibiotics (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ampicillin), cefoxitin, and ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was not isolated from any sample. Transmission of Salmonella from wildlife may occur between animals at rehabilitation centers. PMID:17939349

  17. Effects of propolis from Brazil and Bulgaria on Salmonella serovars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. O. Orsi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis shows biological properties such as antibacterial action. This bee product has a complex chemical composition, which depends on the local flora where it is produced. Salmonella serovars are responsible for human diseases that range from localized gastroenteritis to systemic infections. The aim of the present study was to investigate the susceptibility of Salmonella strains, isolated from food and infectious processes, to the antibacterial action of Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis, as well as to determine the behavior of these bacteria, according to the incubation period, in medium plus propolis. Dilution of ethanolic extract of propolis in agar was the used method. Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis showed an antibacterial action against all Salmonella serovars. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of propolis were similar, although they were collected in different geographic regions. Salmonella typhimurium, isolated from human infection, was more resistant to propolis than Salmonella enteritidis.

  18. Evaluation of the BAX® system for the detection of Salmonella spp. in naturally contaminated chicken meat

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Harissa Silvério El Ghoz, Frausto; Juliane, Alves; Tereza Cristina Rocha Moreira De, Oliveira.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the efficiency of the BAX® system for the detection of Salmonella spp. in raw chicken meat. The conventional culture method (IN 62, MAP) was used as a reference method. A total of 8,813 chicken carcass samples were analyzed. In the first part of the study, 1,200 s [...] amples were analyzed using the BAX® System and the conventional culture method. In the second part, 7,613 samples were analyzed by the BAX® system, and the conventional method was used only for samples that tested positive for Salmonella spp. by the BAX® system. The sensitivity, specificity, relative accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value obtained in the first part of this study were 100%, 92.3%, 96.4%, 53.3% and 100%, respectively. The BAX® system showed no false-negative results and reduced the time to obtain presumptive positive results. It is a suitable method for use in laboratories that perform a large number of food samples analyses daily. However, the conventional method is still required to confirm the presence of Salmonella spp. in samples that test positive using the BAX® system.

  19. Evaluation of the BAX® system for the detection of Salmonella spp. in naturally contaminated chicken meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harissa Silvério El Ghoz Frausto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the efficiency of the BAX® system for the detection of Salmonella spp. in raw chicken meat. The conventional culture method (IN 62, MAP was used as a reference method. A total of 8,813 chicken carcass samples were analyzed. In the first part of the study, 1,200 samples were analyzed using the BAX® System and the conventional culture method. In the second part, 7,613 samples were analyzed by the BAX® system, and the conventional method was used only for samples that tested positive for Salmonella spp. by the BAX® system. The sensitivity, specificity, relative accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value obtained in the first part of this study were 100%, 92.3%, 96.4%, 53.3% and 100%, respectively. The BAX® system showed no false-negative results and reduced the time to obtain presumptive positive results. It is a suitable method for use in laboratories that perform a large number of food samples analyses daily. However, the conventional method is still required to confirm the presence of Salmonella spp. in samples that test positive using the BAX® system.

  20. Analysis of the Salmonella typhimurium Proteome through Environmental Response toward Infectious Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkins, Joshua N.; Mottaz, Heather M.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Gustin, Jean K.; Rue, Joanne; Clauss, Therese RW; Purvine, Samuel O.; Rodland, Karin D.; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.

    2006-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (aka, S. typhimurium) is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes ~40,000 reported cases of acute gastroenteritis and diarrhea a year in the United States. To develop a deeper understanding of the infectious state of S. typhimurium, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based “bottom-up” proteomics was used to globally analyze the proteins present under specific growth conditions. Salmonella typhimurium LT2 strain cells were grown in contrasting culture conditions that mimicked both natural free-living conditions and an infectious state, i.e., logarithm phase, stationary phase and Mg-depleted medium growth. Initial comparisons of the LT2 strain protein abundances among cell culture conditions indicate that the majority of proteins do not change significantly. Not unexpectedly, cells grown in Mg-depleted medium conditions had a higher abundance of Mg2+ transport proteins than found in other growth conditions. A second more virulent Salmonella typhimurium strain (14028) was also studied with these growth conditions and used to directly compare to the LT2 strain. The strain comparison offers a unique opportunity to compare and contrast observations in these closely related bacteria. One particular protein family, propanediol utilization proteins, was drastically more abundant in the 14028 strain than in the LT2 strain, and may be a contributor to increased pathogenicity in the 14028 strain.

  1. MdsABC-Mediated Pathway for Pathogenicity in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Saemee; Lee, Boeun; Yeom, Ji-Hyun; Hwang, Soonhye; Kang, Ilnam; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Ha, Nam-Chul; Bae, Jeehyeon; Lee, Kangseok; Kim, Yong-Hak

    2015-11-01

    MdsABC is a Salmonella-specific tripartite efflux pump that has been implicated in the virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium; however, little is known about the virulence factors associated with this pump. We observed MdsABC expression-dependent alterations in the degree of resistance to extracellular oxidative stress and macrophage-mediated killing. Thin-layer chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analyses revealed that overexpression of MdsABC led to increased secretion of 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl-phosphatidylserine (PSPS), affecting the ability of the bacteria to invade and survive in host cells. Overexpression of MdsABC and external addition of PSPS similarly rendered the mdsABC deletion strain resistant to diamide. Diagonal gel analysis showed that PSPS treatment reduced the diamide-mediated formation of disulfide bonds, particularly in the membrane fraction of the bacteria. Salmonella infection of macrophages induced the upregulation of MdsABC expression and led to an increase of intracellular bacterial number and host cell death, similar to the effects of MdsABC overexpression and PSPS pretreatment on the mdsABC deletion strain. Our study shows that MdsABC mediates a previously uncharacterized pathway that involves PSPS as a key factor for the survival and virulence of S. Typhimurium in phagocytic cells. PMID:26283336

  2. The identification of Salmonella enteritidis-infected poultry flocks associated with an outbreak of human salmonellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Giessen, A. W.; Dufrenne, J. B.; Ritmeester, W. S.; Berkers, P. A.; van Leeuwen, W. J.; Notermans, S. H.

    1992-01-01

    In the summer of 1991 a human outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis infection occurred following a barbecue in which about 100 persons were involved. Eggs, supplied by one or more of 10 different layer farms, were the most probable source of the infection. To identify the S. enteritidis-positive flocks, an immunoassay was used to detect salmonella serogroup D-specific antibodies in the yolk of hens eggs. Antibody titres in the eggs from two layer farms, farm A and B, clearly exceeded the titres found in randomly collected eggs. Further investigation on farm A and B yielded high antibody titres in the eggs from flocks A1, A2 and B2, and low titres in the eggs from flock B1. S. enteritidis was isolated from the faecal samples of flocks A1, A2 and B2, whereas no salmonella was detected in the faecal samples of flock B1. The flocks present on both farms originated from the same breeder flock. PMID:1468525

  3. Prevalence of Salmonella sp. Infections in Layer Flocks in East Azerbaijan Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Nazeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is an important cause of human disease with an estimated 80.3 million annual foodborne cases and significant economical losses in the poultry sector worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluation prevalence of Salmonella infections in layer flocks in East Azerbaijan province of Iran. For isolation of agent after autopsy of losses, liver surface was cauterized and swap from this area was obtained and added into the tetrathionate culture media and incubated at 37°C for 15 h. Then agents obtained from previous stage were cultured in the macconkey agar culture media as five regional method and then incubated at 37°C. After several times, lightly yellow colonies appeared that suggestive non-fermentative lactose bacteria. For differentiation of Salmonella from other non-fermentative lactose bacteria, specific Medias such as TST, urea, MR-VP, SIM, simmon citrate, lysine and Medias contain sucrose, lactose, maltose, manoz and arabinose used. Finally, the amounts of losses since week 31 until 67 was 5030 hens that by adding losses before week 31 which was about 1450, the sum of losses was 6480 or 27% of flock. This study revealed that contamination rate in East Azerbaijan province of Iran is higher than standard levels and because of zoonotical issues between poultries and human must be take measures in this field.

  4. Role of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 Protein IacP in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Pathogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Seok; Eom, Jeong Seon; Jang, Jung Im; Kim, Hyeon Guk; Seo, Doo Won; Bang, Iel-Soo; Bang, Seong Ho; Lee, In Soo; Park, Yong Keun

    2011-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria, including Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, exploit type III secretion systems (T3SSs) through which virulence proteins are delivered into the host cytosol to reinforce invasive and replicative niches in their host. Although many secreted effector proteins and membrane-bound structural proteins in the T3SS have been characterized, the functions of many cytoplasmic proteins still remain unknown. In this study, we found that IacP, encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island 1, was important for nonphagocytic cell invasion and bacterial virulence. When the iacP gene was deleted from several Salmonella serovar Typhimurium strains, the invasion into INT-407 epithelial cells was significantly decreased compared to that of their parental strains, and retarded rearrangements of actin fibers were observed for the iacP mutant-infected cells. Although IacP had no effect on the secretion of type III translocon proteins, the levels of secretion of the effector proteins SopB, SopA, and SopD into the culture medium were decreased in the iacP mutant. In a mouse infection model, mice infected with the iacP mutant exhibited alleviated pathological signs in the intestine and survived longer than did wild-type-infected mice. Taken together, IacP plays a key role in Salmonella virulence by regulating the translocation of T3SS effector proteins. PMID:21263021

  5. PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA ENTERICA AND SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEROTYPE TYPHIMURIUM IN SWINE AT SLAUGHTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella enterica is recognized as an important foodborne pathogen with multiple potential sources, including pork. Although S. enterica constitutes a very heterogeneous group of bacteria, including more than 2,400 serotypes, only a limited number of serotypes are responsible for most outbreaks. D...

  6. Salmonella peritonitis in a patient on automated peritoneal dialysis / Peritonite por Salmonella em paciente em diálise peritoneal automática

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Moisés, Carminatti; Thiago, Lacet; Dominique Fonseca, Rodrigues; Maria de Lourdes, Junqueira; Fernando César, Rodrigues; Marcus Gomes, Bastos; Natália Maria da Silva, Fernandes.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a evolução clínica de um caso de peritonite por Salmonella sp. após episódio de salmonelose intestinal, e uma breve revisão da literatura também foi realizada. [...] Abstract in english We describe the clinical course of a case of peritonitis caused by Salmonella sp. after an episode of intestinal salmonellosis, and a brief review of the literature is also done. [...

  7. Epidemiological Investigation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Kedougou in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pornruangwong, Srirat; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Salmonella enterica serovar Kedougou is among the top 10 serovars reported in northern Thailand. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella Kedougou infection in Thailand and to compare the molecular types and antimicrobial resistance with Salmonella Kedougou isolates of human origin from United States and of animal origin from the United Kingdom.Methods: Data from 13,976 Salmonella infections of which 253 were Salmonella Kedougou collected in Thailand between 2002 and 2008 were analyzed by logistic regression. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed on selected Salmonella Kedougou strains causing infections in Thailand (n = 66), and compared to isolates from the United States (n = 5) and the United Kingdom (n = 20).Results: Logistic analysis revealed season (hot/dry; p = 0.023), region (northern Thailand; p <0.001), and specimen (stool; p <0.001) as significant risk factors associated with Salmonella Kedougou infection compared to other nontyphoid Salmonella. Of the Salmonella Kedougou isolates of human origin, 84% exhibited resistance to at least three antimicrobial classes. Three strains recovered from human stool in Thailand were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins: two harbored blaCTX-M-63 and one blaCMY-2. PFGE revealed 45 unique clusters. Isolates obtained from humans in Thailand and the United States presented identical PFGE profiles suggesting a travel association, whereas the majority of the animal isolates from United Kingdom clustered separately.Conclusions: This study reveals Salmonella Kedougou as a major cause of human infections in northern Thailand especially during the hot period and suggests a global spread probably due to travel. The clonal types causing infections in humans differed from those observed in animals in United Kingdom, which suggests the absence of an epidemiological link and could suggest differences in virulence. The high frequency of antimicrobial resistance, including emergence of resistance to fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins, might pose problems for treatment of infections.

  8. Comparison of culture, ELISA and PCR techniques for salmonella detection in faecal samples for cattle, pig and poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Erik; Aspan, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Background Performances of different salmonella detection methods were evaluated by applying them to of artificially contaminated faecal specimens from cattle, pigs and poultry. The NMKL71 method, being the standard reference method for detection of salmonella in the official Swedish control program, was compared with the proposed ISO method using MSRV-selective enrichment for culturing, and also with three commercial ELISA- based systems, Bioline Selecta, Bioline Optima and Vidas, a commercial PCR-based method, BAX® system, and three different strategies using PCR detection using a non-commercial PCR system. Results Altogether, 391 samples were tested, and the overall results clearly indicate that, when faeces from all animal species and all serotypes were included, the MSRV performed best, with a calculated accuracy of 99% and a calculated sensitivity of 98%. The second most sensitive and specific method was the BAX® system, using the modified enrichment protocol as recommended by the manufacturer for faecal samples. However, this protocol includes one additional day of work, as compared with the standard procedure for food sample analysis by the same method. The different strategies for salmonella detection using non-commercial PCR showed a sensitivity and specificity in the same range as the BAX® method; furthermore, results were obtained more quickly. The various commercial ELISA methods and the NMKL method showed the poorest performance of the methods included in the study, and were closely dependent on the origin of the faeces used and on which salmonella strain was to be detected. Conclusion The study showed that the sensitivity of the different methods depended to a great extent on the origin of the faecal matrices and the salmonella strains used to "spike" the samples. PMID:17888169

  9. Comparison of culture, ELISA and PCR techniques for salmonella detection in faecal samples for cattle, pig and poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspan Anna

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Performances of different salmonella detection methods were evaluated by applying them to of artificially contaminated faecal specimens from cattle, pigs and poultry. The NMKL71 method, being the standard reference method for detection of salmonella in the official Swedish control program, was compared with the proposed ISO method using MSRV-selective enrichment for culturing, and also with three commercial ELISA- based systems, Bioline Selecta, Bioline Optima and Vidas, a commercial PCR-based method, BAX® system, and three different strategies using PCR detection using a non-commercial PCR system. Results Altogether, 391 samples were tested, and the overall results clearly indicate that, when faeces from all animal species and all serotypes were included, the MSRV performed best, with a calculated accuracy of 99% and a calculated sensitivity of 98%. The second most sensitive and specific method was the BAX® system, using the modified enrichment protocol as recommended by the manufacturer for faecal samples. However, this protocol includes one additional day of work, as compared with the standard procedure for food sample analysis by the same method. The different strategies for salmonella detection using non-commercial PCR showed a sensitivity and specificity in the same range as the BAX® method; furthermore, results were obtained more quickly. The various commercial ELISA methods and the NMKL method showed the poorest performance of the methods included in the study, and were closely dependent on the origin of the faeces used and on which salmonella strain was to be detected. Conclusion The study showed that the sensitivity of the different methods depended to a great extent on the origin of the faecal matrices and the salmonella strains used to "spike" the samples.

  10. Involvement of SPI-2-encoded SpiC in flagellum synthesis in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugita Asami

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SpiC encoded within Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 on the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium chromosome is required for survival within macrophages and systemic infection in mice. Additionally, SpiC contributes to Salmonella-induced activation of the signal transduction pathways in macrophages by affecting the expression of FliC, a component of flagella filaments. Here, we show the contribution of SpiC in flagellum synthesis. Results Quantitative RT-PCR shows that the expression levels of the class 3 fliD and motA genes that encode for the flagella cap and motor torque proteins, respectively, were lower for a spiC mutant strain than for the wild-type Salmonella. Further, this mutant had lower expression levels of the class 2 genes including the fliA gene encoding the flagellar-specific alternative sigma factor. We also found differences in flagella assembly between the wild-type strain and the spiC mutant. Many flagella filaments were observed on the bacterial surface of the wild-type strain, whereas the spiC mutant had only few flagella. The absence of spiC led to reduced expression of the FlhD protein, which functions as the master regulator in flagella gene expression, although no significant difference at the transcription level of the flhDC operon was observed between the wild-type strain and the spiC mutant. Conclusion The data show that SpiC is involved in flagella assembly by affecting the post-transcription expression of flhDC.

  11. Emergence, Distribution, and Molecular and Phenotypic Characteristics of Salmonella enterica Serotype 4,5,12:i:–

    OpenAIRE

    Switt, Andrea I Moreno; Soyer, Yesim; Warnick, Lorin D; Wiedmann, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella spp. represent one of the most common causes of bacterial foodborne illnesses around the world. The species Salmonella enterica contains more than 2500 serotypes, and emergence of new human pathogenic Salmonella strains and serotypes represents a major public health issue. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype 4,5,12:i:– represents a monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium, which has rarely been identified before the mid-1990s. The prevalence of this serotype among huma...

  12. A PCR-based strategy for simple and rapid identification of rough presumptive Salmonella isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Porting, P.H.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the application of ready-to-go Salmonella PCR tests, based on dry chemistry, for final identification of rough presumptive Salmonella isolates. The results were compared with two different biotyping methods performed at two different laboratories. The sensitivity of the BAX Salmonella PCR test was assessed by testing a total of 80 Salmonella isolates, covering most serogroups, which correctly identified all the Salmonella strains by resulting i...

  13. The tenth CRL-Salmonella workshop; 28 and 29 April 2005, Bilthoven, the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Mooijman KA

    2007-01-01

    The tenth workshop organised by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella) was held on 28 and 29 April 2005 in Bilthoven, the Netherlands. Participants included representatives of the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) of the Member States of the European Union and of the European Commission. Presentations were given by representatives of the European Commission, the NRLs and CRL-Salmonella, as well as by several guest s...

  14. The eleventh CRL-Salmonella workshop, 9 May 2006, Saint Malo, France

    OpenAIRE

    Mooijman KA

    2007-01-01

    The eleventh workshop organised by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella) was held in Saint Malo, France on 9 May 2006. Participants included representatives of the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) of the Member States of the European Union and of the European Commission. Presentations were given by representatives of the European Commission and the CRL-Salmonella. Subjects discussed were European legislation on S...

  15. Characterization of the RpoS Status of Clinical Isolates of Salmonella enterica

    OpenAIRE

    Robbe-Saule, Véronique; Algorta, Gabriela; Rouilhac, Isabelle; Norel, Françoise

    2003-01-01

    The stationary-phase-inducible sigma factor, ?S (RpoS), is the master regulator of the general stress response in Salmonella and is required for virulence in mice. rpoS mutants can frequently be isolated from highly passaged laboratory strains of Salmonella. We examined the rpoS status of 116 human clinical isolates of Salmonella, including 41 Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi strains isolated from blood, 38 S. enterica serotype Typhimurium strains isolated from blood, and 37 Salmonella sero...

  16. Sensitivitas Salmonella Sp. Penyebab Demam Tifoid Terhadap Beberapa Antibiotik di Rumah Sakit Immanuel Bandung

    OpenAIRE

    Yanti Mulyana

    2009-01-01

    Typhoid fever is an enteric fever caused by Salmonella sp. especially Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi. Various antibiotics used for therapy beside chloramphenicol as drug of choice. Non rational use of antibiotics may result increasing of resistence in bacteria. The aim of the research is to know the sensitivity of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi to some antibiotics. The purpose is to gather information about antibiotics which are still effective for typhoid fever and ente...

  17. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella in animal feed produced in Namibia

    OpenAIRE

    Godwin P. Kaaya; Percy M. Chimwamurombe; Elisabetta Di Giannatale; Renatus P. Shilangale

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of Salmonella is a global challenge in the public health and food production sectors. Our study investigated the prevalence, serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Salmonella serovars isolated from animal feed (meat-and-bone and blood meal) samples from two commercial abattoirs in Namibia. A total of 650 samples (n = 650) were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Results showed that 10.9% (n = 71) were positive for Salmonella. Of the Salmonella serovars isol...

  18. Determination of selected veterinary antimicrobials in poultry excreta by UHPLC-MS/MS, for application in Salmonella control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorissen, Brecht; Reyns, Tim; Devreese, Mathias; De Backer, Patrick; Van Loco, Joris; Croubels, Siska

    2015-06-01

    The most important source of Salmonella spp. infection in humans is by the consumption of contaminated poultry products. Due to the risk of resistance development and its transfer from animals to humans, the Belgian Royal Decree concerning the eradication of Salmonella (C-2007/22784) prohibits treatment of poultry with antimicrobials against zoonotic Salmonella spp. To uncover illicit use, an analytical method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for the determination of antimicrobial residues in poultry excreta was developed and validated for classes having an active spectrum against Salmonella spp. in poultry: ?-lactams (amoxicillin and penicillin V), fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin, difloxacin, and flumequine), polymyxins (colistin), sulfonamides in combination with trimethoprim (sulfachloropyridazine, sulfadiazine, and sulfaclozine), and tetracyclines (chlortetracycline and doxycycline). A generic and high-throughput sample preparation was developed. Extraction of samples was performed by ultrasonication using a combination of acetonitrile and McIlvaine buffer, followed by centrifugation and filtration prior to analysis. The method was validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC for linearity, apparent recovery/trueness, repeatability, reproducibility, limit of quantification, limit of detection, specificity, matrix effect, and storage stability in matrix. To demonstrate the applicability of the method, an in vivo experiment was conducted. For each antimicrobial class, one registered drug was selected and administered in the drinking water to two laying hens. Excreta samples were collected every 12 h during and until 2 days after treatment and analyzed using the developed method. PMID:25633214

  19. A fast and highly sensitive blood culture PCR method for clinical detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Liqing

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella Typhi causes an estimated 21 million new cases of typhoid fever and 216,000 deaths every year. Blood culture is currently the gold standard for diagnosis of typhoid fever, but it is time-consuming and takes several days for isolation and identification of causative organisms. It is then too late to initiate proper antibiotic therapy. Serological tests have very low sensitivity and specificity, and no practical value in endemic areas. As early diagnosis of the disease and prompt treatment are essential for optimal management, especially in children, a rapid sensitive detection method for typhoid fever is urgently needed. Although PCR is sensitive and rapid, initial research indicated similar sensitivity to blood culture and lower specificity. We developed a fast and highly sensitive blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Typhi, allowing same-day initiation of treatment after accurate diagnosis of typhoid. Methods An ox bile tryptone soy broth was optimized for blood culture, which allows the complete lysis of blood cells to release intracellular bacteria without inhibiting the growth of Salmonella Typhi. Using the optimised broth Salmonella Typhi bacteria in artificial blood samples were enriched in blood culture and then detected by a PCR targeting the fliC-d gene of Salmonella Typhi. Results Tests demonstrated that 2.4% ox bile in blood culture not only lyzes blood cells completely within 1.5 hours so that the intracellular bacteria could be released, but also has no inhibiting effect on the growth of Salmonella Typhi. Three hour enrichment of Salmonella Typhi in tryptone soya broth containing 2.4% ox bile could increase the bacterial number from 0.75 CFU per millilitre of blood which is similar to clinical typhoid samples to the level which regular PCR can detect. The whole blood culture PCR assay takes less than 8 hours to complete rather than several days for conventional blood culture. Conclusions This novel blood culture PCR method is superior in speed and sensitivity to both conventional blood culture and PCR assays. Its use in clinical diagnosis may allow early detection of the causative organism and facilitate initiation of prompt treatment among patients with typhoid fever.

  20. Control of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in laying hens by inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines "Controle de Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis em poedeiras comerciais com a utilização de vacinas inativadas"

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveiro Caetano de Freitas Neto; Aline Lopes Mesquita; Jaqueline Boldrin de Paiva; Fábio Zotesso; Angelo Berchieri Júnior

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is one of the agents that is responsible for outbreaks of human foodborne salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis and is generally associated with the consumption of poultry products. Inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis cell vaccine is one of the available methods to control Salmonella Enteritidis in breeders and laying hens, however results in terms of efficacy vary. This vaccine has never been tested in Brazil, therefore, the present work was carried out to asse...

  1. Simultaneous Detection of <i>Salmonella</i> spp., <i>Salmonella</i> Enteritidis and <i>Salmonella</i> Typhimurium in Raw Salad Vegetables and Vegetarian Burger Patties

    OpenAIRE

    Elexson Nillian; Chai Lay Ching; Pui Chai Fung; Tunung Robin; Ubong Anyi; Tuan Zainazor Tuan Chilek; Son Radu; Mitsuaki Nishibuchi

    2011-01-01

    The health risks posed by Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium through the consumption of raw vegetables and vegetarian burger patties necessitates the needs for the optimization of analytical approach for their detection and enumeration in the raw vegetables, which served as potential vehicles for transmission of these pathogenic microorganisms. We sought to establish a rapid, economic and sensitive method to detect and determine the load of Salmonella spp., Sal...

  2. Construction of genetic markers for the study of Salmonella Typhimurium infection of murine macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsbak, Lotte; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

      Salmonella pathogenesis is dependent on its ability to invade and replicate within a variety of host cells. Upon bacterial uptake by macrophages, maturation of the Salmonella Containing Vacuole (the SCV) initiates. The process of SCV maturation depends on the interactions between Salmonella effectors and host cell regulators and is a prokaryotic developmental program that follows a strict temporal and spatial path. Immediately following invasion, individual Salmonella cells are found within discrete vacuoles. Subsequently, intracellular bacterial replication begins after an initial lag period and is accompanied by the formation of extensive membrane tubules (Salmonella-induced filaments, Sifs), which project from the SCVs and extend throughout the host cell. These events are coupled to interactions with host cell components and can be divided into discrete temporal and spatial steps: (1) Initial contact with the host cell, (2) Formation of early SCV, (3) Maturation into late SCV, (4) Initiation of bacterial replication, (5) Formation of Sifs. In this project, we have constructed a set of reporter fusions which are temporally and spatially regulated during the progression of SCV maturation. The reporter fusions were constructed using Red-mediated recombination (1) and the promoters were selected from the recently published expressional data of Salmonella infection of murine macrophages (2). As reporter proteins we both use a stable GFPmut3 variant as well as an unstable GFP variant (3). Using these fusions in combination with available host markers it will be possible to estimate the time-point at which a specific gene is required for progression of SCV maturation. These developmentally regulated reporter fusions constitute a set of novel developmental markers for the study of Salmonella Typhimurium infection of murine macrophages.     Reference List    1.   R. G. Gerlach, S. U. Holzer, D. Jackel, M. Hensel, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73, 4234 (2007).    2.   S. Eriksson, S. Lucchini, A. Thompson, M. Rhen, J. C. Hinton, Mol. Microbiol. 47, 103 (2003).    3.   J. B. Andersen et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64, 2240 (1998).  

  3. A Highly Effective Component Vaccine against Nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rosana B. R.; Valdez, Yanet; Coombes, Brian K.; Sad, Subash; Gouw, Joost W.; Brown, Eric M.; Li, Yuling; Grassl, Guntram A.; Antunes, L. Caetano M.; Gill, Navkiran; Truong, Mimi; Scholz, Roland; Reynolds, Lisa A.; Krishnan, Laskshmi; Zafer, Ahmed A.; Sal-Man, Neta; Lowden, Michael J.; Auweter, Sigrid D.; Foster, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS) infections are a major burden to global public health, as they lead to diseases ranging from gastroenteritis to systemic infections and there is currently no vaccine available. Here, we describe a highly effective component vaccine against S. enterica serovar Typhimurium in both gastroenteritis and systemic murine infection models. We devised an approach to generate supernatants of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, an organism that is highly abundant in virulence factors. Immunization of mice with this supernatant resulted in dramatic protection against a challenge with serovar Typhimurium, showing increased survival in the systemic model and decreased intestinal pathology in the gastrointestinal model. Protection correlated with specific IgA and IgG levels in the serum and specific secretory IgA levels in the feces of immunized mice. Initial characterization of the protective antigens in the bacterial culture supernatants revealed a subset of antigens that exhibited remarkable stability, a highly desirable characteristic of an effective vaccine to be used under suboptimal environmental conditions in developing countries. We were able to purify a subset of the peptides present in the supernatants and show their potential for immunization of mice against serovar Typhimurium resulting in a decreased level of colonization. This component vaccine shows promise with regard to protecting against NTS, and further work should significantly help to establish vaccines against these prevalent infections. PMID:26396246

  4. Analysis of Macrophage-Induced Salmonella Persisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert A; Cheverton, Angela M; Helaine, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    A small subpopulation of non-replicating, multidrug-tolerant bacteria is present within clonal populations of many bacterial species. Known as persisters, these bacteria are probably the cause of relapsing infections such as typhoid fever. Formation of non-growing Salmonella persisters is stimulated by macrophage phagocytosis. This chapter outlines methods to identify and study persisters resulting from interactions between bacterial pathogens and their hosts. We use their antibiotic tolerance for isolation and enumeration and developed a method to study the heterogeneity of growth within clonal populations through single-cell analysis. PMID:26468109

  5. Attachment of Salmonella spp. to pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine; Riber, Leise; Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Five strains of Salmonella, one wildtype and four knock-out mutants (the prg, flhDC, yhjH and fliC genes) were investigated based on their probability to attach and subsequently detach from a surface of pork fillet. The attachment followed by detachment was measured and modelled for two different contact times using cells coming from either a planktonic or an immobilized state of growth. The results showed that the probability of detachment generally decreased when the contact time increased and...

  6. Environmental Salmonella in agricultural fair poultry exhibits in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabilonia, K L; Cadmus, K J; Lingus, T M; Bolte, D S; Russell, M M; Van Metre, D C; Erdman, M M

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella enterica is a common zoonotic pathogen in humans. Transmission typically occurs through consumption of contaminated food products or contact with infected animals, including poultry or their environment. The objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of Salmonella contamination in the environment in poultry exhibits at agricultural fairs. Samples were collected from cages, feed, floors and tables in the exhibit and cultured for Salmonella. At least one environmental sample was positive for Salmonella in 10 of 11 fairs (91%), and Salmonella was isolated from 28 of 55 environmental samples (50.9%). Eleven different serotypes were detected. Results of this study demonstrate that environmental surfaces at agricultural fairs can be contaminated with Salmonella and could potentially serve as a route of transmission to bird owners and the general public. Poultry owners and the general public should be educated about the risks of Salmonella infection from the poultry exhibit environment. Agricultural fairs should consider instituting policies and practices to improve hygiene and mitigate the risk of zoonotic salmonellosis. PMID:23773691

  7. Salmonella detection in a microfluidic channel using orbiting magnetic beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Matt; Mills, Zachary; Owen, Drew; Hanasoge, Srinivas; Hesketh, Peter; Alexeev, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    We use three-dimensional simulations to model the detection of salmonella in a complex fluid sample in a microfluidic channel. Salmonella is captured using magnetic microbeads orbiting around soft ferromagnetic discs at the microchannel bottom subjected to a rotating external magnetic field. Numerical simulations are used to model the dynamics of salmonella and microbeads throughout the detection process. We examine the effect of the channel geometry on the salmonella capture, and the forces applied to the salmonella as it is dragged through the fluid after capture. Our findings guide the design of a lab-on-a-chip device to be used for detection of salmonella in food samples in a way that ensures that salmonella captured by orbiting microbeads are preserved until they can be extracted from the system for testing, and are not washed away by the fluid flow or damaged due to the experience of excessive stresses. Such a device is needed to detect bacteria at the food source and prevention of consumption of contaminated food, and also can be used for the detection of a variety of biomaterials of interest from complex fluid samples. Support from USDA and NSF is gratefully acknowledged.

  8. Source attribution of human Salmonella cases in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, H.; Andersson, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the sources of sporadic domestic Salmonella cases in Sweden and to evaluate the usefulness of a source-attribution model in a country in which food animals are virtually free from Salmonella. The model allocates human sporadic domestic Salmonella cases to different sources according to distribution of Salmonella subtypes in the different sources. Sporadic domestic human Salmonella cases (n=1086) reported between July 2004 and June 2006 were attributed to nine food-animal and wildlife sources. Of all Salmonella cases, 82% were acquired abroad and 2.9% were associated with outbreaks. We estimated that 6.4% were associated with imported food, 0.5% with food-producing animals, and 0.6% with wildlife. Overall, 7.7% could not be attributed to any source. We concluded that domestic food-producing animals are not an important source for Salmonella in humans in Sweden, and that the adapted model is useful also in low-prevalence countries.

  9. Salmonella bacteraemia among healthcare workers and their dependents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To determine the incidence and resistance pattern of Salmonella infection in healthcare workers and their dependents. Methods: The retrospective analysis was conducted at Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, and comprised records of employees and their dependents with bacteraemia from January 2007 to December 2011. Person-years were calculated using data from the human resources department. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analyses. Results: Of the total 2532 records available, 82(3.23%) patients were identified with Salmonella bacteraemia. Of them, 34(41.5%) patients were in age group 1-10, 15(18.3%) in 11-20, 26(31.7%) in 21-30, and 7(8.5%) were above 30 years. Besides, 48(58.5%) were males. Salmonella typhi was found in 44(53.7%) patients, Salmonella paratyphi A in 35(42.7%) and Salmonella species in 3(3.7%) patients. The yearly incidence of Salmonella infection in the study population ranged from 206 to 596 per 100000 person-years. Ciprofloxacin resistance was noted to be 56 (68.2%) followed by Ampicillin 29 (35.3%) and Co-trimoxazole 24 (29.2%). No strains were resistant to Cefiximeor Ceftriaxone. Conclusion: The yearly incidence of Salmonella bacteraemia ranged from 200 to 600 per 100000 person years. There was significant quinolone resistance among the isolates. (author)

  10. Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella in Poultry Farms of Mauritius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmee Phagoo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The increased prevalence of Salmonella contamination in poultry has gained considerable scientific attention during the last few decades. Poultry is one of the most common reservoirs of Salmonella and contamination of poultry products can occur during the different stages of poultry production. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistant Salmonella in poultry and poultry products in Mauritius. Thirty poultry samples were analyzed for Salmonella using traditional culturing, serological and PCR assays. The isolates were then tested for resistance against five antibiotics (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, streptomycin and tetracycline using the disc diffusion susceptibility test. Serotyping showed positive agglutination for Salmonella using polyvalent Anti-O and Anti-H antisera. Out of the 30 samples tested, only 5 samples were confirmed as Salmonella. It was found that 72% of isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic. The frequency of antibiotic resistance ranked in the following order: tetracycline (100%, erythromycin (80%, streptomycin (80%, chloramphenicol (60% respectively. However, 2 out of 5 isolates were susceptible to ampicillin. The findings of this study strongly indicated that antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella spp. observed in this study are comparable to patterns of other countries

  11. Salmonella contamination during production of cantaloupe: a binational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, A; Mercado, I; Lucia, L M; Martínez-Ruiz, Y; Ponce de León, J; Murano, E A; Acuff, G R

    2004-04-01

    Six cantaloupe farms and packing plants in South Texas (950 cantaloupe, 140 water, and 45 environmental samples), including the Rio Grande Valley area, and three farms in Colima State, Mexico (300 cantaloupe, 45 water, and 15 environmental samples), were sampled to evaluate cantaloupe contamination with Salmonella and Escherichia coli during production and processing. Samples collected from external surfaces of cantaloupes, water, and the environments of packing sheds on cantaloupe farms were examined for the presence of Salmonella and E. coli. Of a total of 1,735 samples collected, 31 (1.8%) tested positive for Salmonella. Fifteen Salmonella serotypes were isolated from samples collected in Texas, and nine from samples collected in Colima. Two serotypes (Poona and Oranienburg) that have been associated with three large Salmonella outbreaks in the United States and Canada linked to the consumption of contaminated cantaloupe were found in water samples collected at four farms (three from the United States). Susceptibility of Salmonella isolates to 10 antimicrobials was evaluated by disk diffusion. Eighty-eight percent of the isolates from the United States and Mexico were pansusceptible to the antimicrobials tested; eight isolates from the United States demonstrated an intermediate susceptibility to streptomycin and only two isolates were resistant to the same antimicrobial. From Mexico, four isolates showed an intermediate susceptibility to streptomycin and one isolate was resistant to nalidixic acid and streptomycin. Repetitive sequence-based PCR analysis of Salmonella isolates helped to trace potential sources of Salmonella contamination in source water and in subsequent water samples obtained after the filtration systems of U.S. and Mexican cantaloupe farms. No differences could be seen between the levels of Salmonella contamination in melons from both countries. PMID:15083723

  12. Potential of Dried Egg Yolk as a Source of Immunoglobulins to Control Salmonella in the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Broiler Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Marcq, Christopher; Portetelle, Daniel; Chalghoumi, Raja; Thewis, André; Beckers, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) are considered as a promising tool of establishing passive immunity against enteric pathogens (e.g. Salmonella) in poultry (Kovacs-Nolan and Mine, 2005). In our previous works, in-feed incorporation of freeze-dried yolk powder (FYP) improved performances of Salmonella-infected broilers (Marcq et al., 2009). Nevertheless, no extra value could be attributed to the presence of specific IgY when a comparison was done between impact of hyperimmune or non immune FYP b...

  13. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from poultry carcasses in Dakar (Senegal) Resistência antimicrobiana de Salmonella isolada de carcaças de frango em Dakar, Sénégal

    OpenAIRE

    Rianatou Bada-Alambedji; Aïssatou Fofana; Malang Seydi; Ayayi Justin Akakpo

    2006-01-01

    This study was undertaken to estimate the antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from raw chicken. From November 2003 to April 2004 a total of 120 chicken carcasses were collected from 36 randomly selected sale points (supermarkets, traditional market, poultry slaughter house, flocks) in the urban and periurban zones of Dakar, Sénégal, and examined for the presence of Salmonella. Salmonella was isolated from 75 (62.5%) of the examined samples. Out of the 90 Salmonella isolates obtain...

  14. Behavior of Salmonella heidelberg and Salmonella enteritidis strains following broiler chick inoculation: evaluation of cecal morphometry, liver and cecum bacterial counts and fecal excretion patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Anderlise Borsoi; Luciana Ruschel do Santos; Laura Beatriz Rodrigues; Hamilton Luiz de Souza Moraes; Carlos Tadeu Pippi Salle; Vladimir Pinheiro do Nascimento

    2011-01-01

    Over the years, Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) has gained prominence in North America poultry production and in the poultry production of other countries. Salmonella Heidelberg has been isolated and reported from poultry and poultry products in Brazil since 1962, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) has only emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health since 1993. These strains of Salmonella can cause intestinal problems in newly hatched chicks, and infection may persist until adultho...

  15. Genetic Manipulation of Pathogenicity Loci in Non-Typhimurium Salmonella

    OpenAIRE

    Butela, Kristen; Lawrence, Jeffrey G

    2012-01-01

    The traditional genetic tools used in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium rely heavily on a high-transducing mutant of bacteriophage P22. P22 recognizes its hosts by the structure of their O-antigens, which vary among serovars of Salmonella; therefore, it cannot be used in most non-Typhimurium Salmonella, including the majority of those causing food-borne illnesses in both humans and livestock. Bacteriophage P1 infects a variety of enteric bacteria, including galE mutants of serovar Typhi...

  16. Aktuelle Ergebnisse zur Feintypisierung von Salmonella Typhimurium aus Hackfleisch

    OpenAIRE

    Thiel, Susanne Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Current results on the detailed typing of Salmonella Typhimurium from minced meat. The aim of the study was to use PFGE to analyse salmonella isolates from samples of minced meat taken from an EU-approved abattoir and meat processing facility in the period from January 2002 to January 2004. The results were compared with data from previous analyses. Of the total of 350 minced meat samples examined, 36 tested positive for salmonella (10.3 %). The evaluation showed an increase in the numbe...

  17. Salmonella Contamination in a Poultry-Processing Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, George K.; Wells, Joy G.

    1970-01-01

    Bacteriological examination of 1,427 samples from a poultry-processing plant over a 2-year period yielded 202 (14.2%) cultures positive for salmonellae. The results indicate that contamination is reduced by washing procedures within the plant but that recontamination of the carcasses occurred in at least two different stages of processing, i.e., during evisceration and chilling. There was evidence of spread of salmonellae from flock to flock during the serial processing of flocks, but the spread was usually not extensive. The serotypes of salmonellae isolated in this study were similar to those of chicken origin reported from other areas of the country. PMID:5463577

  18. European outbreak of Salmonella Strathcona caused by small tomatoes, August – November 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Luise; Kjelsoe, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In September 2011 a small cluster of Salmonella Strathcona was identified in Denmark. An urgent inquiry was posted on the Epidemic Intelligence Information System (EPIS) for the Food and Waterborne Disease Network and cases were reported from Germany and Austria. An outbreak investigation was initiated to reveal the source in order to stop the outbreak. METHODS: A case was defined as a laboratory confirmed Salmonella Strathcona patient in Europe with a specific pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern ill between August and November 2011. Hypothesis-generating interviews were performed in Denmark, Germany and Austria, and further studies in Denmark included comparative analyses of patients’ shopping lists obtained from supermarket computers, and a case-control study with 25 cases and 56 population register controls matched on age, sex and municipality. RESULTS: In total, 43 cases of Salmonella Strathcona were reported in Denmark, 13 in Germany, two in Italy and one in Austria with the same PFGE. The comparative analyses of patients’ shopping lists showed that 8/10 cases had bought a specific type of Datterino tomatoes prior to disease onset. In a case-control study illness was associated with a specific supermarket chain, mOR=16.9 [2.2-130], and having consumed elongated small tomatoes, mOR=28, 95% CI [2,6-300]. Trace-back investigation showed that the tomatoes came from an Italian producer and had been sold both in Germany and Austria, although a detailed European trace-back investigation could not be performed. CONCLUSIONS: Non-animal food vehicles are increasingly recognized as causing outbreaks in Europe. This outbreak emphasizes the challenges in investigating contaminated food items across borders in Europe. We recommend that cooperation between epidemiological investigators and food authorities within Europe are strengthened to address such outbreaks.

  19. Whole Genome Epidemiological Typing of Salmonella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella is one of the most common foodborne pathogens worldwide. In the US alone, salmonellosis was estimated to cause 1.4 million cases effecting 17,000 hospitalization and almost 600 deaths each year. Particularly, Salmonella enterica is a common cause of minor and large food borne outbreaks. Technological advances and effective price in high throughput genome sequencing are making whole genome sequencing (WGS) available as a routine tool for bacterial typing. Typing of Salmonella, especially sub-typing within the same serotype or even the same clone, the genetic variation of the target genes being used for typing is crucial for successful discrimination. The core genes or the genes that are conserved in all members of a genus or species are potentially good candidates for investigating genomic variation in phylogeny and epidemiology. A total of 2,882 core genes have been observed among 73 available Salmonella enterica genomes (accessed in April 2011). A consensus tree based on variation of the core genes gives better resolution than 16S rRNA and MLST that rarely provide separation between closely related strains. The performance of the pan-genome tree which is based on the presence/absence of all genes across genomes, is similar to the consensus tree but with higher branching confidence value. The core genes can be divided into two categories: a few highly variable genes and a larger set of conserved core genes, with low variance. These core genes are useful for investigating molecular evolution and remain useful as candidate genes for bacterial genome typing-even if they cannot be expected to differentiate highly clonal isolates e.g. outbreak cases of Salmonella [I]. To achieve successful ‘real-time’ monitoring and identification of outbreaks, rapid and reliable sub-typing is essential. A collection of thirty-four human S. Typhimurium strains from six different outbreaks together with background strains plus eight S. Enteritidis isolates from two outbreaks and five S. Derby isolates from a single outbreak were used to evaluate the strengths and drawbacks of different WGS approaches compared to the traditional typing, PFGE, for retrospectively outbreak typing of Salmonella. The resulting outcome showed that SNP analysis and nucleotide difference approach seem to be the superior methods for outbreak detection compared to other phylogenetic analytic approaches of WGS. Furthermore, WGS approaches were also superior to the more classical typing method, PFGE. Meanwhile, k-mer method constructs a tree in high speed and giving high accuracy in clade level [II]. SNP analysis has successfully applied in recent epidemiological studies of Salmonella. Currently, there are different tools and methods to identify SNPs including various cut-off values. In addition, all the tools require bioinformatics skill. In order to apply WGS in routine typing, an automatic and user-friendly tool is needed. Therefor, snpTree has been developed as a server for online-automatic SNP analysis. snpTree can identify SNPs and construct phylogenetic tree from WGS raw reads as well as from assembled genomes or contigs. The tool is freely accessible at http://cge.cbs.dtu.dk/services/snpTree/ [III]. Globally, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is the most commonly isolated serovar. S. Typhimurium consists of a number of subtypes that conventionally have been divided by phagetyping. During the last three decades, S. Typhimurium phage type DT104 emerged as the most prevalent phage type and one of the best-studied because of its rapid global dissemination. Nonetheless, the origin and transmission route of this particular phage type have not been revealed. To bridge the gaps in epidemiology of DT104, WGS and temporally structured sequence analysis within Bayesian framework have been incorporated for reconstructing temporal and spatial phylogenies, estimating rate of mutation and divergence time of global and local S. Typhimurium DT104 isolates sampled from 1969 to 2012 from twenty-one countries in six continents. The DT104 was estimated to initiall

  20. Identification of the phosphocarrier protein enzyme IIIgut: essential component of the glucitol phosphotransferase system in Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Grenier, F C; Hayward, I; Novotny, M J; Leonard, J E; Saier, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphorylation of glucitol has been shown to require four distinct proteins in Salmonella typhimurium: two general energy-coupling proteins, enzyme I and HPr, and two glucitol-specific proteins, enzyme IIgut and enzyme IIIgut. The enzyme IIgut was solubilized from the membrane and purified about 100-fold, free of the other protein constituents of the phosphotransferase system. Enzyme IIIgut was found in both the soluble and the membrane fractions. The solubl...

  1. Effect of iacP Mutation on Flagellar Phase Variation in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strain UK-1

    OpenAIRE

    Eom, Jeong Seon; Kim, Jin Seok; Jang, Jung Im; Kim, Hyeon Guk; Bang, Iel-Soo; Park, Yong Keun

    2012-01-01

    Flagella are surface appendages that are important for bacterial motility and invasion of host cells. Two flagellin subunits in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, FliC and FljB, are alternatively expressed by a site-specific DNA inversion mechanism called flagellar phase variation. Although this inversion mechanism is understood at the molecular level, the key factor controlling the expression of the two flagellin subunits has not been determined. In this study, we found that a putative...

  2. Outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in Switzerland, May – June 2008, implications for production and control of meat preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, H; Hächler, H; Stephan, R.; Baumgartner, A.; K Boubaker

    2008-01-01

    An increased number of Salmonella Typhimurium cases were reported in Switzerland between May and June 2008. Investigations involved 72 cases. Results of PFGE typing identified several outbreak strains, the dominating one present in 43 of the 72 isolates. Strains affecting one third of the cases were also found in animal samples, in particular pork. However, no specific food source could be identified. Outbreaks described in this paper highlight the importance of food safety regulations such a...

  3. A microfluidic nano-biosensor for the detection of pathogenic Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Giyoung; Moon, Ji-Hea; Moh, Chang-Yeon; Lim, Jong-guk

    2015-05-15

    Rapid detection of pathogenic Salmonella in food products is extremely important for protecting the public from salmonellosis. The objective of the present study was to explore the feasibility of using a microfluidic nano-biosensor to rapidly detect pathogenic Salmonella. Quantum dot nanoparticles were used to detect Salmonella cells. For selective detection of Salmonella, anti-Salmonella polyclonal antibodies were covalently immobilized onto the quantum dot surface. To separate and concentrate the cells from the sample, superparamagnetic particles and a microfluidic chip were used. A portable fluorometer was developed to measure the fluorescence signal from the quantum dot nanoparticles attached to Salmonella in the samples. The sensitivity for detection of pathogenic Salmonella was evaluated using serially diluted Salmonella Typhimurium in borate buffer and chicken extract. The fluorescence response of the nano-biosensor increased with increasing cell concentration. The detection limit of the sensor was 10(3) CFU/mL Salmonella in both borate buffer and food extract. PMID:25172028

  4. A questionnaire-based, retrospective field study of persistence of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in Danish broiler houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Rattenborg, Erik

    2003-01-01

    A questionnaire-based, retrospective field study was conducted in 78 Danish broiler houses (analytical units) on 42 farms. In spring 1997, all these broiler houses had been infected with Salmonella Enteritidis, phage type 8, and/or Salmonella Typhimurium, definitive-type 66, by day-old chicks delivered from the same hatchery. Because these two salmonella types had not been detected in the Danish broiler sector before and the broiler houses were infected in a period of low salmonella prevalence, the study could focus on farm-related factors, without being distorted by other salmonella infections. The same person visited all 78 broiler houses, and farm-related factors were listed both from personal observations and by interrogating the person in charge of attending to the broilers. Additional factors (noted at the visits) were recorded in a later telephone interview. Altogether, 187 variables were analyzed. Broiler houses were divided into single-infection houses (which had one or both of the salmonella types in only one crop), and multiple-infection houses (where infection occurred in multiple crops). This was done both generally and separately for each of the salmonella types. Factors associated with house status-but that were beyond the control of the farmer-were the salmonella type and the percentage of salmonella positive samples in the first crop. Factors which could be controlled by the farmer and which were associated with reduced prevalence of multiple-infection houses included antiseptic soap and water for washing hands in the anteroom, hygiene barriers when removing dead broilers, gravel alongside the broiler house, systematic checks of indoor rodent-bait depots, and combined surface and pulse-fogging disinfection.

  5. Physiological States of Individual Salmonella typhimurium Cells Monitored by In Situ Reverse Transcription-PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Holmstrøm, Kim; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Molin, Søren

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of using levels of specific mRNAs in individual bacteria as indicators of single-cell physiology was investigated. Estimates of the numbers of groEL and tsf mRNAs per cell in Salmonella typhimurium cells in different physiological states were obtained by Northern analysis. The average number of groEL mRNAs per cell was estimated to be 22 in fast-growing cultures and 197 in heat-shocked cultures. The average number of tsf mRNAs per cell was estimated to be 37 in fast-growing cu...

  6. The N4-hydroxycytidine reduction system in toluenized cells of Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzymatic reduction of N4-hydroxycytidine to cytidine in Salmonella typhimurium is highly specific. The reaction occurs only at the nucleoside level. Free base or its 1-methyl analogue is not reduced. The pH optimum shows a broad plateau with a maximum at pH 7.0. The apparent Ksub(m) value, estimated in the toluene-treated cells, is 4.8mM and Vsub(max) 1.4nmoles/min/mg of wet bacterial weight. The reaction is NADH-dependent, although in toluenized bacterial cells it can occur without addition of any exogenous factor. (author)

  7. Rapid and Simultaneous Identification of Two Salmonella enterica Serotypes, Enteritidis and Typhimurium from Chicken and Meat Products by Multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Issa Malkawi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to overcome the large volume of work required to detect and identify food samples that may contain Salmonella enterica serotypes Enteritidis ?and Typhimurium, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR was used as a diagnostic tool to identify Salmonella enterica, Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis and Typhimurium in naturally contaminated meat and poultry products. Three sets of known S. enterica and serotypes S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium specific primers were applied to simultaneous identification of such pathogens in the most frequently used fresh and frozen meat (beef and lamb and poultry (chicken products (whole, cut, ground and processed collected from eight locations within Irbid city (Jordan. Out of 93 samples, Only 21 (22.5% samples contained serotype S. typhimurium alone. Nineteen samples (20% showed the 312 bp specific band for serotype S. enteritidis specific band. A total of 28 (30% samples showed only for S. enterica genus and 25 (26.8% samples showed both serotypes S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium. In general, 46 (49.5% samples contained serotype S. typhimurium, while 44 (47.3% samples contained serotype S. enteritidis. Multiplex PCR amplification was shown to be an effective and rapid method for the simultaneous identification of such pathogens in food samples.

  8. Phage amplification assay as rapid method for Salmonella detection Amplificação de bacteriófagos como um método rápido de detecção de Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Silva de Siqueira

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of rapid methods is crucial for the HACCP program implantation in food industry. In this context, Phage Amplification Assay is a good candidate because is based on the interactions of phage and their host bacteria. This method using phage P22 was applied with to detect Salmonella cells in chicken breast. Samples of 25 g of chicken breast were diluted and the appropriate dilutions were used in phage amplification assay for Salmonella detection. After 3-4 h of incubation, it was observed a phage titre of approximately 10(4 pfu mL-1, indicating that there were Salmonella cells which were naturally present in the meat. The presence of Salmonella cells were verified by using direct plating on XLD agar and by conventional enrichment procedure. The colonies suspected to be Salmonella were serologically tested and were identified as belonging to the serogroups B (S. typhimurium group and D (S. enteritidis group. It can be concluded that this method provides a rapid and alternative application for Salmonella detection in food samples reducing both time and laboratory work to 3-4 hours.A aplicação de métodos rápidos é crucial para a implantação de programas de HACCP em indústrias de alimentos. Neste contexto, o método de amplificação de bacteriófagos é um instrumento de diagnóstico importante porque está baseado na interação dos bacteriófagos com suas células hospedeiras. Este método, usando o bacteriófago P22, foi aplicado para detectar Salmonella em peito de frango. Amostras de 25 g de peito de frango foram diluídas e as diluições apropriadas foram usadas no método de amplificação de bacteriófagos na detecção de Salmonella. Após 3-4 horas de incubação, foi observado uma titulação de partículas virais de, aproximadamente, 10(4 ufp mL-1 (unidades formadoras de placas virais, indicando a presença de células de Salmonella na carne de frango. A comprovação da presença de Salmonella neste produto foi verificada usando-se plaqueamento direto em ágar XLD e procedimento de enriquecimento convencional. As colônias suspeitas de Salmonella foram sorologicamente testadas e identificadas como pertencendo aos sorogrupos B (grupo de S. typhimurium e D (grupo de S. enteritidis. Portanto, concluiu-se que este método pode ser aplicado, na detecção de Salmonella em alimentos, porque fornece rápido e conclusivo resultado, reduzindo o tempo de análise e o trabalho laboratorial para 3-4 horas.

  9. Phage amplification assay as rapid method for Salmonella detection / Amplificação de bacteriófagos como um método rápido de detecção de Salmonella

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Regina Silva de, Siqueira; Christine E.R., Dodd; Catherine E.D., Rees.

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de métodos rápidos é crucial para a implantação de programas de HACCP em indústrias de alimentos. Neste contexto, o método de amplificação de bacteriófagos é um instrumento de diagnóstico importante porque está baseado na interação dos bacteriófagos com suas células hospedeiras. Este mét [...] odo, usando o bacteriófago P22, foi aplicado para detectar Salmonella em peito de frango. Amostras de 25 g de peito de frango foram diluídas e as diluições apropriadas foram usadas no método de amplificação de bacteriófagos na detecção de Salmonella. Após 3-4 horas de incubação, foi observado uma titulação de partículas virais de, aproximadamente, 10(4) ufp mL-1 (unidades formadoras de placas virais), indicando a presença de células de Salmonella na carne de frango. A comprovação da presença de Salmonella neste produto foi verificada usando-se plaqueamento direto em ágar XLD e procedimento de enriquecimento convencional. As colônias suspeitas de Salmonella foram sorologicamente testadas e identificadas como pertencendo aos sorogrupos B (grupo de S. typhimurium) e D (grupo de S. enteritidis). Portanto, concluiu-se que este método pode ser aplicado, na detecção de Salmonella em alimentos, porque fornece rápido e conclusivo resultado, reduzindo o tempo de análise e o trabalho laboratorial para 3-4 horas. Abstract in english The application of rapid methods is crucial for the HACCP program implantation in food industry. In this context, Phage Amplification Assay is a good candidate because is based on the interactions of phage and their host bacteria. This method using phage P22 was applied with to detect Salmonella cel [...] ls in chicken breast. Samples of 25 g of chicken breast were diluted and the appropriate dilutions were used in phage amplification assay for Salmonella detection. After 3-4 h of incubation, it was observed a phage titre of approximately 10(4) pfu mL-1, indicating that there were Salmonella cells which were naturally present in the meat. The presence of Salmonella cells were verified by using direct plating on XLD agar and by conventional enrichment procedure. The colonies suspected to be Salmonella were serologically tested and were identified as belonging to the serogroups B (S. typhimurium group) and D (S. enteritidis group). It can be concluded that this method provides a rapid and alternative application for Salmonella detection in food samples reducing both time and laboratory work to 3-4 hours.

  10. Comparison of different selective enrichment steps to isolate Salmonella sp. from feces of finishing swine Comparação de diferentes etapas de enriquecimento seletivo no isolamento de Salmonella sp. de fezes de suínos de terminação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Brenner Michael

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A two-phase study was conducted to compare the efficacy of several enrichment selective-broth steps associated to different plating media for recovery of Salmonella sp. from finishing swine feces. In a first phase, Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth (RV incubated at 42ºC, Tetrathionate Müller-Kauffmann broth at 37ºC (TMK37 and 42ºC (TMK42, and Selenite Cystine broth (SC at 37ºC, in combination with three selective plating media Rambach agar (RA, Xylose-Lysine-Tergitol 4 agar (XLT4, and Brilliant-Green Phenol-Red Lactose Sucrose agar (VB were compared for recovery of Salmonella from artificially contaminated swine feces. In a second phase, RV, TMK37, and TMK42, associated with XLT4 and VB , were tested with naturally contaminated swine feces. In this study RV, TMK42 and TMK37 were superior to SC for isolating Salmonella sp. from artificially contaminated feces. TMK42 and RV were more productive than TMK37 for recovery of Salmonella from naturally contaminated feces samples. Selectivity and indication capability of the plating media were remarkably affected by the selective enrichment step effectiveness. The TMK42/XLT4 association was the most sensitive and RV/XLT4 the most specific. The use of VB agar is also recommended to increase the likelihood of isolating atypical H2S-late producing/ non-producing Salmonella. In this study RV and TMK42 were the most efficient selective enrichment for recovery of Salmonella sp. from swine feces.Através de um estudo em duas fases comparou-se a eficiência de etapas de enriquecimento seletivo, associadas a diferentes meios seletivos, na recuperação de Salmonella sp. de fezes de suínos de terminação. Em uma primeira fase, as amostras foram contaminadas artificialmente e os caldos Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV incubado a 42ºC, Tetrationato Müller-Kauffmann a 37ºC (TMK37 e 42ºC (TMK42, e Selenito Cistina (SC a 37ºC foram testados, em associação com meios sólidos seletivos: ágar Rambach (RA, ágar Xilose-Lisina-Tergitol 4 (XLT4, e ágar Verde-brilhante Vermelho-neutro Lactose Sacarose (VB. Na segunda fase os caldos RV, TMK37, and TMK42, semeados nos meios XLT4 and VB, foram testados com amostras naturalmente contaminadas. No isolamento de Salmonella sp. em amostras artificialmente contaminadas o RV, TMK42 e TMK37 foram superiores ao SC. Na segunda fase o TMK42 e RV foram mais eficientes que o TMK37. O desempenho destas etapas de enriquecimento seletivo influenciou diretamente a capacidade seletiva e indicadora dos meios sólidos seletivos utilizados. No presente estudo, a associação TMK42/XLT4 demonstrou ser a mais sensível, e a RV/XLT4 a mais específica. O uso do meio VB também é recomendado para aumentar a probabilidade do isolamento de colônias atípicas de Salmonella - produtoras tardias ou não produtoras de H2S. No presente estudo, RV e TMK42 foram as etapas de enriquecimento seletivo mais eficientes para o isolamento de Salmonella de fezes de suínos.

  11. Salmonella Enteritidis em Aves: Retrospectiva no Brasil Salmonella Enteritidis in Poultry: Retrospective in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva EN; Duarte, A.

    2002-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) emergiu como um grande problema avícola e de saúde pública no Brasil a partir de 1993. Os estudos epidemiológicos, incluindo a fagotipagem e sonda complementar de rRNA, sugerem a entrada de SE no Brasil via importação de material genético avícola contaminado, provavelmente no final da década de 80. As taxas de crescimento da avicultura brasileira na década de 90 criaram condições favoráveis para a manutenção e proliferação da SE nos plantéis avícolas. Além disso, o...

  12. Salmonella spp., importante agente patogênico veiculado em alimentos / Salmonella spp., important pathogenic agent transmitted through foodstuffs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Neide Kazue Sakugawa, Shinohara; Viviane Bezerra de, Barros; Stella Maris Castro, Jimenez; Erilane de Castro Lima, Machado; Rosa Amália Fireman, Dutra; José Luiz de, Lima Filho.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de doenças transmitidas por alimentos (DTAs) tem sido foco de discussões nos últimos anos, devido à preocupação mundial com estratégias que permitam seu controle e, conseqüentemente, garantam a colocação de produtos seguros no mercado consumidor. A Salmonella spp. é um dos microrganismo [...] s mais amplamente distribuídos na natureza, sendo o homem e os animais seus principais reservatórios naturais, com ocorrência de sorotipos regionais, reconhecidos como salmoneloses, e considerado como um dos principais agentes envolvidos em surtos de origem alimentar em países desenvolvidos. O aumento da incidência da salmonelose provocada por alimentos contaminados demonstra que, na atualidade, apesar dos avanços tecnológicos alcançados, este problema ainda ocorre mundialmente. As aves e bovinos são responsáveis pela maior disseminação desse agente patogênico. A ampla distribuição da Salmonella spp. entre os animais, a existência de portadores assintomáticos e sua permanência no ambiente e nos alimentos contribuem para que este microrganismo assuma um papel de grande relevância na saúde pública mundial e, portanto, programas permanentes de controle e erradicação devem ser adotados. Abstract in english The occurrence of foodborne diseases has been a matter of discussion over the last years due to the worldwide concern with strategies for their control and for ensuring that safe food products reach the consumer. Salmonella spp. is among the most widespread microorganisms in nature, having man and a [...] nimals as main natural reservoirs. With occurrence of regional serotypes causing salmonellosis, this pathogen is considered one of the main agents responsible for outbreaks of foodborne disease in the developing countries. The increasing incidence of salmonellosis caused by contaminated food has shown that, despite the recent technological improvements, this problem still occurs in all countries. Cattle and poultry are the main responsible for the transmission of this pathogenic agent. Due to its wide distribution in animals, the existence of asymptomatic carriers and its presence in foodstuff and in the environment Salmonella spp. represents a significant public health problem worldwide calling for permanent control programs and eradication strategies.

  13. Salmonella identification from foods in eight hours: A prototype study with Salmonella Typhimurium

    OpenAIRE

    Koluman, A; Celik, G.; T Unlu

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The significant rise in food borne infections is mainly caused by Campylobacter spp., Salmonella serovars and Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli. As the emerging food borne pathogens cause disease, more studies have been conducted for rapid detection of these pathogens. The combination of immunomagnetic separation and polymerase chain reaction (IMS-PCR) is the most accurate and rapid test preferred by almost every researcher. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTI...

  14. Salmonella spp., importante agente patogênico veiculado em alimentos Salmonella spp., important pathogenic agent transmitted through foodstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Kazue Sakugawa Shinohara

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de doenças transmitidas por alimentos (DTAs tem sido foco de discussões nos últimos anos, devido à preocupação mundial com estratégias que permitam seu controle e, conseqüentemente, garantam a colocação de produtos seguros no mercado consumidor. A Salmonella spp. é um dos microrganismos mais amplamente distribuídos na natureza, sendo o homem e os animais seus principais reservatórios naturais, com ocorrência de sorotipos regionais, reconhecidos como salmoneloses, e considerado como um dos principais agentes envolvidos em surtos de origem alimentar em países desenvolvidos. O aumento da incidência da salmonelose provocada por alimentos contaminados demonstra que, na atualidade, apesar dos avanços tecnológicos alcançados, este problema ainda ocorre mundialmente. As aves e bovinos são responsáveis pela maior disseminação desse agente patogênico. A ampla distribuição da Salmonella spp. entre os animais, a existência de portadores assintomáticos e sua permanência no ambiente e nos alimentos contribuem para que este microrganismo assuma um papel de grande relevância na saúde pública mundial e, portanto, programas permanentes de controle e erradicação devem ser adotados.The occurrence of foodborne diseases has been a matter of discussion over the last years due to the worldwide concern with strategies for their control and for ensuring that safe food products reach the consumer. Salmonella spp. is among the most widespread microorganisms in nature, having man and animals as main natural reservoirs. With occurrence of regional serotypes causing salmonellosis, this pathogen is considered one of the main agents responsible for outbreaks of foodborne disease in the developing countries. The increasing incidence of salmonellosis caused by contaminated food has shown that, despite the recent technological improvements, this problem still occurs in all countries. Cattle and poultry are the main responsible for the transmission of this pathogenic agent. Due to its wide distribution in animals, the existence of asymptomatic carriers and its presence in foodstuff and in the environment Salmonella spp. represents a significant public health problem worldwide calling for permanent control programs and eradication strategies.

  15. Test resultaten van Salmonella sero- en faag typering door Nationale Referentie Laboratoria in de lidstaten van de Europese Unie

    OpenAIRE

    Raes M; Ward LR; Maas HME; Wannet WJB; Henken AM

    2007-01-01

    The fifth collaborative typing study for Salmonella was organised by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven) in collaboration with the Public Health Laboratory Services (PHLS, London). All 17 National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) and 15 EnterNet laboratories (ENLs) participated in the study. Three of the NRLs-Salmonella are also ENL. The results of these three laboratories will be evaluated with the N...

  16. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and relation to indicator and pathogenic microorganisms of Salmonella enterica isolated from surface waters within an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, Vangelis; Gousia, Panagiota; Kansouzidou, Athina; Sakkas, Hercules; Karanis, Panagiotis; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy

    2013-07-01

    During a 12 month period (June 2007-May 2008), the prevalence and susceptibility of Salmonella serovars and their relation to specific pathogenic and indicator bacteria in river and coastal waters was investigated. A total of 240 water samples were collected from selected sites in Acheron and Kalamas Rivers and the Ionian Sea coast in north western Greece. The samples were analyzed for Salmonella spp., Listeria spp., Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157, Staphylococci, Pseudomonas spp., Total Coliforms, Fecal Coliforms, Fecal Streptococci, Total Heterotrophic Flora at 20°C and at 37°C, fungi and protozoa (Cryptosporidium, Giardia). Susceptibility tests to nine antimicrobials (ampicillin, amikacin, amoxicillin/clavulavic acid, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, cefoxitin, tetracycline, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin/sulbactam) were performed using the disk diffusion method for Salmonella isolates. We isolated 28 serovars of Salmonella spp. identified as Salmonella enteritidis (23), Salmonella thompson (3) and Salmonella virchow (2). Multi-drug resistant Salmonella serovars were isolated from both river and marine waters, with 34.8% of S. enteritidis and 100% of S. virchow being resistant to more than 3 antibiotics. Also we isolated 42 strains of Listeria spp. identified as L. monocytogenes (20), L. innocua (9), L. seeligeri (2) and L. ivanovii (11). All the Listeria isolates were susceptible to the tested antibiotics. No Campylobacter spp., E. coli O157, Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected. The overall ranges (and average counts) of the indicator bacteria were: Total Coliforms 0-4×10(4)cfu/100ml (3.7×10(3)cfu/100ml), Fecal Coliforms 0-9×10(3)cfu/100ml (9.2×10(2)cfu/100ml), Fecal Streptococci 0-3.5×10(4)cfu/100ml (1.4×10(3)cfu/100ml), Total Heterotrophic Flora at 20°C 0-6×10(3)cfu/ml (10(3)cfu/ml) and at 37°C 0-5×10(3)cfu/ml (4.9×10(2)cfu/ml). Weak or non significant positive Spearman correlations (p<0.05, rs range: 0.13-0.77) were obtained between Salmonella, Listeria, fungi and indicator bacteria. The results underline the complexity of the interrelations between pathogens and indicator bacteria, and the necessity to assess the presence of resistant bacteria in the aquatic environments. PMID:22901425

  17. Trisodium phosphate and sodium hypochlorite are more effective as antimicrobials against Campylobacter and Salmonella on duck as compared to chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarjit, Amreeta; Dykes, Gary A

    2015-06-16

    Little work has been reported on the use of commercial antimicrobials against foodborne pathogens on duck meat. We investigated the effectiveness of trisodium phosphate (TSP) and sodium hypochlorite (SH) as antimicrobial treatments against Campylobacter and Salmonella on duck meat under simulated commercial water chilling conditions. The results were compared to the same treatments on well-studied chicken meat. A six strain Campylobacter or Salmonella cocktail was inoculated (5 ml) at two dilution levels (10(4) and 10(8) cfu/ml) onto 25 g duck or chicken meat with skin and allowed to attach for 10 min. The meat was exposed to three concentrations of pH adjusted TSP (8, 10 and 12% (w/v), pH 11.5) or SH (40, 50 and 60 ppm, pH 5.5) in 30 ml water under simulated spin chiller conditions (4 °C, agitation) for 10 min. In a parallel experiment the meat was placed in the antimicrobial treatments before inoculation and bacterial cocktails were added to the meat after the antimicrobial solution was removed while all other parameters were maintained. Untreated controls and controls using water were included in all experiments. Bacterial numbers were determined on Campylobacter blood-free selective agar and Mueller Hinton agar or xylose deoxycholate agar and tryptone soya agar using the thin agar layer method for Campylobacter and Salmonella, respectively. All TSP concentrations significantly (pSalmonella (~0.4-6.6 log cfu/cm(2)) on both duck and chicken meat. On duck meat, numbers of Campylobacter were less than the limit of detection at higher concentrations of TSP and numbers of Salmonella were less than the limit of detection at all concentrations of TSP except one. On chicken meat, numbers of Campylobacter and Salmonella were less than the limit of detection only at the lower inoculum level and higher TSP concentrations. By contrast only some of the concentrations of SH significantly (pSalmonella (~0.2-1.5 log cfu/cm(2)) on both duck and chicken meats. None of the SH treatments resulted in numbers of either pathogen being less than limit of detection. Results indicate that chicken meat has the ability to effectively protect Campylobacter and Salmonella against the impact of trisodium phosphate and sodium hypochlorite while duck meat does not. This study suggests that trisodium phosphate has a strong potential for application in a commercial poultry processing to reduce Campylobacter and Salmonella specifically on duck meat. PMID:25791251

  18. Ionizing Radiation for the Elimination of Salmonellae from Frozen Meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation resistance in frozen meat of a number of different serotypes of Salmonella has been examined. A dose of 0.65 Mrad achieves a 106 reduction in the numbers of the most resistant types and this dose has been shown to be effective in eliminating salmonellae from naturally contaminated meat. Some results are outlined which show that (a) Salmonella resistance is higher in frozen meat than in unfrozen meat, (b) pre-irradiation growth of the organisms in meat does not influence resistance, (c) salmonellae surviving irradiation grow at a slower rate than unirradiated organisms and appear to be unchanged in serological properties or phage type. Reference is made to wholesomeness tests carried out on irradiated meat and to the current situation on legislation in the United Kingdom controlling the irradiation of food. The identification of irradiated food is also mentioned. (author)

  19. Biological effect of plutonium 239 on Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmonella typhimurium cells were exposed in a 239Pu citrate solution. Cell death and induction of gene mutations were an exponential fucntion of ?-radiation dose. LD37 was 34.8 Gy; mutation doubling dose, 19 Gy

  20. Envolvimento renal na associação salmonella-Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Lambertucci

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Vinte pacientes com a associação Salmonella-S. mansoni (Grupo 1 e 20 com esquistossomose mansoni hepatesplênica (Grupo 2 foram selecionados para o estudo. Submeteram-se os pacientes dos Grupos le 2 a exame clínico minucioso e a uma série de exames complementares, com destaque para as provas de função renal. Em 10 pacientes do Grupo 1 e 20 do Grupo 2, realizou-se, ainda, estudo histológico do rim à microscopia óptica, de fluorescência e eletrônica. As alterações renais foram mais freqüentes nos pacientes do Grupo 1. Após o tratamento dos pacientes do Grupo 1, com antibióticos e/ou esquistossomicidas, observou-se regressão das alterações renais sob o ponto de vista clínico, laboratorial e imunopatológico. Os autores concluem pela existência de duas nefropatias distintas: a nefropatia esquistossomótica e a encontrada em pacientes com a associação Salmonella-S. mansoni.